WorldWideScience

Sample records for runway roughness effects

  1. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  2. Runways (National) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Runways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Runways database (NTAD) is a geographic dataset of runways in the United States and US territories containing information on the physical characteristics...

  3. Runway Scheduling for Charlotte Douglas International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Waqar A.; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the runway scheduler that was used in the 2014 SARDA human-in-the-loop simulations for CLT. The algorithm considers multiple runways and computes optimal runway times for departures and arrivals. In this paper, we plan to run additional simulation on the standalone MRS algorithm and compare the performance of the algorithm against a FCFS heuristic where aircraft avail of runway slots based on a priority given by their positions in the FCFS sequence. Several traffic scenarios corresponding to current day traffic level and demand profile will be generated. We also plan to examine the effect of increase in traffic level (1.2x and 1.5x) and observe trends in algorithm performance.

  4. Public Use Airport Runways, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [public_use_airport_runway_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Public Use Airport Runways database is a geographic dataset of runways in the United States and US territories containing information on the physical...

  5. Runway Arrested Landing Site (RALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Runway Arrested Landing Site includes an underground complex located on a Mod 2, Mod 3, and Mod 3+ arresting gear and are located under the runway and accurately...

  6. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, can also be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. This paper introduces a two stage heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runway crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the departure class slots are populated with specific flights from the pool of available aircraft, by solving an integer program with a Branch & Bound algorithm implementation. Preliminary results from this implementation of the two-stage algorithm on real-world traffic data are presented.

  7. System Predicts Critical Runway Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Ernest W.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Runway-navigation-monitor (RNM) and critical-distances-process electronic equipment designed to provide pilot with timely and reliable predictive navigation information relating to takeoff, landing and runway-turnoff operations. Enables pilot to make critical decisions about runway maneuvers with high confidence during emergencies. Utilizes ground-referenced position data only to drive purely navigational monitor system independent of statuses of systems in aircraft.

  8. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Solution Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. Thus, Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is a critical component of airport operations planning in general and surface operations planning in particular. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, may be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. Generating optimal runway operations plans was approached in with a 'one-stage' optimization routine that considered all the desired objectives and constraints, and the characteristics of each aircraft (weight class, destination, Air Traffic Control (ATC) constraints) at the same time. Since, however, at any given point in time, there is less uncertainty in the predicted demand for departure resources in terms of weight class than in terms of specific aircraft, the ROP problem can be parsed into two stages. In the context of the Departure Planner (OP) research project, this paper introduces Runway Operations Planning (ROP) as part of the wider Surface Operations Optimization (SOO) and describes a proposed 'two stage' heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. Focus is specifically given on including runway crossings in the planning process of runway operations. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runwy crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the

  9. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  10. Runway Scheduling Using Generalized Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Justin; Wood, Zachary; Rathinam, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    A generalized dynamic programming method for finding a set of pareto optimal solutions for a runway scheduling problem is introduced. The algorithm generates a set of runway fight sequences that are optimal for both runway throughput and delay. Realistic time-based operational constraints are considered, including miles-in-trail separation, runway crossings, and wake vortex separation. The authors also model divergent runway takeoff operations to allow for reduced wake vortex separation. A modeled Dallas/Fort Worth International airport and three baseline heuristics are used to illustrate preliminary benefits of using the generalized dynamic programming method. Simulated traffic levels ranged from 10 aircraft to 30 aircraft with each test case spanning 15 minutes. The optimal solution shows a 40-70 percent decrease in the expected delay per aircraft over the baseline schedulers. Computational results suggest that the algorithm is promising for real-time application with an average computation time of 4.5 seconds. For even faster computation times, two heuristics are developed. As compared to the optimal, the heuristics are within 5% of the expected delay per aircraft and 1% of the expected number of runway operations per hour ad can be 100x faster.

  11. Review of ice and snow runway pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest, most remote and most pristine place on Earth. Polar operations depend heavily on air transportation and support for personnel and equipment. It follows that improvement in snow and ice runway design, construction and maintenance will directly benefit polar exploration and research. Current technologies and design methods for snow and ice runways remain largely reliant on work performed in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper reviews the design and construction of polar runways using snow and ice as geomaterials. The inability to change existing snow and ice thickness or temperature creates a challenge for polar runway design and construction, as does the highly complex mechanical behaviour of snow, including the phenomena known as sintering. It is recommended that a modern approach be developed for ice and snow runway design, based on conventional rigid and flexible pavement design principles. This requires the development on an analytical model for the prediction of snow strength, based on snow age, temperature history and density. It is also recommended that the feasibility of constructing a snow runway at the South Pole be revisited, in light of contemporary snow sintering methods. Such a runway would represent a revolutionary advance for the logistical support of Antarctic research efforts. Keywords: Runway, Pavement, Snow, Ice, Antarctic

  12. Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

  13. Analysis of wind data for airport runway design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bellasio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide a methodology, and examples of application, for analyzing wind data for the correct orientation of airport runways. Design/methodology/approach: More than 90000 observed wind data have been analyzed for each one of the three airports used as case studies. Both observed and estimated gusts have been considered. Findings: If only observed data are considered, each single runway of the three airports used as case studies is correctly oriented. When estimated gusts are considered, the FAA requirements are not satisfied by a single runway in some airports (which anyway satisfy such requirements by using more runways. Practical implications: The correct orientation of runways minimize the crosswind components, then increase the safety of the airports. Originality/value: The paper provides a methodology to evaluate the orientation of existing runways and to design new runways. Such methodology is based on the analysis wind data, considering both observed values and estimated gusts.

  14. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  15. Strengthening air traffic safety management by moving from outcome-based towards risk-based evaluation of runway incursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeve, Sybert H.; Som, Pradip; Doorn, Bas A. van; Bakker, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Current safety management of aerodrome operations uses judgements of severity categories to evaluate runway incursions. Incident data show a small minority of severe incursions and a large majority of less severe incursions. We show that these severity judgements are mainly based upon the outcomes of runway incursions, in particular on the closest distances attained. As such, the severity-based evaluation leads to coincidental safety management feedback, wherein causes and risk implications of runway incursions are not well considered. In this paper we present a new framework for the evaluation of runway incursions, which effectively uses all runway incursions, which judges same types of causes similarly, and which structures causes and risk implications. The framework is based on risks of scenarios associated with the initiation of runway incursions. As a basis an inventory of scenarios is provided, which can represent almost all runway incursions involving a conflict with an aircraft. A main step in the framework is the assessment of the conditional probability of a collision given a runway incursion scenario. This can be effectively achieved for large sets of scenarios by agent-based dynamic risk modelling. The results provide detailed feedback on risks of runway incursion scenarios, thus enabling effective safety management. - Highlights: • Current evaluation of runway incursions is primarily based on their outcomes. • A new framework assesses collision risk given initiation of runway incursions. • Agent-based dynamic risk modelling can evaluate the risks of many scenarios. • A developed scenario inventory can represent almost all runway incursions. • The framework provides detailed feedback to safety management.

  16. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  17. Roughness Effects on Fretting Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tongyan; Abdel Wahab, Magd

    2017-05-01

    Fretting is a small oscillatory relative motion between two normal loaded contact surfaces. It may cause fretting fatigue, fretting wear and/or fretting corrosion damage depending on various fretting couples and working conditions. Fretting fatigue usually occurs at partial slip condition, and results in catastrophic failure at the stress levels below the fatigue limit of the material. Many parameters may affect fretting behaviour, including the applied normal load and displacement, material properties, roughness of the contact surfaces, frequency, etc. Since fretting damage is undesirable due to contacting, the effect of rough contact surfaces on fretting damage has been studied by many researchers. Experimental method on this topic is usually focusing on rough surface effects by finishing treatment and random rough surface effects in order to increase fretting fatigue life. However, most of numerical models on roughness are based on random surface. This paper reviewed both experimental and numerical methodology on the rough surface effects on fretting fatigue.

  18. PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR AIRPORT RUNWAY SAFETY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratory of Aviation Safety and Security at CTU in Prague has recently started a project aimed at runway protection zones. The probability of exceeding by a certain distance from the runway in common incident/accident scenarios (take-off/landing overrun/veer-off, landing undershoot is being identified relative to the runway for any airport. As a result, the size and position of safety areas around runways are defined for the chosen probability. The basis for probability calculation is a probabilistic model using statistics from more than 1400 real-world cases where jet airplanes have been involved over the last few decades. Other scientific studies have contributed to understanding the issue and supported the model’s application to different conditions.

  19. Current status of Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA B-737 and FAA B-727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices have been conducted for a variety of runway surface types and wetness conditions. This effort is part of the Joint FAA/NASA Aircraft Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow-, and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed together with ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For the wet, compacted snow- and ice-covered runway conditions, the relationship between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, and surface contaminant type are discussed. The test results indicate that use of properly maintained and calibrated ground vehicles for monitoring runway friction conditions should be encouraged particularly under adverse weather conditions. The current status of the runway friction program is summarized and future test plans are identified.

  20. Development and Execution of the RUNSAFE Runway Safety Bayesian Belief Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    One focus area of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to improve aviation safety. Runway safety is one such thrust of investigation and research. The two primary components of this runway safety research are in runway incursion (RI) and runway excursion (RE) events. These are adverse ground-based aviation incidents that endanger crew, passengers, aircraft and perhaps other nearby people or property. A runway incursion is the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft; one class of RI events simultaneously involves two aircraft, such as one aircraft incorrectly landing on a runway while another aircraft is taking off from the same runway. A runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft defined as a veer-off or overrun off the runway surface. Within the scope of this effort at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), generic RI, RE and combined (RI plus RE, or RUNSAFE) event models have each been developed and implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). Descriptions of runway safety issues from the literature searches have been used to develop the BBN models. Numerous considerations surrounding the process of developing the event models have been documented in this report. The event models were then thoroughly reviewed by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel through multiple knowledge elicitation sessions. Numerous improvements to the model structure (definitions, node names, node states and the connecting link topology) were made by the SME panel. Sample executions of the final RUNSAFE model have been presented herein for baseline and worst-case scenarios. Finally, a parameter sensitivity analysis for a given scenario was performed to show the risk drivers. The NASA and LaRC research in runway safety event modeling through the use of BBN technology is important for several reasons. These include: 1) providing a means to clearly

  1. Economic utilization of general aviation airport runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The urban general aviation airport economics is studied in detail. The demand for airport services is discussed, and the different types of users are identified. The direct cost characteristics of the airport are summarized; costs to the airport owner are largely fixed, and, except at certain large airports, weight is not a significant factor in airport costs. The efficient use of an existing airport facility is explored, with the focus on the social cost of runway congestion as traffic density at the airport build up and queues form. The tradeoff between aircraft operating costs and airport costs is analyzed in terms of runway length. The transition from theory to practice is treated, and the policy of charging prices only on aircraft storage and fuel is felt likely to continue. Implications of the study from the standpoint of public policy include pricing that spreads traffic peaks to improve runway utilization, and pricing that discriminates against aircraft requiring long runways and causes owners to adopt V/STOL equipment.

  2. System-Oriented Runway Management Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This document describes a concept for runway management that maximizes the overall efficiency of arrival and departure operations at an airport or group of airports. Specifically, by planning airport runway configurations/usage, it focuses on the efficiency with which arrival flights reach their parking gates from their arrival fixes and departure flights exit the terminal airspace from their parking gates. In the future, the concept could be expanded to include the management of other limited airport resources. While most easily described in the context of a single airport, the concept applies equally well to a group of airports that comprise a metroplex (i.e., airports in close proximity that share resources such that operations at the airports are at least partially dependent) by including the coordination of runway usage decisions between the airports. In fact, the potential benefit of the concept is expected to be larger in future metroplex environments due to the increasing need to coordinate the operations at proximate airports to more efficiently share limited airspace resources. This concept, called System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM), is further broken down into a set of airport traffic management functions that share the principle that operational performance must be measured over the complete surface and airborne trajectories of the airport's arrivals and departures. The "system-oriented" term derives from the belief that the traffic management objective must consider the efficiency of operations over a wide range of aircraft movements and National Airspace System (NAS) dynamics. The SORM concept is comprised of three primary elements: strategic airport capacity planning, airport configuration management, and combined arrival/departure runway planning. Some aspects of the SORM concept, such as using airport configuration management1 as a mechanism for improving aircraft efficiency, are novel. Other elements (e.g., runway scheduling, which is a part

  3. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  4. Mitigation of low-frequency groundnoise from runways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Salomons, E.M.; Beeks, A.A.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    With the extra runway at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, introduced in 2003, the noise nuisance for local residents increased due to increased groundnoise. In a case study the effect of enhanced ground absorption on the propagation of low-frequency noise from aircraft ground operations, e.g. departing

  5. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  6. Capacity Analysis for Parallel Runway through Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel runway is the mainstream structure of China hub airport, runway is often the bottleneck of an airport, and the evaluation of its capacity is of great importance to airport management. This study outlines a model, multiagent architecture, implementation approach, and software prototype of a simulation system for evaluating runway capacity. Agent Unified Modeling Language (AUML is applied to illustrate the inbound and departing procedure of planes and design the agent-based model. The model is evaluated experimentally, and the quality is studied in comparison with models, created by SIMMOD and Arena. The results seem to be highly efficient, so the method can be applied to parallel runway capacity evaluation and the model propose favorable flexibility and extensibility.

  7. Exploration of the Theoretical Physical Capacity of the John F. Kennedy International Airport Runway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Kurt W.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2014-01-01

    A design study was completed to explore the theoretical physical capacity (TPC) of the John F. Kennedy International Airport (KJFK) runway system for a northflow configuration assuming impedance-free (to throughput) air traffic control functionality. Individual runways were modeled using an agent-based, airspace simulation tool, the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), with all runways conducting both departures and arrivals on a first-come first-served (FCFS) scheduling basis. A realistic future flight schedule was expanded to 3.5 times the traffic level of a selected baseline day, September 26, 2006, to provide a steady overdemand state for KJFK runways. Rules constraining departure and arrival operations were defined to reflect physical limits beyond which safe operations could no longer be assumed. Safety buffers to account for all sources of operational variability were not included in the TPC estimate. Visual approaches were assumed for all arrivals to minimize inter-arrival spacing. Parallel runway operations were assumed to be independent based on lateral spacing distances. Resulting time intervals between successive airport operations were primarily constrained by same-runway and then by intersecting-runway spacing requirements. The resulting physical runway capacity approximates a theoretical limit that cannot be exceeded without modifying runway interaction assumptions. Comparison with current KJFK operational limits for a north-flow runway configuration indicates a substantial throughput gap of approximately 48%. This gap may be further analyzed to determine which part may be feasibly bridged through the deployment of advanced systems and procedures, and which part cannot, because it is either impossible or not cost-effective to control. Advanced systems for bridging the throughput gap may be conceptualized and simulated using this same experimental setup to estimate the level of gap closure achieved.

  8. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  9. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction measurements obtained under winter runway conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA B-737 and B-727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices have been conducted for a variety of runway surface types and wetness conditions. This effort is part of the Joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions, and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow-, and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed together with ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For the wet, compacted snow- and ice-covered runway conditions, the relationship between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, and surface contaminant-type are discussed. The test results indicate that use of properly maintained and calibrated ground vehicles for monitoring runway friction conditions should be encouraged particularly under adverse weather conditions.

  10. Shuttle landing runway modification to improve tire spin-up wear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of tire spin-up wear tests on a simulated Kennedy Space Center (KSC) runway that were carried out to investigate the tire wear problem for Space Shuttle landings on the KSC runway and to test several modifications of the runway surface designed to alleviate the problem. It was found that the runway surface produced by a concrete smoothing machine using cutters spaced one and three-quarters blades per centimeter provided adequate wet cornering while limiting spin-up wear. Based on the test results, the KSC runway was smoothed for about 1066 m at each end, leaving the original high friction surface, for better wet steering and braking, in the 2438-m central section.

  11. Runway Safety: It's Everybody's Business. We Want You to Put the Brakes on Runway Incursions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardosi, Kim

    2001-01-01

    This booklet tell pilots and controllers what they can do to help prevent runway incursions by helping them to avoid situations that induce errors and alerting them to them to situations as extra vigilance is required...

  12. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun

    2015-01-08

    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  13. Benefits Assessment for Single-Airport Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool (TRCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamonogkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept was developed as part of the Airspace Systems Program (ASP) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project, and is composed of two basic capabilities: Runway Configuration Management (RCM), and Combined Arrival/Departure Runway Scheduling (CADRS). RCM is the process of designating active runways, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, and predicting future configuration changes; CADRS is the process of distributing arrivals and departures across active runways based on local airport and National Airspace System (NAS) goals. The central component in the SORM concept is a tool for taking into account all the various factors and producing a recommendation for what would be the optimal runway configuration, runway use strategy, and aircraft sequence, considering as many of the relevant factors required in making this type of decision, and user preferences, if feasible. Three separate tools were initially envisioned for this research area, corresponding to the time scale in which they would operate: Strategic RCM (SRCM), with a planning horizon on the order of several hours, Tactical RCM (TRCM), with a planning horizon on the order of 90 minutes, and CADRS, with a planning horizon on the order of 15-30 minutes[1]. Algorithm development was initiated in all three of these areas, but the most fully developed to date is the TRCM algorithm. Earlier studies took a high-level approach to benefits, estimating aggregate benefits across most of the major airports in the National Airspace Systems (NAS), for both RCM and CADRS [2]. Other studies estimated the benefit of RCM and CADRS using various methods of re-sequencing arrivals to reduce delays3,4, or better balancing of arrival fixes5,6. Additional studies looked at different methods for performing the optimization involved in selecting the best Runway Configuration Plan (RCP) to use7-10. Most of these previous studies were high

  14. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Surface Roughness in a Microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob; Byun, Sung Jun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) results for a laminar flow in a microchannel with rough surface are presented. The surface roughness is modeled as an array of rectangular modules placed on the top and bottom surface of a parallel-plate channel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, and roughness size are presented in terms of the Poiseuille number. The roughness distribution characterized by the ratio of the roughness height to the spacing between the modules has a negligible effect on the flow and friction factors. Finally, a significant increase in the Poiseuille number is observed when the surface roughness is considered, and the effects of roughness on the microflow field mainly depend on the surface roughness.

  15. Airports and Airfields, Airports within Johnson County as well as runway depicted with attribute information of both airport and runway., Published in Not Provided, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Airports and Airfields dataset current as of unknown. Airports within Johnson County as well as runway depicted with attribute information of both airport and runway..

  16. Surface roughness effects on heat transfer in Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    A cell theory for viscous flow with rough surfaces is applied to two basic illustrative heat transfer problems which occur in Couette flow. Couette flow between one adiabatic surface and one isothermal surface exhibits roughness effects on the adiabatic wall temperature. Two types of rough cell adiabatic surfaces are studied: (1) perfectly insulating (the temperature gradient vanishes at the boundary of each cell); (2) average insulating (each cell may gain or lose heat but the total heat flow at the wall is zero). The results for the roughness on a surface in motion are postulated to occur because of fluid entrainment in the asperities on the moving surface. The symmetry of the roughness effects on thermal-viscous dissipation is discussed in detail. Explicit effects of the roughness on each surface, including combinations of roughness values, are presented to enable the case where the two surfaces may be from different materials to be studied. The fluid bulk temperature rise is also calculated for Couette flow with two ideal adiabatic surfaces. The effect of roughness on thermal-viscous dissipation concurs with the viscous hydrodynamic effect. The results are illustrated by an application to lubrication. (Auth.)

  17. Weather and forecasting at Wilkins ice runway, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Aviation forecasts for Wilkins ice runway in East Antarctica are developed within the conceptual framework of flow against a single dome shaped hill. Forecast challenges include the sudden onset of blizzards associated with the formation of an internal gravity wave; frontal weather; transient wake vortices and mesoscale lows; temperature limitations on runway use; and snow and fog events. These key weather aspects are presented within the context of synoptic to local scale climatologies and numerical weather prediction models.

  18. Investigation of innovative steel runway beam in industrial building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design of a runway beam for overhead cranes is of great importance ... The weight of the crane bridge and wheel spacing for the specific crane .... Name of model h (mm) b (mm) t (mm) s (mm) L (mm). Simple. 500. 300. 12. 6 ... load is 10.59 kN, crane runway beam span is 6,160 mm, and crane wheel base is 1,200 mm.

  19. A Runway Surface Monitor using Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Amedeo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of runway surfaces, for the detection of ice formation or presence of water, is an important issue for reducing maintenance costs and improving traffic safety. An innovative sensor was developed to detect the presence of ice or water on its surface, and its repeatability, stability and reliability were assessed in different simulations and experiments, performed both in laboratory and in the field. Three sensors were embedded in the runway of the Turin-Caselle airport, in the north-west of Italy, to check the state of its surface. Each sensor was connected to a GPRS modem to send the collected data to a common database. The entire system was installed about three years ago, and up to now it shows correct work and automatic reactivation after malfunctions without any external help. The state of the runway surface is virtual represented in an internet website, using the Internet of Things features and opening new scenarios.

  20. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  1. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.

  2. Effect of Blade Roughness on Transition and Wind Turbine Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Robert S. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); White, E. B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The real-world effect of accumulated surface roughness on wind-turbine power production is not well understood. To isolate specific blade roughness features and test their effect, field measurements of turbine-blade roughness were made and simulated on a NACA 633-418 airfoil in a wind tunnel. Insect roughness, paint chips, and erosion were characterized then manufactured. In the tests, these roughness configurations were recreated as distributed roughness, a forward-facing step, and an eroded leading edge. Distributed roughness was tested in three heights and five densities. Chord Reynolds number was varied between 0:8 to 4:8 × 106. Measurements included lift, drag, pitching moment, and boundary-layer transition location. Results indicate minimal effect from paint-chip roughness. As distributed roughness height and density increase, the lift-curve slope, maximum lift, and lift-to-drag ratio decrease. As Reynolds number increases, natural transition is replaced by bypass transition. The critical roughness Reynolds number varies between 178 to 318, within the historical range. At a chord Reynolds number of 3:2 × 106, the maximum lift-to-drag ratio decreases 40% for 140 μm roughness, corresponding to a 2.3% loss in annual energy production. Simulated performance loss compares well to measured performance loss of an in-service wind turbine.

  3. A Robust Vision-based Runway Detection and Tracking Algorithm for Automatic UAV Landing

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Jbara, Khaled F.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a novel real-time algorithm for runway detection and tracking applied to the automatic takeoff and landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The algorithm is based on a combination of segmentation based region competition and the minimization of a specific energy function to detect and identify the runway edges from streaming video data. The resulting video-based runway position estimates are updated using a Kalman Filter, which can integrate other sensory information such as position and attitude angle estimates to allow a more robust tracking of the runway under turbulence. We illustrate the performance of the proposed lane detection and tracking scheme on various experimental UAV flights conducted by the Saudi Aerospace Research Center. Results show an accurate tracking of the runway edges during the landing phase under various lighting conditions. Also, it suggests that such positional estimates would greatly improve the positional accuracy of the UAV during takeoff and landing phases. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is further validated using Hardware in the Loop simulations with diverse takeoff and landing videos generated using a commercial flight simulator.

  4. Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).

  5. Runway Wake Vortex, Crosswind, and Visibility Detection with a Scintillometer at Schiphol Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van D.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the performance and investigate the capability of a scintillometer to detect wake vortices, crosswind and visibility near an airport runway. An experiment is carried out at Schiphol airport (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), where an optical scintillometer is positioned alongside a runway. An

  6. Predictor of Airport Runway Capacity (PARC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Estimates of arrival and departure capacities of individual airport runways are used to predict occurrences of demand-capacity imbalance, and to meter arrivals and...

  7. Functional Analysis for an Integrated Capability of Arrival/Departure/Surface Management with Tactical Runway Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Okuniek, Nikolai; Lohr, Gary W.; Schaper, Meilin; Christoffels, Lothar; Latorella, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    The runway is a critical resource of any air transport system. It is used for arrivals, departures, and for taxiing aircraft and is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity for both surface and airspace operations. It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment as well as the timing and sequencing of the traffic is paramount to the efficient traffic flows. Both the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA have developed concepts and tools to improve atomic aspects of coordinated arrival/departure/surface management operations and runway configuration management. In December 2012, NASA entered into a Collaborative Agreement with DLR. Four collaborative work areas were identified, one of which is called "Runway Management." As part of collaborative research in the "Runway Management" area, which is conducted with the DLR Institute of Flight Guidance, located in Braunschweig, the goal is to develop an integrated system comprised of the three DLR tools - arrival, departure, and surface management (collectively referred to as A/D/S-MAN) - and NASA's tactical runway configuration management (TRCM) tool. To achieve this goal, it is critical to prepare a concept of operations (ConOps) detailing how the NASA runway management and DLR arrival, departure, and surface management tools will function together to the benefit of each. To assist with the preparation of the ConOps, the integrated NASA and DLR tools are assessed through a functional analysis method described in this report. The report first provides the highlevel operational environments for air traffic management (ATM) in Germany and in the U.S., and the descriptions of the DLR's A/D/S-MAN and NASA's TRCM tools at the level of details necessary to compliment the purpose of the study. Functional analyses of each tool and a completed functional analysis of an integrated system design are presented next in the report. Future efforts to fully

  8. Graphical User Interface Development and Design to Support Airport Runway Configuration Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Debra G.; Lenox, Michelle; Onal, Emrah; Latorella, Kara A.; Lohr, Gary W.; Le Vie, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) decision support tool to support runway management. This tool is expected to be used by traffic flow managers and supervisors in the Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) and Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities.

  9. Runway exit designs for capacity improvement demonstrations. Phase 2: Computer model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, A. A.; Hobeika, A. G.; Kim, B. J.; Nunna, V.; Zhong, C.

    1992-01-01

    The development is described of a computer simulation/optimization model to: (1) estimate the optimal locations of existing and proposed runway turnoffs; and (2) estimate the geometric design requirements associated with newly developed high speed turnoffs. The model described, named REDIM 2.0, represents a stand alone application to be used by airport planners, designers, and researchers alike to estimate optimal turnoff locations. The main procedures are described in detail which are implemented in the software package and possible applications are illustrated when using 6 major runway scenarios. The main output of the computer program is the estimation of the weighted average runway occupancy time for a user defined aircraft population. Also, the location and geometric characteristics of each turnoff are provided to the user.

  10. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.; Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C d is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  11. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echouchene, F. [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Belmabrouk, H., E-mail: frchouchene@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M. [LMFA UMR CNRS 5509, Universite de Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, INSA de Lyon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C{sub d} is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  12. Modeling of surface roughness effects on Stokes flow in circular pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Siyuan; Yang, Xiaohu; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow and pressure drop across a channel are significantly influenced by surface roughness on a channel wall. The present study investigates the effects of periodically structured surface roughness upon flow field and pressure drop in a circular pipe at low Reynolds numbers. The periodic roughness considered exhibits sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular morphologies, with the relative roughness (i.e., ratio of the amplitude of surface roughness to hydraulic diameter of the pipe) no more than 0.2. Based upon a revised perturbation theory, a theoretical model is developed to quantify the effect of roughness on fully developed Stokes flow in the pipe. The ratio of static flow resistivity and the ratio of the Darcy friction factor between rough and smooth pipes are expressed in four-order approximate formulations, which are validated against numerical simulation results. The relative roughness and the wave number are identified as the two key parameters affecting the static flow resistivity and the Darcy friction factor.

  13. Benefits Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary; Fenbert, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM) software tool was developed to provide air traffic flow managers and supervisors with recommendations for airport configuration changes and runway usage. The objective for this study is to conduct a benefits assessment at Memphis (MEM), Dallas Fort-Worth (DFW) and New York's John F. Kennedy (JFK) airports using the TRCM tool. Results from simulations using the TRCM-generated runway configuration schedule are compared with results using historical schedules. For the 12 days of data used in this analysis, the transit time (arrival fix to spot on airport movement area for arrivals, or spot to departure fix for departures) for MEM departures is greater (7%) than for arrivals (3%); for JFK, there is a benefit for arrivals (9%) but not for departures (-2%); for DFW, arrivals show a slight benefit (1%), but this is offset by departures (-2%). Departure queue length benefits show fewer aircraft in queue for JFK (29%) and MEM (11%), but not for DFW (-13%). Fuel savings for surface operations at MEM are seen for both arrivals and departures. At JFK there are fuel savings for arrivals, but these are offset by increased fuel use for departures. In this study, no surface fuel benefits resulted for DFW. Results suggest that the TRCM algorithm requires modifications for complex surface traffic operations that can cause taxi delays. For all three airports, the average number of changes in flow direction (runway configuration) recommended by TRCM was many times greater than the historical data; TRCM would need to be adapted to a particular airport's needs, to limit the number of changes to acceptable levels. The results from this analysis indicate the TRCM tool can provide benefits at some high-capacity airports. The magnitude of these benefits depends on many airport-specific factors and would require adaptation of the TRCM tool; a detailed assessment is needed prior to determining suitability for a particular airport.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Runway Snow Melting Utilizing Heat Pipe Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengchen; Su, Xin; Ye, Qing; Fu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    A full scale snow melting system with heat pipe technology is built in this work, which avoids the negative effects on concrete structure and environment caused by traditional deicing chemicals. The snow melting, ice-freezing performance and temperature distribution characteristics of heat pipe concrete runway were discussed by the outdoor experiments. The results show that the temperature of the concrete pavement is greatly improved with the heat pipe system. The environment temperature and embedded depth of heat pipe play a dominant role among the decision variables of the snow melting system. Heat pipe snow melting pavement melts the snow completely and avoids freezing at any time when the environment temperature is below freezing point, which is secure enough for planes take-off and landing. Besides, the exportation and recovery of geothermal energy indicate that this system can run for a long time. This paper will be useful for the design and application of the heat pipe used in the runway snow melting.

  16. Numerical analysis of the bucket surface roughness effects in Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Y X; Zeng, C J; Zhang, J; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    The internal flow of a Pelton turbine is quite complex. It is difficult to analyse the unsteady free water sheet flow in the rotating bucket owing to the lack of a sound theory. Affected by manufacturing technique and silt abrasion during the operation, the bucket surface roughness of Pelton turbine may be too great, and thereby influence unit performance. To investigate the effect of bucket roughness on Pelton turbine performance, this paper presents the numerical simulation of the interaction between the jet and the bucket in a Pelton turbine. The unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with CFX code by using the SST turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. Different magnitude orders of bucket surface roughness were analysed and compared. Unsteady numerical results of the free water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface, torque and unit performance for each bucket surface roughness were generated. The total pressure distribution on bucket surface is used to show the free water sheet flow pattern on bucket surface. By comparing the variation of water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface with different roughness, this paper qualitatively analyses how the bucket surface roughness magnitude influences the impeding effect on free water sheet flow. Comparison of the torque variation of different bucket surface roughness highlighted the effect of the bucket surface roughness on the Pelton turbine output capacity. To further investigate the effect of bucket surface roughness on Pelton turbine performance, the relation between the relative efficiency loss rate and bucket surface roughness magnitude is quantitatively analysed. The result can be used to predict and evaluate the Pelton turbine performance

  17. Numerical analysis of the bucket surface roughness effects in Pelton turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y. X.; Zeng, C. J.; Zhang, J.; Yan, Z. G.; Wang, Z. W.

    2013-12-01

    The internal flow of a Pelton turbine is quite complex. It is difficult to analyse the unsteady free water sheet flow in the rotating bucket owing to the lack of a sound theory. Affected by manufacturing technique and silt abrasion during the operation, the bucket surface roughness of Pelton turbine may be too great, and thereby influence unit performance. To investigate the effect of bucket roughness on Pelton turbine performance, this paper presents the numerical simulation of the interaction between the jet and the bucket in a Pelton turbine. The unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with CFX code by using the SST turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. Different magnitude orders of bucket surface roughness were analysed and compared. Unsteady numerical results of the free water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface, torque and unit performance for each bucket surface roughness were generated. The total pressure distribution on bucket surface is used to show the free water sheet flow pattern on bucket surface. By comparing the variation of water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface with different roughness, this paper qualitatively analyses how the bucket surface roughness magnitude influences the impeding effect on free water sheet flow. Comparison of the torque variation of different bucket surface roughness highlighted the effect of the bucket surface roughness on the Pelton turbine output capacity. To further investigate the effect of bucket surface roughness on Pelton turbine performance, the relation between the relative efficiency loss rate and bucket surface roughness magnitude is quantitatively analysed. The result can be used to predict and evaluate the Pelton turbine performance.

  18. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  19. Burrowing Owl and Other Migratory Bird Mitigation for a Runway Construction Project at Edwards AFB

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehn, Amber L.; Hagan, Mark; Bratton, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) scheduled the construction of a runway in the spring of 2007. The runway would be in an area that contained migratory birds and their habitat. The construction project would be near Edwards AFB main runway and had the potential not only to impact species protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), including the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), but also to increase bird and wildlife–aircraft strike hazards in the active flightline areas. To discourage ...

  20. Effective Boundary Slip Induced by Surface Roughness and Their Coupled Effect on Convective Heat Transfer of Liquid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a significant interfacial property for micro/nano fluidic system, the effective boundary slip can be induced by the surface roughness. However, the effect of surface roughness on the effective slip is still not clear, both increased and decreased effective boundary slip were found with increased roughness. The present work develops a simplified model to study the effect of surface roughness on the effective boundary slip. In the created rough models, the reference position of the rough surfaces to determinate effective boundary slip was set based on ISO/ASME standard and the surface roughness parameters including Ra (arithmetical mean deviation of the assessed profile, Rsm (mean width of the assessed profile elements and shape of the texture varied to form different surface roughness. Then, the effective boundary slip of fluid flow through the rough surface was analyzed by using COMSOL 5.3. The results show that the effective boundary slip induced by surface roughness of fully wetted rough surface keeps negative and further decreases with increasing Ra or decreasing Rsm. Different shape of roughness texture also results in different effective slip. A simplified corrected method for the measured effective boundary slip was developed and proved to be efficient when the Rsm is no larger than 200 nm. Another important finding in the present work is that the convective heat transfer firstly increases followed by an unobvious change with increasing Ra, while the effective boundary slip keeps decreasing. It is believed that the increasing Ra enlarges the area of solid-liquid interface for convective heat transfer, however, when Ra is large enough, the decreasing roughness-induced effective boundary slip counteracts the enhancement effect of roughness itself on the convective heat transfer.

  1. Turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Hiromu; Wada, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshinobu.

    1990-01-01

    This second paper describes an application of the generalized turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, which is developed in the previous paper, to the finite-width journal bearings. In the numerical analysis, the nonlinear equations for the modified turbulence coefficients are simplified to save a computation time within a satisfactory accuracy under the assumption that the shear flow is superior to the pressure flow in the turbulent lubrication films. The numerical results of pressure distribution, Sommerfeld number, attitude angle, friction coefficient and flow rate for the Reynolds number of Re=2000, 5000 and 10000 are indicated in graphic form for various values of relative roughness, and the effects of surface roughness on these static performance characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of the journal bearings with homogeneous rough surface are obtained experimentally for a wide range of Sommerfeld number, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results. (author)

  2. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems... Operations. This notice requests information from manufacturers of systems meeting the technical requirements...

  3. Comprehensive and Highly Accurate Measurements of Crane Runways, Profiles and Fastenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennig, Dirk; Bureick, Johannes; Link, Johannes; Diener, Dmitri; Hesse, Christian; Neumann, Ingo

    2017-05-13

    The process of surveying crane runways has been continually refined due to the competitive situation, modern surveying instruments, additional sensors, accessories and evaluation procedures. Guidelines, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 12488-1, define target values that must be determined by survey. For a crane runway these are for example the span, the position and height of the rails. The process has to be objective and reproducible. However, common processes of surveying crane runways do not meet these requirements sufficiently. The evaluation of the protocols, ideally by an expert, requires many years of experience. Additionally, the recording of crucial parameters, e.g., the wear of the rail, or the condition of the rail fastening and rail joints, is not regulated and for that reason are often not considered during the measurement. To solve this deficit the Advanced Rail Track Inspection System (ARTIS) was developed. ARTIS is used to measure the 3D position of crane rails, the cross-section of the crane rails, joints and, for the first time, the (crane-rail) fastenings. The system consists of a monitoring vehicle and an external tracking sensor. It makes kinematic observations with the tracking sensor from outside the rail run, e.g., the floor of an overhead crane runway, possible. In this paper we present stages of the development process of ARTIS, new target values, calibration of sensors and results of a test measurement.

  4. Effects of thickness and surface roughness on mechanical properties of aluminum sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hee; Jung, Yun Chul; Kim, Young Suk

    2010-01-01

    The effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of Al 6K21-T4 sheet specimens under uniaxial tension was investigated. In order to reduce the thickness of the specimens without changing the microstructure and grain size, chemical etching was carried out, resulting in Al sheets ranging from 0.40 mm to 1.58 mm in thickness. Additionally, the effect of surface roughness was determined by finite element (FE) calculations performed using FE code MARC 2007. Tensile specimens of varying surface roughness were modeled and simulated. An analysis of the combined effects of the thickness and surface roughness revealed that the yield and tensile strengths decreased when the number of grains over the thickness was decreased. The ductility also decreased when reducing the thickness. An FE simulation showed that both the surface roughness and thickness affected the flow-curve shape. Moreover, the effect of the surface roughness tended to increase when decreasing the sheet thickness of specimens having the same roughness

  5. Multiscale Analysis of the Roughness Effect on Lubricated Rough Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci , Ibrahim; MEZGHANI , Sabeur; YOUSFI , Mohammed; El Mansori , Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...

  6. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper the focus is on quantification of the pavement roughness effects on the calculated structural pavement life and the effects of surfacing maintenance on the moving dynamic tyre loads generated by vehicles. A simplified method for calculating... the moving dynamic tyre load population is used together with standard pavement response analysis methods to quantify the effects of pavement surfacing maintenance on roughness and structural pavement life. This method can be used as a pavement management...

  7. Effect of Edge Roughness on Static Characteristics of Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser M. Banadaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a physics-based analytical model of GNR FET, which allows for the evaluation of GNR FET performance including the effects of line-edge roughness as its practical specific non-ideality. The line-edge roughness is modeled in edge-enhanced band-to-band-tunneling and localization regimes, and then verified for various roughness amplitudes. Corresponding to these two regimes, the off-current is initially increased, then decreased; while, on the other hand, the on-current is continuously decreased by increasing the roughness amplitude.

  8. Computer-aided system for detecting runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano B.

    1994-07-01

    A synthetic vision system for enhancing the pilot's ability to navigate and control the aircraft on the ground is described. The system uses the onboard airport database and images acquired by external sensors. Additional navigation information needed by the system is provided by the Inertial Navigation System and the Global Positioning System. The various functions of the system, such as image enhancement, map generation, obstacle detection, collision avoidance, guidance, etc., are identified. The available technologies, some of which were developed at NASA, that are applicable to the aircraft ground navigation problem are noted. Example images of a truck crossing the runway while the aircraft flies close to the runway centerline are described. These images are from a sequence of images acquired during one of the several flight experiments conducted by NASA to acquire data to be used for the development and verification of the synthetic vision concepts. These experiments provide a realistic database including video and infrared images, motion states from the Inertial Navigation System and the Global Positioning System, and camera parameters.

  9. Effects of capillary condensation in adhesion between rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizeng; Qian, Jin; Gao, Huajian

    2009-10-06

    Experiments on the effects of humidity in adhesion between rough surfaces have shown that the adhesion energy remains constant below a critical relative humidity (RHcr) and then abruptly jumps to a higher value at RHcr before approaching its upper limit at 100% relative humidity. A model based on a hierarchical rough surface topography is proposed, which quantitatively explains the experimental observations and predicts two threshold RH values, RHcr and RHdry, which define three adhesion regimes: (1) RHRHcr, water menisci freely form and spread along the interface between the rough surfaces.

  10. Runway Incursion Prevention System: Demonstration and Testing at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Quach, Cuong C.; Young, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was tested at the Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) in October 2000. The system integrated airborne and ground components to provide both pilots and controllers with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warning of runway incursions in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using NASA s Boeing 757 research aircraft and a test van equipped to emulate an incurring aircraft. The system was also demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, DFW flight test activities, and quantitative and qualitative results of the testing.

  11. Effects of irregular two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface roughness in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 3D irregular rough surfaces produce higher effects than those observed over 2D. ► Effective slope is a geometrical parameter representative of the roughness effects. ► 3D rough surfaces enhance the turbulence isotropization. ► 2D and 3D irregular roughness partially support the wall similarity. ► Irregular rough surfaces shear some features with regular rough walls. - Abstract: Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation of fully developed turbulent channel flows over two different rough surfaces is performed to investigate on the effects of irregular 2D and 3D roughness on the turbulence. The two geometries are obtained through the superimposition of sinusoidal functions having random amplitudes and different wave lengths. In the 2D configuration the irregular shape in the longitudinal direction is replicated in the transverse one, while in the 3D case the sinusoidal functions are generated both in streamwise and spanwise directions. Both channel walls are roughened in such a way as to obtain surfaces with statistically equivalent roughness height, but different shapes. In order to compare the turbulence properties over the two rough walls and to analyse the differences with a smooth wall, the simulations are performed at the same Reynolds number Re τ = 395. The same mean roughness height h = 0.05δ (δ the half channel height) is used for the rough walls. The roughness function obtained with the 3D roughness is larger than in the 2D case, although the two walls share the same mean height. Thus, the considered irregular 3D roughness is more effective in reducing the flow velocity with respect to the 2D roughness, coherently with the literature results that identified a clear dependence of the roughness function on the effective slope (see ), higher in the generated 3D rough wall. The analysis of higher-order statistics shows that the effects of the roughness, independently on its two- or three-dimensional shape, are mainly confined in the inner

  12. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  13. When the going gets rough – studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Crawford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2–3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3–6 µm asperities, producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5–562.5 µm asperities. Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable.

  14. Effect of surface roughness and Reynolds number on compressor cascade performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Seung Chul; Song, Seung Jin

    2009-01-01

    An experimental work has been conducted in a linear compressor cascade to find out the effect of surface roughness and Reynolds number. Surveys were conducted with different roughness size and Reynolds number. The k s /c value of each roughness is 0.0006, 0.0090, 0.00150, 0.00213, and 0.00425. The range of Reynolds number is 300,000∼600,000 and conducted with roughened blade, which roughness Ra is 2.89 microns. Flow pressure, velocity, and angle have been found out via 5 hole probe. Pressure loss and deviation increased with increasing roughness. In the low Reynolds number under 500,000, tested roughness does not affect to the performance of compressor cascade. However, roughness is very sensitive to pressure loss in high Reynolds number over 550,000.

  15. Roughness Effects on Organized Motions in a Wall Shear Layer Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigermoser, Christian; Vesely, Lukas; Lapolla, Massimillano; Onorato, Michele

    2006-11-01

    Turbulent boundary layer measurements on a zero-pressure gradient flat plate with two different roughness, a 2D and a 3D roughness, were carried out. The main object of the study was to investigate the impact of the wall roughness on the turbulent flow structures. The momentum thickness Reynolds number for the smooth wall was Reθ˜ 1900. PIV measurements were taken in the streamwise wall-normal plane. The PIV images covered the whole logarithmic region and the major part of the outer layer. The instant flow images for the two roughness show features similar to the one expected in a smooth wall turbulent boundary layer, as described by Adrian et al. (JFM 2000). Statistical analysis was performed to enlighten quantitative differences between the different flow fields. For instance, two point streamwise velocity correlations show that the major effect of the roughness is to tilt the inclination of the hairpin vortex packets towards the wall normal direction; being the 3D roughness more effective in producing this displacement. Full results will be shown and discussed during the presentation.

  16. The effect of roughness model on scattering properties of ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van

    2016-01-01

    We compare stochastic models of microscale surface roughness assuming uniform and Weibull distributions of crystal facet tilt angles to calculate scattering by roughened hexagonal ice crystals using the geometric optics (GO) approximation. Both distributions are determined by similar roughness parameters, while the Weibull model depends on the additional shape parameter. Calculations were performed for two visible wavelengths (864 nm and 410 nm) for roughness values between 0.2 and 0.7 and Weibull shape parameters between 0 and 1.0 for crystals with aspect ratios of 0.21, 1 and 4.8. For this range of parameters we find that, for a given roughness level, varying the Weibull shape parameter can change the asymmetry parameter by up to about 0.05. The largest effect of the shape parameter variation on the phase function is found in the backscattering region, while the degree of linear polarization is most affected at the side-scattering angles. For high roughness, scattering properties calculated using the uniform and Weibull models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness parameter, especially when a Weibull shape parameter of 0.75 is used. For smaller roughness values, a shape parameter close to unity provides a better agreement. Notable differences are observed in the phase function over the scattering angle range from 5° to 20°, where the uniform roughness model produces a plateau while the Weibull model does not. - Highlights: • We compare scattering by hexagonal crystals for uniform and Weibull roughness models. • The Weibull shape parameter has a stronger effect on the phase function at backscattering. • DoLP is mostly affected at the side-scattering angles. • For high roughness, the two models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness. • A plateau from 5° to 20° is observed in the phase function when using the uniform model.

  17. Real-time terminal area trajectory planning for runway independent aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    The increasing demand for commercial air transportation results in delays due to traffic queues that form bottlenecks along final approach and departure corridors. In urban areas, it is often infeasible to build new runways, and regardless of automation upgrades traffic must remain separated to avoid the wakes of previous aircraft. Vertical or short takeoff and landing aircraft as Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) can increase passenger throughput at major urban airports via the use of vertiports or stub runways. The concept of simultaneous non-interfering (SNI) operations has been proposed to reduce traffic delays by creating approach and departure corridors that do not intersect existing fixed-wing routes. However, SNI trajectories open new routes that may overfly noise-sensitive areas, and RIA may generate more noise than traditional jet aircraft, particularly on approach. In this dissertation, we develop efficient SNI noise abatement procedures applicable to RIA. First, we introduce a methodology based on modified approximated cell-decomposition and Dijkstra's search algorithm to optimize longitudinal plane (2-D) RIA trajectories over a cost function that minimizes noise, time, and fuel use. Then, we extend the trajectory optimization model to 3-D with a k-ary tree as the discrete search space. We incorporate geography information system (GIS) data, specifically population, into our objective function, and focus on a practical case study: the design of SNI RIA approach procedures to Baltimore-Washington International airport. Because solutions were represented as trim state sequences, we incorporated smooth transition between segments to enable more realistic cost estimates. Due to the significant computational complexity, we investigated alternative more efficient optimization techniques applicable to our nonlinear, non-convex, heavily constrained, and discontinuous objective function. Comparing genetic algorithm (GA) and adaptive simulated annealing (ASA

  18. Multi-scale analysis of the roughness effect on lubricated rough contact

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRCI, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...

  19. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  20. Effects of surface roughness on plastic strain localization in polycrystalline aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Yoann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface state of mechanical components differs according to applied loadings. Industrial processes may produce specific features at the surface, such as roughness, local hardening, residual stresses or recrystallization. Under fatigue loading, all these parameters will affect the component lifetime, but in different manner. A better understanding of each surface state parameter, separately first and then all combined, will provide a better prediction of fatigue life. The study focuses on the effect of surface roughness. Crystal plasticity finite element computations have been carried out on three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates with different roughness levels. Local mechanical fields have been analyzed both at the surface and inside the bulk to highlight the competition between crystallography and roughness to impose localization patterns. As soon as surface roughness is strong enough, classical localization bands driven by grains orientation are replaced by localizations patterns driven by the local roughness topology. Nevertheless, this effect tends to decrease gradually under the surface, and it becomes usually negligible after the first layer of grains. The discussion allows us to characterize the influence of the surface state on the local mechanical fields.

  1. Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: suva_112@yahoo.co.in [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)

  2. Factors that Determine Depth Perception of Trapezoids, Windsurfers, Runways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei eTseng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here a windsurfer1 illusion, a naturally occurring trapezoidal illusion in which the small endof the sail viewed at a distance appears to be pointed away from the observer even when it is closer.This naturally occurring illusion is so compelling that observers are unaware of their gross perceptualmisinterpretation of the scene. Four laboratory experiment of this kind of trapezoidal illusion investigatedthe joint effects of retinal orientation, head position, relative motion, and the relative direction ofgravity on automatic depth perception. Observers viewed two adjacent white trapezoids outlined on ablack background rotating back and forth +/- 20 deg on a vertical axis much like the sails of two adjacentwindsurfers. Observers reported which side of the trapezoids (long or short appeared to becloser to them (i.e., in front. The longer edge of the trapezoid was reported in front 76+/-2% of trials(windsurfer effect whether it was on the left or on the right. When the display was rotated 90 deg toproduce a runway configuration, there was a striking asymmetry: the long edge was perceived to bein front 97% when it was on the bottom but only 43% when it was on top (runway effect. The runwayeffect persisted when the head was tilted 90 deg or when displays on the ceiling were viewedfrom the floor. 95% of the variance of the variance in the strikingly different 3D perceptions producedby the same 2D trapezoid image was quantitatively explained by a model that assumes there are justthree additive bias factors that account for perceiving an edge as closer: Implicit linear perspective,lower position on the retina (based on an automatic assumption of viewing from above, and beinglower in world coordinates.

  3. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics study of the roughness effect on contact angle and droplet flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigorina, Elena; Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M

    2017-09-01

    We employ a pairwise force smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to simulate sessile and transient droplets on rough hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. PF-SPH allows modeling of free-surface flows without discretizing the air phase, which is achieved by imposing the surface tension and dynamic contact angles with pairwise interaction forces. We use the PF-SPH model to study the effect of surface roughness and microscopic contact angle on the effective contact angle and droplet dynamics. In the first part of this work, we investigate static contact angles of sessile droplets on different types of rough surfaces. We find that the effective static contact angles of Cassie and Wenzel droplets on a rough surface are greater than the corresponding microscale static contact angles. As a result, microscale hydrophobic rough surfaces also show effective hydrophobic behavior. On the other hand, microscale hydrophilic surfaces may be macroscopically hydrophilic or hydrophobic, depending on the type of roughness. We study the dependence of the transition between Cassie and Wenzel states on roughness and droplet size, which can be linked to the critical pressure for the given fluid-substrate combination. We observe good agreement between simulations and theoretical predictions. Finally, we study the impact of the roughness orientation (i.e., an anisotropic roughness) and surface inclination on droplet flow velocities. Simulations show that droplet flow velocities are lower if the surface roughness is oriented perpendicular to the flow direction. If the predominant elements of surface roughness are in alignment with the flow direction, the flow velocities increase compared to smooth surfaces, which can be attributed to the decrease in fluid-solid contact area similar to the lotus effect. We demonstrate that classical linear scaling relationships between Bond and capillary numbers for droplet flow on flat surfaces also hold for flow on rough surfaces.

  4. The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ring contact in internal combustion engine. ... The surface roughness between the liner and the piston rings, plays an ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Effect of nanometer scale surface roughness of titanium for osteoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Migita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness is an important property for metallic materials used in medical implants or other devices. The present study investigated the effects of surface roughness on cellular function, namely cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation potential. Titanium (Ti discs, with a hundred nanometer- or nanometer-scale surface roughness (rough and smooth Ti surface, respectively were prepared by polishing with silicon carbide paper. MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the discs, and their attachment, spreading area, proliferation, and calcification were analyzed. Cells cultured on rough Ti discs showed reduced attachment, proliferation, and calcification ability suggesting that the surface inhibited osteoblast function. The findings can provide a basis for improving the biocompatibility of medical devices.

  6. Application of Artificial Neural Network to Predict the use of Runway at Juanda International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, J. C. P.; Safrilah

    2017-06-01

    Artificial neural network approaches are useful to solve many complicated problems. It solves a number of problems in various areas such as engineering, medicine, business, manufacturing, etc. This paper presents an application of artificial neural network to predict a runway capacity at Juanda International Airport. An artificial neural network model of backpropagation and multi-layer perceptron is adopted to this research to learning process of runway capacity at Juanda International Airport. The results indicate that the training data is successfully recognizing the certain pattern of runway use at Juanda International Airport. Whereas, testing data indicate vice versa. Finally, it can be concluded that the approach of uniformity data and network architecture is the critical part to determine the accuracy of prediction results.

  7. Analysis of Runway Incursion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    A statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain relevance to the top ten challenges of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The information contained in the RI database was found to contain data that may be relevant to several of the AvSP top ten challenges. When combined with other data from the FAA documenting air traffic volume from calendar year 2000 through 2011, the structure of a predictive model emerges that can be used to forecast the frequency of RI events at various airports for various classes of aircraft and under various environmental conditions.

  8. Aircraft performance in slippery runway conditions : a simulation study of the accuracy and limitations of real-time runway friction estimation based on airplane onboard data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Runway overrun accidents occurring during landings in slippery conditions continue to occur frequently worldwide. After a : number of specific landing overrun accidents in the U.S., the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) issued a safety : re...

  9. Statistical Decision Support Tools for System-Oriented Runway Management, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The feasibility of developing a statistical decision support system for traffic flow management in the terminal area and runway load balancing was demonstrated in...

  10. Rough Finite State Automata and Rough Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulprakasam, R.; Perumal, R.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Dare, V. R.

    2018-04-01

    Sumita Basu [1, 2] recently introduced the concept of a rough finite state (semi)automaton, rough grammar and rough languages. Motivated by the work of [1, 2], in this paper, we investigate some closure properties of rough regular languages and establish the equivalence between the classes of rough languages generated by rough grammar and the classes of rough regular languages accepted by rough finite automaton.

  11. Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss, and color of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Nagafuji, Junichi; Kotaku, Mayumi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Powers, John M

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss, and color of regular, opaque, and enamel shades for each of three resin composites. Two-mm-thick resin disks made with Estelite Σ Quick, Clearfil Majesty, and Beautifil II were final polished with 180-, 1000-, and 3000-grit silicon carbide paper. Surface roughness, gloss, and color were measured one week after curing. Estelite Σ Quick had significantly lower roughness values and significantly higher gloss values as compared with Clearfil Majesty and Beautifil II. The effects of surface roughness and gloss on color (L*a*b*) differed among resin composites and by shade. Correlation coefficients between surface roughness and L*a*b* color factors were generally high for Clearfil Majesty, partially high (i.e., between roughness and L*) for Beautifil II, and low for Estelite Σ Quick. Correlation coefficients between gloss and L*a*b* color parameters were generally high for Beautifil II and low for Estelite Σ Quick and Clearfil Majesty. However, for all resin composites, the values of the color differences between 3000-grit and 180-grit polishing groups for all shades were imperceptible by the naked eye.

  12. Effects of interface roughness on cohesive strength of self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chen [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Awasthi, Amnaya P. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611 (United States); Geubelle, Philippe H., E-mail: geubelle@illinois.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Grady, Martha E.; Sottos, Nancy R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Self-assembled monolayer/transfer-printed gold interface modeled using continuum-level simulation. • Initial deformed film profile analyzed and instability assessed. • Effective cohesive response of SAM-enhanced interface extracted from spallation model. • Reduction of up to 70% cohesive strength of the interface from incorporation of roughness demonstrated. - Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are aggregates of small molecular chains that have the property to form highly ordered assemblies. The choice of terminal groups on the chains makes them excellent contenders of molecular-level tailoring. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental observations of spallation of two SAM-enhanced gold-film/silicon-substrate interfaces have shown that the cohesive strength of SAM-enriched transfer-printed interfaces is strongly dependent on the choice of terminal groups. Though the MD results of perfectly ordered atomistic surfaces show the same qualitative trend as the experiments, they over-predict the interfacial cohesive strengths by a factor of about 50. Results from AFM studies have revealed that the roughness of these interfaces is of the same order (∼1 nm) as the range of atomistic interactions. Hence, surface roughness is a key contributor in significantly reducing interfacial cohesive strength in these systems. In this manuscript, a continuum-level study is performed to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the cohesive strength of the interface between a Si/SAM substrate and a transfer-printed gold film. We approximate the film as a deformable continuum interacting with a rough substrate of SAMs represented by a harmonic function. Using a cohesive law derived from MD, spallation is simulated to evaluate the effective traction-separation characteristics for the rough SAM–gold interface. Our analysis shows that incorporating roughness may reduce the interfacial cohesive strength by an order of magnitude depending

  13. Effect of surface roughness on the aerodynamic characteristics of a symmetrical airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakroun, W.; Al-Mesri, I.; Al-Fahad, S.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of surface roughness by varying the roughness size and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Test were conducted on the symmetrical airfoil models NACA 0012 in which the nature of the surface was varied from smooth to very rough and at a chord Reynolds number of 1.5*10{sup 5}. Different airfoil models with various roughness sizes and roughness locations were tested for different angles of attack. Lift, drag and pressure coefficients were measured and velocity profiles were determined for the smooth and grit 36 roughened models. It is shown that as the surface roughness increases, the minimum drag also increases due to the increase of the skin friction and the lift decreases. Surface roughness is seen to delay the stall angle and also increase the lift in the stall region. The airfoil model with the roughness located at the trailing edge shows minimum drag and maximum lift up to the stall angle compared to the other cases of different roughness locations. It is confirmed that, for the rough surface, a turbulent boundary layer exists where the laminar boundary layer is encountered for the smooth surface at the same Reynolds number. The measured skin friction for the rough surface is larger than that for the smooth surface. (author)

  14. Generalizing roughness: experiments with flow-oriented roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano

    2015-04-01

    Surface texture analysis applied to High Resolution Digital Terrain Models (HRDTMs) improves the capability to characterize fine-scale morphology and permits the derivation of useful morphometric indexes. An important indicator to be taken into account in surface texture analysis is surface roughness, which can have a discriminant role in the detection of different geomorphic processes and factors. The evaluation of surface roughness is generally performed considering it as an isotropic surface parameter (e.g., Cavalli, 2008; Grohmann, 2011). However, surface texture has often an anisotropic character, which means that surface roughness could change according to the considered direction. In some applications, for example involving surface flow processes, the anisotropy of roughness should be taken into account (e.g., Trevisani, 2012; Smith, 2014). Accordingly, we test the application of a flow-oriented directional measure of roughness, computed considering surface gravity-driven flow. For the calculation of flow-oriented roughness we use both classical variogram-based roughness (e.g., Herzfeld,1996; Atkinson, 2000) as well as an ad-hoc developed robust modification of variogram (i.e. MAD, Trevisani, 2014). The presented approach, based on a D8 algorithm, shows the potential impact of considering directionality in the calculation of roughness indexes. The use of flow-oriented roughness could improve the definition of effective proxies of impedance to flow. Preliminary results on the integration of directional roughness operators with morphometric-based models, are promising and can be extended to more complex approaches. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Cavalli, M. & Marchi, L. 2008, "Characterization of the surface morphology of an alpine alluvial fan using airborne LiDAR", Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 323-333. Grohmann, C

  15. Distributed Roughness Effects on Blunt-Body Transition and Turbulent Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to obtain data on the effects of surface roughness on blunt bodies at laminar, transitional, and turbulent conditions. Wind tunnel models with distributed surface roughness heights from 0.06 mm to 1.75 mm were tested and heating data were obtained using global surface thermography. Heating rates of up to 85% higher than predicted, smooth-surface turbulent levels were measured.

  16. Skin friction measurements of systematically-varied roughness: Probing the role of roughness amplitude and skewness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Julio; Flack, Karen; Schultz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Real-world engineering systems which feature either external or internal wall-bounded turbulent flow are routinely affected by surface roughness. This gives rise to performance degradation in the form of increased drag or head loss. However, at present there is no reliable means to predict these performance losses based upon the roughness topography alone. This work takes a systematic approach by generating random surface roughness in which the surface statistics are closely controlled. Skin friction and roughness function results will be presented for two groups of these rough surfaces. The first group is Gaussian (i.e. zero skewness) in which the root-mean-square roughness height (krms) is varied. The second group has a fixed krms, and the skewness is varied from approximately -1 to +1. The effect of the roughness amplitude and skewness on the skin friction will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of these parameters on the roughness function in the transitionally-rough flow regime. For example, the role these parameters play in the monotonic or inflectional nature of the roughness function will be addressed. Future research into the details of the turbulence structure over these rough surfaces will also be outlined. Research funded by U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  17. Particle roughness in magnetorheology: effect on the strength of the field-induced structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereda, F; Segovia-Gutiérrez, J P; De Vicente, J; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    2015-01-01

    We report a study on the effect of particle roughness on the strength of the field-induced structures of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in the quasi-static regime. We prepared one set of MR fluids with carbonyl iron particles and another set with magnetite particles, and in both sets we had particles with different degrees of surface roughness. Small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) magnetosweeps and steady shear (SS) tests were carried out on the suspensions to measure their elastic modulus (G′) and static yield stress (τ static ). Results for both the iron and the magnetite sets of suspensions were consistent: for the MR fluids prepared with rougher particles, G′ increased at smaller fields and τ static was ca. 20% larger than for the suspensions prepared with relatively smooth particles. In addition to the experimental study, we carried out finite element method calculations to assess the effect of particle roughness on the magnetic interaction between particles. These calculations showed that roughness can facilitate the magnetization of the particles, thus increasing the magnetic energy of the system for a given field, but that this effect depends on the concrete morphology of the surface. For our real systems, no major differences were observed between the magnetization cycles of the MR fluids prepared with particles with different degree of roughness, which implied that the effect of roughness on the measured G′ and τ static was due mainly to friction between the solid surfaces of adjacent particles. (paper)

  18. The surface roughness effect on the performance of supersonic ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, D. V.; Aronson, K. E.; Mazzelli, F.; Milazzo, A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation results of the surface roughness influence on gas-dynamic processes inside flow parts of a supersonic ejector. These simulations are performed using two commercial CFD solvers (Star- CCM+ and Fluent). The results are compared to each other and verified by a full-scale experiment in terms of global flow parameters (the entrainment ratio: the ratio between secondary to primary mass flow rate - ER hereafter) and local flow parameters distribution (the static pressure distribution along the mixing chamber and diffuser walls). A detailed comparative study of the employed methods and approaches in both CFD packages is carried out in order to estimate the roughness effect on the logarithmic law velocity distribution inside the boundary layer. Influence of the surface roughness is compared with the influence of the backpressure (static pressure at the ejector outlet). It has been found out that increasing either the ejector backpressure or the surface roughness height, the shock position displaces upstream. Moreover, the numerical simulation results of an ejector with rough walls in the both CFD solvers are well quantitatively agreed with each other in terms of the mean ER and well qualitatively agree in terms of the local flow parameters distribution. It is found out that in the case of exceeding the "critical roughness height" for the given boundary conditions and ejector's geometry, the ejector switches to the "off-design" mode and its performance decreases considerably.

  19. Evaluasi Kekuatan Perkerasan Sisi Udara (Runway,Taxiway,Apron Bandara Juanda Dengan Metode Perbandingan ACN-PCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Haryo Triharso Seno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasilitas sisi udara merupakan fasilitas pergerakan pesawat. Fasilitas ini harus memenuhi kekuatan struktur untuk melayani pergerakan pesawat-pesawat yang beroperasi sesuai dengan perencanaan. Tujuan dari penyusunan makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis apakah perkerasan fasilitas sisi udara di Bandar Udara Juanda saat ini sudah memenuhi batas PCN yang dipersyaratkan atau belum. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara mengevaluasi kekuatan perkerasan runway, taxiway, dan apron eksisting menggunakan metode perbandingan PCN–ACN yang didapat dari pabrik pembuat pesawat, perhitungan dengan software COMFAA dan perhitungan dari Canadian Department of Transportation. Data yang digunakan adalah data pergerakan pesawat termasuk jumlah pergerakan tahunan dan tipe pesawat. Data kekuatan perkerasan sisi udara diperlukan untuk proses analisis. Hasil dari evaluasi menunjukkan B773 memiliki nilai ACN yang melebihi nilai PCN sebesar 50% untuk apron dan 25% untuk runway/taxiway. Besar kelebihan nilai ACN ini tidak mempengaruhi kekuatan struktural karena frekuensi pergerakan yang hanya 45 pergerakan per tahun. Dampak lain adalah pada fungsional perkerasan yang menunjukkan berkurangnya kekesatan runway dari hasil sand patch test.

  20. Numerical modeling of the effects of roughness on flow and eddy formation in fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Briggs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of roughness on flow in fractures was investigated using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. Simulations were conducted for both statistically generated hypothetical fractures and a natural dolomite fracture. The effect of increasing roughness on effective hydraulic aperture, Izbash and Forchheimer parameters with increasing Reynolds number (Re ranging from 0.01 to 500 was examined. The growth of complex flow features, such as eddies arising near the fracture surface, was directly associated with changes in surface roughness. Rapid eddy growth above Re values of 1, followed by less rapid growth at higher Re values, suggested a three-zone nonlinear model for flow in rough fractures. This three-zone model, relating effective hydraulic conductivity to Re, was also found to be appropriate for the simulation of water flow in the natural dolomite fracture. Increasing fracture roughness led to greater eddy volumes and lower effective hydraulic conductivities for the same Re values.

  1. Long term performance of the reef runway at Honolulu International Airport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magoon, OT

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Completed in 1977, the Reef Runway embankment at Honolulu International Airport was created by placing and compacting millions of cubic meters of dredged coral fill material over an existing coral reef. The wave protection structure on the deeper...

  2. Runway Detection From Map, Video and Aircraft Navigational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    3 Figure 4. Pinhole Camera Model to Project 3D Coordinates onto 2D...xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 2D Two-dimensional 3D Three-dimensional HFOV Horizontal field of...algorithm [2], which selects runway-useful features, such as image intensity and gradient or Zernike Moments, and extracts them on a set of 57

  3. Effective roughness calculated from satellite-derived land cover maps and hedge-information used in a weather forecasting model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, C.B.; Nielsen, N.,W.; Jensen, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    differences. Especially the roughness variations can give a significantly different value between the equilibrium roughness in each of the patches as compared to the aggregated roughness value, the so-called effective roughness, for the grid cell. The effective roughness is a quantity that secures the physics...

  4. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces. A slip-velocity-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.; Smith, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The braking and cornering response of a slip velocity controlled, pressure bias modulated aircraft antiskid braking system is investigated. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC 9 series 10 airplane. The landing gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. The parameters, which were varied, included the carriage speed, tire loading, yaw angle, tire tread condition, brake system operating pressure, and runway wetness conditions. The effects of each of these parameters on the behavior of the skid control system is presented. Comparisons between data obtained with the skid control system and data obtained from single cycle braking tests without antiskid protection are examined.

  5. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness

  6. Nanoscale roughness effect on Maxwell-like boundary conditions for the Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brull, S., E-mail: Stephane.Brull@math.u-bordeaux.fr; Charrier, P., E-mail: Pierre.Charrier@math.u-bordeaux.fr; Mieussens, L., E-mail: Luc.Mieussens@math.u-bordeaux.fr [University of Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, IMB, UMR 5251, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that the roughness of the wall has an effect on microscale gas flows. This effect can be shown for large Knudsen numbers by using a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. However, when the wall is rough at a nanometric scale, it is necessary to use a very small mesh size which is much too expansive. An alternative approach is to incorporate the roughness effect in the scattering kernel of the boundary condition, such as the Maxwell-like kernel introduced by the authors in a previous paper. Here, we explain how this boundary condition can be implemented in a discrete velocity approximation of the Boltzmann equation. Moreover, the influence of the roughness is shown by computing the structure scattering pattern of mono-energetic beams of the incident gas molecules. The effect of the angle of incidence of these molecules, of their mass, and of the morphology of the wall is investigated and discussed in a simplified two-dimensional configuration. The effect of the azimuthal angle of the incident beams is shown for a three-dimensional configuration. Finally, the case of non-elastic scattering is considered. All these results suggest that our approach is a promising way to incorporate enough physics of gas-surface interaction, at a reasonable computing cost, to improve kinetic simulations of micro- and nano-flows.

  7. An overview of the joint FAA/NASA aircraft/ground runway friction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for information on runways which may become slippery due to various forms and types of contaminants. Experience has shown that since the beginning of all weather aircraft operations, there have been landing and aborted takeoff incidents and/or accidents each year where aircraft have either run off the end or veered off the shoulder of low friction runways. NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch is involved in several research programs directed towards obtaining a better understanding of how different tire properties interact with varying pavement surface characteristics to produce acceptable performance for aircraft ground handling requirements. One such effort, which was jointly supported by not only NASA and the FAA but by several aviation industry groups including the Flight Safety Foundation, is described.

  8. Effects of toothbrush hardness on in vitro wear and roughness of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoizumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Junji; Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate and compare the effects of toothbrushes with different hardness on abrasion and surface roughness of composite resins. Toothbrushes (DENT. EX Slimhead II 33, Lion Dental Products Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) marked as soft, medium and hard, were used to brush 10 beam-shaped specimens of each of three composites resins (Venus [VEN], Venus Diamond [VED] and Venus Pearl [VEP]; HeraeusKulzer) with standardized calcium carbonate slurry in a multistation testing machine (2N load, 60 Hz). After each of five cycles with 10k brushing strokes the wear depth and surface roughness of the specimens were determined. After completion of 50k strokes representative samples were inspected by SEM. Data were treated with ANOVA and regression analyses (p composite resins increased linearly with increasing number of brushing cycles (r² > 0.9). Highest wear was recorded for VEN, lowest for VED. Hard brushes produced significantly higher wear on VEN and VEP, whereas no difference in wear by toothbrush type was detected for VED. Significantly highest surface roughness was found on VED specimens (Ra > 1.5 µm), the lowest one on VEN (Ra composite resins produced by toothbrushing with dentifrice depend mainly on the type of restorative resin. Hardness grades of toothbrushes have minor effects only on abrasion and surface roughness of composite resins. No relationship was found between abrasion and surface roughness. The grade of the toothbrush used has minor effect on wear, texture and roughness of the composite resin.

  9. Effect of surface roughness on the Goos-Hänchen shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Z.; Amiri, M.

    2016-04-01

    By considering an optically denser medium with a flat surface, but with natural roughness instead of abstract geometrical boundary, which leads to mathematical discontinuity on the boundary of two adjacent stratified media, we have thus established the importance of considering physical surfaces; and thus we studied the Goos-Hänchen (GH) effect by ray-optics description to shed light on parts of this effect that have remained ambiguous. We replaced the very thin region of surface roughness by a continuous inhomogeneous intermediary medium. Applying Fermat's principle for the incident light ray, few fundamental questions about GH shift are more convincingly addressed, which are in excellent agreement, even with the most details of the experimental results.

  10. The effect of machining parameters on surface roughness during turning of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Belazi, Khalid M.

    1991-03-01

    Surface roughness is a direct consequence of the cutting tool action, its assessment and control represent an effective way by which the machining process can be studied. The control of surface roughness has become increasingly important during the last thirty years, because the quality of surface is extremely important for machined components that have been designed to stand to static and cyclic loads. This work has two major goals. The first is to develop a new theoretical model based on the assumption that the shape of the cutting tool nose is elliptical to evaluate the surface roughness parameters. The second is to investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate, overhang length, tool nose radius (circular sharp), and depth of cut on surface roughness of turned surfaces of austenitic stainless steel grade 12X18H10T. It was found from the theoretical part that the surface roughness values obtained from the elliptical model are much better than those obtained from the other models. It was found from the experimental work that the surface roughness values increase by increasing cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and overhang length, and fluctuates when using cutting tools with various nose radii, during turning of the above mentioned steel by using a brazed carbide cutting tool. (author)

  11. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  12. The effect of sidewall roughness on line edge roughness in top-down scanning electron microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduin, T.; Lokhorst, S. R.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated in a numerical study the determination of sidewall roughness (SWR) from top down scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. In a typical metrology application, top-down SEM images are acquired in a (critical-dimension) SEM and the roughness is analyzed. However, the true size, shape and roughness characteristics of resist features are not fully investigated in the analysis of top-down SEM images. In reality, rough resist features are complex three-dimensional structures and the characterization naturally extends to the analysis of SWR. In this study we randomly generate images of rough lines and spaces, where the lines are made of PMMA on a silicon substrate. The lines that we study have a length of 2 µm, a width of 32nm and a height of 32 nm. The SWR is modeled by using the power spectral density (PSD) function of Palasantzas, which characterizes roughness by the standard deviation σ, correlation length ξ and roughness exponent α . The actual roughness is generated by application of the method of Thorsos in two dimensions. The images are constructed by using a home-built program for simulating electron-specimen interactions. The program that we have developed is optimized for complex arbitrary geometries and large number of incident low energy primary electrons by using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. The program uses the dielectric function model for inelastic scattering events and has an implementation specifically for low energy electrons. A satisfactory comparison is made between the secondary electron yields from the home-built program and another program found in literature. In order to reduce the risk of shrinkage, we use a beam energy of 300 eV and a spot size of 3 nm. Each pixel is exposed with 20 electrons on average (≍ 276 µC/cm2), following the Poisson distribution to account for illumination shot noise. We have assumed that the detection of electrons is perfect and does not introduce additional noise. We measure line edge

  13. Effect of sealer coating and storage methods on the surface roughness of soft liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta Kutlu, Ilknur; Yanikoğlu, Nuran Dinckal; Kul, Esra; Duymuş, Zeynep Yesïl; Sağsöz, Nurdan Polat

    2016-03-01

    A soft lining is applied under a removable prosthesis for various reasons. The porosity of the lining material may increase colonization by microorganisms and cause tissue inflammation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealer coating on the surface roughness of soft lining materials under 4 different conditions. A total of 125 specimens were prepared. One high-temperature silicone-based soft lining material and 2 room-temperature-polymerized soft lining materials (1 silicone-based and 1 methacrylate-based) were used. Twenty-five specimens of each room-temperature soft lining material were coated with 2 layers of surface sealer. Additionally, 5 specimens of each material were stored in either distilled water, Coca-Cola, denture cleanser, saliva, or air. The surface roughness was measured at baseline and after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Surface roughness values were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, and the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed using time-dependent groups and storage methods. In the time-dependent groups, methacrylate-based sealer-coated soft liners exhibited a significant increase in roughness (1.74-2.09 μm, P.05). Therefore, the sealer coating was not effective in reducing surface roughness. Among the time-dependent storage methods, the denture cleanser exhibited an almost significant increase in roughness (1.83-1.99 μm, P=.054). Coca-Cola and artificial saliva did not show a significant difference (P>.05). However, a significant decrease in roughness was found with distilled water (P=.02) and air (P<.001). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were found among the different types of soft liners. The sealer coating had no significant effect, and denture cleanser slightly increased the surface roughness. Contrary to expectations, the roughness did not increase in all groups over time. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  14. Effects of surface roughness and film thickness on the adhesion of a bioinspired nanofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z. L.; Chen, S. H.

    2011-05-01

    Inspired by the gecko's climbing ability, adhesion between an elastic nanofilm with finite length and a rough substrate with sinusoidal roughness is studied in the present paper, considering the effects of substrate roughness and film thickness. It demonstrates that the normal adhesion force of the nanofilm on a rough substrate depends significantly on the geometrical parameters of the substrate. When the film length is larger than the wavelength of the sinusoidal roughness of the substrate, the normal adhesion force decreases with increasing surface roughness, while the normal adhesion force initially decreases then increases if the wavelength of roughness is larger than the film length. This finding is qualitatively consistent with a previously interesting experimental observation in which the adhesion force of the gecko spatula is found to reduce significantly at an intermediate roughness. Furthermore, it is inferred that the gecko may achieve an optimal spatula thickness not only to follow rough surfaces, but also to saturate the adhesion force. The results in this paper may be helpful for understanding how geckos overcome the influence of natural surface roughness and possess such adhesion to support their weights.

  15. Effect of geometric base roughness on size segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric roughness at boundaries has a profound impact on the dynamics of granular flows. For a bumpy base made of fixed particles, two major factors have been separately studied in the literature, namely, the size and spatial distribution of base particles. A recent work (Jing et al. 2016 has proposed a roughness indicator Ra, which combines both factors for any arbitrary bumpy base comprising equally-sized spheres. It is shown in mono-disperse flows that as Ra increases, a transition occurs from slip (Ra 0.62 conditions. This work focuses on such a phase transition in bi-disperse flows, in which Ra can be a function of time. As size segregation takes place, large particles migrate away from the bottom, leading to a variation of size ratio between flow- and base-particles. As a result, base roughness Ra evolves with the progress of segregation. Consistent with the slip/non-slip transition in mono-disperse flows, basal sliding arises at low values of Ra and the development of segregation might be affected; when Ra increases to a certain level (Ra > 0.62, non-slip condition is respected. This work extends the validity of Ra to bi-disperse flows, which can be used to understand the geometric boundary effect during segregation.

  16. A possible experiment at LEUTL to characterize surface roughness Wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedron, S.G.; Dattoli, G.; Fawley, W.M.; Freund, H.P.; Huang, Zhirong; Lewellen, J.W.; Milton, S.V.; Nuhn, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Wakefield effects due to internal vacuum chamber roughness may increase the electron beam energy spread and so have become an immediate concern for future x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project developments such as the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the DESY TESLA x-ray FEL. We describe a possible experiment to characterize the effects of surface roughness on an FEL driven by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) operation. Although the specific system described is not completely identical to the above-proposed projects, much useful scaling information could be obtained and applied to shorter wavelength systems

  17. Experiment Description and Results for Arrival Operations Using Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Capron, William R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Shay, Richard F.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    The predicted increase in the number of commercial aircraft operations creates a need for improved operational efficiency. Two areas believed to offer increases in aircraft efficiency are optimized profile descents and dependent parallel runway operations. Using Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) software and procedures during these operations, flight crews can achieve by the runway threshold an interval assigned by air traffic control (ATC) behind the preceding aircraft that maximizes runway throughput while minimizing additional fuel consumption and pilot workload. This document describes an experiment where 24 pilots flew arrivals into the Dallas Fort-Worth terminal environment using one of three simulators at NASA?s Langley Research Center. Results indicate that pilots delivered their aircraft to the runway threshold within +/- 3.5 seconds of their assigned time interval, and reported low workload levels. In general, pilots found the FIM concept, procedures, speeds, and interface acceptable. Analysis of the time error and FIM speed changes as a function of arrival stream position suggest the spacing algorithm generates stable behavior while in the presence of continuous (wind) or impulse (offset) error. Concerns reported included multiple speed changes within a short time period, and an airspeed increase followed shortly by an airspeed decrease.

  18. EFFECT FOR A SINGLE ROUGHNESS E=5,63mm OF EXPERIMENTAL TO STUDY HYDRAULIC JUMP PROFILE IN A CHANNEL IN U A ROUGH BOTTOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghomri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness E=5,63mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained. The hydraulic jump is the primary means used by hydraulic structures to dissipate energy. This hydraulic jump is formed at the sharp transition from a supercritical flow a stream flow.

  19. EFFECT FOR A SINGLE ROUGHNESS E=5,63mm OF EXPERIMENTAL TO STUDY HYDRAULIC JUMP PROFILE IN A CHANNEL IN U A ROUGH BOTTOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghomri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness E=5,63mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained. The hydraulic jump is the primary means used by hydraulic structures to dissipate energy. This hydraulic jump is formed at the sharp transition from a supercritical flow a stream flow.

  20. Roughness effects on the hydrogen signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, W.; Bousquet, B.; Lasue, J.

    2017-01-01

    On Mars, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as performed by the ChemCam instrument can be used to measure the hydrogen content of targets in situ, under a low pressure CO2 atmosphere. However, unexpected variations observed in the Martian dataset suggest an effect related to target...... roughness. Here, we present a series of laboratory experiments that reproduce the effect observed on Mars and explore possible causes. We show that the hydrogen peak intensity increases significantly with increasing exposure of the target surface to the LIBS plasma, and that these variations are specific......, this effect should be taken into account for the quantification of hydrogen in any LIBS applications where the roughness of the target is significant....

  1. Effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile in vertical bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow in an entry region was performed with various rough wall test tubes. The objective of the work is to clarify the effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile. The fluid flows in the vertical circular test tube of 25 mm I.D. under nearly atmospheric pressure, at room temperature. The void profile changes from a pattern similar in appearance to the saddle shape which has local void peaks near the wall, into the power law shape whose curve is approximated by a power law formula, with increasing wall roughness and/or entry length. That is, wall roughness and entry length have a similar effect upon void profile. There are two patterns in the power law shape, a pattern with sharp center peak and a pattern with obtuse center peak. As wall roughness and/or entry length increase, the void profile changes from the former pattern to the latter pattern. At enough long entry length (L/D ≅ 150), every void profile has almost the same power law shape independent of wall roughness. Some void profiles are asymmetric to the axis. (author)

  2. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface that acts as a natural energy capture mechanism. This patterning is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. Increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test how this roughness effects LEV formation, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Images were captured of the LEV generated when the plate was towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. These images were used to determine the XY velocity of the particles using a technique called Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Codes written in MATLAB were used to track and measure the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding for this research project was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (REU Supplement CBET 1628600 under CBET 1335848).

  3. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Leonelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  4. NASA diagonal-braked test vehicle evaluation of traction characteristics of grooved and ungrooved runway surfaces at Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, 8-9 May 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two runways were evaluated under artificially wetted conditions with the NASA diagonal-braked vehicle (DBV). Results of the evaluation which included a pavement drainage analysis, a pavement skid resistance analysis, and a DBV wet/dry stopping distance ratio analysis indicated that the ungrooved runway surfaces had poor water drainage characteristics and poor skid resistance under wet conditions at high speeds especially in rubbercoated areas of the runways. Grooving runways to a transverse 1-1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4 inch pattern greatly improved both the water drainage and pavement skid resistance capability of these asphaltic concrete surfaces.

  5. Effects of confinement & surface roughness in electrorheological flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Telleria, Maria J.; Wang, Julie; Strauss, Marc; Murphy, Mike; McKinley, Gareth; Hosoi, A. E.

    2014-11-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are dielectric suspensions that exhibit a fast, reversible change in rheological properties with the application of an external electric field. Upon the application of the electric field, the material develops a field-dependent yield stress that is typically modeled using a Bingham plastic model. ER fluids are promising for designing small, cheap and rapidly actuated hydraulic devices such as rapidly-switchable valves, where fluid flowing in a microchannel can be arrested by applying an external electric field. In the lubrication limit, for a Bingham plastic fluid, the maximum pressure the channel can hold, before yielding, is a function of the field-dependent yield stress, the length of the channel and the electrode gap. In practice, the finite width of the channel and the surface roughness of the electrodes could affect the maximum yield pressure but a quantitative understanding of these effects is currently lacking. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of the channel aspect ratio (width/height) and the effects of electrode roughness on the performance of ER valves. Based on this quantitative analysis, we formulate new performance metrics for ER valves as well as design rules for ER valves that will help guide and optimize future designs.

  6. Effect of surface roughness on substrate-tuned gold nanoparticle gap plasmon resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumdee, Chatdanai; Yun, Binfeng; Kik, Pieter G

    2015-03-07

    The effect of nanoscale surface roughness on the gap plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles on thermally evaporated gold films is investigated experimentally and numerically. Single-particle scattering spectra obtained from 80 nm diameter gold particles on a gold film show significant particle-to-particle variation of the peak scattering wavelength of ±28 nm. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations of gold nanoparticles positioned on representative rough gold surfaces, modeled based on atomic force microscopy measurements. The predicted spectral variation and average resonance wavelength show good agreement with the measured data. The study shows that nanometer scale surface roughness can significantly affect the performance of gap plasmon-based devices.

  7. Effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Gu Aijuan; Liang Guozheng; Yuan Li

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers (CFs) reinforced epoxy (EP) resin composite is studied. Aqueous ammonia was applied to modify the surfaces of CFs. The morphologies and chemical compositions of original CFs and treated CFs (a-CFs) were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the smooth surface of original CF, the surface of a-CF has bigger roughness; moreover, the roughness increases with the increase of the treating time. On the other hand, no obvious change in chemical composition takes place, indicating that the treating mechanism of CFs by aqueous ammonia is to physically change the morphologies rather than chemical compositions. In order to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the interfacial properties of CF/EP composites, the wettability and Interfacial Shear Strength (IFSS) were measured. Results show that with the increase of the roughness, the wettabilities of CFs against both water and ethylene glycol improves; in addition, the IFSS value of composites also increases. These attractive phenomena prove that the surface roughness of CFs can effectively overcome the poor interfacial adhesions between CFs and organic matrix, and thus make it possible to fabricate advanced composites based on CFs.

  8. Vertical Temperature Simulation of Pegasus Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Polar Programs PSP Precision Spectral Pyranometer SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command ERDC/CRREL TR-15-2 ix Unit Conversion Factors...site was measured (M. Knuth*, pers. comm.) in 15-minute intervals from 29 October 2010 until 5 February 2011. Two broadband pyranometers (Eppley...Precision Spectral Pyranometer ) were mounted on a mast immediately adjacent to the runway. One measured downwelling radiation and the other upwelling

  9. Uncertainty Analysis for the Evaluation of a Passive Runway Arresting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard; Marlowe, Jill M.; Yager, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the stopping distance of an aircraft involved in a runway overrun incident when the runway has been provided with an extension comprised of a material engineered to induce high levels of rolling friction and drag. A formula for stopping distance is derived that is shown to be the product of a known formula for the case of friction without drag, and a dimensionless constant between 0 and 1 that quantifies the further reduction in stopping distance when drag is introduced. This additional quantity, identified as the Drag Reduction Factor, D, is shown to depend on the ratio of drag force to friction force experienced by the aircraft as it enters the overrun area. The specific functional form of D is shown to depend on how drag varies with speed. A detailed uncertainty analysis is presented which reveals how the uncertainty in estimates of stopping distance are influenced by experimental error in the force measurements that are acquired in a typical evaluation experiment conducted to assess candidate overrun materials.

  10. Numerical analysis of the effect of surface roughness on mechanical fields in polycrystalline aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Yoann; Basseville, Stéphanie; Curtit, François; Stéphan, Jean-Michel; Cailletaud, Georges

    2018-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study of the influence of surface roughness on local stress and strain fields in polycrystalline aggregates. Finite element computations are performed with a crystal plasticity model on a 316L stainless steel polycrystalline material element with different roughness states on its free surface. The subsequent analysis of the plastic strain localization patterns shows that surface roughness strongly affects the plastic strain localization induced by crystallography. Nevertheless, this effect mainly takes place at the surface and vanishes under the first layer of grains, which implies the existence of a critical perturbed depth. A statistical analysis based on the plastic strain distribution obtained for different roughness levels provides a simple rule to define the size of the affected zone depending on the rough surface parameters.

  11. Effects of graphite surface roughness on bypass flow computations for an HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Yu-Hsin, E-mail: touushin@gmail.com [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, M.S. 3855, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, Richard W., E-mail: Rich.Johnson@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, M.S. 3855, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sato, Hiroyuki, E-mail: sato.hiroyuki09@jaea.go.jp [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, M.S. 3855, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFD calculations are made of bypass flow between graphite blocks in HTGR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several turbulence models are employed to compare to friction and heat transfer correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameters varied include bypass gap width and surface roughness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness causes increases in max fuel and coolant temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness does not cause increase in outlet coolant temperature variation. - Abstract: Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow; it has been suggested that it may be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow [INL Report 2007, INL/EXT-07-13289]. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors for three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U.S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for steady flow in a

  12. Effect of the cut off frequency on rough point and flat surface contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fan Ming

    2012-01-01

    In the past years, contact between two bodies has been studied from various ways that do not consider the cut off frequency effect on the contact mechanism. This paper reports the correlation between rough point contact and flat surface contact at different cut off frequencies of filter. The similarity and difference between the two types of contact mechanisms are presented for materials with linear or elastic perfectly plastic deformation. The conjugate gradient method (CGM) is used for analysing the rough point contact, while the rough flat surface contact is studied with an improved CGM in which the influence coefficient for the elastic deformation of the rough flat surface is obtained with finite element method. Numerical results show that for the above two types of contacts, their von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are greatly affected by the cut-off frequency of a high pass filter. Moreover, a decrease in the cut-off frequency leads to an increase in the contact area and a decrease in the approach for the rough flat surface contact, while the opposite variations is for the point contact between rough bodies with the small radii

  13. Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies: Phase III--Center-Taxiway Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Phase III of the Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies was conducted, under an agreement with HNTB Corporation, at the NASA Ames FutureFlight Central (FFC) facility in June 2003. The objective of the study was the evaluation of a new center-taxiway concept at LAX. This study is an extension of the Phase I and Phase II studies previously conducted at FFC. This report presents results from Phase III of the study, in which a center-taxiway concept between runways 25L and 25R was simulated and evaluated. Phase III data were compared objectively against the Baseline data. Subjective evaluations by participating LAX controllers were obtained with regard to workload, efficiency, and safety criteria. To facilitate a valid comparison between Baseline and Phase III data, the same scenarios were used for Phase III that were tested during Phases I and II. This required briefing participating controllers on differences in airport and airline operations between 2001 and today.

  14. A Robust Vision-based Runway Detection and Tracking Algorithm for Automatic UAV Landing

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Jbara, Khaled F.

    2015-01-01

    and attitude angle estimates to allow a more robust tracking of the runway under turbulence. We illustrate the performance of the proposed lane detection and tracking scheme on various experimental UAV flights conducted by the Saudi Aerospace Research Center

  15. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter. After that, the wires were submitted to flexural test in an universal testing machine. Each wire was deflected up to 2 mm at a speed of 1 mm/min. After flexural test, the roughness of the wires was evaluted on the same surface as that used for the initial evaluation. The data of roughness and flexural strength were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Student t-test compared roughness before and after deflection (a =0.05). The roughness of S and ANT (epoxy resin and PTFE-coated wires, respectively), before and after deflection, was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). Wire deflection significantly increased the roughness of the wires S and STC (p<0.05). The flexural strength of groups FSE and NS (PTFE and uncoated) was higher compared with that of the other groups (p<0.05). We concluded that the roughness and flexural strength of the orthodontic wires does not depend on the type of the esthetic coating, but it is influenced by the method of application of this coating. The deflection can increase the roughness of the esthetic orthodontic wires.

  16. Surface roughness effect on the metallic bipolar plates of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Various degrees of roughness are caused by the sandblasting method. ► An improper surface modification depletes the PEMFC performance severely. ► The AC impedance are used to assess the fuel gas transfer effect. ► The Warburg resistance form in the coarse flow channel surface. - Abstract: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is a promising candidate as energy systems. However, the stability and lifetime of cells are still important issues. The effect of surface roughness on metallic bipolar plate is discussed in this paper. Various roughness on the bulk surface are obtained by the sandblasting method. The grain sizes of sand are selected as 50, 100 and 200 μm. The Ac impedance experiment results show that the bipolar plate roughness and carbon paper porosity are well matched when the surface roughness is within 1–2 μm. Superior condition decreases the contact resistance loss in the fuel cell. The high frequency resistance of the coarse surface was larger than that of the substrate by around 5 mΩ. Furthermore, a new arc was formed at the low frequency region. Hence, the unmatch roughness condition of the bipolar plate significantly increases the contact resistance and mass transfer resistance. This paper develops a sequential approach to study an optimum surface roughness by combining the whole performance (I–V) curve and AC impedance result. It benefits us to quantify the contact and mass transfer resistance exists in the PEMFC. The proposed surface treatment improves the surface effect and promotes the implement of potential metallic bipolar plate in near future

  17. Comparison study on flexible pavement design using FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and LCN (Load Classification Number) code in Ahmad Yani international airport’s runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, S. E.; Sulistiono, D.; Mawardi, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    FAA code for airport design has been broadly used by Indonesian Ministry of Aviation since decades ago. However, there is not much comprehensive study about its relevance and efficiency towards current situation in Indonesia. Therefore, a further comparison study on flexible pavement design for airport runway using comparable method has become essential. The main focus of this study is to compare which method between FAA and LCN that offer the most efficient and effective way in runway pavement planning. The comparative methods in this study mainly use the variety of variable approach. FAA code for instance, will use the approach on the aircraft’s maximum take-off weight and annual departure. Whilst LCN code use the variable of equivalent single wheel load and tire pressure. Based on the variables mentioned above, a further classification and rated method will be used to determine which code is best implemented. According to the analysis, it is clear that FAA method is the most effective way to plan runway design in Indonesia with consecutively total pavement thickness of 127cm and LCN method total pavement thickness of 70cm. Although, FAA total pavement is thicker that LCN its relevance towards sustainable and pristine condition in the future has become an essential aspect to consider in design and planning.

  18. Effect of surface roughness of trench sidewalls on electrical properties in 4H-SiC trench MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Yuki; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Onishi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kensaku; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Ito, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    The effects of the surface roughness of trench sidewalls on electrical properties have been investigated in 4H-SiC trench MOSFETs. The surface roughness of trench sidewalls was well controlled and evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The effective channel mobility at each measurement temperature was analyzed on the basis of the mobility model including optical phonon scattering. The results revealed that surface roughness scattering had a small contribution to channel mobility, and at the arithmetic average roughness in the range of 0.4-1.4 nm, there was no correlation between the experimental surface roughness and the surface roughness scattering mobility. On the other hand, the characteristics of the gate leakage current and constant current stress time-dependent dielectric breakdown tests demonstrated that surface morphology had great impact on the long-term reliability of gate oxides.

  19. Accelerated aging effects on surface hardness and roughness of lingual retainer adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan; Usumez, Serdar; Buyukyilmaz, Tamer

    2008-01-01

    To test the null hypothesis that accelerated aging has no effect on the surface microhardness and roughness of two light-cured lingual retainer adhesives. Ten samples of light-cured materials, Transbond Lingual Retainer (3M Unitek) and Light Cure Retainer (Reliance) were cured with a halogen light for 40 seconds. Vickers hardness and surface roughness were measured before and after accelerated aging of 300 hours in a weathering tester. Differences between mean values were analyzed for statistical significance using a t-test. The level of statistical significance was set at P statistically significant (P statistically significant (P .05). Accelerated aging significantly increased the surface microhardness of both light-cured retainer adhesives tested. It also significantly increased the surface roughness of the Transbond Lingual Retainer.

  20. Friction Factors in Rough Rod Bundles Estimated from Experiments in Partially Rough Annuli - Effects of Dissimilarities in the Shear Stress and Turbulence Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B

    1968-12-15

    Experiments with rough surface friction and heat transfer are often made in an annulus with rough inner surface and smooth outer surface. Utilization of data from such experiments for calculation of rough rod bundle fuel elements requires a transformation of the data. For this purpose the method of WB Hall is frequently used. The errors introduced by two of the assumptions on which this method is based, namely the assumptions of zero shear at the radius of maximum velocity and the assumption of no turbulence exchange between the subchannels, are discussed, and the magnitude of the errors is estimated on basis of experiments in a partially rough annulus. It is found that the necessary corrections does not amount to more than about + 10 % for the friction factor and + 15 % for the Reynolds number and the equivalent diameter. The correction for the turbulence exchange alone is of the order of 2-3 %. A comparison of friction factors measured in a rough 48-rod bundle and predicted from measurements in a partially rough annulus was also made. The prediction was 5 % high instead of about 10 % low which could have been expected from the considerations earlier in the report. Explanations for this can be found in the effect of the channel shape or inaccuracies in the rod bundle experiment. Annulus experiments which will allow comparisons with other rod bundle experiments will be run to clarify this.

  1. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  2. Effect of surface roughness scattering on the transport properties of a 2DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In this work surface roughness scattering of electrons in a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at heterojunction interfaces is investigated for various auto-correlation functions. Gaussian, exponential and Lorentzian auto-correlation functions are used to represent surface roughness. Poisson and Schrodinger equations are solved self consistently at the hetero interface to find the energy levels, the wave functions corresponding to each level and electron concentrations at each level. Using these wave functions and the auto-correlation functions mentioned above, the scattering rates due to surface roughness are calculated. Scattering rates resulting from acoustic and optical phonons are also calculated. These rates are used to study the transport properties of the two dimensional electrons using ensemble Monte Carlo method at various temperatures. Emphasis is given to the effect of surface roughness scattering on the transport properties of the electrons

  3. Surface roughness and morphologic changes of zirconia: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-6 W/20 Hz presented significantly effect in surface roughness changes of zirconia than other surface treatments. Key words:Erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser, scanning electron .... ZrO2, (f) After sintering ZrO2 in letter “e”, (g) 2 W laser irridiation pre-sintered ZrO2, (h) After ..... Acta Odontol Scand.

  4. Effect of different surface treatments on roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Haluk Baris; Dilber, Erhan; Koc, Ozlem; Ozturk, A Nilgun; Bulbul, Mehmet

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments (air abrasion, acid etching, laser irradiation) on the surface roughness of a lithium-disilicate-based core ceramic. A total of 40 discs of lithium disilicate-based core ceramic (IPS Empress 2; Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) were prepared (10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10), and the following treatments were applied: air abrasion with alumina particles (50 μm), acid etching with 5% hydrofluoric acid, Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1 mm distance, 100 mJ, 20 Hz, 2 W) and Er:YAG laser irradiation (1 mm distance, 500 mJ, 20 Hz, 10 W). Following determination of surface roughness (R(a)) by profilometry, specimens were examined with atomic force microscopy. The data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). One-way ANOVA indicated that surface roughness following air abrasion was significantly different from the surface roughness following laser irradiation and acid etching (P 0.05). Air abrasion increased surface roughness of lithium disilicate-based core ceramic surfaces more effectively than acid-etching and laser irradiation.

  5. Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow with roughness elements whose idealized shape model barnacles that cause hydrodynamic drag in many applications. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 79%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and other recent models. The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  6. The effect of copper substrate’s roughness on graphene growth process via PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tengfei; Yan, Cuixia; Lu, Jianchen; Zhang, Lianchang; Cai, Jinming

    2018-04-01

    Despite many excellent properties, the synthesis of high quality graphene with low-cost way is still a challenge, thus many different factors have been researched. In this work, the effect of surface roughness to the graphene quality was studied. Graphene was synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method on copper substrates with different roughness from 0.074 μm to 0.339 μm, which were prepared via annealing, corrosion or polishing, respectively. Ar+ plasma cleaning was applied before graphene growth in order to accommodate similar surface chemical reactivity to each other. Scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscope were employed to investigate the effect of surface roughness, which reveals that the graphene quality decrease first and then increase again according to the ratio of ID/IG in Raman spectroscopy. When the ratio of ID/IG reaches the largest number, the substrate roughness is 0.127 μm, where is the graphene quality changing point. First principle calculation was applied to explain the phenomenon and revealed that it is strongly affected by the graphene grain size and quantity which can induce defects. This strategy is expected to guide the industrial production of graphene.

  7. Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2002-01-01

    The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

  8. On the Compliance of Simbol-X Mirror Roughness with its Effective Area Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    Surface microroughness of X-ray mirrors is a key issue for the angular resolution of Simbol-X to comply with the required one (Simbol-X mirrors, in order to satisfy the required imaging capability, has already been derived in terms of its PSD (Power Spectral Density). However, also the Effective Area of the telescope is affected by the mirror roughness. In this work we will show how the expected effective area of the Simbol-X mirror module can be computed from the roughness PSD tolerance, checking its compliance with the requirements.

  9. Roughness-dependent tribology effects on discontinuous shear thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiao-Peng; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Zanini, Michele; Spencer, Nicholas D; Isa, Lucio

    2018-05-15

    Surface roughness affects many properties of colloids, from depletion and capillary interactions to their dispersibility and use as emulsion stabilizers. It also impacts particle-particle frictional contacts, which have recently emerged as being responsible for the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions. Tribological properties of these contacts have been rarely experimentally accessed, especially for nonspherical particles. Here, we systematically tackle the effect of nanoscale surface roughness by producing a library of all-silica, raspberry-like colloids and linking their rheology to their tribology. Rougher surfaces lead to a significant anticipation of DST onset, in terms of both shear rate and solid loading. Strikingly, they also eliminate continuous thickening. DST is here due to the interlocking of asperities, which we have identified as "stick-slip" frictional contacts by measuring the sliding of the same particles via lateral force microscopy (LFM). Direct measurements of particle-particle friction therefore highlight the value of an engineering-tribology approach to tuning the thickening of suspensions. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Roughness-induced streaming in turbulent wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    -averaged streaming characteristics induced by bottom roughness variations are systematically assessed. The effects of variable roughness ratio, gradual roughness transitions, as well as changing flow orientation in plan are all considered. As part of the latter, roughness-induced secondary flows are predicted...

  11. Effect of prophylactic polishing protocols on the surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme, A L; Frazier, K B; Roeder, L B; Debner, T L

    2002-01-01

    Many polishing protocols have been evaluated in vitro for their effect on the surface roughness of restorative materials. These results have been useful in establishing protocols for in vivo application. However, limited research has focused on the subsequent care and maintenance of esthetic restorations following their placement. This investigation evaluated the effect of five polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of five direct esthetic restorative materials. Specimens (n=25) measuring 8 mm diameter x 3 mm thick were fabricated in an acrylic mold using five light-cured resin-based materials (hybrid composite, microfilled composite, packable composite, compomer and resin-modified glass ionomer). After photopolymerization, all specimens were polished with Sof-Lex Disks to produce an initial (baseline) surface finish. All specimens were then polished with one of five prophylactic protocols (Butler medium paste, Butler coarse paste, OneGloss, SuperBuff or OneGloss & SuperBuff). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined from three measurements with a profilometer (Surface 1). Next, all specimens were brushed 60,000 times at 1.5 Hz using a brush-head force of 2 N on a Manly V-8 cross-brushing machine in a 50:50 (w/w) slurry of toothpaste and water. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing (Surface 2) followed by re-polishing with one of five protocols, then final surface roughness values were determined (Surface 3). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Significant differences (p=0.05) in surface roughness were observed among restorative materials and polishing protocols. The microfilled and hybrid resin composite yielded significantly rougher surfaces than the other three materials following tooth brushing. Prophylactic polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on resin-based esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth

  12. Irregular wall roughness in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Pieter; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Many wall bounded flows in nature, engineering and transport are affected by surface roughness. Often, this has adverse effects, e.g. drag increase leading to higher energy costs. A major difficulty is the infinite number of roughness geometries, which makes it impossible to systematically investigate all possibilities. Here we present Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the transitionally rough regime, in which both viscous and pressure forces contribute to the total wall stress. We investigate the effect of the mean roughness height and the effective slope on the roughness function, ΔU+ . Also, we present simulations of varying Ta (Re) numbers for a constant mean roughness height (kmean+). Alongside, we show the behavior of the large scale structures (e.g. plume ejection, Taylor rolls) and flow structures in the vicinity of the wall.

  13. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces - A velocity-rate-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    During maximum braking the average ratio of drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to maximum drag-force friction coefficient available at the tire/runway interface was higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The gross stopping power generated by the brake system on the dry surface was more than twice that obtained on the wet surfaces. With maximum braking applied, the average ratio of side-force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to maximum side-force friction available at the tire/runway interface of a free-rolling yawed tire was shown to decrease with increasing yaw angle. Braking reduced the side-force friction coefficient on a dry surface by 75 percent as the wheel slip ratio was increased to 0.3; on a flooded surface the coefficient dropped to near zero for the same slip ratio. Locked wheel skids were observed when the tire encountered a runway surface transition from dry to flooded, due in part to the response time required for the system to sense abrupt changes in the runway friction; however, the antiskid system quickly responded by reducing brake pressure and cycling normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface.

  14. The Effect of Volumetric Porosity on Roughness Element Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, John; Nickling, William; Nikolich, George; Etyemezian, Vicken

    2016-04-01

    Much attention has been given to understanding how the porosity of two dimensional structures affects the drag force exerted by boundary-layer flow on these flow obstructions. Porous structures such as wind breaks and fences are typically used to control the sedimentation of sand and snow particles or create micro-habitats in their lee. Vegetation in drylands also exerts control on sediment transport by wind due to aerodynamic effects and interaction with particles in transport. Recent research has also demonstrated that large spatial arrays of solid three dimensional roughness elements can be used to reduce sand transport to specified targets for control of wind erosion through the effect of drag partitioning and interaction of the moving sand with the large (>0.3 m high) roughness elements, but porous elements may improve the effectiveness of this approach. A thorough understanding of the role porosity plays in affecting the drag force on three-dimensional forms is lacking. To provide basic understanding of the relationship between the porosity of roughness elements and the force of drag exerted on them by fluid flow, we undertook a wind tunnel study that systematically altered the porosity of roughness elements of defined geometry (cubes, rectangular cylinders, and round cylinders) and measured the associated change in the drag force on the elements under similar Reynolds number conditions. The elements tested were of four basic forms: 1) same sized cubes with tubes of known diameter milled through them creating three volumetric porosity values and increasing connectivity between the tubes, 2) cubes and rectangular cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other, and 3) round cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other. The two-dimensional porosity, defined as the ratio of total surface area of the empty space to the solid surface area of the side of the element presented to the fluid flow was conserved at 0.519 for

  15. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  16. Effect of artificial aging on the roughness and microhardness of sealed composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelan, Anderson; Briso, André L F; Sundfeld, Renato H; Dos Santos, Paulo H

    2010-10-01

      The application of surface sealant could improve the surface quality and success of composite restorations; however, it is important to assess the behavior of this material when subjected to aging procedures.   To evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the surface roughness and microhardness of sealed microhybrids and nanofilled composites.   One hundred disc-shaped specimens were made for each composite. After 24 hours, all samples were polished and surface sealant was applied to 50 specimens of each composite. Surface roughness (Ra) was determined with a profilometer and Knoop microhardness was assessed with a 50-g load for 15 seconds. Ten specimens of each group were aged during 252 hours in a UV-accelerated aging chamber or immersed for 28 days in cola soft drink, orange juice, red wine staining solutions, or distilled water. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Fischer's test (α=0.05).   Artificial aging decreased microhardness values for all materials, with the exceptions of Vit-l-escence (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan UT, USA) and Supreme XT (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) sealed composites; surface roughness values were not altered. Water storage had less effect on microhardness, compared with the other aging processes. The sealed materials presented lower roughness and microhardness values, when compared with unsealed composites.   Aging methods decreased the microhardness values of a number of composites, with the exception of some sealed composites, but did not alter the surface roughness of the materials. The long-term maintenance of the surface quality of materials is fundamental to improving the longevity of esthetic restorations. In this manner, the use of surface sealants could be an important step in the restorative procedure using resin-based materials. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. On the Compliance of Simbol-X Mirror Roughness with its Effective Area Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-01-01

    Surface microroughness of X-ray mirrors is a key issue for the angular resolution of Simbol-X to comply with the required one (<20 arcsec at 30 keV). The maximum tolerable microroughness for Simbol-X mirrors, in order to satisfy the required imaging capability, has already been derived in terms of its PSD (Power Spectral Density). However, also the Effective Area of the telescope is affected by the mirror roughness. In this work we will show how the expected effective area of the Simbol-X mirror module can be computed from the roughness PSD tolerance, checking its compliance with the requirements.

  18. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  19. Information Measures of Roughness of Knowledge and Rough Sets for Incomplete Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ji-ye; QU Kai-she

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address information measures of roughness of knowledge and rough sets for incomplete information systems. The definition of rough entropy of knowledge and its important properties are given. In particular, the relationship between rough entropy of knowledge and the Hartley measure of uncertainty is established. We show that rough entropy of knowledge decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives an information interpretation for roughness of knowledge. Based on rough entropy of knowledge and roughness of rough set. a definition of rough entropy of rough set is proposed, and we show that rough entropy of rough set decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives more accurate measure for roughness of rough set.

  20. Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An 18-inch constant-chord model of the LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions ate University 7{times}10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The objective was to document section lift and moment characteristics model and air flow conditions. Surface pressure data was acquired at {minus}60{degrees} through + 230{degrees} geometric angles of attack, at a nominal 1 million Reynolds number. Cases with and without leading edge grit roughness were investigated. The leading edge mulated blade conditions in the field. Additionally, surface pressure data were acquired for Reynolds numbers of 1.5 and 2.0 million, with and without leading edge grit roughness; the angle of attack was limited to a {minus}20{degrees} to 40{degrees} range. In general, results showed lift curve slope sensitivities to Reynolds number and roughness. The maximum lift coefficient was reduced as much as 29% by leading edge roughness. Moment coefficient showed little sensitivity to roughness beyond 50{degrees} angle of attack, but the expected decambering effect of a thicker boundary layer with roughness did show at lower angles. Tests were also conducted with vortex generators located at the 30% chord location on the upper surface only, at 1 and 1.5 million Reynolds numbers, with and without leading edge grit roughness. In general, with leading edge grit roughness applied, the vortex generators restored 85 percent of the baseline level of maximum lift coefficient but with a more sudden stall break and at a higher angle of attack than the baseline.

  1. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben Adriaan; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander Gerard; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by

  2. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughnessroughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  3. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2016-02-13

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughnessroughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  4. The effect of various dentifrices on surface roughness and gloss of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Juliana; Adams-Belusko, Anne; Riley, Kelly; Ferracane, Jack L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of abrasiveness (RDA) of dentifrices on the gloss and surface roughness of resin composites after toothbrushing. Sixty disk-shaped composite specimens (D=10.0mm, 2-mm thick, n=15 per material) were made of: microfill (Durafill), nanofill (Filtek Supreme), minifill hybrid (Filtek 250), and nanohybrid (Premise). One side of each specimen was finished with a carbide bur and polished with Enhance and Pogo. Five specimens of each composite were randomly assigned to one of the dentifrices, Colgate Total (CT; RDA 70), Colgate baking soda & peroxide whitening (CBS; RDA 145), and Colgate tartar control & whitening (CTW; RDA 200). Surface gloss was measured with a glossmeter and surface roughness with a profilometer before and after toothbrushing with a 1:2 slurry (dentifrice/deionised water) at 5760 strokes in a brushing machine (approximately 1Hz). Results were analyzed by three-way ANOVA/Tukey's (pgloss and increase in surface roughness after brushing with all dentifrices. There was no significant difference in gloss when Durafill was brushed with any dentifrice; the other composites showed less gloss reduction when brushed with CT. Durafill, Supreme and Premise did not show significantly different surface roughness results and CBS and CTW did not produce significantly different results. Dentifrices of lower abrasivity promote less reduction in gloss and surface roughness for composites of different particle sizes after brushing. Composites containing smaller average fillers showed less reduction in gloss and less increase in surface roughness than ones with larger fillers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  6. An intermittency model for predicting roughness induced transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuan; Durbin, Paul

    2014-11-01

    An extended model for roughness-induced transition is proposed based on an intermittency transport equation for RANS modeling formulated in local variables. To predict roughness effects in the fully turbulent boundary layer, published boundary conditions for k and ω are used, which depend on the equivalent sand grain roughness height, and account for the effective displacement of wall distance origin. Similarly in our approach, wall distance in the transition model for smooth surfaces is modified by an effective origin, which depends on roughness. Flat plate test cases are computed to show that the proposed model is able to predict the transition onset in agreement with a data correlation of transition location versus roughness height, Reynolds number, and inlet turbulence intensity. Experimental data for a turbine cascade are compared with the predicted results to validate the applicability of the proposed model. Supported by NSF Award Number 1228195.

  7. A novel machine learning model to predict abnormal Runway Occupancy Times and observe related precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, Herrema Floris; Treve, V; Desart, B; Curran, R.; Visser, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    Accidents on the runway triggered the development and implementation of mitigation strategies. Therefore, the airline industry is moving toward proactive risk management, which aims to identify and predict risk percursors and to mitigate risks before accidents occur. For certain predictions Machine

  8. A Numerical Study of 2-D Surface Roughness Effects on the Growth of Wave Modes in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kahei Danny

    The current understanding and research efforts on surface roughness effects in hypersonic boundary-layer flows focus, almost exclusively, on how roughness elements trip a hypersonic boundary layer to turbulence. However, there were a few reports in the literature suggesting that roughness elements in hypersonic boundary-layer flows could sometimes suppress the transition process and delay the formation of turbulent flow. These reports were not common and had not attracted much attention from the research community. Furthermore, the mechanisms of how the delay and stabilization happened were unknown. A recent study by Duan et al. showed that when 2-D roughness elements were placed downstream of the so-called synchronization point, the unstable second-mode wave in a hypersonic boundary layer was damped. Since the second-mode wave is typically the most dangerous and dominant unstable mode in a hypersonic boundary layer for sharp geometries at a zero angle of attack, this result has pointed to an explanation on how roughness elements delay transition in a hypersonic boundary layer. Such an understanding can potentially have significant practical applications for the development of passive flow control techniques to suppress hypersonic boundary-layer transition, for the purpose of aero-heating reduction. Nevertheless, the previous study was preliminary because only one particular flow condition with one fixed roughness parameter was considered. The study also lacked an examination on the mechanism of the damping effect of the second mode by roughness. Hence, the objective of the current research is to conduct an extensive investigation of the effects of 2-D roughness elements on the growth of instability waves in a hypersonic boundary layer. The goal is to provide a full physical picture of how and when 2-D roughness elements stabilize a hypersonic boundary layer. Rigorous parametric studies using numerical simulation, linear stability theory (LST), and parabolized

  9. Effect of counterface roughness on the friction of bionic wall-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem, Haytam; Cohen, Yossi

    2017-08-04

    Hairy adhesive systems involved in gecko locomotion have drawn the interest of many researchers regarding the development of bionic solutions for fast and reversible adhesive technologies. To date, despite extensive efforts to design gecko-inspired adhesive surfaces, adhesion and friction capacities are often evaluated using smooth and rigid counterfaces, in general glass, whereas most natural and artificial surfaces inevitably have a certain level of roughness. For that reason, in this study experiments tested the effects of the substrate roughness on the friction of bionic wale-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments. To this end, 12 substrates with different isotropic roughness were prepared using the same Epoxy material. Friction force was measured under various normal loads. It was concluded that classical roughness parameters, considered separately, are not appropriate to explain roughness-related variations in friction force. This has led us to develop a new integrative roughness parameter that combines characteristics of the surface. The parameter is capable of classifying the obtained experimental results in a readable way. An analytical model based on the experimental results has been developed to predict the variation of the friction force as a function of counterface roughness and applied normal load.

  10. Effect of seabed roughness on tidal current turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikrant; Wan, Minping

    2017-11-01

    Tidal current turbines are shown to have potential to generate clean energy for a negligible environmental impact. These devices, however, operate in high to moderate current regions where the flow is highly turbulent. It has been shown in flume tank experiments at IFREMER in Boulogne-Sur-Mer (France) and NAFL in the University of Minnesota (US) that the level of turbulence and boundary layer profile affect a turbine's power output and wake characteristics. A major factor that determines these marine flow characteristics is the seabed roughness. Experiments, however, cannot simulate the high Reynolds number conditions of real marine flows. For that, we rely on numerical simulations. High accuracy numerical methods, such as DNS, of wall-bounded flows are very expensive, where the number of grid-points needed to resolve the flow varies as (Re) 9 / 4 (where Re is the flow Reynolds number). While numerically affordable RANS methods compromise on accuracy. Wall-modelled LES methods, which provide both accuracy and affordability, have been improved tremendously in the recent years. We discuss the application of such numerical methods for studying the effect of seabed roughness on marine flow features and their impact on turbine power output and wake characteristics. NSFC, Project Number 11672123.

  11. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface. This patterning is an important natural flow control mechanism that is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. The increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test this theory, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) captured images of the LEV generated by the plate when towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. Codes written in MatLab were used to automatically track and determine the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding provided by NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 and CBET 1628600.

  12. Effects of surface roughness on deviation angle and performance losses in wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri Esfe, H.; Kermani, M.J.; Saffar Avval, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, effects of turbine blade roughness and steam condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of the wet stages are investigated. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces condensation shocks. An AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around turbine rotor tip sections. The dominant solver of the computational domain is taken to be the AUSM scheme (1993) that in regions with large gradients smoothly switches to van Leer scheme (1979). This guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for a supersonic wet case with exit isentropic Mach number M e,is  = 1.45, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, when compared with dry case. It is also observed that losses due to surface roughness in subsonic regions are much larger than those in supersonic regions. Hence, as a practical guideline for maintenance sequences, cleaning of subsonic parts of steam turbines should be considered first. - Highlights: • Two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow is numerically studied in this paper. • As a result of condensation, aerothermodynamics of the flow field changes. • Surface roughness has almost negligible effect on deviation angle. • Surface roughness plays an important role in performance losses. • Contribution of different loss mechanisms for smooth and rough blades are computed.

  13. Experimental Research and Mathematical Modeling of Parameters Effecting on Cutting Force and SurfaceRoughness in CNC Turning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeqiri, F.; Alkan, M.; Kaya, B.; Toros, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of cutting parameters on cutting forces and surface roughness based on Taguchi experimental design method are determined. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to investigate the effects of machining parameters. Optimal cutting conditions are determined using the signal/noise (S/N) ratio which is calculated by average surface roughness and cutting force. Using results of analysis, effects of parameters on both average surface roughness and cutting forces are calculated on Minitab 17 using ANOVA method. The material that was investigated is Inconel 625 steel for two cases with heat treatment and without heat treatment. The predicted and calculated values with measurement are very close to each other. Confirmation test of results showed that the Taguchi method was very successful in the optimization of machining parameters for maximum surface roughness and cutting forces in the CNC turning process.

  14. Combined short scale roughness and surface dielectric function gradient effects on the determination of tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusso, André, E-mail: gusso@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Departamento de Ciências Exatas-EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ 27255-125 (Brazil)

    2013-11-11

    The contribution of tip roughness to the van der Waals force between an atomic force microscopy probe tip and the sample is calculated using the multilayer effective medium model, which allows us to consider the relevant case of roughness characterized by correlation length and amplitude in the nanometer scale. The effect of the surface dielectric function gradient is incorporated in the tip-sample force model. It is concluded that for rms roughness in the few nanometers range the effect of short scale tip roughness is quite significant.

  15. The effect of surface roughness on the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.M.

    1963-02-01

    The effect of various types of roughness on the wall of an axial tube in an annular space of 15-25 mm cooled by an air-flow has been studied in the case of steady turbulence. Roughness of the type 'disrupter of the boundary layer' was set up using triangular threads of 0.2 to 0.4 mm thickness machined in the tube itself, or brass or glass wire wound on a smooth tube. Tests were also carried out using the roughness provided by regularly spaced pyramids 0.4 mm high. The results obtained showed that the heat exchange increased because of the presence of this roughness. A maximum in the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients was observed when the pitch equals about eight times the height of the thread. An analytical method has been developed and experiments have been carried out in which the two walls of the annular space were heated in such a way as to transmit unequal heat flows. The region considered is limited to Reynolds's numbers of between 5 X 10 3 and 5 x 10 4 and wall temperatures of under 250 deg C. (author) [fr

  16. Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the potential environmental consequences of constructing a new heavy parking apron and runway extension at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  17. Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak

    2010-01-01

    The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.

  18. Surface correlations of hydrodynamic drag for transitionally rough engineering surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Manan; Busse, Angela; Sandham, Neil

    2017-02-01

    Rough surfaces are usually characterised by a single equivalent sand-grain roughness height scale that typically needs to be determined from laboratory experiments. Recently, this method has been complemented by a direct numerical simulation approach, whereby representative surfaces can be scanned and the roughness effects computed over a range of Reynolds number. This development raises the prospect over the coming years of having enough data for different types of rough surfaces to be able to relate surface characteristics to roughness effects, such as the roughness function that quantifies the downward displacement of the logarithmic law of the wall. In the present contribution, we use simulation data for 17 irregular surfaces at the same friction Reynolds number, for which they are in the transitionally rough regime. All surfaces are scaled to the same physical roughness height. Mean streamwise velocity profiles show a wide range of roughness function values, while the velocity defect profiles show a good collapse. Profile peaks of the turbulent kinetic energy also vary depending on the surface. We then consider which surface properties are important and how new properties can be incorporated into an empirical model, the accuracy of which can then be tested. Optimised models with several roughness parameters are systematically developed for the roughness function and profile peak turbulent kinetic energy. In determining the roughness function, besides the known parameters of solidity (or frontal area ratio) and skewness, it is shown that the streamwise correlation length and the root-mean-square roughness height are also significant. The peak turbulent kinetic energy is determined by the skewness and root-mean-square roughness height, along with the mean forward-facing surface angle and spanwise effective slope. The results suggest feasibility of relating rough-wall flow properties (throughout the range from hydrodynamically smooth to fully rough) to surface

  19. THE EFFECT OF OPACIFIERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OFCERAMIC GLAZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarjahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface smoothness of ceramic glazes is always an important characteristic of ceramic glazes as a point of surface engineering studies. Surface roughness affects chemical resistivity, glossiness and stainabiliy of glazes. In fact, less surface roughness improves cleanability of the surface by the least usage amount of detergents. In this investigation, surface topography of two common opaque glazes, zirconia and titania-based, has been investigated. Crystallinity of the surface has been studied from SEM images, and comparison of EDS elemental results with phase analysis results of XRD. Surface roughness profile measured by Marsurf M300, shows that titania-based glaze is almost 24% percentage more smooth than zirconia based glaze. Surface smoothness is in relation with crystallinity of glaze surface, crystal type and crystal distribution in amorphous matrix phase

  20. Effect of interface roughness on the carrier transport in germanium MOSFETs investigated by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Du; Xiao-Yan, Liu; Zhi-Liang, Xia; Jing-Feng, Yang; Ru-Qi, Han

    2010-01-01

    Interface roughness strongly influences the performance of germanium metal–organic–semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). In this paper, a 2D full-band Monte Carlo simulator is used to study the impact of interface roughness scattering on electron and hole transport properties in long- and short- channel Ge MOSFETs inversion layers. The carrier effective mobility in the channel of Ge MOSFETs and the in non-equilibrium transport properties are investigated. Results show that both electron and hole mobility are strongly influenced by interface roughness scattering. The output curves for 50 nm channel-length double gate n and p Ge MOSFET show that the drive currents of n- and p-Ge MOSFETs have significant improvement compared with that of Si n- and p-MOSFETs with smooth interface between channel and gate dielectric. The 82% and 96% drive current enhancement are obtained for the n- and p-MOSFETs with the completely smooth interface. However, the enhancement decreases sharply with the increase of interface roughness. With the very rough interface, the drive currents of Ge MOSFETs are even less than that of Si MOSFETs. Moreover, the significant velocity overshoot also has been found in Ge MOSFETs. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Suction Side Roughness Effects on Film Cooling Heat Transfer on a Turbine Vane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutledge, James

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in a simulated three vane linear cascade to determine the effects of surface roughness and film cooling on the heat transfer coefficient distribution in the region...

  2. Study of the Vibration Effect on the Cutting Forces and Roughness of Slub Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germa, S.; Estrems Amestoy, M.; Sánchez Reinoso, H. T.; Franco Chumillas, P.

    2009-11-01

    For the planning process of slab milling operations, the vibration of the tool is the main factor to be considered. Under vibration conditions, the effect of the small displacements of the cutting tool and the cutting forces on the chip thickness must be minimized in order to avoid undesirable consequences, such as the fast flank wear, superficial defects and roughness increase. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to take into account the combined effect of the cutting tool and workpiece oscillation, as well as the axial errors of different milling tool tips. As a result, the model estimates the variation of the cutting forces and the ideal surface roughness.

  3. 76 FR 21938 - Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for the Devils Lake Regional Airport in Devils Lake, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION...

  4. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (pSEM) images of the ground but unpolished and polished specimens were acquired. Delta Ra values ranged from 0.146 for CE to 0.400 for KZ. Delta Ra values for KZ, WZ, and SZ were significantly greater than for CE. Significant differences in delta Ra values were also observed between KZ and CM. The SEM images obtained were consistent with the profilometric findings. Diamond-impregnated polishing systems were more effective than silica carbide-impregnated ones in reducing the surface roughness of ground monolithic zirconia.

  5. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  6. Magnetic Fluid-Based Squeeze Film Behaviour in Curved Porous-Rotating Rough Annular Plates and Elastic Deformation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Shimpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been directed to study and analyze the squeeze film performance between rotating transversely rough curved porous annular plates in the presence of a magnetic fluid lubricant considering the effect of elastic deformation. A stochastic random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces. With the aid of suitable boundary conditions, the associated stochastically averaged Reynolds' equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution in turn, which results in the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. The graphical representations establish that the transverse roughness, in general, adversely affects the performance characteristics. However, the magnetization registers a relatively improved performance. It is found that the deformation causes reduced load-carrying capacity which gets further decreased by the porosity. This investigation tends to indicate that the adverse effect of porosity, standard deviation and deformation can be compensated to certain extent by the positive effect of the magnetic fluid lubricant in the case of negatively skewed roughness by choosing the rotational inertia and the aspect ratio, especially for suitable ratio of curvature parameters.

  7. Effect of surface roughness on drying speed of drying lamellas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamellas, which are defined as top layers of multilayer parquet and favourable to wood veneer can be dried in jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer due to short drying period. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of surface roughness on the drying speed of the veneer roller dryer. Quercus spp.

  8. Effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Cleci de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three acrylic resins (Dencor-De, Duralay-Du, and Vipi Cor-VC were selected and one composite resin (Opallis-Op was used as a parameter for comparison. The materials were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed in stainless steel moulds (20 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick. Thirty samples of each resin were made and divided into three groups (n = 10 according to the moment of Vickers hardness (VHN and roughness (Ra analyses: C (control group: immediately after specimen preparation; Sw: after storage in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 hours; Tc: after thermocycling (3000 cycles; 5-55 °C, 30 seconds dwell time. Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05. RESULTS: Op resin had higher surface hardness values (p 0.05 in roughness among materials (De = 0.31 ± 0.07; Du = 0.51 ± 0.20; VC = 0.41 ± 0.15; Op = 0.42 ± 0.18. Storage in water did not change hardness and roughness of the tested materials (p > 0.05. There was a significant increase in roughness after thermocycling (p < 0.05, except for material Du, which showed no significant change in roughness in any evaluated period (p = 0.99. CONCLUSION: Thermocycling increased the roughness in most tested materials without affecting hardness, while storage in water had no significant effect in the evaluated properties.

  9. Effect of surface roughness variation on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers with ambient index change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Oh-Jang; Han, Young-Geun

    2010-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on the sensitivity of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index was investigated. In order to obtain D-shaped fibers with different surface roughness, we polished one side of the fibers by using different abrasive grits. The topographies of the surfaces of the polished D-shaped fibers were then observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The light scattered from the rough surfaces of the D-shaped fibers was measured by using optical microscopy. The effect of an ambient index change on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers was measured for various values of the surface roughness. The experimental results indicate that variations in the surface roughness have a considerable influence on the sensitivity of the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index.

  10. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  11. A methodology for including wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Pucciarelli, A.; Borroni, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for taking into account wall roughness in low-Reynolds k-ε models is presented. • The model is subjected to a first validation to show its potential in general applications. • The application of the model in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids is also discussed. - Abstract: A model accounting for wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models is described in the present paper. In particular, the introduction in the transport equations of k and ε of additional source terms related to roughness, based on simple assumptions and dimensional relationships, is proposed. An objective of the present paper, in addition to obtaining more realistic predictions of wall friction, is the application of the proposed model to the study of heat transfer to supercritical fluids. A first validation of the model is reported. The model shows the capability of predicting, at least qualitatively, some of the most important trends observed when dealing with rough pipes in very different flow conditions. Qualitative comparisons with some DNS data available in literature are also performed. Further analyses provided promising results concerning the ability of the model in reproducing the trend of friction factor when varying the flow conditions, though improvements are necessary for achieving better quantitative accuracy. First applications of the model in simulating heat transfer to supercritical fluids are also described, showing the capability of the model to affect the predictions of these heat transfer phenomena, in particular in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical conditions. A more extended application of the model to relevant deteriorated heat transfer conditions will clarify the usefulness of this modelling methodology in improving predictions of these difficult phenomena. Whatever the possible success in this particular application that motivated its development, this approach suggests a general methodology for accounting

  12. Prioritizing risks via several expert perspectives with application to runway safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogerson, Ellen C.; Lambert, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Factor hierarchies have been widely used in the literature to represent the view of an expert of what factors most contribute to reliability or safety. The methods for rating and aggregating the influences across a set of expert-elicited factors to risk or reliability are well known as multiple criteria decision analysis. This paper describes a method for distinguishing levels of risk across a set of locations via the use of multiple factor hierarchies. The method avoids averaging across experts and is thus useful for situations where experts disagree and where an absence of expert consensus on the causative or contributing factors is important information for risk management. A case study demonstrates using seven expert perspectives on the airport-specific factors that can contribute to runway incursions. The results are described for eighty towered airports in the US. The expert perspectives include differing relative emphases across the following set of factors: airport geometry, operations, weather, geography, and days since last safety review. Future work is suggested to include human factors issues as pilot-and-controller communications styles at airports. - Highlights: ► We examine influential factors in seven expert perspectives on the problem domain. ► We assess eighty US airports with qualitative measurement scales for each risk factor. ► Results show robustness and sensitivity of the risk index to expert perspective. ► We examine factors of several types including runway geometry, operations, weather, and geography.

  13. The joint effect of mesoscale and microscale roughness on perceived gloss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Chantler, Mike J; Siebert, J Paul; Dong, Junyu

    2015-10-01

    Computer simulated stimuli can provide a flexible method for creating artificial scenes in the study of visual perception of material surface properties. Previous work based on this approach reported that the properties of surface roughness and glossiness are mutually interdependent and therefore, perception of one affects the perception of the other. In this case roughness was limited to a surface property termed bumpiness. This paper reports a study into how perceived gloss varies with two model parameters related to surface roughness in computer simulations: the mesoscale roughness parameter in a surface geometry model and the microscale roughness parameter in a surface reflectance model. We used a real-world environment map to provide complex illumination and a physically-based path tracer for rendering the stimuli. Eight observers took part in a 2AFC experiment, and the results were tested against conjoint measurement models. We found that although both of the above roughness parameters significantly affect perceived gloss, the additive model does not adequately describe their mutually interactive and nonlinear influence, which is at variance with previous findings. We investigated five image properties used to quantify specular highlights, and found that perceived gloss is well predicted using a linear model. Our findings provide computational support to the 'statistical appearance models' proposed recently for material perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of cutting parameters and machining environments on surface roughness in hard turning using design of experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Mozammel; Bashir, Mahmood Al; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Hard turning is gradually replacing the time consuming conventional turning process, which is typically followed by grinding, by producing surface quality compatible to grinding. The hard turned surface roughness depends on the cutting parameters, machining environments and tool insert configurations. In this article the variation of the surface roughness of the produced surfaces with the changes in tool insert configuration, use of coolant and different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate) has been investigated. This investigation was performed in machining AISI 1060 steel, hardened to 56 HRC by heat treatment, using coated carbide inserts under two different machining environments. The depth of cut, fluid pressure and material hardness were kept constant. The Design of Experiment (DOE) was performed to determine the number and combination sets of different cutting parameters. A full factorial analysis has been performed to examine the effect of main factors as well as interaction effect of factors on surface roughness. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to determine the combined effect of cutting parameters, environment and tool configuration. The result of this analysis reveals that environment has the most significant impact on surface roughness followed by feed rate and tool configuration respectively.

  15. Effects of Roof-Edge Roughness on Air Temperature and Pollutant Concentration in Urban Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Nazarian, Negin; Chew, Lup Wai; Armstrong, Peter R.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, Leslie K.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of roof-edge roughness elements on airflow, heat transfer, and street-level pollutant transport inside and above a two-dimensional urban canyon is analyzed using an urban energy balance model coupled to a large-eddy simulation model. Simulations are performed for cold (early morning) and hot (mid afternoon) periods during the hottest month of the year (August) for the climate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The analysis suggests that early in the morning, and when the tallest roughness elements are implemented, the temperature above the street level increases on average by 0.5 K, while the pollutant concentration decreases by 2% of the street-level concentration. For the same conditions in mid afternoon, the temperature decreases conservatively by 1 K, while the pollutant concentration increases by 7% of the street-level concentration. As a passive or active architectural solution, the roof roughness element shows promise for improving thermal comfort and air quality in the canyon for specific times, but this should be further verified experimentally. The results also warrant a closer look at the effects of mid-range roughness elements in the urban morphology on atmospheric dynamics so as to improve parametrizations in mesoscale modelling.

  16. How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joanne M; Müller, R Dietmar; Roest, Walter R; Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H F

    2008-12-18

    Seafloor roughness varies considerably across the world's ocean basins and is fundamental to controlling the circulation and mixing of heat in the ocean and dissipating eddy kinetic energy. Models derived from analyses of active mid-ocean ridges suggest that ocean floor roughness depends on seafloor spreading rates, with rougher basement forming below a half-spreading rate threshold of 30-35 mm yr(-1) (refs 4, 5), as well as on the local interaction of mid-ocean ridges with mantle plumes or cold-spots. Here we present a global analysis of marine gravity-derived roughness, sediment thickness, seafloor isochrons and palaeo-spreading rates of Cretaceous to Cenozoic ridge flanks. Our analysis reveals that, after eliminating effects related to spreading rate and sediment thickness, residual roughness anomalies of 5-20 mGal remain over large swaths of ocean floor. We found that the roughness as a function of palaeo-spreading directions and isochron orientations indicates that most of the observed excess roughness is not related to spreading obliquity, as this effect is restricted to relatively rare occurrences of very high obliquity angles (>45 degrees ). Cretaceous Atlantic ocean floor, formed over mantle previously overlain by the Pangaea supercontinent, displays anomalously low roughness away from mantle plumes and is independent of spreading rates. We attribute this observation to a sub-Pangaean supercontinental mantle temperature anomaly leading to slightly thicker than normal Late Jurassic and Cretaceous Atlantic crust, reduced brittle fracturing and smoother basement relief. In contrast, ocean crust formed above Pacific superswells, probably reflecting metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, is not associated with basement roughness anomalies. These results highlight a fundamental difference in the nature of large-scale mantle upwellings below supercontinents and superoceans, and their impact on oceanic crustal

  17. Effect of deformation on the thermal conductivity of granular porous media with rough grain surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Hejazi, S. Hossein; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfer in granular porous media is an important phenomenon that is relevant to a wide variety of problems, including geothermal reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery by thermal methods. Resistance to flow of heat in the contact area between the grains strongly influences the effective thermal conductivity of such porous media. Extensive experiments have indicated that the roughness of the grains' surface follows self-affine fractal stochastic functions, and thus, the contact resistance cannot be accounted for by models based on smooth surfaces. Despite the significance of rough contact area, the resistance has been accounted for by a fitting parameter in the models of heat transfer. In this Letter we report on a study of conduction in a packing of particles that contains a fluid of a given conductivity, with each grain having a rough self-affine surface, and is under an external compressive pressure. The deformation of the contact area depends on the fractal dimension that characterizes the grains' rough surface, as well as their Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental data. Deformation of granular porous media with grains that have rough self-affine fractal surface is simulated. Thermal contact resistance between grains with rough surfaces is incorporated into the numerical simulation of heat conduction under compressive pressure. By increasing compressive pressure, thermal conductivity is enhanced more in the grains with smoother surfaces and lower Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with the experimental data.

  18. The effect of anode surface roughness on radiation output for diagnostic x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, K.; Nowotny, R.; Aiginger, H.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation of entrance surface dose to patients in diagnostic radiology from tube output data is determined by often-unknown sources of inherent filtration. One of these sources is the roughness of the anode surface increasing with tube ageing. This effect increases the inherent filtration of the x-ray tube noticed by a reduced radiation output and increased half-value layers (HVL). To study this effect used rotating anodes were collected and the surface profile of 8 focal tracks was measured in radial direction using an instrument with a diamond tipped stylus (90 deg. tip, 1 μm radius). Surface roughness was determined as the arithmetic mean R a of the deviation in the profile from the centre line for 200 μm reference lengths ranging from 1.32 μm (sandblasted finish without surface degradation) to 5.22 μm (a track for a small focus). The surface profiles were then used to calculate x-ray spectra using a computer code. For each surface about 40000 spectra were calculated with the electrons entering the anode at random position and spectral parameters were then determined. The simulation showed that for rough surfaces the x-rays have to penetrate an additional absorbing layer of tungsten increasing in thickness with anode roughness. The anode with the roughest focal track (R a =5.22 μm) yields a mean additional absorber thickness in direction of the x-ray beam of about 18 μm. The corresponding loss in air kerma for this anode was about 20% at 70 kVp. The effect on mean photon energy is rather small but highest at 70 kVp (+1 keV at R a =5.22 μm) and lowest at 140 kVp (∼0 keV). This is due to the K-edge in the attenuation coefficients of tungsten at 69.5 keV. Beam hardening is thus reduced for higher voltages as absorption at lower photon energies is balanced by higher absorption above the K-edge while at lower voltages beam hardening is fully effective. The pattern of changes in HVL is more complex but in essence also reflects voltage, roughness and

  19. Effects of dimensional size and surface roughness on service performance for a micro Laval nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yukui; Liu, Zhanqiang; Shi, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    Nozzles with large and small dimensions are widely used in various industries. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of dimensional size and surface roughness on the service performance of a micro Laval nozzle. The variation of nozzle service performance from the conventional macro to micro scale is presented in this paper. This shows that the dimensional nozzle size has a serious effect on the nozzle gas flow friction. With the decrease of nozzle size, the velocity performance and thrust performance deteriorate. The micro nozzle performance has less sensitivity to the variation of surface roughness than the large scale nozzle does. Surface quality improvement and burr prevention technologies are proposed to reduce the friction effect on the micro nozzle performance. A novel process is then developed to control and depress the burr generation during micro nozzle machining. The polymethyl-methacrylate as a coating material is coated on the rough machined surface before finish machining. Finally, the micro nozzle with a throat diameter of 1 mm is machined successfully. Thrust test results show that the implement and application of this machining process benefit the service performance improvement of the micro nozzle. (paper)

  20. Effect of tooth brushing on gloss retention and surface roughness of five bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Catherine; Kreplak, Laurent; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Labrie, Daniel; Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Price, Richard Bengt

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effects of tooth brushing on five bulk-fill resin based composites (RBCs). Ten samples of Filtek Supreme Enamel (control), Filtek One Bulk Fill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill 2, SDR flow+, and Admira Fusion X-tra were light cured for 20 seconds using the Valo Grand curing light. After 24 hours storage in air at 37°C, specimens were brushed in a random order using Colgate OpticWhite dentifrice and a soft toothbrush. Surface gloss was measured prior to brushing, after 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 back and forth brushing cycles. Surface roughness was measured after 15,000 brushing cycles using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and selected scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken. The data was examined using ANOVA and pair-wise comparisons using Scheffe's post-hoc multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). Surface gloss decreased and the surface roughness increased after brushing. Two-way ANOVA showed that both the RBC and the number of brushing cycles had a significant negative effect on the gloss. One-way ANOVA showed that the RBC had a significant effect on the roughness after 15,000 brushing cycles. For both gloss and roughness, brushing had the least effect on the nano-filled control and nano-filled bulk-fill RBC, and the greatest negative effect on Admira Fusion X-tra. The SEM images provided visual agreement. There was an excellent linear correlation (R 2  = 0.98) between the logarithm of the gloss and roughness. After brushing, the bulk-fill RBCs were all rougher than the control nano-filled RBC. The nano-filled bulk-fill RBC was the least affected by brushing. Bulk-fill RBCs lose their gloss faster and become rougher than the nanofilled conventional RBC, Filtek Supreme Ultra. The nanofilled bulk-fill RBC was the least affected by tooth brushing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Changes in the Albedo of the Pegasus and Phoenix Runways, 2000-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-18

    by the net heat transfer into the runway surface during the brief but intense peak of austral summer. The flux of downwelling shortwave solar energy...snow; and as ERDC/CRREL TR-17-10 2 mentioned above, the presence of melt water in the snow further reduces albedo and increases heating of the snow...interpolating over all possible angles, end member albedo cases (“white sky” and “black sky”) can be modeled . The actual albedo or “blue sky” albedo falls

  2. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B; Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy (≥70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  3. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A, E-mail: graves@berkeley.edu [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Freemont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy ({>=}70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  4. Investigation of the effect of cutting speed on the Surface Roughness parameters in CNC End Milling using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hazza, Muataz H F; Adesta, Erry Y T

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness in the end milling process by using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). An experimental investigation was conducted to measure the surface roughness for end milling. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted. The artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to simulate and study the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness

  5. Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an

  6. Direct numerical simulation of flow over dissimilar, randomly distributed roughness elements: A systematic study on the effect of surface morphology on turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghi, Pourya; Stroh, Alexander; Schlatter, Philipp; Frohnapfel, Bettina

    2018-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to investigate turbulent flow in rough channels, in which topographical parameters of the rough wall are systematically varied at a fixed friction Reynolds number of 500, based on a mean channel half-height h and friction velocity. The utilized roughness generation approach allows independent variation of moments of the surface height probability distribution function [thus root-mean-square (rms) surface height, skewness, and kurtosis], surface mean slope, and standard deviation of the roughness peak sizes. Particular attention is paid to the effect of the parameter Δ defined as the normalized height difference between the highest and lowest roughness peaks. This parameter is used to understand the trends of the investigated flow variables with departure from the idealized case where all roughness elements have the same height (Δ =0 ). All calculations are done in the fully rough regime and for surfaces with high slope (effective slope equal to 0.6-0.9). The rms roughness height is fixed for all cases at 0.045 h and the skewness and kurtosis of the surface height probability density function vary in the ranges -0.33 to 0.67 and 1.9 to 2.6, respectively. The goal of the paper is twofold: first, to investigate the possible effect of topographical parameters on the mean turbulent flow, Reynolds, and dispersive stresses particularly in the vicinity of the roughness crest, and second, to investigate the possibility of using the wall-normal turbulence intensity as a physical parameter for parametrization of the flow. Such a possibility, already suggested for regular roughness in the literature, is here extended to irregular roughness.

  7. Effects of surface roughness, MHD and couple stress on squeeze film characteristics between curved circular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumagowda, B. N.; Salma, A.; Nagarajappa, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical discussion is carried out for understanding the combined study of MHD, rough surface and couple-stress in the presence of applied magnetic field between two curved circular plates is present analysis. Modified Reynolds Equations accounting for rough surface using stochastic model of Christensen are mathematically formulated. The close form derivations for pressure, load-supporting capacity and response-film time are obtained. Our results shows that, there is an significant increase (decrease) for pressure, load-supporting capacity and squeeze film time due to the effect of azimuthal (radial) roughness parameter when compared to the Hanumagowda.et.al [14] and numerical data of load supporting capacity and response time are given in Table for engineering applications.

  8. EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaed S. Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations. 

  9. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that reported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial reanalysis suggests the possibility of systematic effects that were not included in this publication.

  10. [Effects of surface roughness of bone cements on histological characteristics of induced membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Gang; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To explore surface roughness of bone cement and surround tissue on histological characteristic of induced membranes. Bone cements with smooth and rough surface were implanted in radius bone defect, intramuscular and subcutaneous sites of rabbits, and formed induced membranes. Membranes were obtained and stained (HE) 6 weeks later. Images of membrane tissue were obtained and analyzed with an automated image analysis system. Five histological parameters of membranes were measured with thickness,area,cell density,ECM density and microvessel density. Double factor variance analysis was used to evaluate the effect of the two factors on histological characteristics of induced membranes. Membranes can be induced by each kind of bone cement and at all the three tissue sites. In histological parameters of thickness,area and micro vessel,there were significant differences among the membranes induced at different tissue sites (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, P = 0.000); whereas, there were no significant differences in histological parameters of cell density and ECM density (P = 0.734, P = 0.638). In all five histological parameters of membranes, there were no significant differences between the membranes induced by bone cements with different surface roughness (P = 0.506, P = 0.185, P = 0.883, P = 0.093, P = 0.918). Surround tissue rather than surface roughness of bone cements can affect the histological characteristics of induced membranes. The fibrocystic number, vascularity, mechanical tension and micro motion of the surround tissue may be closely correlated with the histological characteristics of induced membranes.

  11. Macroscopic assessment of cartilage shear: effects of counter-surface roughness, synovial fluid lubricant, and compression offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynhhoa T; Wong, Benjamin L; Chun, June; Yoon, Yeoung C; Talke, Frank E; Sah, Robert L

    2010-06-18

    During joint articulation, cartilage is subjected to compression, shear, and sliding, mechanical factors that regulate and affect cartilage metabolism. The objective of this study was to use an in vitro material-on-cartilage shear test to elucidate the effects of counter-surface roughness (Polished, Mildly rough, and Rough), lubricants (phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and bovine synovial fluid (bSF)), and compression offset on the shearing and sliding of normal human talar cartilage under dynamic lateral displacement. Peak shear stress (sigma(xz,m)) and strain (E(xz,m)) increased with increasing platen roughness and compression offset, and were 30% higher with PBS than with bSF. Compared to PBS, bSF was more effective as a lubricant for P than for M and R platens as indicated by the higher reduction in kinetic friction coefficient (-60% vs. -20% and -19%, respectively), sigma(xz,m) (-50% vs. -14% and -17%) and E(xz,m) (-54% vs. -19% and -17%). Cartilage shear and sliding were evident for all counter-surfaces either at low compression offset (10%) or with high lateral displacement (70%), regardless of lubricant. An increase in tissue shear occurred with either increased compression offset or increased surface roughness. This material and biomechanical test system allow control of cartilage sigma(xz,m) and E(xz,m), and hence, sliding magnitude, for an imposed lateral displacement. It therefore can facilitate study of cartilage mechanobiological responses to distinct regimes of cartilage loading and articulation, such as shear with variable amounts of sliding. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-affine roughness effects on the contact area between elastic bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the real contact area between elastic bodies with self-affine rough surfaces, which are described in terms of analytical correlation models in Fourier space. It is found that the roughness has a strong influence on the real contact area A(lambda) at lateral length scales lambda

  13. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  14. Roughness of grain boundaries in partly recrystallized aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    cold rolled aluminum samples. The results show that particle pinning is not the main reason accounting for recrystallization boundary roughness in the present samples. The roughness is however shown to relate to the deformation microstructure and possible effects of migration rate are discussed...

  15. Surface roughness effects on plasma near a divertor plate and local impact angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of rough surface topography on the electric potential and electric field is generally neglected due to the small scale of surface roughness compared to the width of the plasma sheath. However, the distributions of the electric potential and field on rough surfaces are expected to influence the characteristics of edge plasma and the local impact angle. The distributions of plasma sheath and local impact angle on rough surfaces are investigated by a two dimension-in-space and three dimension-in-velocity (2d3v Particle-In-Cell (PIC code. The influences of the plasma temperature andsurface morphology on the plasma sheath, local impact angle and resulting physical sputtering yield on rough surfaces are investigated.

  16. Effect of Surface Roughness on MHD Couple Stress Squeeze-Film Characteristics between a Sphere and a Porous Plane Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajashekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of couple stress and surface roughness on the MHD squeeze-film lubrication between a sphere and a porous plane surface are analyzed, based upon the thin-film magnetohydrodynamic (MHD theory. Using Stoke’s theory to account for the couple stresses due to the microstructure additives and the Christensen’s stochastic method developed for hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surfaces derives the stochastic MHD Reynolds-type equation. The expressions for the mean MHD squeeze-film pressure, mean load-carrying capacity, and mean squeeze-film time are obtained. The results indicate that the couple stress fluid in the film region enhances the mean MHD squeeze-film pressure, load-carrying capacity, and squeeze-film time. The effect of roughness parameter is to increase (decrease the load-carrying capacity and lengthen the response time for azimuthal (radial roughness patterns as compared to the smooth case. Also, the effect of porous parameter is to decrease the load-carrying capacity and increase the squeeze-film time as compared to the solid case.

  17. Effect of surface roughness on takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence of ultrathin films at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1994-01-01

    We had previously shown that takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence (TAD-XRF) at glancing incidence is a useful method for the characterization of thin films. Here we report the effect of surface roughness of the substrate on TAD-XRF of an ultrathin film at a glancing incidence. An optically flat glass, scratched glasses and plano-convex lenses were used as substrates. A large-range contour such as warp and a roughness of microscopic scale affect the TAD-XRF profile. Therefore, to characterize the ultrathin film by the TAD-XRF method, the material whose roughness is being investigated should be used as the substrate in TAD-XRF measurement. (author)

  18. Exact and Heuristic Algorithms for Runway Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Waqar A.; Jung, Yoon C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the Single Runway Scheduling (SRS) problem with arrivals, departures, and crossing aircraft on the airport surface. Constraints for wake vortex separations, departure area navigation separations and departure time window restrictions are explicitly considered. The main objective of this research is to develop exact and heuristic based algorithms that can be used in real-time decision support tools for Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) controllers. The paper provides a multi-objective dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that finds the exact solution to the SRS problem, but may prove unusable for application in real-time environment due to large computation times for moderate sized problems. We next propose a second algorithm that uses heuristics to restrict the search space for the DP based algorithm. A third algorithm based on a combination of insertion and local search (ILS) heuristics is then presented. Simulation conducted for the east side of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport allows comparison of the three proposed algorithms and indicates that the ILS algorithm performs favorably in its ability to find efficient solutions and its computation times.

  19. Comparative evaluation of effect of different polishing systems on surface roughness of composite resin: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, Rashmi G; Moda, Aman; Arora, Arpana; Arafath, Muhmmed Y; Shetty, Vikram K; Rishal, Yousef

    2016-08-01

    Satisfactory composite restoration depends upon its smooth finish, quality of polishing agents, type of composite material used, and its composition. The present study evaluated the effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resin. Forty discs of composite were prepared and equally subjected to different finishing and polishing procedures; (i) unpolished control group, (ii) sof-lex discs, (iii) diamond tips, and (iv) Astrobrush groups. Later, the surface roughness for the entire specimen was evaluated using Profilomotor. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test at significance level of 0.001. Composite surface roughness after polishing was statistically significant between the groups. Sof-lex group produced lesser surface roughness compared to control, Astrobrush, and diamond group. The present study indicated that diamond tips can be used to remove rough surface whereas sof-lex can be used for final finish and polish of the composite restoration.

  20. Effects of 35% Carbamide Peroxide Gel on Surface Roughness and Hardness of Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharafeddin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bleaching agents may not be safe for dental materials. The purpose of this invitro study was to evaluate the effects of Opalescent Quick "in-office bleaching gel" containing 35% carbamide peroxide on the surface roughness and hardness of microfilled(Heliomolar and hybride (Spectrum TPH composite resins.Materials and Methods: Twenty specimens of Spectrum TPH composite resins and twenty Heliomolar composite resins were fabricated using a metallic ring (6.5 mm diameter and 2.5 mm thickness and light cured, then their surfaces were polished. Specimens of each composite resin were divided into two equal groups. Ten specimens of each type of composite were stored in water at 37°C as the control groups and 35% carbamide peroxide gel (Opalescence Quick as the other group for 30 minutes a week for 3 weeks. Then the specimens were subject to roughness and hardness tests.Results: This study revealed that using 35% carbamide peroxide bleaching gels had no significant effect on the surface roughness of Spectrum TPH "hybrid" and Heliomolar "microfilled" composite resins. The surface hardness of Spectrum TPH composite treated with the subject gel significantly increased compared to heliomolar, which had no significant change after treatment with this bleaching gel.Conclusion: If tooth color matching of the composite had been satisfactory after office bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide gel, this material would have been acceptable because it has no adverse effect on Heliomolar and Spectrum TPH composite resins.

  1. Effects of Small-scale Vegetation-related Roughness on Overland Flow and Infiltration in Semi-arid Grassland and Shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D.

    2012-12-01

    We studied the effects of small-scale roughness on overland flow/runoff and the spatial pattern of infiltration. Our semi-arid sites include a grassland and shrubland in Central New Mexico and a shrubland in the Eastern Mojave Desert. Vegetation exerts strong controls on small-scale surface roughness in the form of plant mounds and other microtopography such as depressions and rills. We quantified the effects of densely measured soil surface heterogeneity using model simulations of runoff and infiltration. Microtopographic roughness associated with vegetation patterns, on the scale of mm-cm's in height, has a larger effect on runoff and infiltration than spatially correlated saturated conductivity. The magnitude and pattern of the effect of roughness largely depends on the vegetation and landform type, and rainfall depth and intensity. In all cases, runoff and infiltration amount and patterns were most strongly affected by depression storage. In the grassland we studied in central New Mexico, soil surface roughness had a large effect on runoff and infiltration where vegetation mounds coalesced, forming large storage volumes that require filling and overtopping in order for overland flow to concentrate into runoff. Total discharge over rough surfaces was reduced 100-200% compared to simulations in which no surface roughness was accounted for. For shrublands, total discharge was reduced 30-40% by microtopography on gently sloping alluvial fans and only 10-20% on steep hillslopes. This difference is largely due to the lack of storage elements on steep slopes. For our sites, we found that overland flow can increase infiltration by up to 2.5 times the total rainfall by filling depressions. The redistribution of water via overland flow can affect up to 20% of an area but varies with vegetation type and landform. This infiltration augmentation by overland flow tends to occur near the edges of vegetation canopies where overland flow depths are deep and infiltration rates

  2. Urban Aerodynamic Roughness Length Mapping Using Multitemporal SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness is very important to urban meteorological and climate studies. Radar remote sensing is considered to be an effective means for aerodynamic roughness retrieval because radar backscattering is sensitive to the surface roughness and geometric structure of a given target. In this paper, a methodology for aerodynamic roughness length estimation using SAR data in urban areas is introduced. The scale and orientation characteristics of backscattering of various targets in urban areas were firstly extracted and analyzed, which showed great potential of SAR data for urban roughness elements characterization. Then the ground truth aerodynamic roughness was calculated from wind gradient data acquired by the meteorological tower using fitting and iterative method. And then the optimal dimension of the upwind sector for the aerodynamic roughness calculation was determined through a correlation analysis between backscattering extracted from SAR data at various upwind sector areas and the aerodynamic roughness calculated from the meteorological tower data. Finally a quantitative relationship was set up to retrieve the aerodynamic roughness length from SAR data. Experiments based on ALOS PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed data from 2006 to 2011 prove that the proposed methodology can provide accurate roughness length estimations for the spatial and temporal analysis of urban surface.

  3. The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair UHMWPE/TiN-coated stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispert, M P; Serro, A P; Colaço, R; Pires, E; Saramago, B

    2008-01-01

    The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/TiN coated stainless steel was investigated. Standard and polished TiN coated stainless steel pins were tested against either standard or smooth UHMWPE disks. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution in HBSS were used as lubricants. Friction and wear were determined using a pin-on-disk apparatus and the wear mechanisms were investigated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that the decrease in the roughness led to a reduction of the friction coefficient and of the wear rate of UHMWPE. However, the most important effect was achieved through the decrease in the roughness of the hard TiN counterface while keeping the standard UHMWPE surface. If BSA was added to HBSS, a strong decrease of both the friction coefficient and the polymeric wear was observed independently of the roughness of both the TiN and the polyethylene surfaces. Abrasive and fatigue wear mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  4. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ernesto Barber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm to small ones (1 mm, with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band.

  5. Roughness Sensitivity Comparisons of Wind Turbine Blade Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Benjamin J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; White, Edward B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2017-10-01

    One explanation for wind turbine power degradation is insect roughness. Historical studies on insect-induced power degradation have used simulation methods which are either un- representative of actual insect roughness or too costly or time-consuming to be applied to wide-scale testing. Furthermore, the role of airfoil geometry in determining the relations between insect impingement locations and roughness sensitivity has not been studied. To link the effects of airfoil geometry, insect impingement locations, and roughness sensitivity, a simulation code was written to determine representative insect collection patterns for different airfoil shapes. Insect collection pattern data was then used to simulate roughness on an NREL S814 airfoil that was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 1.6 x 106 and 4.0 x 106. Results are compared to previous tests of a NACA 633 -418 airfoil. Increasing roughness height and density results in decreased maximum lift, lift curve slope, and lift-to-drag ratio. Increasing roughness height, density, or Reynolds number results in earlier bypass transition, with critical roughness Reynolds numbers lying within the historical range. Increased roughness sensitivity on the 25% thick NREL S814 is observed compared to the 18% thick NACA 63 3 -418. Blade-element-momentum analysis was used to calculate annual energy production losses of 4.9% and 6.8% for a NACA 633 -418 turbine and an NREL S814 turbine, respectively, operating with 200 μm roughness. These compare well to historical field measurements.

  6. Effect of grinding and polishing on roughness and strength of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayat, Waad; Chebib, Najla; Finkelman, Matthew; Khayat, Samer; Ali, Ala

    2018-04-01

    The clinical applications of high-translucency monolithic zirconia restorations have increased. Chairside and laboratory adjustments of these restorations are inevitable, which may lead to increased roughness and reduced strength. The influence of grinding and polishing on high-translucency zirconia has not been investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the roughness averages (Ra) of ground and polished zirconia and investigate whether roughness influenced strength after aging. High-translucency zirconia disks were milled, sintered, and glazed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Specimens were randomized to 4 equal groups. Group G received only grinding; groups GPB and GPK received grinding and polishing with different polishing systems; and group C was the (unground) control group. All specimens were subjected to hydrothermal aging in an autoclave at 134°C at 200 kPa for 3 hours. Roughness average was measured using a 3-dimensional (3D) optical interferometer at baseline (Ra1), after grinding and polishing (Ra2), and after aging (Ra3). A biaxial flexural strength test was performed at a rate of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analyses were performed using commercial software (α=.05). Group G showed a significantly higher mean value of Ra3 (1.96 ±0.32 μm) than polished and glazed groups (P.05). Compared with baseline, the roughness of groups G and GPB increased significantly after surface treatments and after aging, whereas aging did not significantly influence the roughness of groups GPK or C. Group G showed the lowest mean value of biaxial flexural strength (879.01 ±157.99 MPa), and the highest value was achieved by group C (962.40 ±113.84 MPa); no statistically significant differences were found among groups (P>.05). Additionally, no significant correlation was detected between the Ra and flexural strength of zirconia. Grinding increased the roughness of zirconia restorations, whereas proper polishing resulted in smoothness

  7. Effects of delayed finishing/polishing on surface roughness, hardness and gloss of tooth-coloured restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A Ruya; Tuncer, Duygu; Antonson, Sibel; Onen, Alev; Kilinc, Evren

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of delayed finishing/polishing on the surface roughness, hardness and gloss of tooth-coloured restorative materials. Four different tooth-coloured restoratives: a flowable resin composite- Tetric Flow, a hybrid resin composite- Venus, a nanohybrid resin composite- Grandio, and a polyacid modified resin composite- Dyract Extra were used. 30 specimens were made for each material and randomly assigned into three groups. The first group was finished/polished immediately and the second group was finished/polished after 24 hours. The remaining 10 specimens served as control. The surface roughness of each sample was recorded using a laser profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using a small-area glossmeter. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed from three locations on each specimen surface under 100g load and 10s dwell time. Data for surface roughness and hardness were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test and data for gloss were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P gloss values were recorded under Mylar strip for all materials. While delayed finishing/polishing resulted in a significantly higher gloss compared to immediate finishing/polishing in Venus samples (P .05). The lowest hardness values were found under Mylar strip. Delayed finishing/polishing significantly increased the hardness of all materials. The effect of delayed finishing/polishing on surface roughness, gloss and hardness appears to be material dependent.

  8. Variations in roughness predictions (flume experiments)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Daniëlle; Blom, Astrid; van der Klis, H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Makaske, A.; Wolfert, H.P.; van Os, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Data of flume experiments with bed forms are used to analyze and compare different roughness predictors. In this study, the hydraulic roughness consists of grain roughness and form roughness. We predict the grain roughness by means of the size of the sediment. The form roughness is predicted by

  9. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of commercial composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Guilherme Machado; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2011-10-01

    Our study aimed to test the null hypothesis that whitening and non-whitening dentifrices affect similarly the surface roughness of commercial microhybrid composites, independent of the brushing time. One hundred and ninety-two disc-shaped specimens of Filtek Z250 (3 M/ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) and Rok (SDI, Australia) were built up and randomly assigned to 24 groups, based on the dentifrices used (two whitening dentifrices: Colgate Max White-Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil and Close Up Extra Whitening-Unilever, Brasil Higiene Pessoal e Limpeza Ltda, Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil; and one non-whitening dentifrice: Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint-Colgate-Palmolive), and on the simulated brushing times (24 hours, 6, 12 and 24 months). The specimens were submitted to the toothbrushing regimens after which the surface roughness (Ra) was measured. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). The composite's surface roughness was significantly affected by the composites (p=0.0007), the dentifrices (p=0.0001), and the simulated brushing time (p=0.0001). Higher roughness was observed when the whitening dentifrices were used and when the brushing time increased. Filtek Z250 was more affected than Rok, especially after 24 months of simulated brushing. Whitening dentifrices produced higher surface roughness in the composites tested. The degree of surface compromising increased with brushing time and depends on the composite's microstructure and composition. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Productive urbanisms : From Runways to Greenways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Architecture Landscape and Design; Sheppard, L [Waterloo Univ., Cambridge, ON (Canada). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on an international competition for urban development in Reykjavik, Iceland in 2007. Known as the Runways to Greenways proposal, the prototype depends on a strategy that considers energy use, ecology and land use when integrating public amenities. While Iceland is advanced in terms of its vast geothermal reserves, it is a country that uses the most energy per capita. There are 5 major geothermal power plants in Iceland which produce about 26 per cent of the country's electricity. Geothermal heating also meets the heating and hot water needs for nearly 87 per cent of the nation's buildings. However, Reykjavik continues to rely heavily on imported fossil fuel primarily for fishing, transport and heavy industries. A recent masterplan for the expansion of Reykjavik calls for the densification of the city. The objective was to propose a city that is self-sufficient in terms of energy, agriculture and water while addressing the development potentials of biotechnology and ecotechnology enterprises in Reykjavik. The integrated infrastructure calls for a symbiotic relationship between urbanism and nature, and between energy consumption and production in an effort to pair infrastructure, landscape, public infrastructure and architecture in a culturally, economically and environmentally productive urban realm. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Productive urbanisms : From Runways to Greenways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Architecture Landscape and Design; Sheppard, L. [Waterloo Univ., Cambridge, ON (Canada). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on an international competition for urban development in Reykjavik, Iceland in 2007. Known as the Runways to Greenways proposal, the prototype depends on a strategy that considers energy use, ecology and land use when integrating public amenities. While Iceland is advanced in terms of its vast geothermal reserves, it is a country that uses the most energy per capita. There are 5 major geothermal power plants in Iceland which produce about 26 per cent of the country's electricity. Geothermal heating also meets the heating and hot water needs for nearly 87 per cent of the nation's buildings. However, Reykjavik continues to rely heavily on imported fossil fuel primarily for fishing, transport and heavy industries. A recent masterplan for the expansion of Reykjavik calls for the densification of the city. The objective was to propose a city that is self-sufficient in terms of energy, agriculture and water while addressing the development potentials of biotechnology and ecotechnology enterprises in Reykjavik. The integrated infrastructure calls for a symbiotic relationship between urbanism and nature, and between energy consumption and production in an effort to pair infrastructure, landscape, public infrastructure and architecture in a culturally, economically and environmentally productive urban realm. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Effects of Inner Surface Roughness and Asymmetric Pipe Flow on Accuracy of Profile Factor for Ultrasonic Flow Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michitsugu Mori; Kenichi Tezuka; Yasushi Takeda

    2006-01-01

    Flow profile factors (PFs), which adjust measurements to real flow rates, also strongly depend on flow profiles. To determine profile factors for actual power plants, manufactures of flowmeters usually conduct factory calibration tests under ambient flow conditions. Indeed, flow measurements with high accuracy for reactor feedwater require them to conduct calibration tests under real conditions, such as liquid conditions and piping layouts. On the contrary, as nuclear power plants are highly aging, readings of flowmeters for reactor feedwater systems drift due to the changes of flow profiles. The causes of those deviations are affected by the change of wall roughness of inner surface of pipings. We have conducted experiments to quantify the effects of flow patterns on the PFs due to pipe roughness and asymmetric flow, and the results of our experiments have shown the effects of elbows and pipe inner roughness, which strongly affect to the creation of the flow patterns. Those changes of flow patterns lead to large errors in measurements with transit time (time-of-flight: TOF) ultrasonic flow meters. In those experiments, changes of pipe roughness result in the changes of PFs with certain errors. Therefore, we must take into account those effects in order to measure the flow rates of feedwater with better accuracy in actual power plants. (authors)

  13. Effects of ice crystal surface roughness and air bubble inclusions on cirrus cloud radiative properties from remote sensing perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Guanglin; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2017-01-01

    We study the combined effects of surface roughness and inhomogeneity on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals and explore the consequent implications to remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties. Specifically, surface roughness and inhomogeneity are added to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 (MC6) cirrus cloud particle habit model. Light scattering properties of the new habit model are simulated using a modified version of the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). Both inhomogeneity and surface roughness affect the single scattering properties significantly. In visible bands, inhomogeneity and surface roughness both tend to smooth the phase function and eliminate halos and the backscattering peak. The asymmetry parameter varies with the degree of surface roughness following a U shape - decreases and then increases - with a minimum at around 0.15, whereas it decreases monotonically with the air bubble volume fraction. Air bubble inclusions significantly increase phase matrix element -P_1_2 for scattering angles between 20°–120°, whereas surface roughness has a much weaker effect, increasing -P_1_2 slightly from 60°–120°. Radiative transfer simulations and cirrus cloud property retrievals are conducted by including both the factors. In terms of surface roughness and air bubble volume fraction, retrievals of cirrus cloud optical thickness or the asymmetry parameter using solar bands show similar patterns of variation. Polarimetric simulations using the MC6 cirrus cloud particle habit model are shown to be more consistent with observations when both surface roughness and inhomogeneity are simultaneously considered. - Highlights: • Surface roughness and air bubble inclusions affect optical properties of ice crystals significantly. • Including both factors improves simulations of ice cloud.• Cirrus cloud particle habit model of the MODIS collection 6 achieves better self-consistency and consistency with

  14. Near-field flow structures about subcritical surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Charles J.; Drews, Scott D.; Goldstein, David B.

    2014-12-01

    Laminar flow over a periodic array of cylindrical surface roughness elements is simulated with an immersed boundary spectral method both to validate the method for subsequent studies and to examine how persistent streamwise vortices are introduced by a low Reynolds number roughness element. Direct comparisons are made with prior studies at a roughness-based Reynolds number Rek (=U(k) k/ν) of 205 and a diameter to spanwise spacing ratio d/λ of 1/3. Downstream velocity contours match present and past experiments very well. The shear layer developed over the top of the roughness element produces the downstream velocity deficit. Upstream of the roughness element, the vortex topology is found to be consistent with juncture flow experiments, creating three cores along the recirculation line. Streamtraces stemming from these upstream cores, however, have unexpectedly little effect on the downstream flowfield as lateral divergence of the boundary layer quickly dissipates their vorticity. Long physical relaxation time of the recirculating wake behind the roughness remains a prominent issue for simulating this type of flowfield.

  15. Effect of laser parameters on surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau Sheng, Annie; Ismail, Izwan; Nur Aqida, Syarifah

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the effects of laser parameters on the surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading. Pulse mode Nd:YAG laser was used to perform the laser surface modification process on AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples were then treated with thermal cyclic loading experiments which involved alternate immersion in molten aluminium (800°C) and water (27°C) for 553 cycles. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was developed to perform the investigation. Factors for the DOE are the laser parameter namely overlap rate (η), pulse repetition frequency (f PRF) and peak power (Ppeak ) while the response is the surface roughness after thermal cyclic loading. Results indicate the surface roughness of the laser modified surface after thermal cyclic loading is significantly affected by laser parameter settings.

  16. The Effects of Fresh Detox Juices on Color Stability and Roughness of Resin-Based Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikilgan, İhsan; Akgul, Sinem; Hazar, Ahmet; Kedıcı Alp, Cemile; Baglar, Serdar; Bala, Oya

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the effects of three fresh detox juices, including an orange, green, and red beverage, on the color stability and surface roughness of three anterior esthetic resin-based composites (RBCs). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared with three different esthetic RBCs (Amaris, G-aenial Anterior, Clearfil Majesty ES-2) according to the manufacturers' instructions. Forty specimens were prepared for each RBC, and all specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 24 hours. The initial color values and surface roughness measurements of the specimens were taken using a spectrophotometer and a profilometer. The specimens were then divided into 4 subgroups (n = 10). All specimens except the control specimens were immersed in their designated fresh detox juices (green, red, or orange) for 10 minutes twice a day. Color and surface roughness measurements were taken on day 15 and day 30, and the results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. The association between color change and surface roughness was evaluated by Spearman's Rank Correlation analysis. Color changes and surface roughness increased upon exposure to fresh detox juices for 15 and 30 days for all of the RBCs. All of the G-aenial and Amaris groups displayed color changes above the threshold of acceptability, whereas Clearfil Majesty ES-2 displayed a color change above the threshold of acceptability only after exposure to the red beverage for 30 days (ΔE > 3.7). With regard to surface roughness, Clearfil Majesty ES-2 outperformed the other RBCs (p  0.001). Exposure to the fresh detox juices used in this study led to similar color changes in the RBCs used in this study. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Effect of surface roughness and surface modification of indium tin oxide electrode on its potential response to tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Md. Zaved Hossain; Nakanishi, Takuya; Kuroiwa, Shigeki; Hoshi, Yoichi; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine factors affecting potential response of ITO electrode to tryptophan. → Surface roughness of ITO electrode affects the stability of its rest potential. → Surface modification is effective for ITO electrode with a certain roughness. → Optimum values of work function exist for potential response of ITO to tryptophan. - Abstract: The effect of surface modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode on its potential response to tryptophan was investigated for ITO substrates with different surface roughness. It was found that a small difference in surface roughness, between ∼1 and ∼2 nm of R a evaluated by atomic force microscopy, affects the rest potential of ITO electrode in the electrolyte. A slight difference in In:Sn ratio at the near surface of the ITO substrates, measured by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy is remarkable, and considered to relate with surface roughness. Interestingly, successive modification of the ITO surface with aminopropylsilane and disuccinimidyl suberate, of which essentiality to the potential response to indole compounds we previously reported, improved the stability of the rest potential and enabled the electrodes to respond to tryptophan in case of specimens with R a values ranging between ∼2 and ∼3 nm but not for those with R a of ∼1 nm. It was suggested that there are optimum values of effective work function of ITO for specific potential response to tryptophan, which can be obtained by the successive modification of ITO surface.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of different methods of microabrasion and polishing on surface roughness of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldo, Carlos; Lima, Debora; Fragoso, Larissa; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Aguiar, Flavio; Lovadino, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The microabrasion technique of enamel consists of selectively abrading the discolored areas or causing superficial structural changes in a selective way. In microabrasion technique, abrasive products associated with acids are used, and the evaluation of enamel roughness after this treatment, as well as surface polishing, is necessary. This in-vitro study evaluated the enamel roughness after microabrasion, followed by different polishing techniques. Roughness analyses were performed before microabrasion (L1), after microabrasion (L2), and after polishing (L3).Thus, 60 bovine incisive teeth divided into two groups were selected (n=30): G1- 37% phosphoric acid (37%) (Dentsply) and pumice; G2- hydrochloric acid (6.6%) associated with silicon carbide (Opalustre - Ultradent). Thereafter, the groups were divided into three sub-groups (n=10), according to the system of polishing: A - Fine and superfine granulation aluminum oxide discs (SofLex 3M); B - Diamond Paste (FGM) associated with felt discs (FGM); C - Silicone tips (Enhance - Dentsply). A PROC MIXED procedure was applied after data exploratory analysis, as well as the Tukey-Kramer test (5%). No statistical differences were found between G1 and G2 groups. L2 differed statistically from L1 and showed superior amounts of roughness. Differences in the amounts of post-polishing roughness for specific groups (1A, 2B, and 1C) arose, which demonstrated less roughness in L3 and differed statistically from L2 in the polishing system. All products increased enamel roughness, and the effectiveness of the polishing systems was dependent upon the abrasive used.

  19. Multi-interface roughness effects on electron mobility in a Ga0.5In0.5P/GaAs multisubband coupled quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Trinath; Shore, K Alan

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the effect of interface roughness scattering on low temperature electron mobility μ n mediated by intersubband interactions in a multisubband coupled Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P/GaAs quantum well structure. We consider a barrier δ-doped double quantum well system in which the subband electron mobility is limited by the interface roughness scattering μ IR n and ionized impurity scattering μ imp n . We analyse the effect of the intersubband interaction and coupling of subband wavefunctions through the barrier on the intrasubband and intersubband transport scattering rates. We show that the intersubband interaction controls the roughness potential of different interfaces through the dielectric screening matrix. In the case of lowest subband occupancy, the mobility is mainly governed by the interface roughness of the central barrier. Whereas when two subbands are occupied, the interface roughness of the outer barrier predominates due to intersubband effects. The influence of the intersubband interaction also exhibits interesting results on the well width up to which the interface roughness dominates in a double quantum well structure

  20. Dissolution of minerals with rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Aarão Reis, Fábio D. A.

    2018-05-01

    laws of our model give rough rates in the range 10-6 -10-5 mol/(m2 s). This estimate is consistent with the range of calcite dissolution rates obtained in a recent work after treatment of literature data, which suggests the universal control of kink site dissolution in short term laboratory works. The weak effects of lattice size on our results also suggest that smoothing of mineral grain surfaces across geological times may be a microscopic explanation for the difference of chemical weathering rate of silicate minerals in laboratory and in the environment.

  1. Estimating deep seafloor interface and volume roughness parameters using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.

    composite roughness model, including water-sediment interface roughness and sediment volume roughness parameters the data was modeled. The model effectively uses the near normal incidence angle backscatter to determine the seafloor interface roughness...

  2. Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm

    2016-11-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.

  3. Effect of roughness and porosity on geometry and kinematics of lock-exchange gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Elena; Adduce, Claudia; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Gravity currents generated by lock-exchange are an important research tool to understand key features of flows driven by a density may be naturally caused by interaction of geophysical nature but may also be triggered by adverse anthropic actions, from oil spills to pollution related turbidity. Research on the fundamental geometrical and kinematic features of these currents is still necessary, especially when they propagate on complex geometries. The purpose of this work is to investigate the shape and the velocity of propagation of gravity currents over rough beds and over rough-porous beds. To attain this objective, different initial conditions were specified, namely smooth bed, rough bed composed of a single layer of 2 mm glass beads and rough and porous bed composed of 4 layers of the same beads. The dimensions of the channel are 300 × 19,6 × 40 cm in which a steel gate is inserted to define the lock. Two initial mixtures were tested: 1015 and 1030 kgm-3. The density is measured with a pycnometer on a high precision balance. The mixture is composed of fresh water, salt and rhodamine, to allow for visualization and measurements based on image analysis. A high-speed video system camera was used to record the motion of the current. The camera has a 50 mm lens and a sampling frequency of 100 fps. Gray-level images were obtained with 8 bit depth. Calibration of gray-levels was performed pixel by pixel to mixture concentrations. The current is examined in three positions: immediately after the gate ((x-x0)/x0 = 0 to 3), in the middle ((x-x0)/x0 = 5 to 8) and at the end of the channel((x - x0)/x0 = 10 to 13). It is shown that the celerity of the gravity current wave front varies with the different boundary conditions. Indeed, the current is faster for the smooth bed and slower for the rough bed conditions. No appreciable effects of porosity were registered on the wave celerity. The shape of the current varied slightly between the rough and the porous-rough tests

  4. The effects of surface roughness on low haze ultrathin nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanniah, Vinod [Chemical and Materials Engineering, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Tru Vue, Inc. 9400 West, 55th St, McCook, IL 60525 (United States); Grulke, Eric A., E-mail: eric.grulke@uky.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Druffel, Thad [Vision Dynamics LLC, 1950 Production Court, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States); Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Control of surface roughness in optical applications can have a large impact on haze. This work compares surface roughness and haze for self-assembled experimental surface structures as well as simulated surface structures for ultrathin nanocomposite films. Ultrathin nanocomposite films were synthesized from an acrylate monomer as the continuous phase with monodisperse or bidisperse mixtures of silica nanoparticles as the dispersed phase. An in-house spin coating deposition technique was used to make thin nanocomposite films on hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (polycarbonate) substrates. Manipulating the size ratios of the silica nanoparticle mixtures generated multimodal height distributions, varied the average surface roughness (σ) and changed lateral height–height correlations (a). For the simulated surfaces, roughness was estimated from their morphologies, and haze was calculated using simplified Rayleigh scattering theory. Experimental data for haze and morphologies of nanocomposite films corresponded well to these properties for simulated tipped pyramid surfaces. A correlation based on simple Rayleigh scattering theory described our experimental data well, but the exponent on the parameter, σ/λ (λ is the wavelength of incident light), does not have the expected value of 2. A scalar scattering model and a prior Monte Carlo simulation estimated haze values similar to those of our experimental samples. - Highlights: • Bidisperse nanoparticle mixtures created structured surfaces on thin films. • Monodisperse discrete phases created unimodal structure distributions. • Bidisperse discrete phases created multimodal structure distributions. • Multimodal structures had maximum heights ≤ 1.5 D{sub large} over our variable range. • Simplified Rayleigh scattering theory linked roughness to haze and contact angle.

  5. Effect of surface roughness on heat transfer from horizontal immersed tubes in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, N.S.; Saxena, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the total heat transfer coefficient between 12.7 mm dia copper tubes with four different rough surfaces and glass beads of three different sizes as taken in a 0.305 m x 0.305 m square fluidized bed as a function of fluidizing velocity are reported. The comparison of results for the rough and technically smooth tubes suggests that the heat transfer coefficient strongly depends on the ratio of pitch (P/sub f/) to the average particle diameter (d/sub p/), where P/sub f/ is the distance between the two corresponding points on consecutive threads or knurls. By the proper choice of (P/sub f//d/sub p/) ratio, the maximum total heat transfer coefficient for V-thread tubes (h/sub w/fb) can be increased by as much as 40 percent over the value for a smooth tube with the same outside diameter. However, for values of (P/sub f//d/sub p/) less than 0.95, the maximum heat transfer coefficient for the V-thread rough tubes is smaller than the smooth tube having the same outside diameter. The qualitative variation of the heat transfer coefficient for rough tubes with (P/sub f//d) is explained on the basis of the combined effect of contact geometry between the solid particles and the heat transfer surface, and the solids renewal rate at the surface. The present findings are critically compared with somewhat similar investigations from the literature on the heat transfer from horizontal or vertical rough tubes and tubes with small fins

  6. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginc, G [THALES, 2 avenue Gay-Lussac 78995 ELANCOURT (France)

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  7. Radiation properties modeling for plasma-sprayed-alumina-coated rough surfaces for spacecrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.M.; Joshi, Sunil C.; Ng, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal control materials (TCMs) play a vital role in the entire service life of a spacecraft . Most of the conventional TCMs degrade in the harmful space environment . In the previous study, plasma sprayed alumina (PSA) coating was established as a new and better TCM for spacecrafts, in view of its stability and reliability compared to the traditional TCMs . During the investigation, the surface roughness of PSA was found important, because the roughness affects the radiative heat exchange between the surface and its surroundings. Parameters such as root-mean-square roughness cannot properly evaluate surface roughness effects on radiative properties of opaque surfaces . Some models have been developed earlier to predict the effects, such as Davies' model , Tang and Buckius's statistical geometric optics model . However, they are valid only in their own specific situations. In this paper, an energy absorption geometry model was developed and applied to investigate the roughness effects with the help of 2D surface profile of PSA coated substrate scanned at micron level. This model predicts effective normal solar absorptance (α ne ) and effective hemispherical infrared emittance (ε he ) of a rough PSA surface. These values, if used in the heat transfer analysis of an equivalent, smooth and optically flat surface, lead to the prediction of the same rate of heat exchange and temperature as that of for the rough PSA surface. The model was validated through comparison between a smooth and a rough PSA coated surfaces. Even though not tested for other types of materials, the model formulation is generic and can be used to incorporate the rough surface effects for other types of thermal coatings, provided the baseline values of normal solar absorptance (α n ) and hemispherical infrared emittance (ε h ) are available for a generic surface of the same material

  8. Effect of drop volume and surface statistics on the superhydrophobicity of randomly rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a simple theoretical approach is developed with the aim of evaluating shape, interfacial pressure, apparent contact angle and contact area of liquid drops gently deposed on randomly rough surfaces. This method can be useful to characterize the superhydrophobic properties of rough substrates, and to investigate the contact behavior of impacting drops. We assume that (i) the size of the apparent liquid-solid contact area is much larger than the micromorphology of the substrate, and (ii) a composite interface is always formed at the microscale. Results show apparent contact angle and liquid-solid area fraction are slightly influenced by the drop volume only at relatively high values of the root mean square roughness h rms, whereas the effect of volume is practically negligible at small h rms. The main statistical quantity affecting the superhydrophobic properties is found to be the Wenzel roughness parameter r W, which depends on the average slope of the surface heights. Moreover, transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel one is observed when r W reduces below a certain critical value, and theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the present method can be conveniently exploited to evaluate the occurrence of pinning phenomena in the case of impacting drops, as the Wenzel critical pressure for liquid penetration gives an estimation of the maximum impact pressure tolerated by the surface without pinning occurring.

  9. Effect of belimbing wuluh (averrhoa bilimbi l.) extract gel exposure duration to surface roughness of enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, F.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Triaminingsih, S.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Belimbing Wuluh Gel Extract to surface roughness of enamel. Thirty-six premolars teeth that divided into 4 groups (n = 9), were exposed to 37% phosphoric acid gel (pH = 1) for 15 seconds as a control group, and belimbing wuluh extract gel with a concentration of 80% (pH = 1.8) for 15 seconds, 20 seconds, and 25 seconds as the treatment groups. The statistical analysis of paired and unpaired T-test shows that all treatment groups experienced a significant change (p enamel occurred after exposed by belimbing extract gel with an exposure duration of 25 seconds, but the roughness of 37% phosphoric acid gel is still greater. There was a correlation between roughness on the surface of tooth enamel with prolonged exposure belimbing wuluh extract gel with a concentration of 80%.

  10. Effect of a Roughness Element on the Receptivity of a Hypersonic Boundary Layer over a Blunt Cone Due to Pulse Entropy Disturbance with a Single Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqing Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A high-order finite difference method was used to simulate the hypersonic flow field over a blunt cone with different height roughness elements. The unsteady flow field induced by pulse disturbances was analyzed and compared with that under continuous disturbances. The temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of disturbances in the boundary layer were investigated and the propagation of different disturbance modes in the boundary layer was researched through the fast Fourier transform (FFT method. The effect of the roughness element on the receptivity characteristic of the hypersonic boundary layer under pulse entropy disturbances was explored. The results showed that the different mode disturbances near roughness in the boundary layer were enlarged in the upstream half of the roughness element and suppressed in the downstream half. However, the effect of roughness weakened gradually as the disturbance frequency increased in the boundary layer. A phenomenon of mode competition in the downstream region of the roughness element exited. As the disturbances propagated downstream, the fundamental mode gradually became the dominant mode. A certain promotion effect on the mode competition was induced by the roughness element and the effect was enhanced with the increase in the roughness element height.

  11. Effect of different polishing methods on surface roughness of provisional prosthetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupinambá, Ívian Verena Maia; Giampá, Priscila Couy Corrêa; Rocha, Isadora Almeida Rios; Lima, Emilena Maria Castor Xisto

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the surface roughness of bis-acrylic and acrylic resins submitted to different methods of polishing. Fifty samples of each provisional restorative material (Structur 2, Protemp 4, Duralay, and Dencrilay) were fabricated (10 mm × 2 mm) and divided into five groups ( n = 10): (1) positive control group - polyester strip; (2) negative control - unpolished; (3) abrasive tips (Exa-Technique-Edenta); (4) goat hair brush and diamond polishing paste; and (5) silicone tips (Enhance). Each material was mixed and polymerized according to manufacturer's instructions. The parameter evaluated was the arithmetic mean of the surface roughness (Ra) determined using the rugosimeter SJ 301 (Mitutoyo, Japan). The data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance ( post hoc Tukey's test) ( P < 0.05). The lowest surface roughness values (0,22-0,90 μm) were observed in the Group 4 - goat hair brush and diamond paste, while the highest values (1,17-1,44 μm) were found in the Group 5 - silicone tips (enhance), with statistically significant differences between them, except for Dencrilay acrylic resin. There was statistically significant difference between bis-acrylic and acrylic resins in the Groups 1, 2, and 4. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the most effective polishing system was the goat hair brush with diamond paste for both bis-acrylic and acrylic resins. The bis-acrylic resins exhibited significantly smoother surfaces than the acrylic resins.

  12. The effects of brushing on human enamel surface roughness after NaF gel and theobromine gel exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardhika, A.; Noerdin, A.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of brushing on human enamel surface roughness after different exposure times of 200 mg/L theobromine gel (8, 16, and 32 minutes) and 2% NaF gel (16 minutes). Twenty-four human upper premolars were used and divided into four groups. Group 1 was exposed to 2% NaF gel for 16 minutes. In contrast, groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to 200 mg/L theobromine gel for 8 minutes, 16 minutes, and 32 minutes, and each group was then brushed for 9 minutes and 20 seconds. After the treatment, samples were tested using a surface roughness tester (Mitutoyo SJ 301, Japan). The Wilcoxon test showed significant changes (p enamel surface and then increase roughness after brushing.

  13. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  14. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Larson, Ronald G; Solomon, Michael J

    2017-10-13

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  15. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  16. Effect of simulated mastication on the surface roughness of three ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Rafat; Kürklü, Duygu; Johnston, William

    2015-08-01

    Zirconia complete coverage crowns are being widely used as restorations because of their high strength and improved esthetics. Data are sparse about the change in surface roughness of this ceramic material after repeated mastication cycles of opposing enamel. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the surface roughness after being subjected to 3-body wear-opposing human enamel of 3 types of ceramics: dense sintered yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Z); lithium disilicate (L); and a conventional low-fusing feldspathic porcelain (P) treated to impart a rough, smooth, or glazed surface. Twenty-four specimens of each of the Z and L ceramic were sectioned from computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing blocks into rectangular plates (15×12×2 mm). Twenty-four specimens of the feldspathic porcelain were formed into disks (12-mm diameter) from powders compressed in a silicone mold. All specimens (n=72) were prepared according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Specimens of each ceramic group were placed into 1 of 3 groups: group R, rough surface finish; group S, smooth surface finish; and group G, glazed surface finish. A total of 72 specimens (9 groups with 8 specimens each) was placed in a 3-body wear simulator, with standardized enamel specimens (n=72) acting as the substrate. The changes in surface roughness of the ceramic specimens were evaluated after 50,000 cycles. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures 3-way ANOVA mixed procedure with the Satterthwaite method for degrees of freedom and maximum likelihood estimation of the covariance parameters (α=.05). Data showed that the PS group exhibited the largest change in surface roughness, becoming significantly rougher (P<.004). The LR group became significantly smoother (P=.012). The surfaces of monolithic zirconia ceramic and lithium disilicate did not become as rough as the surface of conventional feldspathic porcelain after enamel wear. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the

  17. The effect of rotational and translational energy exchange on tracer diffusion in rough hard sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Olga; Thachuk, Mark

    2011-03-21

    A study is presented of tracer diffusion in a rough hard sphere fluid. Unlike smooth hard spheres, collisions between rough hard spheres can exchange rotational and translational energy and momentum. It is expected that as tracer particles become larger, their diffusion constants will tend toward the Stokes-Einstein hydrodynamic result. It has already been shown that in this limit, smooth hard spheres adopt "slip" boundary conditions. The current results show that rough hard spheres adopt boundary conditions proportional to the degree of translational-rotational energy exchange. Spheres for which this exchange is the largest adopt "stick" boundary conditions while those with more intermediate exchange adopt values between the "slip" and "stick" limits. This dependence is found to be almost linear. As well, changes in the diffusion constants as a function of this exchange are examined and it is found that the dependence is stronger than that suggested by the low-density, Boltzmann result. Compared with smooth hard spheres, real molecules undergo inelastic collisions and have attractive wells. Rough hard spheres model the effect of inelasticity and show that even without the presence of attractive forces, the boundary conditions for large particles can deviate from "slip" and approach "stick."

  18. Effect of Surface Roughness on Polymer Drag Reduction with a High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Dowling, David; Solomon, Michael; Bian, Sherry; Ceccio, Steven

    2007-11-01

    A recent experiment at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) investigated the effect of wall roughness on wall-injection polymer drag reduction (PDR) within a high-Reynolds-number (10^7 to 2x10^8 based on downstream distance) turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Testing was performed in two parts: 1) PDR experiment on a 12.9 m long, 3.05 m wide hydro-dynamically smooth flat plate and 2) PDR experiment on the same model with the entire surface roughened. The roughness was produced by blowing glass beads into epoxy paint that was applied to the entire model. The roughened model had an average roughness height ranging between 307 and 1154 μm. Drag reduction was determined using six, stream-wise located integrated skin-friction balances. In addition to skin-friction measurements, sampling was performed at three stream-wise located ports. The sampling ports were used to determine the amount of degradation, if any, caused by the turbulent flow on the polymer. Both the skin-friction measurements and sampling analysis indicates that wall roughness in a turbulent boundary layer significantly increases degradation of the polymer solution.

  19. Geometrical properties of rough metallic surfaces and their implication in electromagnetic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Chicon, R.; Ortuno, M.; Abellan, J.

    1987-01-01

    We analyze the geometrical properties and their implications in the effective surface resistance and wall losses of rough metallic surfaces. The power spectrum and the autocorrelation function are calculated for a simple model that adequately represent the rough surface. The roughness parameters are obtained through average values of the roughness and its derivative. We calculate the density profile, directly related to the depth-dependent effective conductivity. The data from the profilometer are corrected to take into account the finite size of the tip. (author)

  20. Notions of Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ishfaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [-3]Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough NS theory to graphs and present a new kind of graph structure, rough neutrosophic digraphs. We present certain operations, including lexicographic products, strong products, rejection and tensor products on rough neutrosophic digraphs. We investigate some of their properties. We also present an application of a rough neutrosophic digraph in decision-making.

  1. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Evaluation of The Effects of Cutting Parameters On The Surface Roughness During The Turning of Hadfield Steel With Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün EKİCİ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hadfield steel (X120Mn12 is widely used in the engineering applications due to its excellent wear resistance. In this study, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness were investigated in relation to the lathe process carried out on Hadfield steel. The experiments were conducted at a cutting speed of 80, 110, 140 m/min, feed rate of 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mm/rev and depth of cut 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm, using coated carbide tools. Regarding the evaluation of the machinability of Hadfield steel, a model was formed utilizing the response surface method (RSM. For the determination of the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the central composite design (CCD and variance analysis (ANOVA were used. By means of the model formed as a result of the experimental study, it was demonstrated that among the cutting parameters, the feed rate is the most effective parameter on the surface roughness, with a contribution ratio of 90.28%. It was determined that the surface roughness increases with increasing feed rate. With respect to the effect on the surface roughness, the feed rate was followed by the cutting speed with a contribution ratio of 3.1% and the cutting depth with a contribution ratio of 1.7%.

  3. Roughness topographical effects on mean momentum and stress budgets in developed turbulent channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Jouybari, Mostafa; Yuan, Junlin

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows are carried out over two surfaces: a synthesized sand-grain surface and a realistic turbine roughness that is characterized by more prominent large-scale surface features. To separate the effects of wall-normal variation of the roughness area fraction from the (true) variation of flow statistics, the governing equations are area-averaged using intrinsic averaging, contrary to the usually practice based on the total area (i.e., superficial averaging). Additional terms appear in the mean-momentum equation resulted from the wall-normal variation of the solid fraction and play a role in the near-wall balance. Results from surfaces with a step solidity function (e.g., cubes) will also be discussed. Compared to the sand grains, the turbine surface generates stronger form-induced fluctuations, despite weaker dispersive shear stress. This is associated with more significant form-induced productions (comparable to shear production) in Reynolds stress budgets, weaker pressure work, and, consequently, more anisotropic redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy in the roughness sublayer, which potentially leads to different turbulent responses between the two surfaces in non-equilibrium flows.

  4. Effect of Polysiloxanes on Roughness and Durability of Basalt Fibres–Reinforced Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Barnat-Hunek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of roughness and the way it affects the adhesion properties and surface free energy (SFE of polysiloxanes hydrophobised basalt fibres–reinforced cement mortars were determined in this article. The physical properties of mortars were investigated in the experimental part, which also explored the impact of hydrophobisation and basalt fibres (BF addition on SFE, frost resistance, contact angle (CA, and roughness. A device capable of calculating all parameters was used to indicate the surface roughness and 3D topography. Prior to and after conducting surface and weight hydrophobisation, the contact angle of mortars was specified. Subsequently, it was used for carrying out SFE calculation by means of Neumann’s method, enabling us to characterize the adhesion properties and wettability of mortars. The research indicated that the surface roughness was substantially decreased, in turn raising the frost resistance. The corrosion resistance drops when the surface roughness, water absorption, and number of fibres in the mortar increase. The SEM images presenting the structure of polysiloxane coating and mortars were provided.

  5. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield - especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the "density gradient model") which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target's atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient - leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  6. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinský, P., E-mail: malinsky@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V., E-mail: hnatowicz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Macková, A., E-mail: mackova@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-15

    A fast code for the simulation of common RBS spectra including surface roughness effects has been written and tested on virtual samples comprising either a rough layer deposited on a smooth substrate or smooth layer deposited on a rough substrate and simulated at different geometries. The sample surface or interface relief has been described by a polyline and the simulated RBS spectrum has been obtained as the sum of many particular spectra from randomly chosen particle trajectories. The code includes several procedures generating virtual samples with random and regular (periodical) roughness. The shape of the RBS spectra has been found to change strongly with increasing sample roughness and an increasing angle of the incoming ion beam.

  7. Surface roughness effects on blister formation in polycrystalline molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Sone, Kazuho; Yamada, Rayji; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Murakami, Yoshio

    1977-07-01

    Polycrystalline molybdenum targets with electropolished and roughened surfaces were bombarded with 100 keV He + and 200 keV H 2 + ions at room temperature. It has been demonstrated that the blister formation is largely or completely suppressed by roughening the electropolished surface with emery paper of No. 1200, No. 400 and No. 100. Up to a He + fluence of 1.0 x 10 19 particles/cm 2 , no blisters are observed in the targets with the two roughest surfaces, while on the smooth surface blisters begin to occur at a fluence of 7.5 x 10 17 particles/cm 2 . The surface roughness effect on blister suppression is discussed in relation to the projected range of incident particles. (auth.)

  8. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (<1 μm) than for colloids and was numerically simulated using a Convective-Diffusion model and experimentally validated. Inclusion of flow field and hydrodynamic retardation effects explained particle deposition profiles better than when only the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) force was considered. This work provides 1) a first comprehensive framework for describing the hydrodynamic impacts of nano-scale surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  9. Elastic–plastic adhesive contact of non-Gaussian rough surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Grinding, milling, honing and abrasion processes produce grooved surfaces with negative ... This may be defined as λ = π2RH4σ/(18K2γ2) where H is the hardness ... The effect of surface roughness on adhesion at the contact of rough solids ...

  10. Turbulence modifications in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall with spanwise-alternating roughness strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. L.; Kevin, Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modifications over a rough wall with spanwise-varying roughness are investigated at a moderate Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 2000 (or Reθ ≈ 6400), using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hotwire anemometry. The rough wall is comprised of spanwise-alternating longitudinal sandpaper strips of two different roughness heights. The ratio of high- and low-roughness heights is 8, and the ratio of high- and low-roughness strip width is 0.5. PIV measurements are conducted in a wall-parallel plane located in the logarithmic region, while hotwire measurements are made throughout the entire boundary layer in a cross-stream plane. In a time-average sense, large-scale counter-rotating roll-modes are observed in the cross-stream plane over the rough wall, with downwash and upwash common-flows displayed over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Meanwhile, elevated and reduced streamwise velocities occur over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Significant modifications in the distributions of mean vorticities and Reynolds stresses are observed, exhibiting features of spatial preference. Furthermore, spatial correlations and conditional average analyses are performed to examine the alterations of turbulence structures over the rough wall, revealing that the time-invariant structures observed are resultant from the time-average process of instantaneous turbulent events that occur mostly and preferentially in space.

  11. Effect of interface roughness on Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Sun, Wei; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Tansu, Nelson

    2017-03-01

    Auger recombination in a semiconductor is a three-carrier process, wherein the energy from the recombination of an electron and hole pair promotes a third carrier to a higher energy state. In semiconductor quantum wells with increased carrier densities, the Auger recombination becomes an appreciable fraction of the total recombination rate and degrades luminescence efficiency. Gaining insight into the variables that influence Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells could lead to further advances in optoelectronic and electronic devices. Here we demonstrate the important role that interface roughness has on Auger recombination within quantum wells. Our computational studies find that as the ratio of interface roughness to quantum well thickness is increased, Auger recombination is significantly enhanced. Specifically, when considering a realistic interface roughness for an InGaN quantum well, the enhancement in Auger recombination rate over a quantum well with perfect heterointerfaces can be approximately four orders of magnitude.

  12. Effects of rf power on chemical composition and surface roughness of glow discharge polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; He, Xiaoshan; Chen, Guo; Wang, Tao; Tang, Yongjian; He, Zhibing, E-mail: hezhibing802@163.com

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The growth mechanism of defects in GDP films was studied upon plasma diagnosis. • Increasing rf power enhanced the etching effects of smaller-mass species. • The “void” defect was caused by high energy hydrocarbons bombardment on the surface. • The surface roughness was only 12.76 nm, and no “void” defect was observed at 30 W. - Abstract: The glow discharge polymer (GDP) films for laser fusion targets were successfully fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at different radio frequency (rf) powers. The films were deposited using trans-2-butene (T{sub 2}B) mixed with hydrogen as gas sources. The composition and state of plasma were diagnosed by quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and Langmuir probe during the deposition process. The composition, surface morphology and roughness were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white-light interferometer (WLI), respectively. Based on these observation and analyses, the growth mechanism of defects in GDP films were studied. The results show that, at low rf power, there is a larger probability for secondary polymerization and formation of multi-carbon C-H species in the plasma. In this case, the surface of GDP film turns to be cauliflower-like. With the increase of rf power, the degree of ionization is high, the relative concentration of smaller-mass hydrocarbon species increases, while the relative concentration of larger-mass hydrocarbon species decreases. At higher rf power, the energy of smaller-mass species are high and the etching effects are strong correspondingly. The GDP film's surface roughness shows a trend of decrease firstly and then increase with the increasing rf power. At rf power of 30 W, the surface root-mean-square roughness (Rq) drops to the lowest value of 12.8 nm, and no “void” defect was observed.

  13. Predicting capacities of runways serving new large aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gopalakrishnan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified approach for predicting the allowable load repetitions of New Large Aircraft (NLA loading for airfield runways based on Non-Destructive Test (NDT data. Full-scale traffic test results from the Federal Aviation Administration’s National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF were used to develop the NDT-based evaluation methodology. Four flexible test pavement sections with variable (unbound layer thicknesses were trafficked using six-wheel and four-wheel NLA test gears until the test pavements were deemed failed. Non-destructive tests using a Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD were conducted prior to the initiation of traffic testing to measure the pavement surface deflections. In the past, pavement surface deflections have been successfully used as an indicator of airport pavement life. In this study, the HWD surface deflections and the derived Deflection Basin Parameters (DBPs were related to functional performance of NAPTF flexible pavements through simple regression analysis. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NDT data for predicting the performance of airport flexible pavements serving the next generation of aircrafts.

  14. Quantifying the effect of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranian, A.; Ay, M. R.; Alam, N. Riyahi; Zaidi, H. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14185-615, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14185-615, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) and Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The accurate prediction of x-ray spectra under typical conditions encountered in clinical x-ray examination procedures and the assessment of factors influencing them has been a long-standing goal of the diagnostic radiology and medical physics communities. In this work, the influence of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra is evaluated using MCNP4C-based Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: An image-based modeling method was used to create realistic models from surface-cracked anodes. An in-house computer program was written to model the geometric pattern of cracks and irregularities from digital images of focal track surface in order to define the modeled anodes into MCNP input file. To consider average roughness and mean crack depth into the models, the surface of anodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometry. It was found that the average roughness (R{sub a}) in the most aged tube studied is about 50 {mu}m. The correctness of MCNP4C in simulating diagnostic x-ray spectra was thoroughly verified by calling its Gaussian energy broadening card and comparing the simulated spectra with experimentally measured ones. The assessment of anode roughness involved the comparison of simulated spectra in deteriorated anodes with those simulated in perfectly plain anodes considered as reference. From these comparisons, the variations in output intensity, half value layer (HVL), heel effect, and patient dose were studied. Results: An intensity loss of 4.5% and 16.8% was predicted for anodes aged by 5 and 50 {mu}m deep cracks (50 kVp, 6 deg. target angle, and 2.5 mm Al total filtration). The variations in HVL were not significant as the spectra were not hardened by more than 2.5%; however, the trend for this variation was to increase with roughness. By deploying several point detector tallies along the anode-cathode direction and averaging exposure over them, it was found that for a 6 deg. anode, roughened by 50 {mu}m deep

  15. Research on effect of rough surface on FMCW laser radar range accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huirong

    2018-03-01

    The non-cooperative targets large scale measurement system based on frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser detection and ranging technology has broad application prospects. It is easy to automate measurement without cooperative targets. However, the complexity and diversity of the surface characteristics of the measured surface directly affects the measurement accuracy. First, the theoretical analysis of range accuracy for a FMCW laser radar was studied, the relationship between surface reflectivity and accuracy was obtained. Then, to verify the effect of surface reflectance for ranging accuracy, a standard tool ball and three standard roughness samples were measured within 7 m to 24 m. The uncertainty of each target was obtained. The results show that the measurement accuracy is found to increase as the surface reflectivity gets larger. Good agreements were obtained between theoretical analysis and measurements from rough surfaces. Otherwise, when the laser spot diameter is smaller than the surface correlation length, a multi-point averaged measurement can reduce the measurement uncertainty. The experimental results show that this method is feasible.

  16. Research on the Effects of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in Wet-Activated Silicon Direct Bonding Base on Orthogonal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei NIE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness is a very important index in silicon direct bonding and it is affected by processing parameters in the wet-activated process. These parameters include the concentration of activation solution, holding time and treatment temperature. The effects of these parameters were investigated by means of orthogonal experiments. In order to analyze the wafer roughness more accurately, the bear ratio of the surface was used as the evaluation index. From the results of the experiments, it could be concluded that the concentration of the activation solution affected the roughness directly and the higher the concentration, the lower the roughness. Holding time did not affect the roughness as acutely as that of the concentration, but a reduced activation time decreased the roughness perceptibly. It was also discovered that the treatment temperature had a weak correlation with the surface roughness. Based on these conclusions, the parameters of concentration, temperature and holding time were optimized respectively as NH4OH:H2O2=1:1 (without water, 70 °C and 5 min. The results of bonding experiments proved the validity of the conclusions of orthogonal experiments.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9711

  17. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Sloan J. [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Hobler, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.hobler@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30348 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  18. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  19. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2016-01-01

    The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability. PMID:27240353

  20. Effect of surface roughness on ultrasonic echo amplitude in aluminium-copper alloy castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardar, R.; Pathak, S.D.; Prabhakar, O.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of test surface roughness on ultrasonic back-wall echo (BWE) amplitude in Al-4.5%Cu alloy cast specimens has been studied. The results indicate that as the value of surface roughness of the specimen increases, the value of relating BWE amplitude at a given probe frequency decreases. However, under the present set of experimental conditions, the decrease in BWE amplitude with the increase in surface roughness of the test specimen is found to be appreciable at 10 MHz probe frequency. (author)

  1. Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai

    2011-01-01

    The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

  2. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  3. Numerical simulation of electroosmotic flow in rough microchannels using the lattice Poisson-Nernst-Planck methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Reza; Soloklou, Mohsen Nasiri; Hadidi, Hooman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, coupled Lattice Boltzmann method is applied to solve the dynamic model for an electroosmotic flow and investigate the effects of roughness in a 2-D flat microchannel. In the present model, the Poisson equation is solved for the electrical potential, the Nernst- Planck equation is solved for the ion concentration. In the analysis of electroosmotic flows, when the electric double layers fully overlap or the convective effects are not negligible, the Nernst-Planck equation must be used to find the ionic distribution throughout the microchannel. The effects of surface roughness height, roughness interval spacing and roughness surface potential on flow conditions are investigated for two different configurations of the roughness, when the EDL layers fully overlap through the microchannel. The results show that in both arrangements of roughness in homogeneously charged rough channels, the flow rate decreases by increasing the roughness height. A discrepancy in the mass flow rate is observed when the roughness height is about 0.15 of the channel width, which its average is higher for the asymmetric configuration and this difference grows by increasing the roughness height. In the symmetric roughness arrangement, the mass flow rate increases until the roughness interval space is almost 1.5 times the roughness width and it decreases for higher values of the roughness interval space. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, when the roughness surface potential ψr is less than channel surface potential ψs , the net charge density increases by getting far from the roughness surface, while in the opposite situation, when ψs is more than ψr , the net charge density decreases from roughness surface to the microchannel middle center. Increasing the roughness surface potential induces stronger electric driving force on the fluid which results in larger velocities in the flow.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LUNAR ROUGHNESS FROM MULTI - SOURCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lunar terrain can show its collision and volcanic history. The lunar surface roughness can give a deep indication of the effects of lunar surface magma, sedimentation and uplift. This paper aims to get different information from the roughness through different data sources. Besides introducing the classical Root-mean-square height method and Morphological Surface Roughness (MSR algorithm, this paper takes the area of the Jurassic mountain uplift in the Sinus Iridum and the Plato Crater area as experimental areas. And then make the comparison and contrast of the lunar roughness derived from LRO's DEM and CE-2 DOM. The experimental results show that the roughness obtained by the traditional roughness calculation method reflect the ups and downs of the topography, while the results obtained by morphological surface roughness algorithm show the smoothness of the lunar surface. So, we can first use the surface fluctuation situation derived from RMSH to select the landing area range which ensures the lands are gentle. Then the morphological results determine whether the landing area is suitable for the detector walking and observing. The results obtained at two different scales provide a more complete evaluation system for selecting the landing site of the lunar probe.

  5. Effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işil Sarikaya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-five cylindirical specimens (15x2 mm were prepared for each feldspathic (Vita VMK 95, Ceramco III and low-fusing dental porcelain (Matchmaker. Fifty-five specimens of machinable feldspathic porcelain blocks (Vitablocs Mark II, (12x14x18 mm were cut into 2-mm-thick slices (12x14 mm with low speed saw. The prepared specimens were divided into 11 groups (n=5 representing different polishing techniques including control ((C no surface treatment, glaze (G and other 9 groups that were finished and polished with polishing discs (Sof-Lex (Sl, two porcelain polishing kits (NTI (Pk, Dialite II (Di, a diamond polishing paste (Sparkle (Sp, a zirconium silicate based cleaning and polishing prophy paste (Zircate (Zr, an aluminum oxide polishing paste (Prisma Gloss (Pg, and combinations of them. The surface roughness of all groups was measured with a profilometer. The data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the mean values were compared by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (a=0.05. RESULTS: For all porcelain material groups, the lowest Ra values were observed in Group Gl, Group Sl, Group Pk, and Group Di, which were not significantly different from each other (p>0.05.When comparing the 4 different porcelain materials, the machinable feldspathic porcelain block group (Mark II demonstrated statistically significantly less Ra values than the other porcelain materials tested (p<0.05. No significant difference was observed between the VMK 95 and Ceramco III porcelain groups (p=0.919, also these groups demonstrated the highest Ra values. CONCLUSION: Subjected to surface roughness, the surfaces obtained with polishing and/or cleaning-prophy paste materials used alone were rougher compared to the surfaces finished using Sof-lex, Dialite, and NTI polishing kit

  6. Influence of compound bedforms on hydraulic roughness in a tidal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The effect exerted by the seabed morphology on the flow is commonly expressed by the hydraulic roughness, a fundamental parameter in the understanding and simulation of hydro- and sediment dynamics in coastal areas. This study quantifies the hydraulic roughness of large compound bedforms throughout...... bedforms with superimposed smaller secondary bedforms. Spatially averaged velocity profiles produced log-linear relationships which were used to calculate roughness lengths. During the flood phase, the velocity profiles were best described by a single log-linear fit related to the roughness created...

  7. Effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Frankel, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples was studied using SKP. ► Delamination of the coating decreased with increased substrate surface roughness. ► Delamination of the coating was faster on the substrate with parallel surface scratches. ► Delamination of the coating exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure. - Abstract: The Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) technique was used to investigate the effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel. The cathodic delamination rate of the epoxy coatings dramatically decreased with increased surface roughness of the underlying steel substrate. The surface texture of the steel substrates also had a significant effect in that samples with parallel abrasion lines exhibiting faster cathodic delamination in the direction of the lines compared to the direction perpendicular to the lines. The cathodic delamination kinetics of epoxy coatings previously exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure due to pronounced polymer degradation. SEM observation confirmed that the cyclic exposure to UV radiation and water condensation caused severe deterioration in the polymer structures with surface cracking and erosion. The SKP results clearly showed that the cathodic delamination of the epoxy coatings was significantly influenced by the surface features of the underlying steel substrates and the degradation of the coatings.

  8. Anomalous roughness of turbulent interfaces with system size dependent local roughness exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Matamoros, Daniel Morales

    2005-01-01

    In a system far from equilibrium the system size can play the role of control parameter that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system. Accordingly, the kinetic roughness of interfaces in systems far from equilibrium may depend on the system size. To get an insight into this problem, we performed a detailed study of rough interfaces formed in paper combustion experiments. Using paper sheets of different width λ, we found that the turbulent flame fronts display anomalous multi-scaling characterized by non-universal global roughness exponent α and by the system size dependent spectrum of local roughness exponents, ζ q (λ)=ζ 1 (1)q -ω λ φ q =0.93q -0.15 . The structure factor of turbulent flame fronts also exhibits unconventional scaling dependence on λ. These results are expected to apply to a broad range of far from equilibrium systems when the kinetic energy fluctuations exceed a certain critical value.

  9. Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing on the Surface Roughness of Solid State Recycled Aluminum Alloy 6061 Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state recycling through hot extrusion is a promising technique to recycle machining chips without remelting. Furthermore, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP technique coupled with the extruded recycled billet is introduced to enhance the mechanical properties of recycled samples. In this paper, the surface roughness of solid state recycled aluminum alloy 6061 turning chips was investigated. Aluminum chips were cold compacted and hot extruded under an extrusion ratio (ER of 5.2 at an extrusion temperature (ET of 425°C. In order to improve the properties of the extruded samples, they were subjected to ECAP up to three passes at room temperature using an ECAP die with a channel die angle (Φ of 90°. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz of the processed recycled billets machined by turning was investigated. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the surface roughness of the machined specimens for four materials conditions, namely, extruded billet and postextrusion ECAP processed billets to one, two, and three passes. Quadratic models were developed to relate the machining parameters to surface roughness, and a multiobjective optimization scheme was conducted to maximize material removal rate while maintaining the roughness below a preset practical value.

  10. Effect of turning parameters on surface roughness of A356/5% SiC composite produced by electromagnetic stir casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, S. P.; Kumar, Sudhir; Kumar, Ajay [Noida Institute of Engineering Technology, U.P (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present investigation, A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC composite is fabricated by electromagnetic stir casting process. An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of CNC lathe process parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate on surface roughness during machining of A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC particulate metal-matrix composites in dry condition. Response surface methodology (Box Behnken Method) is chosen to design the experiments. The results reveal that cutting speed increases surface roughness decreases, whereas depth of cut and feed increase surface roughness increase. Optimum values of speed (190 m/min), feed (0.14 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.20 mm) during turning of A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC composites to minimize the surface roughness (3.15>m) have been find out. The mechanical properties of A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC were also analyzed.

  11. The influence of roughness and obstacle on wind power map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Ab Wahab; Mohd Fadhil Abas; Mohd Hafiz Ismail

    2006-01-01

    In the development of wind energy in Malaysia, the need for wind power map of Peninsular Malaysia has aroused. The map is needed to help in determining the potential areas where low wind speed wind turbines could operate optimally. In establishing the wind power map the effects of roughness and obstacles have been investigated. Wind data from 24 meteorological stations around the country have been utilized in conjunction with the respective local roughness and obstacles. Two sets of wind power maps have been developed i.e. the wind power maps with and without roughness and obstacles. These two sets of wind power maps exhibit great significant amount of difference in the wind power values especially in the inland areas where the wind power map without roughness and obstacles gives much lower values than those with roughness and obstacles. This paper outlines the process of establishing the two sets of wind power map as well as discussing the influence of roughness and obstacles based on the results obtained

  12. Effect finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Nishida, Rodrigo; Elossais, André Afif; Lima, Darlon Martins; Reis, José Mauricio Santos Nunes; Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic when treated with different finishing/polishing protocols. Sixteen specimens of IPS Empress 2 ceramic were made from wax patterns obtained using a stainless steel split mold. The specimens were glazed (Stage 0-S0, control) and divided into two groups. The specimens in Group 1 (G1) were finished/polished with a KG Sorensen diamond point (S1), followed by KG Sorensen siliconized points (S2) and final polishing with diamond polish paste (S3). In Group 2 (G2), the specimens were finished/polished using a Shofu diamond point (S1), as well as Shofu siliconized points (S2) and final polishing was performed using Porcelize paste (S3). After glazing (S0) and following each polishing procedure (S1, S2 or S3), the surface roughness was measured using TALYSURF Series 2. The average surface roughness results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.01) RESULTS: All of the polishing procedures yielded higher surface roughness values when compared to the control group (S0). S3 yielded lower surface roughness values when compared to S1 and S2. The proposed treatments negatively affected the surface roughness of the glazed IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

  13. Statistical characterization of roughness uncertainty and impact on wind resource estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this work we relate uncertainty in background roughness length (z0) to uncertainty in wind speeds, where the latter are predicted at a wind farm location based on wind statistics observed at a different site. Sensitivity of predicted winds to roughness is derived analytically for the industry...... between mean wind speed and AEP. Following our developments, we provide guidance on approximate roughness uncertainty magnitudes to be expected in industry practice, and we also find that sites with larger background roughness incur relatively larger uncertainties.......-standard European Wind Atlas method, which is based on the geostrophic drag law. We statistically consider roughness and its corresponding uncertainty, in terms of both z0 derived from measured wind speeds as well as that chosen in practice by wind engineers. We show the combined effect of roughness uncertainty...

  14. Heat transfer and friction on smooth and rough test rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, W.M.P.; Hoogland, H.; Deijman, P.

    1977-06-01

    Results are reported on heat transfer and pressure drop tests on one smooth and nine rough test rods in an annular geometry. The wall roughness consisted of transversal ribs with various roughness pitches, rib heights and rib widths. The tests were performed with air as coolant under a wide range of experimental conditions: 10 5 5 , 1.1 2. Special attention has been given to the effect of variation of the physical coolant properties over the flow cross section. This effect could be described by the power function (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b))sup(-0.3l) in additional systematic variation of the heat transfer could be recognized, dependent on the coolant temperature level. The experimental results were correlated by the equation St = C(Tsub(in)) Resup(-0.2) Prsup(-0.6) (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b)sup(-0.31). Values of C(Tsub(in)) are given in tabular form. The thermal entrance effect has been measured on various test rods. A substantial reduction of the heat transfer coefficient was almost constant along the rough test rods

  15. Soil settlement analysis in soft soil by using preloading system and prefabricated vertical draining runway of Kualanamu Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Silalahi, S. A.; Fadliansyah

    2018-02-01

    The method of soil improvement, using the combination of prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) and preloading, was used to accelerate the process of consolidation and the consolidation settlement in the runway of Kualanamu International Airport, which was constructed on the soft soil sediment like silty clay. In this research, the investigated area was the runway of Kualanamu International Airport zone I which had 11 meter-thickness of soft soil. Geotechnic instruments surveyed was settlement plate. Monitoring was done toward the behavior of landfill such as basic soil settlement. The result were compared with the analysis of finite element method of full scale in Mohr-Coulomb model by verifying the vertical drain of asymmetric unit cell and equivalent plane strain unit cell condition. The results of the research showed that there were an interesting behavior between the data in field observation and finite element of Mohr-Coulomb model. It was also found that the result of soil settlement of finite element method of Mohr-Coulomb model was closed to the result of settlement plate monitoring.

  16. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feidenhans’l, Nikolaj A; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, Morten H; Petersen, Jan C; Pilný, Lukáš; Bissacco, Giuliano; Taboryski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler. For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal instruments, if the common bandwidth is applied. Likewise, a correlation is observed when determining the Aq value with the BRDF and the rBRDF instruments.Furthermore, we show that it is possible to determine the Rq value from the Aq value, by applying a simple transfer function derived from the instrument comparisons. The presented method is validated for surfaces with predominantly 1D roughness, i.e. consisting of parallel grooves of various periods, and a reflectance similar to stainless steel. The Rq values are predicted with an accuracy of 38% at the 95% confidence interval. (paper)

  17. Electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids: the influence of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alessio; Fajardo, Oscar Y; Kornyshev, Alexei A; Urbakh, Michael; Bresme, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    The properties of ionic liquids can be modified by applying an external electrostatic potential, providing a route to control their performance in nanolubrication applications. Most computational studies to date have focused on the investigation of smooth surfaces. Real surfaces are generally inhomogeneous and feature roughness of different length scales. We report here a study of the possible effects that surface roughness may have on electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids, performed here by means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In order to advance our understanding of the interplay of friction and substrate structure we investigate coarse grained models of ionic liquids confined in model surfaces with nanometer roughness. The friction is shown to depend on the roughness of the substrate and the direction of shear. For the investigated systems, the friction coefficient is found to increase with roughness. These results are in contrast with previous studies, where roughness induced reduction of friction was reported, and they highlight the strong sensitivity of the friction process to the structure of the surfaces. The friction force features a maximum at a specific surface charge density. This behaviour is reminiscent of the one reported in ionic liquids confined by flat surfaces, showing the generality of this physical effect in confined ionic liquids. We find that an increase of the substrate-liquid dispersion interactions shifts the maximum to lower surface charges. This effect opens a route to control electrotunable friction phenomena by tuning both the electrostatic potential and the composition of the confining surfaces.

  18. Tantalum films with well-controlled roughness grown by oblique incidence deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechendorff, K.; Hovgaard, M. B.; Chevallier, J.; Foss, M.; Besenbacher, F.

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated how tantalum films with well-controlled surface roughness can be grown by e-gun evaporation with oblique angle of incidence between the evaporation flux and the surface normal. Due to a more pronounced shadowing effect the root-mean-square roughness increases from about 2 to 33 nm as grazing incidence is approached. The exponent, characterizing the scaling of the root-mean-square roughness with length scale (α), varies from 0.75 to 0.93, and a clear correlation is found between the angle of incidence and root-mean-square roughness.

  19. Heat transfer and pressure drop in microchannels with random roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelevic, N.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface roughness on heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena within a microchannel has been investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The surface roughness has been generated by using Gaussian function. Gaussian function is an efficient and convenient method to create surface

  20. The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.

  1. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  2. Modeling of interface roughness in thermoelectric composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gather, F; Heiliger, C; Klar, P J

    2011-01-01

    We use a network model to calculate the influence of the mesoscopic interface structure on the thermoelectric properties of superlattice structures consisting of alternating layers of materials A and B. The thermoelectric figure of merit of such a composite material depends on the layer thickness, if interface resistances are accounted for, and can be increased by proper interface design. In general, interface roughness reduces the figure of merit, again compared to the case of ideal interfaces. However, the strength of this reduction depends strongly on the type of interface roughness. Smooth atomic surface diffusion leading to alloying of materials A and B causes the largest reduction of the figure of merit. Consequently, in real structures, it is important not only to minimize interface roughness, but also to control the type of roughness. Although the microscopic effects of interfaces are only empirically accounted for, using a network model can yield useful information about the dependence of the macroscopic transport coefficients on the mesoscopic disorder in structured thermoelectric materials.

  3. The role of the roughness spectral breadth in elastic contact of rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastrebov, Vladislav A.; Anciaux, Guillaume; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    We study frictionless and non-adhesive contact between elastic half-spaces with self-affine surfaces. Using a recently suggested corrective technique, we ensure an unprecedented accuracy in computation of the true contact area evolution under increasing pressure. This accuracy enables us to draw conclusions on the role of the surface's spectrum breadth (Nayak parameter) in the contact area evolution. We show that for a given normalized pressure, the contact area decreases logarithmically with the Nayak parameter. By linking the Nayak parameter with the Hurst exponent (or fractal dimension), we show the effect of the latter on the true contact area. This effect, undetectable for surfaces with poor spectral content, is quite strong for surfaces with rich spectra. Numerical results are compared with analytical models and other available numerical results. A phenomenological equation for the contact area growth is suggested with coefficients depending on the Nayak parameter. Using this equation, the pressure-dependent friction coefficient is deduced based on the adhesive theory of friction. Some observations on Persson's model of rough contact, whose prediction does not depend on Nayak parameter, are reported. Overall, the paper provides a unifying picture of rough elastic contact and clarifies discrepancies between preceding results.

  4. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  5. Aircraft Accident Report. Runway Overrun During Landing American Airlines Flight 1420 McDonnell Douglas MD-82, N215AA Little Rock, Arkansas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This report explains the accident involving American Airlines flight 1420, a McDonnell Douglas MD-82, which crashed after it overran the end of runway 4R during landing at Little Rock National Airport...

  6. Electromagnetic Scattering Characteristics of Fractal Rough Coated Objects in the Terahertz Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hua

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the physical optics method, the scattering characteristics of fractal rough surface coated objects are studied in the terahertz (THz range herein. A blunt model based on fractal rough surfaces is built. The surface current is calculated according to the Fresnel reflection coefficient, and the Radar Cross Section (RCS of the rough coated target is obtained. The RCS of rough and smooth surface targets are compared. Numerical results for a rough coated blunt cone model are provided, and discussed from the perspective of different frequencies and coating thickness values. The results show that the surface roughness of the target has a significant effect on scattering in the terahertz range.

  7. Effects of Processing Parameters on Surface Roughness of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V via Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Wai Jack; Nai, Mui Ling Sharon; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    As one of the powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technologies, electron beam melting (EBM) is gaining more and more attention due to its near-net-shape production capacity with low residual stress and good mechanical properties. These characteristics also allow EBM built parts to be used as produced without post-processing. However, the as-built rough surface introduces a detrimental influence on the mechanical properties of metallic alloys. Thereafter, understanding the effects of processing parameters on the part’s surface roughness, in turn, becomes critical. This paper has focused on varying the processing parameters of two types of contouring scanning strategies namely, multispot and non-multispot, in EBM. The results suggest that the beam current and speed function are the most significant processing parameters for non-multispot contouring scanning strategy. While for multispot contouring scanning strategy, the number of spots, spot time, and spot overlap have greater effects than focus offset and beam current. The improved surface roughness has been obtained in both contouring scanning strategies. Furthermore, non-multispot contouring scanning strategy gives a lower surface roughness value and poorer geometrical accuracy than the multispot counterpart under the optimized conditions. These findings could be used as a guideline for selecting the contouring type used for specific industrial parts that are built using EBM. PMID:28937638

  8. Friction factor in smooth and rough gas pipelines. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sletfjerding, Elling

    1999-01-01

    Flow of high pressure natural gas in pipelines has been studied experimentally. Pipeline flow of natural gas is characterized by high Reynolds numbers due to the low viscosity and relatively high density of pressurized gas. Friction factor correlations for high Reynolds number flow in smooth and rough pipes were developed. To study the effect of wall roughness on pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers 8 test pipes with different wall roughness were fabricated. The wall roughness in 6 of the test pipes was varied by adding glass beads in an epoxy coating applied on the pipe wall. One test pipe was treated with a smooth epoxy coating and one was left untreated. The inner diameter of the test pipes was 150 mm. Measurements of the pressure drop in the pipes were made in a closed flow loop at line pressures of 25, 70, 95 and 120 bar. The Reynolds number of the flow was varied in the range 2-30 million. The wall roughness of the test pipes was measured with a stylus instrument. Correlations between the directly measured wall roughness and the friction factor at fully rough flow conditions were presented. To characterize the wall roughness of the test pipes a parameter combining a measure of the roughness height (R{sub q}) and the texture of the wall roughness was used. Due to the high Reynolds number of the flow, minute irregularities of the pipe wall had significant effect on the friction factor in the pipe. The measured wall roughness of the test pipes was in the range 1.4 < R{sub q} <31 (my)m. The flow experiments in test pipes was compared with data from operating pipelines in the North Sea. The offshore pipelines are coated with the same epoxy coating as used in the test pipes. The friction factor in coated offshore gas pipelines showed smooth behavior when the additional pressure drop due to welds were accounted for. The study of coated gas pipelines showed that the friction factor was significantly lower than predicted by standard correlations.

  9. Modeling of roughness effect on hydrogen permeation in a low carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño, J. A.; Uribe, I.; Carrillo, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented to evaluate the effect of the roughness and the profile of concentration of hydrogen in a low carbon steel. The model takes advantage of the Fick's Second Law, to predict the transport of hydrogen in the steel. The problem is treated as a variational one and its space solution is made numerically by means of the Finite Elements Method, while the temporal equation is solved via the Finite Differences Method, in order to determine the concentration profiles of Hydrogen in t...

  10. The In vitro Evaluation of the effect of xyliwhite, probiotic, and the conventional toothpastes on the enamel roughness and microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, E Arat; Altun, C; Polat, G Guven; Basak, F

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride, Xylitol, Probiotic, and Whitening toothpastes on the permanent teeth enamel roughness and microhardness. One hundred and twenty teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups, each group having 60 samples. G1: The group in which enamel roughness was examined (n = 60). G2: The group in which enamel microhardness was examined (n = 60). Then, these groups were randomly divided into 4 groups among themselves (n = 15). Each group was brushed using four different toothpastes for 1 week with a battery-powered toothbrush in the morning and evening for 2 min. Vicker's hardness tester was used to measure the changes in microhardness, and the profilometer was used to measure the changes in surface roughness. No statistically significant differences were found on surface roughness and microhardness values measured after tooth brushing process in group brushed with Colgate MaxFresh toothpaste (P > 0.01). Statistically significant decrease was observed on Vicker's hardness values measured after tooth brushing process in groups brushed with Ipana White Power Carbonate toothpaste, Xyliwhite Toothpaste Gel, and Periobiotic Probiotic Toothpaste (P tooth enamel surface roughness and microhardness. Xyliwhite, Periobiotic, and Ipana White Power Carbonate-containing abrasive toothpastes led to changes negatively on permanent tooth enamel surface roughness and microhardness.

  11. Effects of surface roughness on sea ice freeboard retrieval with an Airborne Ku-Band SAR radar altimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit

    2010-01-01

    to investigate sea ice volume changes on an Arctic wide scale. Freeboard retrieval requires precise radar range measurements to the ice surface, therefore we investigate the penetration of the Ku-Band radar waves into the overlying snow cover as well as the effects of sub-footprint-scale surface roughness using...... airborne radar and laser altimeters. We find regional variable penetration of the radar signal at late spring conditions, where the difference of the radar and the reference laser range measurement never agrees with the expected snow thickness. In addition, a rough surface can lead to biases...

  12. Towards predictive models for transitionally rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahaman-Elena, Nabil; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We analyze and model the previously presented decomposition for flow variables in DNS of turbulence over transitionally rough surfaces. The flow is decomposed into two contributions: one produced by the overlying turbulence, which has no footprint of the surface texture, and one induced by the roughness, which is essentially the time-averaged flow around the surface obstacles, but modulated in amplitude by the first component. The roughness-induced component closely resembles the laminar steady flow around the roughness elements at the same non-dimensional roughness size. For small - yet transitionally rough - textures, the roughness-free component is essentially the same as over a smooth wall. Based on these findings, we propose predictive models for the onset of the transitionally rough regime. Project supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  13. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria Jr, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Ni...

  14. AN AUTOMATED ROAD ROUGHNESS DETECTION FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  15. An Automated Road Roughness Detection from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Angelats, E.

    2017-05-01

    Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  16. Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  17. EFFECT OF VARIOUS POROUS STRUCTURES ON THE SHLIOMIS MODEL BASED FERROFLUID LUBRICATION OF THE FILM SQUEEZED BETWEEN ROTATING ROUGH CURVED CIRCULAR PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimit R Patel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been made to analyze the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication of a squeeze film between rotating rough curved circular plates where the upper plate has a porous facing. Different models of porosity are treated. The stochastic modeling of Christensen and Tonder has been employed to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. The related stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is numerically solved to obtain the pressure distribution, leading to the calculation of load carrying capacity. The results presented in graphical form establish that the Kozeny-Carman model is more favorable as compared to the Irmay one from the design point of view. It is observed that the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication performs relatively better than the Neuringer-Rosensweig one. Although the bearing suffers due to transverse surface roughness, with a suitable choice of curvature parameters and rotational ratio, the negative effect of porosity and standard deviation can be minimized by the ferrofluid lubrication at least in the case of negatively skewed roughness.

  18. Surface roughness induced electron mobility degradation in InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengyun; Yip, Sen Po; Han, Ning; Fok, KitWa; Lin, Hao; Hou, Jared J; Dong, Guofa; Hung, Tak Fu; Chan, K S; Ho, Johnny C

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of the surface roughness dependent electron mobility in InAs nanowires grown by the nickel-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method. These nanowires have good crystallinity, well-controlled surface morphology without any surface coating or tapering and an excellent peak field-effect mobility up to 15 000 cm 2 V −1 s −1 when configured into back-gated field-effect nanowire transistors. Detailed electrical characterizations reveal that the electron mobility degrades monotonically with increasing surface roughness and diameter scaling, while low-temperature measurements further decouple the effects of surface/interface traps and phonon scattering, highlighting the dominant impact of surface roughness scattering on the electron mobility for miniaturized and surface disordered nanowires. All these factors suggest that careful consideration of nanowire geometries and surface condition is required for designing devices with optimal performance. (paper)

  19. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan

    2006-01-01

    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  20. Study of different effectives on wind energy by using mathematical methods and rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrouf, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    all open and closed sets are coincide. Because of this special topological structure, the generalization of variable precision rough sets was not directed to use the topological concepts.As a result of the huge development and the big progress in industry there are more requests on the energy sources that reduces air pollution.So the world looked for alternative, renewable, clean and less expensive energy sources. Historically, Ancient Egyptians used wind energy in windmills for grinding grain and pumping water from the river Nile for irrigation. However, the utilization of windmills declined abruptly due to the use of oil fueled diesel engines water pumping. Yet wind turbine technology has now been developed so the cost of electricity generated by wind has decreased substantially due to the reduction in the installed cost of turbines and the greater efficiency in energy production per installed kilowatt, due to improvements in reliability and availability of the plant. The wind energy as well as the solar energy is the best of all kinds of energy that avoid production of air pollution. Brief Contents of the Thesis:The material that comprehended in this Thesis is organized in three subsequent chapters and a list of (82) references in the following way;Chapter 1: In this chapter, we introduce a brief survey about the wind energy concepts and the topological methods for data analysis. In Section 1-1, we present a general introduction. We recall some of wind energy and energy from moving air in Section 1-2. The purpose of In Section 1-3 is to introduce the atmospheric fundamentals. Section 1-4 shows the concepts of modern topological methods for data analysis. Chapter 2: In this chapter we shall survey about concepts of rough set as model to analyze the data and its modification which introduced by the Egyptian topological group. More over, we shall deal with obtaining the effect of air density variation on the wind energy.In section 2-1, we introduce a general

  1. Effect of alloy type and surface conditioning on roughness and bond strength of metal brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nergiz, I.; Schmage, P.; Herrmann, W.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 5 different surface conditioning methods on bonding of metal brackets to cast dental alloys was examined. The surface conditioning methods were fine (30-µm) or rough (125-µm) diamond bur, sandblasting (50-µm or 110-µm aluminum oxide [Al2O3]), and silica coating (30-µm silica). Fifty

  2. Effect of brushing and thermocycling on the shade and surface roughness of CAD-CAM ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Wee, Alvin G; Alfaro, Maria F; Afshari, Fatemeh S; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2017-09-29

    The effects of toothbrushing (B) and thermocycling (TC) on the surface texture of different materials with various fabrication processes have been investigated. However, studies of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) ceramic restorations are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of B and TC on the color stability and surface roughness of extrinsically characterized and glazed CAD-CAM ceramic restorations. Lithium disilicate CAD ceramic (n=90) and zirconia ceramic (n=90) were studied. All specimens were crystallized/sintered, characterized, and glazed following the manufacturer's recommendation. The specimens were divided into 9 different groups: B, TC, and a combination of B plus TC (B+TC). Brushing was performed at 50 000, 100 000, and 150 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Thermocycling was performed at 6000, 12 000, and 18 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Brushing plus TC was performed with the combination of the 50 000 cycles of B, then 6000 cycles of TC, and 10 000 cycles of B, then 12 000 cycles of TC, and 15 000 cycles of B, then 18 000 cycles of TC. The color and surface roughness of each specimen were measured before and after all interventions with simulated cycles. Color differences (ΔE) and surface roughness (ΔR a ) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, followed by the least significant difference test (α=.05). The correlation between ΔE and ΔR a was statistically analyzed using the Pearson correlation analysis. Within the lithium disilicate CAD groups, intervention did not result in any significant differences in color change (P>.05). Within the zirconia groups, a 15-year clinical simulation revealed significantly higher ΔE values than a simulated 5-year exposure (P=.017). Increased simulated cycles showed significantly higher R a values for all groups. Within the zirconia groups, B revealed

  3. Studying the Effect of Roughness of Wet Road on Critical speed of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is one the most dangerous phenomena which effect on the safety of driving cars on wet roads, then, the critical speed of slipping cars is an important parameter in the hydroplaning ,and depends on the properties of  the following three  parameters: tires, water layer and  road surface. The road texture is the main property of road specifications which affect directly on the critical speed of the vehicle. In the present work, the properties of road roughness and influence of surface texture on critical speed of vehicle are studied with variation of the following parameters: thickness and dynamic viscosity of water on the road surface and the vehicle load. The results showed that increasing the road surface roughness and the vehicle load both has a appositive influence on the critical speed (increaseof the vehicle, while increasing the dynamic viscosity and thickness of the water layer on the road surface has a negative influence on the critical speed (decrease of the vehicle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.24

  4. Investigation and modelling of rubber stationary friction on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal, A; Klueppel, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents novel aspects regarding the physically motivated modelling of rubber stationary sliding friction on rough surfaces. The description of dynamic contact is treated within the framework of a generalized Greenwood-Williamson theory for rigid/soft frictional pairings. Due to the self-affinity of rough surfaces, both hysteresis and adhesion friction components arise from a multi-scale excitation of surface roughness. Beside a complete analytical formulation of contact parameters, the morphology of macrotexture is considered via the introduction of a second scaling range at large length scales which mostly contribute to hysteresis friction. Moreover, adhesion friction is related to the real area of contact combined with the kinetics of interfacial peeling effects. Friction experiments carried out with different rubbers on rough granite and asphalt point out the relevance of hysteresis and adhesion friction concepts on rough surfaces. The two scaling ranges approach significantly improves the description of wet and dry friction behaviour within the range of low sliding velocity. In addition, material and surface effects are predicted and understood on a physical basis. The applicability of such modelling is of high interest for materials developers and road constructors regarding the prediction of wet grip performance of tyres on road tracks

  5. Investigation and modelling of rubber stationary friction on rough surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gal, A; Klueppel, M [Deutsches Institut fuer Kautschuktechnologie, Eupener Strasse 33, D-30519 Hannover (Germany)

    2008-01-09

    This paper presents novel aspects regarding the physically motivated modelling of rubber stationary sliding friction on rough surfaces. The description of dynamic contact is treated within the framework of a generalized Greenwood-Williamson theory for rigid/soft frictional pairings. Due to the self-affinity of rough surfaces, both hysteresis and adhesion friction components arise from a multi-scale excitation of surface roughness. Beside a complete analytical formulation of contact parameters, the morphology of macrotexture is considered via the introduction of a second scaling range at large length scales which mostly contribute to hysteresis friction. Moreover, adhesion friction is related to the real area of contact combined with the kinetics of interfacial peeling effects. Friction experiments carried out with different rubbers on rough granite and asphalt point out the relevance of hysteresis and adhesion friction concepts on rough surfaces. The two scaling ranges approach significantly improves the description of wet and dry friction behaviour within the range of low sliding velocity. In addition, material and surface effects are predicted and understood on a physical basis. The applicability of such modelling is of high interest for materials developers and road constructors regarding the prediction of wet grip performance of tyres on road tracks.

  6. Solvent effect on polystyrene surface roughness on top of QCM sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakti, Setyawan P., E-mail: sakti@ub.ac.id; Rahmawati, Eka; Robiandi, Fadli [Advanced System and Material Technology, Laboratory of Instrumentation and Measurement Department of Physics, Brawijaya University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) has been used as a basis for many chemical sensors and biosensor. Its sensitivity to mass change which can detect a mass change on its surface down to sub ng/cm2 is one of its interesting aspects. Another interesting feature is its ability to work in liquid environment. However, there are many aspects which influence QCM sensor properties in contact with liquid. One of the aspects is surface roughness of the matrix layer where on top of it a biological sensitive layer will be immobilized. One of matrix layers in the immobilizing biological sensitive layer was polystyrene. Polystyrene was coated on the QCM sensor by using the spin coating method. During the coating process, polystyrene was solved using non-polar solvent. It is known that the physical and chemical properties of the solvent affect a transition process from soluble polymer becoming rigid polymer layer. In this work, we show that polystyrene solved in chloroform has a higher surface roughness compare to one solved in toluene, xylene, or tetrahydrofuran. Surface roughness of the polystyrene coating were measured using a non-contact profilometer. However, we also found that there is no difference on the electrical impedance of the QCM sensor coated with polystyrene resulted from differing solvent when the sensor was in contact with air and water. Thus, all of the mentioned solvent can be used to solve the polystyrene as a coating material for QCM sensor without affecting the electrical performance of the sensor, but the choice of the solution can be used as a simple method to control the difference roughness of the polystyrene coating.

  7. Wall roughness effects on flow and scouring in curved channels with gravel bed

    OpenAIRE

    Hersberger, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    Wall roughness effects on flow and scouring in curved channels with gravel bed In the narrow valleys in Alpine regions, rivers frequently flow across constructed zones, passing through villages and cities. Due to limited space, the protection from high floods often needs to be ensured by protection walls. During floods, these protection walls may be endangered by scour phenomena, especially if they are located in bends. In the past, the potential danger of underscoured structures was reduced ...

  8. Rough set classification based on quantum logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.

  9. In-situ determination of the effective absorbance of thin μc-Si:H layers growing on rough ZnO:Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Matthias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study optical transmission measurements were performed in-situ during the growth of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H layers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. The stable plasma emission was used as light source. The effective absorption coefficient of the thin μc-Si:H layers which were deposited on rough transparent conductive oxide (TCO surfaces was calculated from the transient transmission signal. It was observed that by increasing the surface roughness of the TCO, the effective absorption coefficient increases which can be correlated to the increased light scattering effect and thus the enhanced light paths inside the silicon. A correlation between the in-situ determined effective absorbance of the μc-Si:H absorber layer and the short-circuit current density of μc-Si:H thin-film silicon solar cells was found. Hence, an attractive technique is demonstrated to study, on the one hand, the absorbance and the light trapping in thin films depending on the roughness of the substrate and, on the other hand, to estimate the short-circuit current density of thin-film solar cells in-situ, which makes the method interesting as a process control tool.

  10. The effects of surface roughness on the scattering properties of hexagonal columns with sizes from the Rayleigh to the geometric optics regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao; Lee Panetta, R.; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Effects of surface roughness on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals are investigated using a random wave superposition model of roughness that is a simplification of models used in studies of scattering by surface water waves. Unlike previous work with models of rough surfaces applicable only in limited size ranges, such as surface perturbation methods in the small particle regime or the tilted-facet (TF) method in the large particle regime, ours uses a single roughness model to cover a range in sizes extending from the Rayleigh to the geometric optics regimes. The basic crystal shape we examine is the hexagonal column but our roughening model can be used for a wide variety of particle geometries. To compute scattering properties over the range of sizes we use the pseudo-spectral time domain method (PSTD) for small to moderate sized particles and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM) for large ones. Use of the PSTD with our roughness model is straightforward. By discretizing the roughened surface with triangular sub-elements, we adapt the IGOM to give full consideration of shadow effects, multiple reflections/refractions at the surface, and possible reentrance of the scattered beams. We measure the degree of roughness of a surface by the variance (σ 2 ) of surface slopes occurring on the surfaces. For moderately roughened surfaces (σ 2 ≤0.1) in the large particle regime, the scattering properties given by the TF and IGOM agree well, but differences in results obtained with the two methods become noticeable as the surface becomes increasingly roughened. Having a definite, albeit idealized, roughness model we are able to use the combination of the PSTD and IGOM to examine how a fixed degree of surface roughness affects the scattering properties of a particle as the size parameter of the particle changes. We find that for moderately rough surfaces in our model, as particle size parameter increases beyond about 20 the influence of surface

  11. Effect of artificial aging on the surface roughness and microhardness of resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Jacinta M C; Rêgo, Heleine Maria Chagas; Mukhopadhyay, Anuradha; El Najjar, Mai; Santos, Gildo C

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to verify the effects of aging on the surface roughness (Ra) and microhardness (Knoop hardness number [KHN]) of resin-based restorative materials protected with a surface sealer. Disc specimens of 2 resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) and 1 composite resin (CR) were fabricated in a metal mold. Specimens of each material were divided into 1 group that was covered with surface sealer and 1 group that was not. Both groups of each material were then subdivided according to whether they were stored (aged) in cola or distilled water. Surface roughness and KHN values were obtained from each specimen before and after storage. After aging of the specimens, significantly higher Ra values were observed in the 2 RMGIs when they were not covered with a surface sealer, while the CR was not affected. The KHN values varied by materials and storage conditions (with and without a surface sealer). All the groups with a surface sealer exhibited increased Ra values after aging.

  12. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  13. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  14. The VHCF experimental investigation of FV520B-I with surface roughness Ry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. L.; Zhang, Y. L.; Ding, M. C.; Zhao, Q. C.

    2018-05-01

    Different surface roughness type (Ra and Ry) has different effect on the VHCF failure and life. Ra is widely employed as the quantitative expression of the surface roughness, but there are few fatigue failure mechanism analysis and experimental study under surface roughness Ry. The VHCF experiment is conducted out using the specimen with different surface roughness values. The surface roughness Ry is employed as the major research object to investigate the relationship and distribution tendency between the Ry, fatigue life and the distance between internal inclusion and surface, and a new VHCF failure character is proposed.

  15. Effects of roughness on interfacial performances of silica glass and non-polar polyarylacetylene resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Z.X.; Huang, Y.D.; Liu, L.; Long, J.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of roughness on interfacial performances of silica glass/polyarylacetylene resin composites was investigated. In order to obtain different roughness, silica glass surface was abraded by different grits of abrasives and its topography was observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. At the same time, the failure mechanisms of composites were analyzed by fracture morphologies and the interfacial adhesion was evaluated by shear strength test. The results indicated that shear strength of silica glass/polyarylacetylene resin composites firstly increased and then decreased with the surface roughness of silica glass increased. The best surface roughness range of silica glass was 40-60 nm. The main mechanism for the improvement of the interfacial adhesion was physical interlocking at the interface

  16. Analysis of multi lobe journal bearings with surface roughness using finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhaniRaja Kumar, K.; Bhaskar, SUdaya; Manzoor Hussain, M.

    2018-04-01

    Multi lobe journal bearings are used for high operating speeds and high loads in machines. In this paper symmetrical multi lobe journal bearings are analyzed to find out the effect of surface roughnessduring non linear loading. Using the fourth order RungeKutta method, time transient analysis was performed to calculate and plot the journal centre trajectories. Flow factor method is used to evaluate the roughness and the finite difference method (FDM) is used to predict the pressure distribution over the bearing surface. The Transient analysis is done on the multi lobe journal bearings for threedifferent surface roughness orientations. Longitudinal surface roughness is more effective when compared with isotopic and traverse surface roughness.

  17. Statistical characterization of roughness uncertainty and impact on wind resource estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kelly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we relate uncertainty in background roughness length (z0 to uncertainty in wind speeds, where the latter are predicted at a wind farm location based on wind statistics observed at a different site. Sensitivity of predicted winds to roughness is derived analytically for the industry-standard European Wind Atlas method, which is based on the geostrophic drag law. We statistically consider roughness and its corresponding uncertainty, in terms of both z0 derived from measured wind speeds as well as that chosen in practice by wind engineers. We show the combined effect of roughness uncertainty arising from differing wind-observation and turbine-prediction sites; this is done for the case of roughness bias as well as for the general case. For estimation of uncertainty in annual energy production (AEP, we also develop a generalized analytical turbine power curve, from which we derive a relation between mean wind speed and AEP. Following our developments, we provide guidance on approximate roughness uncertainty magnitudes to be expected in industry practice, and we also find that sites with larger background roughness incur relatively larger uncertainties.

  18. Application of function-oriented roughness parameters using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Klauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical measuring instruments are widely used for the functional characterization of surface topography. However, due to the interaction of the surface with the incident light, effects occur that can influence the measured topography height values and the obtained surface texture parameters. Therefore, we describe a systematic investigation of the influences of optical surface topography measurement on the acquisition of function-oriented roughness parameters. The same evaluation areas of varying cylinder liners which represent a typical application of function-oriented roughness parameters were measured with a confocal microscope and a stylus instrument. Functional surface texture parameters as given in the standards ISO 13565–2, ISO 13565–3 and ISO 25178–2 were evaluated for both measurement methods and compared. The transmission of specific surface features was described and a correlation analysis for the surface topographies obtained with the different measurement methods and their resulting functional roughness parameters was carried out. Keywords: Functional surface characterization, Optical metrology, Topography measurement, Roughness

  19. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  20. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  1. Computer simulations of a rough sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyklema, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is described on rough hard spheres with a continuously variable roughness parameter, including the limits of smooth and completely rough spheres. A system of 500 particles is simulated with a homogeneous mass distribution at 8 different densities and for 5 different values of the roughness parameter. For these 40 physically different situations the intermediate scattering function for 6 values of the wave number, the orientational correlation functions and the velocity autocorrelation functions have been calculated. A comparison has been made with a neutron scattering experiment on neopentane and agreement was good for an intermediate value of the roughness parameter. Some often made approximations in neutron scattering experiments are also checked. The influence of the variable roughness parameter on the correlation functions has been investigated and three simple stochastic models studied to describe the orientational correlation function which shows the most pronounced dependence on the roughness. (Auth.)

  2. Effects of Oxidation and fractal surface roughness on the wettability and critical heat flux of glass-peened zirconium alloy tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, R.W.L.; Nitheanandan, T.; Bullock, C.D.; Slater, L.F.; McRae, G.A.

    2003-05-01

    Glass-bead peening the outside surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes has been shown to increase the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of water. The CHF is found to correlate with the fractal roughness of the metal tube surfaces. In this study on the effect of oxidation on glass-peened surfaces, test measurements for CHF, surface wettability and roughness have been evaluated using various glass-peened and oxidized zirconium alloy tubes. The results show that oxidation changes the solid-liquid contact angle (i.e., decreases wettability of the metal-oxide surface), but does not change the fractal surface roughness, appreciably. Thus, oxidation of the glass-peened surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes is not expected to degrade the CHF enhancement obtained by glass-bead peening. (author)

  3. Fuzzy Rough Ring and Its Prop erties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bi-jun; FU Yan-ling

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theories of fuzzy rough ring and its properties. The fuzzy approximation space generated by fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were proposed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model. The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were analyzed and the consistency between approximation operators and the binary operation of ring was discussed.

  4. Numerical investigation of hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer transition mechanism induced by different roughness shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunlong; Zhao, Yunfei; Xu, Dan; Chai, Zhenxia; Liu, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The roughness-induced laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is significant for high-speed aerospace applications. The transition mechanism is closely related to the roughness shape. In this paper, high-order numerical method is used to investigate the effect of roughness shape on the flat-plate laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition. Computations are performed in both the supersonic and hypersonic regimes (free-stream Mach number from 3.37 up to 6.63) for the square, cylinder, diamond and hemisphere roughness elements. It is observed that the square and diamond roughness elements are more effective in inducing transition compared with the cylinder and hemisphere ones. The square roughness element has the longest separated region in which strong unsteadiness exists and the absolute instability is formed, thus resulting in the earliest transition. The diamond roughness element has a maximum width of the separated region leading to the widest turbulent wake region far downstream. Furthermore, transition location moves backward as the Mach number increases, which indicates that the compressibility significantly suppresses the roughness-induced boundary layer transition.

  5. Modelling dune evolution and dynamic roughness in rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries

    2008-01-01

    Accurate river flow models are essential tools for water managers, but these hydraulic simulation models often lack a proper description of dynamic roughness due to hysteresis effects in dune evolution. To incorporate the effects of dune evolution directly into the resistance coefficients of

  6. Effect of roughness formulation on the performance of a coupled wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of algorithms are available for parameterizing the hydrodynamic bottom roughness associated with grain size, saltation, bedforms, and wave–current interaction in coastal ocean models. These parameterizations give rise to spatially and temporally variable bottom-drag coefficients that ostensibly provide better representations of physical processes than uniform and constant coefficients. However, few studies have been performed to determine whether improved representation of these variable bottom roughness components translates into measurable improvements in model skill. We test the hypothesis that improved representation of variable bottom roughness improves performance with respect to near-bed circulation, bottom stresses, or turbulence dissipation. The inner shelf south of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of sorted grain-size features which exhibit sharp alongshore variations in grain size and ripple geometry over gentle bathymetric relief; this area provides a suitable testing ground for roughness parameterizations. We first establish the skill of a nested regional model for currents, waves, stresses, and turbulent quantities using a uniform and constant roughness; we then gauge model skill with various parameterization of roughness, which account for the influence of the wave-boundary layer, grain size, saltation, and rippled bedforms. We find that commonly used representations of ripple-induced roughness, when combined with a wave–current interaction routine, do not significantly improve skill for circulation, and significantly decrease skill with respect to stresses and turbulence dissipation. Ripple orientation with respect to dominant currents and ripple shape may be responsible for complicating a straightforward estimate of the roughness contribution from ripples. In addition, sediment-induced stratification may be responsible for lower stresses than predicted by the wave–current interaction model.

  7. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasoohi, Negin; Hoorizad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30) was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10). Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposite resins. PMID:29104597

  8. Inner-outer interactions in a rough wall turbulent boundary layer over hemispherical roughness using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-11-01

    Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.

  9. Effects of fluoride or nanohydroxiapatite on roughness and gloss of bleached teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira De Freitas, Ana Carolina; Botta, Sérgio Brossi; Teixeira, Fernanda De Sá; Salvadori, Maria Cecília Barbosa Silveira; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe roughness and gloss alterations of enamel after treatment with 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and after polishing with 2% neutral sodium fluoride (SF) or a dental tooth paste containing nanohydroxiapatite particles (nHA) using power spectral density (PSD) description, roughness parameters (Ra, RMS, and Z range) and gloss analysis. An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a spectrophotometer were used to analyze eighteen specimens of upper incisors. After initial analyses, all specimens were bleached with 38% HP for 135 min. The specimens were analyzed after bleaching. Nine specimens were polished with SF (Group Fluor) and the other nine specimens were polished with nHA (Group nHA), then all specimens were analyzed after polishing. Roughness and gloss were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's t-test. No statistical difference was found for Ra and RMS among initial, after bleaching and after polishing in both groups. For Z range, Group nHA showed a significant decrease after polishing. Bleaching with 38% HP did not increase the PSD in the spatial frequency of the visible light spectrum range in both groups. After polishing, nHA group showed a decrease in PSD for all morphological wavelengths. Gloss did not show statistical difference after bleaching in both groups. Gloss showed significant increase after polishing with nHA. bleaching treatment with 38% HP didn't alter enamel surface roughness or gloss. PSD analyses were very suitable to identifying the morphological changes on the surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of measurement conditions on three-dimensional roughness values, and development of measurement standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, A; Brenier, B; Raynaud, S

    2011-01-01

    Friction or corrosion behaviour, fatigue lifetime for mechanical components are influenced by their boundary and subsurface properties. The surface integrity is studied on mechanical component in order to improve the service behaviour of them. Roughness is one of the main geometrical properties, which is to be qualified and quantified. Components can be obtained using a complex process: forming, machining and treatment can be combined to realize parts with complex shape. Then, three-dimensional roughness is needed to characterize these parts with complex shape and textured surface. With contact or non-contact measurements (contact stylus, confocal microprobe, interferometer), three-dimensional roughness is quantified using the calculation of pertinent parameters defined by the international standard PR EN ISO 25178-2:2008. An analysis will identify the influence of measurement conditions on three-dimensional parameters. The purpose of this study is to analyse the variation of roughness results using contact stylus or optical apparatus. The second aim of this work is to develop a measurement standard well adapted to qualify the contact and non-contact apparatus.

  11. Combined Effect of Surface Roughness and Wake Splitter Plate on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circular Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisanthosh, Iyer; Arunkumar, K.; Ajithkumar, R.; Srikrishnan, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focussed on numerical investigation of flow around a stationary circular cylinder (diameter, D) with selectively applied surface roughness (roughness strips with thickness ‘k’) in the presence of a wake splitter plate (length, L). The plate leading edge is at a distance of ‘G’ from the cylinder base. For this study, the commercial software ANSYS Fluent is used. Fluid considered is water. Study was conducted the following cases (a) plain cylinder (b) cylinder with surface roughness (without splitter plate) (c) Cylinder with splitter plate (without surface roughness) and (d) cylinder with both roughness and splitter plate employed. The study Reynolds number (based on D) is 17,000 and k/δ = 1.25 (in all cases). Results indicate that, for cylinder with splitter plate (no roughness), lift coefficient gradually drops till G/D=1.5 further to which it sharply increases. Whereas, drag coefficient and Strouhal number undergoes slight reduction till G/D=1.0 and thereafter, gradually increase. Circumferential location of strip (α) does not influence the aerodynamic parameters significantly. With roughness alone, drag is magnified by about 1.5 times and lift, by about 2.7 times that of the respective values of the smooth cylinder. With splitter plate, for roughness applied at all ‘α’ values, drag and lift undergoes substantial reduction with the lowest value attained at G/D=1.0.

  12. Effect of surfaces similarity on contact resistance of fractal rough surfaces under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanwen; Liu, Limei; Ta, Wurui; Song, Jihua

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that contact resistance depends significantly on roughness and fractal dimension, it remains elusive how they affect contact resistance between rough surfaces. The interface similarity index is first proposed to describe the similarity of the contact surfaces, which gives a good indication of the actual contact area between surfaces. We reveal that the surfaces' similarity be an origin of contact resistance variation. The cyclic loading can increase the contact stiffness, and the contact stiffness increases with the increase of the interface similarity index. These findings explain the mechanism of surface roughness and fractal dimension on contact resistance, and also provide reference for the reliability design of the electrical connection.

  13. Surface roughness retrieval by inversion of the Hapke model: A multiscale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarre, S.; Ferrari, C.; Jacquemoud, S.

    2017-07-01

    Surface roughness is a key property of soils that controls many surface processes and influences the scattering of incident electromagnetic waves at a wide range of scales. Hapke (2012b) designed a photometric model providing an approximate analytical solution of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of a particulate medium: he introduced the effect of surface roughness as a correction factor of the BRDF of a smooth surface. This photometric roughness is defined as the mean slope angle of the facets composing the surface, integrated over all scales from the grain size to the local topography. Yet its physical meaning is still a question at issue, as the scale at which it occurs is not clearly defined. This work aims at better understanding the relative influence of roughness scales on soil BRDF and to test the ability of the Hapke model to retrieve a roughness that depicts effectively the ground truth. We apply a wavelet transform on millimeter digital terrain models (DTM) acquired over volcanic terrains. This method allows splitting the frequency band of a signal in several sub-bands, each corresponding to a spatial scale. We demonstrate that sub-centimeter surface features dominate both the integrated roughness and the BRDF shape. We investigate the suitability of the Hapke model for surface roughness retrieval by inversion on optical data. A global sensitivity analysis of the model shows that soil BRDF is very sensitive to surface roughness, nearly as much as the single scattering albedo according to the phase angle, but also that these two parameters are strongly correlated. Based on these results, a simplified two-parameter model depending on surface albedo and roughness is proposed. Inversion of this model on BRDF data simulated by a ray-tracing code over natural targets shows a good estimation of surface roughness when the assumptions of the model are verified, with a priori knowledge on surface albedo.

  14. Effect of calcium phosphate coating crystallinity and implant surface roughness on differentiation of rat bone marrow cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugge, P.J. ter; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coating crystallinity and of surface roughness on growth and differentiation of osteogenic cells. Grit-blasted titanium substrates were provided with Ca-P coatings of different crystallinities. Rat bone marrow (RBM) cells were

  15. Effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted EDM of tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendee, A. M.; Saifuldin, M.; Gebremariam, MA; Azhari, A.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques where the process offers wide range of parameters manipulation and machining applications. However, surface roughness, material removal rate, electrode wear and operation costs were among the topmost issue within this technique. Alteration of magnetic device around machining area offers exciting output to be investigated and the effects of magnetic polarity on EDM remain unacquainted. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted electrical discharge machining (MFAEDM) on tool steel material (AISI 420 mod.) using graphite electrode. A Magnet with a force of 18 Tesla was applied to the EDM process at selected parameters. The sparks under magnetic field assisted EDM produced better surface finish than the normal conventional EDM process. At the presence of high magnetic field, the spark produced was squeezed and discharge craters generated on the machined surface was tiny and shallow. Correct magnetic polarity combination of MFAEDM process is highly useful to attain a high efficiency machining and improved quality of surface finish to meet the demand of modern industrial applications.

  16. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  17. Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.

  18. Characterizing the effects of regolith surface roughness on photoemission from surfaces in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, A.; Horanyi, M.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Surfaces of airless bodies and spacecraft in space are exposed to a variety of charging environments. A balance of currents due to plasma bombardment, photoemission, electron and ion emission and collection, and secondary electron emission determines the surface's charge. Photoelectron emission is the dominant charging process on sunlit surfaces in the inner solar system due to the intense solar UV radiation. This can result in a net positive surface potential, with a cloud of photoelectrons immediately above the surface, called the photoelectron sheath. Conversely, the unlit side of the body will charge negatively due the collection of the fast-moving solar wind electrons. The interaction of charged dust grains with these positively and negatively charged surfaces, and within the photoelectron and plasma sheaths may explain the occurrence of dust lofting, levitation and transport above the lunar surface. The surface potential of exposed objects is also dependent on the material properties of their surfaces. Composition and particle size primarily affect the quantum efficiency of photoelectron generation; however, surface roughness can also control the charging process. In order to characterize these effects, we have conducted laboratory experiments to examine the role of surface roughness in generating photoelectrons in dedicated laboratory experiments using solid and dusty surfaces of the same composition (CeO2), and initial comparisons with JSC-1 lunar simulant. Using Langmuir probe measurements, we explore the measured potentials above insulating surfaces exposed to UV and an electric field, and we show that the photoemission current from a dusty surface is largely reduced due to its higher surface roughness, which causes a significant fraction of the emitted photoelectrons to be re-absorbed within the surface. We will discuss these results in context of similar situations on planetary surfaces.

  19. Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Rough-Walled Fracture Using Level Set Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To describe accurately the flow characteristic of fracture scale displacements of immiscible fluids, an incompressible two-phase (crude oil and water flow model incorporating interfacial forces and nonzero contact angles is developed. The roughness of the two-dimensional synthetic rough-walled fractures is controlled with different fractal dimension parameters. Described by the Navier–Stokes equations, the moving interface between crude oil and water is tracked using level set method. The method accounts for differences in densities and viscosities of crude oil and water and includes the effect of interfacial force. The wettability of the rough fracture wall is taken into account by defining the contact angle and slip length. The curve of the invasion pressure-water volume fraction is generated by modeling two-phase flow during a sudden drainage. The volume fraction of water restricted in the rough-walled fracture is calculated by integrating the water volume and dividing by the total cavity volume of the fracture while the two-phase flow is quasistatic. The effect of invasion pressure of crude oil, roughness of fracture wall, and wettability of the wall on two-phase flow in rough-walled fracture is evaluated.

  20. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Paulo Hilgenberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide. Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste, G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste, and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste. The average roughness (Ra was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001. The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05 following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment showed significant difference (p < 0.0001. The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  1. Cassie state robustness of plasma generated randomly nano-rough surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mundo, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.dimundo@poliba.it; Bottiglione, Francesco; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic randomly rough surfaces are generated by plasma etching. • Statistical analysis of roughness allows calculation of theWenzel roughness factor, r{sub W.} • A r{sub W} threshold is theoretically determined, above which superhydrophobicity is “robust”. • Dynamic wetting, e.g. with high speed impacting drops, confirms this prediction. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces are effective in practical applications provided they are “robust superhydrophobic”, i.e. able to retain the Cassie state, i.e. with water suspended onto the surface protrusions, even under severe conditions (high pressure, vibrations, high speed impact, etc.). We show that for randomly rough surfaces, given the Young angle, Cassie states are robust when a threshold value of the Wenzel roughness factor, r{sub W}, is exceeded. In particular, superhydrophobic nano-textured surfaces have been generated by self-masked plasma etching. In view of their random roughness, topography features, acquired by Atomic Force Microscopy, have been statistically analyzed in order to gain information on statistical parameters such as power spectral density, fractal dimension and Wenzel roughness factor (r{sub W}), which has been used to assess Cassie state robustness. Results indicate that randomly rough surfaces produced by plasma at high power or long treatment duration, which are also fractal self-affine, have a r{sub W} higher than the theoretical threshold, thus for them a robust superhydrophobicity is predicted. In agreement with this, under dynamic wetting conditionson these surfaces the most pronounced superhydrophobic character has been appreciated: they show the lowest contact angle hysteresis and result in the sharpest bouncing when hit by drops at high impact velocity.

  2. Relative roughness controls on incipient sediment motion in steep channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Fuller, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    For over eight decades, researchers have noted an appreciable increase in the nondimensional shear stress (Shields number) at initiation of fluvial bedload transport with increasing bed slope. The precise cause of the trend, however, is obscured by the covariance of several factors with increased slope: a greater downstream component of the gravity acting on the grains and fluid, changes in bed morphology, increased grainsize relative to the channel width that may lead to grain bridging, and increased grainsize relative to flow depth (relative roughness) that may change flow hydraulics and particle buoyancy. Here, we report on ongoing laboratory experiments spanning a wide range of bed slopes (2% to 67%) designed to isolate these variables and determine the true cause of heightened critical Shields numbers on steep slopes. First, we eliminated bed morphology as a factor by using only planar beds. To investigate the effect of grain bridging, we used two different channel widths, representing width-to-grainsize ratios of 23:1 and 9:1. Finally, to separate the effects of slope from relative roughness, we compared incipient motion conditions for acrylic particles (submerged specific gravity of 0.15) to natural siliciclastic gravel (submerged specific gravity of 1.65). Different particle densities allowed us to explore incipient motion as a function of relative roughness, independent of channel slope, because lighter particles move at shallower flow depths than heavier ones of the same size. Results show that both materials exhibit a positive trend between bed slope and critical Shields number despite the existence of planar beds for all slopes. Furthermore, changing the grainsize-to-width ratio had a negligible effect on this trend. For all slopes, the critical Shields number for bedload transport was higher for the acrylic particles than for gravel, indicating that relative roughness has a strong control on incipient sediment motion independent of channel slope. These

  3. Modeling of roughness effect on hydrogen permeation in a low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreño, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A model is presented to evaluate the effect of the roughness and the profile of concentration of hydrogen in a low carbon steel. The model takes advantage of the Fick's Second Law, to predict the transport of hydrogen in the steel. The problem is treated as a variational one and its space solution is made numerically by means of the Finite Elements Method, while the temporal equation is solved via the Finite Differences Method, in order to determine the concentration profiles of Hydrogen in the steel and to quantify the roughness effect. Simultaneously, bipotentiostatic hydrogen permeation test were performed to evaluate the coefficient of mass transfer.

    El presente trabajo modela el efecto de la rugosidad y el perfil de concentración de hidrógeno en un acero, tomando como punto de partida la segunda ley de Fick para explicar el transporte de hidrógeno en el acero. El problema se trata como un problema variacional y su solución espacial se hace numéricamente por el Método de Elementos Finitos, mientras que la temporal por el Método de Diferencias Finitas, siendo estas las herramientas utilizadas para determinar los perfiles de concentración y cuantificar el efecto superficial presentado en este tipo de fenómeno. Además, a partir de la teoría se obtienen ecuaciones algebraicas que determinan el efecto que tiene la preparación superficial y el coeficiente de transferencia de masa con la permeación y concentración de hidrógeno en el acero.

  4. Bankruptcy Prediction with Rough Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bankruptcy prediction problem can be considered an or dinal classification problem. The classical theory of Rough Sets describes objects by discrete attributes, and does not take into account the order- ing of the attributes values. This paper proposes a modification of the Rough Set

  5. Effect of finishing and polishing procedures on surface roughness, gloss and color of resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Roeder, Leslie; Lu, Huan; Vogel, Karin; Powers, John M

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of different finishing and polishing procedures on surface roughness, gloss and color of five resin composites: two experimental microhybrid composites - FZ-Dentin (FZD) and FZ-Enamel (FZE), one commercial microhybrid composite - Esthet-X (EX), and two microfilled composites - Heliomolar (HM) and Renamel Microfill (RM). Surface roughness, gloss and color of the disc-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2-mm thick) were measured as Mylar (baseline), 16-fluted carbide bur and polishing were completed. Sixteen specimens of each composite were randomized to four groups of four. After finishing with a 16-fluted finishing bur, each group was polished by a different system: 1. Astropol (A), 2. Sof-lex disc (S), 3. Po-Go (P), 4. Enhance (E). Average surface roughness (Ra) was measured with a profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using small-area glossmeter, while color coordinate values were recorded using a spectrophotometer. A deltaE*abgloss ranked according to polishing system (for all five composites together) was: P > E > A > S. The order of gloss values for the polished composites (for each of four polishing systems) was: RM > FZD > FZE > HM > EX. Fisher's PLSD intervals at the 0.05 level of significance for comparisons of means of surface roughness among five composites and four polishing systems were 0.01 and 0.01 microm, respectively. Fisher's PLSD intervals at the 0.05 level of significance for comparisons of means of gloss among five composites and four polishing systems were 6 and 5 GU, respectively. Color differences (deltaE*ab) among five composites and four polishing methods were found to range from 0.2 to 1.1.

  6. A contact mechanics model for ankle implants with inclusion of surface roughness effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodaei, M; Farhang, K; Maani, N

    2014-01-01

    Total ankle replacement is recognized as one of the best procedures to treat painful arthritic ankles. Even though this method can relieve patients from pain and reproduce the physiological functions of the ankle, an improper design can cause an excessive amount of metal debris due to wear, causing toxicity in implant recipient. This paper develops a contact model to treat the interaction of tibia and talus implants in an ankle joint. The contact model describes the interaction of implant rough surfaces including both elastic and plastic deformations. In the model, the tibia and the talus surfaces are viewed as macroscopically conforming cylinders or conforming multi-cylinders containing micrometre-scale roughness. The derived equations relate contact force on the implant and the minimum mean surface separation of the rough surfaces. The force is expressed as a statistical integral function of asperity heights over the possible region of interaction of the roughness of the tibia and the talus implant surfaces. A closed-form approximate equation relating contact force and minimum separation is used to obtain energy loss per cycle in a load–unload sequence applied to the implant. In this way implant surface statistics are related to energy loss in the implant that is responsible for internal void formation and subsequent wear and its harmful toxicity to the implant recipient. (paper)

  7. A contact mechanics model for ankle implants with inclusion of surface roughness effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, M.; Farhang, K.; Maani, N.

    2014-02-01

    Total ankle replacement is recognized as one of the best procedures to treat painful arthritic ankles. Even though this method can relieve patients from pain and reproduce the physiological functions of the ankle, an improper design can cause an excessive amount of metal debris due to wear, causing toxicity in implant recipient. This paper develops a contact model to treat the interaction of tibia and talus implants in an ankle joint. The contact model describes the interaction of implant rough surfaces including both elastic and plastic deformations. In the model, the tibia and the talus surfaces are viewed as macroscopically conforming cylinders or conforming multi-cylinders containing micrometre-scale roughness. The derived equations relate contact force on the implant and the minimum mean surface separation of the rough surfaces. The force is expressed as a statistical integral function of asperity heights over the possible region of interaction of the roughness of the tibia and the talus implant surfaces. A closed-form approximate equation relating contact force and minimum separation is used to obtain energy loss per cycle in a load-unload sequence applied to the implant. In this way implant surface statistics are related to energy loss in the implant that is responsible for internal void formation and subsequent wear and its harmful toxicity to the implant recipient.

  8. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s"−"1. In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s"−"1 (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties. (paper)

  9. Hydroelastic response of a floating runway to cnoidal waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertekin, R. C.; Xia, Dingwu

    2014-01-01

    The hydroelastic response of mat-type Very Large Floating Structures (VLFSs) to severe sea conditions, such as tsunamis and hurricanes, must be assessed for safety and survivability. An efficient and robust nonlinear hydroelastic model is required to predict accurately the motion of and the dynamic loads on a VLFS due to such large waves. We develop a nonlinear theory to predict the hydroelastic response of a VLFS in the presence of cnoidal waves and compare the predictions with the linear theory that is also developed here. This hydroelastic problem is formulated by directly coupling the structure with the fluid, by use of the Level I Green-Naghdi theory for the fluid motion and the Kirchhoff thin plate theory for the runway. The coupled fluid structure system, together with the appropriate jump conditions are solved in two-dimensions by the finite-difference method. The numerical model is used to study the nonlinear response of a VLFS to storm waves which are modeled by use of the cnoidal-wave theory. Parametric studies show that the nonlinearity of the waves is very important in accurately predicting the dynamic bending moment and wave run-up on a VLFS in high seas

  10. Hydroelastic response of a floating runway to cnoidal waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, R. C., E-mail: ertekin@hawaii.edu [Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Xia, Dingwu [Engineering Services, British Petroleum GoM, Houston, Texas 77079 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The hydroelastic response of mat-type Very Large Floating Structures (VLFSs) to severe sea conditions, such as tsunamis and hurricanes, must be assessed for safety and survivability. An efficient and robust nonlinear hydroelastic model is required to predict accurately the motion of and the dynamic loads on a VLFS due to such large waves. We develop a nonlinear theory to predict the hydroelastic response of a VLFS in the presence of cnoidal waves and compare the predictions with the linear theory that is also developed here. This hydroelastic problem is formulated by directly coupling the structure with the fluid, by use of the Level I Green-Naghdi theory for the fluid motion and the Kirchhoff thin plate theory for the runway. The coupled fluid structure system, together with the appropriate jump conditions are solved in two-dimensions by the finite-difference method. The numerical model is used to study the nonlinear response of a VLFS to storm waves which are modeled by use of the cnoidal-wave theory. Parametric studies show that the nonlinearity of the waves is very important in accurately predicting the dynamic bending moment and wave run-up on a VLFS in high seas.

  11. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  12. Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LIDAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ozdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the results of benchmark testing a new inertial formulation of the St. Venant equations, implemented within the LISFLOOD-FP hydraulic model, using different high resolution terrestrial LiDAR data (10 cm, 50 cm and 1 m and roughness conditions (distributed and composite in an urban area. To examine these effects, the model is applied to a hypothetical flooding scenario in Alcester, UK, which experienced surface water flooding during summer 2007. The sensitivities of simulated water depth, extent, arrival time and velocity to grid resolutions and different roughness conditions are analysed. The results indicate that increasing the terrain resolution from 1 m to 10 cm significantly affects modelled water depth, extent, arrival time and velocity. This is because hydraulically relevant small scale topography that is accurately captured by the terrestrial LIDAR system, such as road cambers and street kerbs, is better represented on the higher resolution DEM. It is shown that altering surface friction values within a wide range has only a limited effect and is not sufficient to recover the results of the 10 cm simulation at 1 m resolution. Alternating between a uniform composite surface friction value (n = 0.013 or a variable distributed value based on land use has a greater effect on flow velocities and arrival times than on water depths and inundation extent. We conclude that the use of extra detail inherent in terrestrial laser scanning data compared to airborne sensors will be advantageous for urban flood modelling related to surface water, risk analysis and planning for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS to attenuate flow.

  13. Effects of 35% Carbamide Peroxide Gel on Surface Roughness and Hardness of Composite Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafeddin, F.; Jamalipour, GR.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Bleaching agents may not be safe for dental materials. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effects of Opalescent Quick ?in-office bleaching gel? containing 35% carbamide peroxide on the surface roughness and hardness of microfilled (Heliomolar) and hybride (Spectrum TPH) composite resins. Materials and Methods: Twenty specimens of Spectrum TPH composite resins and twenty Heliomolar composite resins were fabricated using a metallic ring (6.5 mm diameter and 2.5 mm...

  14. Roughness corrections to the Casimir force : The importance of local surface slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a study where finite conductivity corrections are included in the theoretical description of the effects of roughness on the Casimir force. The roughness data were taken from gold films evaporated onto silicon and polysterene spheres. We conclude that for a detailed

  15. Effect of sealant agents on the color stability and surface roughness of nanohybrid composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Şahin, Onur; Koroglu, Aysegül; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-07-01

    The effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of nanohybrid composite resins is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of 4 nanohybrid composite resin materials. Forty disks (10×2 mm) were fabricated for each nanohybrid composite resin material (Z-550, Tetric EvoCeram, Clearfill Majesty, Ice) (N=160) and divided into 4 surface treatment groups: 1 conventional polishing (control) and 3 different sealant agent (Palaseal, Optiglaze, BisCover) coupling groups (n=10). The specimens were thermocycled, and surface roughness (Ra) values were obtained with a profilometer. Scanning electron microscope images were also recorded. CIELab color parameters of each specimen were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after 7 days of storage in a coffee solution. Color differences were calculated by the CIEDE 2000 (ΔE00) formula. The data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The surface treatment technique significantly affected the Ra values of the composite resins tested (Pcomposite resin material was also significant for ΔE00 values (Pcomposite resin groups, significant decreases in Ra were observed only for the Palaseal agent coupled composite resin groups (except Ice) compared with the control groups (Pcomposite resin group, except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty (Pcomposite resin groups, significant differences were observed between the color change seen with BisCover and other sealants for Clearfill Majesty composite resin (Pcomposite resins except for Ice produced smoother surfaces. All surface sealant agents provided less discoloration of nanohybrid composite resins after coffee staining compared with conventional polishing except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty composite resin. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Percolation characteristics of solvent invasion in rough fractures under miscible conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfanta, M.; Babadagli, T.; Develi, K.

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness and flow rate effects on the solvent transport under miscible conditions in a single fracture are studied. Surface replicas of seven different rocks (marble, granite, and limestone) are used to represent different surface roughness characteristics each described by different mathematical models including three fractal dimensions. Distribution of dyed solvent is investigated at various flow rate conditions to clarify the effect of roughness on convective and diffusive mixing. After a qualitative analysis using comparative images of different rocks, the area covered by solvent with respect to time is determined to conduct a semi-quantitative analysis. In this exercise, two distinct zones are identified, namely the straight lines obtained for convective (early times) and diffusive (late times) flow. The bending point between these two lines is used to point the transition between the two zones. Finally, the slopes of the straight lines and the bending points are correlated to five different roughness parameters and the rate (Peclet number). It is observed that both surface roughness and flow rate have significant effect on solvent spatial distribution. The largest area covered is obtained at moderate flow rates and hence not only the average surface roughness characteristic is important, but coessentially total fracture surface area needs to be considered when evaluating fluid distribution. It is also noted that the rate effect is critically different for the fracture samples of large grain size (marbles and granite) compared to smaller grain sizes (limestones). Variogram fractal dimension exhibits the strongest correlation with the maximum area covered by solvent, and display increasing trend at the moderate flow rates. Equations with variogram surface fractal dimension in combination with any other surface fractal parameter coupled with Peclet number can be used to predict maximum area covered by solvent in a single fracture, which in turn can be

  17. Thriving rough sets 10th anniversary : honoring professor Zdzisław Pawlak's life and legacy & 35 years of rough sets

    CERN Document Server

    Skowron, Andrzej; Yao, Yiyu; Ślęzak, Dominik; Polkowski, Lech

    2017-01-01

    This special book is dedicated to the memory of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak, the father of rough set theory, in order to commemorate both the 10th anniversary of his passing and 35 years of rough set theory. The book consists of 20 chapters distributed into four sections, which focus in turn on a historical review of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak and rough set theory; a review of the theory of rough sets; the state of the art of rough set theory; and major developments in rough set based data mining approaches. Apart from Professor Pawlak’s contributions to rough set theory, other areas he was interested in are also included. Moreover, recent theoretical studies and advances in applications are also presented. The book will offer a useful guide for researchers in Knowledge Engineering and Data Mining by suggesting new approaches to solving the problems they encounter.

  18. Analysis of surface roughness effects on heat transfer in micro-conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.; Kleinstreuer, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Modern heat rejection systems, such as micro-heat sinks, are attractive because of their potential for high performance at small size and low weight. However, the impact of microscale effects on heat transfer have to be considered and quantitatively analyzed in order to gain physical insight and accurate Nusselt number data. The relative surface roughness (SR) was selected as a key microscale parameter, represented by a porous medium layer (PML) model. Assuming steady laminar fully developed liquid flow in microchannels and microtubes, the SR effects in terms of PML thermal conductivity ratio and Darcy number on the dimensionless temperature profile and Nusselt number were analyzed. In summary, the PML characteristics, especially the SR-number and conductivity ratio k{sub m}/k{sub f}, greatly affect the heat transfer performance where the Nusselt number can be either higher or lower than the conventional value. The PML influence is less pronounced in microtubes than in parallel-plate microchannels. (author)

  19. Usability Evaluation of Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) Concept in Dallas/Fort Worth Airport Tower Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon C.; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a proposed decision-support tool for air traffic control tower controllers for reducing taxi delay and optimizing the departure sequence. In the present study, the tool's usability was evaluated to ensure that its claimed performance benefits are not being realized at the cost of increasing the work burden on controllers. For the evaluation, workload ratings and questionnaire responses collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment were analyzed to assess the SARDA advisories' effects on the controllers' ratings on cognitive resources (e.g., workload, spare attention) and satisfaction. The results showed that SARDA reduced the controllers' workload and increased their spare attention. It also made workload and attention levels less susceptible to the effects of increases in the traffic load. The questionnaire responses suggested that the controllers generally were satisfied with the ease of use of the tool and the objectives of the SARDA concept, but with some caution. To gain more trust from controllers, the the reasoning behind advisories may need to be made more transparent to them.

  20. Effect of Substrate Roughness on Adhesion and Structural Properties of Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Bae, Joohyeon; Jeong, Hyomin; Choi, Byeongkeun; Nam, Taehyun; Noh, Jungpil

    2018-09-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing. In this study, we investigated the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of Ti-Ni SMA thin films, as well as the structural properties and phase-transformation behavior of the fabricated films. Ti-Ni SMA thin films were deposited onto etched glass substrates with magnetron sputtering. Radio frequency plasma was used for etching the substrate. The adhesion properties were investigated through progressive scratch test. Structural properties of the films were determined via Feld emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Phase transformation behaviors were observed with differential scanning calorimetry and low temperature-XRD. Ti-Ni SMA thin film deposited onto rough substrate provides higher adhesive strength than smooth substrate. However the roughness of the substrate has no influence on the growth and crystallization of the Ti-Ni SMA thin films.

  1. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  2. Effect of a rough surface on the aerodynamic characteristics of a two-bladed wind-powered engine with cylindrical blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasheva, N. K.; Kunakbaev, T. O.; Dyusembaeva, A. N.; Shuyushbayeva, N. N.; Damekova, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    We have reported the results of experiments on determining the drag coefficient and the thrust coefficient of a two-bladed wind-powered engine based on the Magnus effect with rotating rough cylinders in the range of air flow velocity of 4-10 m/s (Re = 26800-90000) for a constant rotation number of a cylindrical blade about its own axis. The results show that an increase in the Reynolds number reduces the drag coefficient and the thrust coefficient. The extent of the influence of the relative roughness on the aerodynamic characteristics of the two-bladed wind-powered engine has been experimentally established.

  3. The effect of drilling parameters for surface roughness in drilling of AA7075 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Nafiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA7075 aluminum alloy has been very popular significantly interest in the production of structural components in automotive and aviation applications due to its high strength, low density, good plasticity and better machinability comparable to many metals. Particularly, final products must have uniformly high quality to ensure essential safety standards in the aircraft industry. The optimization of hole quality which can variable according to tool geometry and drilling parameters is important in spite of high machinability rate of AA7075 alloy. In this study, the effects of drilling parameters on average surface roughness (Ra has been investigated in drilling of AA7075 with tungsten carbide drills. Machining experiments were performed with three different drill point angles and three different levels of cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed. The effects of drilling parameters on thrust force has been determined with ANOVA in %95 confidence level. Feed rate was determined as the most important factor on Ra according to ANOVA results. Moreover, it was shown that increasing feed rate leads to increase of Ra while increasing drill point angle leads to decrease of Ra. The optimum surface roughness was obtained with point angle of 130°, cutting speed of 40 m/min and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, thereby the validity of optimization was confirmed with Taguchi method.

  4. Anisotropic wetting characteristics versus roughness on machined surfaces of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yande; Shu, Liming; Natsu, Wataru; He, Fuben

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The aim is to investigate the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting on machined surfaces. • The relationship between roughness and anisotropic wetting is modeled by thermodynamical analysis. • The effect of roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials is stronger than that on hydrophobic materials. • The energy barrier existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting. • The contact angle in the parallel direction is larger than that in the perpendicular direction. - Abstract: Anisotropic wetting of machined surfaces is widely applied in industries which can be greatly affected by roughness and solid's chemical properties. However, there has not been much work on it. A free-energy thermodynamic model is presented by analyzing geometry morphology of machined surfaces (2-D model surfaces), which demonstrates the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting. It can be concluded that the energy barrier is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay. In addition, experiments in investigating anisotropic wetting, which was characterized by the static contact angle and droplet's distortion, were performed on machined surfaces with different roughness on hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials. The droplet's anisotropy found on machined surfaces increased with mean slope of roughness profile Kr. It indicates that roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials has a stronger effect than that on hydrophobic materials. Furthermore, the contact angles predicted by the model are basically consistent with the experimentally ones

  5. Effect of surface roughness on grain growth and sintering of alumina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Variation in surface roughness properties are also correlated with grain size. Rz ... ceramic product having accurate size and shape with per- fect flatness .... Figure 1. Variation in Ra with temperature: (a) fine, (b) intermediate and (c) coarse.

  6. Role of urban surface roughness in road-deposited sediment build-up and wash-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Jiang, Qian; Xie, Wenxia; Li, Xuyong; Yin, Chengqing

    2018-05-01

    Urban road surface roughness is one of the most important factors in estimation of surface runoff loads caused by road-deposited sediment (RDS) wash-off and design of its control measures. However, because of a lack of experimental data to distinguish the role of surface roughness, the effects of surface roughness on RDS accumulation and release are not clear. In this study, paired asphalt and concrete road surfaces and rainfall simulation designs were used to distinguish the role of surface roughness in RDS build-up and wash-off. Our results showed that typical asphalt surfaces often have higher depression depths than typical concrete surfaces, indicating that asphalt surfaces are relatively rougher than concrete surface. Asphalt surfaces can retain a larger RDS amount, relative higher percentage of coarser particles, larger RDS wash-off loads, and lower wash-off percentage, than concrete surfaces. Surface roughness has different effects in RDS motilities with different particle sizes during rainfall runoff, and the settleable particles (44-149 μm) were notably influenced by it. Furthermore, the first flush phenomenon tended to be greater on relatively smooth surfaces than relatively rough surfaces. Overall, surface roughness plays an important role in influencing the complete process of RDS build-up and wash-off on different road characteristics.

  7. Roughness as classicality indicator of a quantum state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Humberto C. F.; Almeida, Alexandre C. L.; Amaral, Barbara; Oliveira, Adélcio C.

    2018-03-01

    We define a new quantifier of classicality for a quantum state, the Roughness, which is given by the L2 (R2) distance between Wigner and Husimi functions. We show that the Roughness is bounded and therefore it is a useful tool for comparison between different quantum states for single bosonic systems. The state classification via the Roughness is not binary, but rather it is continuous in the interval [ 0 , 1 ], being the state more classic as the Roughness approaches to zero, and more quantum when it is closer to the unity. The Roughness is maximum for Fock states when its number of photons is arbitrarily large, and also for squeezed states at the maximum compression limit. On the other hand, the Roughness approaches its minimum value for thermal states at infinite temperature and, more generally, for infinite entropy states. The Roughness of a coherent state is slightly below one half, so we may say that it is more a classical state than a quantum one. Another important result is that the Roughness performs well for discriminating both pure and mixed states. Since the Roughness measures the inherent quantumness of a state, we propose another function, the Dynamic Distance Measure (DDM), which is suitable for measure how much quantum is a dynamics. Using DDM, we studied the quartic oscillator, and we observed that there is a certain complementarity between dynamics and state, i.e. when dynamics becomes more quantum, the Roughness of the state decreases, while the Roughness grows as the dynamics becomes less quantum.

  8. Roughness and temperature effects on the filter media of a trickling filter for nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Ohara, Tetsuya; Hinobayashi, Jouji; Hashimoto, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The performance of trickling filters using two types of plastic media with the same material, the same shape and different roughness was evaluated during a temperature-decreasing period to understand the roughness and temperature effects on the filter media. Real restaurant wastewater was used for the experiments. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and nitrification performance of plastic media with a rough surface (LT-15) was superior to that with a smooth surface (KT-15). Because the biomass of microorganisms attached on the LT-15 was twice that attached on the KT-15, the larger biomass attached on the LT-15 was thought to be responsible for the higher performance. During the operation, the COD loading and water temperature varied in the range from 0.37 to 1.9 kg m(-3) d(-1) and 17.0--10.0 degrees C, respectively. However, the COD removal performance was not dependent on the COD loading or water temperature. On the contrary, the COD loading and the water temperature influenced the nitrification performance. Although a nitrification efficiency of 100% was recorded at a COD loading of 0.37 kg m(-3) d(-1), it deteriorated to 17-28% at higher COD loading. Moreover, a decline in the water temperature decreased the nitrification performance. The temperature-activity coefficient for nitrification was estimated to be 1.096. Based on this value, it was inferred that the COD loading should be set at less than 0.20 kg m(-3) d(-1) for the complete nitrification of the restaurant wastewater in winter, when the water temperature usually drops to around 10 degrees C.

  9. Spatially-varying surface roughness and ground-level air quality in an operational dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Brade, T.K.; MacKenzie, A.R.; Whyatt, J.D.; Carruthers, D.J.; Stocker, J.; Cai, X.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Urban form controls the overall aerodynamic roughness of a city, and hence plays a significant role in how air flow interacts with the urban landscape. This paper reports improved model performance resulting from the introduction of variable surface roughness in the operational air-quality model ADMS-Urban (v3.1). We then assess to what extent pollutant concentrations can be reduced solely through local reductions in roughness. The model results suggest that reducing surface roughness in a city centre can increase ground-level pollutant concentrations, both locally in the area of reduced roughness and downwind of that area. The unexpected simulation of increased ground-level pollutant concentrations implies that this type of modelling should be used with caution for urban planning and design studies looking at ventilation of pollution. We expect the results from this study to be relevant for all atmospheric dispersion models with urban-surface parameterisations based on roughness. -- Highlights: • Spatially variable roughness improved performance of an operational model. • Scenario modelling explored effect of reduced roughness on air pollution. • Reducing surface roughness can increase modelled ground-level pollution. • Damped vertical mixing outweighs increased horizontal advection in model study. • Result should hold for any model with a land-surface coupling based on roughness. -- Spatially varying roughness improves model simulations of urban air pollutant dispersion. Reducing roughness does not always decrease ground-level pollution concentrations

  10. Skin friction measurements of mathematically generated roughness in the transitionally- to fully-rough regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Engineering systems are affected by surface roughness which cause an increase in drag leading to significant performance penalties. One important question is how to predict frictional drag purely based upon surface topography. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, this has proven to be challenging. The present work takes a systematic approach by generating surface roughness in which surfaces parameters, such as rms , skewness, can be controlled. Surfaces were produced using the random Fourier modes method with enforced power-law spectral slopes. The surfaces were manufactured using high resolution 3D-printing. In this study three surfaces with constant amplitude and varying slope, P, were investigated (P = - 0 . 5 , - 1 . 0 , - 1 . 5). Skin-friction measurements were conducted in a high Reynolds number turbulent channel flow facility, covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, from hydraulic-smooth to fully-rough regimes. Results show that some long wavelength roughness scales do not contribute significantly to the frictional drag, thus highlighting the need for filtering in the calculation of surface statistics. Upon high-pass filtering, it was found that krms is highly correlated with the measured ks.

  11. Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj

    2015-11-01

    The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.

  12. Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer filled resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Miyazaki, Masashi; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of different shades of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filled nano-hybrid resin composite. Resin disks of 15 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness and final polish with 1000-grit SiC paper, super fine cut diamond (FG) point, silicon (MFR) point and Super-Snap mini-disk red (SNAP) were made with Beautifil II shades: A2, A20, Inc). One week after curing, the surface roughness, gloss and color were measured. Data was analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD with alpha= 0.05 For all shades, the order of roughness (Ra) ranked according to groups of 1000-grit SiC > FG > MFR > SNAP with significant differences among all groups. For all shades, the order of gloss ranked according to groups of SNAP > MFR > FG > 1000-grit SiC with significant differences among the groups except for between MFR and FG without significant difference. The influence of the surface roughness on color differed among the polishing groups and shades. However, the values of the color differences (deltaE*ab) between the polishing groups of all shades were imperceptible to the naked eye.

  13. Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Friction of hydrogels with controlled surface roughness on solid flat substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Shintaro; Takase, Natsuko; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-05-14

    This study investigated the effect of hydrogel surface roughness on its sliding friction against a solid substrate having modestly adhesive interaction with hydrogels under small normal pressure in water. The friction test was performed between bulk polyacrylamide hydrogels of varied surface roughness and a smooth glass substrate by using a strain-controlled rheometer with parallel-plates geometry. At small pressure (normal strain 1.4-3.6%), the flat surface gel showed a poor reproducibility in friction. In contrast, the gels with a surface roughness of 1-10 μm order showed well reproducible friction behaviors and their frictional stress was larger than that of the flat surface hydrogel. Furthermore, the flat gel showed an elasto-hydrodynamic transition while the rough gels showed a monotonous decrease of friction with velocity. The difference between the flat surface and the rough surface diminished with the increase of the normal pressure. These phenomena are associated with the different contact behaviors of these soft hydrogels in liquid, as revealed by the observation of the interface using a confocal laser microscope.

  15. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  16. An effective medium approach to predict the apparent contact angle of drops on super-hydrophobic randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiglione, F; Carbone, G

    2015-01-14

    The apparent contact angle of large 2D drops with randomly rough self-affine profiles is numerically investigated. The numerical approach is based upon the assumption of large separation of length scales, i.e. it is assumed that the roughness length scales are much smaller than the drop size, thus making it possible to treat the problem through a mean-field like approach relying on the large-separation of scales. The apparent contact angle at equilibrium is calculated in all wetting regimes from full wetting (Wenzel state) to partial wetting (Cassie state). It was found that for very large values of the roughness Wenzel parameter (r(W) > -1/ cos θ(Y), where θ(Y) is the Young's contact angle), the interface approaches the perfect non-wetting condition and the apparent contact angle is almost equal to 180°. The results are compared with the case of roughness on one single scale (sinusoidal surface) and it is found that, given the same value of the Wenzel roughness parameter rW, the apparent contact angle is much larger for the case of a randomly rough surface, proving that the multi-scale character of randomly rough surfaces is a key factor to enhance superhydrophobicity. Moreover, it is shown that for millimetre-sized drops, the actual drop pressure at static equilibrium weakly affects the wetting regime, which instead seems to be dominated by the roughness parameter. For this reason a methodology to estimate the apparent contact angle is proposed, which relies only upon the micro-scale properties of the rough surface.

  17. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  18. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  19. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Microcrystalline Sedimentary Phases: Effects of Natural Surface Roughness on Spectral Feature Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardgrove, C.; Rogers, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Thermal infrared spectral features of common microcrystalline phases (chert, alabaster, micrite) are presented. Spectra are sensitive to mineralogy and micron-scale (~1-25 µm) surface roughness. Roughness is on the scale of the average crystal size.

  20. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  1. Turbulent Flow Over Large Roughness Elements: Effect of Frontal and Plan Solidity on Turbulence Statistics and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placidi, M.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2018-04-01

    Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out on fully-rough boundary layers with large roughness (δ /h ≈ 10, where h is the height of the roughness elements and δ is the boundary-layer thickness). Twelve different surface conditions were created by using LEGO™ bricks of uniform height. Six cases are tested for a fixed plan solidity (λ _P) with variations in frontal density (λ _F), while the other six cases have varying λ _P for fixed λ _F. Particle image velocimetry and floating-element drag-balance measurements were performed. The current results complement those contained in Placidi and Ganapathisubramani (J Fluid Mech 782:541-566, 2015), extending the previous analysis to the turbulence statistics and spatial structure. Results indicate that mean velocity profiles in defect form agree with Townsend's similarity hypothesis with varying λ _F, however, the agreement is worse for cases with varying λ _P. The streamwise and wall-normal turbulent stresses, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show a lack of similarity across most examined cases. This suggests that the critical height of the roughness for which outer-layer similarity holds depends not only on the height of the roughness, but also on the local wall morphology. A new criterion based on shelter solidity, defined as the sheltered plan area per unit wall-parallel area, which is similar to the `effective shelter area' in Raupach and Shaw (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 22:79-90, 1982), is found to capture the departure of the turbulence statistics from outer-layer similarity. Despite this lack of similarity reported in the turbulence statistics, proper orthogonal decomposition analysis, as well as two-point spatial correlations, show that some form of universal flow structure is present, as all cases exhibit virtually identical proper orthogonal decomposition mode shapes and correlation fields. Finally, reduced models based on proper orthogonal decomposition reveal that the small scales of the turbulence

  2. Friction and adhesion of gecko-inspired PDMS flaps on rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Chary, Sathya; Das, Saurabh; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly L; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2012-08-07

    Geckos have developed a unique hierarchical structure to maintain climbing ability on surfaces with different roughness, one of the extremely important parameters that affect the friction and adhesion forces between two surfaces. Although much attention has been paid on fabricating various structures that mimic the hierarchical structure of a gecko foot, yet no systematic effort, in experiment or theory, has been made to quantify the effect of surface roughness on the performance of the fabricated structures that mimic the hierarchical structure of geckos. Using a modified surface forces apparatus (SFA), we measured the adhesion and friction forces between microfabricated tilted PDMS flaps and optically smooth SiO(2) and rough SiO(2) surfaces created by plasma etching. Anisotropic adhesion and friction forces were measured when sliding the top glass surface along (+y) and against (-y) the tilted direction of the flaps. Increasing the surface roughness first increased the adhesion and friction forces measured between the flaps and the rough surface due to topological matching of the two surfaces but then led to a rapid decrease in both of these forces. Our results demonstrate that the surface roughness significantly affects the performance of gecko mimetic adhesives and that different surface textures can either increase or decrease the adhesion and friction forces of the fabricated adhesives.

  3. Influence of surface roughness on the friction property of textured surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankai Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with dimple textures, surface roughness is a texture at the micro-scale, essentially which will influence the load-bearing capacity of lubricant film. The numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the influence of surface roughness on friction property of textured surface. The lubricant film pressure was obtained using the method of computational fluid dynamics according to geometric model of round dimple, and the renormalization-group k–ε turbulent model was adopted in the computation. The numerical simulation results suggest that there is an optimum dimensionless surface roughness, and near this value, the maximum load-bearing capacity can be achieved. The load-bearing capacity is determined by the surface texture, the surface roughness, and the interaction between them. To get information of friction coefficient, the experiments were conducted. This experiment was used to evaluate the simulation. The experimental results show that for the frequency of 4 and 6 Hz, friction coefficient decreases at first and then increases with decreasing surface roughness, which indicates that there exists the optimum region of surface roughness leading to the best friction reduction effect, and it becomes larger when area fractions increase from 2% to 10%. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results.

  4. Determination of forest road surface roughness by Kinect depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marinello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roughness is a dynamic property of the gravel road surface that affects safety, ride comfort as well as vehicle tyre life and maintenance costs. A rapid survey of gravel road condition is fundamental for an effective maintenance planning and definition of the intervention priorities.Different non-contact techniques such as laser scanning, ultrasonic sensors and photogrammetry have recently been proposed to reconstruct three-dimensional topography of road surface and allow extraction of roughness metrics. The application of Microsoft Kinect™ depth camera is proposed and discussed here for collection of 3D data sets from gravel roads, to be implemented in order to allow quantification of surface roughness.The objectives are to: i verify the applicability of the Kinect sensor for characterization of different forest roads, ii identify the appropriateness and potential of different roughness parameters and iii analyse the correlation with vibrations recoded by 3-axis accelerometers installed on different vehicles. The test took advantage of the implementation of the Kinect depth camera for surface roughness determination of 4 different forest gravel roads and one well-maintained asphalt road as reference. Different vehicles (mountain bike, off-road motorcycle, ATV vehicle, 4WD car and compact crossover were included in the experiment in order to verify the vibration intensity when travelling on different road surface conditions. Correlations between the extracted roughness parameters and vibration levels of the tested vehicles were then verified. Coefficients of determination of between 0.76 and 0.97 were detected between average surface roughness and standard deviation of relative accelerations, with higher values in the case of lighter vehicles.

  5. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  6. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  7. The effect of milling and postmilling procedures on the surface roughness of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Smidt, Laura Nunes; Fracasso, Lisiane Martins; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2017-11-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and analyze the surface topography of five different CAD/CAM ceramics and one CAD/CAM composite resin for CEREC after milling and postmilling procedures. Blocks of the ceramics Mark II, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, Suprinity and Enamic, and blocks of the composite resin Lava Ultimate were milled at CEREC MCXL. Ten flat samples of each material were obtained. The surface roughness (Ra) test was performed before and after milling, crystallization, polishing, and glaze when indicated, followed by SEM and AFM analysis. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA with repeated measures and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). The milling step significantly increased the roughness of all the tested materials (P CAD and Suprinity) were more suitable to roughness than the other tested materials (P CAD/CAM materials, that is, fully sintered, should be only hand polished. The glaze step can be suppressed resulting in time saving. However, the glaze step in soft-milling lithium disilicate is imperative. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Within-footprint roughness measurements using ICESat/GLAS waveform and LVIS elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Kai; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The surface roughness is an important characteristic over an ice sheet or glacier, since it is an identification of boundary-layer meteorology and is an important limiter on the accuracy of surface-height measurements. In this paper, we propose a simulation method to derive the within-footprint roughness (called simulation-derived roughness) using ICESat/GLAS echo waveform, laser vegetation imaging sensor (LVIS) elevations, and laser profile array (LPA) images of ICESat/GLAS. By dividing the within-footprint surface into several elements, a simulation echo waveform can be obtained as the sum of the elementary pulses reflected from each surface element. The elevation of the surface elements, which is utilized to get the return time of the elementary pulses, is implemented based on an LVIS interpolated elevation using a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The intensity of the elementary pulses can be obtained from the thresholded LPA images. Based on the return time and the intensity of the elementary pulses, we used the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to approximate the simulation waveform to the ICESat/GLAS echo waveform. The full width at half maximum) (FWHM) of the elementary pulse was extracted from the simulation waveform for estimating the simulation-derived roughness. By comparing with the elevation-derived roughness (derived from the elevation) and the waveform-derived roughness (derived from the ICESat/GLAS waveform), the proposed algorithm can exclude the slope effect from waveform width broadening for describing the roughness of the surface elements. (paper)

  9. More on neutrosophic soft rough sets and its modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Marei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce and discuss anew mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties, which is a combination of neutrosophic sets, soft sets and rough sets, namely neutrosophic soft rough set model. Also, its modification is introduced. Some of their properties are studied and supported with proved propositions and many counter examples. Some of rough relations are redefined as a neutrosophic soft rough relations. Comparisons among traditional rough model, suggested neutrosophic soft rough model and its modification, by using their properties and accuracy measures are introduced. Finally, we illustrate that, classical rough set model can be viewed as a special case of suggested models in this paper.

  10. Influence of Roughness-Induced Slip on Colloid Transport: Experimental and Modelling Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, J. A.; Johnson, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    A limitation of classic colloid filtration theory is that it applies only to smooth surfaces, yet most natural surfaces present some degree of nano- to micro-scale roughness. A large volume of research has been dedicated to understanding the effects of roughness on particle attachment at the nano-scale since these interactions dictate field scale transport behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that roughness imposes a finite slip vector at the surface that causes particles to experience higher near-surface velocities than would be expected over a smooth surface. Slip near a rough surface can affect two primary mechanisms of particle attenuation: 1) interception of the surface (finding a landing spot) and 2) arrest on the surface (sticking the landing). However, a clear designation on how slip affects particle transport near rough surfaces is missing. The goal of this study was to provide a guide for the height of the slip layer and contact surface in reference to the mean-plane for rough surfaces. Direct observation was used to measure near-surface velocities of particles translating near surfaces of varying roughness spanning three orders of magnitude. The influence of roughness on particle transport was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling with rough surfaces measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CFD and experimental results were used to calibrate a Lagrangian particle transport model that utilizes simple modifications to the flow field for a smooth surface using statistically based roughness parameters. Advantages of the Lagrangian model are significantly decreased computation times and applicability to a wide range of natural surfaces without explicitly simulating individual asperities. The results suggest that the no-slip boundary should be placed at the bottom of the maximum asperity valleys, and that the contact surface should be placed at the root mean square (RMS) roughness above the mean plane. Collector

  11. Contrasting safety assessments of a runway incursion scenario: Event sequence analysis versus multi-agent dynamic risk modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeve, Sybert H.; Blom, Henk A.P.; Bakker, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the safety literature it has been argued, that in a complex socio-technical system safety cannot be well analysed by event sequence based approaches, but requires to capture the complex interactions and performance variability of the socio-technical system. In order to evaluate the quantitative and practical consequences of these arguments, this study compares two approaches to assess accident risk of an example safety critical sociotechnical system. It contrasts an event sequence based assessment with a multi-agent dynamic risk model (MA-DRM) based assessment, both of which are performed for a particular runway incursion scenario. The event sequence analysis uses the well-known event tree modelling formalism and the MA-DRM based approach combines agent based modelling, hybrid Petri nets and rare event Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison addresses qualitative and quantitative differences in the methods, attained risk levels, and in the prime factors influencing the safety of the operation. The assessments show considerable differences in the accident risk implications of the performance of human operators and technical systems in the runway incursion scenario. In contrast with the event sequence based results, the MA-DRM based results show that the accident risk is not manifest from the performance of and relations between individual human operators and technical systems. Instead, the safety risk emerges from the totality of the performance and interactions in the agent based model of the safety critical operation considered, which coincides very well with the argumentation in the safety literature.

  12. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-07-21

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  13. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Cong; Ye, Ziran; Gao, Yibo; Xie, Jiao; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  14. Influence of polishing on surface roughness following toothbrushing wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Vecchia, Karine Battestin; Taborda, Talita Damas; Stona, Deborah; Pressi, Heloísa; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Results showed that surface roughness was influenced by the type of composite and polishing system and was not influenced by the simulated toothbrushing time. However, the surface roughness, as challenged by toothbrushing wear, was affected by the interaction among the composite, the polisher, and the toothbrushing time. The 1-step polisher produced the highest surface roughness and influenced toothbrushing wear resistance of some composites.

  15. Surface Forces Apparatus measurements of interactions between rough and reactive calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, Joanna; Javadi, Shaghayegh; Bratvold, Jon Einar; Nilsen, Ola; Røyne, Anja

    2018-05-28

    Nm-range forces acting between calcite surfaces in water affect macroscopic properties of carbonate rocks and calcite-based granular materials, and are significantly influenced by calcite surface recrystallization. We suggest that the repulsive mechanical effects related to nm-scale surface recrystallization of calcite in water could be partially responsible for the observed decrease of cohesion in calcitic rocks saturated with water. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA), we simultaneously followed the calcite reactivity and measured the forces in water in two surface configurations: between two rough calcite surfaces (CC), or between rough calcite and a smooth mica surface (CM). We used nm-scale rough, polycrystalline calcite films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). We measured only repulsive forces in CC in CaCO 3 -saturated water, which was related to roughness and possibly to repulsive hydration effects. Adhesive or repulsive forces were measured in CM in CaCO 3 -saturated water depending on calcite roughness, and the adhesion was likely enhanced by electrostatic effects. The pull-off adhesive force in CM became stronger with time and this increase was correlated with a decrease of roughness at contacts, which parameter could be estimated from the measured force-distance curves. That suggested a progressive increase of real contact areas between the surfaces, caused by gradual pressure-driven deformation of calcite surface asperities during repeated loading-unloading cycles. Reactivity of calcite was affected by mass transport across nm to µm-thick gaps between the surfaces. Major roughening was observed only for the smoothest calcite films, where gaps between two opposing surfaces were nm-thick over µm-sized areas, and led to force of crystallization that could overcome confining pressures of the order of MPa. Any substantial roughening of calcite caused a significant increase of the repulsive mechanical force contribution.

  16. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Distributed Roughness and Acoustic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary-layer receptivity and stability of Mach 6 flows over smooth and rough seven-degree half-angle sharp-tipped cones are numerically investigated. The receptivity of the boundary layer to slow acoustic disturbances, fast acoustic disturbances, and vortical disturbances is considered. The effects of three-dimensional isolated roughness on the receptivity and stability are also simulated. The results for the smooth cone show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves than to the fast acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that of the slow acoustic wave. Distributed roughness elements located near the nose region decreased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow acoustic wave by a small amount. Roughness elements distributed across the continuous spectrum increased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow and fast acoustic waves and the vorticity wave. The largest increase occurred for the vorticity wave. Roughness elements distributed across the synchronization point did not change the receptivity of the second modes generated by the acoustic waves. The receptivity of the second mode generated by the vorticity wave increased in this case, but the increase is lower than that occurred with the roughness elements located across the continuous spectrum. The simulations with an isolated roughness element showed that the second mode waves generated by the acoustic disturbances are not influenced by the small roughness element. Due to the interaction, a three-dimensional wave is generated. However, the amplitude is orders of magnitude smaller than the two-dimensional wave.

  17. Fractional-dimensional Child-Langmuir law for a rough cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M.; Ang, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a self-consistent model of space charge limited current transport in a gap combined of free-space and fractional-dimensional space (F α ), where α is the fractional dimension in the range 0 < α ≤ 1. In this approach, a closed-form fractional-dimensional generalization of Child-Langmuir (CL) law is derived in classical regime which is then used to model the effect of cathode surface roughness in a vacuum diode by replacing the rough cathode with a smooth cathode placed in a layer of effective fractional-dimensional space. Smooth transition of CL law from the fractional-dimensional to integer-dimensional space is also demonstrated. The model has been validated by comparing results with an experiment.

  18. Fractional-dimensional Child-Langmuir law for a rough cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, M., E-mail: muhammad-zubair@sutd.edu.sg; Ang, L. K., E-mail: ricky-ang@sutd.edu.sg [SUTD-MIT International Design Centre, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 and Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 (Singapore)

    2016-07-15

    This work presents a self-consistent model of space charge limited current transport in a gap combined of free-space and fractional-dimensional space (F{sup α}), where α is the fractional dimension in the range 0 < α ≤ 1. In this approach, a closed-form fractional-dimensional generalization of Child-Langmuir (CL) law is derived in classical regime which is then used to model the effect of cathode surface roughness in a vacuum diode by replacing the rough cathode with a smooth cathode placed in a layer of effective fractional-dimensional space. Smooth transition of CL law from the fractional-dimensional to integer-dimensional space is also demonstrated. The model has been validated by comparing results with an experiment.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Electrical Contact Conductance of Rough Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Murashov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century to the present time, efforts have been made to develop a model of the electrical contact conductance. The development of micro- and nanotechnologies make contact conductance problem more essential. To conduct borrowing from a welldeveloped thermal contact conductance models on the basis of thermal and electrical conductivity analogy is often not possible due to a number of fundamental differences. While some 3Dmodels of rough bodies deformation have been developed in one way or another, a 3D-model of the electrical conductance through rough bodies contact is still not. A spatial model of electrical contact of rough bodies is proposed, allows one to calculate the electrical contact conductance as a function of the contact pressure. Representative elements of the bodies are parallelepipeds with deterministic roughness on the contacting surfaces. First the non-linear elastic-plastic deformation of rough surface under external pressure is solved using the finite element software ANSYS. Then the solution of electrostatic problem goes on the same finite element mesh. Aluminum AD1 is used as the material of the contacting bodies with properties that account for cold work hardening of the surface. The numerical model is built within the continuum mechanics and nanoscale effects are not taken into account. The electrical contact conductance was calculated on the basis of the concept of electrical resistance of the model as the sum of the electrical resistances of the contacting bodies and the contact itself. It was assumed that there is no air in the gap between the bodies. The dependence of the electrical contact conductance on the contact pressure is calculated as well as voltage and current density distributions in the contact bodies. It is determined that the multi-asperity contact mode, adequate to real roughness, is achieved at pressures higher than 3MPa, while results within the single contact spot are

  20. Effect of Pd Surface Roughness on the Bonding Process and High Temperature Reliability of Au Ball Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Kim, H. J.; McCracken, M.; Viswanathan, G.; Pon, F.; Mayer, M.; Zhou, Y. N.

    2011-06-01

    A 0.3- μm-thick electrolytic Pd layer was plated on 1 μm of electroless Ni on 1 mm-thick polished and roughened Cu substrates with roughness values ( R a) of 0.08 μm and 0.5 μm, respectively. The rough substrates were produced with sand-blasting. Au wire bonding on the Ni/Pd surface was optimized, and the electrical reliability was investigated under a high temperature storage test (HTST) during 800 h at 250°C by measuring the ball bond contact resistance, R c. The average value of R c of optimized ball bonds on the rough substrate was 1.96 mΩ which was about 40.0% higher than that on the smooth substrate. The initial bondability increased for the rougher surface, so that only half of the original ultrasonic level was required, but the reliability was not affected by surface roughness. For both substrate types, HTST caused bond healing, reducing the average R c by about 21% and 27%, respectively. Au diffusion into the Pd layer was observed in scanning transmission electron microscopy/ energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) line-scan analysis after HTST. It is considered that diffusion of Au or interdiffusion between Au and Pd can provide chemically strong bonding during HTST. This is supported by the R c decrease measured as the aging time increased. Cu migration was indicated in the STEM-EDS analysis, but its effect on reliability can be ignored. Au and Pd tend to form a complete solid solution at the interface and can provide reliable interconnection for high temperature (250°C) applications.

  1. AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN CO2 LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŠ MADIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  2. Effect of surface roughness on the heating rates of large-angled hypersonic blunt cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimpan, Kiran Joy; Menezes, Viren

    2018-03-01

    Surface-roughness caused by the residue of an ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS) can alter the turbulence level and surface heating rates on a hypersonic re-entry capsule. Large-scale surface-roughness that could represent an ablated TPS, was introduced over the forebody of a 120° apex angle blunt cone, in order to test for its influence on surface heating rates in a hypersonic freestream of Mach 8.8. The surface heat transfer rates measured on smooth and roughened models under the same freestream conditions were compared. The hypersonic flow-fields of the smooth and rough-surfaced models were visualized to analyse the flow physics. Qualitative numerical simulations and pressure measurements were carried out to have an insight into the high-speed flow physics. Experimental observations under moderate Reynolds numbers indicated a delayed transition and an overall reduction of 17-46% in surface heating rates on the roughened model.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Runway 17-35 Closure at Albuquerque International Sunport, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    34’ ------------------- .... ___ -------------·····-------- --·-----------·---- D-28 U.S. SIEVE OPENING IN INCHES I U.S. SIEVE NUMBERS I HYDROMETER 6 4 3 2 1.5 1 3/4 112...Runway 17-35 Closure Location: Albuquerque International Sunport Number: 1-90703 D-29 U.S. SIEVE OPENING IN INCHES I U.S. SIEVE NUMBERS I HYDROMETER 6...Location: Albuquerque International Sunport ~ (!) Number: 1-90703 ~ D-30 U.S. SIEVE OPENING IN INCHES I U.S. SIEVE NUMBERS I HYDROMETER 6 4 3 2 1.5 1

  4. Effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on photocatalyst of N-doped TiOx films prepared by reactive sputtering with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon-Hong; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on the physical properties and the photocatalytic properties of the N-doped TiO x films are investigated. • Surface roughness of glass substrate has little influence on the film properties, but significant influence on the photocatalytic ability. • Working pressure has little influence on the produced phases and the atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the atomic concentration of the N-doped TiO x film. • High photocatalysis of N-doped TiO x film requires the permissible range of the N doping concentration which shows the interstitial complex N doping states in TiO 2 . - Abstract: N-doped TiO x films on the glass substrate were prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron reactive sputtering of Ti target in a mixed gas of argon and dry air. The effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on the physical properties and the photocatalytic properties of the N-doped TiO x films was investigated. The surface roughness of glass substrate has little influence on the film properties such as produced phases, lattice parameters, introduced nitrogen contents, and atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the surface roughness of film resulting in the variation of the photocatalytic ability. The working pressure has little influence on the produced phases and the atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the atomic concentration of the N-doped TiO x film, resulting in the large variation of optical, structural, and photocatalytic properties. It is suggested that the high photocatalysis of N-doped TiO x film requires a certain range of the N doping concentration which shows the interstitial complex N doping states in TiO 2

  5. How does substrate roughness affect the service life of a superhydrophobic coating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mo, Jiliang; Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2018-05-01

    Although the development of superhydrophobic coatings is rapidly maturing, issues related to their low mechanical durability persist. In this context, the effect of substrate roughness on the service life of superhydrophobic coatings was studied. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings were fabricated on sandpapers of different roughness and reciprocating wear tests were conducted. The wear-resistance number of the superhydrophobic coating, defined as the maximum number of friction cycles after which the superhydrophobic surface started to lose its superhydrophobicity, increased from 50 to 24,000 with an increase in the substrate roughness from 2000 CW to 240 CW (CW is defined as the number of particles arranged in an inch), while it decreased from 24,000 to 17,000 with a further increase in the substrate roughness from 240 CW to 60 CW. Observations of the surface structure and wear analyses indicated that the superhydrophobic material infiltrated the spaces between the sand grains, and the rough peaks could consequently protect the superhydrophobic material during the wear tests. However, this protection weakens when the substrate roughness increases or decreases beyond certain values. Furthermore, these phenomena and results were also verified by applying the superhydrophobic coatings to different types of common substrates.

  6. Multifractal scaling analysis of autopoisoning reactions over a rough surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Ajay; Yan, Ching-Cher Sanders; Lee, S.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Decay type diffusion-limited reactions (DLR) over a rough surface generated by a random deposition model were performed. To study the effect of the decay profile on the reaction probability distribution (RPD), multifractal scaling analysis has been carried out. The dynamics of these autopoisoning reactions are controlled by the two parameters in the decay function, namely, the initial sticking probability (P ini ) of every site and the decay rate (m). The smaller the decay rate, the narrower is the range of α values in the α-f(α) multifractal spectrum. The results are compared with the earlier work of DLR over a surface of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). We also considered here the autopoisoning reactions over a smooth surface for comparing our results, which show clearly how the roughness affects the chemical reactions. The q-τ(q) multifractal curves for the smooth surface are linear whereas those for the rough surface are nonlinear. The range of α values in the case of a rough surface is wider than that of the smooth surface

  7. Modelling of surface evolution of rough surface on divertor target in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shuyu; Liu, Shengguang; Sun, Jizhong; Kirschner, A.; Kawamura, G.; Tskhakaya, D.; Ding, Rui; Luo, Guangnan; Wang, Dezhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the surface evolution of rough surface on divertor target in fusion devices. • The effects of gyration motion and E × B drift affect 3D angular distribution. • A larger magnetic field angle leads to a reduced net eroded areal density. • The rough surface evolution affects the physical sputtering yield. - Abstract: The 3D Monte-Carlo code SURO has been used to study the surface evolution of rough surface on the divertor target in fusion devices. The edge plasma at divertor region is modelled by the SDPIC code and used as input data for SURO. Coupled with SDPIC, SURO can perform more sophisticated simulations to calculate the local angle and surface evolution of rough surface. The simulation results show that the incident direction of magnetic field, gyration and E × B force has a significant impact on 3D angular distribution of background plasma and accordingly on the erosion of rough surface. The net eroded areal density of rough surface is studied by varying the magnetic field angle with surface normal. The evolution of the microscopic morphology of rough surface can lead to a significant change in the physical sputtering yield

  8. Multifrequency passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloscia, S.; Pampaloni, P.; Chiarantini, L.; Coppo, P.; Gagliani, S.; Luzi, G.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy achievable in the surface soil moisture measurement of rough bare and vegetated soils, typical of the Italian landscape, has been investigated by using microwave experimental data collected by means of a multi-band sensor package (L, X, Ka and infrared bands). The thickness of soil that mainly affects the emission at the three microwave frequencies has been assessed. The sensitivity of L band emission to the moisture content of a soil layer about 5 cm thick has been confirmed, as well as the attenuation effect due to the surface roughness and presence of vegetation. A correction criterion based on the sensitivity to roughness and crop parameters of the highest frequencies (X and Ka bands) is proposed in order to increase the precision in soil moisture measurements

  9. Effect of heat treatment of wood on the morphology, surface roughness and penetration of simulated and human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Nganga, S; Ylä-Soininmäki, A; Fleming, G J P; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2014-01-01

    Wood has been used as a model material for the development of novel fiber-reinforced composite bone substitute biomaterials. In previous studies heat treatment of wood was perceived to significantly increase the osteoconductivity of implanted wood material. The objective of this study was to examine some of the changing attributes of wood materials that may contribute to improved biological responses gained with heat treatment. Untreated and 140°C and 200°C heat-treated downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were used as the wood materials. Surface roughness and the effect of pre-measurement grinding were measured with contact and non-contact profilometry. Liquid interaction was assessed with a dipping test using two manufactured liquids (simulated blood) as well as human blood. SEM was used to visualize possible heat treatment-induced changes in the hierarchical structure of wood. The surface roughness was observed to significantly decrease with heat treatment. Grinding methods had more influence on the surface contour and roughness than heat treatment. The penetration of the human blood in the 200°C heat-treated exceeded that in the untreated and 140°C heat-treated materials. SEM showed no significant change due to heat treatment in the dry-state morphology of the wood. The results of the liquid penetration test support previous findings in literature concerning the effects of heat treatment on the biological response to implanted wood. Heat-treatment has only a marginal effect on the surface contour of wood. The highly specialized liquid conveyance system of wood may serve as a biomimetic model for the further development of tailored fiber-composite materials.

  10. Use of roughness maps in visualisation of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    monohydrate, theophylline anhydrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. The roughness determinations were made by a laser profilometer. The new matrix method gives detailed roughness maps, which are able to show local variations in surface roughness values and provide an illustrative picture...

  11. Electromagnetic Scattering from Rough Sea Surface with PM Spectrum Covered by an Organic Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Guo Li-Xin; Wang An-Qi; Wu Zhen-Sen

    2011-01-01

    The rough sea surface covered by an organic film will cause attenuation of capillarity waves, which implies that the organic films play an important role in rough sea surface processes. We focus on a one-dimensional (1D) rough sea surface with the Pierson—Moskowitz (PM) spectrum distributed to the homogeneous insoluble organic slicks. First, the impact of the organic film on the PM surface spectrum is presented, as well as that of the correlation length, the rms height and slope of the rough sea surface. The damping effect of the organic film changes the physical parameters of the rough sea surface. For example, the organic film will reduce the rms height and slopee of the rough sea surface, which results in the attenuation of the high-frequency components of the PM spectrum leading to modification of the surface PM spectrum. Then, the influence of the organic film on the electromagnetic (EM) scattering coefficients from PM rough sea surface covered by the organic film is investigated and discussed in detail, compared with the clean PM rough sea surface through the method of moments. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  12. Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.

  13. Architecture and Integration Requirements for an ULCE (Unified Life Cycle Engineering) Design Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    criteria for LC-130 Antartic operations . Determine C-130 response to bomb-damage/repaired runways - Develop operations-on-soil prediction techniques...turning, and takeoff. Roughness criteria for LC-130 Antartic operations for the Naval Air Systems Command was established to evaluate the operational

  14. The effect of polishing technique on 3-D surface roughness and gloss of dental restorative resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, N S; Oweis, Y G; Eliades, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surface roughness and gloss of resin composites polished using different polishing systems. Five resin composites were investigated: Filtek Silorane (FS), IPS Empress Direct (IP), Clearfil Majesty Posterior (CM), Premise (PM), and Estelite Sigma (ES). Twenty-five disk specimens were prepared from each material, divided into five groups, each polished with one of the following methods: Opti1Step (OS), OptiDisc (OD), Kenda CGI (KD), Pogo (PG), or metallurgical polishing (ML). Gloss and roughness parameters (Sa, Sz, Sq, and St) were evaluated by 60°-angle glossimetry and white-light interferometric profilometry. Two-way analysis of variance was used to detect differences in different materials and polishing techniques. Regression and correlation analyses were performed to examine correlations between roughness and gloss. Significant differences in roughness parameters and gloss were found according to the material, type of polishing, and material/polishing technique (pgloss was recorded for PM/ML (88.4 [2.3]) and lowest for FS/KD (30.3 [5.7]). All roughness parameters were significantly correlated with gloss (r= 0.871, 0.846, 0.713, and 0.707 for Sa, Sq, Sz, St, and gloss, respectively). It was concluded that the polishing procedure and the type of composite can have significant impacts on surface roughness and gloss of resin composites.

  15. Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0

  16. Analysis of accuracy in photogrammetric roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowicz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Marcin; Pluymakers, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Regarding permeability, one of the most important features of shale gas reservoirs is the effective aperture of cracks opened during hydraulic fracturing, both propped and unpropped. In a propped fracture, the aperture is controlled mostly by proppant size and its embedment, and fracture surface roughness only has a minor influence. In contrast, in an unpropped fracture aperture is controlled by the fracture roughness and the wall displacement. To measure fracture surface roughness, we have used the photogrammetric method since it is time- and cost-efficient. To estimate the accuracy of this method we compare the photogrammetric measurements with reference measurements taken with a White Light Interferometer (WLI). Our photogrammetric setup is based on high resolution 50 Mpx camera combined with a focus stacking technique. The first step for photogrammetric measurements is to determine the optimal camera positions and lighting. We compare multiple scans of one sample, taken with different settings of lighting and camera positions, with the reference WLI measurement. The second step is to perform measurements of all studied fractures with the parameters that produced the best results in the first step. To compare photogrammetric and WLI measurements we regrid both data sets onto a regular 10 μm grid and determined the best fit, followed by a calculation of the difference between the measurements. The first results of the comparison show that for 90 % of measured points the absolute vertical distance between WLI and photogrammetry is less than 10 μm, while the mean absolute vertical distance is 5 μm. This proves that our setup can be used for fracture roughness measurements in shales.

  17. Effects of rough handling on short chain fatty acid production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of stress due to rough handling (RH) on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environmental pH, concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and modulatory roles of two Lactobacillus strains was investigated in broiler chickens. Equal number of chicks was randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups; ...

  18. Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Kim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge, and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated. Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth, and over a certain range it appears to remain constant. Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that, although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge, there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values. For this reason, uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables. On average, a 20% increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity, but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach. Finally, the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined. A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation, but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%. Conversely, the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.

  19. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Repair of Airfield Pavement and Lighting, Runway 03R/21L Travis Air Force Base, Fairfield, California. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    substandard: 211450 SM PROJECT: Repair Runway 03R-21L pavements, airfield lighting, fiber optic communication lines , markers, and drainage systems...bottomed swales, or basalt flow depression pools in unplowed grasslands. The fairy shrimp has been collected from early December to early May. It can...pool types where the species has been found include Northern Hardpan, Northern Claypan, Northern Volcanic Mud Flow, and Northern Basalt Flow vernal

  1. Optical roughness BRDF model for reverse Monte Carlo simulation of real material thermal radiation transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peiran; Eri, Qitai; Wang, Qiang

    2014-04-10

    Optical roughness was introduced into the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model to simulate the reflectance characteristics of thermal radiation. The optical roughness BRDF model stemmed from the influence of surface roughness and wavelength on the ray reflectance calculation. This model was adopted to simulate real metal emissivity. The reverse Monte Carlo method was used to display the distribution of reflectance rays. The numerical simulations showed that the optical roughness BRDF model can calculate the wavelength effect on emissivity and simulate the real metal emissivity variance with incidence angles.

  2. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  3. Effects of surface-finishing protocols on the roughness, color change, and translucency of different ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Gülcan Coşkun; Pekkan, Gürel; Çal, Ebru; Eskitaşçıoğlu, Gürcan; Özcan, Mutlu

    2014-08-01

    Surface-finishing protocols have a mechanical impact on ceramic surfaces that could eventually affect surface topography and light scattering. An optimum protocol is needed to avoid damaging the optical properties of ceramics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different surface-finishing protocols on the surface roughness, color change, and translucency of ceramic and metal ceramic restorations. Standardized disk-shaped specimens (1.5 × 10 mm, n=128) were fabricated from 3 different ceramic core materials (aluminum oxide [Al2O3]-AL, zirconium oxide [ZrO2]-ZR, lithium disilicate [Li2Si2O5]-LIT), veneered (V) with dentin ceramics (n=32 per group), and placed in the following groups: ALV, ZRV, and LITV. The metal ceramic group acted as the control (n=32). Four different surface-finishing methods were tested. Airborne-particle abrasion with 50 μm Al2O3, polishing with adjustment kit, polishing with adjustment kit plus diamond polishing paste, and autoglazing (n=8 subgroup) were applied on the veneering ceramics. The specimens were analyzed with a profilometer for surface roughness, and color change and translucency were measured with a clinical spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses were performed with 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference tests (α=.05). Specimens treated with the airborne particle abrasion method showed significantly higher mean profilometer for surface roughness values in all groups (P.05). With the diamond polishing paste method, lower surface roughness values were achieved in the ZRV and metal ceramic groups acted as the control groups. Different surface-finishing methods affected the color change of the ceramic systems, except for ZRV. Surface-finishing protocols significantly affected the translucency values of the ALV, LITV, and metal ceramic groups (Pceramics tested. The airborne-particle abrasion protocol created rougher surfaces and decreased translucency, and color change in zirconia was not

  4. Capillary condensation and quantum vacuum effects on the pull-in voltage of electrostatic switches with self-affine rough plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we study the influence of capillary forces in combination with electrostatic and quantum vacuum generated forces on the pull-in voltage of microswitches having self-affine rough surfaces. This type of roughness is described by the rms roughness amplitude w, the in-plane correlation

  5. Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.

  6. Effect of film roughness in Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions: model calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati Boostan, Saeideh; Heiliger, Christian [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 (Germany); Moradi, Hosein [Department of Physics,Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    We calculate how interface roughness affects the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in Fe/MgO/Fe (100) junctions. The used method is based on a single-band tight-binding (SBTB) approximation employing the Green's function formalism. We investigate the influence of disorder at the TMR ratio. Thereby, the disorder is modeled by considering different occupation probabilities of Fe and MgO at interface sites. We calculate the current densities for parallel and anti-parallel configurations for different disorders. The results show that the roughness decreases the TMR that match well with experimental observations.

  7. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  8. Development of nano-roughness calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2012-01-01

    At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ruđer Bošković Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)

  9. Effect of fault roughness on aftershock distribution and post co-seismic strain accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, K.; Daub, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    We perform physics-based simulations of earthquake rupture propagation on geometrically complex strike-slip faults. We consider many different realization of the fault roughness and obtain heterogeneous stress fields by performing dynamic rupture simulation of large earthquakes. We calculate the Coulomb failure function (CFF) for all these realizations so that we can quantify zones of stress increase/shadows surrounding the main fault and compare our results to seismic catalogs. To do this comparison, we use relocated earthquake catalogs from Northern and Southern California. We specify the range of fault roughness parameters based on past observational studies. The Hurst exponent (H) varies in range from 0.5 to 1 and RMS height to wavelength ratio ( RMS deviation of a fault profile from planarity) has values between 10-2 to 10-3. For any realization of fault roughness, the Probability density function (PDF) values relative to the mean CFF change show a wider spread near the fault and this spread squeezes into a narrow band as we move away from fault. For lower value of RMS ratio ( 10-3), we see bigger zones of stress change near the hypocenter and for higher value of RMS ratio ( 10-2), we see alternate zones of stress increase/decrease surrounding the fault to have comparable lengths. We also couple short-term dynamic rupture simulation with long-term tectonic modelling. We do this by giving the stress output from one of the dynamic rupture simulation (of a single realization of fault roughness) to long term tectonic model (LTM) as initial condition and then run LTM over duration of seismic cycle. This short term and long term coupling enables us to understand how heterogeneous stresses due to fault geometry influence the dynamics of strain accumulation in the post-seismic and inter-seismic phase of seismic cycle.

  10. Models for Surface Roughness Scattering of Electrons in a 2DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In this work surface roughness scattering of electrons in a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at heterojunction interfaces is investigated for different auto-correlation tions and potential forms. Gaussian, exponentiaI and lorentsian auto-correlation tions are used to represent surface roughness. Both an infinitely deep triangular potential model and the potential that is found from the numerical solution of Poisson Shrodinger equations self consistently are used as the potential that holds 2DEG at the hetero Interface. Using the wave functions appropriate for the potentials just mentioned and the auto-correlation functions indicated above, the scattering rates due to surface roughness are calculated. The calculations were repeated when the effect of screening is also included for the case of triangular potential

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ADHESIVE CONTACT WITH ELASTOMERS: EFFECT OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Voll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between an elastomer and a steel indenter was studied experimentally and described with an analytical model. Cylindrical indenters having different roughness were brought into contact with an elastomer with various normal forces. After a “holding time”, the indenter was pulled with a constant velocity, which was the same in all experiments. We have studied the regime of relatively small initial normal loadings, large holding times and relatively large pulling velocities, so that the adhesive force did not depend on the holding time but did depend on the initially applied normal force and was approximately proportional to the pulling velocity. Under these conditions, we found that the adhesive force is inversely proportional to the roughness and proportional to the normal force. For the theoretical analysis, we used a previously published MDR-based model.

  12. An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.

  13. The effect of coatings and coating weight by two types of PCC on barrier and optical properties and roughness of paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rouzbeh asadi khansari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the use of PCC, and the impact of its coating weight on paper coating. In this study, two base papers from Mazandaran Wood and Paper Industries (APC and NS, and two coating compositions with the solid content of 25% containing PCC filler (100 parts, PVA binder (14 parts and dispersant (1 part were used. The first composition included PCC B102 for opacity increment, and the second one PCC 9020 for the improvement of brightness. Two rod RDS14 and RDS30 were used for different coating weights. After coating, the treated samples were dried in room conditions at air temperature of 25◦C and relative humidity of 54%. Physical and optical properties of control and treated samples such as air resistance, thickness, Cobb60, brightness, yellowness, opacity and roughness were determined. In comparison to the control group, all the treated samples showed improvement in brightness, opacity, yellowness and air resistance. By the two different formulations and two rods, paper roughness was increased, and the increment of water absorption was due to capillary development in coating texture. The analysis of variances showed that the usage of PCC 9020 had considerable effect on roughness of papers. In NS papers, change of PCC caused significant difference in brightness and roughness, but in APC papers did not. The change of coating rod in APC papers had significant effect on water absorption, brightness and opacity but did not show in NS.

  14. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  15. Effect of artificial toothbrushing and water storage on the surface roughness and micromechanical properties of tooth-colored CAD-CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Diebold, Elisabeth; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    Because of the different composition of resin-ceramic computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials, their polishability and their micromechanical properties vary. Moreover, depending on the composition of the materials, their surface roughness and micromechanical properties are likely to change with time. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of artificial toothbrushing and water storage on the surface roughness (Ra and Rz) and the micromechanical properties, surface hardness (Vickers [VHN]) and indentation modulus (E IT ), of 5 different tooth-colored CAD-CAM materials when polished with 2 different polishing systems. Specimens (n=40 per material) were cut from a composite resin (Paradigm MZ100; 3M ESPE), a feldspathic ceramic (Vitablocs Mark II; Vita Zahnfabrik), a resin nanoceramic (Lava Ultimate; 3M ESPE), a hybrid dental ceramic (Vita Enamic; Vita Zahnfabrik), and a nanocomposite resin (Ambarino High-Class; Creamed). All specimens were roughened in a standardized manner and polished either with Sof-Lex XT discs or the Vita Polishing Set Clinical. Surface roughness, VHN, and E IT were measured after polishing and after storage for 6 months (tap water, 37°C) with periodic, artificial toothbrushing. The surface roughness, VHN, and E IT results were analyzed with a nonparametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis and exact Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α=.05). Irrespective of polishing system and of artificial toothbrushing and storage, Lava Ultimate generally showed the lowest surface roughness and Vitablocs Mark II the highest. As regards micromechanical properties, the following ranking of the CAD-CAM materials was found (from highest VHN/E IT to lowest VHN/E IT ): Vitablocs Mark II > Vita Enamic > Paradigm MZ100 > Lava Ultimate > Ambarino High-Class. Irrespective of material and of artificial toothbrushing and storage, polishing with Sof-Lex XT discs resulted in lower surface roughness than the Vita Polishing

  16. Interfacial layering and capillary roughness in immiscible liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Pontikis, V

    2010-08-21

    The capillary roughness and the atomic density profiles of extended interfaces between immiscible liquids are determined as a function of the interface area by using molecular dynamics and Lennard-Jones (12-6) potentials. We found that with increasing area, the interface roughness diverges logarithmically, thus fitting the theoretical mean-field prediction. In systems small enough for the interfacial roughness not to blur the structural details, atomic density profiles across the fluid interface are layered with correlation length in the range of molecular correlations in liquids. On increasing the system size, the amplitude of the thermally excited position fluctuations of the interface increases, thus causing layering to rapidly vanish, if density profiles are computed without special care. In this work, we present and validate a simple method, operating in the direct space, for extracting from molecular dynamics trajectories the "intrinsic" structure of a fluid interface that is the local density profile of the interface cleaned from capillary wave effects. Estimated values of interfacial properties such as the tension, the intrinsic width, and the lower wavelength limit of position fluctuations are in agreement with results collected from the literature.

  17. Recent Developments in the X-Ray Reflectivity Analysis for Rough Surfaces and Interfaces of Multilayered Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Fujii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray reflectometry is a powerful tool for investigations on rough surface and interface structures of multilayered thin film materials. The X-ray reflectivity has been calculated based on the Parratt formalism, accounting for the effect of roughness by the theory of Nevot-Croce conventionally. However, in previous studies, the calculations of the X-ray reflectivity often show a strange effect where interference effects would increase at a rough surface. And estimated surface and interface roughnesses from the X-ray reflectivity measurements did not correspond to the TEM image observation results. The strange result had its origin in a used equation due to a serious mistake in which the Fresnel transmission coefficient in the reflectivity equation is increased at a rough interface because of a lack of consideration of diffuse scattering. In this review, a new accurate formalism that corrects this mistake is presented. The new accurate formalism derives an accurate analysis of the X-ray reflectivity from a multilayer surface of thin film materials, taking into account the effect of roughness-induced diffuse scattering. The calculated reflectivity by this accurate reflectivity equation should enable the structure of buried interfaces to be analyzed more accurately.

  18. Effect of irrigation on surface roughness and fatigue resistance of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J-J; Tang, X-N; Ge, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of irrigation on the surface roughness and fatigue resistance of HyFlex and M3 controlled memory (CM) wire nickel-titanium instruments. Two new files of each brand were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Then, the instruments were dynamically immersed in either 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for 10 min, followed by AFM analysis. The roughness average (Ra) and root mean square (RMS) values were analysed statistically using an independent sample t-test. Then, 36 files of each brand were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 12). Group 1 (the control group) was composed of new instruments. Groups 2 and 3 were dynamically immersed in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions for 10 min, respectively. The number of rotations to failure for various groups was analysed using the one-way analysis of variance software. For M3 files, the Ra and RMS values significantly increased (P  0.05) NaOCl. The resistance to cyclic fatigue of both HyFlex and M3 files did not significantly decrease (P > 0.05) by immersing in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Except the HyFlex files immersed in NaOCl, the surface roughness of other files exposed to irrigants increased. However, a change in the surface tomography of CM wire instruments caused by contact with irrigants for 10 min did not trigger a decrease in cyclic fatigue resistance. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Surface roughness evaluation on mandrels and mirror shells for future X-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, D.

    2008-07-01

    More X-ray missions that will be operating in near future, like particular SIMBOL-X, e-Rosita, Con-X/HXT, SVOM/XIAO and Polar-X, will be based on focusing optics manufactured by means of the Ni electroforming replication technique. This production method has already been successfully exploited for SAX, XMM and Swift-XRT. Optical surfaces for X-ray reflection have to be as smooth as possible also at high spatial frequencies. Hence it will be crucial to take under control microroughness in order to reduce the scattering effects. A high rms microroughness would cause the degradation of the angular resolution and loss of effective area. Stringent requirements have therefore to be fixed for mirror shells surface roughness depending on the specific energy range investigated, and roughness evolution has to be carefully monitored during the subsequent steps of the mirror-shells realization. This means to study the roughness evolution in the chain mandrel, mirror shells, multilayer deposition and also the degradation of mandrel roughness following iterated replicas. Such a study allows inferring which phases of production are the major responsible of the roughness growth and could help to find solutions optimizing the involved processes. The exposed study is carried out in the context of the technological consolidation related to SIMBOL-X, along with a systematic metrological study of mandrels and mirror shells. To monitor the roughness increase following each replica, a multiinstrumental approach was adopted: microprofiles were analysed by means of their Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the spatial frequency range 1000-0.01 μm. This enables the direct comparison of roughness data taken with instruments characterized by different operative ranges of frequencies, and in particular optical interferometers and Atomic Force Microscopes. The performed analysis allowed us to set realistic specifications on the mandrel roughness to be achieved, and to suggest a limit for the

  20. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  1. Surface Roughness of a 3D-Printed Ni-Cr Alloy Produced by Selective Laser Melting: Effect of Process Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Min-Ho; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2018-03-01

    The selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters, which directly determine the melting behavior of the metallic powders, greatly affect the nanostructure and surface roughness of the resulting 3D object. This study investigated the effect of various laser process parameters (laser power, scan rate, and scan line spacing) on the surface roughness of a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy that was three-dimensionally (3D) constructed using SLM. Single-line formation tests were used to determine the optimal laser power of 200 W and scan rate of 98.8 mm/s, which resulted in beads with an optimal profile. In the subsequent multi-layer formation tests, the 3D object with the smoothest surface (Ra = 1.3 μm) was fabricated at a scan line spacing of 60 μm (overlap ratio = 73%). Narrow scan line spacing (and thus large overlap ratios) was preferred over wide scan line spacing to reduce the surface roughness of the 3D body. The findings of this study suggest that the laser power, scan rate, and scan line spacing are the key factors that control the surface quality of Ni-Cr alloys produced by SLM.

  2. Effect of Tip Shape of Frictional Stir Burnishing Tool on Processed Layer’s Hardness, Residual Stress and Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Takada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir burnishing (FSB is a surface-enhancement method used after machining, without the need for an additional device. The FSB process is applied on a machine that uses rotation tools (e.g., machining center or multi-tasking machine. Therefore, the FSB process can be applied immediately after the cutting process using the same machine tool. Here, we apply the FSB to the shaft materials of 0.45% C steel using a multi-tasking machine. In the FSB process, the burnishing tool rotates at a high-revolution speed. The thin surface layer is rubbed and stirred as the temperature is increased and decreased. With the FSB process, high hardness or compressive residual stress can be obtained on the surface layer. However, when we applied the FSB process using a 3 mm diameter sphere tip shape tool, the surface roughness increased substantially (Ra = 20 µm. We therefore used four types of tip shape tools to examine the effect of burnishing tool tip radius on surface roughness, hardness, residual stress in the FSB process. Results indicated that the surface roughness was lowest (Ra = 10 µm when the tip radius tool diameter was large (30 mm.

  3. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2017-04-03

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω−2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  4. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Vyas, Jagdish C.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-09-01

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω-2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  5. Accounting for Fault Roughness in Pseudo-Dynamic Ground-Motion Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Vyas, Jagdish Chandra; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Geological faults comprise large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. These multi-scale geometrical complexities determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process, and therefore affect the radiated seismic wavefield. In this study, we examine how different parameterizations of fault roughness lead to variability in the rupture evolution and the resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence naturally induced by fault roughness generates high-frequency radiation that follows an ω−2 decay in displacement amplitude spectra. Because dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we test several kinematic source approximations designed to emulate the observed dynamic behavior. When simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. We observe that dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with the local dip angles. Testing two parameterizations of dynamically consistent Yoffe-type source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic ruptures well reproduces the radiated seismic waves of the complete dynamic source process. This finding opens a new avenue for an improved pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures the effects of fault roughness on earthquake rupture evolution. By including also the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we outline a new pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling approach for broadband ground-motion simulation.

  6. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  7. Effect of the roughness of crucible on viscosity of liquid Pb38.1Sn61.9 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuqin; Bian Xiufang; Mao Tan; Li Xuelian; Li Taibao; Wang Caidong

    2007-01-01

    The viscosity of the eutectic Pb 38.1 Sn 61.9 alloy has been measured by a torsional oscillation viscometer using three different crucibles which are made of the materials of highly sintered alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and graphite (C) respectively. The roughness of crucibles has effect on the viscosity. The viscosity data obtained for SiO 2 and C crucibles were concentrated in the narrow range of about 0.5% and showed almost the same activation energy. However, the viscosity obtained using Al 2 O 3 crucible with the maximal roughness is higher than that using the other two crucibles. The discrepancy of viscosity obtained using those crucibles increases with the viscosity. In addition, the viscosity obtained using three kinds of crucibles in our work has a breakpoint at 488 K, which is approximate with the results of electrical conductivity and thermopower measurements reported by Plevachuk et al., which indicates the microstructure in melt changes before solidification

  8. Soil surface roughness decay in contrasting climates, tillage types and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Bertol, Ildegardis; Tondello Barbosa, Fabricio; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    results indicate that two or more parameters may be needed to characterize the spatial variability of the soil surface microrelief and to best describe the roughness decay in agricultural soils under the various climatic and anthropogenic conditions studied. Then, rates of soil surface roughness decay were used to evaluate the susceptibility to degradation of the soil surface under the main tillage ands management types studied. Finally the effects of soil surface roughness on soil losses and water losses under typical tillage and management systems of the two contrasting regions studied were outlined.

  9. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2009-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that re-ported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial re-analysis suggest...

  10. Stochastic control with rough paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  11. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  12. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de

  13. Effect of implantoplasty on fracture resistance and surface roughness of standard diameter dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Berenguer, Xavier; García-García, Marta; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Sanz-Alonso, Mariano; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effect of implantoplasty on the fracture resistance, surface roughness, and macroscopic morphology of standard diameter (4.1 mm) external connection dental implants. An in vitro study was conducted in 20 screw-shaped titanium dental implants with an external connection. In 10 implants, the threads and surface were removed and polished with high-speed burs (implantoplasty), while the remaining 10 implants were used as controls. The final implant dimensions were recorded. The newly polished surface quality was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by 3D surface roughness analysis using a confocal laser microscope. Finally, all the implants were subjected to a mechanical pressure resistance test. A descriptive analysis of the data was made. Also, Student's t tests were employed to detect differences regarding the compression tests. Implantoplasty was carried out for a mean time of 10 min and 48 s (standard deviation (SD) of 1 min 22 s). Macroscopically, the resulting surface had a smooth appearance, although small titanium shavings and silicon debris were present. The final surface roughness (S a values 0.1 ± 0.02 μm) was significantly lower than that of the original (0.75 ± 0.08 μm S a ) (p = .005). There was minimal reduction in the implant's inner body diameter (0.19 ± 0.03 mm), and no statistically significant differences were found between the test and control implants regarding the maximum resistance force (896 vs 880 N, respectively). Implantoplasty, although technically demanding and time-consuming, does not seem to significantly alter fracture resistance of standard diameter external connection implants. A smooth surface with S a values below 0.1 μm can be obtained through the use of silicon polishers. A larger sample is required to confirm that implantoplasty does not significantly affect the maximum resistance force of standard diameter external connection implants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published

  14. From Runway to Orbit: Reflections of a NASA Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Peebles, Curtis L.

    2004-01-01

    In his remarkable memoir Runway to Orbit, Dr. Kenneth W. Iliff - the recently retired Chief Scientist of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center- tells a highly personal, yet a highly persuasive account of the last forty years of American aeronautical research. His interpretation of events commands respect, because over these years he has played pivotal roles in many of the most important American aeronautics and spaceflight endeavors. Moreover, his narrative covers much of the second half of the first 100 years of flight, a centennial anniversary being celebrated this year. aerospace knowledge. He arrived at the then NASA Flight Research Center in 1962 as a young aeronautical engineer and quickly became involved in two of the seminal projects of modern flight, the X-15 and the lifting bodies. In the process, he pioneered (with Lawrence Taylor) the application of digital computing to the reduction of flight data, arriving at a method known as parameter estimation, now applied the world over. Parameter estimation not only enabled researchers to acquire stability and control derivatives from limited flight data, but in time allowed them to obtain a wide range of aerodynamic effects. Although subsequently involved in dozens of important projects, Dr. Iliff devoted much of his time and energy to hypersonic flight, embodied in the Shuttle orbiter (or as he refers to it, the world s fastest airplane). To him, each Shuttle flight, instrumented to obtain a variety of data, represents a research treasure trove, one that he has mined for years. This book, then, represents the story of Dr. Ken Iliff s passion for flight, his work, and his long and astoundingly productive career. It can be read with profit not just by scientists and engineers, but equally by policy makers, historians, and journalists wishing to better comprehend advancements in flight during the second half of the twentieth century. Dr. Iliff's story is one of immense contributions to the nation s repository of

  15. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. (au)

  17. Transition Experiments on Large Bluntness Cones with Distributed Roughness in Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Daniel. C.; Wilder, Michael C.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Large bluntness cones with smooth nosetips and roughened frusta were flown in the NASA Ames hypersonic ballistic range at a Mach number of 10 through quiescent air environments. Global surface intensity (temperature) distributions were optically measured and analyzed to determine transition onset and progression over the roughened surface. Real-gas Navier-Stokes calculations of model flowfields, including laminar boundary layer development in these flowfields, were conducted to predict values of key dimensionless parameters used to correlate transition on such configurations in hypersonic flow. For these large bluntness cases, predicted axial distributions of the roughness Reynolds number showed (for each specified freestream pressure) that this parameter was a maximum at the physical beginning of the roughened zone and decreased with increasing run length along the roughened surface. Roughness-induced transition occurred downstream of this maximum roughness Reynolds number location, and progressed upstream towards the beginning of the roughened zone as freestream pressure was systematically increased. Roughness elements encountered at the upstream edge of the roughened frusta thus acted like a finite-extent trip array, consistent with published results concerning the tripping effectiveness of roughness bands placed on otherwise smooth surfaces.

  18. Turbulent flow and heat transfer in channels with combined rough and smooth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytekin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A two-part experimental investigation is reported on the effects of transverse square rib roughening on fluid flow and heat transfer in channels with uniform and non-uniform boundary conditions. The first part of the experimental programme consisted of providing detailed measurements of mean and basic turbulent characteristics of fully developed flow in two rectangular ducts of aspect ratios 1.63 and 3.0. In each duct only one wall was roughened. In channels having low aspect ratios secondary flows play an important part in momentum transfer, and an interpretation of their effect on the measured Reynolds shear stress distribution has been attempted. In the second part of the experimental programme mean velocity and temperature profiles, friction factors and Stanton numbers were measured in an internally roughened pipe and annuli composed of a rough inner rod and either a smooth or a rough outer pipe. Heating was always applied on the outer surface. In all the geometries the mean velocities near the rough walls were found to be represented by logarithmic straight lines. The gradients of these lines were independent of Reynolds number but differed for various geometries. The mean temperature profiles, measured in the rough pipe and the fully rough annulus, showed that these could also be represented by logarithmic straight lines, but the slopes of these profiles were markedly different from those of the velocity profiles. (author)

  19. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  20. Turbulent flow with suction in smooth and rough pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Andre.

    1977-11-01

    It concerns an experimental study of turbulent flow inside a pipe with rough and porous wall and suction applied through it. The first part recall the basic knowledge concerning the turbulent flow with roughness. In second part statistical equations of fluid wall stress are written in the case of a permeable rough wall, in order to underline the respective role played by viscosity and pressure terms. In the third part the dynamic equilibrium of the flow is experimentally undertaken in the smooth and rough range with and without wall suction. Some empirical formulae are proposed for the mean velocity profiles in the inertial range and for friction velocity with suction. In the case of the sand roughness used, it does not seem that critical Reynolds number of transition from smooth to rough range is varied [fr

  1. Nanoscale roughness and morphology affect the IsoElectric Point of titania surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borghi

    Full Text Available We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2 surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces.

  2. The effects of irradiance and exposure time on the surface roughness of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad I.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the surface roughness of 4 different bulk-fill resin-based composites cured using different irradiance levels. Methods: This in vitro study was performed in February 2017 to August 2017 at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Twenty-four specimens were prepared from each of the bulk-fill materials [Tetric N-Ceram (TNC), SonicFill (SF), Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), and Filtek Bulk-Fill (FB)] using a brass metal mold, resulting in a total of 96 specimens, cured using a Bluephase N light curing unit. Half of the total number of specimens (N=48) were cured using high-power irradiance (1200 mW/cm2) for 20 seconds, while the remaining half (N=48) were cured using low power irradiance (650 mW/cm2) for 40 seconds. After 24 hours, baseline surface roughness of each specimen was analyzed using a profilometer, then polished using Sof-lex abrasive disks, and the surface roughness of all groups was assessed. Results: Post-polished SonicFill cured at high irradiance had the highest mean surface roughness (0.23±0.03), whereas pre-polished Smart Dentin Replacement (0.11±0.01) and SonicFill (0.11±0.02) cured at low irradiance had the lowest mean surface roughness. Conclusion: High curing irradiance (1,200 mW/cm2) had no positive influence on the surface roughness of Filtek Bulk Fill and Tetric N-Ceram bulk-fill RBCs compared with lower curing irradiance (650 mW/cm2). However, the difference of curing irradiance significantly affected the surface roughness in SDR and sonic fill RBCs. PMID:29436570

  3. Rough sets applied in sublattices and ideals of lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ameri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of rough hyperlattice. In this regards we introduce rough sublattice and rough ideals of lattices. We will proceed by obtaining lower and upper approximations in these lattices.

  4. Wave-driven Hydrodynamics for Different Reef Geometries and Roughness Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, G. L.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2013-05-01

    In fringing reef systems where a shallow lagoon is present behind the reef crest, wave breaking appears to dominate circulation, controlling numerous key processes such as the transport and dispersion of larvae, nutrients and sediments. Despite their importance, there is a need for more detailed knowledge on the hydrodynamic processes that take place within the surf zone of these systems and the effects different combinations of geometries and roughness have on them. The present study focuses on the use of two-dimensional (2DV) numerical model simulations and data obtained during a field campaign in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico to better understand the detailed surf zone processes that occur over a fringing reef. The model used is Cornell Breaking Wave and Structures (COBRAS), which solves Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. Reef geometries implemented in the model include a reef flat and two different reef crests. The effect of roughness on wave setup, radiation stress, mean flows, and cross-shore spectral evolution for the model results was studied using different roughness coefficients (Nikuradse) and a bathymetric profile obtained in the field using the bottom track option of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Field data were also analysed for the configuration and roughness of Puerto Morelos. Model results reveal that for all profiles wave setup increased significantly (~22%) with increasing bed roughness, in agreement with previous findings for sandy beaches.For all wave heights and periods studied, increasing roughness also affected spectral wave evolution across the reef, with a significant reduction in energy, particularly at infragravity frequencies. The presence of a reef crest in the profile resulted in differences in behaviour at infragravity frequencies. For example, preliminary results suggest that there is a shift towards higher frequencies as waves progress into the lagoon when a crest is present, something that does not

  5. Dewetting of thin polymer film on rough substrate: II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, Pylyp; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the dewetting process developed for a model of substrate-film interaction forces was examined by an experimental investigation of the dewetting process of thin polystyrene (PS) films on chemically etched silicon substrates. In the dependence on PS films thickness and silicon roughness, various situations of dewetting were observed as follows: (i) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is much larger than the critical spinodal wavelength of a film, then spinodal dewetting of the film is observed; (ii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is larger in comparison with film thickness, then the dewetting due to substrate roughness is observed and the dewetted film patterns repeat the rough substrate structure; (iii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is small in comparison with the film thickness, then spinodal dewetting proceeds

  6. Analysis of the premeability characteristics along rough-walled fractures using a homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Byung Gon; Choi, Jung Hae; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Seo, Yong Seok

    2012-01-01

    To compute a permeability coefficient along a rough fracture that takes into account the fracture geometry, this study performed detailed measurements of fracture roughness using a confocal laser scanning microscope, a quantitative analysis of roughness using a spectral analysis, and a homogenization analysis to calculate the permeability coefficient on the microand macro-scale. The homogenization analysis is a type of perturbation theory that characterizes the behavior of microscopically inhomogeneous material with a periodic boundary condition in the microstructure. Therefore, it is possible to analyze accurate permeability characteristics that are represented by the local effect of the fracture geometry. The Cpermeability coefficients that are calculated using the homogenization analysis for each rough fracture model exhibit an irregular distribution and do not follow the relationship of the cubic law. This distribution suggests that the permeability characteristics strongly depend on the geometric conditions of the fractures, such as the roughness and the aperture variation. The homogenization analysis may allow us to produce more accurate results than are possible with the preexisting equations for calculating permeability.

  7. Fuzzy multi-project rough-cut capacity planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masmoudi, Malek; Hans, Elias W.; Leus, Roel; Hait, Alain; Sotskov, Yuri N.; Werner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the incorporation of uncertainty into multi-project rough-cut capacity planning. We use fuzzy sets to model uncertainties, adhering to the so-called possibilistic approach. We refer to the resulting proactive planning environment as Fuzzy Rough Cut Capacity Planning (FRCCP).

  8. The interplay between surface charging and microscale roughness during plasma etching of polymeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos, George; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kokkoris, George

    2018-02-01

    The surface roughness developed during plasma etching of polymeric substrates is critical for a variety of applications related to the wetting behavior and the interaction of surfaces with cells. Toward the understanding and, ultimately, the manipulation of plasma induced surface roughness, the interplay between surface charging and microscale roughness of polymeric substrates is investigated by a modeling framework consisting of a surface charging module, a surface etching model, and a profile evolution module. The evolution of initially rough profiles during plasma etching is calculated by taking into account as well as by neglecting charging. It is revealed, on the one hand, that the surface charging contributes to the suppression of root mean square roughness and, on the other hand, that the decrease of the surface roughness induces a decrease of the charging potential. The effect of charging on roughness is intense when the etching yield depends solely on the ion energy, and it is mitigated when the etching yield additionally depends on the angle of ion incidence. The charging time, i.e., the time required for reaching a steady state charging potential, is found to depend on the thickness of the polymeric substrate, and it is calculated in the order of milliseconds.

  9. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone

  10. Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw-Swiatek Dorota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. In this study effects of cypress knees as vegetation resistance factor on Turkey Creek watershed discharge calculation were analyzed. The Turkey Creek watershed is a 3rd order stream system draining an approximate area of 5,240 ha. It is located at 33°08' N latitude and 79°47' W longitude, approximately 60 km north-west of City of Charleston in South Carolina (USA. Turkey Creek (WS 78 is typical of other watersheds in the south Atlantic coastal plain. In the case of Turkey Creek watershed, one of the main channels and riparian floodplain vegetation contains cypress trees. Cypress trees live in moist or swampy regions along the Atlantic coastal plain. The cypress trees are characterized by the unique root system called knees that appear just above the water line, up to 1.2 m above water surface. This study is conducted to examine the effects of roughness of cypress knee as related to its shape (diameter and height on discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. Hydraulic characteristics of the cypress knees were determined by field inventory in selected cross-section along the main stream channel. The Pasche method was used to calculate the total Darcy–Weisbach friction factor in discharge capacity calculation of the study watershed. The results of this study show that the effect of vegetation shape in the Pasche approach is significant. If the variability of vegetation stem diameter is taken into consideration in the calculations, an increase by 10–32% in the values of friction coefficients occurs.

  11. Nano rough micron patterned titanium for directing osteoblast morphology and adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Puckett

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina Puckett, Rajesh Pareta, Thomas J WebsterDivision of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Previous studies have demonstrated greater functions of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells on nanophase compared with conventional metals. Nanophase metals possess a biologically inspired nanostructured surface that mimics the dimensions of constituent components in bone, including collagen and hydroxyapatite. Not only do these components possess dimensions on the nanoscale, they are aligned in a parallel manner creating a defined orientation in bone. To date, research has yet to evaluate the effect that organized nanosurface features can have on the interaction of osteoblasts with material surfaces. Therefore, to determine if surface orientation of features can mediate osteoblast adhesion and morphology, this study investigated osteoblast function on patterned titanium substrates containing alternating regions of micron rough and nano rough surfaces prepared by novel electron beam evaporation techniques. This study was also interested in determining whether or not the size of the patterned regions had an effect on osteoblast behavior and alignment. Results indicated early controlled osteoblast alignment on these patterned materials as well as greater osteoblast adhesion on the nano rough regions of these patterned substrates. Interestingly, decreasing the width of the nano rough regions (from 80 µm to 22 µm on these patterned substrates resulted in a decreased number of osteoblasts adhering to these areas. Changes in the width of the nano rough regions also resulted in changes in osteoblast morphology, thus, suggesting there is an optimal pattern dimension that osteoblasts prefer. In summary, results of this study provided evidence that aligned nanophase metal features on the surface of titanium improved early osteoblast functions (morphology and adhesion promising for their long term functions, criteria necessary to improve

  12. Pre-sintered Y-TZP sandblasting: effect on surface roughness, phase transformation, and Y-TZP/veneer bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Müller Ramos-Tonello

    Full Text Available Abstract Sandblasting is a common method to try to improve the Y-TZP/veneer bond strength of dental prostheses, however, it may put stress on zirconia surfaces and could accelerate the t→m phase transformation. Y-TZP sandblasting before sintering could be an alternative to improve surface roughness and bonding strength of veneering ceramic. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Y-TZP pre-sintering sandblasting on surface roughness, phase transformation, and the Y-TZP/veneer shear bond strength. Material and Methods. The Y-TZP specimen surface underwent sandblasting with aluminum oxide (50 μm pre-sintering (Z-PRE and post-sintering (Z-POS. Z-CTR was not subjected to surface treatment. After ceramic veneer application, the specimens were subjected to shear bond testing. Surface roughness was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Y-TZP monoclinic and tetragonal phases were evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Shear bond strength and surface roughness data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05. Differences in the wave numbers and the broadening bands of the Raman spectra were compared among groups. Results. Z-POS (9.73±5.36 MPa and Z-PRE (7.94±2.52 MPa showed the highest bond strength, significantly higher than that of Z-CTR (5.54±2.14 MPa. The Ra of Z-PRE (1.59±0.23 µm was much greater and significantly different from that of Z-CTR (0.29±0.05 µm and Z-POS (0.77±0.13 µm. All groups showed bands typical of the tetragonal (T and monoclinic (M phases. Y-TZP sandblasting before sintering resulted in rougher surfaces but did not increase the shear bond strength compared to post-sintering and increased surface defects. Conclusions. Surface treatment with Al3O2, regardless of the moment and application, improves the results of Y-TZP/veneer bonding and is not a specific cause of t→m transformation.

  13. Surface roughness of etched composite resin in light of composite repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Cardoso, M.V.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In search for clinically effective composite repair protocols, the effect of various etching protocols on the surface roughness of composite resins with different filler composition were investigated. METHODS: Of two composite resins (hybrid-filled Clearfil AP-X; nano-filled Filtek

  14. Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop

  15. Why do rough surfaces appear glossy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Chantler, Mike J; Siebert, J Paul; Dong, Junyu

    2014-05-01

    The majority of work on the perception of gloss has been performed using smooth surfaces (e.g., spheres). Previous studies that have employed more complex surfaces reported that increasing mesoscale roughness increases perceived gloss [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010), Curr. Biol.22, 1909 (2012)]. We show that the use of realistic rendering conditions is important and that, in contrast to [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010)], after a certain point increasing roughness further actually reduces glossiness. We investigate five image statistics of estimated highlights and show that for our stimuli, one in particular, which we term "percentage of highlight area," is highly correlated with perceived gloss. We investigate a simple model that explains the unimodal, nonmonotonic relationship between mesoscale roughness and percentage highlight area.

  16. Influence of Surface Roughness and Agitation on the Morphology of Magnetite Films Electrodeposited on Carbon Steel Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyeok Jeon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the effects of surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited from alkaline Fe(III-triethanolamine (TEA solutions on carbon steel substrates. The surface roughness of the carbon steel substrates was maintained in the range of 1.64–0.06 μm by using mechanical grinding and polishing methods. The agitation speed was set at 0 and 900 rpm during the electrodeposition process. The particle size and surface roughness value of the magnetite films gradually decreased with decreasing substrate roughness. However, the influence of the substrate roughness on the thickness of the magnetite film was negligible. The morphology of the magnetite film fabricated at 900 rpm appeared to be highly faceted compared to that of the magnetite film produced at 0 rpm. The thickness and surface roughness of the magnetite film significantly increased with the agitation speed, which also significantly affected the electrodeposition efficiency. The effects of substrate surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited on carbon steel substrates were also discussed. The obtained results provide critical information for the simulation of magnetite deposits on carbon steel pipes in the secondary systems of nuclear power plants.

  17. Surface roughness of novel resin composites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Z; Türkün, L S

    2007-01-01

    This study: 1) analyzed the surface roughness of five novel resin composites that contain nanoparticles after polishing with three different one-step systems and 2) evaluated the effectiveness of these polishers and their possible surface damage using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The resin composites evaluated in this study include CeramX, Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 100 discs (20/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Five specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The samples were polished for 30 seconds with PoGo, OptraPol and One Gloss discs at 15,000 rpm using a slow speed handpiece. The surfaces were tested for roughness (Ra) with a surface roughness tester and examined with SEM. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (p = 0.05). For all the composites tested, differences between the polishing systems were found to be significant (p One Gloss applications. For Grandio, Mylar and PoGo created equally smooth surfaces, while OptraPol and One Gloss produced equally rougher surfaces. Tetric EvoCeram exhibited the roughest surface with OptraPol, while no significant differences were found between Premise and CeramX. According to SEM images, OptraPol and One Gloss scratched and plucked the particles away from the surface, while PoGo created a uniform finish, although the roughness values were not the same for each composite. Effectiveness of the polishers seems to be material dependent.

  18. Urban roughness mapping validation techniques and some first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, M; Mestayer, PG

    1998-01-01

    Because of measuring problems related to evaluation of urban roughness parameters, a new approach using a roughness mapping tool has been tested: evaluation of roughness length z(o) and zero displacement z(d) from cadastral databases. Special attention needs to be given to the validation of the

  19. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  20. Rough viscoelastic sliding contact: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, G.; Putignano, C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show how the numerical theory introduced by the authors [Carbone and Putignano, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 61, 1822 (2013), 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.03.005] can be effectively employed to study the contact between viscoelastic rough solids. The huge numerical complexity is successfully faced up by employing the adaptive nonuniform mesh developed by the authors in Putignano et al. [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 60, 973 (2012), 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.01.006]. Results mark the importance of accounting for viscoelastic effects to correctly simulate the sliding rough contact. In detail, attention is, first, paid to evaluate the viscoelastic dissipation, i.e., the viscoelastic friction. Fixed the sliding speed and the normal load, friction is completely determined. Furthermore, since the methodology employed in the work allows to study contact between real materials, a comparison between experimental outcomes and numerical prediction in terms of viscoelastic friction is shown. The good agreement seems to vali