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Sample records for ruminal particle turnover

  1. Evaluation of procedures for estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility in ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures used in estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility were evaluated in a series of independent experiments. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated the influence of sampling site, mathematical model and intraruminal mixing on estimates of ruminal particle turnover in beef steers grazing crested wheatgrass or offered ad libitum levels of prairie hay once daily, respectively. Particle turnover rate constants were estimated by intraruminal administration (via rumen cannula) of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage, followed by serial collection of rumen digesta or fecal samples. Rumen Yb concentrations were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed on time. Influence of sampling site (rectum versus rumen) on turnover estimates was modified by the model used to fit fecal marker excretion curves in the grazing study. In contrast, estimated turnover rate constants from rumen sampling were smaller (P < 0.05) than rectally derived rate constants, regardless of fecal model used, when steers were fed once daily. In Experiment 3, in vitro residues subjected to acid or neutral detergent fiber extraction (IVADF and IVNDF), acid detergent fiber incubated in cellulase (ADFIC) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers for predicting diet digestibility. Both IVADF and IVNDF displayed variable accuracy for prediction of in vivo digestibility whereas ADL and ADFIC inaccurately predicted digestibility of all diets

  2. Representation of a common 3-pool compartment model for N turnover of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of an existing 3-pool compartment model for the N turnover of lactating ruminants a method was elaborated for N turnover determination in non-lactating ruminants by measuring the 15 N frequency in NPN pool and without experimental measurements of the 15 N frequency in the amino acid pool

  3. Blood protein turnover in parasitized ruminants. The influence of host nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargie, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ruminants infected with helminth or protozoal parasites generally become anaemic and hypoalbuminaemic, as well as losing their appetite. Since feed intake plays an important part in determining blood protein levels, it is necessary, when attempting to determine the mechanisms by which parasites cause anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia, to differentiate between the effects of feed intake per se and the specific effects of the parasite on blood protein turnover. This can be done by a variety of radioisotope techniques using infected and pair-fed control animals. Additionally, animals on a poor plane of nutrition suffer more from parasitism than those which are well fed. To understand the reason for this, it is necessary to determine whether diet influences susceptibility to parasite establishment or survival, and/or susceptibility to the metabolic consequences of parasitism. Described here is the current state of knowledge on the interaction between host nutrition and susceptibility to parasitic infection and parasitic disease processes, with particular reference to anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. It is concluded that there is little evidence that nutrition has a significant bearing on resistance or susceptibility to infection, but that it does not have a profound influence on the ability of animals to withstand the pathogenic effects of parasites. The reasons for this are discussed in detail, but the principal benefit of a good plane of nutrition is that it enables the synthetic machinery of the host to keep pace with the concurrent parasite-induced hypercatabolism of blood proteins. (author)

  4. Effect of corn silage particle size and level of soybean oil on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effects of two corn silage particle size (coarse particle with geometric mean of 5.83 ± 2.47 mm and fine particle with geometric mean of 4.74 ± 2.74 mm) and two levels of soybean oil (0 and 4% of DM) on ruminal mat composition, distribution and consistency, four two years fistulated ruminant Zel ewes (BW ...

  5. The effects of alfalfa particle size and acid treated protein on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa particle size (long vs. fine) and canola meal treated with hydrochloric acid solution (untreated vs treated) on ruminal chemical composition, liquid, particulate, escapable and non escapable phases in Zel sheep. Four ruminally cannulated sheep received a mixed ...

  6. Effects on roughage inclusion and particle size on digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughage is fed to cattle to promote ruminal health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a means to standardize roughage in beef cattle finishing diets, and increasing particle size of roughage could ...

  7. The use of N-15 labelling to study the turnover and utilization of ruminant manure N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the cycling of animal manure N is a prerequisite for malting better use of this N source. A sheep was fed N-15-Iabelled grass in order to study the fate of N-15-Iabelled ruminant manure N in the plant-soil system. The uniformity of labelling was found to be satisfactory...

  8. Effect of exchanging Onobrychis viciifolia and Lotus corniculatus for Medicago sativa on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen turnover in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Bee, G; Silacci, P; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of feeding sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT; Lotus corniculatus), 2 temperate climate forage legumes that contain condensed tannins (CT), on ruminal fermentation and N turnover in dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated multiparous dairy cows (milk yield=40kg/d; 36 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design. All animals were fed basal diets containing 20% pelleted SF (223g of CT/kg of dry matter), BT (30.3g of CT/kg of dry matter), or alfalfa (AL) and concentrate to meet their predicted nutrient requirements. Each experimental period consisted of a 21-d adaptation period in a tiestall, followed by a 7-d collection period in metabolic crates, where feces and urine were collected quantitatively. During the 7-d period, milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were taken at each milking. Blood, ruminal fluid, and papillae were sampled on d 2 and 5. The relative abundance of selected bacterial strains in ruminal fluid and the gene expression of transporter genes in the papillae were determined with quantitative PCR. Total volatile fatty acids and the abundance of the cellulolytic bacteria Prevotella spp. and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased with SF compared with AL. The relative gene expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 was increased with BT compared with AL and SF. Total yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein were similar among treatments. The proportion of 18:3n-3 in milk fat was greater and those of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were lower with SF than with BT. The contents of urea N in blood (2.71, 3.45, and 3.90mmol/L for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), milk (79.8, 100.1, and 110.9mg/kg for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), and urine were lower with SF than with AL and BT, and a trend toward a lower ruminal ammonia content occurred with SF compared with BT. Intake and excretion of N with milk were similar among treatments, but urine N was lower with SF

  9. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  10. The effects of alfalfa particle size and acid treated protein on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... received a mixed diet (% of dry matter) consisting of 23.73 alfalfa, 8.70 canola meal, 39.56 wheat straw,. 13.45 beet pulp and 13.45 ... ruminal mean retention time of plastic particles in sheep. (Kaske and Engelhardt .... 13.45 and 13.45% of alfalfa forage, canola meal, wheat straw, beet pulp and barley grain, ...

  11. Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations

  12. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schlüter

    Full Text Available Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3. We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  13. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  14. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight 592±29.9 kg fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24°C and 60% for 22 h/d. Treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design were TMR only (control, TMR with whole corn grain (WC, coarsely ground corn grain (CC, and finely ground corn grain (FC, respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA, ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05 ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05 propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05 increased by FC. Conclusion Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

  15. Effects of correcting in situ ruminal microbial colonization of feed particles on the relationship between ruminally undegraded and intestinally digested crude protein in concentrate feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Mouhbi, Rabiaa; Guevara-González, Jesús Alberto; Arroyo, José María

    2018-02-01

    In situ estimates of ruminally undegraded protein (RUP) and intestinally digested protein (IDP) of ten concentrates, uncorrected or corrected for the ruminal microbial colonization, were used to examine the effects of this correction on the relationship between IDP and RUP values. Both variables were established for three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers using 15 N labeling-techniques and considering measured rates of ruminal particle comminution (k c ) and outflow (k p ). A covariance analysis showed that the close relationship found between both variables (IDP = -0.0132 ± 0.00679 + 0.776 ± 0.0002 RUP; n = 60; P content in concentrates and industrial by-products can be predicted from RUP values, thus avoiding the laborious and complex procedure of determining intestinal digestibility; however, a larger sample of feeds is necessary to achieve more accurate predictions. The lack of influence of the correction for microbial contamination on the prediction observed in the present study increases the data available for this prediction. However, only the use of corrected values may provide an accurate evaluation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Altering physically effective fiber intake through forage proportion and particle length: chewing and ruminal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    Alfalfa silages varying in theoretical chop length and diets high and low in forage proportion were used to evaluate whether increasing the physically effective (pe) neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of dairy cow diets reduces the risk of acidosis. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square using 8 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dietary peNDF content (DM basis) was determined from the sum of the proportion of dietary DM retained on either the 2 sieves (8 and 19 mm) or the 3 sieves (1.18, 8, and 19 mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by the NDF content of the diet. The dietary peNDF contents ranged from 9.6 to 19.8% using 2 sieves, or from 28.6 to 34.0% using 3 sieves. Intake of peNDF was increased by increasing both the F:C ratio and the FPL of the diets. However, F:C ratio and FPL affected chewing activity differently; increasing F:C ratio increased chewing time but increasing FPL only increased chewing when a high-forage diet was fed. Mean ruminal pH was increased by 0.5 and 0.2 units with increasing F:C ratio and FPL, respectively. Cows fed the low F:C diet had > 10 or 7 h daily in which ruminal pH was below 5.8 or 5.5, respectively, compared with 1.2 and 0.1 h for cows fed the high F:C ratio diet. Increased F:C ratio reduced ruminal VFA concentration from 135 to 121 mM but increased the acetate:propionate ratio from 1.82 to 3.13. Dietary peNDF content when measured using 2 sieves was positively correlated to chewing time (r = 0.61) and mean ruminal pH (r = 0.73), and negatively correlated to the time that pH was below 5.8 or 5.5 (r = -0.46). This study shows that the risk of ruminal acidosis is high for cows fed a low F:C diet, particularly when finely chopped silage is used. Intake of

  17. Effects of varying forage particle size and fermentable carbohydrates on feed sorting, ruminal fermentation, and milk and component yields of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulfair, D D; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-05-01

    Ration sorting is thought to affect ruminal fermentation in such a manner that milk yield milk and components are often decreased. However, the influence of ruminally degradable starch on ration sorting has not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interactions between forage particle size (FPS) and ruminally fermentable carbohydrates (RFC) for dry matter intake (DMI), ration sorting, ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and milk yield and components. In this study, 12 (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were fed a total mixed ration that varied in FPS and RFC. Two lengths of corn silage were used to alter FPS and 2 grind sizes of corn grain were used to alter RFC. It was determined that increasing RFC increased ruminating time and did not affect eating time, whereas increasing FPS increased eating time and did not affect ruminating time. Ruminal fermentation did not differ by altering either FPS or RFC. However, increasing FPS tended to increase mean and maximum ruminal pH and increasing RFC tended to decrease minimum ruminal pH. Particle size distribution became more diverse and neutral detergent fiber content of refusals increased over time, whereas starch content decreased, indicating that cows were sorting against physically effective neutral detergent fiber and for RFC. Selection indices determined that virtually no interactions occurred between FPS and RFC and that despite significant sorting throughout the day, by 24h after feeding cows had consumed a ration very similar to what was offered. This theory was reinforced by particle fraction intakes that very closely resembled the proportions of particle fractions in the offered total mixed ration. An interaction between FPS and RFC was observed for DMI, as DMI decreased with increasing FPS when the diet included low RFC and did not change when the diet included high RFC. Dry matter intake increased with RFC for long diets and did not change

  18. Effects of roughage inclusion and particle size on performance and rumination behavior of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughage is mechanically processed to increase digestibility, and handling and mixing characteristics in finishing diets. Roughage is fed to promote rumen health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a...

  19. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Storm, Adam Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake...... measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.......31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0...

  20. TWO-COMPONENT SYSTEM: A MOLECULAR DIALOGUE BETWEEN RUMINAL BACTERIA AND FEED PARTICLES (FORAGE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marcela Galicia Jimenez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt rapidly to changes in the environment is one of the main characteristics of the bacterial cell. The rumen is a highly dynamic environment, and none of the changes are permanent due to the various microbial species found in the rumen. Signal transduction networks are information processing pathways that recognize various physical and chemical stimuli, amplification, signal processing, and trigger responses of the bacterial cell. The aim of the present review is to show the importance of these two component systems in rumen bacteria, because it is based on the knowledge of the principles governing the bacterial population communication, its main interactions and products of metabolism, we can approach the manipulation of Ruminal fermentation to improve animal health, productivity and food safety.

  1. Determination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrenier, M C; Ledoux, Q; Berben, G; Fumière, O; Saegerman, C; Baeten, V; Veys, P

    2014-07-17

    Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as "mad cow disease"), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application.

  2. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A K S; Weisbjerg, M R; Storm, A C; Nørgaard, P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake, chewing activity, and apparent digestibility. Four grass/clover harvests (Mixtures of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens) were performed from early May to late August at different maturities, at different regrowth stages, and with different clover proportions, resulting in silages with NDF contents of 312, 360, 371, and 446 g/kg DM, respectively, and decreasing NDF digestibility with greater NDF content. Four rumen-fistulated dairy heifers were fed silage at 90% of ad libitum level as the only feed source in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Silage, ingested feed boluses, medial and ventral ruminal digesta, and feces samples were washed with neutral detergent in nylon bags of 10-μm pore size, freeze dried, and divided into small (1 mm) particles by dry-sieving. Chewing activity, rumen pool size, and apparent digestibility were measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0.02). Particle size distributions were similar for digesta from the medial and ventral rumen regardless of NDF content of the silages (P > 0.13). The LP proportion was >30% of particles in the ventral and medial rumen, whereas in the feces, the LP proportion was content of the silages

  3. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  4. The effects of alfalfa particle size and acid treated protein on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... changes in canola meal protein (khorasani et al., 1993). ... studies have been done in relation to the effects of different particle size and acid .... taken out during the time of measurement of the saliva secretion rate, the effect of ...

  5. Aspects of protein nutrition and metabolism in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Krebs, G.L.; Hennessy, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial fermentation in the rumen, ruminal ammonia kinetics and urea synthesis and recycling to the rumen of sheep and cattle consuming fibrous diets have been studied in three experiments using isotopic tracers. A technique based on 35 S-labelling of microorganisms has been developed and used for estimating the pool size and turnover rate of 'fluid phase' and 'particle associated' bacteria in ruminants fitted with simple rumen cannulas. When used in sheep given a diet of oaten chaff, this technique gave estimates of microbial synthesis that were consistent with other estimates based on marker corrected digesta flows through the abomasum in similar sheep with single abomasal cannulas. Aspects of ammonia kinetics in the rumen (conversion of dietary nitrogen to ammonia, assimilation of ammonia by ruminal microflora, ammonia absorption, ammonia passage in digesta and endogenous urea transfer to the rumen) have been estimated by means of 15 N-ammonia, and 14 C- and 15 N-urea in cattle and sheep given fibrous diets with and without supplements. The results indicate that the net gain of ammonia-N in the rumen from recycled urea can augment the supply of N for ruminal microflora, but the net gain is reduced by the concomitant losses of ammonia by absorption and passage out of the rumen in digesta. (author)

  6. Influence of barley grain particle size and treatment with citric acid on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Salem, A Z M; López, S

    2017-08-01

    Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid. The diets were as follows: (i) small PS (average 1200 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no CA addition); (ii) small PS barley grain soaked in a CA solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley); (iii) large PS (average 2400 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no citric acid addition) and (iv) large PS barley grain soaked in a citric acid solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley). Barley grain was then incorporated at 35% in a total mixed ration and fed to the calves for 11 weeks. Feeding small PS barley decreased feed intake (P=0.02) and average daily weight gain (P=0.01). The addition of CA to barley grain did not affect intake but increased weight gain (P0.05). However, the molar proportion of propionate was increased (P=0.03) when barley was more finely ground, and that of acetate was increased (P=0.04) when CA was added to barley grain. The ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen was increased (Pgrain with citric acid increased fibre digestibility of total mixed rations, attenuated the decrease in ruminal pH, and improved weight gain and feed efficiency in male Holstein growing calves fed a high-cereal diet (550 g cereal grain/kg diet).

  7. Degradabilidade ruminal in situ de vagens de faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. em diferentes tamanhos de partículas In situ ruminal degradability of faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. pods in different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimaram-se os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB de vagens de faveira, trituradas em partículas de 2 e 5mm, pelo método do saco de náilon in situ em ovinos, nos tempos de incubação 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas, e determinou-se a degradabilidade efetiva, considerando-se taxas de passagem 2, 5 e 8%/h. A fração a da MS e da PB foram 69,6 e 49,9%, respectivamente, revelando elevada solubilidade da MS; a fração b para MS e PB foi 24,7 e 43,9%, indicando baixa degradação da MS in situ, com estabilização da degradação da MS às 72h e da PB às 48h de incubação. O tanino de vagens de faveira não se mostrou depressor da degradabilidade in situ da PB.Soluble (a and potentially degradable (b fractions and degradation rate of b fraction (c of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP of Parkia platycephala pods in particle sizes 2 and 5mm were estimated by in situ nylon bag method in sheep. The times of incubation were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, and the effective degradability (ED was determined considering passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/h. The a fractions for DM and CP was 69.6 and 49.9%, respectively, revealing elevated DM solubility: The b fractions for DM and CP was 24.7 and 43.9%, denoting reduced DM in situ degradation. The stabilization of the DM and CP degradation occurred at 72h and 48h after incubation, respectively. In situ degradability of constituents of P. platycephala pods, in special CP, were not depressed for their tannin contents.

  8. Turnover Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystems contain energy and materials such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water, and are open to their flow-through. Turnover time refers to the amount of time required for replacement by flow-through of the energy or substance of interest contained in the system, and is ...

  9. Heat-induced mineral imbalance in ruminants as diagnosed by radioisotopes turnover rate. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotope techniques to diagnose moderate mineral imbalances in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1980-12-01

    The mineral balance was determined in 14 Holstein heifers maintained in metabolic cages in a climatic chamber under temperate (19 0 C for 33 days) and tropical (40 0 C five hours daily and 19 0 C the remainder of the day for 11 days) conditions. Mineral balances were determined during the last 9 days of each trial. The data revealed that Ca, P and Mg balances decreased under conditions of thermal stress and that this decrease became more severe with increasing time under conditions of thermal stress. The results were attributed to destruction of tissue under heat stress with concommitant washing out of minerals due to increased water turnover. On the other hand, Na and K balances were not adversely affected by heat stress. Studies of the turnover rate of 131 I in rats under temperate (28 0 C) and tropical (35 0 C) conditions for 8 days revealed that the removal rate constant was larger and the half-life shorter under temperate conditions. These results suggest that iodine requirements for animals may be greater under mild as compared to tropical environmental conditions

  10. Turnover among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ben D

    2009-01-01

    Turnover among healthcare professionals is a costly consequence. The existing body of knowledge on healthcare professional turnover is correlated with job satisfaction levels. A landmark study differentiated 2 areas of job satisfaction categories: satisfiers and dissatisfiers (intrinsic and extrinsic motivators). The aim of this article is to examine existing research on precursors of turnover, such as burnout behaviors experienced by healthcare professionals, job satisfaction levels, employee organizational commitment, health complications which precede turnover, some current strategies to reduce turnover, and some effects CEO turnover has on employee turnover intentions.

  11. Short-Term Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Turnover Assessed by δ 13C Abundance in Particle-Size Fractions of Black Soils from Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xuewen

    2014-01-01

    The combination of isotope trace technique and SOC fractionation allows a better understanding of SOC dynamics. A five-year tillage experiment consisting of no-tillage (NT) and mouldboard plough (MP) was used to study the changes in particle-size SOC fractions and corresponding δ 13C natural abundance to assess SOC turnover in the 0–20 cm layer of black soils under tillage practices. Compared to the initial level, total SOC tended to be stratified but showed a slight increase in the entire plough layer under short-term NT. MP had no significant impacts on SOC at any depth. Because of significant increases in coarse particulate organic carbon (POC) and decreases in fine POC, total POC did not remarkably decrease under NT and MP. A distinct increase in silt plus clay OC occurred in NT plots, but not in MP plots. However, the δ 13C abundances of both coarse and fine POC increased, while those of silt plus clay OC remained almost the same under NT. The C derived from C3 plants was mainly associated with fine particles and much less with coarse particles. These results suggested that short-term NT and MP preferentially enhanced the turnover of POC, which was considerably faster than that of silt plus clay OC. PMID:25162052

  12. Premenstrual disorders and rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craner, Julia R; Sigmon, Sandra T; Martinson, Amber A; McGillicuddy, Morgan L

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) involve emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms; however, there is little understanding of psychological factors that contribute to these disorders. It was hypothesized that rumination, a form of depressive self-focused attention, is related to premenstrual distress. Study 1 involved women (N = 735) meeting criteria for No/Mild PMS, Moderate/Severe PMS, and PMDD using retrospective self-report. Study 2 involved women (N = 85) meeting diagnostic criteria for PMS or PMDD (i.e., PMD group) and healthy controls (i.e., No PMD group) following 60-day symptom monitoring. Participants in both studies completed questionnaires of rumination, anxiety sensitivity, and coping styles. Rumination was strongly related to premenstrual disorders using both retrospective and prospective reports, as well as both categorical and continuous approaches to classification of premenstrual distress. Rumination, a transdiagnostic factor in psychopathology, may contribute to the onset and maintenance of premenstrual distress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ruminal variables in steers fed with Tifton 85 (Cynodon Spp hay with different particle sizes / Variáveis ruminais em novilhos alimentados com feno de Tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partículas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 concentration and the pH were determined with the objective of evaluating the effect of different particle sizes (5, 7, 10mm and whole of Tifton 85 hay in the diet of Holstein steers, with average live weight of 300kg and age of 20 months. A completely randomized design, with four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement was used. The plots were the experimental treatments (5, 7, 10mm and whole hay and the subplots were the times of collection (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h. The use of diets including hay with particle sizes of 5mm and whole, did not affect (P>0,05 the ruminal pH; average values were 6.14 and 6.61, respectively. A linear reduction in the ruminal pH was verified in the steers fed on diets constituted by 10mm particles. For the diets including Tifton hay with particle size of 7mm, it was observed a quadratic effect, where the minimum pH (5.39 was observed 8:00 h after the feed was furnished. Concentrations of N-NH3 were affected by collection time in a quadratic way. Maximum concentrations of N-NH3, 15.55, 15.83, 18.32, 12.0 mg/100 mL, were observed at 4:28, 3:58, 2:99 and 2:80h after feeding, for the diets including Tifton 85 hay with 5, 7, 10mm and whole particle sizes, respectively. It was concluded that all diets allowed normal nycterohemeral patterns of fermentation.As concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 e pH foram determinadas objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de feno de Tifton 85 (5, 7, 10mm e inteiro na dieta de novilhos holandeses, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300kg e idade média de 20 meses. As determinações das concentrações de amônia ruminal (N-NH3 e o pH foram analisadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcela subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tratamentos experimentais (5, 7, 10mm e feno inteiro e nas sub-parcelas os tempos de coleta (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h, com quatro repetições. A utilização de dietas constituídas com

  14. [Local anaesthesia in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Karl; Schwarz, Andrea; Ringer, Simone

    2017-06-20

    The use of local anaesthesia in ruminants allows many surgical procedures to be conducted free of pain, efficiently and inexpensively in the field. Local anaesthesia combined with sedation and immobilisation of the animal can replace general anaesthesia for many procedures (e. g. castration, claw amputation). The level of difficulty differs among various local anaesthetic techniques: local infiltration of tissue or anaesthesia of the cornual nerve are easily performed, whereas local anaesthesia of the eye, regional anaesthesia in limbs or anaesthesia for umbilical surgery are more difficult to carry out. This article presents an illustrated overview of the most common local anaesthetic procedures in cattle as well as in small ruminants and serves as a practical guide for veterinarians in the field. In principle, these techniques can likewise be applied in other ruminants or artiodactyls.

  15. Managing teacher turnover

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    - ... vacant teaching posts are not filled (Pretorius & Heard, 1999; Anon., ... it reaches critical proportions. This article therefore investigates teacher turnover as a phenome- non to be managed and suggests ways of doing so. The study is based.

  16. Limitations to ruminal absorption of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian

    experiments with multicatheterized lactating dairy cows and one dynamic model of ruminal absorption of VFA described in three papers as follows. Paper 1 is entitled “Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty...... that the ruminal VFA concentrations and net portal flux of VFA were not manipulated by these dietary changes when feeding a balanced ration. The dry matter content of the TMR had generally no effect and the effect of dietary particle size was limited to the ruminal mat size and chewing activities. We observed......The symbiotic relationship between ruminants and the microbial inhabitants of the rumen constitutes a unique feature of the ruminant digestive system. Through the microbial utilization of feed carbohydrates and protein in the rumen, substantial amounts of fermentation products and microbial cell...

  17. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  18. ANTESEDEN EMPLOYEE TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Fardilah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is concerning the effect of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and  job performance on employee turnover, and the background is to get the convenience of employees condition, the satisfaction of job results, maximum performance, and keep and reduce in and out employees. The purpose of this research is to see how far the influence of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and job performance on employee turnover. Planning of this research uses primary data that is got by handing over questioners to 200 employees in Telecommunication company in East Jakarta. The analysis method which is used is double regresi.  Results of  this  research give conclusion that there's a positive and significant influence of workplace environment, job satisfaction, and job performance on employee turnover.

  19. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted crude protein degradation was calculated at rate constants for outflow of 0.04 and 0.06/h respect- ively. ... as buffers, an ionophore and an antibiotic according to general .... the non-bird resistant ('sweet') varieties. Ruminal .... have been affected by both the particle type and the math- ematical model we used.

  20. Modelling digestive constraints in non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J; Streich, W Jürgen; Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines with increasing contents of plant fibre (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; measured as neutral-detergent fibre, NDF), the tubiform foregut of kangaroos may allow these animals to maintain food intakes more so than ruminants like sheep, which appear to be limited by fibrous bulk filling the foregut and truncating further ingestion. Using available data on dry matter intake (DMI, g kg(-0.75) d(-1)), ingesta mean retention time (MRT, h), and apparent digestibility, we modelled digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible energy intake (DEI) by ruminant sheep (Ovis aries) and by the largest marsupial herbivore, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). Sheep achieved higher MRTs on similar DMIs, and hence sheep achieved higher DDMIs for any given level of DMI as compared with kangaroos. Interestingly, MRT declined in response to increasing DMI in a similar pattern for both species, and the association between DMI and plant NDF contents did not support the hypothesis that kangaroos are less affected by increasing fibre relative to sheep. However, when DEI was modelled according to DDMIs and dietary energy contents, we show that the kangaroos could meet their daily maintenance energy requirements (MER) at lower levels of DMI and on diets with higher fibre contents compared with sheep, due largely to the kangaroos' lower absolute maintenance and basal energy metabolisms compared with eutherians. These results suggest that differences in the metabolic set-point of different species can have profound effects on their nutritional niche, even when their digestive constraints are similar, as was the case for these ruminant and non-ruminant

  1. Costs of employee turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish a general methodology for calculating the costs incurred by employee turnover. This paper deals with identification of costs incurred by the departure of an employee, and does not deal with the cost of recruitment of a new employee. Economic calculations are adjusted to the tax policy in the Czech Republic. The costs of employee turnover (according to Bliss, 2012 include the costs of substitution of the unoccupied position, costs of conducting the exit interview and termination of the contract. The cost of an executive’s time to understand the causes of leaving and costs of the leaving employee’s training were also determined. Important factors in the costs of employee turnover also include the loss of knowledge and possibly also a loss of customers. Costs of lost employee and department productiveness represent an important part of the costs of employee turnover, as well. For all of these costs there have been proposed general calculations formulas.

  2. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

  3. Ruminal acidosis in feedlot: from aetiology to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

  4. Kramers Turnover Theory for a Triple Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, E.; Talkner, P.

    2001-01-01

    Kramers turnover theory is solved for a particle in a symmetric triple well potential for temperatures above the crossover temperature between tunneling and activated barrier crossing. Comparison with the turnover theory for a double well potential shows that the presence of the intermediate well always leads to a decrease of the reaction rate. At most though, the rate is a factor of two smaller than in the case of a double well potential. (author)

  5. Evaluation of feed resources for ruminants and ruminants for feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orskov, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    Methods are discussed of describing roughages so that potential consumption by animals is predicted. Evidence is presented showing that a high precision of predicting straw intake and animal performance is possible from information on solubility, potential degradation of insoluble materials and the degradation rate. Description of the capacity of different types of ruminants to consume and efficiently digest roughages is more difficult. Recent data from cattle experiments suggest that measurement of outflow rate of fibrous particles can provide information on this question. The data have also revealed large and consistent variation even within herds of the same breed. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  6. Urea recycling in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiaki; Niibayashi, Tsunekazu

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of blood urea into the alimentary tract of goats, as ruminants, was studied by the use of 15 N-urea, 15 N-ammonium chloride and physiological experimental techniques. Blood urea after an intravenous injection of 15 N-urea appeared in the first rumen via two routes, the saliva (approximately 60% of the serum urea concentration) and idrect diffusion from the wall of the first rumen, both as the ammonium-form N. The serum urea levels from diets containing different protein levels were paralleled with the protein levels, the ammonium level in the first rumen being similar to that of the serum urea. The transfer of low protein into the NH 3 pool of the first rumen was 56% of the total NH 3 in the entire alimentary tract, and the quantitative ratio of salivary secretion of diffusion in the first rumen was 1:9. The transfer of high protein was 14% in the entire alimentary tract, and the ratio of saliva to diffusion in the first rumen was 6:1. Thus, when protein uptake was large, salivary secretion was the primary route to the first rumen. Approximately 50% of the entire quantity of blood urea in the alimentary tract appeared in the first rumen, and 35%, in the lower alimentary tract, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Bone turnover markers in sheep and goat: A review of the scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. CAMASSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bone turnover markers (BTMs are product of bone cell activity and are generally divided in bone formation and bone resorption markers. The purpose of this review was to structure the available information on the use of BTMs in studies on small ruminants, especially for monitoring their variations related to diet, exercise, gestation and metabolic lactation state, circadian and seasonal variations, and also during skeletal growth. Pre-clinical and translational studies using BTMs with sheep and goats as animal models in orthopaedic research studies to help in the evaluation of the fracture healing process and osteoporosis research are also described in this review. The available information from the reviewed studies was systematically organized in order to highlight the most promising BTMs in small ruminant research, as well as provide a wide view of the use of sheep and goat as animal models in orthopaedic research, type of markers and commercial assay kits with cross-reactivity in sheep and goat, method of sample and storage of serum and urine for bone turnover markers determination and the usefulness and limitations of bone turnover markers in the different studies, therefore an effective tool for researchers that seek answers to different questions while using BTMs in small ruminants.

  8. Ruminal acidosis: strategies for its control

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo-López, Esaúl; Itza-Ortiz, Mateo F.; Peraza-Mercado, Gwendolyne; Carrera-Chávez, José M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ruminal acidosis in ruminants is a metabolic disorder of gastrointestinal origin that occurs in animals with a high feed intake of cereal grains diets, which affect the performance. According to clinical manifestations it can be classified as: a) acute lactic acidosis with prolonged exposure to ruminal pH ≤ 5.0, triggering a systemic acidosis, with clinical manifestations and changes in biochemical patterns, starting the first twelve hours of ruminal acidosis and it takes 48 to 120 ...

  9. Nitrogen metabolism in the ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.; Lewis, D.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of nitrogen metabolism in the ruminant are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the effect of rumen ammonia concentration on protein synthesis in the rumen. In order to judge the suitability of microbial protein as a source of protein for the ruminant, it is necessary to be able to assess the amino-acid requirements of the ruminant accurately. Several methods of doing this are discussed. Available data would indicate that under many conditions methionine is the first limiting amino acid. Possible ways of increasing the supply of methionine at the duodenum are discussed. When the amino-acid requirements are fully met, it is to be expected that protein synthesis in the tissues will proceed at its maximal rate. Ways of determining the extent of tissue protein synthesis in vivo are briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Salary, Performance, and Superintendent Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Mitani, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Superintendent retention is an important goal for many school districts, yet the factors contributing to superintendent turnover are poorly understood. Most prior quantitative studies of superintendent turnover have relied on small, cross-sectional samples, limiting the evidence base. Utilizing longitudinal administrative records from…

  11. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  12. Occupational stress and employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Day, Andrea J; Morton, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data captured in January-March 2007 were examined in relation to turnover in males and females during the next five years. In general, most of the workplace stressors (such as role conflict or peer support) were not antecedents of turnover in any group. Junior personnel with psychological strain in 2007 had an increased risk of turnover in the next five years. Low commitment to the service in 2007 increased the odds of turnover in male and female juniors and in female officers. Female juniors with less effective skills for coping with stress and who exercised less frequently on a weekly basis were more likely to leave. An incidental finding was that the odds of turnover were three times greater in female officers with children than in female officers with no children. Stress management interventions focusing on effective coping and sports and exercise participation which are targeted appropriately may improve retention.

  13. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  14. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  15. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination are good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination.

  16. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects...... moderate this effect so that the negative consequences of employee turnover are less severe for larger, older and capital intensive firms. These moderating variables indicate the presence of slack resources in the firm, and thus that the accumulation of slack reduces the efficiency losses from employee...

  17. Tendon 'turnover lengthening' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H

    2013-11-01

    Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H

    1994-01-01

    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture....... The markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). The latter is a new serum marker of degradation of type I...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...

  19. [Turnover Experience of Male Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Jeongseop

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify turnover experiences of men in nursing and to derive a substantive theory on the turnover experience of men who are nurses. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 men who had worked as a nurse for 1 year or more, and had a turnover experience during that period. Collected data were analyzed on the basis of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. The core category in the turnover experiences of the respondents was 'seeking a stable place for me'. In the analysis of the core category, types of 'contentment', 'seeking', 'survival' and 'confusion' were identified. The sequential stages of these nurses' turnover experience were 'confrontation', 'incertitude', 'retrying' and 'realization'. However, when a problem arose in the process, they returned to the stage of confusion. Thus, these stages could occur in a circular fashion. These findings provide a deep understanding of the turnover experience of men in nursing and offers new information about how they adapt to nursing practice. The findings should be useful as foundational data for men who hope to become nurses and also for managers responsible for nurses who are men. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  20. Review on Ruminant Nutrition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research works in ruminant nutrition have been widely published, especially those related to the energy and protein utilization. The energy and protein requirements for maintenance and production in tropical regions may be different from those in the subtropical areas. Responses of different species of ruminants to energy and protein supplements were also observed. The synchronization of energy and protein availability has been considered as an important strategy in affecting the microbial fermentative process in the rumen and in affecting the animal performance. The inclusion of long-chained unsaturated fatty acids in the diets has been successfully affecting milk production with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Feedstuffs characteristics in terms of their degradability and fermentation by rumen microbial enzymes have been intensively studied; however, further experimentations are still needed to elucidate the specific fate of its nutritive components in the rumen and tissue levels.

  1. Ribotyping to compare Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from bovine liver abscesses, ruminal walls, and ruminal contents.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, S; Nagaraja, T G; Okwumabua, O; Staats, J; Chengappa, M M; Oberst, R D

    1997-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of rRNA genes was employed to genetically compare Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates from multiple abscesses of the same liver and isolates from liver abscesses, the ruminal wall, and ruminal contents from the same animal. Four livers with multiple abscesses and samples of ruminal contents, ruminal walls, and liver abscesses were collected from 11 cattle at slaughter. F. necrophorum was...

  2. Leucaena leucocephala IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros-Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a common situation in extensive ruminant production systems in tropical countries to have low production indicators due to nutrient deficiencies in the diet. An economic alternative to increase animal production is the incorporation of legumes (fodder and fruits in the diet. This review, presents an analysis of the positive and negative effects of Leucaena leucocephala consumption by ruminants, with particular emphasis on the secondary compound mimosine. Leucaena due to its high nutrient content, rumen by-pass protein supply and its possible effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas (attributed to tannins has become one of the legumes most commonly used in ruminant feeding practices. However, in countries where leucaena has been introduced, its use is still limited to levels below 30% inclusion in the diet, due to the secondary compound mimosine and its isomers (3,4 and 2,3 DHP, which can induce toxicity, even when animals are inoculated with rumen fluid containing the bacteria Synergistes jonesii reported as responsible for degrading these compounds in the rumen. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, ruminants consuming leucaena can tolerate more than 50% inclusion in the diet, without having a negative impact on production, attributed intake to mimosine and its isomers. We conclude that in animals not adapted, the intake would be limited to low inclusion levels (less than 30% inclusion in the diet, mainly because of mimosine and its derivatives. The decrease in intake or diet digestibility seem to better explain the reduction in methane production, however, in vivo studies are required to clearly establish the mechanism of action. It has been reported the presence of different bacteria to S. jonessi that would have the ability to degrade mimosine and its derivatives, however, the activity of these bacteria and its effectiveness must be confirmed in vivo.

  3. The Ruminant and the Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Lajarin-Encina, Aitor

    2015-01-01

    The Ruminant and the Pond presents a group of paintings and a film that explore contemporary psycho-social conditions through fictional narratives. Paintings and film explore territories of thinking and emotion engaging the audience in subjective digressions related to ideas of artificiality, relativeness, absurdity, futility or alienation in relation to intersubjective reality perception, production and representation. At the same time the project delves in the specific relationship existin...

  4. Business Ethics & Employee Turnover: CAFE Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Sapovadia, Vrajlal; Patel, Sweta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Business ethics is in discussion for its importance universally, so is the employee turnover in business. Unethical practices are unwanted, so is the high employee turnover. Unethical practices and high employee turnover in business is ubiquitous. No consensus exists on defining ethics. Employee turnover is well defined, but there is no consensus on when employee turnover is disadvantageous for the company. The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity, a maxim states that either ...

  5. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  6. Histone turnover within nonproliferating cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commerford, S.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The turnover of DNA and histones in the livers and brains of mice has been determined. These mice had been exposed to constant levels of tritiated water from conception until they were 8 months old. At this point, exposure to tritium was discontinued, and the tritium remaining in DNA and histones was measured at various intervals afterward. The half-lives calculated for these components (with 95% confidence limits given in parentheses) were 117 (85 to 188) days for liver histone, 318 (241 to 466) days for liver DNA, 159 (129 to 208) days for brain histone and 593 (376 to 1406) days for brain DNA. The difference between histone and DNA turnover is statistically significant for both tissues and indicates that histone turnover within tissues cannot be solely accounted for by cell turnover within the tissue but also must include histone turnover within living cells. The half-life of histone within cells is estimated to be 117 (88 to 178) days in liver and 223 (187 to 277) days in brain

  7. Clicking away at co-rumination: co-rumination correlates across different modalities of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Ani C; Watkins, Melanie A; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Co-rumination is associated with positive friendship quality (thought to buffer against anxiety and depression) but paradoxically higher levels of anxiety and depression. With the increasing use of technology for communication among adults, there is little known about co-rumination effects across different modalities of communication. In the current study, we examined co-rumination through four methods (i.e. in person, phone calls, text messaging, and social media) in two separate samples - college students and participants from the community. Classic co-rumination effects were found for in-person communications, and we found that co-rumination by telephone as well as by texting, for a college student sample only, mirrors some of these findings for in-person co-rumination. In studies of co-rumination, evaluation of multiple modes of communication is warranted.

  8. Oesophagostomosis, moniaziasis and trichuriasis of small ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, the intestines (small and large intestines) were collected from 300 small ruminants (200 goats and 100 sheep) at necropsy and examined by the Hansen and Perry method. Out of the 300 small ruminants examined during the study period, the intestines revealed the presence of Oesophagostomum sp, ...

  9. Job turnover and labor turnover : a taxonomy of employment dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Wolter H.J.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an organized set of stylized facts on the relations among flows of workers,changes in employment and changes in the numer of jobs at the firm level. Job turnover isusually measured by comparing stocks of employment in each firm at two points in time andadding up the absolute employment

  10. Rumination and Age: Some Things Get Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sütterlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumination has been defined as a mode of responding to distress that involves passively focusing one's attention on symptoms of distress without taking action. This dysfunctional response style intensifies depressed mood, impairs interpersonal problem solving, and leads to more pessimistic future perspectives and less social support. As most of these results were obtained from younger people, it remains unclear how age affects ruminative thinking. Three hundred members of the general public ranging in age from 15 to 87 years were asked about their ruminative styles using the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ, depression and satisfaction with life. A Mokken Scale analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of the RSQ with brooding and reflective pondering as subcomponents of rumination. Older participants (63 years and older reported less ruminative thinking than other age groups. Life satisfaction was associated with brooding and highest for the earlier and latest life stages investigated in this study.

  11. Rumination Syndrome and Dental Erosions in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monagas, Javier; Ritwik, Priyanshi; Kolomensky, Andrew; Acosta, Julio; Kay, Danielle; Clendaniel, Lindsey; Hyman, Paul E

    2017-06-01

    Rumination syndrome is the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food with subsequent reswallowing or spitting out. Dental erosion (DE) affects 2% to 5% of the population. DE is defined as loss of tooth structure by a chemical process that does not involve bacteria. Our objective was to compare the frequency of DE among children with rumination syndrome with healthy controls. We enrolled 30 patients 4 to 21 years of age diagnosed with rumination syndrome, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Patients were evaluated by pediatric dentists for presence of DE with Taji et al a validated grading system. Patients with rumination were more likely to have DE (P syndrome, 23 (77%) had DE, compared with 4 (13%) control subjects. DEs are more frequent in patients with rumination syndrome.

  12. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  13. Employee turnover: measuring the malady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    One measure of an organization's value to its employees is turnover. But how do you know if your employees are wondering if the grass is greener elsewhere? Scott Badler in his book What's So Funny about Looking for a Job? suggests a quick quiz to find out.

  14. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  15. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  16. Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gede Suparta Budisatria, I.

    2006-01-01

    Small ruminants are an important but neglected resource in developing countries. Small ruminant production systems are complex. The multiple goals related to small ruminants, combined with the complexity of their management, and the resources and social arrangements involved, make small ruminants

  17. Antigen-driven T-cell turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, Christophe; Ferguson, Neil M.; de Wolf, Frank; Ghani, Azra C.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to characterize the distribution of cell turnover rates within a population of T lymphocytes. Previous models of T-cell dynamics have assumed a constant uniform turnover rate; here we consider turnover in a cell pool subject to clonal proliferation in response to

  18. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  19. Using Turnover as a Recruitment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Teacher turnover is notoriously high in the field of early childhood education with an estimated 33% of staff exiting the workplace each year. Turnover is costly. Not only do high levels of turnover negatively impact children's growth and development, it also erodes the program's economic stability and wherewithal to provide effective operations…

  20. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amorena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease.

  1. Analysis and control of employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Turnover is a relatively simple and easily described concept. However, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect, and thus, not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some which can be corrected and some which cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role.

  2. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  3. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  4. Avaliação de modelos matemáticos para o estudo da cinética de passagem de partículas e de fluidos por bovinos em pastagem recebendo suplementos contendo diferentes níveis de proteína não-degradável no rúmen Evaluation of mathematical models for estimating the kinetics of ruminal Passage of particles and liquid of grazing steers Supplemented with different rumen-undegradable protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os comportamentos dos parâmetros da cinética de passagem de partículas e de fluidos em bovinos mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha, em duas épocas (época 1 = meses de maio, junho e julho/2000; e época 2 = meses de março, abril e maio/2001, recebendo suplementos contendo diferentes níveis de proteína não-degradável no rúmen (PNDR. Na época 1 os animais foram alimentados com suplementos contendo 20, 40 e 60% de PNDR, feno de Brachiaria brizantha e mistura mineral ad libitum, enquanto na época 2, foram distribuídos nos tratamentos: T0 = pastagem de capim-braquiária + mistura mineral ad libitum; T40 = pastagem + suplemento com 40% de PNDR; e T60 = pastagem + suplemento com 60% de PNDR. Na estimativa da taxa de passagem de partículas pelo rúmen, utilizou-se como indicador o Cr-mordente, enquanto a cinética de passagem de fluidos foi estimada com Co-EDTA, durante três períodos, de agosto a setembro/2001, utilizando-se os mesmos animais e tratamentos da época 2. As estimativas dos parâmetros da cinética de passagem de partículas foram determinadas a partir do ajuste dos dados aos modelos bicompartimentais (G1G1, G2G1, G3G1, G4G1, G5G1 e G6G1, enquanto, para a cinética de passagem de fluidos, foi utilizado o modelo G1G1. Os critérios de escolha do melhor modelo foram a freqüência observada dos valores mínimos para o quadrado médio residual, obtido com os ajustes dos diferentes modelos e o número de corridas de sinal dos resíduos padronizados. Os modelos G2G1 e G3G1 mostraram-se mais eficientes na determinação das estimativas dos parâmetros de cinética de passagem de partículas, nas épocas 1 e 2, respectivamente. As estimativas do tempo médio de retenção ruminal de partículas e de fluidos não foram influenciadas pelos diferentes níveis de PNDR do suplemento.The effects of supplements containing different rumen-undegradable protein (RUP levels on the ruminal passage rate of particles and

  5. Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Rottinghaus, G W; Ju, H J; Dawe, D L; Hiatt, E E

    2001-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal

  6. KECENDERUNGAN KEPUASAN KERJA SEBAGAI TRIGGER TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Adi Saputra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are: (1 To determine the effect of job satisfaction on turnover intention; (2 To determine the effect of work stress on turnover intention; (3 To determine the effect of compensation on turnover intention; (4 To determine the effect of organizational climate on turnover intention; and (5 To determine the stress of work, compensation, organizational climate and job satisfaction effect on turnover intention. The population in this study are employees of the Cooperative KOKAPURA AVIA totaling 180 people, while employees who have worked more than three years as many as 128 people. Samples were taken 97 people. The technique of collecting data using questionnaires. The analysis used is multiple regression analysis and path analysis using PLS 3.0 Smart program. Based on the results of the study concluded that: (1 Job satisfaction significantly influence employee turnover intention; (2 Work stress significantly influence employee turnover intention; (3 Compensation incentives significantly influence employee turnover intention; (4 organizational climate significantly influence employee turnover intention; and (5 Work stress, incentive compensation, organizational climate and job satisfaction simultaneously significantly influence employee turnover intention.

  7. Tritium turnover in succulent plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Gogate, S.S.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of turnover rates for tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and tissue bound tritium (TBT) were carried out in three succulent plants, Opuntia sp., E. Trigona and E. Mili using tritiated water as tracer. The estimated half-times were 52, 57.5 and 80 days for TFWT and 212, 318 and 132 days for TBT in the stems of the above plants respectively. Opuntia sp. showed significant incorporation of TBT, 10% of TFWT on weight basis, while the other two plants showed lesser incorporation, 2-3% of TFWT. However, the leaves of E. Mili indicated the same level of fixation of TBT as the stem of Opuntia sp. (author)

  8. Water turnover in reindeer. Some environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Luick, J.R.; White, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional and climatic effects on water turnover (determined using tritiated water) in reindeer are described. At low ambient temperatures (ca. -20 0 C) water turnover is related to protein and mineral intake, which is reflected in the relations of faecal and urinary water to nitrogen and ash excretion via these avenues. As ambient temperature increases, respiratory water, faecal water and urine flow increase, resulting in an increase in water turnover

  9. Recent Advances in Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rüştü Kutlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most industrialized animal production branches of ruminant production successfully requires a blending of theoretical knowledge of nutritional principles with practical stockmanship, maintaining health and dealing with numbers. It is well known that high yielding, dairy cows, require balanced diet with adequate nutrients for yielding. This is not provided with only a few feedstuffs. Milk production in dairy cows is related to the improvements in genetic merit of farm animals and also developments in feed science, feed technology and animal nutrition. In particular, feeds and feed technology studies associated with sustainability, economical perspectives and product quality in the last decade have been in advance. In the present work, recent advances in feed sources and feed technology, minerals (macro and trace minerals , vitamins and amino acids, feed additives (antibiotics alternative growth stimulants, rumen modulator, organic acids, antioxidants, enzymes, plant extracts, nutrition-products (meat-milk-progeny quality and functional food production (milk, meat nutrition-reproduction, nutrition-animal health, nutrition-environmental temperature, nutrition-global warming were evaluated.

  10. The costs of turnover in nursing homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Dana B.; Spector, William D.; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. Objectives To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. Data and sample 902 nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Medicare enrollment files, Census and Area Resource File (ARF). Research Design We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable (IV) limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. Results The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The IV estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (p=0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10 percentage point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. Conclusion The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs. PMID:19648834

  11. The costs of turnover in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. DATA AND SAMPLE: Nine hundred two nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set, Medicare enrollment files, Census, and Area Resource File. We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The instrumental variable estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (P = 0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10% point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs.

  12. [New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun

    2009-12-01

    The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

  13. A RUMINATE EMBRYO IN BLEPHARIS REPENS (VAHL. ROTH. (ACANTHACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. LABHANE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphology of embryo is very significant considering the fact that the embryo represents the important step in the determination of the viability of the seed. Ruminate endosperm has been reported in about 58 families of angiosperms. The rumination caused by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself is quite recurrent in angiosperm. Ruminate endosperm due to seed coat is reported from the family Acanthaceae in Andrographis paniculata. The rumination of endosperm is also considered as phylogenetically important. Rumination of endosperm is very common, however very little is known about rumination in embryo. The present papers reports the de novo development of ruminate embryo in Blepharis repens. The development of ruminate embryo is seen as an adaptation to ensure proper aeration and optimum germination for survival of the species.

  14. Worry and anger rumination in fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ricci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to investigate the psychological profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS as compared to patients with other chronic pain syndromes (CP and healthy subjects (HS; 2 to examine the associations between anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination in FS patients. FS patients (N=30, CP patients (N=30 and HS (N=30 completed measurements of anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination. FS patients showed higher levels of state and trait anxiety, worry and angry rumination than CP patients and HS, and higher levels of depression than HS. Worry and angry rumination were strongly associated in the FS group. FS patients may use worry and rumination as coping strategies to deal with their negative emotional experience, which might impair their emotional wellbeing. Findings from the present study add to our understanding of the psychological profile of FS patients, and have important implications for developing a tailored CBT protocol for pain management in FS patients.

  15. The European ruminants during the "Microbunodon Event" (MP28, Latest Oligocene): impact of climate changes and faunal event on the ruminant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecart, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The Earth already experienced numerous episodes of global warming and cooling. One of the latest impressive events of temperature rising was the Late Oligocene Warming that occurred around 25 Mya. An increase of the marine temperature of 2 to 4°C has been observed in a short time interval. In Europe, this major climatic event can be correlated to the continental faunal turnover "Microbunodon Event". This event is marked by a huge faunal turnover (40% of the ungulate fauna during the first 500k years) and environmental changes. Drier conditions associated to the appearance of the seasonality lead to new environmental conditions dominated by wooded savannahs. This is correlated to a major arrival of Asiatic immigrants. Moreover, from a homogenous fauna during the main part of the Oligocene, local climatic variations between the European Western coast and the more central Europe could have provided faunal regionalism during the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene. Considering the ruminants, this event is the major ever known for this group in Europe. A total renewal at the family level occurred. Thanks to a precise stratigraphic succession, major evolutionary elements are highlighted. Typical Oligocene species, mainly Tragulina, were adapted to wooded environments and were leaves/fruits eaters. They disappeared at the end of MP27 or the early MP28. This corresponds to the appearance of the Asiatic immigrants. The Tragulina (Lophiomerycidae, Bachitheriidae) and stem Pecora gave way to more derived stem and maybe crown Pecora (e.g. "Amphitragulus", Babameryx, Dremotherium). These newcomers were adapted to more open environments and mixed feeding. The disappearance of the Tragulina is probably linked to environmental and vegetation changes, and competition. They give way to more derived ruminants having a more efficient metabolism in drier conditions and a better assimilation of less energetic food.

  16. The European Ruminants during the “Microbunodon Event” (MP28, Latest Oligocene): Impact of Climate Changes and Faunal Event on the Ruminant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecart, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The Earth already experienced numerous episodes of global warming and cooling. One of the latest impressive events of temperature rising was the Late Oligocene Warming that occurred around 25 Mya. An increase of the marine temperature of 2 to 4°C has been observed in a short time interval. In Europe, this major climatic event can be correlated to the continental faunal turnover “Microbunodon Event”. This event is marked by a huge faunal turnover (40% of the ungulate fauna during the first 500k years) and environmental changes. Drier conditions associated to the appearance of the seasonality lead to new environmental conditions dominated by wooded savannahs. This is correlated to a major arrival of Asiatic immigrants. Moreover, from a homogenous fauna during the main part of the Oligocene, local climatic variations between the European Western coast and the more central Europe could have provided faunal regionalism during the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene. Considering the ruminants, this event is the major ever known for this group in Europe. A total renewal at the family level occurred. Thanks to a precise stratigraphic succession, major evolutionary elements are highlighted. Typical Oligocene species, mainly Tragulina, were adapted to wooded environments and were leaves/fruits eaters. They disappeared at the end of MP27 or the early MP28. This corresponds to the appearance of the Asiatic immigrants. The Tragulina (Lophiomerycidae, Bachitheriidae) and stem Pecora gave way to more derived stem and maybe crown Pecora (e.g. “Amphitragulus”, Babameryx, Dremotherium). These newcomers were adapted to more open environments and mixed feeding. The disappearance of the Tragulina is probably linked to environmental and vegetation changes, and competition. They give way to more derived ruminants having a more efficient metabolism in drier conditions and a better assimilation of less energetic food. PMID:25692298

  17. Employee Turnover among Full-time Public Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Richard

    1989-01-01

    A study of employee turnover in 31 public libraries in the American Midwest established baseline turnover rates and examined the relationship of gender to turnover behavior. Findings showed that: turnover rates are low compared to other occupations; and turnover rates of males and females are similar. (28 references) (Author/MES)

  18. Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Zijderveld, van, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminant products form an important part of the human diet. The demand for ruminant products is expected to increase due to the increase in the size of the human population and its increasing wealth. The production of ruminant meat and milk is associated with a relatively large environmental impact when compared to other animal products. This is, for a large part, caused by the fact that ruminants produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas, during the digestion of their feed. Many dietary str...

  19. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants...

  20. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to the...

  1. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  2. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  3. Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminant products form an important part of the human diet. The demand for ruminant products is expected to increase due to the increase in the size of the human population and its increasing wealth. The production of ruminant meat and milk is associated with a relatively large environmental

  4. The Role of Parenting in the Development of Rumination

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Research suggests that rumination predicts depression in adult and adolescent populations and there is increasing evidence that rumination is a transdiagnostic factor across psychological disorders. Whilst researchers have stressed the importance of understanding the developmental antecedents of rumination and a number of hypotheses have been posited, this area has received little research attention. Additionally, the majority of existing research has ...

  5. Training working memory to reduce rumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Onraedt

    Full Text Available Cognitive symptoms of depression, such as rumination, have shown to be associated with deficits in working memory functioning. More precisely, the capacity to expel irrelevant negative information from working memory seems to be affected. Even though these associations have repeatedly been demonstrated, the nature and causal direction of this association is still unclear. Therefore, within an experimental design, we tried to manipulate working memory functioning of participants with heightened rumination scores in two similar experiments (n = 72 and n = 45 using a six day working memory training compared to active and passive control groups. Subsequently the effects on the processing of non-emotional and emotional information in working memory were monitored. In both experiments, performance during the training task significantly increased, but this performance gain did not transfer to the outcome working memory tasks or rumination and depression measures. Possible explanations for the failure to find transfer effects are discussed.

  6. Employee Turnover: Evidence from a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of employee turnover from a medium-sized law firm in Australia were examined in regard to theories of worker mobility (matching, sectoral shift, and incentive). Results support a role for matching effects, but personnel practices affect the timing of turnover. Matching and incentive-based theories do not explain the high rates of turnover…

  7. Predicting Employee Turnover from Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas H.; Barnett, George A.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates three social network models of employee turnover: a structural equivalence model, a social influence model, and an erosion model. Administers a communication network questionnaire to all 170 employees of an organization. Finds support for all three models of turnover, with the erosion model explaining more of the variance than do the…

  8. Employee Turnover: An Empirical and Methodological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchinsky, Paul M.; Tuttle, Mark L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews research on the prediction of employee turnover. Groups predictor variables into five general categories: attitudinal (job satisfaction), biodata, work-related, personal, and test-score predictors. Consistent relationships between common predictor variables and turnover were found for four categories. Eight methodological problems/issues…

  9. University Lecturers' Professional Empowerment and Turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many universities in Uganda are grappling with the challenge of academic staff turnover. While research conducted so far has established different factors explaining the problems of turnover, many of which have been addressed, this challenge has not been resolved. Hitherto, attention has not been paid to whether ...

  10. Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the association between job satisfaction and turnover intentions among lecturers in three public universities in Tanzania. It had three objectives: (1) to determine the level of perceived job satisfaction among lecturers; (2) to determine the association between job satisfaction and turnover intention; and (3) ...

  11. Strategies for optimizing nitrogen use by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of N utilization in ruminants is typically low (around 25%) and highly variable (10% to 40%) compared with the higher efficiency of other production animals. The low efficiency has implications for the production performance and environment. Many efforts have been devoted to improv......The efficiency of N utilization in ruminants is typically low (around 25%) and highly variable (10% to 40%) compared with the higher efficiency of other production animals. The low efficiency has implications for the production performance and environment. Many efforts have been devoted...

  12. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    % of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has......Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60...

  13. Host specificity of the ruminal bacterial community in the dairy cow followng near-total exchange of ruminal contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability and host specificity of a cow’s ruminal bacterial community following massive challenge with the ruminal microflora from another cow. In each of two experiments, one pair of cows was selected on the basis of differences in ruminal bacterial comm...

  14. Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacey Guin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. Based on evidence from staff climate surveys and case studies, it is clear that high turnover schools face significant organizational challenges. Schools with high teacher turnover rates have difficulty planning and implementing a coherent curriculum and sustaining positive working relationships among teachers. The reality of these organizational challenges is particularly alarming, given that high turnover schools are more likely to serve low-income and minority students. The negative relationship between teacher turnover and school functioning, and the fact that turbulent schools are disproportionately likely to serve lowincome and minority students have important implications for both district and school-level policies. Specifically: Teacher turnover rates are one indicator of school health, which school districts should consider when focusing on school improvements. Districts need to begin by developing the means to identify individual schools that experience high levels of teacher turnover. Current district policies in implementing professional development for teachers in low-performing schools are inefficient when teachers do not remain in the schools in which they are trained. In order for low-performing schools to improve, districts need to consider providing incentive programs so that high quality teachers apply for, and remain in, these schools. Future research is needed to address the causal link between turnover, organizational functioning and student outcomes. Additionally, there is a need for research examining district policies that may facilitate teacher turnover within a district, including how districts place and transfer teachers, as well as how teachers’ salaries are budgeted.

  15. Alternatives for forage evaluation in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate and to compare in situ and in vitro techniques with in vivo data. These techniques were also evaluated for future and practical use in feed evaluation for ruminants. The techniques were compared using the digestion data of 98 forages and the energy

  16. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  17. Nurse turnover: a literature review - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Laureen J; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Duffield, Christine; Shamian, Judith; Buchan, James; Hughes, Frances; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; North, Nicola

    2012-07-01

    Concerns related to the complex issue of nursing turnover continue to challenge healthcare leaders in every sector of health care. Voluntary nurse turnover is shown to be influenced by a myriad of inter-related factors, and there is increasing evidence of its negative effects on nurses, patients and health care organizations. The objectives were to conduct a comprehensive review of the related literature to examine recent findings related to the issue of nursing turnover and its causes and consequences, and to identify on methodological challenges and the implications of new evidence for future studies. A comprehensive search of the recent literature related to nursing turnover was undertaken to summarize findings published in the past six years. Electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PubMed, reference lists of journal publications. Keyword searches were conducted for publications published 2006 or later that examined turnover or turnover intention in employee populations of registered or practical/enrolled or assistant nurses working in the hospital, long-term or community care areas. Literature findings are presented using an integrative approach and a table format to report individual studies. From about 330 citations or abstracts that were initially scanned for content relevance, 68 studies were included in this summary review. The predominance of studies continues to focus on determinants of nurse turnover in acute care settings. Recent studies offer insight into generational factors that should be considered in strategies to promote stable staffing in healthcare organizations. Nursing turnover continues to present serious challenges at all levels of health care. Longitudinal research is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships between nurse turnover and related costs, and the impact on patients and the health care team. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [EHEC carriage in ruminants and probiotic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forano, Evelyne; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bertin, Yolande; Martin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga-Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that cause human outbreaks which can lead to a severe illness such as haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), particularly in young children. The gastrointestinal tract of cattle and other ruminants is the principal reservoir of EHEC strains and outbreaks have been associated with direct contact with the farm environment, and with the consumption of meat, dairy products, water and fruit or vegetable contaminated with ruminant manure. Several outbreaks occurred these last years in France. In Brazil, although STEC carriage in ruminants is important, human cases due to EHEC are fairly rare. In order to reduce EHEC survival in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and thus limit contamination of food products, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms underlying EHEC persistence in this ecosystem with the aim of developing nutritional or ecological strategies. The effect of probiotics has been tested in vitro on the growth and survival of EHEC strains and in vivo on the animal carriage of these strains. Various studies have then shown that lactic bacteria or non-pathogenic E. coli strains were able to limit EHEC fecal shedding. In addition, understanding EHEC physiology in the ruminant gut is also critical for limiting EHEC shedding. We found that EHEC O157:H7 is able to use ethanolamine and mucus-derived sugars as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Thus, these substrates represent an ecological niche for EHEC and their utilization confers a competitive growth advantage to these pathogens as they use them more rapidly than the bacteria belonging to the resident intestinal microbiota. Understanding EHEC metabolism and ecology in the bovine intestinal tract will allow proposing probiotic strains to compete with EHEC for nutrients and thus decrease the sanitary risk. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  19. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  20. The validation of the turnover intention scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F.C. Bothma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Turnover intention as a construct has attracted increased research attention in the recent past, but there are seemingly not many valid and reliable scales around to measure turnover intention. Research purpose: This study focused on the validation of a shortened, six-item version of the turnover intention scale (TIS-6. Motivation for the study: The research question of whether the TIS-6 is a reliable and a valid scale for measuring turnover intention and for predicting actual turnover was addressed in this study. Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a census-based sample (n= 2429 of employees in an information, communication and technology (ICT sector company (N= 23 134 where the TIS-6 was used as one of the criterion variables. The leavers (those who left the company in this sample were compared with the stayers (those who remained in the employ of the company in this sample in respect of different variables used in the study. Main findings: It was established that the TIS-6 could measure turnover intentions reliably (α= 0.80. The TIS-6 could significantly distinguish between leavers and stayers (actual turnover, thereby confirming its criterion-predictive validity. The scale also established statistically significant differences between leavers and stayers in respect of a number of the remaining theoretical variables used in the study, thereby also confirming its differential validity. These comparisons were conducted for both the 4-month and the 4-year period after the survey was conducted. Practical/managerial implications: Turnover intention is related to a number of variables in the study which necessitates a reappraisal and a reconceptualisation of existing turnover intention models. Contribution/value-add: The TIS-6 can be used as a reliable and valid scale to assess turnover intentions and can therefore be used in research to validly and reliably assess turnover intentions or to

  1. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B; Hubble, Michael W; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). To quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a six-month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data-collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for three categories of agency staff mix: all-paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed) staff, and all-volunteer staff. The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix (all-paid = 10.2%, mixed = 12.3%, all-volunteer = 12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n = 25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $86,452.05, mixed = $9,766.65, and all-volunteer = $0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $7,161.38, mixed = $1,409.64, and all-volunteer = $0). Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study's mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key

  2. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings

  3. The four faces of rumination to stressful events: A psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Felipe E; Duque, Almudena; Cova, Félix

    2017-11-01

    To increase the knowledge of rumination and its associations with stressful events, we explored the relationships between 4 types of rumination (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination) in a sample of 750 adult participants who experienced a highly stressful event. We also explored the predictive value of the different types of rumination on posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth 6 months after the highly stressful event occurred. Participants completed the Ruminative Response Scale and the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Brooding and reflection rumination were obtained from the Ruminative Response Scale, whereas deliberate and intrusive rumination were obtained from the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Confirmatory factorial analyses were conducted using the 4 types of rumination to test 3 different models: (a) 4-factor model (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination), (b) 2-factor model: adaptive rumination (reflection and deliberate) and maladaptive rumination (brooding and intrusive), and (c) 2-factor model: depressive rumination (brooding and reflection) and posttraumatic rumination (intrusive and deliberate). It was observed that the 4-factor model showed the best fit to the data. Moreover, 6 months later it was observed that the most significant predictor of posttraumatic symptoms was intrusive rumination, whereas deliberate rumination was the most significant predictor of posttraumatic growth. Results indicate that the 4 types of rumination are differentiated constructs. Ruminative thoughts experienced after a stressful event predicted posttraumatic consequences 6 months later. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Quantitative Aspects of Sulphur Metabolism in the Ruminant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, J. [Institut fuer Tierernaehrung, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1968-07-01

    In a series of four experiments {sup 35}S sulphate was given intra-ruminally to lactating dairy goats at feeding times (twice daily) during periods of 10 to 11 d. Rumen contents were sampled on the 8th, 9th and 10th day of {sup 35}S application. Radioactivity was determined in the volatile sulphur fraction (sulphide-sulphur) and in protein-bound sulphur (fraction insoluble in trichloroacetic acid). The ratio between the specific activities of protein sulphur and of sulphide sulphur was considered to be an estimate for that fraction of sulphur-containing amino acids present in the proteins of rumen contents, which was synthesized by microorganisms. This interpretation is based on the assumption that sulphide is the most important source of inorganic sulphur for the synthesis of sulphur amino acids and that incorporation of inorganic sulphur compounds of a a higher state of oxidation into organic molecules may quantitatively be neglected. In three experiments the animals received rations containing 16% to 17% crude protein. In these experiments the ratio of specific activities of protein and sulphide sulphur was found to vary from 0.32 to 0.41. According to the assumptions mentioned above, this would indicate that 32 to 41% of the total amount of protein-bound sulphur amino acids were synthesized by microorganisms from inorganic (sulphide) sulphur. In the fourth experiment the animal received a ration containing only 10% protein but supplemented with urea to bring the total crude protein content to 13%. In this experiment the ratio of specific activities was 0.70, indicating a much higher contribution of microbial synthesis of sulphur amino acids than in the experiments with a more abundant protein supply. The time course of the specific activity of protein-bound-sulphur in the milk is taken as a reference base for an interpretation of labelling of body proteins in terms of turnover rates.

  5. RUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: Use of genomics and transcriptomics to identify strategies to lower ruminal methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T A; Meale, S J; Valle, E; Guan, L L; Zhou, M; Kelly, W J; Henderson, G; Attwood, G T; Janssen, P H

    2015-04-01

    Globally, methane (CH4) emissions account for 40% to 45% of greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant livestock, with over 90% of these emissions arising from enteric fermentation. Reduction of carbon dioxide to CH4 is critical for efficient ruminal fermentation because it prevents the accumulation of reducing equivalents in the rumen. Methanogens exist in a symbiotic relationship with rumen protozoa and fungi and within biofilms associated with feed and the rumen wall. Genomics and transcriptomics are playing an increasingly important role in defining the ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and identifying avenues for its mitigation. Metagenomic approaches have provided information on changes in abundances as well as the species composition of the methanogen community among ruminants that vary naturally in their CH4 emissions, their feed efficiency, and their response to CH4 mitigators. Sequencing the genomes of rumen methanogens has provided insight into surface proteins that may prove useful in the development of vaccines and has allowed assembly of biochemical pathways for use in chemogenomic approaches to lowering ruminal CH4 emissions. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomic analysis of entire rumen microbial communities are providing new perspectives on how methanogens interact with other members of this ecosystem and how these relationships may be altered to reduce methanogenesis. Identification of community members that produce antimethanogen agents that either inhibit or kill methanogens could lead to the identification of new mitigation approaches. Discovery of a lytic archaeophage that specifically lyses methanogens is 1 such example. Efforts in using genomic data to alter methanogenesis have been hampered by a lack of sequence information that is specific to the microbial community of the rumen. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census are increasing the breadth and depth of our understanding of global ruminal microbial communities, steps that

  6. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  7. Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among records management personnel in Ondo State Civil Service, Akure, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 240 subjects from a population size of 275 records management personnel.

  8. Rethinking Teacher Turnover: Longitudinal Measures of Instability in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Jabbar, Huriya; Germain, Emily; Dinning, John

    2018-01-01

    While there is a robust literature examining the patterns and causes of teacher turnover, few articles to date have critically examined the measures of turnover used in these studies. Yet, an assessment of the way turnover is measured is important, as the measures become the means by which the "problem" of turnover becomes defined and…

  9. Addressing employee turnover and retention: keeping your valued performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee turnover and employee retention are inextricably linked; to control turnover is to enhance retention. Turnover is a relatively simple concept; however, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some that can be corrected and some that cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role; every improvement in turnover is a direct improvement in retention, with eventual positive effects on the bottom line.

  10. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for ef...... no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves.......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...

  11. KORELASI ANTARA EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT, TURNOVER SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawan Adi Wicaksono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Praktek yang berkembang menyatakan bahwa employee involvement memiliki efek positif terhadap kinerja organisasi. Perubahan pada kultur organisasi dapat menimbulkan dampak berkurangnya absen, turnover, pengambilan keputusan yang lebih baik dan sebagainya. Sehingga menarik untuk diteliti apakah ada korelasi antara aplikasi perubahan organisasi yaitu employee involvement, turnover serta produktivitas Berdasarkan studi literatur didapatkan hubungan antara employee involvement dengan level turnover, serta hubungan turnover dengan produktivitas. Sehingga employee involvement dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu aspek menghitung produktivitas Keyword : employee involvement, turnover, produktivitas

  12. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretionin ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo , David; Sauvant , Daniel; Bogaert , Catherine; Meschy , François

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus...

  13. Assessing gene function in the ruminant placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R V; Cantlon, J D; Gates, K C; Purcell, S H; Clay, C M

    2010-01-01

    The placenta provides the means for nutrient transfer from the mother to the fetus, waste transfer from the fetus to the mother, protection of the fetus from the maternal immune system, and is an active endocrine organ. While many placental functions have been defined and investigated, assessing the function of specific genes expressed by the placenta has been problematic, since classical ablation-replacement methods are not feasible with the placenta. The pregnant sheep has been a long-standing animal model for assessing in vivo physiology during pregnancy, since surgical placement of indwelling catheters into both maternal and fetal vasculature has allowed the assessment of placental nutrient transfer and utilization, as well as placental hormone secretion, under unanesthetized-unstressed steady state sampling conditions. However, in ruminants the lack of well-characterized trophoblast cell lines and the inefficiency of creating transgenic pregnancies in ruminants have inhibited our ability to assess specific gene function. Recently, sheep and cattle primary trophoblast cell lines have been reported, and may further our ability to investigate trophoblast function and transcriptional regulation of genes expressed by the placenta. Furthermore, viral infection of the trophoectoderm layer of hatched blastocysts, as a means for placenta-specific transgenesis, holds considerable potential to assess gene function in the ruminant placenta. This approach has been used successfully to "knockdown" gene expression in the developing sheep conceptus, and has the potential for gain-of-function experiments as well. While this technology is still being developed, it may provide an efficient approach to assess specific gene function in the ruminant placenta.

  14. Fluid therapy in small ruminants and camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredyth; Navarre, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Body water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance are important considerations in the evaluation and treatment of small ruminants and camelids with any disease process, with restoration of these a priority as adjunctive therapy. The goals of fluid therapy should be to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion, and to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are the most life-threatening abnormalities, and require most immediate correction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of the use of intrinsically 14C and rare earth-labeled neutral detergent fiber to estimate particle digestion and passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Methodology that allows simultaneous measurement of dynamic events affecting NDF digestion in passage from the rumen should improve our understanding of factors influencing intake and digestion. Ideally, particle flow is measured with a marker indelibly attached to or intrinsically part of the feed. If flow measurements are to reflect physiological conditions, marked and unmarked feed must be digested and passed with identical fractional rates. Application of 14C-labeled plant fiber to the study of ruminal dynamics has been slow because of expense and difficulty in producing 14C-labeled plant material. Recently, alfalfa was intrinsically labeled with 14C under field conditions to produce plant material similar in composition to unlabeled material. Carbon-14 specific activity was similar in all particle sizes, and in indigestible and digestible NDF. Greater concentrations of ytterbium (Yb) were associated with smaller vs larger particles. Larger differences in turnover rates among animals than differences attributable to treatments force comparisons of markers to be made within animal or with in vitro systems. The uncertainty about how extrinsic markers respond under various environments resulting from interaction of feed properties and gut function, and the high error inherent in measuring dynamic systems, raise serious questions on the interpretability of results. Advantages of 14C-labeled NDF over other markers include simultaneous measurements of particle breakdown, digestion and passage rates as well as the potential to study microbial attachment, VFA, CO2 and CH4 production and rate of incorporation of labeled metabolites into tissues. 36 references

  16. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Sharmin; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  17. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the ...

  18. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR construct in current empirical psychiatric research.Method: We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE, SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology.Results: Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models.Conclusion: Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  19. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; da Costa, Fábio Antônio; Soares, Ana Luiza Alfaya Galego; Mecler, Kátia; Valença, Alexandre Martins

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR) construct in current empirical psychiatric research. We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE), SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models. Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  20. Suppurative intracranial processes in 15 domestic ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to listeriosis which is relatively common in ruminants, there are three other uncommon suppurative intracranial processes (SIP identifiable in adult ungulates as brain abscess, basilar empyema and suppurative meningitis. The present paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, pathological and microbiological findings of 15 domestic ruminants with SIP. A total of 15 animals were selected (eight sheep, four cattle and three goats; with the definitive diagnoses of basilar empyema (n=3, brain abscess (n=1, listeriosis (n=5 and suppurative meningitis (n=6. Hematology revealed leukocytosis with inversion of the lymphocyte/ neutrophil ratio in 4 cases. In the majority of animals, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF presented light yellow coloration and cloudy aspect due to neutrophilic pleocytosis (15 - 997 leukocytes/µL. Microbiological culture of CSF or central nervous system (CNS fragments resulted on isolation of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli and Stenotrophomonas sp. In a goat with thalamic abscess, microbiological assay was not performed, but Gram positive bacilli type bacteria were observed in histology. The diagnosis of these outbreaks was based on the association of epidemiological, clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings; reiterating that the infectious component remains an important cause of CNS disease in domestic ruminants and also shows the need for dissemination of information about the most effective preventive measures for the ranchers.

  1. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  2. [Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A

    1994-01-01

    Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies.

  3. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  4. The Effect of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory Retrieval on Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From distinct research traditions rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval (OGM have emerged as two vulnerability markers for depression and depressive relapse (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004; Williams, 2004. Recent research further suggests a causal relation between rumination and OGM (e.g., Watkins & Teasdale, 2001. The present study investigated the inverse relationship, that is, OGM causally influencing ruminative thinking. A scrambled sentences procedure was used to assess the extent to which 112 student participants were engaged in a mental mode consistent with ruminative thinking following either a specific or overgeneral memory retrieval style manipulation. Trait rumination was also assessed prior to the experimental retrieval manipulation, using a self-report scale. It was found that high ruminators, following an overgeneral (as compared to a specific retrieval style, unscrambled sentences relatively more into sentences with a ruminative meaning. In non or low ruminators this retrieval style manipulation had no such effect. Alongside the findings of Watkins and colleagues (e.g., Watkins & Teasdale, 2001, the present results are consistent with the view of rumination and OGM as two mutually reinforcing vulnerability factors for depression (Williams, 1996, 2004.

  5. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Wagner, Clara A; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12-13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians' responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity) explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction.

  7. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change over Time Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Garner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians’ responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians ( N = 96 being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction.

  8. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, J R; Penner, G B; Stumpff, F; Gäbel, G

    2011-04-01

    Highly fermentable diets are rapidly converted to organic acids [i.e., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid] within the rumen. The resulting release of protons can constitute a challenge to the ruminal ecosystem and animal health. Health disturbances, resulting from acidogenic diets, are classified as subacute and acute acidosis based on the degree of ruminal pH depression. Although increased acid production is a nutritionally desired effect of increased concentrate feeding, the accumulation of protons in the rumen is not. Consequently, mechanisms of proton removal and their quantitative importance are of major interest. Saliva buffers (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate) have long been identified as important mechanisms for ruminal proton removal. An even larger proportion of protons appears to be removed from the rumen by SCFA absorption across the ruminal epithelium, making efficiency of SCFA absorption a key determinant for the individual susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis. Proceeding initially from a model of exclusively diffusional absorption of fermentation acids, several protein-dependent mechanisms have been discovered over the last 2 decades. Although the molecular identity of these proteins is mostly uncertain, apical acetate absorption is mediated, to a major degree, via acetate-bicarbonate exchange in addition to another nitrate-sensitive, bicarbonate-independent transport mechanism and lipophilic diffusion. Propionate and butyrate also show partially bicarbonate-dependent transport modes. Basolateral efflux of SCFA and their metabolites has to be mediated primarily by proteins and probably involves the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) and anion channels. Although the ruminal epithelium removes a large fraction of protons from the rumen, it also recycles protons to the rumen via apical sodium-proton exchanger, NHE. The latter is stimulated by ruminal SCFA absorption and salivary Na(+) secretion and protects epithelial integrity. Finally

  9. Glutathione turnover in 14 rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.W.; Tran, T.

    1990-01-01

    GSH is a tripeptide found in all tissues and is important in maintaining cellular redox status. First-order rate constants for GSH turnover were determined for various tissues of Fischer male rats. Animals were administered [ 35 S]Cys by tail vein injection and GSH turnover was estimated by the decrease in GSH specific activity following incorporation of Cys, 1-102 hr after administration. Tissue nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) were detected by Ellman's assay and compared with GSH and Cys concentrations determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. [ 35 S]GSH was analyzed by HPLC equipped with a flow-through radioactivity detector. Although total GSH and Cys were usually slightly lower than NPSH concentrations for the tissues examined, both assay systems gave comparable results. An exception was the glandular stomach which had approximately 2-fold higher NPSH. Liver and kidney had rapid turnover rates with GSH half-lives between 2-5 hr, while heart and skeletal muscle tissue had half-lives of 80-90 hr. Turnover in the blood was slowest, with a half-life of 170 hr. Gastrointestinal tract tissues were shown to have intermediate turnover rates of the following order: glandular stomach > duodenum = small intestine = caecum = large intestine = colon > forestomach. GSH half-life in lung and skin was approximately 45 hr. These studies indicate that tissues utilize GSH at markedly different rates

  10. Nurse turnover: the mediating role of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Maslach, Christina

    2009-04-01

    This study tested whether the mediation model of burnout could predict nurses' turnover intentions. A better understanding of what factors support a commitment to a nursing career could inform both policies and workplace practices. The mediation model of burnout provides a way of linking the quality of a nurse's worklife to various outcomes, such as turnover. Data on areas of worklife, burnout, and turnover intentions were collected by surveying 667 Canadian nurses in the Atlantic Provinces. The findings supported the mediation model of burnout, in which areas of worklife predicted burnout, which in turn predicted turnover intentions. Cynicism was the key burnout dimension for turnover, and the most critical areas of worklife were value conflicts and inadequate rewards. The results of this study provide some new insights into how the intention of nurses to leave their job is related to particular aspects of their worklife and to burnout. These results suggest what may be the most appropriate areas to target for interventions to reduce the risk of nurses exiting early from their chosen career.

  11. Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Croom Jim; Hook Sarah E; AlZahal Ousama; Steele Michael A; McBride Brian W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage) to a high-grain (79% grain) diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Rumin...

  12. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...... in judicial performance over two years of time...

  13. The rate and cost of nurse turnover in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael A; Duffield, Christine M; Homer, Caroline; Buchan, James; Dimitrelis, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Nurse turnover is a critical issue facing workforce planners across the globe, particularly in light of protracted and continuing workforce shortages. An ageing population coupled with the rise in complex and chronic diseases, have contributed to increased demands placed on the health system and importantly, nurses who themselves are ageing. Costs associated with nurse turnover are attracting more attention; however, existing measurements of turnover show inconsistent findings, which can be attributed to differences in study design, metrics used to calculate turnover and variations in definitions for turnover. This paper will report the rates and costs of nurse turnover across three States in Australia.

  14. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  15. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  16. Isolation and characterisation of Listeria species from ruminants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Listeria species in ruminants in Maiduguri. Three hundred faecal samples were randomly collected from ruminants at the Maiduguri central abattoir from January – March, 2011. One hundred faecal samples each were collected from cattle, sheep and ...

  17. [Rumination and cognitive fusion in dementia family caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Márquez-González, María; Losada, Andrés; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Rumination has been described as a dysfunctional coping strategy related to emotional distress. Recently, it has been highlighted from the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy therapeutic approach, the negative role that cognitive fusion (the extent to which we are psychologically tangled with and dominated by the form or content of our thoughts) has on the explanation of distress. The aim of this study is to simultaneously analyze the role of rumination and cognitive fusion in the caregiving stress process. The sample of 176 dementia caregivers was divided in four groups, taking into account their levels of rumination and cognitive fusion: HRHF=high rumination+high cognitive fusion; HRLF=high rumination+low cognitive fusion; LRHF= low rumination+high cognitive fusion; and LRLC=low rumination and low cognitive fusion. Caregiver stress factors, frequency of pleasant events, experiential avoidance, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life, were measured. The HRHF group showed higher levels of depression, anxiety, experiential avoidance and lower levels of satisfaction with life, frequency of pleasant events, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, than the other three groups. Considering simultaneously rumination and cognitive fusion may contribute to a better understanding of caregiver coping and distress. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.

  19. Troubled Ruminations about Parents: Conceptualization and Validation with Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to introduce the construct of troubled ruminations about parents and to develop a brief screening instrument. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,376 university students completed the instrument and other measures of psychosocial functioning. Troubled ruminations about mothers and fathers were related to self-esteem, life…

  20. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  1. Self-rumination, self-reflection, and depression: self-rumination counteracts the adaptive effect of self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Self-focused attention has adaptive and maladaptive aspects: self-reflection and self-rumination [Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284-304]. Although reflection is thought to be associated with problem solving and the promotion of mental health, previous researches have shown that reflection does not always have an adaptive effect on depression. Authors have examined the causes behind this inconsistency by modeling the relationships among self-reflection, self-rumination, and depression. One hundred and eleven undergraduates (91 men and 20 women) participated in a two-time point assessment with a 3-week interval. Statistical analysis with structural equation modeling showed that self-reflection significantly predicted self-rumination, whereas self-rumination did not predict self-reflection. With regard to depression, self-reflection was associated with a lower level of depression; self-rumination, with a higher level of depression. The total effect of self-reflection on depression was almost zero. This result indicates that self-reflection per se has an adaptive effect, which is canceled out by the maladaptive effect of self-rumination, because reflectors are likely to ruminate and reflect simultaneously.

  2. The quantum Kramers' turnover. IT-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Debashis; Shankar Ray, Deb [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata (India)

    2004-12-01

    The key result of Kramers' dynamical theory of reaction rate is that the rate varies linearly in the weak dissipative regime and inversely in the high dissipative regime with friction of the reaction medium. That is in between the energy diffusion and spatial diffusion limited regime the rate constant as a function of friction exhibits a bell-shaped curve known as Kramers' turnover.

  3. The quantum Kramers' turnover. IT-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Debashis; Shankar Ray, Deb

    2004-01-01

    The key result of Kramers' dynamical theory of reaction rate is that the rate varies linearly in the weak dissipative regime and inversely in the high dissipative regime with friction of the reaction medium. That is in between the energy diffusion and spatial diffusion limited regime the rate constant as a function of friction exhibits a bell-shaped curve known as Kramers' turnover

  4. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  5. A Turnover Model for the Mexican Maquiladoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P.; Stevens, Michael J.; Campion, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    From interviews with 47 Mexican maquiladora workers, a model of voluntary turnover was created and compared with models from the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Despite similarities, the cultural and economic environment affected the precise content of antecedents in the Mexican model. (Contains 63 references.) (SK)

  6. Health care workplace discrimination and physician turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    To examine the association between physician race/ ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job turnover. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007 of practicing physicians (n = 529) randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and the National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician turnover, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and chi2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job turnover (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9). Among physicians who experienced workplace discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value workplace discrimination, p value Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job turnover, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist.

  7. Biochemical Markers of Joint Tissue Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Christiansen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    available for the study of tissue turnover in each of the three compartments of the articular joint, that is the bone, the cartilage, and the synovium. Finally, we provide some perspective to future developments in biomarker discovery and discuss the potential impact such technologies could have on the drug...

  8. Turnover of Public School Superintendents in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki

    2013-01-01

    This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary turnover of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…

  9. Teacher Turnover in Charter Schools. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David; Smith, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to contribute to a deeper understanding of the organizational conditions of charter schools by examining teacher turnover. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS), researchers from the National Center on School…

  10. Director Turnover: An Australian Academic Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kym; Ryan, Yoni

    2012-01-01

    Although it can be argued that directors of central academic development units (ADUs) are critical to the implementation of university teaching and learning strategies, it would appear there is a high director turnover rate. While research in the USA, the UK, and Australia illustrates that ADUs are frequently closed or restructured, that research…

  11. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  12. Turnover among Community Mental Health Workers in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Ashley M; Ejaz, Farida K; Dawson, Nicole; Gitter, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined turnover of community mental health workers in 42 randomly selected mental health agencies in Ohio. The turnover rate in 2011 was 26 %. A regression analysis indicated that agencies with lower turnover offered higher maximum pay and were smaller in size, while those offering career advancement opportunities, such as career ladder programs, had higher turnover. The findings suggest that improving wages for workers is likely to reduce turnover. It is also possible that smaller agencies have lower turnover due to stronger relationships with workers and/or more successful hiring practices. Furthermore, turnover that occurs as a result of career advancement could have positive effects and should be examined separate from other types of turnover in the future.

  13. Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst ... Employee turnover has signifi cant costs and negative consequences for ... However, no interaction effect was observed between overall work-life balance and job ...

  14. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  15. Earnings Management Surrounding CEO Turnover: Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    JONG-SEO CHOI; YOUNG-MIN KWAK; CHONGWOO CHOE

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the empirical relation between CEO turnover and earnings management in Korea using a sample of 317 CEO turnovers and 634 non-turnover control firms during the period of 2001-2008. We classify CEO turnovers into four types depending on whether the departure of outgoing CEO is peaceful or forced and the incoming CEO is promoted from within or recruited from outside the firm. We measure earnings management by both discretionary accruals and real activities management. We al...

  16. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  17. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  18. INFLUENCE OF TIME BETWEEN RUMINAL GLUCOSE CHALLENGES ON RUMEN FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín F. Montaño-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal lactic acidosis is one of the most important metabolic problems in feedlot cattle. Gradually transitioning cattle to finishing-feedlot diets may reduce the risk for ruminal acidosis by providing sufficient time for adaptation. This adaptation of feedlot cattle to high-concentrate diets may causes marked changes in the ruminal environment, and time is required to establish stable ruminal conditions.   However, few studies have evaluated the ruminal adaptation in steers. A metabolism trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two consecutive glucose challenges on rumen function in steers fed a high-energy finishing diet. Four Holstein steers (320 kg LW with cannula in the rumen were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were used and consisted of the time elapsed between both challenges of glucose (2, 4, 6 or 8 d. Ruminal fluid samples were taken at 0700 h (just prior the first glucose challenge, and from the second challenge (d 2, 4, 6, or 8 at 1 h before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 28, 52, 124, 196 and 268 h. As the time between fluctuation of energy intake increased, ruminal fluid pH (P 0.10. During the first 6 h following the second glucose challenge ruminal fluid pH decreased. No effects of treatments on ruminal pH were observed (P >0.10 among treatments from 3 days after the second challenge. Ruminal fluid osmotic pressure increased (P <0.10 after dosed glucose with all treatments. Ruminal osmolality increased (P <0.10 as the time between challenges were 2 or 4 days. After dosed glucose, total volatile fatty acids increased, except by treatment 1 after second challenge. Total volatile fatty acid and pH were related positively (R2 =0.69. As the time increased, a tendency on increment of concentrations of protozoa was observed. Ruminal glucose concentration decreased linearly (P <0.10 2 h after the second fluctuation of energy intake. We conclude that ruminal alterations are magnified as the time between glucose challenge

  19. A Ministudy of employee turnover in US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; McKinnies, Richard C; Matthews, Eric P; Collins, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    A ministudy was conducted to collect self-reported employee turnover rates in US hospitals. The results indicate many hospitals are struggling with high employee turnover rates. Widespread variances in ratings were observed across hospitals, which may be due to lack of consistency in how they each calculate their employee turnover. This makes benchmarking for the purposes of performance improvement challenging.

  20. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xilin; Yang Feng

    2002-01-01

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  1. Salary and Ranking and Teacher Turnover: A Statewide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Cynthia Martinez; Slate, John R.; Delgado, Carmen Tejeda

    2009-01-01

    This study examined three years of data obtained from the Academic Excellence Indicator System of the State of Texas regarding teacher turnover rate and teacher salary. Across all public school districts, teacher salary was consistently negatively related to teacher turnover; that is, where salary was lower, turnover rate was higher When data were…

  2. Investing in Leadership: The District's Role in Managing Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascall, Blair; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into the impact of principal turnover on schools, and the ability of schools to mitigate the negative effects of frequent turnover by distributing leadership in the schools. The findings from this qualitative and quantitative analysis show that rapid principal turnover does indeed have a negative…

  3. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  4. High School Band Students' Perspectives of Teacher Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher turnover remains an important issue in education. The least researched perspectives, though, are those of the students who experience teacher turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine how high school band students experience teacher turnover. A total of twelve students were interviewed, representing three schools that experienced…

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a turnover ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value of...

  6. Turnover of regulated nurses in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Charlene H; Wodchis, Walter P; McGilton, Katherine S

    2014-07-01

    To describe the relationship between nursing staff turnover in long-term care (LTC) homes and organisational factors consisting of leadership practices and behaviours, supervisory support, burnout, job satisfaction and work environment satisfaction. The turnover of regulated nursing staff [Registered Nurses (RNs) and Registered Practical Nurses (RPNs)] in LTC facilities is a pervasive problem, but there is a scarcity of research examining this issue in Canada. The study was conceptualized using a Stress Process model. Distinct surveys were distributed to administrators to measure organisational factors and to regulated nurses to measure personal and job-related sources of stress and workplace support. In total, 324 surveys were used in the linear regression analysis to examine factors associated with high turnover rates. Higher leadership practice scores were associated with lower nursing turnover; a one score increase in leadership correlated with a 49% decrease in nursing turnover. A significant inverse relationship between leadership turnover and nurse turnover was found: the higher the administrator turnover the lower the nurse turnover rate. Leadership practices and administrator turnover are significant in influencing regulated nurse turnover in LTC. Long-term care facilities may want to focus on building good leadership and communication as an upstream method to minimize nurse turnover. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Literature review of labour turnover and absenteeism costs in the coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper includes labor turnover formulae, turnover costs, and turnover rates for the mining industry. Few meaningful studies or reports on absenteeism costs and labour turnover in mining were retrieved.

  8. Sadness and ruminative thinking independently depress people's moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanitabesh, Azra; Cardwell, Brittany A; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2017-11-02

    Depression and rumination often co-occur in clinical populations, but it is not clear which causes which, or if both are manifestations of an underlying pathology. Does rumination simply exacerbate whatever affect a person is experiencing, or is it a negative experience in and of itself? In two experiments we answer this question by independently manipulating emotion and rumination. Participants were allocated to sad or neutral (in Experiment 1), or sad, neutral or happy (Experiment 2) mood conditions, via a combination of emotionally evocative music and autobiographical recall. Afterwards, in both studies, participants either ruminated by thinking about self-relevant statements or, in a control group, thought about self-irrelevant statements. Taken together, our data show that, independent of participants' mood, ruminators reported more negative affect relative to controls. The findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focus is itself unpleasant, and illustrate that depressive rumination comprises both affective and ruminative components, which could be targeted independently in clinical samples. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Do sex differences in rumination explain sex differences in depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M; Chang, Han Yan M; Olson, Ryan L; Alderman, Brandon L

    2017-01-02

    It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al., ). After eight weeks of training, both men and women reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and fewer ruminative thoughts (Alderman et al., ). Statistical correlations between depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts were strong and significant (rho > 0.50; p depressive symptoms relate to "reflective" ruminations, which involve analyses of past events, feelings, and behaviors. This is also the only relationship that dissipated after the intervention. In general, these analyses suggest that the strength of the relationship between depressive symptoms and rumination does not necessarily explain sex differences in depression; but because the relationship is strong, targeting rumination through intervention can reduce the incidence of MDD, which is more prevalent among women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Negative emotional experiences arouse rumination and affect working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Rimé, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Following an emotional experience, individuals are confronted with the persistence of ruminative thoughts that disturb the undertaking of other activities. In the present study, we experimentally tested the idea that experiencing a negative emotion triggers a ruminative process that drains working memory (WM) resources normally devoted to other tasks. Undergraduate participants of high versus low WM capacity were administered the operation-word memory span test (OSPAN) as a measure of availability of WM resources preceding and following the presentation of negative emotional versus neutral material. Rumination was assessed immediately after the second OSPAN session and at a 24-hr delay. Results showed that both the individual's WM capacity and the emotional valence of the material influenced WM performance and the persistence of ruminative thoughts. Following the experimental induction, rumination mediated the relationship between the negative emotional state and the concomitant WM performance. Based on these results, we argue that ruminative processes deplete WM resources, making them less available for concurrent tasks; in addition, rumination tends to persist over time. These findings have implications for the theoretical modeling of the long-term effects of emotions in both daily life and clinical contexts.

  11. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  12. The relationship between rumination, PTSD, and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Contractor, Ateka A; Dranger, Paula; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2015-07-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid (Elhai et al., 2008. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 69, (4), 597-602). Rumination is a cognitive mechanism found to exacerbate and maintain both PTSD and MDD (Elwood et al., 2009. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, (1), 87-100; Olatunji et al., 2013. Clin. Psychol.: Sci. Pract. 20, (3), 225-257). Assess whether four rumination subtypes moderate the relationship between comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms. We consecutively sampled patients (N=45) presenting to a mental health clinic using self-report measures of PTSD and MDD symptoms, and rumination in a cross-sectional design. Repetitive rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at one standard deviation above the mean (β=.044, p=.016), while anticipatory rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at mean levels and higher levels of anticipatory rumination (mean β=.030, p=.042; higher β=.060, p=.008). Repetitive and anticipatory rumination should be assessed in the context of comorbid PTSD and MDD and interventions should focus on reducing these rumination subtypes. Results should be replicated with other trauma populations because the number and complexity of traumatic events may impact the assessed symptoms. Constructs should also be assessed longitudinally, in order to establish causality. We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and problem-focused thinking did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between ruminal ammonia and non-protein nitrogen utilization by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, L.D.; Roffler, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) may be utilized as well as plant protein when ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration is low ( 3 -N at 5 mg/100 ml will provide considerably less metabolizable protein, and the amount of metabolizable protein will be directly proportional to the amount of protein that escapes degradation. A simplified scheme for estimating metabolizable protein is presented. It has the flexibility needed for accommodating different feedstuffs, yet is easy to apply. The proposed scheme is based upon ruminal ammonia concentration, which in turn reflects protein intake, ration fermentability and protein degradation, the major determinants of protein supply to the lower intestine. It has the potential of more accurately describing the nutritional value of dietary crude protein, particularly if both protein and NPN are in the diet. (author)

  14. Redundancy, resilience, and host specificity of the ruminal microbiota: implications for engineering improved ruminal fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The ruminal microbial community is remarkably diverse, containing 100s of different bacterial and archaeal species, plus many species of fungi and protozoa. Molecular studies have identified a “core microbiome” dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but also containing many other taxa. The rumen provides an ideal laboratory for studies on microbial ecology and the demonstration of ecological principles. In particular, the microbial community demonstrates both redundancy (overlap of function among multiple species) and resilience (resistance to, and capacity to recover from, perturbation). These twin properties provide remarkable stability that maintains digestive function for the host across a range of feeding and management conditions, but they also provide a challenge to engineering the rumen for improved function (e.g., improved fiber utilization or decreased methane production). Direct ruminal dosing or feeding of probiotic strains often fails to establish the added strains, due to intensive competition and amensalism from the indigenous residents that are well-adapted to the historical conditions within each rumen. Known exceptions include introduced strains that can fill otherwise unoccupied niches, as in the case of specialist bacteria that degrade phytotoxins such as mimosine or fluoroacetate. An additional complicating factor in manipulating the ruminal fermentation is the individuality or host specificity of the microbiota, in which individual animals contain a particular community whose species composition is capable of reconstituting itself, even following a near-total exchange of ruminal contents from another herd mate maintained on the same diet. Elucidation of the interactions between the microbial community and the individual host that establish and maintain this specificity may provide insights into why individual hosts vary in production metrics (e.g., feed efficiency or milk fat synthesis), and how to improve herd performance. PMID

  15. Estimation of indigestible NDF in feedstuffs for ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    to be a suitable parameter in prediction models of energy and protein values in feedstuffs for ruminants, as the NorFor system. Therefore, there is a need to develop laboratory methods, applicable in practice, that determine the INDF content in feedstuffs. The present paper aims at presenting correlations......Intrinsic properties of plant cell walls determine the digestibility of ruminant diets, as they establish the maximum degree of the rate and extent of cell wall digestion in ruminants. The determination of INDF is important for the estimation of potentially digestible NDF (DNDF), and has been shown...

  16. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    an experimental group (EXP) or a control group (CON) immediately after calving. In addition, all cows in the EXP and CON were assigned to either a high, medial or low rumination group according to their individual RT. Cows in the EXP assigned to the high (EH), medial (EM) or low (EL) rumination group were stepped...... up to 6, 4 or 3 kg concentrate during the experimental period. Concentrate was stepped up to 4 kg during the experimental period for all cows in the CON, regardless of whether the cows were assigned to the high (CH), medial (CM) or low (CL) rumination group. In total, 40 and 41 primiparous cows...

  17. PERAN STRES KERJA DAN KEPUASAN KERJA UNTUK MENGURANGI TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Nazenin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji pengaruh variabel stres kerja dan kepuasan kerja pada turnover intention karyawan tetap bagian produksi. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 86 responden, menggunakan metode Slovin dengan teknik probability sampling dengan jenis proportionate random sampling. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, menunjukkan bahwa stres kerja berpengaruh positif signifikan pada turnover intention. Kemudian, kepuasan kerja berpengaruh negatif signifikan. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan, bahwa stres kerja berpengaruh positif dan signifikan pada turnover intention karyawan dan kepuasan kerja berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap turnover intention karyawan. Implikasi manajerial yang bisa dilakukan adalah dengan pengurangan tingkat stres karyawan dan membuat program untuk tujuan menekan turnover intention, seperti kesempatan promosi dan meningkatkan reward karyawan. The purpose of this study conducted to examine the effect of work stress and job satisfaction on turnover intention of employee in production department. The sample was 86 respondent, using Slovin method with proportionate random sampling technique. The result showed that job stress has a positive effect on turnover intention while job satisfaction has a negative effect on turnover intention. This study conclude that job stress has positive and significant impact on employee turnover intention and job satisfaction significantly and negatively related to turnover intention of employees. Therefore, it is recommended to managerial level people to reduce stress levels in employees and to create a program for pressing turnover intention, such as promotional opportunities and improve employee rewards.

  18. How Wage Compression Affects Job Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    I use Swedish establishment-level panel data to test Bertola and Rogerson’s (1997) hypothesis of a positive relation between the degree of wage compression and job reallocation. Results indicate that the effect of wage compression on job turnover is positive and significant in the manufacturing sector. The wage compression effect is stronger on job destruction than on job creation, consistent with downward wage rigidity. Further results include a strong positive relationship between the fract...

  19. Measuring temporal turnover in ecological communities

    OpenAIRE

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Dornelas, Maria; Magurran, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (project BioTIME 250189) and the Royal Society. MD acknowledges funding from the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology Scotland (MASTS). MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. 1.Range migrations in response to climate change, invasive species and the emergence of novel ecosystems highlight the importance of temporal turnover in community composition as a...

  20. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  1. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  2. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found in lum.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  3. Methods in gut microbial ecology for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive up-to-date account of the methodologies and protocols for conventional and modern molecular techniques that are currently in use for studying the gut microbial ecology of ruminants. Each chapter has been contributed by experts in the field and methods have been presented in a recipe-like format designed for direct practical use in the laboratory and also to provide insight into the most appropriate techniques, their applications and the type of information that could be expected. The techniques and procedures described are also relevant and adaptable to other gastrointestinal ecosystems and the microbiology of anaerobic environments in general. This manual will 'demystify' the methods in molecular microbial ecology for readers who are novice in the field but are excited by the prospects of this technology. It would also be invaluable for the experienced workers striving for giving new dimension to their research - expanding the work in other fields and initiating cross-cutting activities

  4. Diseases and impaired reproductive performance in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindahl, H.; Fredriksson, G.; Aiumlamai, S.; Odensvik, K.; Edqvist, L.E.; Stabenfeldt, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the recent findings on prostaglandin release after parturition and the interrelationship between endotoxins/infections and reproductive endocrinology. A massive release of prostaglandins is recorded after parturition in ruminants. In cows with uncomplicated puerperia this release is negatively correlated with the time required for completion of uterine involution. In cows with persistent uterine infections the relationship between prostaglandins and uterine involution is the opposite, indicating that prostaglandins are formed by the pathological process and are superimposed on the physiological one. Endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria are potent stimulators of prostaglandin production and release. If injected into cycling animals they cause the corpus luteum to regress prematurely. In most cases pregnant animals abort after exposure to endotoxins. These abortions can be prevented by using a potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor such as flunixin meglumine. (author) 28 refs, 6 figs

  5. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  6. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rusitec the cow[Food for rumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Full text: The rumen is an important part of the digestive tract of ruminant animals such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It contains large numbers of micro-organisms whose function is to break down fibrous feed materials such as grass and straw and convert them to products that can be used by the animal to produce meat, milk, wool or draught power. To study the microbial population of the rumen under controlled laboratory conditions, Dr. J.W. Czerkawski of the Hannah Research Institute, Scotland, U.K., developed an 'artificial cow'. The 'cow', named RUSITEC (from the acronym of 'Rumen Simulation Technique') is today being used as part of a project to analyse different feedstuffs being carried out by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at their joint Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf near Vienna, Austria. In the artificial rumen micro-organisms can be indefinitely maintained by feeding a normal ruminant diet each day and providing the correct physiological conditions in terms of temperature, pH and flow of saliva. As RUSITEC chews its way through different feeds, scientists use radioactive tracing techniques to compare their digestibility. (The higher the digestibility of a foodstuff, the higher the nutritive value that can be derived from it.) By analysing the quality of different feeding materials in this way, scientists are seeking to propose improved diets for domestic animals in the developing world. Photos on this page show RUSITEC at work. Below, the vessels representing the rumen, where microbial fermentation of diets takes place; right, the rumen simulation technique in operation; below right, analysis of the end products of fermentative digestion.

  8. Clinical pharmacology of tiamulin in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G; Levisohn, S L; Bar-Moshe, B; Bor, A; Soback, S

    1983-03-01

    Median values for the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tiamulin for Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma isolated from ruminants were 0.05 micrograms/ml and 0.025 micrograms/ml, respectively. These values were close to the MIC values of tylosin and considerably lower than the respective values for spectinomycin, Spiramycin and oxytetracycline. The serum concentration--time profile of tiamulin after intramuscular (i.m.) injection to goats, ewes, cows and calves, and after oral administration to preruminant calves was characterized by a rapid absorption phase (absorption t1/2 of less than 30 min.), a short plateau phase, an elimination t1/2 ranging between 3 and 6 h, and low peak serum drug levels. The serum elimination t1/2 of the drug after intravenous (i.v.) injection was 25 min. It appears that tiamulin is extensively metabolized in ruminants and is well distributed throughout the body. Drug concentrations in the lungs, liver, and the kidneys 1 h after i.v. injection were four to seven times higher than in blood. The drug penetrated very rapidly into the milk after i.m. administration; mean peak drug concentrations in normal milk and in milk secreted from inflamed glands of cows were 7.5 times and 1.2 times higher respectively, than the mean peak serum drug concentrations. Concentrations of tiamulin of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections can be maintained in the lungs for at least 12 h after i.m. injection at 10 mg/kg, and in preruminant calves after an oral dose of 20 mg/kg. However, tiamulin possesses several very serious side-effects and the i.v. route of administration is definitely contraindicated.

  9. High-resolution Esophageal Manometry Patterns in Children and Adolescents With Rumination Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini Grunder, Franziska; Aspirot, Ann; Faure, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Rumination is defined by effortless regurgitation within seconds or minutes of ingested food. The aim of this study was to determine the high-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) pattern in children with rumination syndrome. HREM was evaluated in 15 pediatric patients with rumination syndrome according to the Rome criteria and compared with 15 controls. Primary rumination was defined as a clinical rumination episode associated with a rise of gastric pressure above 30 mmHg. Secondary rumination was defined as a clinical rumination episode associated with a rise of gastric pressure above 30 mmHg during a transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). Ninety-two episodes of rumination were demonstrated during HREM study in 12 of the 15 patients (80%; 1-29 episodes per patient; median intragastric pressure 49.6 mmHg). Primary rumination occurred in 3 patients and secondary rumination in 5 patients. One patient had primary and secondary rumination episodes. In 3 patients, classification of rumination episodes was not possible due to repetitive swallowing leading to lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. In the control group, no episodes of rumination occurred. The sensitivity and the specificity of the HREM study (association of a clinical rumination episode with a rise in gastric pressure >30 mmHg) to confirm the diagnosis of rumination were 80% and 100%, respectively. HREM allows confirming diagnosis of rumination syndrome and to differentiate between primary and secondary rumination in the presence of objective rumination episodes. Further research is needed to study whether HREM results may influence treatment and outcome of children with rumination syndrome.

  10. prevalence of fasciolosis in small ruminants slaughtered at yola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    managed under extensive management system by the local farmers. .... prevalent problem of small ruminants in Yola,. Adamawa ... Bailliere Tindal and Company London 800 –. 809. Umar ... Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M..

  11. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the host. .... BE, Drewes LR (2003). Molecular features, regulation and ... Dynamics of ruminal volatile fatty acids in black and white bulls before and after feeding ...

  12. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  13. Retrospctive studies of small ruminant diseases diagnosed at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospctive studies of small ruminant diseases diagnosed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. J.W. Jatfa, A.Y. Adenkola, I Victor, A Kisani, S.S. Adamu, P.A. Onyeyili ...

  14. Treatment staff turnover in organizations implementing evidence-based practices: Turnover rates and their association with client outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.; Modisette, Kathryn C.; Ihnes, Pamela C.; Godley, Susan H.

    2011-01-01

    High staff turnover has been described as a problem for the substance use disorder treatment field. This assertion is based primarily on the assumption that staff turnover adversely impacts treatment delivery and effectiveness. This assumption, however, has not been empirically tested. In this study, we computed annualized rates of turnover for treatment staff (n=249) participating in an evidence-based practice implementation initiative and examined the association between organizational-level rates of staff turnover and client-level outcomes. Annualized rates of staff turnover were 31% for clinicians and 19% for clinical supervisors. Additionally, multilevel analyses did not reveal the expected relationship between staff turnover and poorer client-level outcomes. Rather, organizational-level rates of staff turnover were found to have a significant positive association with two measures of treatment effectiveness: less involvement in illegal activity and lower social risk. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:22154040

  15. Effects of molasses and corn grain at 2 levels of ruminally degradable protein on lactating cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactating dairy cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass with diets containing molasses (M) or finely ground dry corn grain at 3 levels of M (0, 5.25, 10.5% DM) and with differing levels of ruminally degradable protein (+RDP or –RDP). Twelve ruminal...

  16. Phenotypic Covariation And Morphological Diversification In The Ruminant Skull

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Annat

    2015-01-01

    Differences among clades in their diversification patterns result from a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In this study I examined the role of intrinsic factors in the morphological diversification of ruminants in general, and in the differences between bovids and cervids in particular. Using skull morphology, which embodies many of the adaptations that distinguish bovids and cervids, I examined 132 of the 200 extant ruminant species. As a proxy for intrinsic constraints I quan...

  17. Rumination, depressive symptoms and awareness of illness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ribaux, Darryl; Phillips, Lisa J

    2014-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia. Previous studies have observed that depressive symptoms are associated with both insight and negative appraisals of illness, suggesting that the way in which the person thinks about their illness may influence the occurrence of depressive responses. In affective disorders, one of the most well-established cognitive processes associated with depressive symptoms is rumination, a pattern of perseverative, self-focused negative thinking. This study examined whether rumination focused on mental illness was predictive of depressive symptoms during the subacute phase of schizophrenia. Forty participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and in a stable phase of illness completed measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, awareness of illness, and positive and negative symptoms. Depressive symptoms were correlated with rumination, including when controlling for positive and negative symptoms. The content of rumination frequently focused on mental illness and its causes and consequences, in particular social disability and disadvantage. Depressive symptoms were predicted by awareness of the social consequences of mental illness, an effect that was mediated by rumination. Results suggest that a process of perseveratively dwelling upon mental illness and its social consequences may be a factor contributing to depressive symptoms in people with chronic schizophrenia.

  18. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  19. Turnover in health care: the mediating effects of employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Stevie A; Guidroz, Ashley M; Perez, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the interaction between interpersonal respect, diversity climate, mission fulfilment and engagement to better predict turnover in health care. Registered nurse turnover has averaged 14% and current nursing shortages are expected to spread. Few studies have studied employee engagement as a mediator between organisational context and turnover. Study participants were employees working within 185 departments across ten hospitals within a large healthcare organisation in the USA. Although a total of 5443 employees work in these departments, employee opinion survey responses were aggregated by department before being linked to turnover rates gathered from company records. Engagement fully mediated the relationship between respect and turnover and the relationship between mission fulfilment and turnover. Diversity climate was not related to turnover. Turnover in health care poses a significant threat to the mission of creating a healing environment for patients and these results demonstrate that workplace respect and connection to the mission affect turnover by decreasing engagement. The findings demonstrated that to increase engagement, and improve turnover rates in health care, it would be beneficial for organisations, and nurse management to focus on improving mission fulfilment and interpersonal relationships. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  1. Workforce turnover at local health departments: nature, characteristics, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah J; Ye, Jiali; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Employee turnover, defined as total separations from employment, is expensive, can result in lost capacity, and can limit local health departments' (LHDs') ability to respond to public health needs. Despite the importance of workforce capacity in public health, little is known about workforce turnover in LHDs. To examine the extent to which LHDs experience turnover and identify LHD characteristics that are associated with turnover. A cross-sectional data set of employee turnover and LHD characteristics from the 2013 National Profile of LHDs was analyzed. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were conducted in 2014 on turnover rates. The effect of the following LHD characteristics on turnover rates were examined: population size, governance type, degree of urbanization, top executive experience level, expenditures per capita, and LHD budget cuts. In 2013, LHDs experienced a mean turnover rate of 9.88%; approximately one third of turnover was due to retirements. LHDs with shared state and local governance experienced a higher turnover rate than LHDs with exclusive state or local governance. LHDs that are units of state agencies had a significantly higher retirement rate than those governed by local authorities. Top executive experience level, per capita expenditures, and LHD budget cuts were also related to turnover rates. LHDs experienced a lower overall turnover rate than state health departments in 2011 and lower than all local and state government agencies in 2012. Strengthening leadership skills of new top executives and ensuring adequate funding may reduce turnover in LHDs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  3. Rumination and depression in Chinese university students: The mediating role of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tianzhu; He, Yini; Auerbach, Randy P; McWhinnie, Chad M; Xiao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined the mediator effects of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) on the relationship between rumination and depression in 323 Chinese university students. 323 undergraduates completed the questionnaires measuring OGM (Autobiographical Memory Test), rumination (Ruminative Response Scale) and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Results using structural equation modeling showed that OGM partially-mediated the relationship between rumination and depression (χ 2 = 88.61, p OGM on the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms were significant. The results indicated that rumination and depression were partially mediated by OGM.

  4. Estimation of economic losses due to Peste de Petits Ruminants in small ruminants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a simple mathematical model to assess the losses due to peste des petits ruminants (PPR in small ruminants in India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on cases and deaths in goats and sheep due to PPR from the average combined data on ovine/caprine as published by Government of India for the last 5 years (2008-2012. All possible direct and indirect losses due to the disease, viz. mortality losses, losses due to direct reduction in milk/wool yield, losses due to reproduction failure, body weight losses, treatment costs and opportunity costs, were considered to provide estimate of annual economic losses due to PPR in sheep and goats in India. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the annual economic loss was also estimated. Results: On the basis of data reported by Government of India, the study has shown average annual economic loss of Rs. 167.83 lacs, of which Rs. 125.67 lacs and Rs. 42.16 lacs respectively are due to the incidence of the disease in goats and sheep. Morbidity losses constituted the greater share of the total loss in both goats and sheep (56.99% and 61.34%, respectively. Among different components of morbidity loss, direct body weight loss was the most significant in both goats and sheep. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the estimated annual economic loss due to PPR in goats and sheep is Rs. 8895.12 crores, of which Rs. 5477.48 and Rs. 3417.64 crores respectively are due to the disease in goats and sheep. Conclusion: The low economic losses as reported based on Government of India data points towards underreporting of cases and deaths due to the disease. The study thus revealed a significant loss due to PPR in small ruminants on a large scale.

  5. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KERJA DAN KOMITMEN ORGANISASI TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mardi Widyadmono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on Turnover Intention. Futhermore, the study identify the mediation role of organizational commitment in the relationship between job satifaction and Turnover Intention. The participants of the study are 98 employees working in private companies operated in Yogyakarta, (36 men and 62 women. Respondents complete questionnaire containing questions on job satisfaction variable, questions on organizational commitment and questions on Turnover Intention. The statistics tools applied are regression analysis to assess the relation between variables and Sobel test to measure the mediation role of organizational commitment. The results of the investigation revealed that job satisfication and organizational commitment influence negatively and significantly Turnover Intention. The higher the job satisfication and the organizational commitment of employees lead to the lower Turnover Intention. The organizational commitment does not play mediation role in the relationship between job satisfication and Turnover Intention

  6. Mentor program boosts new nurses' satisfaction and lowers turnover rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathy C

    2010-07-01

    In 2004, the turnover rate among first-year registered nurses (RNs) at St. Francis Hospital and Health Centers had mushroomed to 31%. Based on research, in 2006, the hospital embarked on a journey to implement an RN mentor program to improve satisfaction and reduce turnover. A pilot program was initiated, including 12 RN mentors and 12 RN protégés from select nursing units. The results showed a 0% turnover rate during the 1-year pilot program. Based on these findings, the mentor program was expanded to include RNs working in inpatient nursing units and surgery and emergency departments. Each year, the RN turnover rate has decreased. In 2009, the turnover rate was 10.3%. Because of the success of the program, it has been expanded in scope to include other professionals experiencing high turnover in targeted departments, including radiological technicians, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and physical therapists.

  7. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  8. Turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorie, M J; Maloney, M A; Patt, H M

    1979-10-01

    Short-term parabiosis of male and female CBA/CaJ mice was used to investigate the turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. The change and subsequent disappearance of donor stem cells were monitored by spleen colony assay and chromosome analysis of individual colonies. The results revealed an exponential disappearance of pluripotent stem cells from blood with a characteristic half time of 1.7 h. Blood-borne stem cells were shown to be equilibrated with a subpopulation of marrow stem cells exhibiting a disappearance half time of 9.5 h. Splenectomy did not change the apparent rate of stem cell removal from the blood.

  9. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    , there is strong evidence that CNglcs serve a no less significant purpose as a transport and storage form of reduced nitrogen which may be remobilized and recycled to balance the needs of primary metabolism during certain developmental events. Reduced nitrogen from CNglcs may be recovered either via HCN refixation...... revealed the formation of glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and "anitriles", including their di- and triglycosides, evidently derived from CNglcs. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated plant species, a recycling endogenous turnover pathway for CNglcs was suggested in which...

  10. Molecular Evolution and Characterization of Hemagglutinin (H in Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiang Liang

    Full Text Available Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, highly contagious, and febrile viral disease that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease has become a major obstacle to the development of sustainable Agriculture. Hemagglutinin (H, the envelope glycoprotein of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV, plays a crucial role in regulating viral adsorption and entry, thus determining pathogenicity, and release of newly produced viral particles. In order to accurately understand the epidemic of the disease and the interactions between the virus and host, we launch the work. Here, we examined H gene from all four lineages of the PPRV to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV by the Bayesian method. In addition, we predicted positive selection sites due to selective pressures. Finally, we studied the interaction between H protein and SLAM receptor based on homology model of the complex. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that H gene can also be used to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. Positive selection analysis identified four positive selection sites in H gene, in which only one common site (aa246 was detected by two methods, suggesting strong operation structural and/or functional constraint of changes on the H protein. This target site may be of interest for future mutagenesis studies. The results of homology modeling showed PPRVHv-shSLAM binding interface and MVH-maSLAM binding interface were consistent, wherein the groove in the B4 blade and B5 of the head domain of PPRVHv bound to the AGFCC' β-sheets of the membrane-distal ectodomain of shSLAM. The binding regions could provide insight on the nature of the protein for epitope vaccine design, novel drug discovery, and rational drug design against PPRV.

  11. The phase model of burnout and employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Eric A; Boss, R Wayne

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the phase model of burnout and investigates its relationship to actual turnover in a hospital. The results indicate that employees who turnover have significantly higher burnout phase scores that those who stay in the organization. A further comparison of voluntary and involuntary turnover demonstrates that there is no significant differences on burnout phase scores. The findings lend support to the usefulness of the phase model of burnout.

  12. Job and industry turnover for registered and licensed vocational nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Rickles, Jordan; Chapman, Susan; Ong, Paul M

    2008-09-01

    Most studies of nurse turnover focus on job turnover, which could reflect nurse advancement and thus not be detrimental to the workforce. The authors discuss findings from a study that involved 2 cohorts of graduates from registered nursing and licensed vocational nursing community college programs in California. The duration of employment in the healthcare industry, as well as with specific employers, is tracked, lending a more thorough analysis of nursing job and industry turnover than found in other studies.

  13. The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Employee Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the human resource management practices that are effective for employee turnover reducing. For this purpose the methods of document analysis and expert survey were used. On the basis of analysis of the scientific literature retrieved from academic databases the human resource management practices, which were mentioned in connection with employee turnover, were detected and described its effect on employee turnover. By conducting two separate expert sur...

  14. Does public service performance affect top management turnover?

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, George A.; James, Oliver; John, Peter; Petrovsky, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    Political and organizational theories suggest that the turnover of chief executives and other members of senior management teams are likely to be influenced by public service performance. We use a panel data set of 148 English local governments over 4 years to test this proposition. The empirical results show that performance has a negative effect on turnover, but that this effect is weaker for chief executives than for members of their senior management teams. In addition, top team turnover ...

  15. Explaining turnover intention in Korean public community hospitals: occupational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung

    2008-01-01

    Personnel in public hospitals had relatively low job satisfaction despite of tenure employment. High turnover rates degrade hospital image and incur additional costs related to recruitment and training. The purposes of this study were to describe the occupational differences and to identify factors affecting turnover intention among public hospital personnel. A questionnaire survey was conducted as part of Administrative Services Quality Evaluation Program by Seoul metropolitan municipality from 1 November to 1 December in 2003. The subjects were 1251 entire hospital personnel in four hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing turnover intention. There were significant differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention according to the occupations. The turnover intention rates were highest among physicians, followed by paramedicals and nursing staffs and then administrators. The significant factors affecting turnover intention were involvement and loyalty among physicians, hospital type, satisfaction with systems and loyalty among nursing staffs, satisfaction with relationship and loyalty among administrators, and loyalty among paramedicals. There were different moderators that influence turnover intentions of hospital personnel. Loyalty had the most important effect upon turnover intention in all occupations. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  16. Scale dependence in species turnover reflects variance in species occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinn, Daniel J; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2012-02-01

    Patterns of species turnover may reflect the processes driving community dynamics across scales. While the majority of studies on species turnover have examined pairwise comparison metrics (e.g., the average Jaccard dissimilarity), it has been proposed that the species-area relationship (SAR) also offers insight into patterns of species turnover because these two patterns may be analytically linked. However, these previous links only apply in a special case where turnover is scale invariant, and we demonstrate across three different plant communities that over 90% of the pairwise turnover values are larger than expected based on scale-invariant predictions from the SAR. Furthermore, the degree of scale dependence in turnover was negatively related to the degree of variance in the occupancy frequency distribution (OFD). These findings suggest that species turnover diverges from scale invariance, and as such pairwise turnover and the slope of the SAR are not redundant. Furthermore, models developed to explain the OFD should be linked with those developed to explain species turnover to achieve a more unified understanding of community structure.

  17. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  18. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  19. Tomorrow's vector vaccines for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, C S

    2015-12-14

    Inactivated and attenuated vaccines have contributed to the control or even the eradication of significant animal pathogens. However, these traditional vaccine technologies have limitations and disadvantages. Inactivated vaccines lack efficacy against certain pathogens, while attenuated vaccines are not always as safe. New technology vaccines, namely DNA and recombinant viral vector vaccines, are being developed and tested against pathogens of small ruminants. These vaccines induce both humoral and cellular immune responses, are safe to manufacture and use and can be utilized in strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Although there are more strict regulatory requirements for the safety standards of these vaccines, once a vaccine platform is evaluated and established, effective vaccines can be rapidly produced and deployed in the field to prevent spread of emerging pathogens. The present article offers an introduction to these next generation technologies and examples of vaccines that have been tested against important diseases of sheep and goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  1. Dynamics of Adipocyte Turnover in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P

    2007-07-16

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte turnover by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.

  2. Feedstock for ruminant, non-ruminant and aquatic fish in Malaysia-A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Muzarpar, Syafiq; Baba, I.; Sunar, N. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul

    2017-09-01

    Large demand of feedstock in Malaysia initiated the farmers to accelerate animal growth by improving quality of livestock's. However, quality increase will effect to the cost increment as well. Therefore, main objective of this study is to review various material and methods which acceptable in Malaysia in order to teach the farmer in selecting appropriate material for animal feed. Animal feed for ruminant, non-ruminant and aquatic fish has big issues in Halal animal feed. It caused by sources of existing animal feed from non-halal material such as blood meal and pig bone. There are various sources of halal animal feed sources such as from plant such as napier, PKC, banana tree and corn leaf as well as from waste material such as waste toufu, waste coconut, soy meal, coconut meal and sagoo. Therefore, the farmer able to select the appropriate material for own animal feed to reduce cost and fulfill the animal feed requirement regarding to protein and nutrient need.

  3. Control strategies for peste des petits ruminants in small ruminants of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P

    2011-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. It is endemic in several African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries, including India. India has recently taken comprehensive steps to deal with PPR through the development and production of potent vaccines and monoclonal-antibody-based diagnostic kits, while also gathering baseline information on the disease situation and human resources. As a result, PPR can now be controlled by focused vaccinations in high-risk populations of sheep and goats, followed by mass vaccination campaigns. Mass vaccination campaigns must achieve high levels of herd immunity (70% to 80%) to block the epidemic cycle of the virus. With the tools currently available, disease control and subsequent eradication programmes for PPR may be a feasible option, following the example of the National Rinderpest Eradication Programme, which has successfully eradicated rinderpest from India. An understanding of the cultural and socio-economic circumstances of goat and sheep owners and a keen watch on the endemic nature of PPR in neighbouring countries will enhance the success of this approach. Coordinated efforts from all stakeholders, combined with proper funding and execution of control programmes, will be needed to achieve the goal of a PPR-free India. In addition, the availability of effective combined vaccines of PPR with goat pox or sheep pox offers a cost-effective way of simultaneously launching control programmes against all three of these diseases.

  4. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  5. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using in vitro gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ... could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  6. Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid ... WGP could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  7. Pesti Des Petits ruminants virus infection in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan H.C.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries morbillivirus infections have had a huge impact on both human beings and animals. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals world wide. They include measles virus (MV, canine distemper virus (CDV, rinderpest virus (RPV and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV virus. Furthermore, new emerging infectious diseases of morbilliviruses with significant ecological consequences of marine mammals have been discovered in the past decades. Phocid distemper virus (PDV in seals and the cetacean morbillivirus (CMV have been found in dolphins, whales and porpoises. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious ,infectious , an acute or sub acute viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants characterized by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia. Goats are more severely affected than sheep. It is also known as pseudorinderpest of small ruminants, pest of small ruminants, pest of sheep and goats, kata, stomatitis- pneumoentritis syndrome, contagious pustular stomatitis and pneumoentritis complex. It is one of the major notifiable diseases of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 150-155

  8. THE RUMINANT EFFECT OF VEGETAL LECITHIN AT SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 200 g per day. The food supplementation in sheep and goats with dregs up to 7% fat in the dry substance of the ration has favourable and proportional effects with the dose of fat on the digestibility of the nutritive substances from the food. The growth of ruminant bacteria is favoured at the 100 g dose of dregs but is depressed at the 200 g dose of dregs. On the ruminant protozoa the supplementation with fat from dregs leads to the reducing of the number of protozoa and even at defaunation. It is possible that the fat from the dregs to be a source of YATP and to protect the alimentary proteins of the degrading with proteolytic enzymes and therefore to make the protein ruminant by-pass.

  9. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  11. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  12. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  13. Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croom Jim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage to a high-grain (79% grain diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Ruminal pH was under 5.0 for 130 minutes (2.17 hours which is characterized as the acute form of ruminal acidosis in cattle. The grain challenge increased blood beta-hydroxybutyrate by 1.8 times and rumen papillae mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase by 1.6 times. Ultrastructural and histological adaptations of the rumen epithelium were imaged by scanning electron and light microscopy. Rumen papillae from the high grain diet displayed extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum and compromised cell adhesion as large gaps were apparent between cells throughout the strata. This case report represents a rare documentation of how the rumen epithelium alters its function and structure during the initial stage of acute acidosis.

  14. Effects of by-product feed-based silage on feeding, rumination, and excretion in growing Hanwoo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Sang Moo; Lee, Youn Hee; Lee, Myeon; Choi, Do Young; Kwak, Wan Sup

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the behavior of growing Hanwoo heifers. Twelve Hanwoo heifers (13.2 months-old, 315 kg body weight; four heifers per pen) were assigned to three diets: a rice straw (RS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS), a RS and BF-based silage (RSBFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS and BF-based silage), and a BF-based silage (BFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to BF-based silage). Behavior was recorded for 5 days using camcorders. Compared to the RS group, the BFS group showed 21.7% higher dry matter intake, shorter feeding, rumination, and chewing times, as well as longer resting time (p < 0.05). Although all groups exhibited similar drinking, urination, and defecation frequencies, the BFS group exhibited higher feeding rates, rumination efficiency, and chewing efficiency than the RS group (p < 0.05). Compared to the BFS group, the RSBFS group showed higher peNDF8.0 intake (15.2% vs. 25.0% dry matter intake), longer feeding and sitting times, lower defecation frequency (p < 0.05), and similar rumination efficiency. In conclusion, complete replacement of conventional RS with BF-based silage reduced rumination and chewing activity in growing Hanwoo heifers, and BF-based silage feeding with large-particle straw is an effective approach in improving heifer behavior.

  15. Update on the use of blood and blood products in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcomb, Christie; Foster, Derek

    2014-07-01

    The use of whole blood and/or blood products is indicated in ruminant medicine. The goal of this article is to summarize previous literature on blood groups in ruminants and camelids, list indications for transfusion, and describe collection and transfusion techniques applicable to small ruminants and cattle that can be used in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Air and water qualities around small ruminant houses in Central Java - Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Murti, T.W.; Baliarti, E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general concern that livestock can have a profound effect on the environment, also in smallholder production systems. This paper presented the impact of small ruminants on the quality of air and water in and around small ruminant houses. In total, 27 small ruminant houses from the three

  17. Impedance measurements and high-resolution manometry help to better define rumination episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Govaert, Frank; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Conchillo, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Rumination syndrome is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by regurgitation of recently ingested food. We aimed to improve the diagnosis of rumination syndrome by classification of separate rumination symptoms using (1) an ambulatory manometry/impedance (AMIM) measurement and (2) a

  18. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? : Evidence from eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.; Schut, Henk A.W.; Stroebe, Margaret; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Boelen, Paul A.

    Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on

  19. Nonlinear Associations Between Co-Rumination and Both Social Support and Depression Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames-Sikora, Alyssa M; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Tully, Erin C

    2017-08-18

    Co-ruminating about one's problems appears to involve both beneficial self-disclosure and harmful rumination, suggesting that moderate levels may be the most adaptive. This study used nonlinear regression to determine whether moderate levels of self-reported co-rumination in relationships with a sibling, parent, friend, and romantic partner are linked to the highest levels of self-perceived social support and lowest levels of self-reported depression symptoms in 175 emerging adults (77% female; M = 19.66 years). As expected, moderate co-rumination was associated with high social support across all four relationship types, but, somewhat unexpectedly, high levels of co-rumination were also associated with high social support. As predicted, moderate levels of co-rumination with friends and siblings were associated with low levels of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, high levels of co-rumination were associated with high depression within romantic relationships. Co-rumination with a parent did not have a linear or quadratic association with depression. These findings suggest that high co-ruminating in supportive relationships and to a lesser extent low co-ruminating in unsupportive relationships are maladaptive interpersonal processes but that co-rumination's relation to depression depends on the co-ruminating partner. Psychotherapies for depression may target these maladaptive processes by supporting clients' development of balanced self-focused negative talk.

  20. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richard F. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  1. Nitrogen fixation in the tissues of ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Protein metabolism in animals is in a constant state of flux, the processes of protein synthesis and protein breakdown acting against each other, and the balance between the two processes causing changes in the mass of protein in a tissue. Reduction in the diet reduces both protein synthesis and protein degradation unless the dietary depletion is severe and prolonged, when there is a marked increase in protein catabolism. The synthesis and degradation of protein can be manipulated by anabolic agents, thus increasing the efficiency of animals. While the use of these agents has met with success in many countries, it remains to be seen whether they will be useful in harsh environments. Lactation and pregnancy put an extra demand on the nitrogen economy of animals. Evidence indicates that the extra amino acids needed for milk production do not come from muscle protein breakdown. Many animals in harsh environments are infected with parasites; intestinal parasites reduce food intake and cause blood loss into the intestines. Associated with this is a general disruption of protein metabolism. In all these studies, isotopic techniques have played a vital role. Few studies have been conducted on nitrogen metabolism in the tissue of ruminants exposed to harsh environments (with one notable exception: rumen function studies, some of which are described elsewhere in the Proceedings of this Seminar). This lack of work on nitrogen metabolism of animals from the harsher environments has often made it necessary to extrapolate data obtained from animals found and maintained in the temperate zones to quite different environments and to animals maintained on quite different dietary regimens. Several examples of the use of isotopes in metabolic studies with animals to yield information of direct or potential relevance to the harsh environments are presented. (author). 23 refs. 1 fig. 6 tabs

  2. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  3. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  4. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  5. Trophoblast cells of ruminant placentas - A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igwebuike, U.M.

    2004-09-01

    Understanding of ruminant placental structure and function is essential for veterinarians and researchers. The ruminant placenta is classified as cotyledonary and synepitheliochorial on the bases of its gross anatomical features and histological characteristics respectively. The richly vascularized embryonic chorioallantois is lined on its outer surface by cells of the trophectodermal epithelium. These cells which assume specialized functions are referred to as trophoblast cells. Two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types have been recognized in the trophectoderm of the placenta of ruminant animals. These are the mononucleate trophoblast cells and the binucleate trophoblast cells. The occurrence, morphological characteristics, and specialized functions of these trophoblast cells, in relation to conceptus nutrition and survival in utero are discussed in this review. (author)

  6. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such

  7. How Multiple Interventions Influenced Employee Turnover: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    A 3-year study of 46 textile industry workers identified causes of employee turnover (supervision, training, organizational communication) using performance analysis. A study of multiple interventions based on the analysis resulted in changes in orientation procedures, organizational leadership, and climate, reducing turnover by 24%. (SK)

  8. Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in selected business organisations in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... The study was an attempt at investigating the relatedness of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria.

  9. Performance and turnover intentions: a social exchange perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; Boon, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Prior research has yielded mixed results regarding the relationship between performance and turnover intentions. Drawing from social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to propose that the performance-turnover intentions association may be contingent upon individuals' exchange

  10. Telaah Hubungan Kepuasan Kerja Dan Komitmen Organisasional Terhadap Turnover Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Amran; Acep Rohendi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRAK Karyawan merupakan elemen yang sangat penting bagi perusahaan. Karyawan sebagai sumber daya manusia adalah penggerak utama berjalannya roda perusahaan sehingga perusahaan harus menjaga kepuasan kerja dan komitmen organisasional agar karyawan tidak berkeinginan untuk berpindah ke perusahaan lain (turnover intention). Hal ini perlu dikaji pengaruh kepuasan kerja dan komitmen organisasional terhadap turnover intention sehingga dapat bermanfaat untuk mengetahui nilai penting dari kepu...

  11. A Review of the Literature on Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Among the many challenges facing public schools are high levels of principal turnover. Given the important role that principals play and are expected to play in the improvement process, concerns about principal turnover have resulted in a growing body of research on its causes and consequences. The purpose of this review is to take stock of what…

  12. Health workforce acquisition, retention and turnover in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skill mix of health professionals, staff acquisition and turnover rate are among the major challenges for the delivery of quality health care. This study assessed the health workforce acquisition, retention, turnover rate and their intention to leave. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with quantitative and qualitative ...

  13. The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and turnover intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…

  14. Estimating Cause: Teacher Turnover and School Effectiveness in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigate issues related to within-school teacher supply and school-specific teacher turnover within the state of Michigan using state administrative data on Michigan's teaching force. This paper 1) investigates the key predictors of teacher turnover and mobility, 2) develops a profile of schools that are likely to…

  15. Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores. loS. Wilkinson and J.D. Skinner*. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 8 December 1986; accepted 11 August 1987. 22Na turnover rates gave overestimates of mean 23Na intake in both ...

  16. ON THE TURNOVER OF THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RHEE, MH; PELETIER, RF; VANALBADA, TS

    1995-01-01

    The observed turnover at the high linewidth end of the infrared Tully-Fisher relation can be explained by the stellar population differences among galaxies. When the IRAS 60 mu m fluxes are added to the Tully-Fisher relation as a second parameter, the turnover disappears and the scatter becomes

  17. Below the Surface of Special Education Administrator Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The field of special education administration has experienced a shortage of high quality special education leadership candidates for several decades. If school districts are to effectively address the turnover of educational leaders, they must know what is happening that affects turnover of their leadership team. The intent of this study was to…

  18. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found...... in lumbar bone mineral density, femoral neck bone mineral density, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ionized calcium and phosphate. The urinary excretion of both hydroxyproline and calcium relative to urinary creatinine excretion was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia, p = 0.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  19. Regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is a relatively slow metabolic process that is altered by various physiological stimuli such as feeding/fasting and exercise. During exercise, catabolism of amino acids contributes very little to ATP turnover in working muscle. With regards to protein turnover......, there is now consistent data from tracer studies in rodents and humans showing that global protein synthesis is blunted in working skeletal muscle. Whether there is altered skeletal muscle protein breakdown during exercise remains unclear. The blunting of protein synthesis is believed to be mediated...... downstream of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and energy turnover. In particular, a signaling cascade involving Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2 kinase-eEF2 is implicated. The possible functional significance of altered protein turnover in working skeletal muscle during exercise is discussed. Further work...

  20. One hundred years of employee turnover theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Peter W; Lee, Thomas W; Shaw, Jason D; Hausknecht, John P

    2017-03-01

    We review seminal publications on employee turnover during the 100-year existence of the Journal of Applied Psychology . Along with classic articles from this journal, we expand our review to include other publications that yielded key theoretical and methodological contributions to the turnover literature. We first describe how the earliest papers examined practical methods for turnover reduction or control and then explain how theory development and testing began in the mid-20th century and dominated the academic literature until the turn of the century. We then track 21st century interest in the psychology of staying (rather than leaving) and attitudinal trajectories in predicting turnover. Finally, we discuss the rising scholarship on collective turnover given the centrality of human capital flight to practitioners and to the field of human resource management strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KERJA TERHADAP KOMITMEN ORGANISASI DAN TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agi Syarif Hidayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The high level of employee turnover in the marketing department at PT. Toyamilindo indicates low organizational commitment and high turnover intention. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment and turnover intention. Quantitative methods are used in this study. Population is the  employees of marketing department at PT. Toyamilindo with 50 people. Sampling technique used is sampling saturated with the number of samples of 50 people. Data collection technique uses questionnaires and regression analysis. Finding on the research results shows that there are positive and significant influence of job satisfaction on organizational commitment and negative and significant influence of job satisfaction on turnover intention, and also the influence of organizational commitment on work satisfaction to turnover intention. The managerial implications of corporate leaders must improve employee work satisfaction, especially in terms of salary.

  2. Pitfalls in quantifying species turnover: the residency effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chase Burns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of ecological communities changes continuously through time and space. Understanding this turnover in species composition is a central goal in biogeography, but quantifying species turnover can be problematic. Here, I describe an underappreciated source of bias in quantifying species turnover, namely ‘the residency effect’, which occurs when the contiguous distributions of species across sampling domains are small relative to census intervals. I present the results of a simulation model that illustrates the problem theoretically and then I demonstrate the problem empirically using a long-term dataset of plant species turnover on islands. Results from both exercises indicate that empirical estimates of species turnover may be susceptible to significant observer bias, which may potentially cloud a better understanding of how the composition of ecological communities changes through time.

  3. Perceptions of hospital CEOs about the effects of CEO turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Amir A; Thompson, David M; Walston, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence is scarce on chief executive officer (CEO) turnover in U.S. hospitals, with potentially serious implications for many of these organizations. This study, based on a nationwide survey of CEOs at non-federal general surgical and medical community hospitals conducted in the spring of 2004, reports the perceptions of hospital CEOs regarding the circumstances and impact of CEO turnover on U.S. hospitals. In the opinion of the respondents, the impact includes competitors taking advantage of turnover by luring employees and physicians away from the target hospital, significantly increasing the likelihood of other senior executives leaving the hospital, and many of the important strategic activities being delayed or cancelled altogether. Interestingly, the perceptions of CEOs regarding the effects of turnover do not seem to differ regardless of voluntary or involuntary circumstances of turnover. However, there is a notable bias in emphasizing the perceived negative implications of respondents' own departures and allegedly positive effects of their predecessors' departures.

  4. Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slavov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements, biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

  5. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  6. Production and emission of methane and carbon dioxide by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Animal digestion is responsible for the production of both carbon dioxide and methane, while breathing produces only carbon dioxide. The author described the digestion mechanism of ruminants, explaining that they produce higher levels of methane and carbon dioxide than other animals. Fermentation stoichiometry of ruminants was also discussed along with the influence that diet has on methane production. It was noted that methane production can be decreased by increasing animal productivity, or by using ionophore antibiotics and long chain fatty acids. Test results from each of these methods have revealed side effects and none appears to be applicable for the time being. 10 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. How Serious of a Problem is Staff Turnover in Substance Abuse Treatment? A Longitudinal Study of Actual Turnover1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P.

    2010-01-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a two year time span (2008–2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. PMID:20675097

  8. How serious of a problem is staff turnover in substance abuse treatment? A longitudinal study of actual turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P

    2010-10-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19% and 50% (J.A. Johnson & P.M. Roman, 2002; S.L. Gallon, R.M. Gabriel, J.R.W. Knudsen, 2003; H.K. Knudsen, J.A. Johnson, & P.M. Roman, 2003; A.T. McLellan, D. Carise, & H.D. Kleber, 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a 2-year time span (2008-2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups, the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Rollins, Angela L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover ...

  10. Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; LePine, Jeffery A; LePine, Marcie A

    2007-03-01

    In this article, a 2-dimensional work stressor framework is used to explain inconsistencies in past research with respect to stressor relationships with retention-related criteria. Results of meta-analyses of 183 independent samples indicated that whereas hindrance stressors had dysfunctional relationships with these criteria (negative relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and positive relationships with turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior), relationships with challenge stressors were generally the opposite (positive relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negative relationships with turnover intentions and turnover). Results also suggested that the differential relationships between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors and the more distal criteria (withdrawal behavior and turnover) were due, in part, to the mediating effects of job attitudes. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of CP and starch concentrations in ruminal in situ studies and ruminal degradation of cereal grains using NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J; Koenzen, E; Seifried, N; Steingass, H; Schenkel, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2018-03-01

    Ruminal in situ incubations are widely used to assess the nutritional value of feedstuffs for ruminants. In in situ methods, feed samples are ruminally incubated in indigestible bags over a predefined timespan and the disappearance of nutrients from the bags is recorded. To describe the degradation of specific nutrients, information on the concentration of feed samples and undegraded feed after in situ incubation ('bag residues') is needed. For cereal and pea grains, CP and starch (ST) analyses are of interest. The numerous analyses of residues following ruminal incubation contribute greatly to the substantial investments in labour and money, and faster methods would be beneficial. Therefore, calibrations were developed to estimate CP and ST concentrations in grains and bag residues following in situ incubations by using their near-infrared spectra recorded from 680 to 2500 nm. The samples comprised rye, triticale, barley, wheat, and maize grains (20 genotypes each), and 15 durum wheat and 13 pea grains. In addition, residues after ruminal incubation were included (at least from four samples per species for various incubation times). To establish CP and ST calibrations, 620 and 610 samples (grains and bag residues after incubation, respectively) were chemically analysed for their CP and ST concentration. Calibrations using wavelengths from 1250 to 2450 nm and the first derivative of the spectra produced the best results (R 2 Validation=0.99 for CP and ST; standard error of prediction=0.47 and 2.10% DM for CP and ST, respectively). Hence, CP and ST concentration in cereal grains and peas and their bag residues could be predicted with high precision by NIRS for use in in situ studies. No differences were found between the effective ruminal degradation calculated from NIRS estimations and those calculated from chemical analyses (P>0.70). Calibrations were also calculated to predict ruminal degradation kinetics of cereal grains from the spectra of ground grains

  12. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  13. An Analysis of the Effects of Deployment on Turnover in the United States Army Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCloskey, Michele

    1999-01-01

    .... Survey questions were developed using motivation and turnover theories, and a Integrated Turnover Model relating a Reservist's deployment experience to the presence or absence of six major factors...

  14. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Angela L; Salyers, Michelle P; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M

    2010-09-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff turnover rates were comparable or better than other turnover rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature.

  15. Understanding the factors that determine registered nurses' turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Joseph; Uzoka, Faith-Michael; Aladi, Flora; El-Hussein, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Turnover among registered nurses (RNs) produces a negative impact on the health outcomes of any health care organization. It is also recognized universally as a problem in the nursing profession. Little is known about the turnover intentions and career orientations of RNs working in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of and to advance the discussion on the turnover of nursing professionals. The study population consisted of RNs employed in the five major hospitals in Calgary. There were 193 surveys returned, representing a response rate of 77.2%. The results show that age and education have a negative effect on turnover intention. Education was found to have a significant negative effect on career satisfaction but not on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Length of service has a significant negative effect on turnover intention. Role ambiguity has significant highly negative effect on career satisfaction. Growth opportunity and supervisor support have a very significant positive effect on job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and organizational commitment. External career opportunities and organizational commitment do not seem to have a significant effect on turnover intention. Career satisfaction, on the other hand, had negative significant effects on turnover intention.

  16. The dynamics of nematode infections of farmed ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and control of nematode parasites of farmed ruminants are discussed via a qualitative analysis of a differential equation model. To achieve this a quantity, 'the basic reproduction quotient' (Q0), whose definition coincides with previous definitions of R0 for

  17. BOARD-invited review : Quantifying water use in ruminant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legesse, G.; Ominski, K. H.; Beauchemin, K. A.; Pfister, S.; Martel, M.; McGeough, E. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Kroebel, R.; Cordeiro, M. R.C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of

  18. Parasitic Diseases of Ruminants Brought to Two Zonal Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...

  19. ruminants by amino acid analysis of the products of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reveals that in all cases histidine is the limiting amino acid for milk production. Comparison of the milk production potential predicted from the duodenal amino acid supply with that predicted from ... also recognized, in ruminants, as'a critical point in the chain .... be used to model the in vivo situation and measurement of.

  20. Implementation of triticale in nutrition of non-ruminant animals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... application in non-ruminant animal nutrition were pointed out in this paper. There is a high level of ... a result of environment protection. Triticale is an ...... Review Res. Work Faculty Agriculture, Zemun-Belgrade, 38(2): 71-. 82.

  1. Innovations adoption levels of small ruminant farmers in Tolon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 small ruminant farmers were selected for the study using simple random sampling, and questionnaires and personal observations employed for the data collection. Twelve communities were randomly selected from four Ministry of Food and Agriculture operational zones. Data were analyzed using SPSS ...

  2. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presence of plastic bags in the rumen of the goats was clinically characterized by anorexia, severe depression, discomfort (grunting sounds), dehydration, firmness and asymmetrical distention of the abdomen, reduced ruminal movements, diarrhoea with intermittent constipation, recumbency and death. Severity of the ...

  3. Recent advances in modeling nutrient utilization in ruminants1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modeling techniques have been applied to study various aspects of the ruminant, such as rumen function, post-absorptive metabolism and product composition. This review focuses on advances made in modeling rumen fermentation and its associated rumen disorders, and energy and nutrient

  4. Status of small ruminant production in six selected communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the status of small ruminant production in some selected communities in Delta State vis-à-vis identifying the type of people involved in it; their response to modern livestock practices and determining factors affecting their stock size. Data were obtained from 90 respondents. Results of data analysis ...

  5. Comparison of analyses to predict ruminal fibre degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and indigestible NDF (INDF) between silages (n = 24) that originated from three different temperate grass species, i.e. Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea L. and hybrid, Felina – Lolium multiflorum L. × Festuca ...

  6. The economic impact of peste des petits ruminants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, D; Kumar, S; Anandsekaran, G; Chaudhury, J K; Meraj, M; Singh, R K; Verma, M R; Kumar, D; Kumar P T, N; Ahmed Lone, S; Mishra, V; Mohanty, B S; Korade, N; De, U K

    2017-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important livestock disease which affects a vast section of the small ruminant population in India. However, data on the incidence of PPR are limited and scant literature is available on the economic losses caused by the disease. In the present study, a structured sampling design was adopted, which covered the major agro-climatic regions of the country, to ascertain the morbidity and mortality rates of PPR. Available estimates of the economic losses in India due to various livestock diseases are based on single values of various epidemiological and economic parameters. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the economic impact of PPR. Overall annual morbidity and mortality rates of PPR for small ruminants in India have been estimated from the sample as being 8%and 3.45%, respectively. The authors have analysed variations in these rates across species, age group, sex, season and region. The expected annual economic loss due to PPR in India ranges from as little as US $2 million to $18 million and may go up to US $1.5 billion; the most likely range of expected economic losses is between US $653 million and $669 million. This study thus reveals significant losses due to the incidence of PPR in small ruminants in India.

  7. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  8. Haemonchosis and haemoparasites of small ruminants reared in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abomasa were examined by Hansen and Perry method for the presence of Haemonchus contortus while blood samples were examined using the thin blood smear and Haematocrit Centrifugation Techniques (HCT). The prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants was 80.3% with goats and sheep having ...

  9. Conventional and serological detection of Fasciolosis in ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determined seasonal prevalence of fasciolosis and compare between its conventional diagnosis and serological identification in ruminants slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, northeastern Nigeria. Nine hundred samples each of faeces and blood; that is 300 each from cattle, sheep and goats was ...

  10. Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of large intestinal or hindgut fermentation in ruminant nutrition has received little research attention in recent decades. Though the contribution of the hindgut to total tract nutrient digestion is substantially less than the contribution from the rumen, hindgut fermentation impacts anima...

  11. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Acidosis: new insights into the persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Wertz-Lutz, A E

    2011-04-01

    The Ruminant Nutrition Symposium titled "Acidosis: New insights into the persistent problem" was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Western Section-ASAS, and the Canadian Society of Animal Science in Denver, Colorado, July 11 to 15, 2010. The objective of the symposium was to provide the ruminant nutrition community with new insights and perspectives from recent research findings on acidosis. Under modern production systems, ruminants are fed high-grain diets to maximize their energy intake and productivity. However, feeding highly fermentable diets often causes excess fermentation and results in accumulation of fermentation acids in the rumen, leading to a decrease in feed intake, poor feed efficiency, liver abscesses, and lameness in feedlot cattle or lactating dairy cows. Although our understanding of nutritional factors (i.e., effects of type and processing method of grains and importance of physically effective fiber) affecting rumen pH have increased substantially over the past few decades, rumen acidosis has continued to be a common problem in the ruminant livestock industry. The symposium program was organized to review recent research findings in acidosis with more emphasis on physiological aspects, and provide novel insights into the persistent problem.

  12. Current prevalence of Fasciolosis in small ruminants in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small ruminants are an important source of animal protein and of special importance in those areas where cattle are of lesser importance. The study was conducted determined current prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of northeast Nigeria. About 300 samples each from sheep and goats ...

  13. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; Hoek, van der W.; Goossens, B.; Secka, A.; Stegeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.

  14. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... performed.Heifers receiving oligofructose developed a profound ruminal and systemic acidosis (in Trial 1 and 2 lowest ruminal pH was 4.3±0.2 and 3.8±0.02, respectively, and minimum SBE was −9.3±4.1 and −8.9±2.8, respectively). In Trial 1, SAA concentrations were higher than baseline concentrations on all...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...

  15. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    herds with Holstein cows, where daily RT was recorded by rumination sensors (Qwes HRTM). Cows were fed a partially mixed ration and concentrate at the milking robot. Concentrate was stepped up over the first 28 and 17 days in milk for primiparous and multiparous cows. Cows were assigned to either...

  16. Balancing the duodenal amino acid supply in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meat production are bloodmeal, carcass meal, poultry by-product meal, fishmeal and groundnut oilcake. ... The amino acid requirements for milk or meat production in ruminants are not accurately known and in the absence ...... Some adaptation of the in vitro technique of Dennison &. Phillips (1983) might prove useful in this ...

  17. Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Tolkamp, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part I of this thesis contains a critical appraisal of the commonly accepted theory with regard to feed intake regulation in ruminants and the presentation of a new theory. This new theory assumes that feed consumption creates both benefits to the animal (in a non-reproducing animal the

  18. Sero-epidemiology of bluetongue in Algerian ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BMH Labo SPA

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... the herds and lack of Culicoides controls strategies were the major risk factors for bluetongue sero- positivity in Algerian ruminant ... coastline at the Mediterranean Sea; most of the coastal area. (northern region) is hilly, .... Culicoides control measures in disease prevention strategy may play a key role in ...

  19. Rumination syndrome: when the lower oesophageal sphincter rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, Guillaume; Dechelotte, Pierre; Ducrotte, Philippe; Leroi, Anne Marie

    2011-07-01

    Rumination syndrome is an uncommon condition characterised by the self-induced regurgitation from the stomach to the mouth of recently ingested meal that is chewed and reswallowed. Rumination is caused by a voluntary rise in intra-abdominal and intra-gastric pressure leading to the reflux of the gastric content into the oesophagus. However, the precise mechanisms preventing reflux at the gastro-oesophageal junction during the rise in intra-gastric pressure remains unknown. In 5 patients, rumination episodes were monitored using combined multiple intra-luminal impedance monitoring, high resolution manometry, and video-fluoroscopic recording. We showed that the gastro-oesophageal junction moved from the abdominal cavity into the thorax creating a "pseudo-hernia". This occurred at a range of 1.4 ± 0.3 s before the rise in intra-oesophageal pressure and the gastro-oesophageal reflux. This displacement of the gastro-oesophageal junction into thorax, rather than a lower oesophageal sphincter opening, explains the mechanism of voluntary regurgitations occurring during rumination syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 2. Energy sources. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 3. Roughages. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Feeding standards for ruminants: A progress report of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled (indoor) nutrition research in the Republic, and for me to then give my views on how to proceed ... intricacies of aspects of ruminant nutrition in which I am a complete layman. I would suggest that the ...... Metode om dierlike proteiene te beskerm teen de-aminering deur mikro-organismes in die rumen. Hqnd. S. Afr.

  3. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of eight plant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    made more effective if the properties of the feed are known and can be ... Three ruminally fistulated Jersey cows were fed Coast cross 2 hay (K11) ad libitum. .... absence of properly prepared animals for the implementation of the mobile bag.

  4. Occurrence of brucellosis in small ruminants slaughtered in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is a disease of economic and public health importance worldwide. Although present in Nigeria, there is a paucity of information regarding the occurrence of the disease in small ruminants in Nasarawa State. A cross-sectional study was therefore carried out to determine the ...

  5. Measurements of protein turnover in man with nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, P.J.; Waterlow, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Past and present methods of measuring total body protein turnover with 15 N-labelled compounds are reviewed, and a short assessment made of results achieved. Protein turnover in man was first measured by Sprinson and Rittenberg (1949) using 15 N glycine as tracer. The rate of turnover was calculated from the fraction of the dose excreted in urine in the days following a single oral dose of the isotope. In the following years a number of similar methods were devised but interest waned, perhaps because consistent changes in turnover rate under different conditions were not detected. A revival of interest came with the measurement of changes in protein turnover in malnourished and recovering children by Picou and Taylor-Roberts (1969). Nitrogen-15-glycine was infused and measurements were made of the abundance of 15 N in urinary urea, which reached a plateau in about 24 hours. Turnover rates were calculated from the proportion of the infused dose excreted in urea after the plateau had been reached. This method has also been used successfully on adults when the isotope has been given as three-hourly oral doses. In adults, however, plateau labelling in urea is not usually reached for two days. In our laboratory the use of urinary ammonia, which reaches a plateau more quickly than urea, has been examined. In addition, comparisons have been made between constant infusion and single dose of isotope. Halliday and McKeran (1975) infused 15 N-lysine and measured the 15 N abundance in the free lysine of plasma, which reached a plateau in about 12 hours. Turnover in the whole body and turnover of muscle proteins and of plasma albumin were estimated separately. These methods of measuring protein turnover with 15 N are described and results reviewed of the effects of food intake, nutritional status and age. (author)

  6. The effects on digestibility and ruminal measures of chemically treated corn stover as a partial replacement for grain in dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D E; Combs, D K; Doane, P H; Cecava, M J; Hall, M B

    2016-08-01

    Alkaline treatment of gramineous crop residues can convert an abundant, minimally utilized, poorly digestible straw into a moderately digestible feedstuff. Given the volatile nature of grain prices, substitution of treated stover for grain was investigated with dairy cows to provide insights on ruminal and digestibility effects of a feed option that makes use of alternative, available resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in diet digestibility and ruminal effects when increasing levels of calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaOSt) were substituted for corn grain in diets of lactating cows. Mature corn stover was treated with calcium oxide at a level of 50g∙kg(-1) dry matter (DM), brought up to a moisture content of 50% following bale grinding, and stored anaerobically at ambient temperatures for greater than 60d before the feeding experiment. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 686kg of body weight and 35kg of milk∙d(-1) were enrolled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square, where CaOSt replaced corn grain on a DM basis in the ration at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120g∙kg(-1) DM. All reported significant responses were linear. The DM intake declined by approximately 1kg per 4% increase in CaOSt inclusion. With increasing replacement of corn grain, dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration increased. However, rumen NDF turnover, NDF digestibility, NDF passage rate, and digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF were unaffected by increasing CaOSt inclusion. Total-tract organic matter digestibility declined by 5 percentage units over the range of treatments, approximately 1.5 units per 4-percentage-unit substitution of CaOSt for grain. With increasing CaOSt, the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate declined, whereas the lowest detected ruminal pH increased from 5.83 to 5.94. Milk, fat, and protein yields declined as CaOSt increased and DM intake declined with the result that net energy in milk declined by

  7. Increasing physically effective fiber content of dairy cow diets through forage proportion versus forage chop length: chewing and ruminal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether the risk of acidosis in dairy cows can be lowered by increasing the physically effective fiber (peNDF) concentration of the diet, either through increased theoretical chop length of alfalfa silage or higher proportion of forage in the diet. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square using 8 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dietary peNDF concentration (DM basis) was determined from the sum of the proportion of dietary DM retained either on the 2 sieves (8 and 19 mm) or on the 3 sieves (1.18, 8, and 19 mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by the neutral detergent fiber concentration of the diet. The dietary peNDF concentrations were altered by changing the F:C or the FPL, and ranged from 10.7 to 17.5% using 2 sieves, or from 23.1 to 28.2% using 3 sieves. Intake of peNDF was increased by increasing FPL but not by increasing F:C ratio because of the reduction of DM intake at the higher F:C ratio. Chewing activity, including number of chews and chewing time, increased with increasing F:C ratio or FPL. Mean ruminal pH was elevated by 0.4 and 0.2 units with increasing F:C ratio and FPL, respectively. Lowering the F:C ratio decreased the duration that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (1.2 vs. 8 h/d). Increased F:C ratio or FPL reduced ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration from 137 to 122 or from 133 to 126 mM, respectively, whereas acetate:propionate ratio was increased from 2.55 to 3.46 with increasing F:C ratio. Dietary peNDF concentration measured using 2 sieves was correlated to chewing time (r = 0.57) and mean ruminal pH (r = 0.75), whereas dietary peNDF concentration measured using 3 sieves was correlated to mean ruminal pH (r = 0.83) and negatively correlated to

  8. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? Evidence from eye-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten C Eisma

    Full Text Available Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on cognitive avoidance theories of worry in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD and rumination after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, others have suggested that rumination may serve to avoid painful aspects of the loss, thereby contributing to complicated grief. To examine if rumination is linked with loss avoidance, an eye-tracking study was conducted with 54 bereaved individuals (27 high and 27 low ruminators. On 24 trials, participants looked for 10 seconds at a picture of the deceased and a picture of a stranger, randomly combined with negative, neutral or loss-related words. High ruminators were expected to show initial vigilance followed by subsequent disengagement for loss stimuli (i.e., picture deceased with a loss word in the first 1500 ms. Additionally, we expected high ruminators to avoid these loss stimuli and to show attentional preference for non-loss-related negative stimuli (i.e., picture stranger with a negative word on longer exposure durations (1500-10000 ms. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for an effect of rumination on vigilance and disengagement of loss stimuli in the first 1500 ms. However, in the 1500-10000 ms interval, high ruminators showed shorter gaze times for loss stimuli and longer gaze times for negative (and neutral non-loss-related stimuli, even when controlling for depression and complicated grief symptom levels. Effects of rumination on average fixation times mirrored these findings. This suggests that rumination and loss avoidance are closely associated. A potential clinical implication is that rumination and grief complications after bereavement may be reduced through the use of exposure and acceptance

  9. Employee turnover and productivity among small business entities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the problems of employee turnover on productivity among small business entities in Nigeria, and recommend remedial actions. Employee turnover is the separation of employees from employers and replacement with other employees. Productive manpower is a critical element for the economic survival of any small business entity. The survey research design was used for the study. The sample comprised of 320 respondents. Data generated were analyzed by using descriptive, and Z-test statistical techniques. It was found that employee turnover adversely affects productivity in small business entities.

  10. Turnover and employment in the German wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuper, A.

    1995-01-01

    Results of the fast growing wind energy market in 1994 are the turnover reaching more than 800 million DM, and the number of employees to about 3,700. In 1995 the manufacturers expect to need less than 4 employees to build and to install 1 MW rated power and to decrease the ratio of manufacturer's turnover per installed power unit to about 1900 DM/kW. In spite of this development it is expected that the turnover and the number of employees will increase due to the still fast growing market. (orig.)

  11. The curvilinear effect of work engagement on employees' turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesens, Gaëtane; Stinglhamber, Florence; Marmier, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown the positive consequences of work engagement for both organisations and employees experiencing it. For instance, research has demonstrated that work-engaged employees have lower levels of turnover intentions than non-engaged employees. However, in this research, we examined whether there is a dark side of work engagement. More precisely, we investigated whether the relationship between work engagement and employees' turnover intentions might be non-linear. Based on two different samples, our results indicated that the relationship between work engagement and employees' turnover intentions is curvilinear. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  13. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  14. Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, Kuya; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, Robert; Shilinde, Ligge; Mdaki, Maulid; Keyyu, Julius; Parida, Satya; Kock, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation.

  15. Cinética ruminal do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Ruminal kinetics of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Sete carneiros fistulados no rúmen e no duodeno foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e alimentados com feno de Stylosanthes guianensis à vontade. Foi empregada a técnica de sacos de náilon para determinação da degradabilidade in situ do feno, utilizando-se os tempos de 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas para as retiradas dos sacos do rúmen. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi determinada utilizando-se cromo mordante como indicador. Os valores de pH no líquido ruminal foram medidos nos tempos de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação e a concentração de amônia nos tempos de 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 e 11 horas após a alimentação. A taxa de degradação da matéria seca (MS foi de 8,5%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 38,1% e a degradabilidade efetiva 30,3%. A taxa de degradação da proteína bruta (PB foi de 9,7%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 56,0% e a degradabilidade efetiva 47,5%. A celulose apresentou maior degradabilidade efetiva que a hemicelulose, com valores de 22,5 e 8,9%, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi 2,7%/h. O pH diminuiu linearmente à medida que os tempos de coleta aumentaram. Para o tempo de 5,13 horas após a alimentação, foi estimada a concentração máxima de amônia de 12,18mg/100ml. O feno de S. guianensis apresentou alta taxa de degradação e baixa degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs, were allocated in metabolic cages and were fed ad libitum with Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The in situ technique was used for determination of the degradability of the hay, at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The passage rate of solids was determined using chromium mordant as external marker. The pH of the rumen liquid was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding and the ammonia concentration at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 hours after feeding. The degradation rate, the potential degradability, and the effective degradability of dry matter (DM were 8.5%/h, 38

  16. Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; AL-Sultan, A.; AL-Shekhly, M.

    2001-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

  17. A Comprehensive Model of the Employee's Turnover Decision Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donnelly, David

    2002-01-01

    .... In any environment in which retention is a primary goal, an essential first step in controlling attrition is the development of an in-depth understanding of the employee turnover decision process...

  18. Wind energy industry in Germany. Turnover and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuper, A.; Schmidt, A.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of the growing wind energy market in Germany the importance of the industry in this business are has grown. In 1994 the turnover will go beyond 500 million DM, and the number of employees will reach 2,900. The turnover and the number of employees are increasing in spite of the higher efficiency. In 1994 only 5 employees are needed by a manufacturer to install 1 MW rated power instead of 15 in 1989, and the ratio of installed power to manufacturer's turnover has risen from 0,25 W/DM in 1988 to 0,455 W/DM in 1994. On the other hand the turnover of the manufacturers per employee has increased from 80,000 DM in 1988 to 440,000 DM in 1994. Economic development has considerably been advanced by subsidies for the application of wind energy technology. (orig.)

  19. SOME FEATURES OF CONTROL STAFF TURNOVER IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kaznacheeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to the decision of the actual problem of staff turnover in the transformation of the Russian economy. In light of the problem of the effectiveness of human resources management the author indicates the most frequent problems faced by the company and focus on the problem of staff turnover. The author presents a different interpretation, defining "Marketing personnel" as a kind of administrative activity aimed at ensuring the long-term organization of human resources (identifying staffing needs, and these needs, that is, covering the organization's needs for personnel. It highlights the main features and distinctive features of marketing staff. We consider the objective (external and subjective reasons (internal reasons for staff turnover. The author proposes a number of measures to help identify the causes of turnover.

  20. Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- deficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ..... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research: Guide for the ... American Veterinary Medical Association.

  1. Autoradiographic imaging of phosphoinositide turnover in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    With [ 3 H]cytidine as a precursor, phosphoinositide turnover can be localized in brain slices by selective autoradiography of the product [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol, which is membrane-bound. In the cerebellum, glutamatergic stimulation elicits an increase of phosphoinositide turnover only in Purkinje cells and the molecular layer. In the hippocampus, both glutamatergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation increase phosphoinositide turnover, but with distinct localizations. Cholinergic stimulation affects CA1, CA3, CA4, and subiculum, whereas glutamatergic effects are restricted to the subiculum and CA3. Imaging phosphoinositide turnover in brain slices, which are amenable to electrophysiologic studies, will permit a dynamic localized analysis of regulation of this second messenger in response to synaptic stimulation of specific neuronal pathways

  2. survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria. Data were .... to be making more money than them were more dissatisfied with ... postulates that an employee is a rational decision maker, hence, he makes efforts that lead to a ...

  3. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  4. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaminets, Aliaksandr; Heinrich, Theresa; Mari, Muriel; Grumati, Paolo; Huebner, Antje K; Akutsu, Masato; Liebmann, Lutz; Stolz, Alexandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koch, Nicole; Mauthe, Mario; Katona, Istvan; Qualmann, Britta; Weis, Joachim; Reggiori, Fulvio; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication. Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements and

  5. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaminets, Aliaksandr; Heinrich, Theresa; Mari, Muriel; Grumati, Paolo; Huebner, Antje K.; Akutsu, Masato; Liebmann, Lutz; Stolz, Alexandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koch, Nicole; Mauthe, Mario; Katona, Istvan; Qualmann, Britta; Weis, Joachim; Reggiori, Fulvio; Kurth, Ingo; Huebner, Christian A.; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication(1). Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements

  6. Rationale for the evaluation of trabecular bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, D.B.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the morphometric evaluation of trabecular bone is identified. Its scrupulous use allows total identification of bone formation and resorption rates, items necessary for the direct histologic analysis of bone turnover

  7. Nitrate and inhibition of ruminal methanogenesis: microbial ecology, obstacles and opportunities for lowering methane emissions from ruminant livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjian eYang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal methane production is among the main targets for greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation for the animal agriculture industry. Many compounds have been evaluated for their efficacy to suppress enteric methane production by ruminal microorganisms. Of these, nitrate as an alternative hydrogen sink has been among the most promising, but it suffers from variability in efficacy for reasons that are not understood. The accumulation of nitrite, which is poisonous when absorbed into the animal’s circulation, is also variable and poorly understood. This review identifies large gaps in our knowledge of rumen microbial ecology that handicap the further development and safety of nitrate as a dietary additive. Three main bacterial species have been associated historically with ruminal nitrate reduction, namely Wolinella succinogenes, Veillonella parvula and Selenomonas ruminantium, but others almost certainly exist in the largely uncultivated ruminal microbiota. Indications are strong that ciliate protozoa can reduce nitrate, but the significance of their role relative to bacteria is not known. The metabolic fate of the reduced nitrate has not been studied in detail. It is important to be sure that nitrate metabolism and efforts to enhance rates of nitrite reduction do not lead to the evolution of the much more potent GHG, nitrous oxide. The relative importance of direct inhibition of archaeal methanogenic enzymes by nitrite or the efficiency of capture of hydrogen by nitrate reduction in lowering methane production is also not known, nor are nitrite effects on other members of the microbiota. How effective would combining mitigation methods be, based on our understanding of the effects of nitrate and nitrite on the microbiome? Answering these fundamental microbiological questions is essential in assessing the potential of dietary nitrate to limit methane emissions from ruminant livestock.

  8. Employee motivation development opportunities seeking to reduce employee turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Pilukienė, Laura; Kšivickaitė, Gertūda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyse one of the main nowadays human resources problem – growing employee turnover. Employee motivation process is analysed as a key competitive advantage in employee retention that leads to the growth of the business company’s productivity and competitive stability. The main goal of the article is to analyse the employee motivation and employee turnover relationship and its development possibilities in Lithuania’s business sector.

  9. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Musashi; Ariella Coler-Reilly; Teruaki Nagasawa; Yoshiki Kubota; Satomi Kato; Yoko Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid ...

  10. Turnover rate of hypoxic cells in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, A.S.E.; Bussink, J.; Rijken, P.F.J.W.; Van Der Kogel, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and both the amount and duration of tumor hypoxia has been shown to influence the effect of radiation treatment negatively. It is important to understand the dynamic processes within the hypoxic cell population in non-treated tumors, and the effect of different treatment modalities on the kinetics of hypoxic cells to be able to design optimal combined modality treatments. The turnover rate of hypoxic cells was analyzed in three different solid tumor models with a double bio-reductive hypoxic marker assay with sequential injection of the two hypoxic markers. Previously it was shown that this assay could be used to detect both a decrease and an increase of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature with high spatial resolution. In this study the first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times relative to tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. The hypoxic cell turnover rate was calculated as the loss of pimonidazole positive cells relative to CCI-103F. The murine C38 line had the fastest hypoxic turnover rate of 60% /24h and the human xenograft line SCCNij3 had the slowest hypoxic turnover rate of 30% /24 h. The hypoxic turnover rate was most heterogeneous in the SCCNij3 line that even contained viable groups of cells that had been hypoxic for at least 5 days. The human xenograft line MEC82 fell in between with a hypoxic turnover rate of 50% /24 h. The hypoxic cell turnover was related to the potential tumor volume doubling time (Tpot) with a Tpot of 26h in C38 and 103h in SCCNij3. The dynamics of hypoxic cells, quantified with a double hypoxic marker method, showed large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rate and were related to Tpot

  11. Physician and staff turnover in community primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Mary; Gotler, Robin S; Goodwin, Meredith A; Stange, Kurt C

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a rapidly changing healthcare system on personnel turnover in community family practices has not been analyzed. We describe physician and staff turnover and examine its association with practice characteristics and patient outcomes. A cross-sectional evaluation of length of employment of 150 physicians and 762 staff in 77 community family practices in northeast Ohio was conducted. Research nurses collected data using practice genograms, key informant interviews, staff lists, practice environment checklists, medical record reviews, and patient questionnaires. The association of physician and staff turnover with practice characteristics, patient satisfaction, and preventive service data was tested. During a 2-year period, practices averaged a 53% turnover rate of staff. The mean length of duration of work at the current practice location was 9.1 years for physicians and 4.1 years for staff. Longevity varied by position, with a mean of 3.4 years for business employees, 4.0 years for clinical employees, and 7.8 years for office managers. Network-affiliated practices experienced higher turnover than did independent practices. Physician longevity was associated with a practice focus on managing chronic illness, keeping on schedule, and responding to insurers' requests. No association was found between turnover and patient satisfaction or preventive service delivery rates. Personnel turnover is pervasive in community primary care practices and is associated with employee role, practice network affiliation, and practice focus. The potentially disruptive effect of personnel turnover on practice functioning, finances, and longitudinal relationships with patients deserves further study despite the reassuring lack of association with patient satisfaction and preventive service delivery rates.

  12. Corporate governance mechanisms in family firms: Evidence from CEO turnovers

    OpenAIRE

    González, Maximiliano; Guzmán, Alexander; Pombo, Carlos; Trujillo, María Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Research Question/Issue: How sensitive is CEO turnover to firm performance in the context of family firms? Research Findings/Insights: Using a detailed database of mostly non-listed Colombian firms, we found that family ownership (direct and indirect through pyramidal structures) reduces the probability of CEO turnover when financial performance has been poor; however, we found that the opposite effect is true when families participate actively on the board of directors. These results hold tr...

  13. The Modern Technologies to Reduce Turnover of Company Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiko Tetiana O.; Poplavska Oksana M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at analyzing and substantiating the use in practice of modern technologies to reduce turnover of staff, which do not bear significant financial costs for the company. The authors have proved that non-material measures to reduce staff turnover in companies are becoming predominant nowadays. Among them as the most important are indicated: introduction of flexible schedule (mode) of work, transition to the remote form of employment, and distribution of internal shares, in pa...

  14. Prediction of Employee Turnover in Organizations using Machine Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Punnoose; Pankaj Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Employee turnover has been identified as a key issue for organizations because of its adverse impact on work place productivity and long term growth strategies. To solve this problem, organizations use machine learning techniques to predict employee turnover. Accurate predictions enable organizations to take action for retention or succession planning of employees. However, the data for this modeling problem comes from HR Information Systems (HRIS); these are typically under-funded compared t...

  15. Developmental Origins of Rumination in Middle Childhood: The Roles of Early Temperament and Positive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tina H; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret W; Laptook, Rebecca S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-09-08

    Rumination, a thinking style characterized by a repetitive inward focus on negative cognitions, has been linked to internalizing disorders, particularly depression. Moreover, research suggests that rumination may be a cognitive vulnerability that predisposes individuals to psychopathology. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the etiology and development of rumination. The present study examined the role of specific components of child temperamental negative emotionality (sadness, fear, anger) and effortful control (inhibition), as well as parenting behaviors during early childhood on the development of rumination in middle childhood. Early childhood (age 3) temperament and parenting behaviors were assessed observationally and rumination was self-reported in middle childhood (age 9) in a large community sample (N = 425; 47.1% female). Two significant interactions emerged. First, temperamental anger interacted with inhibitory control (IC) such that high anger and low IC predicted higher levels of rumination, whereas low anger and low IC predicted lower levels of rumination. Second, IC interacted with parenting such that children with low IC and positive parenting had lower levels of rumination. In contrast, children with high IC reported similar levels of rumination regardless of parenting quality. Overall, these findings highlight the interplay of early IC with temperamental anger and positive parenting in the development of ruminative tendencies in middle childhood.

  16. Rumination, distraction and mindful self-focus: effects on mood, dysfunctional attitudes and cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, C; Huffziger, S; Liebsch, K

    2009-02-01

    Although aggravating effects of rumination on dysfunctional cognitions and endocrine stress responses have been proposed, experimental studies testing these assumptions are lacking. In parallel, mindfulness theory suggests beneficial effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional cognitions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of induced rumination, distraction and mindful self-focus on mood and dysfunctional attitudes and to assess the possible impact of induced rumination on participants' cortisol responses. Sixty university students were subjected to negative mood induction and subsequently randomly assigned to a rumination, distraction or mindful self-focus condition. The latter included statements focusing on self-acceptance and awareness of the breath. Four saliva cortisol samples were selected during the session. Compared to induced rumination, distraction showed a clear beneficial effect on the course of dysphoric mood, whereas a mindful self-focus did not. In contrast to distraction and mindful self-focus, participants induced to ruminate showed significant increases in dysfunctional attitudes from baseline to post-induction. Although rumination was not itself linked to higher cortisol responses, participants scoring high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II who were induced to ruminate showed a smaller decrease in cortisol levels than those scoring low on the BDI-II. This study indicates that rumination as a dysfunctional mode of cognitive processing is able to maintain depression-linked dysfunctional thought content. Furthermore, our study revealed preliminary indications for a link between induced rumination and the cortisol stress response in vulnerable individuals.

  17. Telaah Hubungan Kepuasan Kerja Dan Komitmen Organisasional Terhadap Turnover Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amran

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT       Employees are the most important resources of company. They are human resources to do and move all of the activities of company. Therefore, company needs to keep and maintain their job satisfaction and organizational commitment in order to reduce the intention to leave the company (turnover intention. It is necessary to study the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. This will give benefit to determine the important values of employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment and its influences on turnover intention. The research methods are descriptive survey and verificative survey that is used to assess the performance of independent variables: those are job satisfaction and organizational commitment,  and dependent variable: that is turnover intention with doing observation to employees of PT. Alexindo Bekasi. The result of this research is there is influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on turnover intention. This research is the improvement of existing researches which can be applied in the other companies specially for the human resource or employee behavior field.   Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention

  18. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  19. Turnover intention among intensive care unit nurses in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallam, Rasha; Hamidi, Samer; Elrefaay, Manal

    2015-06-01

    Given the difficulty in recruiting new nurses, it is imperative to retain those already in the profession. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship of demographic and work-related factors, burnout, conflict management and relationship between nurses and physicians on turnover intentions among ICU nurses in eight major hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. Data on burnout, conflict management, nurse-physician communication, and turnover intention were collected by surveying 100 nurses in eight hospitals in Alexandria governorate. All nurses at the ICU of selected hospitals were approached (n=100) and a 47-item Likert scale questionnaire was administered to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of ICU nurses in Alexandria. ICU nurses exhibited a mean score for turnover intention of 3.23 (mean score percentage 65.0%). There was a moderately positive statistically significant correlation between turnover intention and emotional exhaustion (r=0.29, Pturnover intention were emotional exhaustion and age. Nurses turnover intention at the ICU of the selected hospitals is high and is significantly associated with nurses' emotional exhaustion, poor nurse-physician communication, and nurses age.

  20. Stable isotopic constraints on global soil organic carbon turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Liu, Dongwei; Hou, Jianfeng; Cheng, Weixin; Bai, Edith

    2018-02-01

    Carbon dioxide release during soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover is a pivotal component of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global climate change. However, reliably measuring SOC turnover rates on large spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Here we use a natural carbon isotope approach, defined as beta (β), which was quantified from the δ13C of vegetation and soil reported in the literature (176 separate soil profiles), to examine large-scale controls of climate, soil physical properties and nutrients over patterns of SOC turnover across terrestrial biomes worldwide. We report a significant relationship between β and calculated soil C turnover rates (k), which were estimated by dividing soil heterotrophic respiration rates by SOC pools. ln( - β) exhibits a significant linear relationship with mean annual temperature, but a more complex polynomial relationship with mean annual precipitation, implying strong-feedbacks of SOC turnover to climate changes. Soil nitrogen (N) and clay content correlate strongly and positively with ln( - β), revealing the additional influence of nutrients and physical soil properties on SOC decomposition rates. Furthermore, a strong (R2 = 0.76; p turnover and thereby improving predictions of multiple global change influences over terrestrial C-climate feedback.

  1. Turnover intention of graduate nurses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejung; Lim, Yeonjung; Jung, Hee Young; Shin, Youn-Wha

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the turnover intention of graduate nurses in South Korea and to explore the correlates of turnover intention. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The participants comprised 225 female nurses who were working at 13 general hospitals and who had accumulated turnover intention was 7.51. Turnover intention was found to be related to the number of beds in the hospital, workplace, and duration of job orientation (theory and practice), instruction by a preceptor, job stress, clinical competence, self-efficacy, and the practice environment. In the multivariate approach, the practice environment, job stress, and the workplace were found to be significantly related to turnover intention and accounted for 36% of the said intention in the studied graduate nurses. The results support that the characteristics of magnet hospitals that improve the practice environment could play a critical role in retaining nurses in hospitals. Managerial interventions that enhance the practice environment, reduce job stress, and place graduate nurses in nursing units with a single specialty could benefit the hospitals employing such nurses. Further research to explore the effects of managerial strategies on graduate nurses' turnover intention is warranted. © 2011 The Authors; Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. Factors influencing turnover intention among registered nurses in Samar Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; Gloe, Donna; McEnroe, Denise M; Konstantinos, Kostas; Colet, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Despite the massive nurse migration and turnover of nurses in the Philippines, there remains a lack of studies describing factors influencing the migration of Filipino nurses. This study explored the effects of nurses' characteristics, work satisfaction, and work stress with the intent to leave an organization among registered nurses in the Philippines. This study utilized a descriptive, cross-sectional approach. One hundred sixty six (166) nurses participated in the study during the months of September 2015 to December 2015. Three standardized instruments were used in the study: Job Satisfaction Index (JSI), Job Stress Scale (JSS), and Turnover Intention Inventory Scale (TIIS). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Nurses' ages were found to significantly influence their turnover intentions. Job satisfaction (β=-0.47, p=0.001) and job stress (β=0.23, p=0.001) strongly predicted turnover intentions in the nurses. The mean values for the job satisfaction scale, job stress scale, and turnover intention inventory scale were 3.13 (SD=0.60), 2.74 (SD=0.71), and 2.43 (SD=0.67) respectively. Several predictors of turnover intentions were determined in this study through nurses' age, job satisfaction, and job stress as being the most influential factors. Efforts to increase nurses' job satisfaction and reduce job stress should be implemented to halt further loss of these skilled groups of healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions: evidence from Nigerian paramilitary organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotun Olaleye Faloye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the empirical link between different dimensions of organizational commitment and turnover intentions on Nigeria paramilitary organisation. A literature review of organizational commitment and employee turnover provides the basis for the research hypotheses. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 95% and 99% confidence level. The study adopted a survey research design. A self-administered questionnaire was used, involving 144 respondents from selected paramilitary organisation in Akure, Nigeria to collect data and testing the existing theory. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. In contrary to theory, the study revealed a weak positive relationship between organizational commitment dimensions (affective, continuance and normative and turnover intentions. The relationships are statistically significant expect the one between turnover intention and normative commitment which is statistically insignificant. The study concluded that the commitment of an employee to organisational goals, missions, and values is not enough to predict his/her stay in the organisation. There are other variables apart from organisational commitment that are predictor of employees’ intentions to quit. Thus, organisations should look beyond forces in their internal environment, when considering reduction in employee’s turnover intentions and the actual employee’s turnover.

  4. Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Peter W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Lee, Thomas W.; Griffeth, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    We reconceptualize employee turnover to promote researchers' understanding and prediction of why employees quit or stay in employing institutions. A literature review identifies shortcomings with prevailing turnover dimensions. In response, we expand the conceptual domain of the turnover criterion to include multiple types of turnover (notably,…

  5. Explaining the Gap in Charter and Traditional Public School Teacher Turnover Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data to examine why charter school teachers are more likely to turnover than their traditional public school counterparts. We test whether the turnover gap is explained by different distributions of factors that are empirically and theoretically linked to turnover risk. We find that the turnover rate of charter…

  6. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: ruminant production and metabolic responses to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2012-06-01

    Heat stress compromises efficient animal production by marginalizing nutrition, management, and genetic selection efforts to maximize performance endpoints. Modifying farm infrastructure has yielded modest success in mitigating heat stress-related losses, yet poor production during the summer remains arguably the costliest issue facing livestock producers. Reduced output (e.g., milk yield and muscle growth) during heat stress was traditionally thought to result from decreased nutrient intake (i.e., a classic biological response shared by all animals during environmental-induced hyperthermia). Our recent observations have begun to challenge this belief and indicate heat-stressed animals employ novel homeorhetic strategies to direct metabolic and fuel selection priorities independently of nutrient intake or energy balance. Alterations in systemic physiology support a shift in carbohydrate metabolism, evident by increased basal and stimulated circulating insulin concentrations. Perhaps most intriguing given the energetic shortfall of the heat-stressed animal is the apparent lack of basal adipose tissue mobilization coupled with a reduced responsiveness to lipolytic stimuli. Thus, the heat stress response markedly alters postabsorptive carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism independently of reduced feed intake through coordinated changes in fuel supply and utilization by multiple tissues. Interestingly, the systemic, cellular, and molecular changes appear conserved amongst different species and physiological states. Ultimately, these changes result in the reprioritization of fuel selection during heat stress, which appears to be primarily responsible for reduced ruminant animal productivity during the warm summer months.

  7. Do people ruminate because they haven't digested their goals? The relations of rumination and reflection to goal internalization and ambivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Tønnesvang, Jan; Schnieber, Anette

    2011-01-01

    In three studies it was investigated whether rumination was related to less internalized self-regulation and goals and whether reflection was related to more internalized self-regulation and goals. In all studies students completed questionnaires measuring rumination, reflection, and internalizat...

  8. Effect of time duration of ruminal urea infusions on ruminal ammonia concentrations and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea-N in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    investigated. Three Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were randomly allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were ventral ruminal infusion of water for 24h (water INF), 24-h infusion of 15g...

  9. Using the Small Ruminant Nutrition System to develop and evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake of goats when accounting for ruminal fiber stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-11-01

    The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0

  10. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy vs. cognitive behaviour therapy for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvenegaard, Morten; Watkins, Ed R; Poulsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment for depression. However, one third of the patients do not respond satisfactorily, and relapse rates of around 30 % within the first post-treatment year were reported in a recent meta-analysis. In total, 30-50 % of remitted patients...... of future depression. Rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy is a psychotherapeutic treatment targeting rumination. Because rumination plays a major role in the initiation and maintenance of depression, targeting rumination with rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy may be more...... effective in treating depression and reducing relapse than standard cognitive behavioural therapy. METHOD/DESIGN: This study is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of group-based rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy with the effectiveness...

  11. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  12. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ishag

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54% were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  13. Digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe and other wild ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine

    Our current understanding of the complex digestive system of ruminants is mainly based on a few, but intensively studied livestock species. In comparison, information about the anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tract of wild ruminants is limited. The aim of this thesis was to provide...... quantitative data on the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica). Digestive tract anatomy was characterized by dimensions and weights of the different gastrointestinal tract sections......, and digesta samples were collected to describe the digestive function, as indirectly evidenced by the physical characteristics of the digesta. Of particular interest was to determine the presence/absence of rumen content stratification. The findings in each species were then evaluated against available data...

  14. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F

    2012-09-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

  15. Metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizares, G. I L [UNESP; Rodrigues, L. [UNESP; Cañizares, M. C. [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    The carbohydrates provide 50 to 80% of the dry matter of grain and roughage and can be divided into structural (cellulose, hemicellulose) and non-structural (starch, pectin and sugars). The non-structural carbohydrates are primarily digested in the rumen and its dynamic process is a sequence for the supply of nutrients to the intestine. The quality and quantity of products resulting from ruminal fermentation are dependent on the type and activity of microorganisms in the rumen influenced by t...

  16. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein available to ruminants is supplied by both microbial and dietary sources. Metabolizable protein (MP is the true protein which is absorbed by the intestine and supplied by both microbial protein and protein which escapes degradation in the rumen; the protein which is available to the animal for maintenance, growth, fetal growth during gestation, and milk production. Thus, the concept of balancing ruminant rations basing on only dietary crude protein (CP content seems erroneous. In India, ruminant rations are still balanced for digestible CP and total digestible nutrients for protein and energy requirements, respectively. Traditional feed analysis methods such as proximate analysis and detergent analysis consider feed protein as a single unit and do not take into account of the degradation processes that occur in rumen and passage rates of feed fractions from rumen to intestine. Therefore, the protein requirement of ruminants should include not only the dietary protein source, but also the microbial CP from rumen. The MP systems consider both the factors, thus predict the protein availability more accurately and precisely. This system is aptly designed to represent the extent of protein degradation in the rumen and the synthesis of microbial protein as variable functions. Feed protein fractions, i.e., rumen degradable protein and rumen undegradable protein play vital roles in meeting protein requirements of rumen microbes and host animal, respectively. With the advent of sophisticated nutrition models such as Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system, National Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy and Amino Cow; ration formulation has moved from balancing diets from CP to MP, a concept that describes the protein requirements of ruminantsat intestinal level, and which is available to animals for useful purposes.

  17. Utilization of urea-nitrogen-15 in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, K.; Varady, J.; Havassy, I.

    1976-01-01

    In Merino sheep a series of experiments were carried out investigating exogenous and endogenous urea utilization. On the experimental sheep with isolated jejunum, rumen and intestine fistula, re-entral intestine cannulae, and after intra-ruminal or intra-intestinal 15 N-urea administration it was found that urea- 15 N takes part in the nitrogen recycling, and is utilized in the nitrogen pool. In experiments with synthetic protein-free diet, low protein diet and high nitrogen diet, after the intravenous administration of 15 N-urea the following findings were made: The results of experiments with synthetic diet, where the only nitrogen source was perorally (for 3-6 months) and then intravenously (for 3 months) administered urea, indicated the ability of ruminants to replace fully the nitrogen in the feed under certain conditions by increased endogenous urea recirculation. The results of the experiments with various nitrogen intakes showed that considerable amounts of urea- 15 N (44-96% from the given dose) were retained. Nitrogen compounds synthetized from blood urea- 15 N were recycled through the alimentary tract. Its secretion predominated in the forestomachs, abomasum and duodenum, and its reabsorption took place in the intestinal tract. From the 15 N incorporated into the nitrogenous substances which passed through the duodenum, 73-84% was reabsorbed. The retained 15 N was incorporated into the microbial and plasma proteins and its amide-N. On the basis of these results it is concluded that in addition to the rumeno-hepatal circulation, the entero-hepatal circulation of nitrogenous substances, including endogenous nitrogen, also plays an important role quantitatively and perhaps qualitatively in the process of re-utilizing the blood urea N for proteosynthesis and synthesis of other N-metabolites in ruminants. The hydrolysis of endogenous urea in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants and its utilization is a natural process indispensable for the maintenance of

  18. Turnover of registered nurses in Israel: characteristics and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toren, Orly; Zelker, Revital; Lipschuetz, Michal; Riba, Shoshana; Reicher, Sima; Nirel, Nurit

    2012-05-01

    In an era of global and local nursing shortages, nursing turnover has negative consequences in terms of diminished quality of care, increased costs and economic losses and decreased job satisfaction. To examine the turnover rate of registered nurses in Israel by assessing the varying degree of turnover between economic sectors, between hospital and community facilities, and/or between types of hospitals; and by examining potential predicting factors of turnover among registered nurses. A national phone survey was undertaken in Israel consisting of a random sampling of registered nurses of working age (up to age 60). The subjects comprised 10% of a national database of 32,000 registered nurses. The turnover rate among working nurses in Israel currently stands at 23%. In addition, 13% of employed nurses have taken a temporary leave of absence for a period greater than 6 months in the past 10 years, most up to 1 year. While job satisfaction rates were relatively high (72%), Professional satisfaction rates were 60% with no significant difference between hospital and community nurses. The turnover rate of registered nurses from a hospital setting to the community was significantly higher (pcommunity registered nurses to hospitals. Predicting factors of turnover were found to be: young age, part-time work, lack of advanced professional education, academic education and low satisfaction with the nursing profession. The shift of nursing workforce is mainly from hospitals to community health settings. There is a need to monitor and understand the characteristics of job and professional satisfaction among hospital nurses in order to implement crucial organizational interventions and retain hospital nursing staffs. Since young nurses, nurses working part time and nurses with no advanced professional and academic education, tend to move more than others, efforts should be targeted at these specific groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A case study into labour turnover within an NHS Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, David; Hall, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    This paper investigates turnover in a British NHS Trust, to find out why staff left and whether factors identified in the literature with regards to improving turnover were pertinent to the organization. The research also investigated staff groups with high turnover--staff with less than 12 months service, and the unqualified nursing staff group--to ascertain whether there were any reasons for leaving or areas of dissatisfaction particular to these groups. The outcomes of the research complied with much of the published research with some interesting differences. The main reasons for leaving were identified as moving house, promotion or career development and taking up education and training opportunities elsewhere. There was no evidence of 'level of pay', commonly given as a significant influence behind turnover, as a reason for leaving. It was also found that the retention strategies identified in the published research were mainly applicable to the research, with evidence to support the improvement of line management skills, training and development, career development, appraisal, communications and induction in order to reduce turnover. There was less evidence for introducing work-life balance policies, improving communications, pay and working relationships as retention strategies. Recommendations for future management of labour turnover within the NHS Trust and elsewhere are made, with observations about the validity of some existing models. The core contribution of this research is in adding to the body of knowledge about labour turnover issues. This is of value to those working in the UK health-care and wider public sector. Specific recommendations for future research are made.

  20. Does rumination mediate the relationship between emotion regulation ability and posttraumatic stress disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Trauma-related rumination has been suggested to be involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This view has empirically been supported by extensive evidence using cross-sectional, prospective, and experimental designs. However, it is unclear why trauma survivors engage in rumination despite its negative consequences. The current study aimed to explore the hypothesis that low emotion regulation ability underlies trauma-related rumination.Met...

  1. Niacin alters the ruminal microbial composition of cattle under high-concentrate condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20, high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80, and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN. Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding. Ruminal fluid was sampled at the end of each period for microbial DNA extraction. Overall, our findings revealed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA was induced and the α-diversity of ruminal bacterial community decreased in the cattle of HC group. Adding niacin in HC could relieve the symptoms of SARA in the cattle but the ruminal pH value and the Shannon index of ruminal bacterial community of HCN group were still lower than those of HF group. Whatever the diet was, the ruminal bacterial community of cattle was dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. High-concentrate diet significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella, and decreased the abundance of Paraprevotella, Sporobacter, Ruminococcus and Treponema than HF. Compared with HC, HCN had a trend to decrease the percentage of Prevotella, and to increase the abundance of Succiniclasticum, Acetivibrio and Treponema. Increasing concentrate ratio could decrease ruminal pH value, and change the ruminal microbial composition. Adding niacin in HC could increase the ruminal pH value, alter the ruminal microbial composition.

  2. Fluid balance in ruminants: adaptation to external and internal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Kerstin

    2005-04-01

    Ruminants are widespread in hot, arid regions. This demands adaptation to large circadian temperature fluctuations and recurrent periods of food and water shortage. Pregnancy and lactation add to the demands on the adaptive mechanisms due to the greater need for food, water, and electrolytes. The blood volume increases to meet the requirements of the fetoplacental unit and the mammary glands. Unlike urine, the milk cannot be concentrated by antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). During water deprivation, lactating animals therefore become dehydrated more rapidly than nonlactating animals. Nevertheless, desert-adapted lactating ruminants endure frequent periods of water deprivation without incurring bad health. For the offspring living in hot and dry conditions, it is an advantage that the milk is not concentrated, even if the mother has a high antidiuretic hormone concentration to enable her to concentrate the urine. Since ruminants are prey, they need to drink rapidly when they get access to water. The forestomach allows the animals to store water in the reticulorumen. There is no danger of water intoxication even if they drink to satisfaction in a couple of minutes after having lost as much as 30% of their body weight.

  3. Tube cystostomy for management of obstructive urolithiasis in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamilmahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the simple tube cystostomy procedure for management of urethral obstruction cases in ruminants. Materials and Methods: Tube cystostomy was used to treat a total of 58 ruminants, which included 35 buffalo calves and 23 goats. Diagnosis of the disease was made with the history of anuria, clinical signs, and physical examinations. Physical parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature dehydration status of animals by skin tenting test, and intraoperative findings were compared. Results: Young ruminants were most commonly affected and the mean age was 4-5 months in both species. Only male were considered for the study in which buffalo calves were not castrated but in goat's 73.91% animal were castrated and 34.7% not castrated. Rupture of bladder was more common in buffalo calves as compared to goats. The confirmed cases of obstructive urolithiasis were selected for tube cystostomy with Foley's catheter. Postoperatively all cases were administered with broad spectrum antibiotic, anti-inflammatory agent, and caliculolytic agents like ammonium chloride. Postoperative complications recorded only in 10 animals and remaining 48 animals had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: Tube cystostomy is a simple and effective procedure particularly in intact urinary bladder, which can be adopted at field level.

  4. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rumination and behavioural factors in Parkinson's disease depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Camille L; Rimes, Katharine A; Brown, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with high rates of depression. There is growing interest in non-pharmacological management including psychological approaches such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. To date, little research has investigated whether processes that underpin cognitive models of depression, on which such treatment is based, apply in patients with Parkinson's disease. The study aimed to investigate the contribution of core psychological factors to the presence and degree of depressive symptoms. 104 participants completed questionnaires measuring mood, motor disability and core psychological variables, including maladaptive assumptions, rumination, cognitive-behavioural avoidance, illness representations and cognitive-behavioural responses to symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that a small number of psychological factors accounted for the majority of depression variance, over and above that explained by overall disability. Participants reporting high levels of rumination, avoidance and symptom focusing experienced more severe depressive symptoms. In contrast, pervasive negative dysfunctional beliefs did not independently contribute to depression variance. Specific cognitive (rumination and symptom focusing) and behavioural (avoidance) processes may be key psychological markers of depression in Parkinson's disease and therefore offer important targets for tailored psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum proteinogram in sheep with acute ruminal lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda F. Sabes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic fractionation represents one of the most reliable methods for the identification of blood proteins in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum proteinogram of sheep with acute ruminal lactic acidosis (ARA using the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis technique. Ten Santa Inês ewes were used and blood was collected to establish the basal values for induction of ARA. Sucrose was administered orally in a single dose of 15 g/kg body mass. After the administration, blood samples were obtained at the following moments: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Subsequently, samples were obtained every seven days for three further weeks, until complete one month. The total of 13 proteins were identified: immunoglobulins A and G, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein, proteins of molecular weight 95, 46, 36 and 31 kDa. The increase of haptoglobin from 08 h coincides with the ruminal pH decrease, possibly due to the death of Gram negative bacteria and also the inflammatory process on the rumen. Fibrinogen was presented on highest mean at 48 h and returned to normal with 144 h. We can conclude that changes in serum levels of acute phase proteins can assist the clinical evaluation and diagnosis of ARA in sheep.

  7. Group Rumination: Social Interactions Around Music in People with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Sandra; Eerola, Tuomas; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies. Participants recruited via online depression groups and mental health websites were surveyed as to music listening habits. Results revealed that people with depression were more likely to engage in “group rumination” using music, and that this behavior could be partially explained by a general tendency to ruminate using music. Both affective states and coping styles were found to be related to the affective outcomes of group interactions around music. These findings go some way toward clarifying the situations in which group interactions around music are able to provide important social benefits for those involved, and situations in which negative emotions can be amplified by the group context. PMID:28421014

  8. Role of probiotics in nutrition and health of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Tawab, M M; Youssef, I M I; Bakr, H A; Fthenakis, G C; Giadinis, N D

    2016-12-01

    Small ruminants represent an important economic source in small farm systems and agriculture. Feed is the main component of livestock farming, which has gained special attention to improve animal performance. Many studies have been done to improve feed utilisation through addition of feed additives. For a long period, antibiotics have been widely used as growth promoters in livestock diets. Due to their ban in many countries, search for alternative feed additives has been intensified. Probiotics are one of these alternatives recognised to be safe to the animals. Use of probiotics in small ruminant nutrition has been confirmed to improve animal health, productivity and immunity. Probiotics improved growth performance through enhancing of rumen microbial ecosystem, nutrient digestibility and feed conversion rate. Moreover, probiotics have been reported to stabilise rumen pH, increase volatile fatty acids production and to stimulate lactic acid utilising protozoa, resulting in a highly efficient rumen function. Furthermore, use of probiotics has been found to increase milk production and can reduce incidence of neonatal diarrhea and mortality. However, actual mechanisms through which probiotics exert these functions are not known. Since research on application of probiotics in small ruminants is scarce, the present review attempts to discuss the potential roles of this class of feed additives on productive performance and health status of these animals.

  9. The relation between rumination and temporal features of emotion intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Verleysen, Gregory; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe; Verduyn, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2). In addition, trait (Study 1 & 2), and state (Study 2) usage of a set of emotion regulation strategies was assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that trait rumination (especially the brooding component) was positively associated with emotion accumulation (Study 1 & 2). State rumination was also positively associated with emotion accumulation and, to a lesser extent, with emotion explosiveness (Study 2). These results provide support for emotion regulation theories, which hypothesise that rumination is a central mechanism underlying the maintenance of negative emotions.

  10. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Haruki; Matsuda, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    In order to examine how rumination and social problem solving intensify depression, the present study investigated longitudinal associations among each dimension of rumination and social problem solving and evaluated aspects of these constructs that predicted subsequent depression. A three-wave longitudinal study, with an interval of 4 weeks between waves, was conducted. Japanese university students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version, and Interpersonal Stress Event Scale on three occasions 4 weeks apart ( n  = 284 at Time 1, 198 at Time 2, 165 at Time 3). Linear mixed models were analyzed to test whether each variable predicted subsequent depression, rumination, and each dimension of social problem solving. Rumination and negative problem orientation demonstrated a mutually enhancing relationship. Because these two variables were not associated with interpersonal conflict during the subsequent 4 weeks, rumination and negative problem orientation appear to strengthen each other without environmental change. Rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, after controlling for the effect of initial depression. Because rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were not concurrently and longitudinally associated with each other, rumination and impulsive/careless problem solving style appear to be independent processes that serve to intensify depression.

  11. Management of Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle for Improved Production: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Hussain; Amjad Ul Islam; Surinder Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a well-recognized digestive disorder that is an increasing health problem in most dairy herds. Feeding diets high in grain and other highly fermentable carbohydrates to dairy cows increases milk production, but also increases the risk of SARA. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis is defined as periods of moderately depressed ruminal pH, from about 5.5 to 5.0. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis may be associated with laminitis and other health problems resulting in decreased...

  12. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Ling Zhang; Yong Chen; Xiao Li Xu; Yu Xia Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  13. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  14. Relationship Quality Buffers Association Between Co-rumination and Depressive Symptoms Among First Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guassi Moreira, João F; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-03-01

    Co-rumination, the tendency to dwell on negative events and feelings with a relationship partner, is an aspect of relationships that has been associated with socioemotional adjustment tradeoffs and is found to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, depending on the context in which it occurs, co-rumination is not necessarily associated with detriments to mental well-being. Differences in relationship quality within certain relationships may explain why co-rumination is not always associated with depressive symptoms. In the current study, we utilized self-report measures in an ethnically diverse sample (53.5 % non-White) of 307 first term college students (65 % female) in order to elucidate how co-rumination between roommates may be associated with depressive symptoms. We found that the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was moderated by relationship quality such that co-rumination in a high quality relationship was not associated with depressive symptoms whereas the opposite was true in low quality relationships. Moreover, we found moderated mediation, such that the variance in the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was explained via self-esteem, but only for those co-ruminating within a low quality relationship. These results suggest that relationship quality may impact the extent to which co-rumination is associated with depressive symptoms among first year college students.

  15. The rumination syndrome in adults: A review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumination in adults is considered to be the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food into the mouth, followed by either rechewing and reswallowing or expulsion of the regurgitate. On the basis of the definition of rumination as a unique category of functional gastroduodenal disorders, according to the newly established Rome III classification, a review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of the rumination syndrome in adults is presented after systematic and critical approach of all articles that could be retrieved through PubMed using the term "rumination".

  16. Alimentação de bezerros ruminantes com dieta líquida, via goteira esofageana: parâmetros ruminais Ruminant calves feeding with liquid diet, through esophageal groove: ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos de fornecer proteína texturizada de soja (PTS na forma líquida, via goteira esofágica, ou na forma sólida, via concentrados, foram estudados em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4, empregando quatro novilhos Holandeses providos de cânulas ruminais, pesando cerca de 100 kg cada, no início do experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de PTS na forma líquida (0, 33, 66 e 100%, oferecidos em mamadeiras, e níveis decrescentes de misturas concentradas, mantendo-se a mesma quantidade de nitrogênio em todas as dietas. Os subperíodos experimentais foram de 21 dias, sendo os primeiros 16 de adaptação às rações (feno de Cynodon dactilon, mistura concentrada e alimento líquido. Ensaio de digestibilidade in situ foi executado do dia 17 ao 20, sendo os tempos de incubação de 0, 1,5, 3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas, para o farelo de soja e PTS, e 0, 6, 12, 24, 48h, 72 e 96 horas para o feno. Foram tomadas amostras de conteúdo ruminal para análise de volume e taxa de passagem de líquidos, e pH, no dia 21 às 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 e 24 horas. No dia 20, conteúdos ruminais foram coletados para análise de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV e N amoniacal às 0, 2, 4, 5 e 6h após a primeira alimentação do dia. Foi observado aumento na taxa de passagem e turnover líquido com a diminuição do suplemento protéico na forma líquida. Não ocorreram efeitos da forma de alimentação nas concentrações dos totais de AGV ou nas suas porcentagens molares individuais, do mesmo modo que o pH não foi afetado. Não houve efeitos da forma de alimentação sobre a degradabilidade in situ da proteína e da matéria seca do farelo de soja e PTS, tampouco efeitos sobre a degradabilidade da matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro do feno.Effects of feeding textured soy protein (TSP, in liquid form throught esophageal groove, or solid form throught concentrate meal, were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin-square change-over design, using four Holstein

  17. Nitrate decreases ruminal methane production with slight changes to ruminal methanogen composition of nitrate-adapted steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Yan; Wu, Hao; Huo, Yunlong; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Zhou, Zhenming

    2018-03-20

    This study was conducted to examine effects of nitrate on ruminal methane production, methanogen abundance, and composition. Six rumen-fistulated Limousin×Jinnan steers were fed diets supplemented with either 0% (0NR), 1% (1NR), or 2% (2NR) nitrate (dry matter basis) regimens in succession. Rumen fluid was taken after two-week adaptation for evaluation of in vitro methane production, methanogen abundance, and composition measurements. Results showed that nitrate significantly decreased in vitro ruminal methane production at 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h (P methane reduction was significantly related to Methanobrevibacter and Methanoplanus abundance, and negatively correlated with Methanosphaera and Methanimicrococcus abundance.

  18. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  19. Investigating the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model: how does nursing competence affect nurses' turnover intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Teraoka, Sachiko; Kousuke, Yabase

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the adequacy of the Competence-Turnover Intention Model, which was developed to identify how nursing competence could affect nurses' turnover intention (nurses' intention to voluntarily leave an organisation). Recent studies have suggested that the level of nursing competence is negatively related to nurses' intention to leave their jobs, suggesting that a lack of competence threatens both the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce. However, the mechanism of how nursing competence affects nurses' turnover intention has not been explored previously. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Surveys were distributed to 1337 Japanese registered nurses/midwives in October, 2013. The adequacy of the model was analysed using structural equation modelling. In total, 766 questionnaires were returned, with a return rate of 57%. The model fitted well with the data. The results showed that the level of nursing competence was related positively to the quantity of organisational rewards they felt they had received, and negatively related to the level of exhaustion they experienced. Moreover, the perceived organisational rewards and exhaustion were correlated with nurses' turnover intention through affective commitment. The Competence-Turnover Intention Model is useful for explaining how nursing competence impacts on their turnover intention. Clinical implications derived from the findings are that: promoting nursing competence is key to improving not only the quality of care provided by nurses, but also to retaining the nursing workforce, and the model can be used to develop strategies that would mitigate their turnover intention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Health insurance, cost expectations, and adverse job turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To

    2011-01-01

    Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Cost of nursing turnover in a Teaching Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Paula Buck de Oliveira; Perroca, Marcia Galan; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    To map the sub processes related to turnover of nursing staff and to investigate and measure the nursing turnover cost. This is a descriptive-exploratory study, classified as case study, conducted in a teaching hospital in the southeastern, Brazil, in the period from May to November 2013. The population was composed by the nursing staff, using Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. The total cost of turnover was R$314.605,62, and ranged from R$2.221,42 to R$3.073,23 per employee. The costs of pre-hire totaled R$101.004,60 (32,1%), and the hiring process consumed R$92.743,60 (91.8%) The costs of post-hire totaled R$213.601,02 (67,9%), for the sub process decreased productivity, R$199.982,40 (93.6%). The study identified the importance of managing the cost of staff turnover and the financial impact of the cost of the employee termination, which represented three times the average salary of the nursing staff.

  2. Investigation on the turnover of plant proteins. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Winkler, E.; Jung, K.; Huebner, G.

    1981-01-01

    Based on kinetic analyses of amino acid and protein turnover by means of compartment models the synthesis and degradation of the soluble proteins in etiolated epicotyl segments of Pisum sativum L. as well as their dependence on the herbicide 2'-methyl-4'-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were determined quantitatively. The segments were incubated for 10 h in a medium containing 14 C-leucine and subsequently placed in an inactive medium. The radioactivity in the soluble proteins and in the amino acid fraction was followed up for a total of 24 h. A 3-pool model in which the total measurable amino acid pool was divided into a direct precursor pool for protein synthesis and into a degradation pool was best suited to interpret the data. The turnover rate for the soluble proteins of untreated epicotyl segments was determined to be 0.058 h -1 ; at an MCPA concentration of 10 -4 M this value was nearly doubled. An increased proteolytic activity in the epicotyl segments ran parallel to the change of the turnover rate in dependence on MCPA concentration. The heterogeneity of the soluble protein with respect to the turnover rate was investigated by means of 3 H/ 14 C double labelling for individual protein fractions separated by gel electrophoresis. The results obtained in this way were comparable with those of the total pool turnover. (author)

  3. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  4. Technical note: ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves: effects of cannulation on feed intake, body weight gain, and ruminal development at six weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Engbaek, M; Vestergaard, M; Harmon, D L

    2010-02-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43+/-3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract were not affected by cannulation. Minimum ruminal pH increased with sampling week, but average ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids concentration, and volatile fatty acids proportions were not affected by sampling week. In conclusion, the implemented surgical technique was found to have no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes of Protein Turnover in Aging Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Ineke; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bauer, Sophie; Brewer, Heather M.; Smith, Richard D.; Depuydt, Geert; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2017-07-05

    Protein turnover rates severely decline in aging organisms, including C. elegans. However, limited information is available on turnover dynamics at the individual protein level during aging. We followed changes in protein turnover at one-day resolution using a multiple-pulse 15Nlabeling and accurate mass spectrometry approach. Forty percent of the proteome shows gradual slowdown in turnover with age, whereas only few proteins show increased turnover. Decrease in protein turnover was consistent for only a minority of functionally related protein subsets, including tubulins and vitellogenins, whereas randomly diverging turnover patterns with age were the norm. Our data suggests increased heterogeneity of protein turnover of the translation machinery, whereas protein turnover of ubiquitin-proteasome and antioxidant systems are well-preserved over time. Hence, we presume that maintenance of quality control mechanisms is a protective strategy in aging worms, although the ultimate proteome collapse is inescapable.

  6. Quality of working life: an antecedent to employee turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of quality of work life (QWL) among hospital employees in Iran. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors that are critical to employees' QWL. It also aimed to test a theoretical model of the relationship between employees' QWL and their intention to leave the organization. A survey study was conducted based on a sample of 608 hospital employees using a validated questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were conducted on the survey instrument. Hospital employees reported low QWL. Employees were least satisfied with pay, benefits, job promotion, and management support. The most important predictor of QWL was management support, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. An inverse relationship was found between employees QWL and their turnover intention. This study empirically examined the relationships between employees' QWL and their turnover intention. Managers can take appropriate actions to improve employees' QWL and subsequently reduce employees' turnover.

  7. Estimation of Employee Turnover with Competing Risks Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzenda Wioletta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Employee turnover accompanies every business organization, regardless of the industry and size. Nowadays, many companies struggle with problems related to the lack of sufficient information about the nature of employee turnover processes. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of these processes is necessary. This article aims to examine the turnover of employees from a big manufacturing company using competing risks models with covariates and without covariates. This technique allows to incorporate the information about the type of employment contract termination. Moreover, Cox proportional hazard model enables the researcher to analyse simultaneously multiple factors that affect employment duration. One of the major observations is that employee remuneration level differentiates most strongly the risk of job resignation.

  8. PENGARUH JOB SATISFACTION TERHADAP OCB DAN TURNOVER INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febru Rida Ningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide the impact of job satisfaction to OCB and turnover intention. This study used a quantitative method with a statistical analysis. Simple analysis regression used to test each hypotheses. The object of this research is a branch of national bank. Population in this research are entire employees of a brach of national bank that is e non frontliner employees. Non-probability sampling is used of this reseach. The measurement of job satiafaction and turnover intention variables used likert scale that developed by Rinaldi (2008 and measurement of OCB variable adopted from  Organ (1988.  The result of this research has shown that hypotheses one is rejected and hypotheses two is accepted. Eventually, through this article, an understanding that job satisfaction does not significantly influence to OCB but job satisfaction has significant influence to turnover intention.

  9. No turnover in lens lipids for the entire human lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jessica R; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Williams, Alan; Truscott, Roger J W

    2015-03-11

    Lipids are critical to cellular function and it is generally accepted that lipid turnover is rapid and dysregulation in turnover results in disease (Dawidowicz 1987; Phillips et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). In this study, we present an intriguing counter-example by demonstrating that in the center of the human ocular lens, there is no lipid turnover in fiber cells during the entire human lifespan. This discovery, combined with prior demonstration of pronounced changes in the lens lipid composition over a lifetime (Hughes et al., 2012), suggests that some lipid classes break down in the body over several decades, whereas others are stable. Such substantial changes in lens cell membranes may play a role in the genesis of age-related eye disorders. Whether long-lived lipids are present in other tissues is not yet known, but this may prove to be important in understanding the development of age-related diseases.

  10. Cogema in 1996: increasing turnover and stable net results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This short article gives some financial informations about the Cogema group for 1996. The net result for 1996 reached 977 millions of French Francs (FF) with respect to 973 for the previous year. The turnover reached 34.427 billions of FF in 1996 and 30.611 in 1995, which represents a 12.5% growth. In the mining sector, the turnover has decreased to 2.853 billions of FF with respect to 3.238 in 1995. In the engineering and industry services sector the turnover of the overall companies, with the exception of Cogema, has considerably progressed (2.199 billions of FF in 1996, 1.738 in 1995). (J.S.)

  11. DNA turnover and strand breaks in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, P.; Grivell, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of DNA turnover has been measured in a dnaB mutant of Escherichia coli, temperature sensitive for semiconservative DNA replication. At the nonpermissive temperature about 0.02 percent of the deoxynucleotides in DNA are exchanged per generation period. This turnover rate is markedly depressed in the presence of rifampicin. During thymine starvation strand breaks accumulate in the DNA of E. coli strains that are susceptible to thymineless death. Rifampicin suppresses the appearance of these breaks, consistent with our hypothesis that transcription may be accompanied by repairable single-strand breaks in DNA. DNA turnover is enhanced severalfold in strands containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine in place of thymidine, possibly because the analog (or the deoxyuridine, following debromination) is sometimes recognized and excised

  12. Peningkatan Komitmen Organisasi untuk Menurunkan Angka Turnover Karyawan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Halimsetiono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Komitmen organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai suatu sikap yang harus dimiliki oleh setiap pegawai untuk menunjukkan loyalitas terhadap organisasi tempat mereka bekerja. Pada dasarnya, komitmen organisasi berkaitan erat dengan aspek-aspek psikologis dalam menerima dan memercayai nilai-nilai dan tujuan organisasi yang muncul sebagai keinginan untuk tetap mempertahankan keanggotaan dalam organisasi. Permasalahan yang sering dikaitkan dengan rendahnya komitmen organisasi adalah pindah kerja (turnover. Masalah ini memiliki dampak yang merugikan organisasi karena dapat menghambat efektivitas dan efisiensi kerja yang selanjutnya akan menurunkan tingkat produktivitas organisasi. Oleh karena itu, untuk mencegah tingginya turnover karyawan, organisasi perlu meningkatkan komitmen organisasi karyawannya. Caranya adalah dengan mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang memengaruhi komitmen organisasi dan bagaimana cara untuk meningkatkan komitmen organisasi tersebut. Artikel ini membahas faktor-faktor apa saja yang memengaruhi komitmen organisasi dan cara-cara yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan komitmen organisasi sebagai upaya untuk menurunkan angka turnover karyawan. Organizational commitment can be interpreted as an attitude that should be owned by every employee to demonstrate loyalty to the organization where they work. Basically, organizational commitment is closely related to the psychological aspects in the acceptance and confidence to the values and objectives of the organization that are presented through the existence of a desire to maintain membership in the organization. Problems which are associated with low organizational commitment is turnover. This problem has an adverse impact on the organization because it can inhibit the effectiveness and efficiency of the work that would lower the level of productivity of the organization. Therefore, to prevent the high employee turnover, the organization should increase the organizational commitment of

  13. 'Memory and molecular turnover,' 30 years after inception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    In 1984 Sir Francis Crick hypothesized that memory is recorded in the brain as reversible modifications to DNA and protein, but acknowledged that most biomolecules turn over too rapidly to account for long-term memories. To accommodate this possible paradox he modeled an enzymatic mechanism to maintain modifications on hemi-modified multimeric symmetrical molecules. While studies on the turnover of chromatin modifications that may be involved in memory are in their infancy, an exploration of his model in the light of modern epigenetics produced somewhat surprising results. The molecular turnover rates for two classes of chromatin modifications believed to record and store durable memories were approximated from experiments using diverse approaches and were found to be remarkably short. The half-lives of DNA cytosine methylation and post-translationally modified nucleosomal histones are measured in hours and minutes, respectively, for a subset of sites on chromatin controlling gene expression. It appears likely that the turnover of DNA methylation in the brain and in neurons, in particular, is even more rapid than in other cell types and organs, perhaps accommodating neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. The machinery responsible for the rapid turnover of DNA methylation and nucleosomal histone modifications is highly complex, partially redundant, and appears to act in a sequence specific manner. Molecular symmetry plays an important part in maintaining site-specific turnover, but its particular role in memory maintenance is unknown. Elucidating Crick's paradox, the contradiction between rapid molecular turnover of modified biomolecules and long-term memory storage, appears fundamental to understanding cognitive function and neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Peptide Level Turnover Measurements Enable the Study of Proteoform Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Jana; Meng, Chen; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Samaras, Patroklos; Wilhelm, Mathias; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The coordination of protein synthesis and degradation regulating protein abundance is a fundamental process in cellular homeostasis. Today, mass spectrometry-based technologies allow determination of endogenous protein turnover on a proteome-wide scale. However, standard dynamic SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling in Cell Culture) approaches can suffer from missing data across pulse time-points limiting the accuracy of such analysis. This issue is of particular relevance when studying protein stability at the level of proteoforms because often only single peptides distinguish between different protein products of the same gene. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the merits of combining dynamic SILAC and tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeling of ten pulse time-points in a single experiment. Although the comparison to the standard dynamic SILAC method showed a high concordance of protein turnover rates, the pulsed SILAC-TMT approach yielded more comprehensive data (6000 proteins on average) without missing values. Replicate analysis further established that the same reproducibility of turnover rate determination can be obtained for peptides and proteins facilitating proteoform resolved investigation of protein stability. We provide several examples of differentially turned over splice variants and show that post-translational modifications can affect cellular protein half-lives. For example, N-terminally processed peptides exhibited both faster and slower turnover behavior compared with other peptides of the same protein. In addition, the suspected proteolytic processing of the fusion protein FAU was substantiated by measuring vastly different stabilities of the cleavage products. Furthermore, differential peptide turnover suggested a previously unknown mechanism of activity regulation by post-translational destabilization of cathepsin D as well as the DNA helicase BLM. Finally, our comprehensive data set facilitated a detailed evaluation of the impact of protein

  15. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressley, T F; Hall, M B; Armentano, L E

    2011-04-01

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the hindgut of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total-tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates from the small intestine, hindgut acidosis can occur. Hindgut acidosis is characterized by increased rates of production of short-chain fatty acids including lactic acid, decreased digesta pH, and damage to gut epithelium as evidenced by the appearance of mucin casts in feces. Hindgut acidosis is more likely to occur in high-producing animals fed diets with relatively greater proportions of grains and lesser proportions of forage. In these animals, ruminal acidosis and poor selective retention of fermentable carbohydrates by the rumen will increase carbohydrate flow to the hindgut. In more severe situations, hindgut acidosis is characterized by an inflammatory response; the resulting breach of the barrier between animal and digesta may contribute to laminitis and other disorders. In a research setting, effects of increased hindgut fermentation have been evaluated using pulse-dose or continuous abomasal infusions of varying amounts of fermentable carbohydrates. Continuous small-dose abomasal infusions of 1 kg/d of pectin or fructans into lactating cows resulted in decreased diet digestibility and decreased milk fat percentage without affecting fecal pH or VFA concentrations. The decreased diet digestibility likely resulted from increased bulk in the digestive tract or from increased digesta passage rate, reducing exposure of the digesta to intestinal enzymes and epithelial absorptive surfaces. The same mechanism is proposed to explain the decreased milk fat percentage because only milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids were decreased. Pulse-dose abomasal fructan infusions (1 g/kg of BW) into steers resulted in watery feces, decreased fecal pH, and increased fecal VFA concentrations, without causing an

  16. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on affective memory recall dynamics in depression : A mechanistic model of rumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Hitchcock, Peter; Shahar, Ben; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effects on depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct that aggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control, negative and

  17. Platelet monoamine oxidase: specific activity and turnover number in headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, K.M.; Brown, G.K.; Craig, I.W.; Peatfield, R.; Rose, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase turnover numbers (molecules of substrate converted to product per minute per active site) have been calculated for the human platelet enzyme using [ 3 H]pargyline. Headache patients with high and low monoamine oxidase specific activities relative to controls were found to have turnover numbers very close to those for controls. This finding suggests that their specific activities vary because of differences in the concentration of active monoamine oxidase molecules, rather than differences in the ability of those enzyme molecules to catalyse the deamination reaction. (Auth.)

  18. [Pharmaceutical logistic in turnover of pharmaceutical products of Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I

    2009-11-01

    Development of pharmaceutical logistic system model promotes optimal strategy for pharmaceutical functioning. The goal of such systems is organization of pharmaceutical product's turnover in required quantity and assortment, at preset time and place, at a highest possible degree of consumption readiness with minimal expenses and qualitative service. Organization of the optimal turnover chain in the region is offered to start from approximate classification of medicaments by logistic characteristics. Supplier selection was performed by evaluation of timeliness of delivery, quality of delivered products (according to the minimum acceptable level of quality) and time-keeping of time spending for orders delivery.

  19. Substance Abuse-Specific Knowledge Transfer or Loss? Treatment Program Turnover versus Professional Turnover among Substance Abuse Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Curtis, Sara L.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the extent to which substance abuse (SA) clinician turnover is associated with SA-specific knowledge loss due to change in professions (professional turnover) versus SA-specific knowledge transfer due to movement from one SA clinical setting to another (treatment program turnover). For this study, clinicians had to voluntarily leave their current treatment program. Eligible clinicians completed a quantitative survey while employed and a qualitative post-employment exit interview 1 year later. Compared to those that exited the SA profession (N = 99), clinicians who changed treatment programs (N = 120) had greater SA-specific formal knowledge and were more likely to be personally in recovery. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of SA-specific practical knowledge. PMID:25115318

  20. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. (a) Definitions—(1) Protein derived from mammalian tissues means any protein-containing portion of mammalian animals, excluding: Blood and blood products; gelatin...

  2. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  3. Sex Differences and Response Styles: Subtypes of Rumination and Associations with Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Cristina M.; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Kistner, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    In view of recent findings regarding the multifaceted nature of rumination in adults and older adolescents, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct of rumination as a 2-factor model (brooding and reflection) in a child and early adolescent sample as well as examine sex differences and associations between depressive symptoms and…

  4. Divergent utilization patterns of grass fructan, inulin, and other nonfiber carbohydrates by ruminal microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are an important nonfiber carbohydrate in cool-season grasses. Their fermentation by ruminal microbes is not well described, though such information is needed to understand their nutritional value to ruminants. Our objective was to compare kinetics and product formation of orchardgrass fruc...

  5. Application of cholesterol determination method to indirectly detect meat and bone meals in ruminant feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília M. Bandeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the presence of meat and bone meal (MBM in ruminant feed, by identifying the cholesterol using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The proposed method demonstrated precision, trueness, and capability to detect MBM in the ruminant feed.

  6. Chewing Gum as a Treatment for Rumination in a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhine, Denise; Tarbox, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rumination involves regurgitation of previously ingested food, rechewing the food, and reswallowing it. In the current study, a child with autism displayed chronic rumination, resulting in the decay and subsequent removal of several teeth. After several treatments failed, including thickened liquids and starch satiation, the participant was taught…

  7. Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Small ruminants (i.e., sheep and goats) are widespread in the tropics and are important to the subsistence, economic and social livelihoods of a large human population in these areas. The aim of this thesis was to identify the breeding objectives for tropical small ruminants, and to develop

  8. Rumination, Age, and Years of Experience: A Predictive Study of Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffy, Moriel S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a non-experimental design to examine whether job satisfaction, rumination, age and years of experience predict burnout among human service workers serving high-risk populations. The study also used a stepwise regression to assess whether job satisfaction, rumination, age, or years of experience predict burnout equally. Burnout was…

  9. Rumination and Avoidance as Mediators of the Relationship Between Self-Compassion and Depression in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Start, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background This study sought to investigate the mediating effects of rumination and cognitivebehavioural avoidance in the relationship between self-compassion and depression amongst adolescents. Method Ninety nonclinical adolescents completed self-report measures of self-compassion, depressive symptomatology, rumination (reflection and brooding subtypes) and cognitive-behavioural avoidance. Results Results showed that for the relationship between self-compassion and...

  10. Daniellia oliveri As A Fodder Tree For Small Ruminant And The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniellia oliveri was examined as a potential fodder for small ruminant, using nine castrated and ruminally fistulated West African Dwarf sheep (29 kg BW) to determine rumen ammonia and nutrient digestibility. Dried leaves of Daniella oliveri were offered at two levels (25% and 50% of DMI) as supplement to a basal hay ...

  11. Diagnosing constraints to market participation of small ruminant producers in northern Ghana: An innovation systems analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amankwah, K.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Oosting, S.J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses why participation in markets for small ruminants is relatively low in northern Ghana by analysing the technical and institutional constraints to innovation in smallholder small ruminant production and marketing in Lawra and Nadowli Districts. The results show that the limitations

  12. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Application of molasses-urea blocks to ruminant production in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes briefly the accomplishments of a Coordinated Research Program to increase ruminant productivity in Indonesia by the application of urea-molasses blocks. The technology is highly cost effective and readily accepted by farmers. Suggestions are made for a three-year follow-up project to investigate the productivity of ruminants fed with packaged rice straw. 6 photographs

  13. Indicators of induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in Danish Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, Anne Mette; Li, Shucong; Andersen, Pia H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows is high with large impact on economy and welfare. Its current field diagnosis is based on point ruminal pH measurements by oral probe or rumenocentesis. These techniques are invasive and inaccurate, and better markers fo...

  14. Brooding Rumination and Risk for Depressive Disorders in Children of Depressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Grassia, Marie; Stone, Lindsey B.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the role of brooding rumination in children at risk for depression. We found that children of mothers with a history of major depression exhibited higher levels of brooding rumination than did children of mothers with no depression history. Examining potential mechanisms of this risk, we found no…

  15. Maternal Parenting Behaviors and Adolescent Depression: The Mediating Role of Rumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gate, Michael A.; Watkins, Edward R.; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Whittle, Sarah; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that rumination is an important vulnerability factor for adolescent depression. Despite this, few studies have examined environmental risk factors that might lead to rumination and, subsequently, depression in adolescence. This study examined the hypothesis that an adverse family environment is a risk factor for…

  16. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  17. Measuring and modelling in-vitro gas production kinetics to evaluate ruminal fermentation of feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuvink, J.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of kinetic gas production measurements for the evaluation of ruminant feedstuffs have been examined. Present in-vitro methods were mostly end- point methods. There was a need for a kinetic in-vitro method that described ruminal fermentation, due to new

  18. Saturation and desaturation of fatty acids in digestion channel and its wall in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyushov, V.M.; Aliev, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    It is stated that ration physical structure has considerable effect on hydrogenation of unsaturated acids in ruminants rumens. Saturation of unsaturated acids decreases with the ration of crushed granulated feeds. The gastrointestinal stenosis possessing desaturation activity dehydrogenizes octadecanoic acid formed by microorganisms in pregasters and provides sheep (ruminants) organism with unsaturated acids

  19. When love is not blind: rumination impairs implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Karremans, J.; Finkenauer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined how rumination influences implicit affect regulation in response to romantic relationship threat. In three studies, the disposition to ruminate impaired the ability to maintain positive feelings about the romantic partner in the face of explicit or implicit reminders of

  20. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

  1. Marginal costs of abating greenhouse gases in the global ruminant livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Falcucci, A.; Early, L.; Gerber, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Livestock [inclusive of ruminant species, namely cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and non-ruminant species, namely pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and chickens (Gallus domesticus)] are both affected by climate change and

  2. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  3. Exploring correlates of turnover among nursing assistants in the National Nursing Home Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, April; Dobbs, Debra; Andel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    High turnover of nursing assistants (NAs) has implications for the quality of nursing home care. Greater understanding of correlates of NA turnover is needed to provide insight into possible retention strategies. This study examined nursing home organizational characteristics and specific job characteristics of staff in relation to turnover of NAs. Cross-sectional data on 944 nationally representative nursing homes were derived from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. Using a 3-month turnover rate, 25% of the facilities with the lowest turnover rates were classified as low turnover, 25% of the facilities with the highest turnover were classified as high turnover, and the remaining 50% of the facilities were classified as moderate turnover. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine organizational and job characteristics associated with low and high turnover compared with moderate turnover. One organizational characteristic, staffing levels at or greater than 4.0 hours per patient day, was associated with greater odds of low NA turnover and reduced odds of high NA turnover. Job characteristics including higher wages and union membership were associated with greater odds of low NA turnover, whereas wages, fully paid health insurance, employee assistance benefits, and involvement in resident care planning were associated with reduced odds of high NA turnover. The results of this study suggest that job characteristics of NA staff may be particularly important for turnover. Specifically, the provision of competitive wages and benefits (particularly health insurance) and involvement of NAs in resident care planning could potentially reduce NA turnover, as could maintaining high levels of nurse staffing.

  4. The unique effects of angry and depressive rumination on eating-disorder psychopathology and the mediating role of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley B; Borders, Ashley

    2018-04-01

    Negative affect and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies are associated with eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology. Depressive rumination is a maladaptive cognitive style associated with the onset, maintenance, and severity of ED psychopathology among both clinical and nonclinical samples. However, although anger is also strongly associated with ED behaviors, the associations between angry rumination and ED psychopathology, as well as mechanisms of the relationships between rumination and ED psychopathology, remain largely unknown. The current study sought to examine the unique influences of trait depressive and angry rumination on ED psychopathology and whether trait negative urgency (i.e., responding rashly to negative affect) mediated these relationships. Study 1 sampled undergraduate students (N = 119) cross-sectionally and longitudinally (five months), and Study 2 sampled patients with eating disorders (N = 85). All participants completed questionnaires assessing angry rumination, depressive rumination, ED psychopathology, and negative urgency. Angry rumination had consistent indirect effects on ED psychopathology via negative urgency among both clinical and nonclinical samples. However, there was mixed support for the influence of depressive rumination: whereas depressive rumination showed total and indirect effects on ED psychopathology in Study 1 cross-sectional analyses, no total or indirect effects emerged in Study 1 longitudinal analyses or in Study 2. Associations between depressive rumination and ED psychopathology may reflect the strong overlap between angry and depressive rumination. Interventions targeting angry rumination and negative urgency may enhance prevention and treatment of disordered eating across eating disorder diagnosis and severity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Candlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.

  6. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Physiological adaptation for milk production in desert ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkolnik, A.

    1981-08-01

    The authors have shown that the black goats herded by the Bedouins in the deserts of Israel can graze in sun-scorched conditions even when still 2 days walking distance from any water source. Upon their arrival at a water hole, they consumed volumes of water which were greater than 40% of their dehydrated body weight. After drinking, their body water content was 76% of body weight; after grazing for 4 days with no water, the water content of their body was still within the normal range for ruminants and their body solids were also well maintained. It was concluded that the amount of water consumed by the goats after grazing was not only sufficient to replenish the loss of water incurred by grazing, but to re-establish the body water content at a higher than normal level and thereby provide a water store. Using 51 Cr EDTA to measure the flow of liquid out of the reticulo-rumen, the authors showed that this increased from 73 ml/hr to 250 ml/hr between the 1st and 5th hour after drinking, but even by 5 hours after drinking over 80% of the volume consumed was still in the reticulo-rumen. It is suggested that the rumen plays a major role in the water economy of desert ruminants in that it provides an essential mechanism by which they can store water and circumvent the hazards likely to follow rapid rehydration. Similar findings were obtained in the wild ruminants mentioned above

  8. Assessment of the heterogeneous ruminal fiber pool and development of a mathematical approach for predicting the mean retention time of feeds in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate ruminal fiber stratification and to develop a mathematical approach for predicting the mean retention time (MRT) of forage and concentrates in goats. A dataset from 3 studies was used that contained information regarding fiber and lignin intake as well as ruminal content and the kinetics of fiber passage for forage and concentrates. The kinetic information was obtained through pulse dose and the fecal concentration measurement of forage and concentrate markers in the same animals that were used to measure ruminal content. The evaluation of heterogeneous fiber pools in the rumen was performed using the Lucas' test assumptions, and the marker excretion profiles were interpreted using a model known in the literature as GNG1. The GNG1 model assumes an age-dependent fractional rate for the transfer of particles from the raft to the escapable pool in the rumen (λ(r); h(-1)) and an age-independent fractional rate for the escape of particles from the escapable pool to the remaining parts of the stomach (k(e); h(-1)). The equations used to predict the MRT for forage and concentrate fiber were developed using stepwise regression. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the relationships between the dependent and independent variables and between forage and concentrate passage rates. The Lucas' test yields goodness-of-fit estimates for NDF analysis; however, the homogeneous fiber pool approach could not be applied because a positive intercept (P ruminal content. The stepwise regression model for MRT estimation had an approximate coefficient of determination and a root mean square error (RMSE) for forage of 0.53 and 9.78 h, respectively, and for concentrate of 0.49 and 5.86 h, respectively. The sensitivity analysis yielded a mean rate of passage (k(p)) value for forage of 0.0322 h(-1) (0.0158 to 0.0556 h(-1)) with 99% confidence interval. For the concentrate, the mean k(p) value was of 0

  9. Cognitive vulnerability to depression, rumination, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation: multiple pathways to self-injurious thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannette M; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-08-01

    In order to advance the detection and prevention of suicide, recent research has focused on predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior such as negative cognitive styles, dysfunctional attitudes, hopelessness, and rumination. In this study the relationships among these risk factors in the context of the Attention Mediated Hopelessness (AMH) theory of depression are examined. One hundred and twenty-seven undergraduates in the Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) project were followed for 2.5 years. The CVD project followed initially nondepressed freshmen, at either high or low cognitive risk for depression, in order to predict onsets and recurrences of depressive disorders. The presence and duration of suicidal ideation were predicted prospectively by rumination and hopelessness, and hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between rumination and ideation and fully mediated the association between rumination and duration of suicidality. Further, rumination mediated the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and suicidal ideation.

  10. Autobiographical memory functions of nostalgia in comparison to rumination and counterfactual thinking: similarity and uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2018-02-01

    We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia. The commonality among nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking resides in their shared positive associations with all memory functions: individuals who evinced a stronger propensity towards past-oriented thought (as manifested in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking) reported greater overall recruitment of memories in the service of present functioning. The uniqueness of nostalgia resides in its comparatively strong positive associations with Intimacy Maintenance, Teach/Inform, and Self-Regard and weak association with Bitterness Revival. In all, nostalgia possesses a more positive functional signature than do rumination and counterfactual thinking.

  11. Terrain Adaptability Mechanism of Large Ruminants' Feet on the Kinematics View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Ding, Xilun; Xu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Ruminants live in various parts of land. Similar cloven hooves assist ruminants in adapting to different ground environment during locomotion. This paper analyzes the general terrain adaptability of the feet of ruminants using kinematics of the equivalent mechanism model based on screw theory. Cloven hooves could adjust attitude by changing relative positions between two digits in swing phase. This function helps to choose better landing orientation. "Grasping" or "holding" a rock or other object on the ground passively provides extra adhesion force in stance phase. Ruminants could adjust the position of the metacarpophalangeal joint or metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP or MCP) with no relative motion between the tip of feet and the ground, which ensures the adhesion and dexterity in stance phase. These functions are derived from an example from chamois' feet and several assumptions, which are believed to demonstrate the foundation of adaptation of ruminants and ensure a stable and continuous movement.

  12. Rumination mediates the relationship between peer alienation and eating pathology in young adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Lori M; Roberto, Christina A; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-09-01

    This study examined whether rumination, the tendency to passively and repeatedly dwell on negative events, mediated the relationship between peer alienation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescent girls. Participants included 101 girls (ages 10-14; 47% Hispanic, 24% African American) who completed questionnaires regarding peer relationships, symptoms of eating pathology, rumination, and depressive symptoms. Girls who reported experiencing more peer alienation reported a higher degree of pathological eating symptoms. The relationship between peer alienation and eating pathology was mediated by rumination, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. This study extends previous work indicating that rumination is a cognitive mechanism that may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of eating pathology. The findings suggest that adolescents who feel alienated by their peers might be particularly susceptible to engaging in ruminative thinking that can lead to or exacerbate eating problems.

  13. The Role of Amino Acids in Gluconeogenesis in Lactating Ruminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, A. L.; Egan, A. R.; Anand, R. S.; Chapman, T. E. [Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1968-07-01

    Gluconeogenesis has an important metabolic role in all animals, but it is especially important in ruminants because of the paucity of their alimentary glucose. Several amino acids give rise to glucogenic precursors during metabolism and thus dietary or body protein represents an important source of potential glucogenic material that the ruminant can utilize to manufacture the glucose required for its physiological functions. The role of various amino acids as glucose precursors has been evaluated in lactating ruminants by making a single intravenous injection of several different amino acids uniformly labelled with {sup 14}C and following, with time, the rate and extent of incorporation of {sup 14}C into the plasma glucose. The time interval after injecting each {sup 14}C-amino acid until the specific activity maximum occurred in plasma glucose was found to vary widely among the different amino acids. Thus, the maximum specific activity in plasma glucose occurred 6 min after injection of L-aspartate-{sup 14}C and 15 min after injection of L-glutamate- {sup 14}C, while for L-valine-{sup 14}C and L-arginine-{sup 14}C the maximum specific activity in plasma glucose did not occur until 45 and 90 min, respectively, had elapsed. After injection of L-serine and L-alanine there were several maxima in the glucose specific activity. These maxima occurred between 12 and 24 min after injection of serine and during the first 30 min after injection of alanine indicating that carbon from these amino acids becomes available for glucose synthesis along diverse pathways which have different delays. Although only a few amino acids have been studied, the experimental results obtained clearly suggest an important metabolic role for protein in ruminants which has previously not been recognized. It appears that amino acids, released from protein, are utilized by the animal in a fashion which results in a prolonged availability of glucogenic precursors so that the animal can form glucose

  14. The Colostrum Proteome, Ruminant Nutrition and Immunity: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    In this review authors address colostrum proteins implications in different domestic ruminant species. The colostrogenesis process and how different factors, such as litter size or nutrition during gestation can alter the different components concentrations in colostrum are also reviewed....... The different colostrum fractions will be described, focusing on high and low abundant proteins. This review describes the major function of such proteins and their role on the passive immune transfer and nutrition in the newborn animal. It will be also performed a comprehensive review on different techniques...

  15. A new approach to feed evaluation for ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Verner Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    1991-01-01

    Existing feed evaluation systems are based on empirical relationships and static models. However, digestion and metabolism are dynamic processes. Feed efficiency and product composition varies in relation to changes in feeding level and composition of the diet. Therefore, future feed formulation...... systems should be based on mechanistic and dynamic models that are descriptive of ruminant nutritional physiology. A model for calculating "truly" digested energy is proposed. This is a simplified model based on the assumptions of first-order kinetics (fractional rate constants and steady state conditions...

  16. Acidosis ruminal en bovinos lecheros: implicaciones sobre la producción y la salud animal - Ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle: implications for animal health and production

    OpenAIRE

    Granja Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Ribeiro Junior, Carlos Stefenson; Toro Gomez, Daniela Juliana; Rivera Calderón, Luis Gabriel; Machado, Mirela; Manrique Ardila, Adalberto

    2012-01-01

    Ruminal acidosis is a major problem in the production of cattle fed diets rich in concentrates, especially in cows of high milk production. During rumen acidosis rumen pH is depressed due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and the decline of the mechanisms responsible for rumen buffering. Among the main causes of acidosis include consumption of diets high in fiber carbohydrates and lack of effective fiber added to them. The increase in ruminal acidity and osmolality by the accumulati...

  17. Firm-level innovation activity, employee turnover and HRM practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Qin, Zhihua; Wang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between employee turnover, HRM practices and innovation in Chinese firms in five high technology sectors. We estimate hurdle negative binomial models for count data on survey data allowing for analyses of the extensive as well as intensive margins of firms' in...

  18. Employees as Customers: Exploring Service Climate, Employee Patronage, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The role of retail employees as customers was explored by quantitatively examining the influence of service climate and employee patronage on employee turnover intentions. Employees representing all shifts in two stores of a national retailer participated. Results indicated that employee patronage partially mediates the effects of service climate…

  19. Psychological contract as precursor for turnover and self-employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stormbroek-Burgers, van R.G.B.M.; Blomme, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of psychological contract (PC) fulfilment and violation on turnover intention and self-employment intentions. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 132 Dutch organizationally employed individuals was used to test the effect of PC

  20. Some Determinants of Employee Turnover in a Psychiatric Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautra, Alex J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used research from illness-prevention and job-enrichment approaches to enhancing quality of work environments to create instruments assessing number of job stressors and level of task interest on psychiatric hospital units. Instruments successfully predicted employee turnover during one year. Job stress and interaction between job stress and task…

  1. System wide cofactor turnovers can propagate metabolic stability between pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Y.; Guan, Y.H.; Villadsen, John

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, we elaborated the criteria to tell if a multi-enzyme over-all reaction path is of in vivo nature or not at the metabolic level. As new findings, we discovered that there are interactions between the enzyme feedback inhibition and the CI turnover, and such interactions may well lead to metabolic...

  2. Turnover of nursing employees in a Gauteng hospital group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japie Greyling

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate individual determinants of voluntary turnover to identify a risk-group profile. Motivation for the study: Nursing employers should have a clearer understanding of the dynamics around nurses’ turnover behaviour and embark on strategies to retain their talent. Research design, approach and method: A survey measuring voluntary turnover was conducted among 262 professional and assistant nurses in three selected hospitals in Gauteng province using the McCarthy, Tyrrell and Cronin (2002 instrument. Pearson’s chi square with Yates’s continuity correction tested the relationship among the variables presented in a contingency table, in other words the risk group and each of the individual determinants. Main findings: Discontent with salaries was the major determinant of the nurses’ resignation. Organisational causes were nursing practices, the work environment, physical-emotional costs and employment opportunities after resignation. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital management could indeed establish a good rapport with nursing staff while facilitating respectful and ethical conduct by doctors towards nursing staff. Putting into place effective labour practices and business strategies could improve job satisfaction in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: This study contributed to a greater understanding of the personal and organisational determinants of the turnover of nurses in South African hospitals.

  3. Chinese Teachers' Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…

  4. Relationships between Emotional Labor, Job Performance, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robyn E.; Groth, Markus; Frenkel, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the emotional labor strategies surface acting and deep acting and organizational outcomes, specifically, employees' overall job performance and turnover. Call center employees from two large financial service organizations completed an online survey about their use of surface and deep acting.…

  5. The Prediction of Teacher Turnover Employing Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Crist H.

    The purpose of this study was to combine knowledge of teacher demographic data with time-series forecasting methods to predict teacher turnover. Moving averages and exponential smoothing were used to forecast discrete time series. The study used data collected from the 22 largest school districts in Iowa, designated as FACT schools. Predictions…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support and Antecedents of Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…

  7. Systematic analysis of protein turnover in primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Toby; Franken, Holger; Kosinski, Jan; Kurzawa, Nils; Zinn, Nico; Sweetman, Gavain; Poeckel, Daniel; Ratnu, Vikram S; Schramm, Maike; Becher, Isabelle; Steidel, Michael; Noh, Kyung-Min; Bergamini, Giovanna; Beck, Martin; Bantscheff, Marcus; Savitski, Mikhail M

    2018-02-15

    A better understanding of proteostasis in health and disease requires robust methods to determine protein half-lives. Here we improve the precision and accuracy of peptide ion intensity-based quantification, enabling more accurate protein turnover determination in non-dividing cells by dynamic SILAC-based proteomics. This approach allows exact determination of protein half-lives ranging from 10 to >1000 h. We identified 4000-6000 proteins in several non-dividing cell types, corresponding to 9699 unique protein identifications over the entire data set. We observed similar protein half-lives in B-cells, natural killer cells and monocytes, whereas hepatocytes and mouse embryonic neurons show substantial differences. Our data set extends and statistically validates the previous observation that subunits of protein complexes tend to have coherent turnover. Moreover, analysis of different proteasome and nuclear pore complex assemblies suggests that their turnover rate is architecture dependent. These results illustrate that our approach allows investigating protein turnover and its implications in various cell types.

  8. Turn-over of Stratijm Corneum in Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Okhandiar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratum corneum showed increased proliferative activity on the patches of leprosy as evidenced by a significantly fast stratum corneum turnover time (p 0.001 measured by fluorescent staining technic with dansyl chloride. These findings suggest imperfect keratinization on the patches of leprosy leading to formation of structurally weak stratum corneum.

  9. Principal Turnover: Upheaval and Uncertainty in Charter Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongmei; Sun, Min; Rorrer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Informed by literature on labor market and school choice, this study aims to examine the dynamics of principal career movements in charter schools by comparing principal turnover rates and patterns between charter schools and traditional public schools. Research Methods/Approach: This study uses longitudinal data on Utah principals and…

  10. Steroid implants and markers of bone turnover in steers | Knetter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that recently identified indicators of bone and cartilage turnover could be detected in the peripheral circulation, and that these markers might reflect accelerated ageing effects of the widely used steroidal implants, trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E2).

  11. Influence of Religiosity on Turnover Intention: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of employees' religiosity on their turnover intentions. The ex-post facto research design and the convenient sampling technique were employed in this study. A hundred and forty-nine (149) employees in Lagos and Ogun States of Nigeria were sampled as the study participants.

  12. Adeprene influence on the turnover rate of brain noradrenaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyulkova, N.I.; Gorancheva, J.I.; Ankov, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of Adeprene - Bulgarian antidepressant - on the content and the turnover rate of the rat brain noradrenaline was studied. The animals were injected intraperitoneally during 5 days with 20 mg/kg Adeprene. One hour after the last administration of Adeprene, Tyrosine, labelled with 14 C was injected. The animals were sacrified on the 1st, 2nd and 4th hours after the injection of 14 C-Tyrosine. The tyrosine and noradrenaline concentration were determined spectrofluorimetrically the concentration of the compounds labelled with 14 C by means of a liquid scintillator. The turnover rate constant of noradrenaline was calculated on the basis of the obtained results and the respective formula. It was established that under the influence of Adeprene, the noradrenaline concentration in the brain rises from 0,5 g/g in the control animals to 0,6 in treated mice. The turnover rate constant of noradrenaline, however, drops to 0,9 g/g/hour as compared to 0,15 g/g/hours in the controls. The determination of the turnover rate provides an idea about the intensity of utilization and synthesis of the mediator and is considered consequently as a more radiosensitive index for the neuronal activity then the total amine content. (A.B.)

  13. The Effects of Turnover: What We Know about Teacher Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Karen

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are likely to know better than anyone else about the financial costs to districts and schools associated with teacher attrition. Perhaps less well-known, though, is what else has been learned about this issue in recent years--information that may affect how one thinks about teacher turnover. Here is some of that research:…

  14. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  15. Turnover patterns in fish versus macroinvertebrates — implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial patterns in taxonomic richness and turnover for fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates are compared to assess the relative usefulness of each taxonomic group in mapping biodiversity patterns. Fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate species data for sites down the longitudinal axes of nine rivers in four provinces along the ...

  16. Turnover and metabolism of phosphatidylglycerol acyl moieties in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.; Rock, C.O.

    1987-01-01

    Fatty acids synthesized in mutants (plsB) blocked in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis were preferentially transferred to phosphatidylglycerol (PtdGro). The ratio of phospholipid species labeled with 32 P and [ 3 H]acetate in the absence of glycerol-3-P acyltransferase activity indicated that [ 3 H]acetate incorporation into PtdGro was due to fatty acid turnover. The magnitude of the turnover process was difficult to estimate due to a significant contraction of the acetyl-CoA pool following the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis. A possible connection between PtdGro turnover and protein acylation was investigated in an E. coli strain containing a lipoprotein expression vector. Cells were prelabeled with [ 3 H]acetate and lipoprotein expression was induced concomitant with the addition of exogenous [ 14 C]-palmitate. [ 14 C] Palmitate was assimilated into the l-position of phosphatidylethanolamine and transferred to the amino terminus of the lipoprotein. In contrast, the ester-linked lipoprotein fatty acids and PtdGro were not enriched in carbon-14 implying a metabolic relationship between these two pools. The data suggest that turnover of PtdGro acyl moieties is related to protein acylation, but a direct link between the two processes remains to be established

  17. Effects of ractopamine and gender on protein turnover in skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the β-agonist, ractopamine-HCl (ractopamine), on skeletal muscle protein turnover were evaluated in 16 steers (512 kg) and 16 heifers (473 kg). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and included gender (steer vs. heifer) and ractopamine (0 or 200 mg/d). Steers were implanted with 120 mg ...

  18. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  19. Oxidative Criteria And Somebone Turnover Markers In Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone disease in beta-thalassemic patients has multifactorial etiology; increased iron stores and per-oxidative stress are involved factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between some bone turnover markers and some oxidants, antioxidants parameters of betathalassemic patients. The study included 50 ...

  20. Calculation of turnover rates in stable-isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, R.; Ford, G.C.; Cheng, K.N.; Halliday, D.

    1985-01-01

    In a comparison of glucose turnover measured with 2 H-glucose and with 13 C-glucose Tserng and Kalhan used five apparently different equations and obtained conflicting answers. There is, however, no difference in principle between the use of a stable isotope as a tracer and the use of a radioactive isotope, and the rate of appearance of tracee in a steady-state system (the turnover) can therefore be shown to be proportional to the equilibrium dilution of the infused tracer. Because the sensitivity of measurement of this dilution made using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is lower than that made by radioactivity measurement, the contribution to the measured turnover rate due to the infusate cannot be neglected, as it usually is in radioisotope work. A convenient calibration curve to establish this dilution is the mole ratio of the pure infusate against the area ratio for the relevant ions. Tserng and Kalhan's apparently conflicting results for glucose-turnover using 13 C-glucose as the tracer can all be shown to amount to approximately 11.6 μmol min -1 kg -1 . This value is only slightly lower (0.05 2 H-glucose as the tracer and supports the use of 13 C-glucose as an alternative. (author)

  1. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  2. Factors Affecting Turnover Intention among Nurses in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayalew, Firew; Kols, Adrienne; Kim, Young-Mi; Schuster, Anne; Emerson, Mark R; Roosmalen, J van; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Woldemariam, Damtew; Gibson, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing turnover is essential to address health worker shortages in the public sector and improve the quality of services. This study examines factors associated with Ethiopian nurses' intention to leave their jobs. METHODS: Survey respondents (a sample of 425 nurses at 122 facilities)

  3. Electronic alerts and clinician turnover: the influence of user acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Spitzmuller, Christiane; Espadas, Donna; Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-11-01

    Use of certain components of electronic health records (EHRs), such as EHR-based alerting systems (EASs), might reduce provider satisfaction, a strong precursor to turnover. We examined the impact of factors likely to influence providers' acceptance of an alerting system, designed to facilitate electronic communication in outpatient settings, on provider satisfaction, intentions to quit, and turnover. We conducted a cross-sectional Web-based survey of EAS-related practices from a nationwide sample of primary care providers (PCPs) practicing at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical facilities. Of 5001 invited VA PCPs, 2590 completed the survey. We relied on Venkatesh's Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology to create survey measures of 4 factors likely to impact user acceptance of EAS: supportive norms, monitoring/ feedback, training, and providers' perceptions of the value (PPOV) of EASs to provider effectiveness. Facility-level PCP turnover was measured via the VA's Service Support Center Human Resources Cube. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. After accounting for intercorrelations among predictors, monitoring/feedback regarding EASs significantly predicted intention to quit (b = 0.30, P < .01), and PPOV of EASs predicted both overall provider satisfaction (b = 0.58, P < .01) and facility-level provider turnover levels (b = -0.19, P < .05), all without relying on any intervening mechanisms. Design, implementation, and use of EASs might impact provider satisfaction and retention. Institutions should consider strategies to help providers perceive greater value in these clinical tools.

  4. The Modern Technologies to Reduce Turnover of Company Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiko Tetiana O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing and substantiating the use in practice of modern technologies to reduce turnover of staff, which do not bear significant financial costs for the company. The authors have proved that non-material measures to reduce staff turnover in companies are becoming predominant nowadays. Among them as the most important are indicated: introduction of flexible schedule (mode of work, transition to the remote form of employment, and distribution of internal shares, in particular related to the strengthening of cohesion of staff, its team spirit. Also the reasons of transition from material to intangible factors of influence on conduct of workers have been disclosed. The advantages of non-material measures of the staff turnover reduction for both employees and employers were analyzed. For the first ones the most important are motivation and job satisfaction, while for the others it is reduction of staff turnover, formation of the responsible worker, improvement of quality and productivity of work.

  5. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud

    2018-01-01

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity and to det...

  6. Approximation algorithms for replenishment problems with fixed turnover times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bosman (Thomas); M. van Ee (Martijn); Y. Jiao (Yang); A. Marchetti Spaccamela (Alberto); R. Ravi; L. Stougie (Leen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and study a class of optimization problems we coin replenishment problems with fixed turnover times: a very natural model that has received little attention in the literature. Nodes with capacity for storing a certain commodity are located at various places; at each node the

  7. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover osteoporosis

  8. How energetic and environmental constraints of microorganisms determine the carbon turnover in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, A.; Rödenbeck, C.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    Microorganisms are the main catalysts driving carbon fluxes from soils. Traditional concepts of soil carbon stabilization failed to account for environmental and energy constraints of microorganisms. The distribution and density of organic carbon in the soil profile maybe a key factor determining the carbon stability and carbon flux. Decomposition is a two-step process following the Michaelis Menten kinetics: In a first step enzyme and substrate form a joint complex and then the decomposition reaction is catalyzed. Thus, biological decomposition relies on the encounter of substrate and the degradation catalyst, the microorganisms. Lower substrate concentration decreases the likelihood of an enzyme to hit a substrate molecule, to form an enzyme-substrate complex, and thus to catalyze the reaction. However, it was unproofen if this concept can be appliued to soils also. A long-term lab experiment revealed that the soil carbon turnover decreased with increasing carbon dilution due to mixture with soil minerals. The ability of microorganisms to move towards substrate in soils seems to be limited. To elucidate the effect of concentration-controlled carbon turnover, we devised the simple simulation model SCAMP based on the two-step kinetic with microorganism and carbon particles been simulated explicitly. The SCAMP model was able to simulate soil carbon profiles and age profiles in a realistic manner. The only carbon stabilization mechanism implemented in the model is the distribution of microorganisms and carbon particles in the soil and thus the availability of carbon for microorganism, which is especially important for subsoil carbon dynamics. The experiments and the model help to explain why large fractions of soil carbon have been stabilized for millennia and decoupled from the global carbon cycle.

  9. Risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in sheep with separate access to forage and concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commun, L; Mialon, M M; Martin, C; Baumont, R; Veissier, I

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether sheep offered free-choice intake of forage and concentrate develop subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and to identify SARA-associated feeding behavior components. In a crossover design over two 28-d periods, 11 rumen-cannulated wethers received wheat and alfalfa hay in 2 separate compartments. Concentrate and forage were provided for ad libitum access or in a fixed amount corresponding to 80% of ad libitum hay intake with a concentrate:forage ratio of 60:40 on a DM basis. In both diets, sheep were fed 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Ruminal pH, voluntary intake, and feeding behavior were recorded continuously from d 1 to 9 and d 15 to 23 in each period. When no measurements were performed, the animals were housed in larger pens with straw bedding. When fed for ad libitum intake, the sheep ingested 1,340 g of DM/d consisting of 49.1% wheat, whereas with the fixed diet they ate 872 g of DM/d consisting of 58.4% wheat. Sheep fed for ad libitum intake spent more time with ruminal pH ruminal pH ruminal pH reached the same minimum level in both diets after main meals, time to reach pH nadir was longer with ad libitum diet (P ruminal pH increased more slowly in this diet, inducing a decreased preprandial ruminal pH (P ruminal pH may enable sheep to consume larger quantities of food. However, free access to concentrate maintains continuously elevated content of ruminal fermentation end products and so requires more time for pH to return to neutral values. Thus, interval between feed distributions should be as large as possible to help resume the preprandial ruminal pH and to limit time spent with pH <5.6.

  10. Soybean oil and linseed oil supplementation affect profiles of ruminal microorganisms in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S L; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Hu, Z Y; Li, D; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Loor, J J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal microorganisms and fermentation parameters due to dietary supplementation of soybean and linseed oil alone or in combination. Four dietary treatments were tested in a Latin square designed experiment using four primiparous rumen-cannulated dairy cows. Treatments were control (C, 60 : 40 forage to concentrate) or C with 4% soybean oil (S), 4% linseed oil (L) or 2% soybean oil plus 2% linseed oil (SL) in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four periods of 21 days. Forage and concentrate mixtures were fed at 0800 and 2000 h daily. Ruminal fluid was collected every 2 h over a 12-h period on day 19 of each experimental period and pH was measured immediately. Samples were prepared for analyses of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by GLC and ammonia. Counts of total and individual bacterial groups (cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic bacteria and total viable bacteria) were performed using the roll-tube technique, and protozoa counts were measured via microscopy in ruminal fluid collected at 0, 4 and 8 h after the morning feeding. Content of ruminal digesta was obtained via the rumen cannula before the morning feeding and used immediately for DNA extraction and quantity of specific bacterial species was obtained using real- time PCR. Ruminal pH did not differ but total VFA (110 v. 105 mmol/l) were lower (P ruminal NH3-N (4.4 v. 5.6 mmol/l) was greater (P ruminal fluid was substantially lower (P ruminal microorganisms, except proteolytic bacteria, are highly susceptible to dietary unsaturated fatty acids supplementation, particularly when linolenic acid rich oils were fed. Dietary oil effects on ruminal fermentation parameters seemed associated with the profile of ruminal microorganisms.

  11. A social network perspective on turnover intentions: The role of distributive justice and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltis, S.; Agneessens, F.; Sasovova, Z.; Labianca, G.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover

  12. A Social Network Perspective on Turnover Intentions : The Role of Distributive Justice and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltis, Scott M.; Agneessens, Filip; Sasovova, Zuzana; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe)

    Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover

  13. Career Anchors of United States Air Force Information Systems Workers: A Turnover Predictor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynne, Lee

    2002-01-01

    ...) and the work of Schein (1987) to measure the career anchors, job satisfaction, and turnover intention of AF IS workers to determine if those whose job type and career anchor match report higher satisfaction and lower turnover...

  14. The effects of sexual harassment on turnover in the military: time-dependent modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Carra S; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2005-11-01

    Sexual harassment has consistently negative consequences for working women, including changes in job attitudes (e.g., lower satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., increased work withdrawal). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that harassment influences turnover intentions. However, few studies have used actual turnover; rather, they rely on proxies. With a sample of 11,521 military servicewomen with turnover data spanning approximately 4 years, the authors used the appropriate method for longitudinal turnover data--Cox's regression--to investigate the impact of harassment on actual turnover. Experiences of harassment led to increased turnover, even after controlling for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and marital status. Among officers, harassment also affected turnover over and above rank. Given turnover's relevance to organizational bottom lines, these findings have important implications not only for individual women but also for organizations. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A Theoretical Framework for Turnover Intention of Air Force Enlisted Information Systems Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-25

    removal of poor performers, advancement opportunities for talented replacements, and decreases in pre-turnover withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism ...in Employee Turnover Intentions and Its Determinants Among Telecommuters and Non- Telecommuters ,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 16: 147

  16. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padalecki, Susan

    2002-01-01

    .... Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy leads to an increase in bone turnover as indicated by the loss of bone mineral density and the increase in markers of bone turnover in patients on treatment...

  17. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  18. Biotic turnover rates during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Amon, Leeli; Fontana, Sonia L.; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heikkilä, Maija; Heiri, Oliver; Kisielienė, Dalia; Reitalu, Triin; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki

    2016-11-01

    The Northern Hemisphere is currently warming at the rate which is unprecedented during the Holocene. Quantitative palaeoclimatic records show that the most recent time in the geological history with comparable warming rates was during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) about 14,000 to 11,000 years ago. To better understand the biotic response to rapid temperature change, we explore the community turnover rates during the PHT by focusing on the Baltic region in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, where an exceptionally dense network on microfossil and macrofossil data that reflect the biotic community history are available. We further use a composite chironomid-based summer temperature reconstruction compiled specifically for our study region to calculate the rate of temperature change during the PHT. The fastest biotic turnover in the terrestrial and aquatic communities occurred during the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift at 11,700 years ago. This general shift in species composition was accompanied by regional extinctions, including disappearance of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many arctic-alpine plant taxa, such as Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris and Saxifraga aizoides, from the region. This rapid biotic turnover rate occurred when the rate of warming was 0.17 °C/decade, thus slightly lower than the current Northern Hemisphere warming of 0.2 °C/decade. We therefore conclude that the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift with its rapid turnover rates and associated regional extinctions represents an important palaeoanalogue to the current high latitude warming and gives insights about the probable future turnover rates and patterns of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem change.

  19. Whole body and tissue cholesterol turnover in the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, R.B.; Mott, G.E.; Jackson, E.M.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Carey, K.D.; McGill, H.C. Jr.; Goodman, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol turnover was studied in four baboons by injecting [ 14 C]cholesterol 186 days and [ 3 H]cholesterol 4 days before necropsy, and fitting a two- or three-pool model to the resulting specific activity-time data. At necropsy, cholesterol mass and specific activity were determined for the total body and for many tissues. The principal aim of this study was to estimate the extent of cholesterol synthesis in the side pools of the model, by computing the amount of side pool synthesis needed to equal the measured total body cholesterol. Central pool synthesis varied from 61 to 89% of the total cholesterol production rate. Moreover, the finding that the measured total body cholesterol fell within the range obtained from the kinetic analysis by using reasonable assumptions, provides evidence for the physiological validity of the model. A second aim of this study was to explore cholesterol turnover in various tissues. A pool model predicts that rapidly turning over tissues will have higher specific activities at early times and lower specific activities at later times after injection of tracer relative to slowly turning over tissues, except where significant synthesis occurs. Results in all four baboons were similar. Turnover rates for the different tissues loosely fell into three groups which were turning over at fast, intermediate, and slow rates. Finally, the magnitude of variation of cholesterol specific activity was moderate for several distributed tissues (fat, muscle, arteries, and the alimentary tract), but was small for liver. Cholesterol turnover in serial biopsies of skin, muscle, and fat could, however, be fitted with a single pool to estimate tissue turnover rates

  20. Hypoxic cell turnover in different solid tumor lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, Anna S.E.; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Begg, Adrian C.; Raleigh, James A.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and the amount of tumor hypoxia has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of radiotherapy. The efficacy of combined modality treatments depends both on the sequence and timing of the treatments. Hypoxic cell turnover in tumors may be important for optimal scheduling of combined modality treatments, especially when hypoxic cell targeting is involved. Methods and Materials: Previously we have shown that a double bioreductive hypoxic marker assay could be used to detect changes of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature after carbogen and hydralazine treatments. This assay was used in the current study to establish the turnover rate of hypoxic cells in three different tumor models. The first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times before tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. Hypoxic cell turnover was defined as loss of pimonidazole (first marker) relative to CCI-103F (second marker). Results: The half-life of hypoxic cell turnover was 17 h in the murine C38 colon carcinoma line, 23 h and 49 h in the human xenograft lines MEC82 and SCCNij3, respectively. Within 24 h, loss of pimonidazole-stained areas in C38 and MEC82 occurred concurrent with the appearance of pimonidazole positive cell debris in necrotic regions. In C38 and MEC82, most of the hypoxic cells had disappeared after 48 h, whereas in SCCNij3, viable cells that had been labeled with pimonidazole were still observed after 5 days. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the double hypoxia marker assay can be used to study changes in both the proportion of hypoxic tumor cells and their lifespan at the same time. The present study shows that large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rates may exist among tumor lines, with half-lives ranging from 17-49 h