WorldWideScience

Sample records for ruminal bacterium streptococcus

  1. Transport and phosphorylation of disaccharides by the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.A.; Russell, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Toluene-treated cells of Streptococcus bovis JB1 phosphorylated cellobiose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. Glucose phosphorylation was constitutive, while all three disaccharide systems were inducible. Competition experiments, indicated that separate phosphotransferases systems existed for glucose, maltose, and sucrose. [ 14 C]maltose transport was inhibited by excess glucose and to a lesser extent by sucrose. [ 14 C]glucose and [ 14 C]sucrose transports were not inhibited by an excess of maltose. Since [ 14 C]maltose phosphorylation in triethanolamine buffer was increased 160-fold as the concentration of P/sub i/ was increased from 0 to 100 mM, a maltose phosphorylase was present, and this activity was inducible. Maltose was also hydrolyzed by an inducible maltase. Glucose 1-phosphate arising from the maltose phosphorylase was metabolized by a constitutive phosphoglucomutase that was specific for α-glucose 1-phosphate. Only sucrose-grown cells possessed sucrose hydrolase activity, and this activity was much lower than the sucrose phosphotransferase system and sucrose-phosphate hydrolase activities

  2. Reclassification of Clostridium proteoclasticum as Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus comb. nov., a butyrate-producing ruminal bacterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moon, C. D.; Pacheco, D. M.; Kelly, W. J.; Leahy, S. C.; Li, D.; Kopečný, Jan; Attwood, G. T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, - (2008), s. 2041-2045 ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Butyrivibrio * ruminal bacterium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.222, year: 2008

  3. Multiple cellobiohydrolases and cellobiose phosphorylases cooperate in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 to degrade cellooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendran, Saravanan; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Evans, Anton F; Iakiviak, Michael; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2016-10-17

    Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components. The mechanisms by which R. albus 8 employs to degrade these recalcitrant materials are, however, not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that R. albus 8 elaborates multiple cellobiohydrolases with multi-modular architectures that overall enhance the catalytic activity and versatility of the enzymes. Furthermore, our analyses show that two cellobiose phosphorylases encoded by R. albus 8 can function synergistically with a cognate cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase to completely release, from a cellulosic substrate, glucose which can then be fermented by the bacterium for production of energy and cellular building blocks. We further use transcriptomic analysis to confirm the over-expression of the biochemically characterized enzymes during growth of the bacterium on cellulosic substrates compared to cellobiose.

  4. Binding of fluorine-18 by the oral bacterium, Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotis, W.W.; Mante, S.; Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.; Glendenin, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    The binding of carrier-free fluorine-18 by resting cells of the cariogenic microorganism Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was assessed. A Ge(Li)..gamma..-ray spectrometer attached to a 4096 channel pulse-height analyzer was used to measure the /sup 18/F bound and to check the radiochemical purity of /sup 18/F. The binding was dependent on time, pH, the amount of /sup 18/F used, the cell status and the fluoride concentration. The adherence of /sup 18/F to Strep. mutans did not require addition of an exogenous energy source, such as glucose, and proceeded equally well at 4 to 37/sup 0/C or at varying oxygen tensions. Under optimal conditions, resting cells of the strain bound approximately 10/sup 9/ atoms of /sup 18/F and more than 10/sup 13/ atoms of total fluoride in the presence of 10 parts/10/sup 6/ NaF per mg dry weight of cells that were not removed by repeated washings.

  5. Adhesion of glucosyltransferase phase variants to Streptococcus gordonii bacterium-glucan substrata may involve lipoteichoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, M M; Jones, G W

    1992-10-01

    Growing Streptococcus gordonii Spp+ phase variants, which have normal levels of glucosyltransferase (GTF) activity, use sucrose to promote their accumulation on surfaces by forming a cohesive bacterium-insoluble glucan polymer mass (BPM). Spp- phase variants, which have lower levels of GTF activity, do not form BPMs and do not remain in BPMs formed by Spp+ cells when grown in mixed cultures. To test the hypothesis that segregation of attached Spp+ and unattached Spp- cells was due to differences in adhesiveness, adhesion between washed, [3H]thymidine-labeled cells and preformed BPM substrata was measured. Unexpectedly, the results showed that cells of both phenotypes, as well as GTF-negative cells, attached equally well to preformed BPMs, indicating that attachment to BPMs was independent of cell surface GTF activity. Initial characterization of this binding interaction suggested that a protease-sensitive component on the washed cells may be binding to lipoteichoic acids sequestered in the BPM, since exogenous lipoteichoic acid inhibited adhesion. Surprisingly, the adhesion of both Spp+ and Spp- cells was markedly inhibited in the presence of sucrose, which also released lipoteichoic acid from the BPM. These in vitro findings suggest that, in vivo, sucrose and lipoteichoic acid may modify dental plaque development by enhancing or inhibiting the attachment of additional bacteria.

  6. Identification of New Factors Modulating Adhesion Abilities of the Pioneer Commensal Bacterium Streptococcus salivarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Couvigny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is crucial for bacterial community development and host colonization by Streptococcus salivarius, a pioneer colonizer and commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal tract. This ability to form biofilms depends on bacterial adhesion to host surfaces, and on the intercellular aggregation contributing to biofilm cohesiveness. Many S. salivarius isolates auto-aggregate, an adhesion process mediated by cell surface proteins. To gain an insight into the genetic factors of S. salivarius that dictate host adhesion and biofilm formation, we developed a screening method, based on the differential sedimentation of bacteria in semi-liquid conditions according to their auto-aggregation capacity, which allowed us to identify twelve mutations affecting this auto-aggregation phenotype. Mutations targeted genes encoding (i extracellular components, including the CshA surface-exposed protein, the extracellular BglB glucan-binding protein, the GtfE, GtfG and GtfH glycosyltransferases and enzymes responsible for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides (CwpB, CwpK, (ii proteins responsible for the extracellular localization of proteins, such as structural components of the accessory SecA2Y2 system (Asp1, Asp2, SecA2 and the SrtA sortase, and (iii the LiaR transcriptional response regulator. These mutations also influenced biofilm architecture, revealing that similar cell-to-cell interactions govern assembly of auto-aggregates and biofilm formation. We found that BglB, CshA, GtfH and LiaR were specifically associated with bacterial auto-aggregation, whereas Asp1, Asp2, CwpB, CwpK, GtfE, GtfG, SecA2 and SrtA also contributed to adhesion to host cells and host-derived components, or to interactions with the human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. Our study demonstrates that our screening method could also be used to identify genes implicated in the bacterial interactions of pathogens or probiotics, for which aggregation is either a virulence

  7. Structural investigation of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans strain UA159

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of an extracellular polysaccharide EPS159 produced from sucrose by Streptococcus mutans UA159 was investigated through the main oligosaccharides obtained from partial acid hydrolysis, monosaccharide/methylation analysis, and 1D/2D H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that EPS159

  8. Cell Morphological Change and Caspase-3 Protein Expression on Epithelial Cells under Stimulation of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Hutomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus sanguinis may find in periodontal lesions, deep seated infection, and infective endocarditis that are usually dominated by anaerobes. This bacterium caused cell death on some cells but host responses to this species remained unclear. Objective: This study was aimed to detect cell morphologica change and role of caspase-3 in cell death mechanism induced by S. sanguinis. Methods: HeLa cells as representative model for oral epithelial cells were exposed to 107 cells/ml bacteria for 48 h. Morphological change was observed microscopically after hematoxyline-eosin staining. Expression of active caspase-3 was examined by immunocytochemical analysis after cell stimulation for 36 and 48 h with wild type supragingival S. sanguinis. Doxorubicin (0.5625 μg/ml was used as positive control for caspase-3 activation. Results: The results showed cell shrinkage of bacterial-treated cells; and active caspase-3 molecules were detected after 36 and 48 hours cell stimulation. Conclusion: This study would suggest cell shrinkage and caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death induced by S. sanguinis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i1.375

  9. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus

  10. Atomic force microscopy study of the structure function relationships of the biofilm-forming bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Kreth, Jens; Zhu, Lin; Qi, Fengxia; Pelling, Andrew E.; Shi, Wenyuan; Gimzewski, James K.

    2006-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has garnered much interest in recent years for its ability to probe the structure, function and cellular nanomechanics inherent to specific biological cells. In particular, we have used AFM to probe the important structure-function relationships of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans is the primary aetiological agent in human dental caries (tooth decay), and is of medical importance due to the virulence properties of these cells in biofilm initiation and formation, leading to increased tolerance to antibiotics. We have used AFM to characterize the unique surface structures of distinct mutants of S. mutans. These mutations are located in specific genes that encode surface proteins, thus using AFM we have resolved characteristic surface features for mutant strains compared to the wild type. Ultimately, our characterization of surface morphology has shown distinct differences in the local properties displayed by various S. mutans strains on the nanoscale, which is imperative for understanding the collective properties of these cells in biofilm formation.

  11. Production and use of carrier-free 18F in studies on the effect of trace amounts of fluoride on the metabolism of the oral cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarros, N.; Duschner, H.

    1988-01-01

    The utilization of carrier-free ionic 18 F is a convenient method for studying the effects of very low extracellular fluoride concentrations on the metabolism of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. A method was developed for the preparation of carrier-free aqueous solutions of ionic 18 F with high specific activity (about 70 7 Bq/ml). Fluoride distribution and fluoride binding experiments show that submicromolar fluoride concentrations had a negative effect on the metabolism of Streptococcus mutans. (author) 10 refs

  12. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altermann Eric

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus thermophilus represents the only species among the streptococci that has “Generally Regarded As Safe” status and that plays an economically important role in the fermentation of yogurt and cheeses. We conducted comparative genome analysis of S. thermophilus LMD-9 to identify unique gene features as well as features that contribute to its adaptation to the dairy environment. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome response of LMD-9 during growth in milk in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a companion culture in yogurt fermentation, and during lytic bacteriophage infection. Results The S. thermophilus LMD-9 genome is comprised of a 1.8 Mbp circular chromosome (39.1% GC; 1,834 predicted open reading frames and two small cryptic plasmids. Genome comparison with the previously sequenced LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066 strains revealed 114 kb of LMD-9 specific chromosomal region, including genes that encode for histidine biosynthetic pathway, a cell surface proteinase, various host defense mechanisms and a phage remnant. Interestingly, also unique to LMD-9 are genes encoding for a putative mucus-binding protein, a peptide transporter, and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic proteins that have close orthologs in human intestinal microorganisms. LMD-9 harbors a large number of pseudogenes (13% of ORFeome, indicating that like LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066, LMD-9 has also undergone major reductive evolution, with the loss of carbohydrate metabolic genes and virulence genes found in their streptococcal counterparts. Functional genome distribution analysis of ORFeomes among streptococci showed that all three S. thermophilus strains formed a distinct functional cluster, further establishing their specialized adaptation to the nutrient-rich milk niche. An upregulation of CRISPR1 expression in LMD-9 during lytic bacteriophage DT1 infection suggests its protective role against phage invasion. When co

  14. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong Jun; Goin, Caitlin; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Altermann, Eric; Hutkins, Robert

    2011-08-30

    Streptococcus thermophilus represents the only species among the streptococci that has "Generally Regarded As Safe" status and that plays an economically important role in the fermentation of yogurt and cheeses. We conducted comparative genome analysis of S. thermophilus LMD-9 to identify unique gene features as well as features that contribute to its adaptation to the dairy environment. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome response of LMD-9 during growth in milk in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a companion culture in yogurt fermentation, and during lytic bacteriophage infection. The S. thermophilus LMD-9 genome is comprised of a 1.8 Mbp circular chromosome (39.1% GC; 1,834 predicted open reading frames) and two small cryptic plasmids. Genome comparison with the previously sequenced LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066 strains revealed 114 kb of LMD-9 specific chromosomal region, including genes that encode for histidine biosynthetic pathway, a cell surface proteinase, various host defense mechanisms and a phage remnant. Interestingly, also unique to LMD-9 are genes encoding for a putative mucus-binding protein, a peptide transporter, and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic proteins that have close orthologs in human intestinal microorganisms. LMD-9 harbors a large number of pseudogenes (13% of ORFeome), indicating that like LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066, LMD-9 has also undergone major reductive evolution, with the loss of carbohydrate metabolic genes and virulence genes found in their streptococcal counterparts. Functional genome distribution analysis of ORFeomes among streptococci showed that all three S. thermophilus strains formed a distinct functional cluster, further establishing their specialized adaptation to the nutrient-rich milk niche. An upregulation of CRISPR1 expression in LMD-9 during lytic bacteriophage DT1 infection suggests its protective role against phage invasion. When co-cultured with L. bulgaricus, LMD-9 overexpressed genes

  15. Characterization of Streptococcus bovis from the rumen of the dromedary camel and Rusa deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, M B; Scott, P T; Al Jassim, R A M

    2004-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus bovis from the dromedary camel and Rusa deer. Bacteria were isolated from the rumen contents of four camels and two deer fed lucerne hay by culturing on the semi-selective medium MRS agar. Based on Gram morphology and RFLP analysis seven isolates, MPR1, MPR2, MPR3, MPR4, MPR5, RD09 and RD11 were selected and putatively identified as Streptococcus. The identity of these isolates was later confirmed by comparative DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene with the homologous sequence from S. bovis strains, JB1, C14b1, NCFB2476, SbR1, SbR7 and Sb5, from cattle and sheep, and the Streptococcus equinus strain NCD01037T. The percentage similarity amongst all strains was >99%, confirming the identification of the camel isolates as S. bovis. The strains were further characterized by their ability to utilize a range of carbohydrates, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate and the determination of the doubling time in basal medium 10 supplemented with glucose. All the isolates produced l-lactate as a major fermentation end product, while four of five camel isolates produced VFA. The range of carbohydrates utilized by all the strains tested, including those from cattle and sheep were identical, except that all camel isolates and the deer isolate RD11 were additionally able to utilize arabinose. Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated from the rumen of camels and deer, and shown by molecular and biochemical characterization to be almost identical to S. bovis isolates from cattle and sheep. Streptococcus bovis is considered a key lactic acid producing bacterium from the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, and has been implicated as a causative agent of lactic acidosis. This study is the first report of the isolation and characterization of S. bovis from the dromedary camel and Rusa deer, and suggests a major contributive role of this bacterium to fermentative acidosis.

  16. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  17. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; Hoek, van der W.; Goossens, B.; Secka, A.; Stegeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia.

  18. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  19. Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins and Pili Promote Streptococcus agalactiae Colonization of the Vaginal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal

  20. The Proteasome-Ubiquitin System Is Required for Efficient Killing of Intracellular Streptococcus pneumoniae by Brain Endothelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iovino, Federico; Gradstedt, Henrik; Bijlsma, Jetta J.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes serious invasive diseases, such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, with high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Before causing invasive disease, S. pneumoniae encounters cellular barriers, which are

  1. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Streptococcus pyogenes M49 metabolic network reveals growth requirements and indicates potential drug targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levering, J.; Fiedler, T.; Sieg, A.; van Grinsven, K.W.A.; Hering, S.; Veith, N.; Olivier, B.G.; Klett, L.; Hugenholtz, J.; Teusink, B.; Kreikemeyer, B.; Kummer, U.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models comprise stoichiometric relations between metabolites, as well as associations between genes and metabolic reactions and facilitate the analysis of metabolism. We computationally reconstructed the metabolic network of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes

  2. Host-pathogen interaction during Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization and infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bogaert (Debby)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Streptococcus pneumoniae was discovered by Sternberg and Pasteur in 1880. It took another six years to discover that this microorganism, called the pneumococcus, was the actual cause of bacterial pneumonia . Subsequently, this bacterium has been shown to provoke an

  3. A Visual Review of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kilian, Mogens; Goodsell, David

    2017-01-01

    Being the principal causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and septicemia, the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major global health problem. To highlight the molecular basis of this problem, we have portrayed essential biological processes of the pneumococcal life...

  4. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA

    OpenAIRE

    Siarkou, Victoria I.; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94 ruminant C. abortus strains, field isolates and samples collected from 1950 to 2011 in diverse geographic locations, with the aim of delineating C. abortus lineages and clones. MLST revealed the previo...

  5. Premenstrual disorders and rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craner, Julia R; Sigmon, Sandra T; Martinson, Amber A; McGillicuddy, Morgan L

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) involve emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms; however, there is little understanding of psychological factors that contribute to these disorders. It was hypothesized that rumination, a form of depressive self-focused attention, is related to premenstrual distress. Study 1 involved women (N = 735) meeting criteria for No/Mild PMS, Moderate/Severe PMS, and PMDD using retrospective self-report. Study 2 involved women (N = 85) meeting diagnostic criteria for PMS or PMDD (i.e., PMD group) and healthy controls (i.e., No PMD group) following 60-day symptom monitoring. Participants in both studies completed questionnaires of rumination, anxiety sensitivity, and coping styles. Rumination was strongly related to premenstrual disorders using both retrospective and prospective reports, as well as both categorical and continuous approaches to classification of premenstrual distress. Rumination, a transdiagnostic factor in psychopathology, may contribute to the onset and maintenance of premenstrual distress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  7. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for demonstration of Coxiella burnetti in placentas from ruminant abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Montgomery, Donald L.; Jaeger, Paula T.

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was developed for detection of the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and applied on placentas from ruminant abortions. The applicability of the FISH assay was compared...

  8. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siarkou, Victoria I.; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94

  9. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are

  10. [Local anaesthesia in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Karl; Schwarz, Andrea; Ringer, Simone

    2017-06-20

    The use of local anaesthesia in ruminants allows many surgical procedures to be conducted free of pain, efficiently and inexpensively in the field. Local anaesthesia combined with sedation and immobilisation of the animal can replace general anaesthesia for many procedures (e. g. castration, claw amputation). The level of difficulty differs among various local anaesthetic techniques: local infiltration of tissue or anaesthesia of the cornual nerve are easily performed, whereas local anaesthesia of the eye, regional anaesthesia in limbs or anaesthesia for umbilical surgery are more difficult to carry out. This article presents an illustrated overview of the most common local anaesthetic procedures in cattle as well as in small ruminants and serves as a practical guide for veterinarians in the field. In principle, these techniques can likewise be applied in other ruminants or artiodactyls.

  11. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed.

  12. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be colonized ... planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the ...

  13. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. [Streptococcus suis infection--clinical manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlović, Julijana; Milosević, Branko; Sasić, Neda; Pelemis, Mijomir; Sasić, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awarrness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairment, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatement with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one

  15. Bacterium oxidizing carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, A

    1953-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the microbiological oxidation of carbon monoxide is based on doubtful observations and imperfect experimental procedures. By making use of shake cultures in contact with gas mixtures containing high concentrations of CO and by employing liquid enrichment media with a low content of organic matter and solid media of the same composition with not more than 1.2% agar, it proved possible to isolate a co-oxidizing bacterium of the genus hydrogenomonas from sewage sludge. For the first time irrefutable proof has been given of the oxidation of carbon monoxide by a pure culture of a bacterium, both in growing cultures and in resting cell suspensions. 12 references.

  16. Streptococcus uberis: In vitro biofilm production in response to carbohydrates and skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieser, Silvana A; Fessia, Aluminé S; Ferrari, Miriam P; Raspanti, Claudia G; Odierno, Liliana M

    Streptococcus uberis has become one of the most important environmental pathogens associated with clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. Biofilm confers to bacteria more resistance to physical and chemical agents as well as to different mechanisms of the innate immune system. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of in vitro biofilm production in 32 S. uberis isolates from bovine mastitis and identified by biochemical tests and subsequently confirmed by the amplification of the pauA gene. The isolates were cultivated in TMP broth and TMP broth with the addition of 0.5% glucose, 1% sucrose, 1% lactose or 0.5% skim milk in microtiter plates stained with crystal violet. We demonstrated that S. uberis isolated from bovine mastitis are able to produce biofilms in TMP broth and, also that biofilm formation by S. uberis can be significantly enhanced by the addition of 0.5% glucose or 1% sucrose to TMP broth. This may suggest that the carbohydrates in milk or within the ruminant gut might affect the growth mode of S. uberis. In addition, our results showed that in vitro biofilm production under different conditions of supplementation displays variation among the isolates and that each isolate shows a particular profile of biofilm production. This phenotypic heterogeneity in biofilm production exhibited by S. uberis could at least partly explain why this bacterium has the ability to adapt to different niches facilitating survival to diverse and stressful conditions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Linking Peripartal Dynamics of Ruminal Microbiota to Dietary Changes and Production Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Hooman; Tun, Hein M.; Cardoso, Felipe C.; Plaizier, Jan C.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Loor, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    During the peripartal period, proper acclimatization of rumen microorganisms to variations in nutritional management can facilitate the transition into lactation. This study characterized the temporal shifts in the composition and functional properties of ruminal microbiota during the periparturient period in dairy cows subjected to a typical two-tiered feeding management approach. Ruminal digesta samples from eight multiparous fistulated Holstein cows were collected on days −14, −7, 10, 20, and 28 relative to parturition. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed distinct clustering patterns between pre- and postpartal ruminal microbiota. During the prepartal period, when the voluntary dry matter intake was lower, we observed strikingly lower inter-animal variations in the composition of the ruminal microbiota. Genera Ruminococcus and Butyrivibrio, which are considered major fibrolytic rumen dwellers, were overrepresented in the prepartal rumen ecosystem. In contrast, increased postpartal voluntary DMI was associated with enrichment of bacterial genera mainly consisting of proteolytic, amylolytic, and lactate-producer species (including Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus). These, together with the postpartal enrichment of energy metabolism pathways, suggested a degree of acclimatization of the ruminal microbiota to harvest energy from the carbohydrate-dense lactation diet. In addition, correlations between ruminal microbiota and parameters such as milk yield and milk composition underscored the metabolic contribution of this microbial community to the cow's performance and production. PMID:28127294

  18. Investigation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on modified Au(111)-surfaces using AFM and electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans constitute perhaps the most important direct cause of human dental caries formation. We have studied S. mutans biofilm formation and properties on Au(111)-surfaces modified by self-assembled molecular monolayers (SAMs) of different thiol-based molecu...

  19. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae for studying the virulence of Streptococcus suis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, Nadya; Kavanagh, Kevin; Wells, Jerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus suis is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium and the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young pigs, resulting in considerable economic losses in the porcine industry. S. suis is considered an emerging zoonotic agent with increasing numbers of human cases over the

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Pigmented Streptococcus thermophilus Strain JIM8232

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Christine; Bartholini, Claire; Luraschi, Mélanie; Pons, Nicolas; Loux, Valentin; Almeida, Mathieu; Guédon, Eric; Gibrat, Jean-François; Renault, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a dairy species commonly used in the manufacture of cheese and yogurt. Here, we report the complete sequence of S. thermophilus strain JIM8232, isolated from milk and which produces a yellow pigment, an atypical trait for this bacterium. PMID:21914889

  1. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  2. Transcriptional and metabolic effects of glucose on Streptococcus pneumoniae sugar metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paixão, Laura; Caldas, José; Kloosterman, Tomas G; Kuipers, Oscar P; Vinga, Susana; Neves, Ana R

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative human pathogen that relies on carbohydrate metabolism to generate energy for growth. The nasopharynx colonized by the bacterium is poor in free sugars, but mucosa lining glycans can provide a source of sugar. In blood and inflamed tissues glucose

  3. Genome-scale model of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 for metabolic comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastink, M.I.; Teusink, B.; Hols, P.; Visser, S.; Vos, W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we describe the amino acid metabolism and amino acid dependency of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 and compare them with those of two other characterized lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Through the construction of a

  4. Streptococcus ovuberis sp. nov., isolated from a subcutaneous abscess in the udder of a sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leydis; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose Francisco; Orden, Jose Antonio; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Domínguez, Lucas; Vela, Ana Isabel

    2017-11-01

    One unidentified, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative coccus-shaped organism was recovered from a subcutaneous abscess of the udder of a sheep and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolate was tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus, although the organism did not appear to match any recognized species. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison studies confirmed its identification as a member of the genus Streptococcus and showed that the nearest phylogenetic relatives of the unknown coccus corresponded to Streptococcus moroccensis and Streptococcus cameli (95.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The sodA sequence analysis showed less than 89.3 % sequence similarity with the currently recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. The novel bacterial isolate was distinguished from close relatives of the genus Streptococcusby using biochemical tests. A mass spectrometry profile was also obtained for the novel isolate using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus ovuberis sp. nov. The type strain of Streptococcus ovuberissp. nov. is VB15-00779 T (=CECT 9179 T =CCUG 69612 T ).

  5. Comparative genomics of the dairy isolate Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against related members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Blom, Jochen; Papandreou, Nikos C; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Renault, Pierre; Supply, Philip; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2014-04-08

    Within the genus Streptococcus, only Streptococcus thermophilus is used as a starter culture in food fermentations. Streptococcus macedonicus though, which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is also frequently isolated from fermented foods mainly of dairy origin. Members of the SBSEC have been implicated in human endocarditis and colon cancer. Here we compare the genome sequence of the dairy isolate S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 to the other SBSEC genomes in order to assess in silico its potential adaptation to milk and its pathogenicity status. Despite the fact that the SBSEC species were found tightly related based on whole genome phylogeny of streptococci, two distinct patterns of evolution were identified among them. Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus infantarius CJ18 and Streptococcus pasteurianus ATCC 43144 seem to have undergone reductive evolution resulting in significantly diminished genome sizes and increased percentages of potential pseudogenes when compared to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. In addition, the three species seem to have lost genes for catabolizing complex plant carbohydrates and for detoxifying toxic substances previously linked to the ability of S. gallolyticus to survive in the rumen. Analysis of the S. macedonicus genome revealed features that could support adaptation to milk, including an extra gene cluster for lactose and galactose metabolism, a proteolytic system for casein hydrolysis, auxotrophy for several vitamins, an increased ability to resist bacteriophages and horizontal gene transfer events with the dairy Lactococcus lactis and S. thermophilus as potential donors. In addition, S. macedonicus lacks several pathogenicity-related genes found in S. gallolyticus. For example, S. macedonicus has retained only one (i.e. the pil3) of the three pilus gene clusters which may mediate the binding of S. gallolyticus to the extracellular matrix. Unexpectedly, similar findings were

  6. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-06-24

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several "S. suis-like strains" that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains.

  7. Controlled Human Infection for Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections

  8. Cinética ruminal da degradação de nutrientes da silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com diferentes aditivos Ruminal degradation kinetics of corn silage in bulls inoculated with different additives in the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andrade Katsuki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a cinética ruminal da degradação de MS, PB e FDN da silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com diferentes aditivos. Utilizou-se um delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4, com quatro bovinos holandeses e quatro períodos de incubação, em ambiente ruminal adaptado ou não com diferentes aditivos alimentares. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: SCL - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal sem inoculação de aditivo; SBL - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 5 g de produto comercial contendo bactérias ruminais e intestinais liofilizadas (Ruminobacter amylophilum: 3,0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Fibrobacter succinogenes: 3,0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Succinovibrio dextrinsolvens: 4,4 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Bacillus cereus: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Lactobacillus acidophilus: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg e Streptococcus faecium: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; SEC - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 15 g de produto comercial contendo enzimas celulolíticas (xilanase 10%; e SMS - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 3 g de produto comercial contendo monensina sódica. Os tratamentos SBL e SEC não afetaram a fração potencialmente degradável (b dos nutrientes avaliados da silagem de milho. A monensina sódica reduziu a fração (b da MS (51,01% e a degradabilidade potencial da silagem de milho (72,33%. Entre os aditivos estudados, a monensina sódica proporcionou a maior fração não-degradável da FDN (45,57%, reduzindo o desaparecimento desta fração a partir de 48 horas de incubação intra-ruminal. Os diferentes aditivos, nas concentrações estudadas, não proporcionaram melhora na degradabilidade efetiva da MS, PB e FDN da silagem de milho.Four bulls fitted with ruminal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of different ruminally inoculated additives on the degradation kinetics of DM, CP, and NDF of corn silage (CS. The treatments were: control CS incubated in rumen with no

  9. Streptococcus caprae sp. nov., isolated from Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, A I; Mentaberre, G; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on a novel Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism isolated from tonsil samples of two Iberian ibexes. The micro-organism was identified as a streptococcal species based on its cellular, morphological and biochemical characteristics. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison studies confirmed its identification as a member of the genus Streptococcus, but the organism did not correspond to any species of this genus. The nearest phylogenetic relative of the unknown coccus from ibex was Streptococcus porci 2923-03T (96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis based on rpoB and sodA gene sequences revealed sequence similarity values lower than 86.0 and 83.8 %, respectively, from the type strains of recognized Streptococcus species. The novel bacterial isolate was distinguished from Streptococcus porci and other Streptococcus species using biochemical tests. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus caprae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DICM07-02790-1CT ( = CECT 8872T = CCUG 67170T).

  10. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three...... and the antibiogram and resistome revealed no antibiotic resistance....

  11. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...

  12. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2007-01-01

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  13. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  14. Urea recycling in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiaki; Niibayashi, Tsunekazu

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of blood urea into the alimentary tract of goats, as ruminants, was studied by the use of 15 N-urea, 15 N-ammonium chloride and physiological experimental techniques. Blood urea after an intravenous injection of 15 N-urea appeared in the first rumen via two routes, the saliva (approximately 60% of the serum urea concentration) and idrect diffusion from the wall of the first rumen, both as the ammonium-form N. The serum urea levels from diets containing different protein levels were paralleled with the protein levels, the ammonium level in the first rumen being similar to that of the serum urea. The transfer of low protein into the NH 3 pool of the first rumen was 56% of the total NH 3 in the entire alimentary tract, and the quantitative ratio of salivary secretion of diffusion in the first rumen was 1:9. The transfer of high protein was 14% in the entire alimentary tract, and the ratio of saliva to diffusion in the first rumen was 6:1. Thus, when protein uptake was large, salivary secretion was the primary route to the first rumen. Approximately 50% of the entire quantity of blood urea in the alimentary tract appeared in the first rumen, and 35%, in the lower alimentary tract, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Characterisation of the ruminal fermentation and microbiome in lambs supplemented with hydrolysable and condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Saheed A; Valenti, Bernardo; Bella, Marco; O'Grady, Michael N; Luciano, Giuseppe; Kerry, Joseph P; Jones, Eleanor; Priolo, Alessandro; Newbold, Charles J

    2018-05-01

    This study characterised the response of ruminal fermentation and the rumen microbiome in lambs fed commercial vegetal sources of hydrolysable tannins (HT) and condensed tannins (CT). Forty-four lambs (19.56 ± 2.06 kg) were randomly assigned to either a concentrate diet (CON, n = 8) or CON supplemented with 4% of two HT [chestnut (Castanea sativa, HT-c) and tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, HT-t)] and CT [mimosa (Acacia negra, CT-m) and gambier (Uncaria gambir, CT-g)] extracts (all, n = 9) for 75 days pre-slaughter. Tannin supplementation did not influence ruminal fermentation traits. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that tannins did not affect the absolute abundance of ruminal bacteria or fungi. However, CT-m (-12.8%) and CT-g (-11.5%) significantly reduced the abundance of methanogens, while HT-t (-20.7%) and CT-g (-20.8%) inhibited protozoal abundance. Ribosomal amplicon sequencing revealed that tannins caused changes in the phylogenetic structure of the bacterial and methanogen communities. Tannins inhibited the fibrolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter and tended to suppress the methanogen genus, Methanosphaera. Results demonstrated that both HT and CT sources could impact the ruminal microbiome when supplemented at 4% inclusion level. HT-t, CT-m and CT-g extracts displayed specific antimicrobial activity against methanogens and protozoa without compromising ruminal fermentation in a long-term feeding trial.

  16. Ruminal microbe of biohydrogenation of trans-vaccenic acid to stearic acid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization of the unsaturated fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Alteration of the milk and fatty acid profile was previously attempted by the management of ruminal microbial biohydrogenation. The aim of this study was to identify the group of ruminal trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1, t-VA hydrogenating bacteria by combining enrichment studies in vitro. Methods The enrichment culture growing on t-VA was obtained by successive transfers in medium containing t-VA. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatograph and changes in the microbial composition during enrichment were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Prominent DGGE bands of the enrichment cultures were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results The growth of ruminal t-VA hydrogenating bacteria was monitored through the process of culture transfer according to the accumulation of stearic acid (C18:0, SA and ratio of the substrate (t-VA transformed to the product (SA. A significant part of the retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences was most similar to those of uncultured bacteria. Bacteria corresponding to predominant DGGE bands in t-VA enrichment cultures clustered with t-VA biohydrogenated bacteria within Group B. Conclusions This study provides more insight into the pathway of biohydrogenation. It also may be important to control the production of t-VA, which has metabolic and physiological benefits, through management of ruminal biohydrogenation bacterium.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of the Alkaloid-Enriched Extract from Prosopis juliflora Pods and Its Influence on in Vitro Ruminal Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Edilene dos; Pereira, Mara; Silva, Camilla da; Souza-Neta, Lourdes; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio; Barbosa, Luiz; Silva, Herymá; Freitas, Giovana; Figueiredo, Mauro; Oliveira, Fernando de; Batista, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC ...

  18. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: First Case Reported in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Michaud

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few Streptococcus suis infections in humans have been reported in Canada, although the condition is frequent in pigs. Meningitis, often accompanied by severe hearing loss, is the most common clinical manifestation. The disease is an occupational illness affecting persons in contact with pigs and may be underdiagnosed because of misidentification of the responsible bacterium. Since Quebec is the leading province for swine production in Canada, physicians and microbiologists should be aware of this infection, especially when a streptococcal meningitis is diagnosed in swine workers. The first case of S suis type 2 meningitis reported in Quebec is described.

  19. Uji Daya Hambat Ekstrak Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Risandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakBuah belimbing manis (Averrhoa carambola merupakan salah satu tanaman Indonesia yang diyakini memiliki khasiat obat. Salah satu manfaat yang dapat diambil dari sari buah belimbing manis (Averrhoa carambola adalah dapat mengobati radang tenggorokan. Radang tenggorokan merupakan salah satu infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan daya hambat ekstrak buah belimbing manis (Averrhoa carambola terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae  secara in vitro. Metode studi ini ialah eksperimental dengan desain postest only control group design yang dilakukan di Laboratorium Biota Sumatera Universitas Andalas dan Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas dari Agustus sampai Oktober 2014. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak buah belimbing manis (Averrhoa carambola dengan konsentrasi yaitu 5%, 10%, 15% dan 20% tidak memiliki daya hambat terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae.  Hal ini terbukti karena tidak terbentuk zona hambat pada agar darah dan tidak terdapat pengaruh lama kontak ekstrak buah belimbing manis (Averrhoa carambola  terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae secara in vitro. Ekstrak buah belimbing manis tidak memiliki efek antibakteri terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae.Kata kunci: ekstrak buah belimbing manis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, daya hambat Abstract             Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola is a Indonesian plant that is believed to have medicinal properties. One of the benefits that can be drawn from the juice of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola is the ability to treat strep throat. Strep throat is a bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory extract of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola on the growth of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro. This was an experimental  research  with design

  20. Ruminal acidosis: strategies for its control

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo-López, Esaúl; Itza-Ortiz, Mateo F.; Peraza-Mercado, Gwendolyne; Carrera-Chávez, José M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ruminal acidosis in ruminants is a metabolic disorder of gastrointestinal origin that occurs in animals with a high feed intake of cereal grains diets, which affect the performance. According to clinical manifestations it can be classified as: a) acute lactic acidosis with prolonged exposure to ruminal pH ≤ 5.0, triggering a systemic acidosis, with clinical manifestations and changes in biochemical patterns, starting the first twelve hours of ruminal acidosis and it takes 48 to 120 ...

  1. Nitrogen metabolism in the ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.; Lewis, D.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of nitrogen metabolism in the ruminant are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the effect of rumen ammonia concentration on protein synthesis in the rumen. In order to judge the suitability of microbial protein as a source of protein for the ruminant, it is necessary to be able to assess the amino-acid requirements of the ruminant accurately. Several methods of doing this are discussed. Available data would indicate that under many conditions methionine is the first limiting amino acid. Possible ways of increasing the supply of methionine at the duodenum are discussed. When the amino-acid requirements are fully met, it is to be expected that protein synthesis in the tissues will proceed at its maximal rate. Ways of determining the extent of tissue protein synthesis in vivo are briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    763512/715242 Final Report U VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS U Samuel Rosen Department of Oral Biology For the Period April 1, 1983 - June 30...00 FINAL REPORT VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Sam Rosen, Irving Shklair, E. X. Beck and F. M. Beck Ohio State University Columbus,Oh and...206-212. Johnson CP, Gorss S, Hillman JD (1978). Cariogenic properties of LDH deficient mutants of streptococcus mutans . J Dent Res 57, Special Issue

  3. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination are good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination.

  4. Genome-wide identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes essential for bacterial replication during experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molzen, T E; Burghout, P; Bootsma, H J

    2010-01-01

    Meningitis is the most serious of invasive infections caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines protect only against a limited number of serotypes, and evolving bacterial resistance to antimicrobials impedes treatment. Further insight into the molecular pathogenesis...... as targets for future therapy and prevention of pneumococcal meningitis, since their mutants were attenuated in both models of infection as well as in competitive growth in human cerebrospinal fluid in vitro.......Meningitis is the most serious of invasive infections caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines protect only against a limited number of serotypes, and evolving bacterial resistance to antimicrobials impedes treatment. Further insight into the molecular pathogenesis...... genes mutants of which had become attenuated or enriched, respectively, during infection. The results point to essential roles for capsular polysaccharides, nutrient uptake, and amino acid biosynthesis in bacterial replication during experimental meningitis. The GAF phenotype of a subset of identified...

  5. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  6. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20. Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  7. Organization of the capsule biosynthesis gene locus of the oral streptococcus Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunashima, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Katsuhide; Motono, Makoto; Iijima, Shinji

    2012-03-01

    The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of the important oral streptococcus Streptococcus anginosus, which causes endocarditis, and the genes for its synthesis have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the gene locus required for CPS synthesis in S. anginosus. Southern hybridization using the cpsE gene of the well-characterized bacterium S. agalactiae revealed that there is a similar gene in the genome of S. anginosus. By using the colony hybridization technique and inverse PCR, we isolated the CPS synthesis (cps) genes of S. anginosus. This gene cluster consisted of genes containing typical regulatory genes, cpsA-D, and glycosyltransferase genes coding for glucose, rhamnose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactofuranose transferases. Furthermore, we confirmed that the cps locus is required for CPS synthesis using a mutant strain with a defective cpsE gene. The cps cluster was found to be located downstream the nrdG gene, which encodes ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase activator, as is the case in other oral streptococci such as S. gordonii and S. sanguinis. However, the location of the gene cluster was different from those of S. pneumonia and S. agalactiae. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Streptococcus thermophilus bacteraemia in a patient with transient bowel ischaemia secondary to polycythaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Joanna; Turner, David P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The ability of Streptococcus thermophilus to convert lactose into lactic acid has long been utilised by the dairy industry. A seemingly low-pathogenicity organism, there have been no previously published reports linking the consumption of foodstuffs to bacteraemia with this bacterium.\\ud Case Presentation: Here we present a case of a regular consumer of Activia yoghurt who developed S. thermophilus bacteraemia probably due to transient bowel ischaemia secondary to polycythaemia....

  9. The Streptococcus pneumoniae Competence Regulatory System Influences Respiratory Tract Colonization ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalko, J. E.; Sebert, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The Streptococcus pneumoniae ComDE two-component signaling system controls the development of genetic competence in the bacterium and affects virulence in models of pneumonia and bacteremia. We have investigated the impact of the competence pathway during colonization of the nasopharynx, the principal ecological niche of the pneumococcus. Previous work showed that deletion of the pneumococcal CiaRH signaling system inhibited colonization and increased expression of genes required for competen...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Producing Strain Streptococcus thermophilus APC151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; Arboleya, Silvia; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2017-04-27

    Here is presented the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus APC151, isolated from a marine fish. This bacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in high yields and is biotechnologically suitable to produce naturally GABA-enriched biofunctional yogurt. Its complete genome comprises 2,097 genes and 1,839,134 nucleotides, with an average G+C content of 39.1%. Copyright © 2017 Linares et al.

  11. Streptococcus sanguinis-induced cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase-1 release from platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Cognasse, Fabrice; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Chabert, Adrien; Jackson, Elke; Arthaud, Charles-Antoine; Garraud, Olivier; McNicol, Archie

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus sanguinis (S.sanguinis), a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity, has been widely associated with the development of infective endocarditis. Platelets play both a haemostatic function and can influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. Previous studies have shown that S.sanguinis can interact with, and activate, platelets. Results The aim of this study was to determine whether S.sanguinis stimulates the release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, ...

  12. Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase: A Candidate Virulence Factor in Streptococcus sanguinis Experimental Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jingyuan; Zhang, Yongshu; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Frank, Kristi L.; Guenther, Brian D.; Kern, Marissa; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Herzberg, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is the most common cause of infective endocarditis (IE). Since the molecular basis of virulence of this oral commensal bacterium remains unclear, we searched the genome of S. sanguinis for previously unidentified virulence factors. We identified a cell surface ecto-5′-nucleotidase (Nt5e), as a candidate virulence factor. By colorimetric phosphate assay, we showed that S. sanguinis Nt5e can hydrolyze extracellular adenosine triphosphate to generate adenosine. Moreover, ...

  13. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  14. Application of agglomerative clustering for analyzing phylogenetically on bacterium of saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamam, A.; Fitria, I.; Umam, K.

    2017-07-01

    Analyzing population of Streptococcus bacteria is important since these species can cause dental caries, periodontal, halitosis (bad breath) and more problems. This paper will discuss the phylogenetically relation between the bacterium Streptococcus in saliva using a phylogenetic tree of agglomerative clustering methods. Starting with the bacterium Streptococcus DNA sequence obtained from the GenBank, then performed characteristic extraction of DNA sequences. The characteristic extraction result is matrix form, then performed normalization using min-max normalization and calculate genetic distance using Manhattan distance. Agglomerative clustering technique consisting of single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage. In this agglomerative algorithm number of group is started with the number of individual species. The most similar species is grouped until the similarity decreases and then formed a single group. Results of grouping is a phylogenetic tree and branches that join an established level of distance, that the smaller the distance the more the similarity of the larger species implementation is using R, an open source program.

  15. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis

    OpenAIRE

    Geffner Sclarsky, D. E.; Moreno Muñoz, R.; Campillo Alpera, Mª.S.; Pardo Serrano, F.J.; Gómez Gómez, A.; Martínez-Lozano, Mª.D.

    2001-01-01

    La infección humana por Streptococcus suis (S. suis) es una zoonosis, con un riesgo ocupacional conocido y que suele presentarse como meningitis purulenta, que tiene baja mortalidad y frecuentes secuelas de hipoacusia y ataxia. Se han publicado menos de 150 casos humanos desde el informe original de hace 30 años. Hay una reconocida distribución geográfica viviendo la mayoría de los afectados en el norte de Europa y el sudeste Asiático. En España se han comunicado dos pacientes con enfermedad ...

  16. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y{sub ATP} (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 14}C)benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation.

  17. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y ATP (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up [ 14 C]acetate and [ 14 C]benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation

  18. Review on Ruminant Nutrition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research works in ruminant nutrition have been widely published, especially those related to the energy and protein utilization. The energy and protein requirements for maintenance and production in tropical regions may be different from those in the subtropical areas. Responses of different species of ruminants to energy and protein supplements were also observed. The synchronization of energy and protein availability has been considered as an important strategy in affecting the microbial fermentative process in the rumen and in affecting the animal performance. The inclusion of long-chained unsaturated fatty acids in the diets has been successfully affecting milk production with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Feedstuffs characteristics in terms of their degradability and fermentation by rumen microbial enzymes have been intensively studied; however, further experimentations are still needed to elucidate the specific fate of its nutritive components in the rumen and tissue levels.

  19. Vaccination against group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Paul T; Feldman, Robert G

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) is an important cause of disease in infants, pregnant women, the elderly and in immunosuppressed adults. An effective vaccine is likely to prevent the majority of infant disease (both early and late onset), as well as Group B streptococcus-related stillbirths and prematurity, to avoid the current real and theoretical limitations of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and to be cost effective. The optimal time to administer such a vaccine would be in the third trimester of pregnancy. The main limitations on the production of a Group B streptococcus vaccine are not technical or scientific, but regulatory and legal. A number of candidates including capsular conjugate vaccines using traditional carrier proteins such as tetanus toxoid and mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197, as well as Group B streptococcus-specific proteins such as C5a peptidase, protein vaccines using one or more Group B streptococcus surface proteins and mucosal vaccines, have the potential to be successful vaccines. The capsular conjugate vaccines using tetanus and CRM197 carrier proteins are the most advanced candidates, having already completed Phase II human studies including use in the target population of pregnant women (tetanus toxoid conjugate), however, no definitive protein conjugates have yet been trialed. However, unless the regulatory environment is changed specifically to allow the development of a Group B streptococcus vaccine, it is unlikely that one will ever reach the market.

  20. Ribotyping to compare Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from bovine liver abscesses, ruminal walls, and ruminal contents.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, S; Nagaraja, T G; Okwumabua, O; Staats, J; Chengappa, M M; Oberst, R D

    1997-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of rRNA genes was employed to genetically compare Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates from multiple abscesses of the same liver and isolates from liver abscesses, the ruminal wall, and ruminal contents from the same animal. Four livers with multiple abscesses and samples of ruminal contents, ruminal walls, and liver abscesses were collected from 11 cattle at slaughter. F. necrophorum was...

  1. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...

  2. In vitro bacterial growth and in vivo ruminal microbiota populations associated with bloat in steers grazing wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Hume, M E

    2006-10-01

    The role of ruminal bacteria in the frothy bloat complex common to cattle grazing winter wheat has not been previously determined. Two experiments, one in vitro and another in vivo, were designed to elucidate the effects of fresh wheat forage on bacterial growth, biofilm complexes, rumen fermentation end products, rumen bacterial diversity, and bloat potential. In Exp. 1, 6 strains of ruminal bacteria (Streptococcus bovis strain 26, Prevotella ruminicola strain 23, Eubacterium ruminantium B1C23, Ruminococcus albus SY3, Fibrobacter succinogenes ssp. S85, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens C94) were used in vitro to determine the effect of soluble plant protein from winter wheat forage on specific bacterial growth rate, biofilm complexes, VFA, and ruminal H2 and CH4 in mono or coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific growth rate in plant protein medium containing soluble plant protein (3.27% nitrogen) was measured during a 24-h incubation at 39 degrees C in Hungate tubes under a CO2 gas phase. A monoculture of M. smithii was grown similarly, except under H2:CO2 (1:1), in a basal methanogen growth medium supplemented likewise with soluble plant protein. In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally cannulated steers grazing wheat forage were used to evaluate the influence of bloat on the production of biofilm complexes, ruminal microbial biodiversity patterns, and ruminal fluid protein fractions. In Exp. 1, cultures of R. albus (P bloated than for nonbloated steers when grazing wheat forage. The molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA showed that 2 different ruminal microbiota populations developed between bloated and nonbloated animals grazing wheat forage. Bloat in cattle grazing wheat pastures may be caused by increased production of biofilm, resulting from a diet-influenced switch in the rumen bacterial population.

  3. Leucaena leucocephala IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros-Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a common situation in extensive ruminant production systems in tropical countries to have low production indicators due to nutrient deficiencies in the diet. An economic alternative to increase animal production is the incorporation of legumes (fodder and fruits in the diet. This review, presents an analysis of the positive and negative effects of Leucaena leucocephala consumption by ruminants, with particular emphasis on the secondary compound mimosine. Leucaena due to its high nutrient content, rumen by-pass protein supply and its possible effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas (attributed to tannins has become one of the legumes most commonly used in ruminant feeding practices. However, in countries where leucaena has been introduced, its use is still limited to levels below 30% inclusion in the diet, due to the secondary compound mimosine and its isomers (3,4 and 2,3 DHP, which can induce toxicity, even when animals are inoculated with rumen fluid containing the bacteria Synergistes jonesii reported as responsible for degrading these compounds in the rumen. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, ruminants consuming leucaena can tolerate more than 50% inclusion in the diet, without having a negative impact on production, attributed intake to mimosine and its isomers. We conclude that in animals not adapted, the intake would be limited to low inclusion levels (less than 30% inclusion in the diet, mainly because of mimosine and its derivatives. The decrease in intake or diet digestibility seem to better explain the reduction in methane production, however, in vivo studies are required to clearly establish the mechanism of action. It has been reported the presence of different bacteria to S. jonessi that would have the ability to degrade mimosine and its derivatives, however, the activity of these bacteria and its effectiveness must be confirmed in vivo.

  4. The Ruminant and the Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Lajarin-Encina, Aitor

    2015-01-01

    The Ruminant and the Pond presents a group of paintings and a film that explore contemporary psycho-social conditions through fictional narratives. Paintings and film explore territories of thinking and emotion engaging the audience in subjective digressions related to ideas of artificiality, relativeness, absurdity, futility or alienation in relation to intersubjective reality perception, production and representation. At the same time the project delves in the specific relationship existin...

  5. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  6. Lactococcus lactis - a diploid bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    the next division. Thus, the regions of the chromosome that are the last to be replicated are haploid even in fast-growing bacteria. In contrast to this general rule for bacteria, we found that Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium which has been exploited for thousands of years for the production of fermented...... milk products, is born with two complete non-replicating chromosomes. L. lactis therefore remain diploid throughout its entire life cycle....

  7. Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, a Putative Receptor for the Adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the Vascular Endothelium of the Blood-Brain Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iovino, Federico; Molema, Grietje; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative agent of bacterial meningitis. S. pneumoniae is thought to invade the central nervous system via the bloodstream by crossing the vascular endothelium of the blood-brain barrier. The exact mechanism by which pneumococci cross

  8. The Activity of the Lactose Transporter from Streptococcus thermophilus Is Increased by Phosphorylated IIA and the Action of β-Galactosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric R.; Duurkens, Ria H.; Poolman, Bert

    2005-01-01

    The metabolism of lactose by Streptococcus thermophilus is highly regulated, allowing the bacterium to prefer lactose over glucose as main source of carbon and energy. In vitro analysis of the enzymes involved in transport and hydrolysis of lactose showed that the transport reaction benefits from

  9. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  11. Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov., a novel streptococcal species isolated from the respiratory tract of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

    2015-09-01

    Four isolates of an unknown Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative coccus-shaped organism, isolated from the pharynx of four wild rabbits, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. The micro-organisms were tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus based on cellular morphological and biochemical criteria, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any species with a validly published name. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed their identification as members of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related phylogenetically to Streptococcus porcorum 682-03(T) (96.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis of rpoB and sodA gene sequences showed divergence values between the novel species and S. porcorum 682-03(T) (the closest phylogenetic relative determined from 16S rRNA gene sequences) of 18.1 and 23.9%, respectively. The novel bacterial isolate could be distinguished from the type strain of S. porcorum by several biochemical characteristics, such as the production of glycyl-tryptophan arylamidase and α-chymotrypsin, and the non-acidification of different sugars. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be assigned to a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, and named Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov. The type strain is DICM10-00796B(T) ( = CECT 8754(T) = CCUG 66496(T)).

  12. Clicking away at co-rumination: co-rumination correlates across different modalities of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Ani C; Watkins, Melanie A; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Co-rumination is associated with positive friendship quality (thought to buffer against anxiety and depression) but paradoxically higher levels of anxiety and depression. With the increasing use of technology for communication among adults, there is little known about co-rumination effects across different modalities of communication. In the current study, we examined co-rumination through four methods (i.e. in person, phone calls, text messaging, and social media) in two separate samples - college students and participants from the community. Classic co-rumination effects were found for in-person communications, and we found that co-rumination by telephone as well as by texting, for a college student sample only, mirrors some of these findings for in-person co-rumination. In studies of co-rumination, evaluation of multiple modes of communication is warranted.

  13. Oesophagostomosis, moniaziasis and trichuriasis of small ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, the intestines (small and large intestines) were collected from 300 small ruminants (200 goats and 100 sheep) at necropsy and examined by the Hansen and Perry method. Out of the 300 small ruminants examined during the study period, the intestines revealed the presence of Oesophagostomum sp, ...

  14. Rumination and Age: Some Things Get Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sütterlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumination has been defined as a mode of responding to distress that involves passively focusing one's attention on symptoms of distress without taking action. This dysfunctional response style intensifies depressed mood, impairs interpersonal problem solving, and leads to more pessimistic future perspectives and less social support. As most of these results were obtained from younger people, it remains unclear how age affects ruminative thinking. Three hundred members of the general public ranging in age from 15 to 87 years were asked about their ruminative styles using the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ, depression and satisfaction with life. A Mokken Scale analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of the RSQ with brooding and reflective pondering as subcomponents of rumination. Older participants (63 years and older reported less ruminative thinking than other age groups. Life satisfaction was associated with brooding and highest for the earlier and latest life stages investigated in this study.

  15. Rumination Syndrome and Dental Erosions in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monagas, Javier; Ritwik, Priyanshi; Kolomensky, Andrew; Acosta, Julio; Kay, Danielle; Clendaniel, Lindsey; Hyman, Paul E

    2017-06-01

    Rumination syndrome is the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food with subsequent reswallowing or spitting out. Dental erosion (DE) affects 2% to 5% of the population. DE is defined as loss of tooth structure by a chemical process that does not involve bacteria. Our objective was to compare the frequency of DE among children with rumination syndrome with healthy controls. We enrolled 30 patients 4 to 21 years of age diagnosed with rumination syndrome, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Patients were evaluated by pediatric dentists for presence of DE with Taji et al a validated grading system. Patients with rumination were more likely to have DE (P syndrome, 23 (77%) had DE, compared with 4 (13%) control subjects. DEs are more frequent in patients with rumination syndrome.

  16. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  17. Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gede Suparta Budisatria, I.

    2006-01-01

    Small ruminants are an important but neglected resource in developing countries. Small ruminant production systems are complex. The multiple goals related to small ruminants, combined with the complexity of their management, and the resources and social arrangements involved, make small ruminants

  18. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in small ruminants in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Klaasen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This survey was carried out from March to May 2012 at two areas in The Gambia. The first area comprised a cluster of seven rural villages situated 5-15 km west of Farafenni as well as the local abattoir. A second sampling was done at the central abattoir in Abuko (30 km from the capital, Banjul in the Western Region. Serum samples were obtained from 490 goats and 398 sheep. In addition, 67 milk samples were obtained from lactating dams. Sera were tested with a Q fever ELISA kit. C. burnetii DNA was extracted from milk samples and then detected using a specific quantitative multiplex PCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element. A multivariable mixed logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between seropositivity and explanatory variables. An overall seroprevalence of 21.6% was found. Goats had a significantly higher seroprevalence than sheep, respectively 24.2% and 18.5%. Seropositive animals were significantly older than seronegative animals. Animals from the villages had a significantly lower seroprevalence than animals from the central abattoir (15.1% versus 29.1%. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 2 out of 67 milk samples, whereas 8 samples gave a doubtful result. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A substantial C. burnetii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in The Gambia was demonstrated. People living in close proximity to small ruminants are exposed to C. burnetii. Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of acute febrile illness in humans in The Gambia. Future studies should include a simultaneous assessment of veterinary and human serology, and include aetiology of febrile illness in local clinics.

  19. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Epidemiological Studies of Potent Environmental Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir A. Brohi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton’s agar after 24 hours incubation

  1. Epidemiological studies of potent environment pathogen streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, N.A.; Tunio, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years) including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton's agar after 24 hours incubation. (author)

  2. [Streptococcus suis meningitis in a meat factory employee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceuster, Laura M E; van Dillen, Jeroen J; Wever, Peter C; Rozemeijer, Wouter; Louwerse, Elisabeth S

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Streptococcus suis is a rare cause of meningitis. Over the past few years, the number of reported cases worldwide has increased. The bacterium is mainly isolated in pigs, but humans can also become infected. At the Emergency Department, a 60-year-old man presented with headache, confusion, fever and nuchal rigidity. He worked at a meat factory. Laboratory testing showed abnormalities linked to bacterial meningitis. S. suis was cultured from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with dexamethasone, ceftriaxone and later benzylpenicillin intravenously. He recovered well, but had bilateral perceptive hearing loss as a sequela. Particularly people who are in close contact with pigs have an increased risk of S. suis infection. S. suis meningitis can be very severe and lead to serious complications and even death. Rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment are critical. Permanent hearing loss is the most frequent sequela.

  3. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid-enriched extract from Prosopis juliflora pods and its influence on in vitro ruminal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Edilene T; Pereira, Mara Lúcia A; da Silva, Camilla Flávia P G; Souza-Neta, Lourdes C; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio Euzébio G; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A; Silva, Herymá Giovane O; Freitas, Giovana C; Figueiredo, Mauro P; de Oliveira, Fernando F; Batista, Ronan

    2013-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 50 μg/mL), its influence on ruminal digestion was evaluated using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, with monensin as the positive control. Results showed that BCE has decreased gas production as efficiently as monensin after 36 h of fermentation, revealing its positive influence on gas production during ruminal digestion. Since P. juliflora is a very affordable plant, this study points out this alkaloid enriched extract from the pods of Prosopis juliflora as a potential feed additive to decrease gas production during ruminal digestion.

  4. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  5. Molecular identification of phosphate solubilizing bacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phosphate solubilizing bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of upland rice and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The gene sequence showed 99% homology with Alcaligenes faecalis. Based on the gene sequence homology, it was identified as A. faecalis. Interaction effect of this bacterium on growth ...

  6. Role of Streptococcus mutans surface proteins for biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a primary causative agent of dental caries in humans. An important virulence property of the bacterium is its ability to form biofilm known as dental plaque on tooth surfaces. In addition, this organism also produces glucosyltransferases, multiple glucan-binding proteins, protein antigen c, and collagen-binding protein, surface proteins that coordinate to produce dental plaque, thus inducing dental caries. Bacteria utilize quorum-sensing systems to modulate environmental stress responses. A major mechanism of response to signals is represented by the so called two-component signal transduction system, which enables bacteria to regulate their gene expression and coordinate activities in response to environmental stress. As for S. mutans, a signal peptide-mediated quorum-sensing system encoded by comCDE has been found to be a regulatory system that responds to cell density and certain environmental stresses by excreting a peptide signal molecule termed CSP (competence-stimulating peptide. One of its principal virulence factors is production of bacteriocins (peptide antibiotics referred to as mutacins. Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly utilized by bacteria to regulate bacteriocin gene expression and are also related to biofilm formation by S. mutans. Keywords: Streptococcus mutans, Surface proteins, Biofilm, Signal transduction

  7. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amorena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease.

  8. Inhibition of Steptococcus mutans biofilm formation by extracts of Tenacibaculum sp. 20J, a bacterium with wide-spectrum quorum quenching activity

    OpenAIRE

    Muras, Andrea; Mayer, Celia; Romero, Manuel; Camino, Tamara; Ferrer, Maria D.; Mira, Alex; Otero, Ana

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous studies have suggested the quorum sensing signal AI-2 as a potential target to prevent the biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen involved in tooth decay. Objective: To obtain inhibition of biofilm formation by S. mutans by extracts obtained from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. 20J interfering with the AI-2 quorum sensing system. Design: The AI-2 inhibitory activity was tested with the biosensors Vibrio harveyi BB170 and JMH597. S. mutans AT...

  9. Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Rottinghaus, G W; Ju, H J; Dawe, D L; Hiatt, E E

    2001-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal

  10. Streptococcus Agalactiae Research on Secretion Vaginal and Anal Pregnant Women of a City of Paulista Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae has great medical importance in infections associated with severe neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the tables of septicemia, pneumonia and neonatal meningitis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anal and vaginal colonization of S. agalactiae in pregnant women at different gestational ages. We evaluated the incidence of colonization by S. agalactiae in 129 pregnant women of any age. Two samples of secretion were collected for culture: a perianal swab and a vaginal swab. Each of the two swabs were inoculated in test tubes containing Todd-Hewitt broth and subcultured on blood agar. After a period of 24 to 48 hours, the colonies suggestive of S. agalactiae were submitted to morfotintorial analysis and to biochemical tests for identification. Among 129 women studied, 3 (2.33% have tested positive for Streptococcus agalactiae and 126 (97.67% were negative. The results presented in this work are inferior to the data from other studies, however, the methodology used was compatible with most authors. Even so this rate is considered a relevant value taking into account the importance of Streptococcus agalactiae infections in pregnant women and newborns, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the culture of vaginal and anal secretion for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in surveys of prenatal care.

  11. Characterization of SeseC_01411 as a surface protective antigen of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Honglin; Wei, Zigong; Ma, Chunquan; Li, Shun; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is a commensal bacterium related to opportunistic infections of many species, including humans, dogs, cats, and pigs. SeseC_01411 has been proven to be immunogenic. However, its protective efficacy remained to be evaluated. In the present study, the purified recombinant SeseC_01411 could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect against lethal challenge with virulent SEZ in mice. Our finding confirmed that SeseC_01411 distributes on the surface of SEZ. In addition, the hyperimmune sera against SeseC_01411 could efficiently kill the bacteria in the phagocytosis test. The present study identified the immunogenic protein, SeseC_01411, as a novel surface protective antigen of SEZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombination-deficient Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneo-Moore, L.; Volpe, A.

    1985-01-01

    A UV-sensitive derivative was obtained from Streptococcus sanguis Challis. The organism could be transformed with a number of small streptococcal plasmids at frequencies equal to, or 1 logarithm below, the transformation frequencies for the parent organism. However, transformation with chromosomal DNA was greatly impaired in the UV-sensitive derivative

  13. Ruminal fermentation of Anti-methanogenic Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH can accumulate in forages and be poisonous to animals if consumed in high enough amounts. These chemicals are also recognized as potent anti-methanogenic compounds, but plants naturally containing these chemicals have been studied little in this regard. Presently, we found that nitrate-, NPA- or NPOH-containing forages effectively decreased methane production, by 35 to 87%, during in vitro fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microbes compared to fermentation by cultures incubated similarly with alfalfa. Methane production was further decreased during incubation of mixed cultures also inoculated with Denitrobacterium detoxificans, a ruminal bacterium known to metabolize nitrate, NPA and NPOH. Inhibition of methanogens within the mixed cultures was greatest with the NPA- and NPOH-containing forages. Hydrogen accumulated in all the mixed cultures incubated with forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH but was dramatically higher, exceeding 40 µmol hydrogen/mL, in mixed cultures incubated with NPA-containing forage but not inoculated with D. detoxificans. This possibly reflects the inhibition of hydrogenase-catalyzed uptake of hydrogen produced via conversion of 50 µmol added formate per mL to hydrogen. Accumulations of volatile fatty acids revealed compensatory changes in fermentation in mixed cultures incubated with the nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages as evidenced by lower accumulations of acetate, and in some cases higher accumulations of butyrate and lower accumulations of ammonia, iso-buytrate and iso-valerate compared to cultures incubated with alfalfa. Results reveal that nitrate, NPA and NPOH that accumulate naturally in forages can be made available within ruminal incubations to inhibit methanogenesis. Further research is warranted to determine if diets can be formulated with nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages to achieve efficacious mitigation in

  14. Amylase-Binding Protein B of Streptococcus gordonii Is an Extracellular Dipeptidyl-Peptidase▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Biswendu; Paju, Susanna; Haase, Elaine M.; Vickerman, M. Margaret; Tanzer, Jason M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii interacts with salivary amylase via two amylase-binding proteins, AbpA and AbpB. Based on sequence analysis, the 20-kDa AbpA protein is unique to S. gordonii, whereas the 82-kDa AbpB protein appears to share sequence homology with other bacterial dipeptidases. The aim of this study was to verify the peptidase activity of AbpB and further explore its potential functions. The abpB gene was cloned, and histidine-tagged AbpB (His-AbpB) was expre...

  15. Simultaneous differential detection of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum and Coxiella burnetii from aborted ruminant's clinical samples using multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolakis Annie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiosis and Q fever, two zoonosis, are important causes of ruminants' abortion around the world. They are caused respectively by strictly intracellular and Gram negative bacterium Chlamydophila abortus (Cp. abortus and Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Chlamydophila pecorum (Cp. pecorum is commonly isolated from the digestive tract of clinically inconspicuous ruminants but the abortive and zoonotic impact of this bacterium is still unknown because Cp. pecorum is rarely suspected in abortion cases of small ruminants. We have developed a multiplex PCR (m-PCR for rapid simultaneous differential detection of Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii in clinical samples taken from infected animals. Results Specific PCR primers were designed and a sensitive and specific m-PCR was developed to detect simultaneously, in one tube reaction, three specific fragments of 821, 526 and 687-bp long for Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii respectively. This m-PCR assay was performed on 253 clinical samples taken from infected ruminant's flocks that have showed problems of abortion diseases. Thus, 67 samples were infected by either one of the three pathogens: 16 (13 vaginal swabs and 3 placentas were positive for Cp. abortus, 2 were positive for Cp. pecorum (1 vaginal swab and 1 placenta and 49 samples (33 vaginal swabs, 11 raw milks, 4 faeces and 1 placenta were positive for C. burnetii. Two vaginal swabs were m-PCR positive of both Cp. abortus and C. burnetii and none of the tested samples was shown to be infected simultaneously with the three pathogens. Conclusion We have successfully developed a rapid multiplex PCR that can detect and differentiate Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii; with a good sensitivity and specificity. The diagnosis of chlamydiosis and Q fever may be greatly simplified and performed at low cost. In addition, the improvement in diagnostic techniques will enhance our knowledge regarding the prevalence and

  16. Identification, typing, ecology and epidemiology of coagulase negative staphylococci associated with ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Piepers, Sofie; Leroy, Frédéric; Van Coillie, Els; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-01-01

    Since phenotypic methods to identify coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) from the milk of ruminants often yield unreliable results, methods for molecular identification based on gene sequencing or fingerprinting techniques have been developed. In addition to culture-based detection of isolates, culture-independent methods may be of interest. On the basis of molecular studies, the five CNS species commonly causing intramammary infections (IMI) are Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. Current knowledge suggests that S. chromogenes is a bovine-adapted species, with most cases of IMI due to this bacterium being opportunistic. S. haemolyticus also appears to be an opportunistic pathogen, but this bacterium occupies a variety of habitats, the importance of which as a source of IMI remains to be elucidated. S. xylosus appears to be a versatile species, but little is known of its epidemiology. S. epidermidis is considered to be a human-adapted species and most cases of IMI appear to arise from human sources, but the organism is capable of residing in other habitats. S. simulans typically causes contagious IMI, but opportunistic cases also occur and the ecology of this bacterium requires further study. Further studies of the ecology and epidemiology of CNS as a cause of IMI in cattle are required, along with careful attention to classification of these bacteria and the diseases they cause. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae Drugs Resistance in Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jie Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rhinosinusitis that usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the reason why patients seek for medical care. Drugs resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. This study was conducted to determine drugs resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia from acute rhinosinusitis in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in June–October 2014 at the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. The sample was taken using nasopharyngeal swabbing from 100 acute rhinosinusitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and planted on tryptic soy agar containing 5% sheep blood and 5 μg/ml of gentamicin sulphate and then incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The identification of Streptococcus pneumonia was performed by optochin test. The susceptibility test against Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using disk diffusion method.The antibiotic disks were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline. Results: Out of 100 samples, 8 of them were tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates died with unknown reason after it were stored at -80 .The drugs resistance test showed the resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim were 6, whereas levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumonia drugs resistance in acute rhinosinusitis shows the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim are 6, whereas the resistance to levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4.

  18. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Lefébure

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46% of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86% in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus and (ii the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB.

  19. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  20. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  1. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections.

  3. Recent Advances in Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Rüştü Kutlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most industrialized animal production branches of ruminant production successfully requires a blending of theoretical knowledge of nutritional principles with practical stockmanship, maintaining health and dealing with numbers. It is well known that high yielding, dairy cows, require balanced diet with adequate nutrients for yielding. This is not provided with only a few feedstuffs. Milk production in dairy cows is related to the improvements in genetic merit of farm animals and also developments in feed science, feed technology and animal nutrition. In particular, feeds and feed technology studies associated with sustainability, economical perspectives and product quality in the last decade have been in advance. In the present work, recent advances in feed sources and feed technology, minerals (macro and trace minerals , vitamins and amino acids, feed additives (antibiotics alternative growth stimulants, rumen modulator, organic acids, antioxidants, enzymes, plant extracts, nutrition-products (meat-milk-progeny quality and functional food production (milk, meat nutrition-reproduction, nutrition-animal health, nutrition-environmental temperature, nutrition-global warming were evaluated.

  4. From Streptococcus lactis to Lactococcus lactis: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the scope of research undertaken around a microbial concept

    OpenAIRE

    Yann Demarigny; Virginie Soldat; Laetitia Gemelas

    2015-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis, formerly named Streptococcus lactis, has been known and used for many years, even before its re-affiliation in 1985. The number of published papers featuring one of the two names, either in the title or in the key words, currently stands at more than 2,900. From 1945 to 2014, a bibliometric analysis of the evolution of this bacterium allowed us to identify three phases we have called 1, the “exploratory period” (or the “US period” if we refer to t...

  5. A RUMINATE EMBRYO IN BLEPHARIS REPENS (VAHL. ROTH. (ACANTHACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. LABHANE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphology of embryo is very significant considering the fact that the embryo represents the important step in the determination of the viability of the seed. Ruminate endosperm has been reported in about 58 families of angiosperms. The rumination caused by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself is quite recurrent in angiosperm. Ruminate endosperm due to seed coat is reported from the family Acanthaceae in Andrographis paniculata. The rumination of endosperm is also considered as phylogenetically important. Rumination of endosperm is very common, however very little is known about rumination in embryo. The present papers reports the de novo development of ruminate embryo in Blepharis repens. The development of ruminate embryo is seen as an adaptation to ensure proper aeration and optimum germination for survival of the species.

  6. Worry and anger rumination in fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ricci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to investigate the psychological profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS as compared to patients with other chronic pain syndromes (CP and healthy subjects (HS; 2 to examine the associations between anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination in FS patients. FS patients (N=30, CP patients (N=30 and HS (N=30 completed measurements of anxiety, depression, worry and angry rumination. FS patients showed higher levels of state and trait anxiety, worry and angry rumination than CP patients and HS, and higher levels of depression than HS. Worry and angry rumination were strongly associated in the FS group. FS patients may use worry and rumination as coping strategies to deal with their negative emotional experience, which might impair their emotional wellbeing. Findings from the present study add to our understanding of the psychological profile of FS patients, and have important implications for developing a tailored CBT protocol for pain management in FS patients.

  7. Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Zijderveld, van, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminant products form an important part of the human diet. The demand for ruminant products is expected to increase due to the increase in the size of the human population and its increasing wealth. The production of ruminant meat and milk is associated with a relatively large environmental impact when compared to other animal products. This is, for a large part, caused by the fact that ruminants produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas, during the digestion of their feed. Many dietary str...

  8. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

  9. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants...

  10. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to the...

  11. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  12. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  13. Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminant products form an important part of the human diet. The demand for ruminant products is expected to increase due to the increase in the size of the human population and its increasing wealth. The production of ruminant meat and milk is associated with a relatively large environmental

  14. The Role of Parenting in the Development of Rumination

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Research suggests that rumination predicts depression in adult and adolescent populations and there is increasing evidence that rumination is a transdiagnostic factor across psychological disorders. Whilst researchers have stressed the importance of understanding the developmental antecedents of rumination and a number of hypotheses have been posited, this area has received little research attention. Additionally, the majority of existing research has ...

  15. Training working memory to reduce rumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Onraedt

    Full Text Available Cognitive symptoms of depression, such as rumination, have shown to be associated with deficits in working memory functioning. More precisely, the capacity to expel irrelevant negative information from working memory seems to be affected. Even though these associations have repeatedly been demonstrated, the nature and causal direction of this association is still unclear. Therefore, within an experimental design, we tried to manipulate working memory functioning of participants with heightened rumination scores in two similar experiments (n = 72 and n = 45 using a six day working memory training compared to active and passive control groups. Subsequently the effects on the processing of non-emotional and emotional information in working memory were monitored. In both experiments, performance during the training task significantly increased, but this performance gain did not transfer to the outcome working memory tasks or rumination and depression measures. Possible explanations for the failure to find transfer effects are discussed.

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization and fungal population in the rumen contents of higid beef steers or wih ruminal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Oliveira Abrão

    2015-03-01

    frequently identified among the isolates obtained for both bovine groups. The ruminal environment of feedlot steers without forage is compatible with characteristics of rumen acidosis, showing absence of anaerobic ruminal fungi and yeasts and predominance of Streptococcus spp. and mycelian fungi.

  17. Strategies for optimizing nitrogen use by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of N utilization in ruminants is typically low (around 25%) and highly variable (10% to 40%) compared with the higher efficiency of other production animals. The low efficiency has implications for the production performance and environment. Many efforts have been devoted to improv......The efficiency of N utilization in ruminants is typically low (around 25%) and highly variable (10% to 40%) compared with the higher efficiency of other production animals. The low efficiency has implications for the production performance and environment. Many efforts have been devoted...

  18. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    % of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has......Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60...

  19. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Host specificity of the ruminal bacterial community in the dairy cow followng near-total exchange of ruminal contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability and host specificity of a cow’s ruminal bacterial community following massive challenge with the ruminal microflora from another cow. In each of two experiments, one pair of cows was selected on the basis of differences in ruminal bacterial comm...

  1. The Road to Infection: Host-Microbe Interactions Defining the Pathogenicity of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus Complex Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jans

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC comprises several species inhabiting the animal and human gastrointestinal tract (GIT. They match the pathobiont description, are potential zoonotic agents and technological organisms in fermented foods. SBSEC members are associated with multiple diseases in humans and animals including ruminal acidosis, infective endocarditis (IE and colorectal cancer (CRC. Therefore, this review aims to re-evaluate adhesion and colonization abilities of SBSEC members of animal, human and food origin paired with genomic and functional host-microbe interaction data on their road from colonization to infection. SBSEC seem to be a marginal population during GIT symbiosis that can proliferate as opportunistic pathogens. Risk factors for human colonization are considered living in rural areas and animal-feces contact. Niche adaptation plays a pivotal role where Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (SGG retained the ability to proliferate in various environments. Other SBSEC members have undergone genome reduction and niche-specific gene gain to yield important commensal, pathobiont and technological species. Selective colonization of CRC tissue is suggested for SGG, possibly related to increased adhesion to cancerous cell types featuring enhanced collagen IV accessibility. SGG can colonize, proliferate and may shape the tumor microenvironment to their benefit by tumor promotion upon initial neoplasia development. Bacteria cell surface structures including lipotheichoic acids, capsular polysaccharides and pilus loci (pil1, pil2, and pil3 govern adhesion. Only human blood-derived SGG contain complete pilus loci and other disease-associated surface proteins. Rumen or feces-derived SGG and other SBSEC members lack or harbor mutated pili. Pili also contribute to binding to fibrinogen upon invasion and translocation of cells from the GIT into the blood system, subsequent immune evasion, human contact

  2. The Road to Infection: Host-Microbe Interactions Defining the Pathogenicity of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus Complex Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Boleij, Annemarie

    2018-01-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) comprises several species inhabiting the animal and human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). They match the pathobiont description, are potential zoonotic agents and technological organisms in fermented foods. SBSEC members are associated with multiple diseases in humans and animals including ruminal acidosis, infective endocarditis (IE) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, this review aims to re-evaluate adhesion and colonization abilities of SBSEC members of animal, human and food origin paired with genomic and functional host-microbe interaction data on their road from colonization to infection. SBSEC seem to be a marginal population during GIT symbiosis that can proliferate as opportunistic pathogens. Risk factors for human colonization are considered living in rural areas and animal-feces contact. Niche adaptation plays a pivotal role where Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (SGG) retained the ability to proliferate in various environments. Other SBSEC members have undergone genome reduction and niche-specific gene gain to yield important commensal, pathobiont and technological species. Selective colonization of CRC tissue is suggested for SGG, possibly related to increased adhesion to cancerous cell types featuring enhanced collagen IV accessibility. SGG can colonize, proliferate and may shape the tumor microenvironment to their benefit by tumor promotion upon initial neoplasia development. Bacteria cell surface structures including lipotheichoic acids, capsular polysaccharides and pilus loci (pil1, pil2, and pil3) govern adhesion. Only human blood-derived SGG contain complete pilus loci and other disease-associated surface proteins. Rumen or feces-derived SGG and other SBSEC members lack or harbor mutated pili. Pili also contribute to binding to fibrinogen upon invasion and translocation of cells from the GIT into the blood system, subsequent immune evasion, human contact system

  3. Severe Streptococcus infection in spotted hyenas in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Ludwig, Arne; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Wohlsein, Peter; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

    2006-06-15

    In a population of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) monitored between 1996 and 2005 in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania, 16 individuals from five of eight social groups displayed clinical signs of an infection, including severe unilateral swelling of the head followed by abscess formation at the mandibular angle, respiratory distress, mild ataxia, and lethargy. Two (12.5%) of these 16 individuals died within days of developing signs. Clinical signs in hyenas were first noted in 2001, and most cases occurred between September 2002 and February 2003, suggesting an outbreak of infection during this period. Histopathological examination of internal organs from one hyena that died with signs revealed morphological changes consistent with severe bacterial infection. Phenotypic examination and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the causative agent of infection revealed a Lancefield group C Streptococcus with a high level of homology to S. equi subsp. ruminatorum, a subspecies of S. equi recently described in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) with mastitis in Spain. Strains similar to this bacterium were also isolated from two hyenas without obvious clinical signs, suggesting that hyenas may be 'carriers' of this bacterium, and from a sympatric Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), a herbivore species often consumed by hyenas. To our knowledge this is the first report of a Streptococcus infection in these two wildlife species. The high genetic similarity between the hyena and zebra isolates indicates that inter-specific transmission may occur, possibly when hyenas consume infected zebra carcasses.

  4. Multiple lung abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Rognoni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous descriptions of body abscesses produced by Streptococcus milleri group bacteria, lung abscesses caused by this group remain under-reported and the clinical and laboratory features have yet to be fully characterised. We present the case of a patient admitted with lung multiple abscesses produced by Streptococcus constellatus.

  5. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  6. Streptococcus suis meningitis, a poacher's risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halaby, T.; Hoitsma, E.; Hupperts, R.; Spanjaard, L.; Luirink, M.; Jacobs, J.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a zoonosis that has been mainly reported in pig-rearing and pork-consuming countries. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, often associated with cochleovestibular signs. The causative agent is Streptococcus suis serotype 2, found as a commensal in the

  7. Role of Streptococcus sanguinis sortase A in bacterial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Ogawa, Taiji; Takahashi, Toshihito; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2006-10-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, has low cariogenicity, though colonization on tooth surfaces by this bacterium initiates aggregation by other oral bacteria and maturation of dental plaque. Additionally, S. sanguinis is frequently isolated from infective endocarditis patients. We investigated the functions of sortase A (SrtA), which cleaves LPXTG-containing proteins and anchors them to the bacterial cell wall, as a possible virulence factor of S. sanguinis. We identified the srtA gene of S. sanguinis by searching a homologous gene of Streptococcus mutans in genome databases. Next, we constructed an srtA-deficient mutant strain of S. sanguinis by insertional inactivation and compared it to the wild type strain. In the case of the mutant strain, some surface proteins could not anchor to the cell wall and were partially released into the culture supernatant. Furthermore, adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads and polystyrene plates, as well as adherence to and invasion of human epithelial cells were reduced significantly in the srtA-deficient strain when compared to the wild type. In addition, antiopsonization levels and bacterial survival of the srtA-deficient mutant were decreased in human whole blood. This is the first known study to report that SrtA contributes to antiopsonization in streptococci. Our results suggest that SrtA anchors surface adhesins as well as some proteins that function as antiopsonic molecules as a means of evading the human immune system. Furthermore, they demonstrate that SrtA of S. sanguinis plays important roles in bacterial colonization.

  8. Alternatives for forage evaluation in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate and to compare in situ and in vitro techniques with in vivo data. These techniques were also evaluated for future and practical use in feed evaluation for ruminants. The techniques were compared using the digestion data of 98 forages and the energy

  9. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  10. [EHEC carriage in ruminants and probiotic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forano, Evelyne; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bertin, Yolande; Martin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga-Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that cause human outbreaks which can lead to a severe illness such as haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), particularly in young children. The gastrointestinal tract of cattle and other ruminants is the principal reservoir of EHEC strains and outbreaks have been associated with direct contact with the farm environment, and with the consumption of meat, dairy products, water and fruit or vegetable contaminated with ruminant manure. Several outbreaks occurred these last years in France. In Brazil, although STEC carriage in ruminants is important, human cases due to EHEC are fairly rare. In order to reduce EHEC survival in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and thus limit contamination of food products, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms underlying EHEC persistence in this ecosystem with the aim of developing nutritional or ecological strategies. The effect of probiotics has been tested in vitro on the growth and survival of EHEC strains and in vivo on the animal carriage of these strains. Various studies have then shown that lactic bacteria or non-pathogenic E. coli strains were able to limit EHEC fecal shedding. In addition, understanding EHEC physiology in the ruminant gut is also critical for limiting EHEC shedding. We found that EHEC O157:H7 is able to use ethanolamine and mucus-derived sugars as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Thus, these substrates represent an ecological niche for EHEC and their utilization confers a competitive growth advantage to these pathogens as they use them more rapidly than the bacteria belonging to the resident intestinal microbiota. Understanding EHEC metabolism and ecology in the bovine intestinal tract will allow proposing probiotic strains to compete with EHEC for nutrients and thus decrease the sanitary risk. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  11. Inhibiting effects of Streptococcus salivarius on competence-stimulating peptide-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, S; Yonezawa, H; Motegi, M; Nakao, R; Yoneda, S; Watanabe, H; Yamazaki, T; Senpuku, H

    2009-04-01

    The effects of Streptococcus salivarius on the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans were investigated. Biofilms were grown on 96-well microtiter plates coated with salivary components in tryptic soy broth without dextrose supplemented with 0.25% sucrose. Biofilm formations were stained using safranin and quantification of stained biofilms was performed by measuring absorbance at 492 nm. S. mutans formed substantial biofilms, whereas biofilms of S. salivarius were formed poorly in the medium conditions used. Furthermore, in combination cultures, S. salivarius strongly inhibited biofilm formation when cultured with S. mutans. This inhibition occurred in the early phase of biofilm formation and was dependent on inactivation of the CSP of S. mutans, which is associated with competence, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial activity of the bacterium, and is induced by expression of the comC gene. Comparisons between the S. mutans clinical strains FSC-3 and FSC-3DeltaglrA in separate dual-species cultures with S. salivarius indicated that the presence of the bacitracin transport ATP-binding protein gene glrA caused susceptibility to inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation by S. salivarius, and was also associated with the regulation of CSP production by com gene-dependent quorum sensing systems. It is considered that regulation of CSP by glrA in S. mutans and CSP inactivation by S. salivarius are important functions for cell-to-cell communication between biofilm bacteria and oral streptococci such as S. salivarius. Our results provide useful information for understanding the ecosystem of oral streptococcal biofilms, as well as the competition between and coexistence of multiple species in the oral cavity.

  12. The role of zoonotic chlamydial agents in ruminants abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Sara; Moori-Bakhtiari, Naghmeh; Najafabadi, Masoud Ghorbanpoor; Momtaz, Hassan; Shokuhizadeh, Leili

    2017-10-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) is caused by infection of sheep and goats by Chlamydia abortus bacterium. Chlamydial abortion in bovine could occur by Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. C. psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis or ornithosis disease in humans and birds. It also causes acute pneumonia in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed at surveying the role of chlamydial agents in ruminants abortion. A total of 117 aborted material samples (Cotyledon, liver, spleen, and abomasal contents of fetus) from 9 cattle and 100 sheep in Shahr-e-Kord and 8 sheep from Bagh-e-Malek were collected from different herds with abortion history during the lambing periods from 2014 to 2016. After DNA extraction, the samples were tested by species-specific PCR to detect C. abortus, C. pecorum and C. psittaci. Out of 117 clinical sample (108 sheep and 9 cattle), chlamydial infection was detected in 66 (56.41%) samples by Chlamydiales order-specific primers. A total of 24 (36.36%) and 24 (36.36%) samples indicated positive forms of C. abortus and C. psittasi infections, respectively. Only 1 (1.5%) C. pecorum was identified from cattle using nested PCR during this study. Among 66 Chlamydiales -positive samples, 20 (30.30%) samples with coinfection of C. abortus and C. psittaci were detected, however, infection of 3 species was not detected in the samples. Because of the high percentage of chlamydial infection in these regions and probability of coinfection, conducting epidemiological studies on the role of different animals is highly recommended.

  13. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schulz

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5 CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs. Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  14. Detection and genotyping of Chlamydia species responsible for reproductive disorders in Algerian small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdja, Salah-Eddine; Khaled, Hamza; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Bertin, Claire; Dahmani, Ali; Bouyoucef, Abdallah; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydiosis in small ruminants is a zoonotic disease mainly related to Chlamydia abortus. This bacterium is responsible for abortions and reproductive disorders in sheep and goats. Stillbirth and infertility, leading to important economic losses, are also associated with this pathology. In Algeria, abortion cases are frequently reported by veterinarians but, except for brucellosis which is a notifiable disease in this country, abortive diseases are in general poorly studied. In order to detect and genotype Chlamydia species in small ruminants in different areas of Algeria, a study was conducted on samples collected from females (164 blood samples and 199 vaginal swabs) between October 2011 and March 2013. Serum samples were tested with a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA test. Fourteen samples (8.5 %), from six farms (6/20, 30 %) were tested positive. Vaginal swabs were analysed with a real-time PCR targeting all Chlamydiaceae spp. Thirty samples (15 %) were diagnosed positive in 16 farms (16/25, 64 %). Positive samples were all re-tested with a C. abortus- and a C. pecorum-specific real-time PCR. Finally, 13/30 (43.3 %) and 6/30 (20 %) were identified as C. abortus and C. pecorum, respectively. Enough concentrated C. abortus samples were genotyped by multi-loci variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), and all were related to the genotype [2] group which mainly includes French C. abortus isolates. C. pecorum-positive samples were genotyped by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Interestingly, two of them were successfully genotyped and showed identical MLST sequences to VB2, AB10, E58 and SBE, a group which includes C. pecorum isolates considered as highly pathogenic. These findings suggest a possible role of C. abortus and C. pecorum strains in the aetiology of abortion in Algerian small ruminants.

  15. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Rabiul Hossain; Bhuiyan, Md IqbalKaiser; Saha, Ayan; Mosleh, Ivan Mhai; Mondol, Sobuj; Ahmed, C M Sabbir

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein-protein interaction. In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic pathways were revealed by this research. Active sites and druggable pockets of these selected proteins were investigated with bioinformatic techniques. In addition, this study also mentions the activity of those proteins, as well as their interactions with the other proteins. Our findings helped to identify the type of protein to be considered as an efficient drug target. This study will pave the way for researchers to develop and discover more effective and specific

  16. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Rabiul Hossain; Bhuiyan, Md IqbalKaiser; Saha, Ayan; Mosleh, Ivan MHAI; Mondol, Sobuj; Ahmed, C M Sabbir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. Materials and methods In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein–protein interaction. Results In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic pathways were revealed by this research. Active sites and druggable pockets of these selected proteins were investigated with bioinformatic techniques. In addition, this study also mentions the activity of those proteins, as well as their interactions with the other proteins. Conclusion Our findings helped to identify the type of protein to be considered as an efficient drug target. This study will pave the way for researchers to

  17. The four faces of rumination to stressful events: A psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Felipe E; Duque, Almudena; Cova, Félix

    2017-11-01

    To increase the knowledge of rumination and its associations with stressful events, we explored the relationships between 4 types of rumination (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination) in a sample of 750 adult participants who experienced a highly stressful event. We also explored the predictive value of the different types of rumination on posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth 6 months after the highly stressful event occurred. Participants completed the Ruminative Response Scale and the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Brooding and reflection rumination were obtained from the Ruminative Response Scale, whereas deliberate and intrusive rumination were obtained from the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Confirmatory factorial analyses were conducted using the 4 types of rumination to test 3 different models: (a) 4-factor model (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination), (b) 2-factor model: adaptive rumination (reflection and deliberate) and maladaptive rumination (brooding and intrusive), and (c) 2-factor model: depressive rumination (brooding and reflection) and posttraumatic rumination (intrusive and deliberate). It was observed that the 4-factor model showed the best fit to the data. Moreover, 6 months later it was observed that the most significant predictor of posttraumatic symptoms was intrusive rumination, whereas deliberate rumination was the most significant predictor of posttraumatic growth. Results indicate that the 4 types of rumination are differentiated constructs. Ruminative thoughts experienced after a stressful event predicted posttraumatic consequences 6 months later. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Zymomonas mobilis: a bacterium for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, J.C.; Bu' Lock, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a facultative anaerobic gram negative bacterium first isolated in tropical countries from alcoholic beverages like the African palm wine, the Mexican pulque and also as a contaminant of cider (cider sickness) or beer in the European countries. It is one of the few facultative anaerobic bacteria degrading glucose by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway usually found in strictly aerobic microorganisms. Some work was devoted to this bacterium in the 50s and 60s and was reviewed by Swings and De Ley in their classical paper published in 1977. During the 70s there was very little work on the bacterium until 1979 and the first report by the Australian group of P.L. Rogers on the great potentialities of Z. mobilis for ethanol production. At that time the petroleum crisis had led the developed countries to search for alternative fuel from renewable resources. The Australian group clearly demonstrated the advantages of the bacterium compared to the yeasts traditionally used for the alcoholic fermentation. As a result, there was a considerable burst in the Zymomonas literature which started from nearly zero in the late 70s to attain 70 papers published in the field in 1984. In this article, papers published from 1982 to 1986 are reviewed.

  19. RUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: Use of genomics and transcriptomics to identify strategies to lower ruminal methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T A; Meale, S J; Valle, E; Guan, L L; Zhou, M; Kelly, W J; Henderson, G; Attwood, G T; Janssen, P H

    2015-04-01

    Globally, methane (CH4) emissions account for 40% to 45% of greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant livestock, with over 90% of these emissions arising from enteric fermentation. Reduction of carbon dioxide to CH4 is critical for efficient ruminal fermentation because it prevents the accumulation of reducing equivalents in the rumen. Methanogens exist in a symbiotic relationship with rumen protozoa and fungi and within biofilms associated with feed and the rumen wall. Genomics and transcriptomics are playing an increasingly important role in defining the ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and identifying avenues for its mitigation. Metagenomic approaches have provided information on changes in abundances as well as the species composition of the methanogen community among ruminants that vary naturally in their CH4 emissions, their feed efficiency, and their response to CH4 mitigators. Sequencing the genomes of rumen methanogens has provided insight into surface proteins that may prove useful in the development of vaccines and has allowed assembly of biochemical pathways for use in chemogenomic approaches to lowering ruminal CH4 emissions. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomic analysis of entire rumen microbial communities are providing new perspectives on how methanogens interact with other members of this ecosystem and how these relationships may be altered to reduce methanogenesis. Identification of community members that produce antimethanogen agents that either inhibit or kill methanogens could lead to the identification of new mitigation approaches. Discovery of a lytic archaeophage that specifically lyses methanogens is 1 such example. Efforts in using genomic data to alter methanogenesis have been hampered by a lack of sequence information that is specific to the microbial community of the rumen. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census are increasing the breadth and depth of our understanding of global ruminal microbial communities, steps that

  20. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  1. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaeva, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  2. Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... The CCPP bacterium causes sick animals to experience severe symptoms ... because antibiotic treatment does not eliminate the responsible bacterium. ... To develop a fast growing CCPP vaccine for cheaper production and ...

  3. A visual review of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kilian, Mogens; Goodsell, David S; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Being the principal causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and septicemia, the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major global health problem. To highlight the molecular basis of this problem, we have portrayed essential biological processes of the pneumococcal life cycle in eight watercolor paintings. The paintings are done to a consistent nanometer scale based on currently available data from structural biology and proteomics. In this review article, the paintings are used to provide a visual review of protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall synthesis, cell division, teichoic acid synthesis, virulence, transformation and pilus synthesis based on the available scientific literature within the field of pneumococcal biology. Visualization of the molecular details of these processes reveals several scientific questions about how molecular components of the pneumococcal cell are organized to allow biological function to take place. By the presentation of this visual review, we intend to stimulate scientific discussion, aid in the generation of scientific hypotheses and increase public awareness. A narrated video describing the biological processes in the context of a whole-cell illustration accompany this article. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Streptococcus intermedius Cerebral Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih Nayfe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral abscess is caused by inoculation of an organism into the brain parenchyma from a site distant from the central nervous system. Streptococcus intermedius (S. intermedius is a commensal organism that is normally present in the aerodigestive tract and was reported to be the cause of brain abscesses after esophageal dilatation or upper endoscopy. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with hematemesis and melena followed by left-sided weakness. Initially, her hemiplegia was found to be secondary to a right thalamic brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Investigations led to the diagnosis of a mid-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We hypothesize that the cause of the abscess with this bacterium that naturally resides in the digestive tract and oral cavity is secondary to hematogenous spread from breach in the mucosal integrity from ulceration due to the cancer. Conclusion. To our knowledge, our case is the first in the literature to describe a brain abscess caused by S. intermedius in association with a previously undiagnosed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma without any prior esophageal intervention.

  5. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for ef...... no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves.......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...

  6. First report of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Oreochromis niloticus in Piura, Peru: Molecular identification and histopathological lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Ortega Asencios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae isolated in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from Piura, Peru and to characterize the histopathological lesions caused by this pathogen. Sixteen tilapias were sampled with clinic signs of the disease such as erratic swimming, exophthalmia and haemorrhages on the body and fins. Qualitative PCR in real time and histopathological analysis were performed. Nine fishes positives to S. agalactiae were found. The main histopathological findings were fibrinosuppurative epicarditis, periesplenitis, meninigitis and panophtaltmitis with predominance of mononuclear infiltration in all tissues. The correlation between qPCR and histopathological findings demonstrated nine fish (prevalence of 56.25% with Cq lower than 30, associated to high degree of tissue injuries. This study reports the first isolation of S. agalactiae by PCR in real time in tilapia farmed in Peru and characterizes the major histopathological changes caused by this bacterium.

  7. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretionin ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo , David; Sauvant , Daniel; Bogaert , Catherine; Meschy , François

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus...

  8. Assessing gene function in the ruminant placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R V; Cantlon, J D; Gates, K C; Purcell, S H; Clay, C M

    2010-01-01

    The placenta provides the means for nutrient transfer from the mother to the fetus, waste transfer from the fetus to the mother, protection of the fetus from the maternal immune system, and is an active endocrine organ. While many placental functions have been defined and investigated, assessing the function of specific genes expressed by the placenta has been problematic, since classical ablation-replacement methods are not feasible with the placenta. The pregnant sheep has been a long-standing animal model for assessing in vivo physiology during pregnancy, since surgical placement of indwelling catheters into both maternal and fetal vasculature has allowed the assessment of placental nutrient transfer and utilization, as well as placental hormone secretion, under unanesthetized-unstressed steady state sampling conditions. However, in ruminants the lack of well-characterized trophoblast cell lines and the inefficiency of creating transgenic pregnancies in ruminants have inhibited our ability to assess specific gene function. Recently, sheep and cattle primary trophoblast cell lines have been reported, and may further our ability to investigate trophoblast function and transcriptional regulation of genes expressed by the placenta. Furthermore, viral infection of the trophoectoderm layer of hatched blastocysts, as a means for placenta-specific transgenesis, holds considerable potential to assess gene function in the ruminant placenta. This approach has been used successfully to "knockdown" gene expression in the developing sheep conceptus, and has the potential for gain-of-function experiments as well. While this technology is still being developed, it may provide an efficient approach to assess specific gene function in the ruminant placenta.

  9. Fluid therapy in small ruminants and camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredyth; Navarre, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Body water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance are important considerations in the evaluation and treatment of small ruminants and camelids with any disease process, with restoration of these a priority as adjunctive therapy. The goals of fluid therapy should be to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion, and to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are the most life-threatening abnormalities, and require most immediate correction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Sharmin; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  11. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the ...

  12. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR construct in current empirical psychiatric research.Method: We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE, SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology.Results: Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models.Conclusion: Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  13. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; da Costa, Fábio Antônio; Soares, Ana Luiza Alfaya Galego; Mecler, Kátia; Valença, Alexandre Martins

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR) construct in current empirical psychiatric research. We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE), SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models. Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  14. Suppurative intracranial processes in 15 domestic ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to listeriosis which is relatively common in ruminants, there are three other uncommon suppurative intracranial processes (SIP identifiable in adult ungulates as brain abscess, basilar empyema and suppurative meningitis. The present paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, pathological and microbiological findings of 15 domestic ruminants with SIP. A total of 15 animals were selected (eight sheep, four cattle and three goats; with the definitive diagnoses of basilar empyema (n=3, brain abscess (n=1, listeriosis (n=5 and suppurative meningitis (n=6. Hematology revealed leukocytosis with inversion of the lymphocyte/ neutrophil ratio in 4 cases. In the majority of animals, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF presented light yellow coloration and cloudy aspect due to neutrophilic pleocytosis (15 - 997 leukocytes/µL. Microbiological culture of CSF or central nervous system (CNS fragments resulted on isolation of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli and Stenotrophomonas sp. In a goat with thalamic abscess, microbiological assay was not performed, but Gram positive bacilli type bacteria were observed in histology. The diagnosis of these outbreaks was based on the association of epidemiological, clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings; reiterating that the infectious component remains an important cause of CNS disease in domestic ruminants and also shows the need for dissemination of information about the most effective preventive measures for the ranchers.

  15. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  16. [Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A

    1994-01-01

    Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies.

  17. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  18. Occurrence, isolation and DNA identification of Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Streptococcus thermophilus involved in Algerian ... among reference, and wild strains of S. thermophilus and for their differentiation from Enterococcus spp. ..... Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.

  19. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the ... The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that .... Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom,. Jos.

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  1. Role of Streptococcus Anginosus on the formation of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Herdiyati Nonong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the etiology of dental caries is the cariogenic properties of bacteria, these are always associated with Streptococcus mutans. Glucosyltransferase fragment (Gtf are also in other strains of Streptococcus such as Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus milleri which includes beta hemolysis. Genotypically B Streptococcus anginosus has genetic characteristics that are similar to Streptococcus mutans. The research objective was to determine the existence of Gtf B/C gene as a cause of caries in Streptococcus anginosus. The study was conducted in experimental laboratories with PCR technique by taking a sample of 20 children who had caries. The results showed there was the amplification of Streptococcus anginosus with a level of homology 96%, 97%, and 99%. The results of the Gtf genes amplification fragment B/C provided 600 pb ribbon. The conclusion was Streptococcus anginosus classified as cariogenic bacteria because they had Gtf B/C genes.

  2. The Effect of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory Retrieval on Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From distinct research traditions rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval (OGM have emerged as two vulnerability markers for depression and depressive relapse (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004; Williams, 2004. Recent research further suggests a causal relation between rumination and OGM (e.g., Watkins & Teasdale, 2001. The present study investigated the inverse relationship, that is, OGM causally influencing ruminative thinking. A scrambled sentences procedure was used to assess the extent to which 112 student participants were engaged in a mental mode consistent with ruminative thinking following either a specific or overgeneral memory retrieval style manipulation. Trait rumination was also assessed prior to the experimental retrieval manipulation, using a self-report scale. It was found that high ruminators, following an overgeneral (as compared to a specific retrieval style, unscrambled sentences relatively more into sentences with a ruminative meaning. In non or low ruminators this retrieval style manipulation had no such effect. Alongside the findings of Watkins and colleagues (e.g., Watkins & Teasdale, 2001, the present results are consistent with the view of rumination and OGM as two mutually reinforcing vulnerability factors for depression (Williams, 1996, 2004.

  3. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Wagner, Clara A; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12-13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aortitis with bacteraemia by Streptococcus equi Zooepidemicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, Carlos Alberto; Giraldo, Juan David; Saldarriaga Eugenia Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures

  5. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  6. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, J R; Penner, G B; Stumpff, F; Gäbel, G

    2011-04-01

    Highly fermentable diets are rapidly converted to organic acids [i.e., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid] within the rumen. The resulting release of protons can constitute a challenge to the ruminal ecosystem and animal health. Health disturbances, resulting from acidogenic diets, are classified as subacute and acute acidosis based on the degree of ruminal pH depression. Although increased acid production is a nutritionally desired effect of increased concentrate feeding, the accumulation of protons in the rumen is not. Consequently, mechanisms of proton removal and their quantitative importance are of major interest. Saliva buffers (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate) have long been identified as important mechanisms for ruminal proton removal. An even larger proportion of protons appears to be removed from the rumen by SCFA absorption across the ruminal epithelium, making efficiency of SCFA absorption a key determinant for the individual susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis. Proceeding initially from a model of exclusively diffusional absorption of fermentation acids, several protein-dependent mechanisms have been discovered over the last 2 decades. Although the molecular identity of these proteins is mostly uncertain, apical acetate absorption is mediated, to a major degree, via acetate-bicarbonate exchange in addition to another nitrate-sensitive, bicarbonate-independent transport mechanism and lipophilic diffusion. Propionate and butyrate also show partially bicarbonate-dependent transport modes. Basolateral efflux of SCFA and their metabolites has to be mediated primarily by proteins and probably involves the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) and anion channels. Although the ruminal epithelium removes a large fraction of protons from the rumen, it also recycles protons to the rumen via apical sodium-proton exchanger, NHE. The latter is stimulated by ruminal SCFA absorption and salivary Na(+) secretion and protects epithelial integrity. Finally

  7. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury MRH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Md Rabiul Hossain Chowdhury,1 Md IqbalKaiser Bhuiyan,2 Ayan Saha,2 Ivan MHAI Mosleh,2 Sobuj Mondol,2 C M Sabbir Ahmed3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh Purpose: Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. Materials and methods: In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein–protein interaction. Results: In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic

  8. Streptococcus gordonii LuxS/autoinducer-2 quorum-sensing system modulates the dual-species biofilm formation with Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Xiaolan; Ling, Junqi

    2017-07-01

    Dental plaques are mixed-species biofilms that are related to the development of dental caries. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is an important cariogenic bacterium that forms mixed-species biofilms with Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii), an early colonizer of the tooth surface. The LuxS/autoinducer-2(AI-2) quorum sensing system is involved in the regulation of mixed-species biofilms, and AI-2 is proposed as a universal signal for the interaction between bacterial species. In this work, a S. gordonii luxS deficient strain was constructed to investigate the effect of the S. gordonii luxS gene on dual-species biofilm formed by S. mutans and S. gordonii. In addition, AI-2 was synthesized in vitro by incubating recombinant LuxS and Pfs enzymes of S. gordonii together. The effect of AI-2 on S. mutans single-species biofilm formation and cariogenic virulence gene expression were also assessed. The results showed that luxS disruption in S. gordonii altered dual-species biofilm formation, architecture, and composition, as well as the susceptibility to chlorhexidine. And the in vitro synthesized AI-2 had a concentration-dependent effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and virulence gene expression. These findings indicate that LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system of S. gordonii plays a role in regulating the dual-species biofilm formation with S. mutans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Croom Jim; Hook Sarah E; AlZahal Ousama; Steele Michael A; McBride Brian W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage) to a high-grain (79% grain) diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Rumin...

  11. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the

  12. Relation of Growth of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris to Amino Acid Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Bert; Konings, Wil N.

    The maximum specific growth rate of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris on synthetic medium containing glutamate but no glutamine decreases rapidly above pH 7. Growth of these organisms is extended to pH values in excess of 8 in the presence of glutamine. These results can be explained

  13. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  15. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  16. Isolation and characterisation of Listeria species from ruminants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Listeria species in ruminants in Maiduguri. Three hundred faecal samples were randomly collected from ruminants at the Maiduguri central abattoir from January – March, 2011. One hundred faecal samples each were collected from cattle, sheep and ...

  17. [Rumination and cognitive fusion in dementia family caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Márquez-González, María; Losada, Andrés; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Rumination has been described as a dysfunctional coping strategy related to emotional distress. Recently, it has been highlighted from the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy therapeutic approach, the negative role that cognitive fusion (the extent to which we are psychologically tangled with and dominated by the form or content of our thoughts) has on the explanation of distress. The aim of this study is to simultaneously analyze the role of rumination and cognitive fusion in the caregiving stress process. The sample of 176 dementia caregivers was divided in four groups, taking into account their levels of rumination and cognitive fusion: HRHF=high rumination+high cognitive fusion; HRLF=high rumination+low cognitive fusion; LRHF= low rumination+high cognitive fusion; and LRLC=low rumination and low cognitive fusion. Caregiver stress factors, frequency of pleasant events, experiential avoidance, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life, were measured. The HRHF group showed higher levels of depression, anxiety, experiential avoidance and lower levels of satisfaction with life, frequency of pleasant events, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, than the other three groups. Considering simultaneously rumination and cognitive fusion may contribute to a better understanding of caregiver coping and distress. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.

  19. Troubled Ruminations about Parents: Conceptualization and Validation with Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to introduce the construct of troubled ruminations about parents and to develop a brief screening instrument. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,376 university students completed the instrument and other measures of psychosocial functioning. Troubled ruminations about mothers and fathers were related to self-esteem, life…

  20. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  1. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ann E; Autran, Chloe A; Szyszka, Alexandra; Escajadillo, Tamara; Huang, Mia; Godula, Kamil; Prudden, Anthony R; Boons, Geert-Jan; Lewis, Amanda L; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities

  2. Modelling digestive constraints in non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J; Streich, W Jürgen; Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines with increasing contents of plant fibre (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; measured as neutral-detergent fibre, NDF), the tubiform foregut of kangaroos may allow these animals to maintain food intakes more so than ruminants like sheep, which appear to be limited by fibrous bulk filling the foregut and truncating further ingestion. Using available data on dry matter intake (DMI, g kg(-0.75) d(-1)), ingesta mean retention time (MRT, h), and apparent digestibility, we modelled digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible energy intake (DEI) by ruminant sheep (Ovis aries) and by the largest marsupial herbivore, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). Sheep achieved higher MRTs on similar DMIs, and hence sheep achieved higher DDMIs for any given level of DMI as compared with kangaroos. Interestingly, MRT declined in response to increasing DMI in a similar pattern for both species, and the association between DMI and plant NDF contents did not support the hypothesis that kangaroos are less affected by increasing fibre relative to sheep. However, when DEI was modelled according to DDMIs and dietary energy contents, we show that the kangaroos could meet their daily maintenance energy requirements (MER) at lower levels of DMI and on diets with higher fibre contents compared with sheep, due largely to the kangaroos' lower absolute maintenance and basal energy metabolisms compared with eutherians. These results suggest that differences in the metabolic set-point of different species can have profound effects on their nutritional niche, even when their digestive constraints are similar, as was the case for these ruminant and non-ruminant

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae: a vaginal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A N; Palermos, J; Kantzanou, M; Maniatis, N A; Christodoulou, C; Legakis, N J

    1996-03-01

    The significance of Streptococcus agalactiae as an aetiological agent in vaginitis was evaluated. A total of 6226 samples from women who presented with vaginal symptoms was examined. The presence of >10 leucocytes/high-power field (h.p.f.) was taken to be the criterion of active infection. S. agalactiae was isolated from 10.1% of these samples. The isolation rates of other common pathogens such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas spp. were 54.1%, 27.2% and 4.2%, respectively, in the same group of patients. In contrast, the isolation rates of these micro-organisms in the group of patients who had no infection (S. agalactiae was isolated, it was the sole pathogen isolated (83%) and its presence was associated with an inflammatory response in 80% of patients. Furthermore, the relative risk of vaginal infection with S. agalactiae (2.38) in patients with purulent vaginal discharge was greater than that of Candida spp. infection (1.41) and lower than that of Trichomonas spp. infection (8.32). These data suggest that S. agalactiae in symptomatic women with microscopic evidence of inflammation should be considered a causative agent of vaginitis.

  4. Effect of radurization on the bacterial flora, safety and keeping quality of rough washed bovine ruminal wall (offal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Heever, L W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Div. Food Hygiene and Public Health

    1977-01-01

    Rough washed bovine ruminal wall is available at low cost in many African countries to traditional consumers of such offal. The consumers consistently oppose any further cleaning or processing which would alter its appearance or elevate its cost. Such offal undoubtedly possesses high nutritional value but is highly perishable product contaminated with numerous bacteria some of which are potential pathogens or toxigens. A preliminary investigation showed that the bacterial counts could be reduced by more that 90% by gamma radiation of such offal with doses of 100-200 krad. Such radiation doubled or trebled the keeping quality of the offal at 4/sup 0/C. Some of the organisms present in offal survive low doses of radiation. They were mainly species of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium, some of which survived 600 krad. Irradiation doses of 600 krad were in any event necessary to numerically reduce experimental contamination of minced ruminal wall with Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella dublin and Clostridium perfringens to a level where these organisms could not be recovered by ordinary cultural procedures (the two strains of S. aureus tested varied in their radiation resistance).

  5. The effect of radurization on the bacterial flora, safety and keeping quality of rough washed bovine ruminal wall (offal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heever, L.W. van den

    1977-01-01

    Rough washed bovine ruminal wall is available at low cost in many African countries to traditional consumers of such offal. The consumers consistently oppose any further cleaning or processing which would alter its appearance or elevate its cost. Such offal undoubtedly possesses high nutritional value but is highly perishable product contaminated with numerous bacteria some of which are potential pathogens or toxigens. A preliminary investigation showed that the bacterial counts could be reduced by more that 90% by gamma radiation of such offal with doses of 100-200 krad. Such radiation doubled or trebled the keeping quality of the offal at 4 0 C. Some of the organisms present in offal survive low doses of radiation. They were mainly species of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium, some of which survived 600 krad. Irradiation doses of 600 krad were in any event necessary to numerically reduce experimental contamination of minced ruminal wall with Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella dublin and Clostridium perfringens to a level where these organisms could not be recovered by ordinary cultural procedures (the two strains of S. aureus tested varied in their radiation resistance). (orig.) [de

  6. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Seeberger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS. A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations.

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Achyranthes aspera extract against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries and periodontal diseases have historically been considered the most important global oral health burdens. Many chemicals and synthetic drugs have marked the side effects. Hence, there has been a paradigm shift from the use of modern drugs to the age-old herbs. Achyranthes aspera is one such important plant with various established pharmaceutical properties. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of the A. aspera extract against Streptococcus mutans. Aqueous extract of A. aspera was prepared. Different concentrations of the root and stem extracts of A. aspera were transferred to the agar plates, which had been streaked with the bacterium S. mutans. The plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 h, and the zones of inhibition were measured using cup plate method. A. aspera extract showed statistically significant zones of inhibition. A. aspera showed marked antibacterial activity against S. mutans.

  8. Mechanisms and impact of genetic recombination in the evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaguza, Chrispin; Cornick, Jennifer E; Everett, Dean B

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a highly recombinogenic bacterium responsible for a high burden of human disease globally. Genetic recombination, a process in which exogenous DNA is acquired and incorporated into its genome, is a key evolutionary mechanism employed by the pneumococcus to rapidly adapt to selective pressures. The rate at which the pneumococcus acquires genetic variation through recombination is much higher than the rate at which the organism acquires variation through spontaneous mutations. This higher rate of variation allows the pneumococcus to circumvent the host innate and adaptive immune responses, escape clinical interventions, including antibiotic therapy and vaccine introduction. The rapid influx of whole genome sequence (WGS) data and the advent of novel analysis methods and powerful computational tools for population genetics and evolution studies has transformed our understanding of how genetic recombination drives pneumococcal adaptation and evolution. Here we discuss how genetic recombination has impacted upon the evolution of the pneumococcus.

  9. Pili of oral Streptococcus sanguinis bind to fibronectin and contribute to cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Nakata, Masanobu; Sakurai, Atsuo; Terao, Yutaka; Hoshino, Tomonori; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Isoda, Ryutaro; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ooshima, Takashi

    2010-01-08

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. We identified a unique cell surface polymeric structure named pili in this species and investigated its functions in regard to its potential virulence. Pili of S. sanguinis strain SK36 were shown to be composed of three distinctive pilus proteins (PilA, PilB, and PilC), and a pili-deficient mutant demonstrated reduced bacterial adherence to HeLa and human oral epithelial cells. PilC showed a binding ability to fibronectin, suggesting that pili are involved in colonization by this species. In addition, ATCC10556, a standard S. sanguinis strain, was unable to produce pili due to defective pilus genes, which indicates a diversity of pilus expression among various S. sanguinis strains. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Streptococcus varani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF10T (= CSUR P1489 = DSM 100884 was isolated from the oral cavity of a lizard (Varanus niloticus in Dakar, Senegal. Here we used a polyphasic study including phenotypic and genomic analyses to describe the strain FF10T. Results support strain FF10T being a Gram-positive coccus, facultative anaerobic bacterium, catalase-negative, non-motile and non-spore forming. The sequenced genome counts 2.46 Mb with one chromosome but no plasmid. It exhibits a G+C content of 40.4% and contains 2471 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes. On the basis of these data, we propose the creation of Streptococcus varani sp. nov.

  11. Use of Tetravalent Galabiose for Inhibition of Streptococcus Suis Serotype 2 Infection in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Krogfelt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen associated with a variety of infections such as meningitis, arthritis and septicemia. The bacterium is zoonotic and has been found to cause meningitis especially in humans occupationally exposed to infected pigs. Since adhesion is a prerequisite for colonization and subsequent infection, anti-adhesion treatment seems a natural alternative to traditional treatment with antibiotics. In order to optimize the inhibitory potency a multivalency approach was taken in the inhibitor design. A synthetic tetravalent galabiose compound was chosen which had previously shown promising anti-adhesion effects with S. suis in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of the compound using an infection peritonitis mouse model. As such S. suis serotype 2 infection and treatment were tested in vivo and the effects were compared to the effect of treatment with penicillin.

  12. [A case of multiple liver abscesses associated with Streptococcus salivarius in a patient with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Saori; Otsuka, Taiga; Tsuji, Chika; Nakashita, Shunya; Ide, Yasushi; Mizuta, Toshihiko

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is an oral commensal bacterium that rarely causes disease in humans. Here, we report a case of liver abscess associated with S. salivarius in a 41-year-old woman who presented with continuous abdominal discomfort, fatigue, and fever. She was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses; she underwent percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage. Thereafter, S. salivarius was isolated in all bacterial cultures of the drained abscesses, and it was sensitive to penicillins. She made a good recovery after treatment. In the absence of an infective source other than chronic periodontitis, the cause of liver abscesses was attributed to oral S. salivarius. S. salivarius is a normal oral commensal, and oral commensals must be considered if the infective origin of liver abscess cannot be determined.

  13. Self-rumination, self-reflection, and depression: self-rumination counteracts the adaptive effect of self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Self-focused attention has adaptive and maladaptive aspects: self-reflection and self-rumination [Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284-304]. Although reflection is thought to be associated with problem solving and the promotion of mental health, previous researches have shown that reflection does not always have an adaptive effect on depression. Authors have examined the causes behind this inconsistency by modeling the relationships among self-reflection, self-rumination, and depression. One hundred and eleven undergraduates (91 men and 20 women) participated in a two-time point assessment with a 3-week interval. Statistical analysis with structural equation modeling showed that self-reflection significantly predicted self-rumination, whereas self-rumination did not predict self-reflection. With regard to depression, self-reflection was associated with a lower level of depression; self-rumination, with a higher level of depression. The total effect of self-reflection on depression was almost zero. This result indicates that self-reflection per se has an adaptive effect, which is canceled out by the maladaptive effect of self-rumination, because reflectors are likely to ruminate and reflect simultaneously.

  14. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  15. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TIME BETWEEN RUMINAL GLUCOSE CHALLENGES ON RUMEN FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín F. Montaño-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal lactic acidosis is one of the most important metabolic problems in feedlot cattle. Gradually transitioning cattle to finishing-feedlot diets may reduce the risk for ruminal acidosis by providing sufficient time for adaptation. This adaptation of feedlot cattle to high-concentrate diets may causes marked changes in the ruminal environment, and time is required to establish stable ruminal conditions.   However, few studies have evaluated the ruminal adaptation in steers. A metabolism trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two consecutive glucose challenges on rumen function in steers fed a high-energy finishing diet. Four Holstein steers (320 kg LW with cannula in the rumen were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were used and consisted of the time elapsed between both challenges of glucose (2, 4, 6 or 8 d. Ruminal fluid samples were taken at 0700 h (just prior the first glucose challenge, and from the second challenge (d 2, 4, 6, or 8 at 1 h before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 28, 52, 124, 196 and 268 h. As the time between fluctuation of energy intake increased, ruminal fluid pH (P 0.10. During the first 6 h following the second glucose challenge ruminal fluid pH decreased. No effects of treatments on ruminal pH were observed (P >0.10 among treatments from 3 days after the second challenge. Ruminal fluid osmotic pressure increased (P <0.10 after dosed glucose with all treatments. Ruminal osmolality increased (P <0.10 as the time between challenges were 2 or 4 days. After dosed glucose, total volatile fatty acids increased, except by treatment 1 after second challenge. Total volatile fatty acid and pH were related positively (R2 =0.69. As the time increased, a tendency on increment of concentrations of protozoa was observed. Ruminal glucose concentration decreased linearly (P <0.10 2 h after the second fluctuation of energy intake. We conclude that ruminal alterations are magnified as the time between glucose challenge

  17. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

  18. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkou, Victoria I; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94 ruminant C. abortus strains, field isolates and samples collected from 1950 to 2011 in diverse geographic locations, with the aim of delineating C. abortus lineages and clones. MLST revealed the previously identified sequence types (STs) ST19, ST25, ST29 and ST30, plus ST86, a recently-assigned type on the Chlamydiales MLST website and ST87, a novel type harbouring the hemN_21 allele, whereas MLVA recognized seven types (MT1 to MT7). Minimum-spanning-tree analysis suggested that all STs but one (ST30) belonged to a single clonal complex, possibly reflecting the short evolutionary timescale over which the predicted ancestor (ST19) has diversified into three single-locus variants (ST86, ST87 and ST29) and further, through ST86 diversification, into one double-locus variant (ST25). ST descendants have probably arisen through a point mutation evolution mode. Interestingly, MLVA showed that in the ST19 population there was a greater genetic diversity than in other STs, most of which exhibited the same MT over time and geographical distribution. However, the evolutionary pathways of C. abortus STs seem to be diverse across geographic distances with individual STs restricted to particular geographic locations. The ST30 singleton clone displaying geographic specificity and represented by the Greek strains LLG and POS was effectively distinguished from the clonal complex lineage, supporting the notion that possibly two separate host adaptations and hence independent bottlenecks of C. abortus have occurred through time. The combination of MLST and MLVA assays provides an additional level of C. abortus discrimination and may prove useful for the investigation and surveillance of

  19. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I Siarkou

    Full Text Available Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to genotype 94 ruminant C. abortus strains, field isolates and samples collected from 1950 to 2011 in diverse geographic locations, with the aim of delineating C. abortus lineages and clones. MLST revealed the previously identified sequence types (STs ST19, ST25, ST29 and ST30, plus ST86, a recently-assigned type on the Chlamydiales MLST website and ST87, a novel type harbouring the hemN_21 allele, whereas MLVA recognized seven types (MT1 to MT7. Minimum-spanning-tree analysis suggested that all STs but one (ST30 belonged to a single clonal complex, possibly reflecting the short evolutionary timescale over which the predicted ancestor (ST19 has diversified into three single-locus variants (ST86, ST87 and ST29 and further, through ST86 diversification, into one double-locus variant (ST25. ST descendants have probably arisen through a point mutation evolution mode. Interestingly, MLVA showed that in the ST19 population there was a greater genetic diversity than in other STs, most of which exhibited the same MT over time and geographical distribution. However, the evolutionary pathways of C. abortus STs seem to be diverse across geographic distances with individual STs restricted to particular geographic locations. The ST30 singleton clone displaying geographic specificity and represented by the Greek strains LLG and POS was effectively distinguished from the clonal complex lineage, supporting the notion that possibly two separate host adaptations and hence independent bottlenecks of C. abortus have occurred through time. The combination of MLST and MLVA assays provides an additional level of C. abortus discrimination and may prove useful for the investigation and

  20. Monoclonal Idiotope Vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mary K.; Ward, Ronald E.; Kohler, Heinz

    1984-12-01

    A monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody coupled to a carrier protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice against a lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Vaccinated mice developed a high titer of antibody to phosphorylcholine, which is known to protect against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Measurement of the median lethal dose of the bacteria indicated that anti-idiotope immunization significantly increased the resistance of BALB/c mice to the bacterial challenge. Antibody to an idiotope can thus be used as an antigen substitute for the induction of protective immunity.

  1. Remodeling of the Streptococcus agalactiae transcriptome in response to growth temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mereghetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To act as a commensal bacterium and a pathogen in humans and animals, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS must be able to monitor and adapt to different environmental conditions. Temperature variation is a one of the most commonly encountered variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the extent to which GBS modify gene expression in response to temperatures encountered in the various hosts, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome analysis of organisms grown at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. We identified extensive transcriptome remodeling at various stages of growth, especially in the stationary phase (significant transcript changes occurred for 25% of the genes. A large proportion of genes involved in metabolism was up-regulated at 30 degrees C in stationary phase. Conversely, genes up-regulated at 40 degrees C relative to 30 degrees C include those encoding virulence factors such as hemolysins and extracellular secreted proteins with LPXTG motifs. Over-expression of hemolysins was linked to larger zones of hemolysis and enhanced hemolytic activity at 40 degrees C. A key theme identified by our study was that genes involved in purine metabolism and iron acquisition were significantly up-regulated at 40 degrees C. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Growth of GBS in vitro at different temperatures resulted in extensive remodeling of the transcriptome, including genes encoding proven and putative virulence genes. The data provide extensive new leads for molecular pathogenesis research.

  2. Sadness and ruminative thinking independently depress people's moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanitabesh, Azra; Cardwell, Brittany A; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2017-11-02

    Depression and rumination often co-occur in clinical populations, but it is not clear which causes which, or if both are manifestations of an underlying pathology. Does rumination simply exacerbate whatever affect a person is experiencing, or is it a negative experience in and of itself? In two experiments we answer this question by independently manipulating emotion and rumination. Participants were allocated to sad or neutral (in Experiment 1), or sad, neutral or happy (Experiment 2) mood conditions, via a combination of emotionally evocative music and autobiographical recall. Afterwards, in both studies, participants either ruminated by thinking about self-relevant statements or, in a control group, thought about self-irrelevant statements. Taken together, our data show that, independent of participants' mood, ruminators reported more negative affect relative to controls. The findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focus is itself unpleasant, and illustrate that depressive rumination comprises both affective and ruminative components, which could be targeted independently in clinical samples. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Do sex differences in rumination explain sex differences in depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M; Chang, Han Yan M; Olson, Ryan L; Alderman, Brandon L

    2017-01-02

    It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al., ). After eight weeks of training, both men and women reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and fewer ruminative thoughts (Alderman et al., ). Statistical correlations between depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts were strong and significant (rho > 0.50; p depressive symptoms relate to "reflective" ruminations, which involve analyses of past events, feelings, and behaviors. This is also the only relationship that dissipated after the intervention. In general, these analyses suggest that the strength of the relationship between depressive symptoms and rumination does not necessarily explain sex differences in depression; but because the relationship is strong, targeting rumination through intervention can reduce the incidence of MDD, which is more prevalent among women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Negative emotional experiences arouse rumination and affect working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Rimé, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Following an emotional experience, individuals are confronted with the persistence of ruminative thoughts that disturb the undertaking of other activities. In the present study, we experimentally tested the idea that experiencing a negative emotion triggers a ruminative process that drains working memory (WM) resources normally devoted to other tasks. Undergraduate participants of high versus low WM capacity were administered the operation-word memory span test (OSPAN) as a measure of availability of WM resources preceding and following the presentation of negative emotional versus neutral material. Rumination was assessed immediately after the second OSPAN session and at a 24-hr delay. Results showed that both the individual's WM capacity and the emotional valence of the material influenced WM performance and the persistence of ruminative thoughts. Following the experimental induction, rumination mediated the relationship between the negative emotional state and the concomitant WM performance. Based on these results, we argue that ruminative processes deplete WM resources, making them less available for concurrent tasks; in addition, rumination tends to persist over time. These findings have implications for the theoretical modeling of the long-term effects of emotions in both daily life and clinical contexts.

  5. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  6. The relationship between rumination, PTSD, and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Contractor, Ateka A; Dranger, Paula; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2015-07-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid (Elhai et al., 2008. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 69, (4), 597-602). Rumination is a cognitive mechanism found to exacerbate and maintain both PTSD and MDD (Elwood et al., 2009. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, (1), 87-100; Olatunji et al., 2013. Clin. Psychol.: Sci. Pract. 20, (3), 225-257). Assess whether four rumination subtypes moderate the relationship between comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms. We consecutively sampled patients (N=45) presenting to a mental health clinic using self-report measures of PTSD and MDD symptoms, and rumination in a cross-sectional design. Repetitive rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at one standard deviation above the mean (β=.044, p=.016), while anticipatory rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at mean levels and higher levels of anticipatory rumination (mean β=.030, p=.042; higher β=.060, p=.008). Repetitive and anticipatory rumination should be assessed in the context of comorbid PTSD and MDD and interventions should focus on reducing these rumination subtypes. Results should be replicated with other trauma populations because the number and complexity of traumatic events may impact the assessed symptoms. Constructs should also be assessed longitudinally, in order to establish causality. We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and problem-focused thinking did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between ruminal ammonia and non-protein nitrogen utilization by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, L.D.; Roffler, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) may be utilized as well as plant protein when ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration is low ( 3 -N at 5 mg/100 ml will provide considerably less metabolizable protein, and the amount of metabolizable protein will be directly proportional to the amount of protein that escapes degradation. A simplified scheme for estimating metabolizable protein is presented. It has the flexibility needed for accommodating different feedstuffs, yet is easy to apply. The proposed scheme is based upon ruminal ammonia concentration, which in turn reflects protein intake, ration fermentability and protein degradation, the major determinants of protein supply to the lower intestine. It has the potential of more accurately describing the nutritional value of dietary crude protein, particularly if both protein and NPN are in the diet. (author)

  8. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  9. Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Redundancy, resilience, and host specificity of the ruminal microbiota: implications for engineering improved ruminal fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The ruminal microbial community is remarkably diverse, containing 100s of different bacterial and archaeal species, plus many species of fungi and protozoa. Molecular studies have identified a “core microbiome” dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but also containing many other taxa. The rumen provides an ideal laboratory for studies on microbial ecology and the demonstration of ecological principles. In particular, the microbial community demonstrates both redundancy (overlap of function among multiple species) and resilience (resistance to, and capacity to recover from, perturbation). These twin properties provide remarkable stability that maintains digestive function for the host across a range of feeding and management conditions, but they also provide a challenge to engineering the rumen for improved function (e.g., improved fiber utilization or decreased methane production). Direct ruminal dosing or feeding of probiotic strains often fails to establish the added strains, due to intensive competition and amensalism from the indigenous residents that are well-adapted to the historical conditions within each rumen. Known exceptions include introduced strains that can fill otherwise unoccupied niches, as in the case of specialist bacteria that degrade phytotoxins such as mimosine or fluoroacetate. An additional complicating factor in manipulating the ruminal fermentation is the individuality or host specificity of the microbiota, in which individual animals contain a particular community whose species composition is capable of reconstituting itself, even following a near-total exchange of ruminal contents from another herd mate maintained on the same diet. Elucidation of the interactions between the microbial community and the individual host that establish and maintain this specificity may provide insights into why individual hosts vary in production metrics (e.g., feed efficiency or milk fat synthesis), and how to improve herd performance. PMID

  11. Estimation of indigestible NDF in feedstuffs for ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    to be a suitable parameter in prediction models of energy and protein values in feedstuffs for ruminants, as the NorFor system. Therefore, there is a need to develop laboratory methods, applicable in practice, that determine the INDF content in feedstuffs. The present paper aims at presenting correlations......Intrinsic properties of plant cell walls determine the digestibility of ruminant diets, as they establish the maximum degree of the rate and extent of cell wall digestion in ruminants. The determination of INDF is important for the estimation of potentially digestible NDF (DNDF), and has been shown...

  12. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    an experimental group (EXP) or a control group (CON) immediately after calving. In addition, all cows in the EXP and CON were assigned to either a high, medial or low rumination group according to their individual RT. Cows in the EXP assigned to the high (EH), medial (EM) or low (EL) rumination group were stepped...... up to 6, 4 or 3 kg concentrate during the experimental period. Concentrate was stepped up to 4 kg during the experimental period for all cows in the CON, regardless of whether the cows were assigned to the high (CH), medial (CM) or low (CL) rumination group. In total, 40 and 41 primiparous cows...

  13. Distinct Biological Potential of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Mui Fern; Old, Lesley A.; Paterson, Ian C.; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Choo, Siew Woh

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque and important agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE). To gain a greater understanding of these two closely related species, we performed comparative analyses on 14 new S. gordonii and 5 S. sanguinis strains using various bioinformatics approaches. We revealed S. gordonii and S. sanguinis harbor open pan-genomes and share generally high sequence homology and number of core genes including virule...

  14. Identification of genes preferentially expressed by highly virulent piscine Streptococcus agalactiae upon interaction with macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ming Guo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. In this study, we used a mouse model and in vitro cell infection to evaluate the pathogenetic characteristics of S. agalactiae GD201008-001, isolated from tilapia in China. This bacterium was found to be highly virulent and capable of inducing brain damage by migrating into the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The phagocytosis assays indicated that this bacterium could be internalized by murine macrophages and survive intracellularly for more than 24 h, inducing injury to macrophages. Further, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS was used to investigate microbial gene expression associated with intracellular survival. This positive cDNA selection technique identified 60 distinct genes that could be characterized into 6 functional categories. More than 50% of the differentially expressed genes were involved in metabolic adaptation. Some genes have previously been described as associated with virulence in other bacteria, and four showed no significant similarities to any other previously described genes. This study constitutes the first step in further gene expression analyses that will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by S. agalactiae to survive in macrophages and to cross the BBB.

  15. Identification of Genes Preferentially Expressed by Highly Virulent Piscine Streptococcus agalactiae upon Interaction with Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang-Ming; Chen, Rong-Rong; Kalhoro, Dildar Hussain; Wang, Zhao-Fei; Liu, Guang-Jin; Lu, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Yong-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. In this study, we used a mouse model and in vitro cell infection to evaluate the pathogenetic characteristics of S. agalactiae GD201008-001, isolated from tilapia in China. This bacterium was found to be highly virulent and capable of inducing brain damage by migrating into the brain by crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The phagocytosis assays indicated that this bacterium could be internalized by murine macrophages and survive intracellularly for more than 24 h, inducing injury to macrophages. Further, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) was used to investigate microbial gene expression associated with intracellular survival. This positive cDNA selection technique identified 60 distinct genes that could be characterized into 6 functional categories. More than 50% of the differentially expressed genes were involved in metabolic adaptation. Some genes have previously been described as associated with virulence in other bacteria, and four showed no significant similarities to any other previously described genes. This study constitutes the first step in further gene expression analyses that will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by S. agalactiae to survive in macrophages and to cross the BBB. PMID:24498419

  16. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2016-07-21

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose.

  17. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  18. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  19. Factors associated with colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with schooling and presence chronic diseases. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of serious community-acquired infections such as ... large number of individuals are still suffering from infections caused by these bacteria, especially ... samples of children with severe pneumonia (Nantanda et al., 2008).

  20. Streptococcus suis meningitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Gans, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We present four patients with Streptococcus suis meningitis identified during a 3.5-year prospective surveillance study in the Netherlands. All cases were associated with exposure to pigs. Patients presented with classic symptoms and signs of bacterial meningitis. Outcome was characterized by severe

  1. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  2. Detection and quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantitative detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical respiratory specimens. Initially, 184 respiratory specimens from patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (n = 129) and 55 cases with hospital associated ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta against Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate method.

  4. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  5. NEW VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Peter Wilhelmus Maria; Bootsma, Jeanette Hester; Burghout, Pieter Jan; Kuipers, Oscar; Bijlsma, Johanna Jacoba Elisabeth; Kloosterman, Tomas Gerrit; Andersen, Christian O.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are

  6. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  7. Methods in gut microbial ecology for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive up-to-date account of the methodologies and protocols for conventional and modern molecular techniques that are currently in use for studying the gut microbial ecology of ruminants. Each chapter has been contributed by experts in the field and methods have been presented in a recipe-like format designed for direct practical use in the laboratory and also to provide insight into the most appropriate techniques, their applications and the type of information that could be expected. The techniques and procedures described are also relevant and adaptable to other gastrointestinal ecosystems and the microbiology of anaerobic environments in general. This manual will 'demystify' the methods in molecular microbial ecology for readers who are novice in the field but are excited by the prospects of this technology. It would also be invaluable for the experienced workers striving for giving new dimension to their research - expanding the work in other fields and initiating cross-cutting activities

  8. Diseases and impaired reproductive performance in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindahl, H.; Fredriksson, G.; Aiumlamai, S.; Odensvik, K.; Edqvist, L.E.; Stabenfeldt, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the recent findings on prostaglandin release after parturition and the interrelationship between endotoxins/infections and reproductive endocrinology. A massive release of prostaglandins is recorded after parturition in ruminants. In cows with uncomplicated puerperia this release is negatively correlated with the time required for completion of uterine involution. In cows with persistent uterine infections the relationship between prostaglandins and uterine involution is the opposite, indicating that prostaglandins are formed by the pathological process and are superimposed on the physiological one. Endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria are potent stimulators of prostaglandin production and release. If injected into cycling animals they cause the corpus luteum to regress prematurely. In most cases pregnant animals abort after exposure to endotoxins. These abortions can be prevented by using a potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor such as flunixin meglumine. (author) 28 refs, 6 figs

  9. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a diazotrophic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanvinde, L.; Sastry, G.R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grown on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate 15 N supplied as 15 N 2 . As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH 4 + in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a diazotrophic bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanvinde, L.; Sastry, G.R.K. (Univ. of Leeds (England))

    1990-07-01

    This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grown on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate {sup 15}N supplied as {sup 15}N{sub 2}. As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship.

  12. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rusitec the cow[Food for rumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Full text: The rumen is an important part of the digestive tract of ruminant animals such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It contains large numbers of micro-organisms whose function is to break down fibrous feed materials such as grass and straw and convert them to products that can be used by the animal to produce meat, milk, wool or draught power. To study the microbial population of the rumen under controlled laboratory conditions, Dr. J.W. Czerkawski of the Hannah Research Institute, Scotland, U.K., developed an 'artificial cow'. The 'cow', named RUSITEC (from the acronym of 'Rumen Simulation Technique') is today being used as part of a project to analyse different feedstuffs being carried out by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at their joint Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf near Vienna, Austria. In the artificial rumen micro-organisms can be indefinitely maintained by feeding a normal ruminant diet each day and providing the correct physiological conditions in terms of temperature, pH and flow of saliva. As RUSITEC chews its way through different feeds, scientists use radioactive tracing techniques to compare their digestibility. (The higher the digestibility of a foodstuff, the higher the nutritive value that can be derived from it.) By analysing the quality of different feeding materials in this way, scientists are seeking to propose improved diets for domestic animals in the developing world. Photos on this page show RUSITEC at work. Below, the vessels representing the rumen, where microbial fermentation of diets takes place; right, the rumen simulation technique in operation; below right, analysis of the end products of fermentative digestion.

  14. Clinical pharmacology of tiamulin in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G; Levisohn, S L; Bar-Moshe, B; Bor, A; Soback, S

    1983-03-01

    Median values for the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tiamulin for Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma isolated from ruminants were 0.05 micrograms/ml and 0.025 micrograms/ml, respectively. These values were close to the MIC values of tylosin and considerably lower than the respective values for spectinomycin, Spiramycin and oxytetracycline. The serum concentration--time profile of tiamulin after intramuscular (i.m.) injection to goats, ewes, cows and calves, and after oral administration to preruminant calves was characterized by a rapid absorption phase (absorption t1/2 of less than 30 min.), a short plateau phase, an elimination t1/2 ranging between 3 and 6 h, and low peak serum drug levels. The serum elimination t1/2 of the drug after intravenous (i.v.) injection was 25 min. It appears that tiamulin is extensively metabolized in ruminants and is well distributed throughout the body. Drug concentrations in the lungs, liver, and the kidneys 1 h after i.v. injection were four to seven times higher than in blood. The drug penetrated very rapidly into the milk after i.m. administration; mean peak drug concentrations in normal milk and in milk secreted from inflamed glands of cows were 7.5 times and 1.2 times higher respectively, than the mean peak serum drug concentrations. Concentrations of tiamulin of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections can be maintained in the lungs for at least 12 h after i.m. injection at 10 mg/kg, and in preruminant calves after an oral dose of 20 mg/kg. However, tiamulin possesses several very serious side-effects and the i.v. route of administration is definitely contraindicated.

  15. Functional analyses of multiple lichenin-degrading enzymes from the rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2011-11-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in β-1,3 and β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a β-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a β-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber.

  16. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High-resolution Esophageal Manometry Patterns in Children and Adolescents With Rumination Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini Grunder, Franziska; Aspirot, Ann; Faure, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Rumination is defined by effortless regurgitation within seconds or minutes of ingested food. The aim of this study was to determine the high-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) pattern in children with rumination syndrome. HREM was evaluated in 15 pediatric patients with rumination syndrome according to the Rome criteria and compared with 15 controls. Primary rumination was defined as a clinical rumination episode associated with a rise of gastric pressure above 30 mmHg. Secondary rumination was defined as a clinical rumination episode associated with a rise of gastric pressure above 30 mmHg during a transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). Ninety-two episodes of rumination were demonstrated during HREM study in 12 of the 15 patients (80%; 1-29 episodes per patient; median intragastric pressure 49.6 mmHg). Primary rumination occurred in 3 patients and secondary rumination in 5 patients. One patient had primary and secondary rumination episodes. In 3 patients, classification of rumination episodes was not possible due to repetitive swallowing leading to lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. In the control group, no episodes of rumination occurred. The sensitivity and the specificity of the HREM study (association of a clinical rumination episode with a rise in gastric pressure >30 mmHg) to confirm the diagnosis of rumination were 80% and 100%, respectively. HREM allows confirming diagnosis of rumination syndrome and to differentiate between primary and secondary rumination in the presence of objective rumination episodes. Further research is needed to study whether HREM results may influence treatment and outcome of children with rumination syndrome.

  18. A Microbiomic Analysis in African Americans with Colonic Lesions Reveals Streptococcus sp.VT162 as a Marker of Neoplastic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Brim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC. To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from colon cancer and matched normal tissues was analyzed to determine the microbiota composition (using 16S rDNA and genomic content (metagenomics. Metagenomic functions with discriminative power between healthy and neoplastic specimens were established. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q-PCR using primers and probes specific to Streptococcus sp. VT_162 were used to validate this bacterium association with neoplastic transformation in stool samples from two independent cohorts of African Americans and Chinese patients with colorectal lesions. The metabolomic analysis of adenomas revealed low amino acids content. The microbiota in both cancer vs. normal tissues and adenoma vs. normal stool samples were different at the 16S rRNA gene level. Cross-mapping of metagenomic data led to 9 markers with significant discriminative power between normal and diseased specimens. These markers identified with Streptococcus sp. VT_162. Q-PCR data showed a statistically significant presence of this bacterium in advanced adenoma and cancer samples in an independent cohort of CRC patients. We defined metagenomic functions from Streptococcus sp. VT_162 with discriminative power among cancers vs. matched normal and adenomas vs. healthy subjects’ stools. Streptococcus sp. VT_162 specific 16S rDNA was validated in an independent cohort. These findings might facilitate non-invasive screening for colorectal cancer.

  19. prevalence of fasciolosis in small ruminants slaughtered at yola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    managed under extensive management system by the local farmers. .... prevalent problem of small ruminants in Yola,. Adamawa ... Bailliere Tindal and Company London 800 –. 809. Umar ... Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M..

  20. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the host. .... BE, Drewes LR (2003). Molecular features, regulation and ... Dynamics of ruminal volatile fatty acids in black and white bulls before and after feeding ...

  1. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  2. Retrospctive studies of small ruminant diseases diagnosed at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospctive studies of small ruminant diseases diagnosed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. J.W. Jatfa, A.Y. Adenkola, I Victor, A Kisani, S.S. Adamu, P.A. Onyeyili ...

  3. Effects of molasses and corn grain at 2 levels of ruminally degradable protein on lactating cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactating dairy cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass with diets containing molasses (M) or finely ground dry corn grain at 3 levels of M (0, 5.25, 10.5% DM) and with differing levels of ruminally degradable protein (+RDP or –RDP). Twelve ruminal...

  4. Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann R.; Gilbert, Christophe; Wells, Jeremy M.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    1998-01-01

    The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine if SspA and SspB have differential binding propert...

  5. Phenotypic Covariation And Morphological Diversification In The Ruminant Skull

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Annat

    2015-01-01

    Differences among clades in their diversification patterns result from a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In this study I examined the role of intrinsic factors in the morphological diversification of ruminants in general, and in the differences between bovids and cervids in particular. Using skull morphology, which embodies many of the adaptations that distinguish bovids and cervids, I examined 132 of the 200 extant ruminant species. As a proxy for intrinsic constraints I quan...

  6. Effect of Sunflower and Marine Oils on Ruminal Microbiota, In vitro Fermentation and Digesta Fatty Acid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Vargas

    2017-06-01

    and Streptococcus bovis, but not total bacteria. In conclusion, there is a potential to manipulate the rumen fermentation and microbiota with the addition of sunflower, fish or algae oils to ruminant diets at appropriate concentrations. Specifically, supplementation of ruminant mixed rations with marine oils will reduce methane production, the acetate to propionate ratio and the fatty acid hydrogenation in the rumen.

  7. Late production of CXCL8 in ruminant oro-nasal turbinate cells in response to Chlamydia abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doull, L; Wattegedera, S R; Longbottom, D; Mwangi, D; Nath, M; Glass, E J; Entrican, G

    2015-11-15

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is an important cause of ovine abortion worldwide. There are reports of abortions in cattle, but these are very rare compared to the reported incidence in sheep. The bacterium is transmitted oro-nasally and can establish a sub-clinical infection until pregnancy, when it can invade the placenta and induce an inflammatory cascade leading to placentitis and abortion. Early host-pathogen interactions could explain differential pathogenesis and subsequent disease outcome in ruminant species. In this study, we assessed the ability of sheep and cattle oro-nasal turbinate cells to sense and respond to C. abortus infection. The cells expressed toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. In response to C. abortus infection, both ovine and bovine turbinate cells produce CXCL8 mRNA and protein late in the bacterial developmental cycle, but do not produce IL-1β or TNF-α. The UV-inactivated bacteria did not elicit a CXCL8 response, suggesting that intracellular multiplication of the bacteria is important for activating the signalling pathways. The production of innate immune cytokines from cattle and sheep turbinate cells in response to C. abortus infection was found to be largely similar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rumination, depressive symptoms and awareness of illness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ribaux, Darryl; Phillips, Lisa J

    2014-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia. Previous studies have observed that depressive symptoms are associated with both insight and negative appraisals of illness, suggesting that the way in which the person thinks about their illness may influence the occurrence of depressive responses. In affective disorders, one of the most well-established cognitive processes associated with depressive symptoms is rumination, a pattern of perseverative, self-focused negative thinking. This study examined whether rumination focused on mental illness was predictive of depressive symptoms during the subacute phase of schizophrenia. Forty participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and in a stable phase of illness completed measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, awareness of illness, and positive and negative symptoms. Depressive symptoms were correlated with rumination, including when controlling for positive and negative symptoms. The content of rumination frequently focused on mental illness and its causes and consequences, in particular social disability and disadvantage. Depressive symptoms were predicted by awareness of the social consequences of mental illness, an effect that was mediated by rumination. Results suggest that a process of perseveratively dwelling upon mental illness and its social consequences may be a factor contributing to depressive symptoms in people with chronic schizophrenia.

  9. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  10. The impact of a pathogenic bacterium on a social carnivore population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Goller, Katja V; Hofer, Heribert; Runyoro, Victor; Thierer, Dagmar; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Müller, Thomas; East, Marion L

    2012-01-01

    1. The long-term ecological impact of pathogens on group-living, large mammal populations is largely unknown. We evaluated the impact of a pathogenic bacterium, Streptococcus equi ruminatorum, and other key ecological factors on the dynamics of the spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta population in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. 2. We compared key demographic parameters during two years when external signs of bacterial infection were prevalent ('outbreak') and periods of five years before and after the outbreak when such signs were absent or rare. We also tested for density dependence and calculated the basic reproductive rate R(0) of the bacterium. 3. During the five pre-outbreak years, the mean annual hyena mortality rate was 0.088, and annual population growth was relatively high (13.6%). During the outbreak, mortality increased by 78% to a rate of 0.156, resulting in an annual population decline of 4.3%. After the outbreak, population size increased moderately (5.1%) during the first three post-outbreak years before resuming a growth similar to pre-outbreak levels (13.9%). We found no evidence that these demographic changes were driven by density dependence or other ecological factors. 4. Most hyenas showed signs of infection when prey abundance in their territory was low. During the outbreak, mortality increased among adult males and yearlings, but not among adult females - the socially dominant group members. These results suggest that infection and mortality were modulated by factors linked to low social status and poor nutrition. During the outbreak, we estimated R(0) for the bacterium to be 2.7, indicating relatively fast transmission. 5. Our results suggest that the short-term 'top-down' impact of S. equi ruminatorum during the outbreak was driven by 'bottom-up' effects on nutritionally disadvantaged age-sex classes, whereas the longer-term post-outbreak reduction in population growth was caused by poor survival of juveniles during the outbreak and subsequent

  11. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  12. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  13. First molecular isolation of Mycoplasma ovis from small ruminants in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Rjeibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eperythrozoonosis is a small ruminant disease caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma ovis (formerly known as Eperythrozoon ovis. Whilst acute infection in sheep may result in an anaemia and ill thrift syndrome, most animals do not develop clinical signs. Molecular methods were used to compare and evaluate the prevalence of infection with M. ovis in sheep and goats in Tunisia. A total of 739 whole blood samples from 573 sheep and 166 goats were tested for the M. ovis 16S rRNA gene using PCR. The overall prevalence was 6.28% ± 0.019 (36/573. Only sheep were infected with M. ovis (p < 0.001, and the prevalence was significantly higher in central Tunisia (29.2% compared with other regions (p < 0.05. The prevalence revealed significant differences according to breed and bioclimatic zones (p < 0.001. Furthermore, the prevalence in young sheep (35/330; 10.6% was higher than in adults (1/243; 0.41% (p < 0.001. Only sheep of the Barbarine breed were infected, with a prevalence of 11.8% (p < 0.001. This is the first molecular study and genetic characterisation of M. ovis in North African sheep breeds.

  14. Interaction of Salivary alpha-Amylase and Amylase-Binding-Protein A (AbpA of Streptococcus gordonii with Glucosyltransferase of S. gordonii and Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Jason M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs, enzymes that produce extracellular glucans from dietary sucrose, contribute to dental plaque formation by Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The alpha-amylase-binding protein A (AbpA of S. gordonii, an early colonizing bacterium in dental plaque, interacts with salivary amylase and may influence dental plaque formation by this organism. We examined the interaction of amylase and recombinant AbpA (rAbpA, together with Gtfs of S. gordonii and S. mutans. Results The addition of salivary alpha-amylase to culture supernatants of S. gordonii precipitated a protein complex containing amylase, AbpA, amylase-binding protein B (AbpB, and the glucosyltransferase produced by S. gordonii (Gtf-G. rAbpA was expressed from an inducible plasmid, purified from Escherichia coli and characterized. Purified rAbpA, along with purified amylase, interacted with and precipitated Gtfs from culture supernatants of both S. gordonii and S. mutans. The presence of amylase and/or rAbpA increased both the sucrase and transferase component activities of S. mutans Gtf-B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using anti-Gtf-B antibody verified the interaction of rAbpA and amylase with Gtf-B. A S. gordonii abpA-deficient mutant showed greater biofilm growth under static conditions than wild-type in the presence of sucrose. Interestingly, biofilm formation by every strain was inhibited in the presence of saliva. Conclusion The results suggest that an extracellular protein network of AbpA-amylase-Gtf may influence the ecology of oral biofilms, likely during initial phases of colonization.

  15. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of atypical Streptococcus species from porcine clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    The Streptococcus species present broad phenotypic variation, making identification difficult using only traditional microbiological methods. Even though Streptococcus suis is the most important species for the worldwide swine industry, other Streptococcus species appear to be able to cause disease in swine and could represent a higher underestimated risk for porcine health. The aim of this study was to identify Streptococcus-like isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing and further molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of the atypical Streptococcus species capable of causing disease in swine. Fifty presumptive Streptococcus isolates from diseased pigs isolated from different Brazilian States between 2002 and 2014 were evaluated. Among the studied isolates, 26% were identified as Streptococcus hyovaginalis, 24% as Streptococcus plurianimalium, 12% as Streptococcus alactolyticus, 10% as Streptococcus hyointestinalis, and the remaining isolates belonged to Streptococcus henryi (6%), Streptococcus thoraltensis (6%), Streptococcus gallolyticus (6%), Streptococcus gallinaceus (4%), Streptococcus sanguinis (4%), and Streptococcus mitis (2%). The Streptococcus isolates were successfully identified by spectral cluster analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing with 96% of concordance between the techniques. The SE-AFLP analysis also supported Streptococcus species distinction and enabled further observation of higher genetic heterogeneity intra-species. The identified Streptococcus species presented variable MIC values to β-lactams, enrofloxacin and florfenicol, and high resistance rates to tetracyclines and macrolides, which appear to be directly related to the industry's antimicrobial usage and resistance selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rumination and depression in Chinese university students: The mediating role of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tianzhu; He, Yini; Auerbach, Randy P; McWhinnie, Chad M; Xiao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined the mediator effects of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) on the relationship between rumination and depression in 323 Chinese university students. 323 undergraduates completed the questionnaires measuring OGM (Autobiographical Memory Test), rumination (Ruminative Response Scale) and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Results using structural equation modeling showed that OGM partially-mediated the relationship between rumination and depression (χ 2 = 88.61, p OGM on the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms were significant. The results indicated that rumination and depression were partially mediated by OGM.

  17. Estimation of economic losses due to Peste de Petits Ruminants in small ruminants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a simple mathematical model to assess the losses due to peste des petits ruminants (PPR in small ruminants in India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on cases and deaths in goats and sheep due to PPR from the average combined data on ovine/caprine as published by Government of India for the last 5 years (2008-2012. All possible direct and indirect losses due to the disease, viz. mortality losses, losses due to direct reduction in milk/wool yield, losses due to reproduction failure, body weight losses, treatment costs and opportunity costs, were considered to provide estimate of annual economic losses due to PPR in sheep and goats in India. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the annual economic loss was also estimated. Results: On the basis of data reported by Government of India, the study has shown average annual economic loss of Rs. 167.83 lacs, of which Rs. 125.67 lacs and Rs. 42.16 lacs respectively are due to the incidence of the disease in goats and sheep. Morbidity losses constituted the greater share of the total loss in both goats and sheep (56.99% and 61.34%, respectively. Among different components of morbidity loss, direct body weight loss was the most significant in both goats and sheep. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the estimated annual economic loss due to PPR in goats and sheep is Rs. 8895.12 crores, of which Rs. 5477.48 and Rs. 3417.64 crores respectively are due to the disease in goats and sheep. Conclusion: The low economic losses as reported based on Government of India data points towards underreporting of cases and deaths due to the disease. The study thus revealed a significant loss due to PPR in small ruminants on a large scale.

  18. Evaluation of feed resources for ruminants and ruminants for feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orskov, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    Methods are discussed of describing roughages so that potential consumption by animals is predicted. Evidence is presented showing that a high precision of predicting straw intake and animal performance is possible from information on solubility, potential degradation of insoluble materials and the degradation rate. Description of the capacity of different types of ruminants to consume and efficiently digest roughages is more difficult. Recent data from cattle experiments suggest that measurement of outflow rate of fibrous particles can provide information on this question. The data have also revealed large and consistent variation even within herds of the same breed. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  19. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  20. Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations...... of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer......-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?...

  1. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signoretto, C.; Marchi, A.; Bertoncelli, A.; Burlacchini, G.; Milli, A.; Tessarolo, F.; Caola, I.; Papetti, A.; Pruzzo, C.; Zaura, E.; Lingström, P.; Ofek, I.; Spratt, D.A.; Pratten, J.; Wilson, M.; Canepari, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity.

  2. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.

  3. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prehn, Joffrey; van Veen, Suzanne Q; Schelfaut, Jacqueline J G; Wessels, Els

    2016-05-01

    We compared the Vitek MS and Microflex MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform for species differentiation within the Streptococcus mitis group with PCR assays targeted at lytA, Spn9802, and recA as reference standard. The Vitek MS correctly identified 10/11 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 13/13 Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and 12/13 S. mitis/oralis. The Microflex correctly identified 9/11 S. pneumoniae, 0/13 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 13/13 S. mitis/oralis. MALDI-TOF is a powerful tool for species determination within the mitis group. Diagnostic accuracy varies depending on platform and database used. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  5. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  6. Tomorrow's vector vaccines for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, C S

    2015-12-14

    Inactivated and attenuated vaccines have contributed to the control or even the eradication of significant animal pathogens. However, these traditional vaccine technologies have limitations and disadvantages. Inactivated vaccines lack efficacy against certain pathogens, while attenuated vaccines are not always as safe. New technology vaccines, namely DNA and recombinant viral vector vaccines, are being developed and tested against pathogens of small ruminants. These vaccines induce both humoral and cellular immune responses, are safe to manufacture and use and can be utilized in strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Although there are more strict regulatory requirements for the safety standards of these vaccines, once a vaccine platform is evaluated and established, effective vaccines can be rapidly produced and deployed in the field to prevent spread of emerging pathogens. The present article offers an introduction to these next generation technologies and examples of vaccines that have been tested against important diseases of sheep and goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  8. Ethanologenic potential of the bacterium Bacillus cereus NB-19 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Ethanologenic bacterium was cultivated in a suspension of sugarcane ... bagasse is very useful for obtaining yields of the different products including cell mass and ethanol as ... the resources for the green fuel generation.

  9. Feedstock for ruminant, non-ruminant and aquatic fish in Malaysia-A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Muzarpar, Syafiq; Baba, I.; Sunar, N. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul

    2017-09-01

    Large demand of feedstock in Malaysia initiated the farmers to accelerate animal growth by improving quality of livestock's. However, quality increase will effect to the cost increment as well. Therefore, main objective of this study is to review various material and methods which acceptable in Malaysia in order to teach the farmer in selecting appropriate material for animal feed. Animal feed for ruminant, non-ruminant and aquatic fish has big issues in Halal animal feed. It caused by sources of existing animal feed from non-halal material such as blood meal and pig bone. There are various sources of halal animal feed sources such as from plant such as napier, PKC, banana tree and corn leaf as well as from waste material such as waste toufu, waste coconut, soy meal, coconut meal and sagoo. Therefore, the farmer able to select the appropriate material for own animal feed to reduce cost and fulfill the animal feed requirement regarding to protein and nutrient need.

  10. Control strategies for peste des petits ruminants in small ruminants of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P

    2011-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. It is endemic in several African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries, including India. India has recently taken comprehensive steps to deal with PPR through the development and production of potent vaccines and monoclonal-antibody-based diagnostic kits, while also gathering baseline information on the disease situation and human resources. As a result, PPR can now be controlled by focused vaccinations in high-risk populations of sheep and goats, followed by mass vaccination campaigns. Mass vaccination campaigns must achieve high levels of herd immunity (70% to 80%) to block the epidemic cycle of the virus. With the tools currently available, disease control and subsequent eradication programmes for PPR may be a feasible option, following the example of the National Rinderpest Eradication Programme, which has successfully eradicated rinderpest from India. An understanding of the cultural and socio-economic circumstances of goat and sheep owners and a keen watch on the endemic nature of PPR in neighbouring countries will enhance the success of this approach. Coordinated efforts from all stakeholders, combined with proper funding and execution of control programmes, will be needed to achieve the goal of a PPR-free India. In addition, the availability of effective combined vaccines of PPR with goat pox or sheep pox offers a cost-effective way of simultaneously launching control programmes against all three of these diseases.

  11. Evaluation of procedures for estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility in ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures used in estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility were evaluated in a series of independent experiments. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated the influence of sampling site, mathematical model and intraruminal mixing on estimates of ruminal particle turnover in beef steers grazing crested wheatgrass or offered ad libitum levels of prairie hay once daily, respectively. Particle turnover rate constants were estimated by intraruminal administration (via rumen cannula) of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage, followed by serial collection of rumen digesta or fecal samples. Rumen Yb concentrations were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed on time. Influence of sampling site (rectum versus rumen) on turnover estimates was modified by the model used to fit fecal marker excretion curves in the grazing study. In contrast, estimated turnover rate constants from rumen sampling were smaller (P < 0.05) than rectally derived rate constants, regardless of fecal model used, when steers were fed once daily. In Experiment 3, in vitro residues subjected to acid or neutral detergent fiber extraction (IVADF and IVNDF), acid detergent fiber incubated in cellulase (ADFIC) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers for predicting diet digestibility. Both IVADF and IVNDF displayed variable accuracy for prediction of in vivo digestibility whereas ADL and ADFIC inaccurately predicted digestibility of all diets

  12. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  13. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using in vitro gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ... could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  14. Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid ... WGP could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  15. Pesti Des Petits ruminants virus infection in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan H.C.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries morbillivirus infections have had a huge impact on both human beings and animals. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals world wide. They include measles virus (MV, canine distemper virus (CDV, rinderpest virus (RPV and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV virus. Furthermore, new emerging infectious diseases of morbilliviruses with significant ecological consequences of marine mammals have been discovered in the past decades. Phocid distemper virus (PDV in seals and the cetacean morbillivirus (CMV have been found in dolphins, whales and porpoises. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious ,infectious , an acute or sub acute viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants characterized by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia. Goats are more severely affected than sheep. It is also known as pseudorinderpest of small ruminants, pest of small ruminants, pest of sheep and goats, kata, stomatitis- pneumoentritis syndrome, contagious pustular stomatitis and pneumoentritis complex. It is one of the major notifiable diseases of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 150-155

  16. THE RUMINANT EFFECT OF VEGETAL LECITHIN AT SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 200 g per day. The food supplementation in sheep and goats with dregs up to 7% fat in the dry substance of the ration has favourable and proportional effects with the dose of fat on the digestibility of the nutritive substances from the food. The growth of ruminant bacteria is favoured at the 100 g dose of dregs but is depressed at the 200 g dose of dregs. On the ruminant protozoa the supplementation with fat from dregs leads to the reducing of the number of protozoa and even at defaunation. It is possible that the fat from the dregs to be a source of YATP and to protect the alimentary proteins of the degrading with proteolytic enzymes and therefore to make the protein ruminant by-pass.

  17. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  19. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  20. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

  1. Ruminal acidosis in feedlot: from aetiology to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

  2. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  3. MsmK, an ATPase, Contributes to Utilization of Multiple Carbohydrates and Host Colonization of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-Fang; Gao, Ting; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Yang, Xi; Zhu, Jia-Wen; Teng, Mu-Ye; Li, Lu; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition and metabolism of carbohydrates are essential for host colonization and pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens. Different bacteria can uptake different lines of carbohydrates via ABC transporters, in which ATPase subunits energize the transport though ATP hydrolysis. Some ABC transporters possess their own ATPases, while some share a common ATPase. Here we identified MsmK, an ATPase from Streptococcus suis, an emerging zoonotic bacterium causing dead infections in pigs and humans. Genetic and biochemistry studies revealed that the MsmK was responsible for the utilization of raffinose, melibiose, maltotetraose, glycogen and maltotriose. In infected mice, the msmK-deletion mutant showed significant defects of survival and colonization when compared with its parental and complementary strains. Taken together, MsmK is an ATPase that contributes to multiple carbohydrates utilization and host colonization of S. suis. This study gives new insight into our understanding of the carbohydrates utilization and its relationship to the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen.

  4. Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croom Jim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage to a high-grain (79% grain diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Ruminal pH was under 5.0 for 130 minutes (2.17 hours which is characterized as the acute form of ruminal acidosis in cattle. The grain challenge increased blood beta-hydroxybutyrate by 1.8 times and rumen papillae mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase by 1.6 times. Ultrastructural and histological adaptations of the rumen epithelium were imaged by scanning electron and light microscopy. Rumen papillae from the high grain diet displayed extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum and compromised cell adhesion as large gaps were apparent between cells throughout the strata. This case report represents a rare documentation of how the rumen epithelium alters its function and structure during the initial stage of acute acidosis.

  5. Update on the use of blood and blood products in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcomb, Christie; Foster, Derek

    2014-07-01

    The use of whole blood and/or blood products is indicated in ruminant medicine. The goal of this article is to summarize previous literature on blood groups in ruminants and camelids, list indications for transfusion, and describe collection and transfusion techniques applicable to small ruminants and cattle that can be used in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Air and water qualities around small ruminant houses in Central Java - Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Murti, T.W.; Baliarti, E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general concern that livestock can have a profound effect on the environment, also in smallholder production systems. This paper presented the impact of small ruminants on the quality of air and water in and around small ruminant houses. In total, 27 small ruminant houses from the three

  7. Impedance measurements and high-resolution manometry help to better define rumination episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Govaert, Frank; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Conchillo, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Rumination syndrome is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by regurgitation of recently ingested food. We aimed to improve the diagnosis of rumination syndrome by classification of separate rumination symptoms using (1) an ambulatory manometry/impedance (AMIM) measurement and (2) a

  8. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? : Evidence from eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.; Schut, Henk A.W.; Stroebe, Margaret; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Boelen, Paul A.

    Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on

  9. Nonlinear Associations Between Co-Rumination and Both Social Support and Depression Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames-Sikora, Alyssa M; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Tully, Erin C

    2017-08-18

    Co-ruminating about one's problems appears to involve both beneficial self-disclosure and harmful rumination, suggesting that moderate levels may be the most adaptive. This study used nonlinear regression to determine whether moderate levels of self-reported co-rumination in relationships with a sibling, parent, friend, and romantic partner are linked to the highest levels of self-perceived social support and lowest levels of self-reported depression symptoms in 175 emerging adults (77% female; M = 19.66 years). As expected, moderate co-rumination was associated with high social support across all four relationship types, but, somewhat unexpectedly, high levels of co-rumination were also associated with high social support. As predicted, moderate levels of co-rumination with friends and siblings were associated with low levels of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, high levels of co-rumination were associated with high depression within romantic relationships. Co-rumination with a parent did not have a linear or quadratic association with depression. These findings suggest that high co-ruminating in supportive relationships and to a lesser extent low co-ruminating in unsupportive relationships are maladaptive interpersonal processes but that co-rumination's relation to depression depends on the co-ruminating partner. Psychotherapies for depression may target these maladaptive processes by supporting clients' development of balanced self-focused negative talk.

  10. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richard F. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  11. Nitrogen fixation in the tissues of ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Protein metabolism in animals is in a constant state of flux, the processes of protein synthesis and protein breakdown acting against each other, and the balance between the two processes causing changes in the mass of protein in a tissue. Reduction in the diet reduces both protein synthesis and protein degradation unless the dietary depletion is severe and prolonged, when there is a marked increase in protein catabolism. The synthesis and degradation of protein can be manipulated by anabolic agents, thus increasing the efficiency of animals. While the use of these agents has met with success in many countries, it remains to be seen whether they will be useful in harsh environments. Lactation and pregnancy put an extra demand on the nitrogen economy of animals. Evidence indicates that the extra amino acids needed for milk production do not come from muscle protein breakdown. Many animals in harsh environments are infected with parasites; intestinal parasites reduce food intake and cause blood loss into the intestines. Associated with this is a general disruption of protein metabolism. In all these studies, isotopic techniques have played a vital role. Few studies have been conducted on nitrogen metabolism in the tissue of ruminants exposed to harsh environments (with one notable exception: rumen function studies, some of which are described elsewhere in the Proceedings of this Seminar). This lack of work on nitrogen metabolism of animals from the harsher environments has often made it necessary to extrapolate data obtained from animals found and maintained in the temperate zones to quite different environments and to animals maintained on quite different dietary regimens. Several examples of the use of isotopes in metabolic studies with animals to yield information of direct or potential relevance to the harsh environments are presented. (author). 23 refs. 1 fig. 6 tabs

  12. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  13. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  14. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  15. Trophoblast cells of ruminant placentas - A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igwebuike, U.M.

    2004-09-01

    Understanding of ruminant placental structure and function is essential for veterinarians and researchers. The ruminant placenta is classified as cotyledonary and synepitheliochorial on the bases of its gross anatomical features and histological characteristics respectively. The richly vascularized embryonic chorioallantois is lined on its outer surface by cells of the trophectodermal epithelium. These cells which assume specialized functions are referred to as trophoblast cells. Two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types have been recognized in the trophectoderm of the placenta of ruminant animals. These are the mononucleate trophoblast cells and the binucleate trophoblast cells. The occurrence, morphological characteristics, and specialized functions of these trophoblast cells, in relation to conceptus nutrition and survival in utero are discussed in this review. (author)

  16. Control of Glycolysis by Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; BOSMAN, B; KONINGS, WN

    1987-01-01

    The decreased response of the energy metabolism of lactose-starved Streptococcus cremoris upon readdition of lactose is caused by a decrease of the glycolytic activity. The decrease in glycolysis is accompanied by a decrease in the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and

  17. Antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase on planktonic Streptococcus mutans cells and Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Crielaard, W.; ten Cate, J.M.; Wever, R.; Hartog, A.F.; Renirie, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) reaction products on planktonic and biofilm cellsof Streptococcus mutans C180-2. Planktonic and biofilm cells were incubated in a buffered reaction mixture containing VCPO, halide (either chloride

  18. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  20. Efficacy of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolated from cultured Clarias gariepinus, an important food fish raised in a concrete tank was carried out to ascertain their remedies on mortalities of the Clarias gariepinus adult fish. Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis were ...

  1. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  2. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  3. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slavov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements, biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

  5. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  6. Production and emission of methane and carbon dioxide by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Animal digestion is responsible for the production of both carbon dioxide and methane, while breathing produces only carbon dioxide. The author described the digestion mechanism of ruminants, explaining that they produce higher levels of methane and carbon dioxide than other animals. Fermentation stoichiometry of ruminants was also discussed along with the influence that diet has on methane production. It was noted that methane production can be decreased by increasing animal productivity, or by using ionophore antibiotics and long chain fatty acids. Test results from each of these methods have revealed side effects and none appears to be applicable for the time being. 10 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Sorotipagem de amostras de Streptococcus suis isoladas de suínos em granjas dos Estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná Serotyping of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila J.R. Pagnani

    2002-01-01

    -aglutinação, para a sorotipagem das amostras de S. suis. A sorotipagem das 51 amostras isoladas mostraram os seguintes resultados: 30 (58,8% foram classificadas como sorotipo 2, 11 (21,6% das amostras como sorotipo 3, sete (13,72% como sorotipo 7, duas (3,92% como sorotipo 1 e uma amostra como pertencente ao sorotipo14 (1,96%. Este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de um grande número de amostras de S. suis no Brasil, de casos típicos de processos infecciosos causados por esta bactéria. Também foi realizada a sorotipagem dos isolados, mostrando uma alta prevalência do sorotipo 2, quando comparada com a dos demais sorotipos encontrados.Streptococcus suis infection in swine is common in all countries where hog production is well developed. This infection has been associated with bronchopneumonia, meningitis, arthritis, pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditis, fibrinous polyserositis, septicaemia, rhinitis, and abortion. Streptococcus suis has also been described as a pathogen for ruminants and humans. In Brazil there are several clinical evidences about the existence of S. suis disease in pigs affecting more than 50% of farms in States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Paraná. In the present research 51 strains of S. suis isolated from piggeries of the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Paraná were collected from different pathologies such as septicaemia, meningitis, arthritis and pneumonia and been recovered either in pure culture or as the predominant organism from porcine tissues. Culture of specimens was carried out on 5% bovine blood agar plates incubated at 37°C for 24 hr. For the biochemical identification the a-hemolytic colonies of all capsulated isolates were submitted to various conventional tests, such as hydrolysis of arginine, Voges-Proskauer Test, and production of acid from various carbohydrates (inulin, salicin, trehalose, lactose, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol and glycerol. The strains were also tested for their ability to grow in the presence of 6,5% Na

  8. Comparative genome analysis of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18, an African fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Follador, Rainer; Hochstrasser, Mira; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Stevens, Marc J A

    2013-03-22

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation and to assess potential health risks for consumers. The genome of Sii CJ18 harbors several unique regions in comparison to Sii ATCC BAA-102T, among others an enlarged exo- and capsular polysaccharide operon; Streptococcus thermophilus-associated genes; a region containing metabolic and hypothetical genes mostly unique to CJ18 and the dairy isolate Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; and a second oligopeptide transport operon. Dairy adaptations in CJ18 are reflected by a high percentage of pseudogenes (4.9%) representing genome decay which includes the inactivation of the lactose phosphotransferase system (lacIIABC) by multiple transposases integration. The presence of lacS and lacZ genes is the major dairy adaptation affecting lactose metabolism pathways also due to the disruption of lacIIABC.We constructed mutant strains of lacS, lacZ and lacIIABC and analyzed the resulting strains of CJ18 to confirm the redirection of lactose metabolism via LacS and LacZ.Natural competence genes are conserved in both Sii strains, but CJ18 contains a lower number of CRISPR spacers which indicates a reduced defense capability against alien DNA. No classical streptococcal virulence factors were detected in both Sii strains apart from those involved in adhesion which should be considered niche factors. Sii-specific virulence factors are not described. Several Sii-specific regions encoding uncharacterized proteins provide new leads for virulence analyses and investigation of the

  9. Comparative genome analysis of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18, an African fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation and to assess potential health risks for consumers. Results The genome of Sii CJ18 harbors several unique regions in comparison to Sii ATCC BAA-102T, among others an enlarged exo- and capsular polysaccharide operon; Streptococcus thermophilus-associated genes; a region containing metabolic and hypothetical genes mostly unique to CJ18 and the dairy isolate Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; and a second oligopeptide transport operon. Dairy adaptations in CJ18 are reflected by a high percentage of pseudogenes (4.9%) representing genome decay which includes the inactivation of the lactose phosphotransferase system (lacIIABC) by multiple transposases integration. The presence of lacS and lacZ genes is the major dairy adaptation affecting lactose metabolism pathways also due to the disruption of lacIIABC. We constructed mutant strains of lacS, lacZ and lacIIABC and analyzed the resulting strains of CJ18 to confirm the redirection of lactose metabolism via LacS and LacZ. Natural competence genes are conserved in both Sii strains, but CJ18 contains a lower number of CRISPR spacers which indicates a reduced defense capability against alien DNA. No classical streptococcal virulence factors were detected in both Sii strains apart from those involved in adhesion which should be considered niche factors. Sii-specific virulence factors are not described. Several Sii-specific regions encoding uncharacterized proteins provide new leads for virulence analyses and

  10. Serine-rich repeat proteins and pili promote Streptococcus agalactiae colonization of the vaginal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Tamsin R; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M; Doran, Kelly S

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal vaginal colonization poses a significant risk to the newborn; however, little is known about the specific bacterial factors that promote GBS colonization and persistence in the female reproductive tract. We have developed in vitro models of GBS interaction with the human female cervicovaginal tract using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in cell surface organelles such as pili and serine-rich repeat (Srr) proteins shows that these factors contribute to host cell attachment. As Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated, we confirmed that carbohydrate moieties contribute to the effective interaction of Srr-1 with vaginal epithelial cells. Antibody inhibition assays identified keratin 4 as a possible host receptor for Srr-1. Our findings were further substantiated in an in vivo mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, where mice inoculated with an Srr-1-deficient mutant exhibited decreased GBS vaginal persistence compared to those inoculated with the wild-type (WT) parental strain. Furthermore, competition experiments in mice showed that WT GBS exhibited a significant survival advantage over the ΔpilA or Δsrr-1 mutant in the vaginal tract. Our results suggest that these GBS surface proteins contribute to vaginal colonization and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vaginal niche establishment.

  11. Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins and Pili Promote Streptococcus agalactiae Colonization of the Vaginal Tract ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal vaginal colonization poses a significant risk to the newborn; however, little is known about the specific bacterial factors that promote GBS colonization and persistence in the female reproductive tract. We have developed in vitro models of GBS interaction with the human female cervicovaginal tract using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in cell surface organelles such as pili and serine-rich repeat (Srr) proteins shows that these factors contribute to host cell attachment. As Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated, we confirmed that carbohydrate moieties contribute to the effective interaction of Srr-1 with vaginal epithelial cells. Antibody inhibition assays identified keratin 4 as a possible host receptor for Srr-1. Our findings were further substantiated in an in vivo mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, where mice inoculated with an Srr-1-deficient mutant exhibited decreased GBS vaginal persistence compared to those inoculated with the wild-type (WT) parental strain. Furthermore, competition experiments in mice showed that WT GBS exhibited a significant survival advantage over the ΔpilA or Δsrr-1 mutant in the vaginal tract. Our results suggest that these GBS surface proteins contribute to vaginal colonization and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vaginal niche establishment. PMID:21984789

  12. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  13. In silico assessment of virulence factors in strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis isolated from patients with Infective Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise H.; Iversen, Katrine Højholt; Dargis, Rimtas

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis belong to the Mitis group, which are mostly commensals in the human oral cavity. Even though S. oralis and S. mitis are oral commensals, they can be opportunistic pathogens causing infective endocarditis. A recent taxonomic re-evaluation of the Mitis...

  14. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

  15. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  16. Salivary agglutinin, which binds Streptococcus mutans and Helicobacter pylori, is the lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp-340.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakobphol, A; Xu, F; Hoang, V M; Larsson, T; Bergstrom, J; Johansson, I; Frängsmyr, L; Holmskov, U; Leffler, H; Nilsson, C; Borén, T; Wright, J R; Strömberg, N; Fisher, S J

    2000-12-22

    Salivary agglutinin is a high molecular mass component of human saliva that binds Streptococcus mutans, an oral bacterium implicated in dental caries. To study its protein sequence, we isolated the agglutinin from human parotid saliva. After trypsin digestion, a portion was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which gave the molecular mass of 14 unique peptides. The remainder of the digest was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography, and the separated peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/post-source decay; the spectra gave the sequences of five peptides. The molecular mass and peptide sequence information showed that salivary agglutinin peptides were identical to sequences in lung (lavage) gp-340, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein family. Immunoblotting with antibodies that specifically recognized either lung gp-340 or the agglutinin confirmed that the salivary agglutinin was gp-340. Immunoblotting with an antibody specific to the sialyl Le(x) carbohydrate epitope detected expression on the salivary but not the lung glycoprotein, possible evidence of different glycoforms. The salivary agglutinin also interacted with Helicobacter pylori, implicated in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, Streptococcus agalactiae, implicated in neonatal meningitis, and several oral commensal streptococci. These results identify the salivary agglutinin as gp-340 and suggest it binds bacteria that are important determinants of either the oral ecology or systemic diseases.

  17. Evaluation of the Potency, Neutralizing Antibody Response, and Stability of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine for Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, E; HogenEsch, H; Dunham, A; Morefield, G

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Despite the increasing burden on global health caused by GAS, there is currently no licensed vaccine available. In this study, we evaluated immunogenicity, induction of neutralizing antibodies, and stability of a new recombinant fusion protein vaccine that targets infections from GAS. The recombinant fusion protein (SpeAB) combines inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). The SpeAB vaccine evaluated in this study was adsorbed to an aluminum adjuvant and demonstrated robust immunogenicity, eliciting production of specific neutralizing antibodies against SpeA and SpeB, two major virulence factors of S. pyogenes. Stability studies suggest that the vaccine will retain immunogenicity for at least 2 years when stored at refrigerated temperatures. This novel vaccine shows great potential to provide protection against GAS infections and to reduce the burden of GAS disease globally.

  18. The Adc/Lmb System Mediates Zinc Acquisition in Streptococcus agalactiae and Contributes to Bacterial Growth and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Pauline; Patron, Kévin; Cano, Camille; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Camiade, Emilie; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Rosenau, Agnès; Mereghetti, Laurent; Hiron, Aurélia

    2016-12-15

    The Lmb protein of Streptococcus agalactiae is described as an adhesin that binds laminin, a component of the human extracellular matrix. In this study, we revealed a new role for this protein in zinc uptake. We also identified two Lmb homologs, AdcA and AdcAII, redundant binding proteins that combine with the AdcCB translocon to form a zinc-ABC transporter. Expression of this transporter is controlled by the zinc concentration in the medium through the zinc-dependent regulator AdcR. Triple deletion of lmb, adcA, and adcAII, or that of the adcCB genes, impaired growth and cell separation in a zinc-restricted environment. Moreover, we found that this Adc zinc-ABC transporter promotes S. agalactiae growth and survival in some human biological fluids, suggesting that it contributes to the infection process. These results indicated that zinc has biologically vital functions in S. agalactiae and that, under the conditions tested, the Adc/Lmb transporter constitutes the main zinc acquisition system of the bacterium. A zinc transporter, composed of three redundant binding proteins (Lmb, AdcA, and AdcAII), was characterized in Streptococcus agalactiae This system was shown to be essential for bacterial growth and morphology in zinc-restricted environments, including human biological fluids. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Prediction of CP and starch concentrations in ruminal in situ studies and ruminal degradation of cereal grains using NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J; Koenzen, E; Seifried, N; Steingass, H; Schenkel, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2018-03-01

    Ruminal in situ incubations are widely used to assess the nutritional value of feedstuffs for ruminants. In in situ methods, feed samples are ruminally incubated in indigestible bags over a predefined timespan and the disappearance of nutrients from the bags is recorded. To describe the degradation of specific nutrients, information on the concentration of feed samples and undegraded feed after in situ incubation ('bag residues') is needed. For cereal and pea grains, CP and starch (ST) analyses are of interest. The numerous analyses of residues following ruminal incubation contribute greatly to the substantial investments in labour and money, and faster methods would be beneficial. Therefore, calibrations were developed to estimate CP and ST concentrations in grains and bag residues following in situ incubations by using their near-infrared spectra recorded from 680 to 2500 nm. The samples comprised rye, triticale, barley, wheat, and maize grains (20 genotypes each), and 15 durum wheat and 13 pea grains. In addition, residues after ruminal incubation were included (at least from four samples per species for various incubation times). To establish CP and ST calibrations, 620 and 610 samples (grains and bag residues after incubation, respectively) were chemically analysed for their CP and ST concentration. Calibrations using wavelengths from 1250 to 2450 nm and the first derivative of the spectra produced the best results (R 2 Validation=0.99 for CP and ST; standard error of prediction=0.47 and 2.10% DM for CP and ST, respectively). Hence, CP and ST concentration in cereal grains and peas and their bag residues could be predicted with high precision by NIRS for use in in situ studies. No differences were found between the effective ruminal degradation calculated from NIRS estimations and those calculated from chemical analyses (P>0.70). Calibrations were also calculated to predict ruminal degradation kinetics of cereal grains from the spectra of ground grains

  20. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Mariela Serrano, L; Douillard, François P; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M; Tuijn, Coosje J; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C; Teusink, Bas; de Vos, Willem M; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert

    2015-12-08

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under the name Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012, world's first generic probiotic strain. We have been able to overcome the strain's limitations to grow in food matrices like milk, by formulating a dried starter consortium with Streptococcus thermophilus that enables the propagation of both strains in milk and other food matrices. The affordable seed culture is used by people in resource-poor communities. We used S. thermophilus C106 as an adjuvant culture for the propagation of L. rhamnosus yoba 2012 in a variety of fermented foods up to concentrations, because of its endogenous proteolytic activity, ability to degrade lactose and other synergistic effects. Subsequently, L. rhamnosus could reach final titers of 1E+09 CFU ml(-1), which is sufficient to comply with the recommended daily dose for probiotics. The specific metabolic interactions between the two strains were derived from the full genome sequences of L. rhamnosus GG and S. thermophilus C106. The piliation of the L. rhamnosus yoba 2012, required for epithelial adhesion and inflammatory signaling in the human host, was stable during growth in milk for two rounds of fermentation. Sachets prepared with the two strains, yoba 2012 and C106, retained viability for at least 2 years. A stable dried seed culture has been developed which facilitates local and low-cost production of a wide range of fermented foods that subsequently act as delivery vehicles for beneficial bacteria to communities in east Africa.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae eradicates preformed Staphylococcus aureus biofilms through a mechanism requiring physical contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidad Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (Sau strains are a main cause of disease, including nosocomial infections which have been linked to the production of biofilms and the propagation of antibiotic resistance strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A previous study found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn strains kill planktonic cultures of Sau strains. In this work, we have further evaluated in detail the eradication of Sau biofilms and investigated ultrastructural interactions of the biofilmicidal effect. Spn strain D39, which produces the competence stimulating peptide 1 (CSP1, reduced Sau biofilms within 8 h of inoculation, while TIGR4, producing CSP2, eradicated Sau biofilms and planktonic cells within 4 h. Differences were not attributed to pherotypes as other Spn strains producing different pheromones eradicated Sau within 4 h. Experiments using Transwell devices, which physically separated both species growing in the same well, demonstrated that direct contact between Spn and Sau was required to efficiently eradicate Sau biofilms and biofilm-released planktonic cells. Physical contact-mediated killing of Sau was not related to production of hydrogen peroxide as an isogenic TIGR4spxB mutant eradicated Sau bacteria within 4 h. Confocal micrographs confirmed eradication of Sau biofilms by TIGR4 and allowed us to visualize ultrastructural point of contacts between Sau and Spn. A time-course study further demonstrated spatial colocalization of Spn chains and Sau tetrads as early as 30 min post-inoculation (Pearson’s coefficient >0.72. Finally, precolonized biofilms produced by Sau strain Newman, or MRSA strain USA300, were eradicated by mid-log phase cultures of washed TIGR4 bacteria within 2 h post-inoculation. In conclusion, Spn strains rapidly eradicate pre-colonized Sau aureus biofilms, including those formed by MRSA strains, by a mechanism(s requiring bacterium-bacterium contact, but independent from the production of

  2. Comparative analysis of innate immune responses to Streptococcus phocae strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Soraya; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. This fish pathogen shares subspecies status with Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. The present study compared innate immune system mechanisms in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout when challenged with different S. phocae, including two isolates from Atlantic salmon (LM-08-Sp and LM-13-Sp) and two from seal (ATCC 51973(T) and P23). Streptococcus phocae growth was evaluated in the mucus and serum of both species, with rainbow trout samples evidencing inhibitory effects. Lysozyme activity supported this observation, with significantly higher (p trout serum and mucus as compared to Atlantic salmon. No differences were found in phagocytic capacity between fish species when stimulated with ATCC 51973(T) and P23. Against all S. phocae strains, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed up to two-fold increased bactericidal activity, and rainbow trout demonstrated up to three-fold greater reactive oxygen species production in macrophages. In conclusion, the non-specific humoral and cellular barriers of Atlantic salmon were immunologically insufficient against S. phocae subsp. salmonis, thereby facilitating streptococcosis. Moreover, the more robust response of rainbow trout to S. phocae could not be attributed to any specific component of the innate immune system, but was rather the consequence of a combined response by the evaluated components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Proteolytic Ruminal Bacteria from Sheep and Goats Fed the Tannin-Containing Shrub Legume Calliandra calothyrsus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Christopher S.; Palmer, Brian; Bunch, Rowan; Krause, Denis O.

    1999-01-01

    Tannins in forages complex with protein and reduce the availability of nitrogen to ruminants. Ruminal bacteria that ferment protein or peptides in the presence of tannins may benefit digestion of these diets. Bacteria from the rumina of sheep and goats fed Calliandra calothyrsus (3.6% N and 6% condensed tannin) were isolated on proteinaceous agar medium overlaid with either condensed (calliandra tannin) or hydrolyzable (tannic acid) tannin. Fifteen genotypes were identified, based on 16S ribosomal DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and all were proteolytic and fermented peptides to ammonia. Ten of the isolates grew to high optical density (OD) on carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, xylan, starch, and maltose), while the other isolates did not utilize or had low growth on these substrates. In pure culture, representative isolates were unable to ferment protein that was present in calliandra or had been complexed with tannin. One isolate, Lp1284, had high protease activity (80 U), a high specific growth rate (0.28), and a high rate of ammonia production (734 nmol/min/ml/OD unit) on Casamino Acids and Trypticase Peptone. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence showed that Lp1284 was related (97.6%) to Clostridium botulinum NCTC 7273. Purified plant protein and casein also supported growth of Lp1284 and were fermented to ammonia. This is the first report of a proteolytic, ammonia-hyperproducing bacterium from the rumen. In conclusion, a diverse group of proteolytic and peptidolytic bacteria were present in the rumen, but the isolates could not digest protein that was complexed with condensed tannin. PMID:10388706

  4. Pleiotropic Regulation of Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans by the Conserved Small Protein SprV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Biswas, Indranil

    2017-04-15

    Streptococcus mutans , an oral pathogen associated with dental caries, colonizes tooth surfaces as polymicrobial biofilms known as dental plaque. S. mutans expresses several virulence factors that allow the organism to tolerate environmental fluctuations and compete with other microorganisms. We recently identified a small hypothetical protein (90 amino acids) essential for the normal growth of the bacterium. Inactivation of the gene, SMU.2137, encoding this protein caused a significant growth defect and loss of various virulence-associated functions. An S. mutans strain lacking this gene was more sensitive to acid, temperature, osmotic, oxidative, and DNA damage-inducing stresses. In addition, we observed an altered protein profile and defects in biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and natural competence development, possibly due to the fitness defect associated with SMU.2137 deletion. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that nearly 20% of the S. mutans genes were differentially expressed upon SMU.2137 deletion, thereby suggesting a pleiotropic effect. Therefore, we have renamed this hitherto uncharacterized gene as sprV ( s treptococcal p leiotropic r egulator of v irulence). The transcript levels of several relevant genes in the sprV mutant corroborated the phenotypes observed upon sprV deletion. Owing to its highly conserved nature, inactivation of the sprV ortholog in Streptococcus gordonii also resulted in poor growth and defective UV tolerance and competence development as in the case of S. mutans Our experiments suggest that SprV is functionally distinct from its homologs identified by structure and sequence homology. Nonetheless, our current work is aimed at understanding the importance of SprV in the S. mutans biology. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans employs several virulence factors and stress resistance mechanisms to colonize tooth surfaces and cause dental caries. Bacterial pathogenesis is generally controlled by regulators of fitness that are

  5. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  6. Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Geoffrey H; Randis, Tara M; Desai, Purnahamsi V; Sapra, Katherine J; Ma, Bing; Gajer, Pawel; Humphrys, Michael S; Ravel, Jacques; Gelber, Shari E; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-09-15

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota. Vaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3-V4 region was performed. Four hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated. Vaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The dynamics of nematode infections of farmed ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and control of nematode parasites of farmed ruminants are discussed via a qualitative analysis of a differential equation model. To achieve this a quantity, 'the basic reproduction quotient' (Q0), whose definition coincides with previous definitions of R0 for

  8. BOARD-invited review : Quantifying water use in ruminant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legesse, G.; Ominski, K. H.; Beauchemin, K. A.; Pfister, S.; Martel, M.; McGeough, E. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Kroebel, R.; Cordeiro, M. R.C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of

  9. Parasitic Diseases of Ruminants Brought to Two Zonal Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...

  10. ruminants by amino acid analysis of the products of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reveals that in all cases histidine is the limiting amino acid for milk production. Comparison of the milk production potential predicted from the duodenal amino acid supply with that predicted from ... also recognized, in ruminants, as'a critical point in the chain .... be used to model the in vivo situation and measurement of.

  11. Implementation of triticale in nutrition of non-ruminant animals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... application in non-ruminant animal nutrition were pointed out in this paper. There is a high level of ... a result of environment protection. Triticale is an ...... Review Res. Work Faculty Agriculture, Zemun-Belgrade, 38(2): 71-. 82.

  12. Innovations adoption levels of small ruminant farmers in Tolon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 small ruminant farmers were selected for the study using simple random sampling, and questionnaires and personal observations employed for the data collection. Twelve communities were randomly selected from four Ministry of Food and Agriculture operational zones. Data were analyzed using SPSS ...

  13. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presence of plastic bags in the rumen of the goats was clinically characterized by anorexia, severe depression, discomfort (grunting sounds), dehydration, firmness and asymmetrical distention of the abdomen, reduced ruminal movements, diarrhoea with intermittent constipation, recumbency and death. Severity of the ...

  14. Recent advances in modeling nutrient utilization in ruminants1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modeling techniques have been applied to study various aspects of the ruminant, such as rumen function, post-absorptive metabolism and product composition. This review focuses on advances made in modeling rumen fermentation and its associated rumen disorders, and energy and nutrient

  15. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted crude protein degradation was calculated at rate constants for outflow of 0.04 and 0.06/h respect- ively. ... as buffers, an ionophore and an antibiotic according to general .... the non-bird resistant ('sweet') varieties. Ruminal .... have been affected by both the particle type and the math- ematical model we used.

  16. Status of small ruminant production in six selected communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the status of small ruminant production in some selected communities in Delta State vis-à-vis identifying the type of people involved in it; their response to modern livestock practices and determining factors affecting their stock size. Data were obtained from 90 respondents. Results of data analysis ...

  17. Comparison of analyses to predict ruminal fibre degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and indigestible NDF (INDF) between silages (n = 24) that originated from three different temperate grass species, i.e. Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea L. and hybrid, Felina – Lolium multiflorum L. × Festuca ...

  18. The economic impact of peste des petits ruminants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, D; Kumar, S; Anandsekaran, G; Chaudhury, J K; Meraj, M; Singh, R K; Verma, M R; Kumar, D; Kumar P T, N; Ahmed Lone, S; Mishra, V; Mohanty, B S; Korade, N; De, U K

    2017-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important livestock disease which affects a vast section of the small ruminant population in India. However, data on the incidence of PPR are limited and scant literature is available on the economic losses caused by the disease. In the present study, a structured sampling design was adopted, which covered the major agro-climatic regions of the country, to ascertain the morbidity and mortality rates of PPR. Available estimates of the economic losses in India due to various livestock diseases are based on single values of various epidemiological and economic parameters. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the economic impact of PPR. Overall annual morbidity and mortality rates of PPR for small ruminants in India have been estimated from the sample as being 8%and 3.45%, respectively. The authors have analysed variations in these rates across species, age group, sex, season and region. The expected annual economic loss due to PPR in India ranges from as little as US $2 million to $18 million and may go up to US $1.5 billion; the most likely range of expected economic losses is between US $653 million and $669 million. This study thus reveals significant losses due to the incidence of PPR in small ruminants in India.

  19. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  20. Haemonchosis and haemoparasites of small ruminants reared in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abomasa were examined by Hansen and Perry method for the presence of Haemonchus contortus while blood samples were examined using the thin blood smear and Haematocrit Centrifugation Techniques (HCT). The prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants was 80.3% with goats and sheep having ...

  1. Conventional and serological detection of Fasciolosis in ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determined seasonal prevalence of fasciolosis and compare between its conventional diagnosis and serological identification in ruminants slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, northeastern Nigeria. Nine hundred samples each of faeces and blood; that is 300 each from cattle, sheep and goats was ...

  2. Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of large intestinal or hindgut fermentation in ruminant nutrition has received little research attention in recent decades. Though the contribution of the hindgut to total tract nutrient digestion is substantially less than the contribution from the rumen, hindgut fermentation impacts anima...

  3. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Acidosis: new insights into the persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Wertz-Lutz, A E

    2011-04-01

    The Ruminant Nutrition Symposium titled "Acidosis: New insights into the persistent problem" was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Western Section-ASAS, and the Canadian Society of Animal Science in Denver, Colorado, July 11 to 15, 2010. The objective of the symposium was to provide the ruminant nutrition community with new insights and perspectives from recent research findings on acidosis. Under modern production systems, ruminants are fed high-grain diets to maximize their energy intake and productivity. However, feeding highly fermentable diets often causes excess fermentation and results in accumulation of fermentation acids in the rumen, leading to a decrease in feed intake, poor feed efficiency, liver abscesses, and lameness in feedlot cattle or lactating dairy cows. Although our understanding of nutritional factors (i.e., effects of type and processing method of grains and importance of physically effective fiber) affecting rumen pH have increased substantially over the past few decades, rumen acidosis has continued to be a common problem in the ruminant livestock industry. The symposium program was organized to review recent research findings in acidosis with more emphasis on physiological aspects, and provide novel insights into the persistent problem.

  4. Current prevalence of Fasciolosis in small ruminants in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small ruminants are an important source of animal protein and of special importance in those areas where cattle are of lesser importance. The study was conducted determined current prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of northeast Nigeria. About 300 samples each from sheep and goats ...

  5. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... performed.Heifers receiving oligofructose developed a profound ruminal and systemic acidosis (in Trial 1 and 2 lowest ruminal pH was 4.3±0.2 and 3.8±0.02, respectively, and minimum SBE was −9.3±4.1 and −8.9±2.8, respectively). In Trial 1, SAA concentrations were higher than baseline concentrations on all...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...

  6. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    herds with Holstein cows, where daily RT was recorded by rumination sensors (Qwes HRTM). Cows were fed a partially mixed ration and concentrate at the milking robot. Concentrate was stepped up over the first 28 and 17 days in milk for primiparous and multiparous cows. Cows were assigned to either...

  7. Balancing the duodenal amino acid supply in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meat production are bloodmeal, carcass meal, poultry by-product meal, fishmeal and groundnut oilcake. ... The amino acid requirements for milk or meat production in ruminants are not accurately known and in the absence ...... Some adaptation of the in vitro technique of Dennison &. Phillips (1983) might prove useful in this ...

  8. Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Tolkamp, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part I of this thesis contains a critical appraisal of the commonly accepted theory with regard to feed intake regulation in ruminants and the presentation of a new theory. This new theory assumes that feed consumption creates both benefits to the animal (in a non-reproducing animal the

  9. Sero-epidemiology of bluetongue in Algerian ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BMH Labo SPA

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... the herds and lack of Culicoides controls strategies were the major risk factors for bluetongue sero- positivity in Algerian ruminant ... coastline at the Mediterranean Sea; most of the coastal area. (northern region) is hilly, .... Culicoides control measures in disease prevention strategy may play a key role in ...

  10. Rumination syndrome: when the lower oesophageal sphincter rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, Guillaume; Dechelotte, Pierre; Ducrotte, Philippe; Leroi, Anne Marie

    2011-07-01

    Rumination syndrome is an uncommon condition characterised by the self-induced regurgitation from the stomach to the mouth of recently ingested meal that is chewed and reswallowed. Rumination is caused by a voluntary rise in intra-abdominal and intra-gastric pressure leading to the reflux of the gastric content into the oesophagus. However, the precise mechanisms preventing reflux at the gastro-oesophageal junction during the rise in intra-gastric pressure remains unknown. In 5 patients, rumination episodes were monitored using combined multiple intra-luminal impedance monitoring, high resolution manometry, and video-fluoroscopic recording. We showed that the gastro-oesophageal junction moved from the abdominal cavity into the thorax creating a "pseudo-hernia". This occurred at a range of 1.4 ± 0.3 s before the rise in intra-oesophageal pressure and the gastro-oesophageal reflux. This displacement of the gastro-oesophageal junction into thorax, rather than a lower oesophageal sphincter opening, explains the mechanism of voluntary regurgitations occurring during rumination syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of protein nutrition and metabolism in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Krebs, G.L.; Hennessy, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial fermentation in the rumen, ruminal ammonia kinetics and urea synthesis and recycling to the rumen of sheep and cattle consuming fibrous diets have been studied in three experiments using isotopic tracers. A technique based on 35 S-labelling of microorganisms has been developed and used for estimating the pool size and turnover rate of 'fluid phase' and 'particle associated' bacteria in ruminants fitted with simple rumen cannulas. When used in sheep given a diet of oaten chaff, this technique gave estimates of microbial synthesis that were consistent with other estimates based on marker corrected digesta flows through the abomasum in similar sheep with single abomasal cannulas. Aspects of ammonia kinetics in the rumen (conversion of dietary nitrogen to ammonia, assimilation of ammonia by ruminal microflora, ammonia absorption, ammonia passage in digesta and endogenous urea transfer to the rumen) have been estimated by means of 15 N-ammonia, and 14 C- and 15 N-urea in cattle and sheep given fibrous diets with and without supplements. The results indicate that the net gain of ammonia-N in the rumen from recycled urea can augment the supply of N for ruminal microflora, but the net gain is reduced by the concomitant losses of ammonia by absorption and passage out of the rumen in digesta. (author)

  12. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 2. Energy sources. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy cattle using the in situ polyester bag technique. 3. Roughages. LJ Erasmus, J Prinsloo, PM Botha, HH Meissner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Feeding standards for ruminants: A progress report of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled (indoor) nutrition research in the Republic, and for me to then give my views on how to proceed ... intricacies of aspects of ruminant nutrition in which I am a complete layman. I would suggest that the ...... Metode om dierlike proteiene te beskerm teen de-aminering deur mikro-organismes in die rumen. Hqnd. S. Afr.

  15. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestion of eight plant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    made more effective if the properties of the feed are known and can be ... Three ruminally fistulated Jersey cows were fed Coast cross 2 hay (K11) ad libitum. .... absence of properly prepared animals for the implementation of the mobile bag.

  16. Occurrence of brucellosis in small ruminants slaughtered in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is a disease of economic and public health importance worldwide. Although present in Nigeria, there is a paucity of information regarding the occurrence of the disease in small ruminants in Nasarawa State. A cross-sectional study was therefore carried out to determine the ...

  17. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the principal cariogenic bacterium for dental caries. Despite the recognition of their importance for cariogenesis, the possible coordination among S. mutans’ main virulence factors, including glucan production, acidogenicity and aciduricity, has been less well studied. In the present study, using S. mutans strains with surface-displayed pH-sensitive pHluorin, we revealed sucrose availability- and Gtf functionality-dependent proton accumulation on S. mutans surface. Consistent with this, using a pH-sensitive dye, we demonstrated that both in vivo cell-produced and in vitro enzymatically synthesized insoluble glucans displayed proton-concentrating ability. Global transcriptomics revealed proton accumulation triggers the up-regulation of genes encoding functions involved in acid tolerance response in a glucan-dependent manner. Our data suggested that this proton enrichment around S. mutans could pre-condition the bacterium for acid-stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found S. mutans strains defective in glucan production were more acid sensitive. Our study revealed for the first time that insoluble glucans is likely an essential factor linking acidogenicity with aciduricity. The coordination of these key virulence factors could provide new insights on how S. mutans may have become a major cariogenic pathogen. PMID:26657939

  18. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? Evidence from eye-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten C Eisma

    Full Text Available Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on cognitive avoidance theories of worry in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD and rumination after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, others have suggested that rumination may serve to avoid painful aspects of the loss, thereby contributing to complicated grief. To examine if rumination is linked with loss avoidance, an eye-tracking study was conducted with 54 bereaved individuals (27 high and 27 low ruminators. On 24 trials, participants looked for 10 seconds at a picture of the deceased and a picture of a stranger, randomly combined with negative, neutral or loss-related words. High ruminators were expected to show initial vigilance followed by subsequent disengagement for loss stimuli (i.e., picture deceased with a loss word in the first 1500 ms. Additionally, we expected high ruminators to avoid these loss stimuli and to show attentional preference for non-loss-related negative stimuli (i.e., picture stranger with a negative word on longer exposure durations (1500-10000 ms. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for an effect of rumination on vigilance and disengagement of loss stimuli in the first 1500 ms. However, in the 1500-10000 ms interval, high ruminators showed shorter gaze times for loss stimuli and longer gaze times for negative (and neutral non-loss-related stimuli, even when controlling for depression and complicated grief symptom levels. Effects of rumination on average fixation times mirrored these findings. This suggests that rumination and loss avoidance are closely associated. A potential clinical implication is that rumination and grief complications after bereavement may be reduced through the use of exposure and acceptance

  19. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  20. Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, Kuya; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, Robert; Shilinde, Ligge; Mdaki, Maulid; Keyyu, Julius; Parida, Satya; Kock, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation.

  1. Cinética ruminal do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Ruminal kinetics of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Sete carneiros fistulados no rúmen e no duodeno foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e alimentados com feno de Stylosanthes guianensis à vontade. Foi empregada a técnica de sacos de náilon para determinação da degradabilidade in situ do feno, utilizando-se os tempos de 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas para as retiradas dos sacos do rúmen. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi determinada utilizando-se cromo mordante como indicador. Os valores de pH no líquido ruminal foram medidos nos tempos de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após a alimentação e a concentração de amônia nos tempos de 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 e 11 horas após a alimentação. A taxa de degradação da matéria seca (MS foi de 8,5%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 38,1% e a degradabilidade efetiva 30,3%. A taxa de degradação da proteína bruta (PB foi de 9,7%/h, a degradabilidade potencial 56,0% e a degradabilidade efetiva 47,5%. A celulose apresentou maior degradabilidade efetiva que a hemicelulose, com valores de 22,5 e 8,9%, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem dos sólidos foi 2,7%/h. O pH diminuiu linearmente à medida que os tempos de coleta aumentaram. Para o tempo de 5,13 horas após a alimentação, foi estimada a concentração máxima de amônia de 12,18mg/100ml. O feno de S. guianensis apresentou alta taxa de degradação e baixa degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs, were allocated in metabolic cages and were fed ad libitum with Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The in situ technique was used for determination of the degradability of the hay, at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The passage rate of solids was determined using chromium mordant as external marker. The pH of the rumen liquid was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding and the ammonia concentration at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 hours after feeding. The degradation rate, the potential degradability, and the effective degradability of dry matter (DM were 8.5%/h, 38

  2. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic benefits of antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Rooijendijk, J.G.A.; Zadoks, R.N.; Hogeveen, H.

    2005-01-01

    The economic effect of lactational antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical intramammary infections due to Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae was explored by means of partial budgeting. Effects at cow level and herd level were modelled, including prevention of clinical mastitis

  3. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm. PMID:25280752

  4. Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing-Yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacterio...

  5. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7 % sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100 % sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8 %). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) ( = JCM 30273(T) = DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain. © 2015 IUMS.

  6. Nitrate and inhibition of ruminal methanogenesis: microbial ecology, obstacles and opportunities for lowering methane emissions from ruminant livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjian eYang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal methane production is among the main targets for greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation for the animal agriculture industry. Many compounds have been evaluated for their efficacy to suppress enteric methane production by ruminal microorganisms. Of these, nitrate as an alternative hydrogen sink has been among the most promising, but it suffers from variability in efficacy for reasons that are not understood. The accumulation of nitrite, which is poisonous when absorbed into the animal’s circulation, is also variable and poorly understood. This review identifies large gaps in our knowledge of rumen microbial ecology that handicap the further development and safety of nitrate as a dietary additive. Three main bacterial species have been associated historically with ruminal nitrate reduction, namely Wolinella succinogenes, Veillonella parvula and Selenomonas ruminantium, but others almost certainly exist in the largely uncultivated ruminal microbiota. Indications are strong that ciliate protozoa can reduce nitrate, but the significance of their role relative to bacteria is not known. The metabolic fate of the reduced nitrate has not been studied in detail. It is important to be sure that nitrate metabolism and efforts to enhance rates of nitrite reduction do not lead to the evolution of the much more potent GHG, nitrous oxide. The relative importance of direct inhibition of archaeal methanogenic enzymes by nitrite or the efficiency of capture of hydrogen by nitrate reduction in lowering methane production is also not known, nor are nitrite effects on other members of the microbiota. How effective would combining mitigation methods be, based on our understanding of the effects of nitrate and nitrite on the microbiome? Answering these fundamental microbiological questions is essential in assessing the potential of dietary nitrate to limit methane emissions from ruminant livestock.

  7. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  8. Frequent beneficial mutations during single-colony serial transfer of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Stevens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of new mutations within a population provides the raw material for evolution. The consistent decline in fitness observed in classical mutation accumulation studies has provided support for the long-held view that deleterious mutations are more common than beneficial mutations. Here we present results of a study using a mutation accumulation design with the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae in which the fitness of the derived populations increased. This rise in fitness was associated specifically with adaptation to survival during brief stationary phase periods between single-colony population bottlenecks. To understand better the population dynamics behind this unanticipated adaptation, we developed a maximum likelihood model describing the processes of mutation and stationary-phase selection in the context of frequent population bottlenecks. Using this model, we estimate that the rate of beneficial mutations may be as high as 4.8×10(-4 events per genome for each time interval corresponding to the pneumococcal generation time. This rate is several orders of magnitude higher than earlier estimates of beneficial mutation rates in bacteria but supports recent results obtained through the propagation of small populations of Escherichia coli. Our findings indicate that beneficial mutations may be relatively frequent in bacteria and suggest that in S. pneumoniae, which develops natural competence for transformation, a steady supply of such mutations may be available for sampling by recombination.

  9. Streptococcus iniae SF1: complete genome sequence, proteomic profile, and immunoprotective antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-cun Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS, 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control.

  10. Uptake of extracellular DNA: Competence induced pili in natural transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschiol, Sandra; Balaban, Murat; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Transport of DNA across bacterial membranes involves complex DNA uptake systems. In Gram-positive bacteria, the DNA uptake machinery shares fundamental similarities with type IV pili and type II secretion systems. Although dedicated pilus structures, such as type IV pili in Gram-negative bacteria, are necessary for efficient DNA uptake, the role of similar structures in Gram-positive bacteria is just beginning to emerge. Recently two essentially very different pilus structures composed of the same major pilin protein ComGC were proposed to be involved in transformation of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae – one is a long, thin, type IV pilus-like fiber with DNA binding capacity and the other one is a pilus structure that was thicker, much shorter and not able to bind DNA. Here we discuss how competence induced pili, either by pilus retraction or by a transient pilus-related opening in the cell wall, may mediate DNA uptake in S. pneumoniae. PMID:25640084

  11. Subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and adherence to oral epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    Full Text Available Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans.

  12. Differential recognition and hydrolysis of host carbohydrate antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae family 98 glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Melanie A; Whitworth, Garrett E; El Warry, Nahida; Randriantsoa, Mialy; Samain, Eric; Burke, Robert D; Vocadlo, David J; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2009-09-18

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-beta-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-beta-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  13. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcantara, E.; López-Callejas, R.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Lagunas-Bernabé, S.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; de la Piedad-Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  14. Passive Immunization with Milk Produced from an Immunized Cow Prevents Oral Recolonization by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Mitoma, Morihide; Oho, Takahiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Okano, Kaoru; Nakano, Yutaka; Fukuyama, Masataka; Fujihara, Noboru; Nada, Youichi; Koga, Toshihiko

    2001-01-01

    Cell surface protein antigen (PAc) and water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing enzyme (GTF-I) produced by cariogenic Streptococcus mutans are two major factors implicated in the colonization of the human oral cavity by this bacterium. We examined the effect of bovine milk, produced after immunization with a fusion protein of functional domains of these proteins, on the recolonization of S. mutans. To prepare immune milk, a pregnant Holstein cow was immunized with the fusion protein PAcA-GB, a fusion of the saliva-binding alanine-rich region (PAcA) of PAc and the glucan-binding (GB) domain of GTF-I. After eight adult subjects received cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) treatment, one subgroup (n = 4) rinsed their mouths with immune milk and a control group (n = 4) rinsed with nonimmune milk. S. mutans levels in saliva and dental plaque decreased after CPC treatment in both groups. Mouth rinsing with immune milk significantly inhibited recolonization of S. mutans in saliva and plaque. On the other hand, the numbers of S. mutans cells in saliva and plaque in the control group increased immediately after the CPC treatment and surpassed the baseline level 42 and 28 days, respectively, after the CPC treatment. The ratios of S. mutans to total streptococci in saliva and plaque in the group that received immune milk were lower than those in the control group. These results suggest that milk produced from immunized cow may be useful for controlling S. mutans in the human oral cavity. PMID:11687453

  15. Phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced immunity of the whole cell of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-Yen; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chi; Jiang, Bo-Huang; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect a wide range of warmwater fish species. The outer-surface proteins in bacterial pathogens play an important role in pathogenesis. We evaluated the immunogenicity of two of the identified surface proteins namely phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OCT). PGK and OCT were over-expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and used as the subunit vaccines in tilapia. Tilapia immunized with the S. agalactiae modified bacteria vaccine (whole cell preparations with recombinant PGK and OCT proteins) individually were tested for the efficacy. OCT and PGK combined with WC had a higher survival rate. A high-level protection and significant specific antibody responses against S. agalactiae challenge was observed upon the vaccinated tilapia with the purified PGK protein and S. agalactiae whole cells. The specific antibody titer against S. agalactiae antigen suggested that increased antibody titers were correlated with post-challenge survival rate. Il-1β expression profile was higher in PGK + WC-treated group. Tnf-α expression in the PGK + WC group was significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggested the combinations of recombinant protein and whole cell may elicit immune responses that reach greater protection than that of individual S. agalactiae components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra M; Farshchi Andisi, Vahid; Gradstedt, Henrik; Neef, Jolanda; Kuipers, Oscar P; Neves, Ana R; Bijlsma, Jetta J E

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps) transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  17. Characterization of competence and biofilm development of a Streptococcus sanguinis endocarditis isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Zhang, Y; Fan, J; Herzberg, M C; Kreth, J

    2011-04-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is an oral commensal bacterium and endogenous pathogen in the blood, which is generally naturally competent to take up extracellular DNA. Regarded as a stress response, competence development enables S. sanguinis to acquire new genetic material. The sequenced reference strain SK36 encodes and expresses the genes required for competence (com) and uptake of DNA. Isolated from blood cultures of a confirmed case of infective endocarditis, strain 133-79 encodes all necessary com genes but is not transformable under conditions permissive for competence development in SK36. Using synthetic competence-stimulating peptides (sCSP) based on sequences of SK36 and 133-79 comC, both strains developed competence at similar frequencies in cross-transformation experiments. Furthermore, downstream response pathways are similar in strains SK36 and 133-79 because platelet aggregation and biofilm formation appeared unaffected by CSP. Collectively, the data indicate that strains SK36 and 133-79 respond to CSP similarly, strongly suggesting that endogenous production or release of CSP from 133-79 is impaired. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase: a candidate virulence factor in Streptococcus sanguinis experimental endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingyuan; Zhang, Yongshu; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Frank, Kristi L; Guenther, Brian D; Kern, Marissa; Schlievert, Patrick M; Herzberg, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is the most common cause of infective endocarditis (IE). Since the molecular basis of virulence of this oral commensal bacterium remains unclear, we searched the genome of S. sanguinis for previously unidentified virulence factors. We identified a cell surface ecto-5'-nucleotidase (Nt5e), as a candidate virulence factor. By colorimetric phosphate assay, we showed that S. sanguinis Nt5e can hydrolyze extracellular adenosine triphosphate to generate adenosine. Moreover, a nt5e deletion mutant showed significantly shorter lag time (PS. sanguinis caused IE (4 d) in a rabbit model with significantly decreased mass of vegetations (PS. sanguinis in vivo. As a virulence factor, Nt5e may function by (i) hydrolyzing ATP, a pro-inflammatory molecule, and generating adenosine, an immunosuppressive molecule to inhibit phagocytic monocytes/macrophages associated with valvular vegetations. (ii) Nt5e-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation could also delay presentation of platelet microbicidal proteins to infecting bacteria on heart valves. Both plausible Nt5e-dependent mechanisms would promote survival of infecting S. sanguinis. In conclusion, we now show for the first time that streptococcal Nt5e modulates S. sanguinis-induced platelet aggregation and may contribute to the virulence of streptococci in experimental IE.

  19. Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase: A Candidate Virulence Factor in Streptococcus sanguinis Experimental Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingyuan; Zhang, Yongshu; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Frank, Kristi L.; Guenther, Brian D.; Kern, Marissa; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Herzberg, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is the most common cause of infective endocarditis (IE). Since the molecular basis of virulence of this oral commensal bacterium remains unclear, we searched the genome of S. sanguinis for previously unidentified virulence factors. We identified a cell surface ecto-5′-nucleotidase (Nt5e), as a candidate virulence factor. By colorimetric phosphate assay, we showed that S. sanguinis Nt5e can hydrolyze extracellular adenosine triphosphate to generate adenosine. Moreover, a nt5e deletion mutant showed significantly shorter lag time (PS. sanguinis caused IE (4 d) in a rabbit model with significantly decreased mass of vegetations (PS. sanguinis in vivo. As a virulence factor, Nt5e may function by (i) hydrolyzing ATP, a pro-inflammatory molecule, and generating adenosine, an immunosuppressive molecule to inhibit phagocytic monocytes/macrophages associated with valvular vegetations. (ii) Nt5e-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation could also delay presentation of platelet microbicidal proteins to infecting bacteria on heart valves. Both plausible Nt5e-dependent mechanisms would promote survival of infecting S. sanguinis. In conclusion, we now show for the first time that streptococcal Nt5e modulates S. sanguinis-induced platelet aggregation and may contribute to the virulence of streptococci in experimental IE. PMID:22685551

  20. Effects of iron-oxide nanoparticles on compound biofilms of streptococcus gordonii and fusobacterium nucleatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jane Q.; Withers, Nathan J.; Alas, Gema; Senthil, Arjun; Minetos, Christina; Jaiswal, Nikita; Ivanov, Sergei A.; Huber, Dale L.; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Osiński, Marek

    2018-02-01

    The human mouth is a host of a large gamut of bacteria species, with over 700 of different bacteria strains identified. Most of these bacterial species are harmless, some are beneficial (such as probiotics assisting in food digestion), but some are responsible for various diseases, primarily tooth decay and gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis. Dental plaque has a complicated structure that varies from patient to patient, but a common factor in most cases is the single species of bacterium acting as a secondary colonizer, namely Fusobacterium nucleatum, while the actual disease is caused by a variety of tertiary colonizers. We hypothesize that destruction of a compound biofilm containing Fusobacterium nucleatum will prevent tertiary colonizers (oral pathogens) from establishing a biofilm, and thus will protect the patient from developing gingivitis and periodontitis. In this paper, we report on the effects of exposure of compound biofilms of a primary colonizer Streptococcus gordonii combined with Fusobacterium nucleatum to iron oxide nanoparticles as possible bactericidal agent.

  1. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  2. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Alcantara, E; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Lagunas-Bernabé, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  3. Streptococcus iniae SF1: Complete Genome Sequence, Proteomic Profile, and Immunoprotective Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-cun; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control. PMID:24621602

  4. Developmental Origins of Rumination in Middle Childhood: The Roles of Early Temperament and Positive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tina H; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret W; Laptook, Rebecca S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-09-08

    Rumination, a thinking style characterized by a repetitive inward focus on negative cognitions, has been linked to internalizing disorders, particularly depression. Moreover, research suggests that rumination may be a cognitive vulnerability that predisposes individuals to psychopathology. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the etiology and development of rumination. The present study examined the role of specific components of child temperamental negative emotionality (sadness, fear, anger) and effortful control (inhibition), as well as parenting behaviors during early childhood on the development of rumination in middle childhood. Early childhood (age 3) temperament and parenting behaviors were assessed observationally and rumination was self-reported in middle childhood (age 9) in a large community sample (N = 425; 47.1% female). Two significant interactions emerged. First, temperamental anger interacted with inhibitory control (IC) such that high anger and low IC predicted higher levels of rumination, whereas low anger and low IC predicted lower levels of rumination. Second, IC interacted with parenting such that children with low IC and positive parenting had lower levels of rumination. In contrast, children with high IC reported similar levels of rumination regardless of parenting quality. Overall, these findings highlight the interplay of early IC with temperamental anger and positive parenting in the development of ruminative tendencies in middle childhood.

  5. Rumination, distraction and mindful self-focus: effects on mood, dysfunctional attitudes and cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, C; Huffziger, S; Liebsch, K

    2009-02-01

    Although aggravating effects of rumination on dysfunctional cognitions and endocrine stress responses have been proposed, experimental studies testing these assumptions are lacking. In parallel, mindfulness theory suggests beneficial effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional cognitions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of induced rumination, distraction and mindful self-focus on mood and dysfunctional attitudes and to assess the possible impact of induced rumination on participants' cortisol responses. Sixty university students were subjected to negative mood induction and subsequently randomly assigned to a rumination, distraction or mindful self-focus condition. The latter included statements focusing on self-acceptance and awareness of the breath. Four saliva cortisol samples were selected during the session. Compared to induced rumination, distraction showed a clear beneficial effect on the course of dysphoric mood, whereas a mindful self-focus did not. In contrast to distraction and mindful self-focus, participants induced to ruminate showed significant increases in dysfunctional attitudes from baseline to post-induction. Although rumination was not itself linked to higher cortisol responses, participants scoring high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II who were induced to ruminate showed a smaller decrease in cortisol levels than those scoring low on the BDI-II. This study indicates that rumination as a dysfunctional mode of cognitive processing is able to maintain depression-linked dysfunctional thought content. Furthermore, our study revealed preliminary indications for a link between induced rumination and the cortisol stress response in vulnerable individuals.

  6. Antagonistic bioactivity of an endophytic bacterium isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic bioactivity of an endophytic bacterium isolated from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. R He, G Wang, X Liu, C Zhang, F Lin. Abstract. Endophytic bacteria are one of the most potential biological control agents in plant disease protection. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of a strain of ...

  7. The physiology of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijkhuis, H.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of the physiology of Microthrix parvicella. This filamentous bacterium often causes poor settleability of activated sludge in oxidation ditches supplied with domestic sewage. The organism was found to utilize only long chain fatty acids (preferably in

  8. The Bacterium That Got Infected by a Cow! - Horizontal Gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. The Bacterium That Got Infected by a Cow! - Horizontal Gene Transfer and Evolution. Saurabh Dhawan Tomás John Ryan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 49-59 ...

  9. Monitoring of a novel bacterium, Lactobacillus thermotolerans , in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We successfully established fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for specific detection and enumeration of a novel bacterium, Lactobacillus thermotolerans, in chicken feces. The specific FISH probes were designed based on the L. thermotolerans 16S rRNA gene sequences, and these sequences were ...

  10. methoxyethanol by a new bacterium isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    A 2-methoxyethanol degrading bacterium was isolated from anaerobic sludge of a municipal sewage from ... Stoichiometrically, the strain utilized one mole of oxygen per one mole of 2-methoxyethanol instead of ... physiological and biochemical characterization of the .... observed with acetate and the intact resting cells.

  11. Non-obligate predatory bacterium burkholderia casidaeand uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A novel predator bacterium Burkholderia casidae is disclosed. The invention is directed to the isolation and use of Burkholderia casidae to control microbial diseases of plants. The genetic, biochemical and physiological characteristics of Burkholderia casidae are described. Biocontrol compositions comprising Burkholderia casidae, and antimicrobial compounds and antimicrobial preparations prepared from Burkholderia casidae are also disclosed, as are methods for accomplishing all of the forego...

  12. Non-obligate predatory bacterium Burkholderia casidae and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A novel predator bacterium Burkholderia casidae is disclosed. The invention is directed to the isolation and use of Burkholderia casidae to control microbial diseases of plants. The genetic, biochemical and physiological characteristics of Burkholderia casidae are described. Biocontrol compositions comprising Burkholderia casidae, and antimicrobial compounds and antimicrobial preparations prepared from Burkholderia casidae are also disclosed, as are methods for accomplishing all of the forego...

  13. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: ruminant production and metabolic responses to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2012-06-01

    Heat stress compromises efficient animal production by marginalizing nutrition, management, and genetic selection efforts to maximize performance endpoints. Modifying farm infrastructure has yielded modest success in mitigating heat stress-related losses, yet poor production during the summer remains arguably the costliest issue facing livestock producers. Reduced output (e.g., milk yield and muscle growth) during heat stress was traditionally thought to result from decreased nutrient intake (i.e., a classic biological response shared by all animals during environmental-induced hyperthermia). Our recent observations have begun to challenge this belief and indicate heat-stressed animals employ novel homeorhetic strategies to direct metabolic and fuel selection priorities independently of nutrient intake or energy balance. Alterations in systemic physiology support a shift in carbohydrate metabolism, evident by increased basal and stimulated circulating insulin concentrations. Perhaps most intriguing given the energetic shortfall of the heat-stressed animal is the apparent lack of basal adipose tissue mobilization coupled with a reduced responsiveness to lipolytic stimuli. Thus, the heat stress response markedly alters postabsorptive carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism independently of reduced feed intake through coordinated changes in fuel supply and utilization by multiple tissues. Interestingly, the systemic, cellular, and molecular changes appear conserved amongst different species and physiological states. Ultimately, these changes result in the reprioritization of fuel selection during heat stress, which appears to be primarily responsible for reduced ruminant animal productivity during the warm summer months.

  14. Do people ruminate because they haven't digested their goals? The relations of rumination and reflection to goal internalization and ambivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Tønnesvang, Jan; Schnieber, Anette

    2011-01-01

    In three studies it was investigated whether rumination was related to less internalized self-regulation and goals and whether reflection was related to more internalized self-regulation and goals. In all studies students completed questionnaires measuring rumination, reflection, and internalizat...

  15. Effect of time duration of ruminal urea infusions on ruminal ammonia concentrations and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea-N in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    investigated. Three Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were randomly allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were ventral ruminal infusion of water for 24h (water INF), 24-h infusion of 15g...

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Noda Albelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumonía comunitaria, líder en la etiología de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las últimas 3 décadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes terapéuticos más utilizados, como los betalactámicos, macrólidos, azálidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones terapéuticas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisión de los mecanismos más importantes implicados en la adquisición de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infección por S. pneumoniae resistente.

  17. The homodimeric GBS1074 from Streptococcus agalactiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Anshuman; Pallen, Mark; Anthony, Mark; White, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The homodimeric nature of the ESAT-6 homologue GBS1074 and the potential for fibre-like assemblies are revealed by the 2 Å resolution crystal structure. ESAT-6 is a well characterized secreted protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents the archetype of the WXG100 family of proteins. Genes encoding ESAT-6 homologues have been identified in the genome of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae; one of these genes, esxA, has been cloned and the recombinant protein has been crystallized. In contrast to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6, the crystal structure of GBS1074 reveals a homodimeric structure similar to homologous structures from Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. Intriguingly, GBS1074 forms elongated fibre-like assemblies in the crystal structure

  18. Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis in children in Nottingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, F. E.; Slack, R. C.; Colman, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from vaginal swabs of children with vulvovaginitis received at Nottingham Public Health Laboratory during 1986-9 were studied. A total of 159 isolates was made during the 4 years, increasing from 17 in 1986 to 64 in 1989 and accounting for 11% of all vaginal swabs received from children. The numbers of throat swabs yielding S. pyogenes also showed an increase from 974 in 1986 to 1519 in 1989. A winter peak of isolates was noted for both vaginal swabs and throat swabs. A total of 98 strains from vaginal swabs were serotyped: 22 different types were identified, 61% of which were the common types M4, M6, R28 and M12. Erythromycin sensitivity was done on 89 strains; 84% were highly sensitive (MIC less than 0.03 mg/l). There are no other reports of such large numbers in the literature; the reason for seeing this increase in Nottingham is unclear. PMID:2050200

  19. Development of Streptococcus agalactiae vaccines for tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhu, Jielian; Chen, Kangming; Gao, Tingting; Yao, Huochun; Liu, Yongjie; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2016-12-21

    Vaccination is a widely accepted and effective method to prevent most pathogenic diseases in aquaculture. Various species of tilapia, especially Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, are farmed worldwide because of their high consumer demand. Recently, the tilapia-breeding industry has been hampered by outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection, which cause high mortality and huge economic losses. Many researchers have attempted to develop effective S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia. This review provides a summary of the different kinds of S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia that have been developed recently. Among the various vaccine types, inactivated S. agalactiae vaccines showed superior protection efficiency when compared with live attenuated, recombinant and DNA vaccines. With respect to vaccination method, injecting the vaccine into tilapia provided the most effective immunoprotection. Freund's incomplete adjuvant appeared to be suitable for tilapia vaccines. Other factors, such as immunization duration and number, fish size and challenge dose, also influenced the vaccine efficacy.

  20. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2013; 12 (4): 535-540. ISSN: 1596-5996 .... Table 1: Antibacterial activity of selected Thai medicinal plants against Streptococcus pyogenes NPRC 101. Botanical ..... Naphthoquinones,.

  1. The changing epidemiology of group B streptococcus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballard, Mark S; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based studies conducted in single regions or countries have identified significant changes in the epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) infection. However, no studies have concurrently compared the epidemiology of GBS infections among multiple different region...

  2. Case Report of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is an extremely rare and life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection. We report a case of early necrotizing fasciitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a 26-year-old man who was immunocompromised with mixed connective tissue disease. The patient presented with acute, painful, erythematous, and edematous skin lesions of his right lower back, which rapidly progressed to the right knee. The patient underwent surgical exploration, and a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was confirmed by pathological evidence of necrosis of the fascia and neutrophil infiltration in tissue biopsies. Cultures of fascial tissue biopsies and blood samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing fasciitis resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosed at early phase; the patient recovered well without surgical debridement.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...

  4. The post-vaccine microevolution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Amelieke J H; Mobegi, Fredrick M; de Jonge, Marien I; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Meis, Jacques F; Hermans, Peter W M; Ferwerda, Gerben; Bentley, Stephen D; Zomer, Aldert L

    2015-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) has affected the genetic population of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatric carriage. Little is known however about pneumococcal population genomics in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) under vaccine pressure. We sequenced and serotyped

  5. Novel metabolic activity indicator in Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, D.M.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of micro-organisms in biofilms requires novel strategies to evaluate the efficacy of caries preventive agents in actual biofilms. Hence we investigated fluorescence intensity (FI) in Streptococcus mutans biofilms constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

  6. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  7. Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus uberis mastitis results in severe mammary tissue damage in dairy cows due to uncontrolled inflammation. Oxylipids are potent lipid mediators that orchestrate pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, however, changes in oxylipid biosynthesis during S. uberis mastitis are unknown. Thus, ...

  8. Mechanisms of genome evolution of Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P; Hanage, William P

    2015-07-01

    The genus Streptococcus contains 104 recognized species, many of which are associated with human or animal hosts. A globally prevalent human pathogen in this group is Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). While being a common resident of the upper respiratory tract, it is also a major cause of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, accounting for a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of recombination and selection in driving the population dynamics and evolution of different pneumococcal lineages, allowing them to successfully evade the impacts of selective pressures such as vaccination and antibiotic treatment. We highlight the ability of pneumococci to respond to these pressures through processes including serotype replacement, capsular switching and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes. The challenge in controlling this pathogen also lies in the exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation among different pneumococcal lineages, particularly in terms of their pathogenicity and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which target only a small subset of the more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes, provides us with a unique opportunity to elucidate how the processes of selection and recombination interact to generate a remarkable level of plasticity and heterogeneity in the pneumococcal genome. These processes also play an important role in the emergence and spread of multi-resistant strains, which continues to pose a challenge in disease control and/or eradication. The application of population of genomic approaches at different spatial and temporal scales will help improve strategies to control this global pathogen, and potentially other pathogenic streptococci. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Streptococcus sinensis may react with Lancefield group F antiserum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Leung, Kit-wah; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Wong, Beatrice H L; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2004-11-01

    Lancefield group F streptococci have been found almost exclusively as members of the 'Streptococcus milleri' group, although they have been reported very occasionally in some other streptococcal species. Among 302 patients with bacteraemia caused by viridans streptococci over a 6-year period, three cases were caused by Streptococcus sinensis (type strain HKU4T, HKU5 and HKU6). All three patients had infective endocarditis complicating their underlying chronic rheumatic heart diseases. Gene sequencing showed no base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HKU5 and HKU6 and that of HKU4T. All three strains were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming cocci arranged in chains. All grew on sheep blood agar as alpha-haemolytic, grey colonies of 0.5-1 mm in diameter after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C in ambient air. Lancefield grouping revealed that HKU5 and HKU6 were Lancefield group F, but HKU4T was non-groupable with Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, F or G antisera. HKU4T was identified by the Vitek system (GPI), API system (20 STREP) and ATB system (ID32 STREP) as 99 % Streptococcus intermedius, 51.3 % S. intermedius and 99.9 % Streptococcus anginosus, respectively. Using the same tests, HKU5 was identified as 87 % Streptococcus sanguinis/Streptococcus gordonii, 59 % Streptococcus salivarius and 99.6 % S. anginosus, respectively, and HKU6 as 87 % S. sanguinis/S. gordonii, 77 % Streptococcus pneumoniae and 98.3 % S. anginosus, respectively. The present data revealed that a proportion of Lancefield group F streptococci could be S. sinensis. Lancefield group F streptococci should not be automatically reported as 'S. milleri'.

  10. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection...... with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed...

  11. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Streptococcus mitis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Streptococcus mitis 名詞 一般 * * * * Streptococcus mit...is ... MeSH D034361 200906051281920120 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Streptococcus mitis

  12. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy vs. cognitive behaviour therapy for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvenegaard, Morten; Watkins, Ed R; Poulsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment for depression. However, one third of the patients do not respond satisfactorily, and relapse rates of around 30 % within the first post-treatment year were reported in a recent meta-analysis. In total, 30-50 % of remitted patients...... of future depression. Rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy is a psychotherapeutic treatment targeting rumination. Because rumination plays a major role in the initiation and maintenance of depression, targeting rumination with rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy may be more...... effective in treating depression and reducing relapse than standard cognitive behavioural therapy. METHOD/DESIGN: This study is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of group-based rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy with the effectiveness...

  13. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  14. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ishag

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54% were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  15. Digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe and other wild ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine

    Our current understanding of the complex digestive system of ruminants is mainly based on a few, but intensively studied livestock species. In comparison, information about the anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tract of wild ruminants is limited. The aim of this thesis was to provide...... quantitative data on the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica). Digestive tract anatomy was characterized by dimensions and weights of the different gastrointestinal tract sections......, and digesta samples were collected to describe the digestive function, as indirectly evidenced by the physical characteristics of the digesta. Of particular interest was to determine the presence/absence of rumen content stratification. The findings in each species were then evaluated against available data...

  16. Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H; Hance, I

    2008-01-01

    . A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples were collected from all potential ecological niches in the oral cavity and pharynx of two adults on two occasions......We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat...... with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host....

  17. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  18. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-05-26

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  19. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F

    2012-09-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

  20. Metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizares, G. I L [UNESP; Rodrigues, L. [UNESP; Cañizares, M. C. [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    The carbohydrates provide 50 to 80% of the dry matter of grain and roughage and can be divided into structural (cellulose, hemicellulose) and non-structural (starch, pectin and sugars). The non-structural carbohydrates are primarily digested in the rumen and its dynamic process is a sequence for the supply of nutrients to the intestine. The quality and quantity of products resulting from ruminal fermentation are dependent on the type and activity of microorganisms in the rumen influenced by t...

  1. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein available to ruminants is supplied by both microbial and dietary sources. Metabolizable protein (MP is the true protein which is absorbed by the intestine and supplied by both microbial protein and protein which escapes degradation in the rumen; the protein which is available to the animal for maintenance, growth, fetal growth during gestation, and milk production. Thus, the concept of balancing ruminant rations basing on only dietary crude protein (CP content seems erroneous. In India, ruminant rations are still balanced for digestible CP and total digestible nutrients for protein and energy requirements, respectively. Traditional feed analysis methods such as proximate analysis and detergent analysis consider feed protein as a single unit and do not take into account of the degradation processes that occur in rumen and passage rates of feed fractions from rumen to intestine. Therefore, the protein requirement of ruminants should include not only the dietary protein source, but also the microbial CP from rumen. The MP systems consider both the factors, thus predict the protein availability more accurately and precisely. This system is aptly designed to represent the extent of protein degradation in the rumen and the synthesis of microbial protein as variable functions. Feed protein fractions, i.e., rumen degradable protein and rumen undegradable protein play vital roles in meeting protein requirements of rumen microbes and host animal, respectively. With the advent of sophisticated nutrition models such as Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system, National Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy and Amino Cow; ration formulation has moved from balancing diets from CP to MP, a concept that describes the protein requirements of ruminantsat intestinal level, and which is available to animals for useful purposes.

  2. Utilization of urea-nitrogen-15 in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, K.; Varady, J.; Havassy, I.

    1976-01-01

    In Merino sheep a series of experiments were carried out investigating exogenous and endogenous urea utilization. On the experimental sheep with isolated jejunum, rumen and intestine fistula, re-entral intestine cannulae, and after intra-ruminal or intra-intestinal 15 N-urea administration it was found that urea- 15 N takes part in the nitrogen recycling, and is utilized in the nitrogen pool. In experiments with synthetic protein-free diet, low protein diet and high nitrogen diet, after the intravenous administration of 15 N-urea the following findings were made: The results of experiments with synthetic diet, where the only nitrogen source was perorally (for 3-6 months) and then intravenously (for 3 months) administered urea, indicated the ability of ruminants to replace fully the nitrogen in the feed under certain conditions by increased endogenous urea recirculation. The results of the experiments with various nitrogen intakes showed that considerable amounts of urea- 15 N (44-96% from the given dose) were retained. Nitrogen compounds synthetized from blood urea- 15 N were recycled through the alimentary tract. Its secretion predominated in the forestomachs, abomasum and duodenum, and its reabsorption took place in the intestinal tract. From the 15 N incorporated into the nitrogenous substances which passed through the duodenum, 73-84% was reabsorbed. The retained 15 N was incorporated into the microbial and plasma proteins and its amide-N. On the basis of these results it is concluded that in addition to the rumeno-hepatal circulation, the entero-hepatal circulation of nitrogenous substances, including endogenous nitrogen, also plays an important role quantitatively and perhaps qualitatively in the process of re-utilizing the blood urea N for proteosynthesis and synthesis of other N-metabolites in ruminants. The hydrolysis of endogenous urea in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants and its utilization is a natural process indispensable for the maintenance of

  3. Does rumination mediate the relationship between emotion regulation ability and posttraumatic stress disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Trauma-related rumination has been suggested to be involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This view has empirically been supported by extensive evidence using cross-sectional, prospective, and experimental designs. However, it is unclear why trauma survivors engage in rumination despite its negative consequences. The current study aimed to explore the hypothesis that low emotion regulation ability underlies trauma-related rumination.Met...

  4. Niacin alters the ruminal microbial composition of cattle under high-concentrate condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20, high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80, and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN. Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding. Ruminal fluid was sampled at the end of each period for microbial DNA extraction. Overall, our findings revealed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA was induced and the α-diversity of ruminal bacterial community decreased in the cattle of HC group. Adding niacin in HC could relieve the symptoms of SARA in the cattle but the ruminal pH value and the Shannon index of ruminal bacterial community of HCN group were still lower than those of HF group. Whatever the diet was, the ruminal bacterial community of cattle was dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. High-concentrate diet significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella, and decreased the abundance of Paraprevotella, Sporobacter, Ruminococcus and Treponema than HF. Compared with HC, HCN had a trend to decrease the percentage of Prevotella, and to increase the abundance of Succiniclasticum, Acetivibrio and Treponema. Increasing concentrate ratio could decrease ruminal pH value, and change the ruminal microbial composition. Adding niacin in HC could increase the ruminal pH value, alter the ruminal microbial composition.

  5. Fluid balance in ruminants: adaptation to external and internal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Kerstin

    2005-04-01

    Ruminants are widespread in hot, arid regions. This demands adaptation to large circadian temperature fluctuations and recurrent periods of food and water shortage. Pregnancy and lactation add to the demands on the adaptive mechanisms due to the greater need for food, water, and electrolytes. The blood volume increases to meet the requirements of the fetoplacental unit and the mammary glands. Unlike urine, the milk cannot be concentrated by antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). During water deprivation, lactating animals therefore become dehydrated more rapidly than nonlactating animals. Nevertheless, desert-adapted lactating ruminants endure frequent periods of water deprivation without incurring bad health. For the offspring living in hot and dry conditions, it is an advantage that the milk is not concentrated, even if the mother has a high antidiuretic hormone concentration to enable her to concentrate the urine. Since ruminants are prey, they need to drink rapidly when they get access to water. The forestomach allows the animals to store water in the reticulorumen. There is no danger of water intoxication even if they drink to satisfaction in a couple of minutes after having lost as much as 30% of their body weight.

  6. Tube cystostomy for management of obstructive urolithiasis in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamilmahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the simple tube cystostomy procedure for management of urethral obstruction cases in ruminants. Materials and Methods: Tube cystostomy was used to treat a total of 58 ruminants, which included 35 buffalo calves and 23 goats. Diagnosis of the disease was made with the history of anuria, clinical signs, and physical examinations. Physical parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature dehydration status of animals by skin tenting test, and intraoperative findings were compared. Results: Young ruminants were most commonly affected and the mean age was 4-5 months in both species. Only male were considered for the study in which buffalo calves were not castrated but in goat's 73.91% animal were castrated and 34.7% not castrated. Rupture of bladder was more common in buffalo calves as compared to goats. The confirmed cases of obstructive urolithiasis were selected for tube cystostomy with Foley's catheter. Postoperatively all cases were administered with broad spectrum antibiotic, anti-inflammatory agent, and caliculolytic agents like ammonium chloride. Postoperative complications recorded only in 10 animals and remaining 48 animals had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: Tube cystostomy is a simple and effective procedure particularly in intact urinary bladder, which can be adopted at field level.

  7. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rumination and behavioural factors in Parkinson's disease depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Camille L; Rimes, Katharine A; Brown, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with high rates of depression. There is growing interest in non-pharmacological management including psychological approaches such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. To date, little research has investigated whether processes that underpin cognitive models of depression, on which such treatment is based, apply in patients with Parkinson's disease. The study aimed to investigate the contribution of core psychological factors to the presence and degree of depressive symptoms. 104 participants completed questionnaires measuring mood, motor disability and core psychological variables, including maladaptive assumptions, rumination, cognitive-behavioural avoidance, illness representations and cognitive-behavioural responses to symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that a small number of psychological factors accounted for the majority of depression variance, over and above that explained by overall disability. Participants reporting high levels of rumination, avoidance and symptom focusing experienced more severe depressive symptoms. In contrast, pervasive negative dysfunctional beliefs did not independently contribute to depression variance. Specific cognitive (rumination and symptom focusing) and behavioural (avoidance) processes may be key psychological markers of depression in Parkinson's disease and therefore offer important targets for tailored psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum proteinogram in sheep with acute ruminal lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda F. Sabes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic fractionation represents one of the most reliable methods for the identification of blood proteins in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum proteinogram of sheep with acute ruminal lactic acidosis (ARA using the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis technique. Ten Santa Inês ewes were used and blood was collected to establish the basal values for induction of ARA. Sucrose was administered orally in a single dose of 15 g/kg body mass. After the administration, blood samples were obtained at the following moments: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Subsequently, samples were obtained every seven days for three further weeks, until complete one month. The total of 13 proteins were identified: immunoglobulins A and G, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein, proteins of molecular weight 95, 46, 36 and 31 kDa. The increase of haptoglobin from 08 h coincides with the ruminal pH decrease, possibly due to the death of Gram negative bacteria and also the inflammatory process on the rumen. Fibrinogen was presented on highest mean at 48 h and returned to normal with 144 h. We can conclude that changes in serum levels of acute phase proteins can assist the clinical evaluation and diagnosis of ARA in sheep.

  10. Group Rumination: Social Interactions Around Music in People with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Sandra; Eerola, Tuomas; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies. Participants recruited via online depression groups and mental health websites were surveyed as to music listening habits. Results revealed that people with depression were more likely to engage in “group rumination” using music, and that this behavior could be partially explained by a general tendency to ruminate using music. Both affective states and coping styles were found to be related to the affective outcomes of group interactions around music. These findings go some way toward clarifying the situations in which group interactions around music are able to provide important social benefits for those involved, and situations in which negative emotions can be amplified by the group context. PMID:28421014

  11. Role of probiotics in nutrition and health of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Tawab, M M; Youssef, I M I; Bakr, H A; Fthenakis, G C; Giadinis, N D

    2016-12-01

    Small ruminants represent an important economic source in small farm systems and agriculture. Feed is the main component of livestock farming, which has gained special attention to improve animal performance. Many studies have been done to improve feed utilisation through addition of feed additives. For a long period, antibiotics have been widely used as growth promoters in livestock diets. Due to their ban in many countries, search for alternative feed additives has been intensified. Probiotics are one of these alternatives recognised to be safe to the animals. Use of probiotics in small ruminant nutrition has been confirmed to improve animal health, productivity and immunity. Probiotics improved growth performance through enhancing of rumen microbial ecosystem, nutrient digestibility and feed conversion rate. Moreover, probiotics have been reported to stabilise rumen pH, increase volatile fatty acids production and to stimulate lactic acid utilising protozoa, resulting in a highly efficient rumen function. Furthermore, use of probiotics has been found to increase milk production and can reduce incidence of neonatal diarrhea and mortality. However, actual mechanisms through which probiotics exert these functions are not known. Since research on application of probiotics in small ruminants is scarce, the present review attempts to discuss the potential roles of this class of feed additives on productive performance and health status of these animals.

  12. The relation between rumination and temporal features of emotion intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Verleysen, Gregory; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe; Verduyn, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2). In addition, trait (Study 1 & 2), and state (Study 2) usage of a set of emotion regulation strategies was assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that trait rumination (especially the brooding component) was positively associated with emotion accumulation (Study 1 & 2). State rumination was also positively associated with emotion accumulation and, to a lesser extent, with emotion explosiveness (Study 2). These results provide support for emotion regulation theories, which hypothesise that rumination is a central mechanism underlying the maintenance of negative emotions.

  13. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Haruki; Matsuda, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    In order to examine how rumination and social problem solving intensify depression, the present study investigated longitudinal associations among each dimension of rumination and social problem solving and evaluated aspects of these constructs that predicted subsequent depression. A three-wave longitudinal study, with an interval of 4 weeks between waves, was conducted. Japanese university students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version, and Interpersonal Stress Event Scale on three occasions 4 weeks apart ( n  = 284 at Time 1, 198 at Time 2, 165 at Time 3). Linear mixed models were analyzed to test whether each variable predicted subsequent depression, rumination, and each dimension of social problem solving. Rumination and negative problem orientation demonstrated a mutually enhancing relationship. Because these two variables were not associated with interpersonal conflict during the subsequent 4 weeks, rumination and negative problem orientation appear to strengthen each other without environmental change. Rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, after controlling for the effect of initial depression. Because rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were not concurrently and longitudinally associated with each other, rumination and impulsive/careless problem solving style appear to be independent processes that serve to intensify depression.

  14. Management of Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle for Improved Production: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Hussain; Amjad Ul Islam; Surinder Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a well-recognized digestive disorder that is an increasing health problem in most dairy herds. Feeding diets high in grain and other highly fermentable carbohydrates to dairy cows increases milk production, but also increases the risk of SARA. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis is defined as periods of moderately depressed ruminal pH, from about 5.5 to 5.0. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis may be associated with laminitis and other health problems resulting in decreased...

  15. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Ling Zhang; Yong Chen; Xiao Li Xu; Yu Xia Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  16. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  17. Relationship Quality Buffers Association Between Co-rumination and Depressive Symptoms Among First Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guassi Moreira, João F; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-03-01

    Co-rumination, the tendency to dwell on negative events and feelings with a relationship partner, is an aspect of relationships that has been associated with socioemotional adjustment tradeoffs and is found to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, depending on the context in which it occurs, co-rumination is not necessarily associated with detriments to mental well-being. Differences in relationship quality within certain relationships may explain why co-rumination is not always associated with depressive symptoms. In the current study, we utilized self-report measures in an ethnically diverse sample (53.5 % non-White) of 307 first term college students (65 % female) in order to elucidate how co-rumination between roommates may be associated with depressive symptoms. We found that the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was moderated by relationship quality such that co-rumination in a high quality relationship was not associated with depressive symptoms whereas the opposite was true in low quality relationships. Moreover, we found moderated mediation, such that the variance in the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was explained via self-esteem, but only for those co-ruminating within a low quality relationship. These results suggest that relationship quality may impact the extent to which co-rumination is associated with depressive symptoms among first year college students.

  18. The rumination syndrome in adults: A review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumination in adults is considered to be the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food into the mouth, followed by either rechewing and reswallowing or expulsion of the regurgitate. On the basis of the definition of rumination as a unique category of functional gastroduodenal disorders, according to the newly established Rome III classification, a review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of the rumination syndrome in adults is presented after systematic and critical approach of all articles that could be retrieved through PubMed using the term "rumination".

  19. Nitrate decreases ruminal methane production with slight changes to ruminal methanogen composition of nitrate-adapted steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Yan; Wu, Hao; Huo, Yunlong; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Zhou, Zhenming

    2018-03-20

    This study was conducted to examine effects of nitrate on ruminal methane production, methanogen abundance, and composition. Six rumen-fistulated Limousin×Jinnan steers were fed diets supplemented with either 0% (0NR), 1% (1NR), or 2% (2NR) nitrate (dry matter basis) regimens in succession. Rumen fluid was taken after two-week adaptation for evaluation of in vitro methane production, methanogen abundance, and composition measurements. Results showed that nitrate significantly decreased in vitro ruminal methane production at 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h (P methane reduction was significantly related to Methanobrevibacter and Methanoplanus abundance, and negatively correlated with Methanosphaera and Methanimicrococcus abundance.

  20. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  1. Technical note: ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves: effects of cannulation on feed intake, body weight gain, and ruminal development at six weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Engbaek, M; Vestergaard, M; Harmon, D L

    2010-02-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43+/-3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract were not affected by cannulation. Minimum ruminal pH increased with sampling week, but average ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids concentration, and volatile fatty acids proportions were not affected by sampling week. In conclusion, the implemented surgical technique was found to have no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngeal colonization resulting in recurrent, prepubertal vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Megan T; Sanchez, Veronica T; Eyster, Kathleen; Hansen, Keith A

    2007-10-01

    Recurrent, prepubertal, vaginal infections are an uncommon, troublesome problem for the patient and her family. Failure of initial therapy to alleviate vulvovaginitis may be related to vulvar skin disease, foreign body, sexual abuse, pinworms, reactions to medications, anatomic anomalies, or allergies. This report describes a case of recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis secondary to presumed vaginal re-inoculation from pharyngeal colonization. A 4-yr-old presented with one year of culture proven, recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis. Her symptoms repeatedly resolved with penicillin therapy, but continued to recur following cessation of antibiotic therapy. Evaluation included physical examination, trans-abdominal pelvic ultrasound, and vaginoscopy which all revealed normal upper and lower genital tract anatomy. Both the patient and her mother demonstrated culture proven, Group A Streptococcus pharyngeal colonization. Because of the possibility of repeated inoculations of the vaginal area from the colonized pharynx, they were both treated for decolonization with a regimen of amoxicillin and rifampin for ten days. Following this therapy there was resolution of vaginal symptoms with no further recurrence. Follow-up pharyngeal culture done on both mother and child on their last visit were negative for Group A Streptococcus. This case demonstrated an unusual specific cause of recurrent vaginitis resulting from presumed self or maternal re-inoculation with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus from pharyngeal colonization. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus are consistently sensitive to penicillin, but up to 25% of acute pharyngitis cases treated with penicillin having continued asymptomatic, bacterial carriage within the nasopharynx. Thus initial alleviation of symptoms in a patient with Group A beta-hemolytic vulvovaginitis treated with penicillin, can have continued asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization which can result in recurrence of the

  3. Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp Laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Parente Solari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus sp, no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2001. Analisou-se idade do paciente, espécie de Streptococcus e os testes de sensibilidade aos seguintes antibióticos: cefalotina, amicacina, gentamicina, tobramicina, ciprofloxacina, lomefloxacina, ofloxacina, norfloxacina e vancomicina. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais encontradas foram Streptococcus pneumoniae e Streptococcus viridans. Com relação aos antibióticos, a sensibilidade foi maior à cefalotina, às quinolonas e à vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se os antibióticos tópicos comercialmente disponíveis, as quinolonas apresentam melhor espectro de ação quando comparadas aos aminoglicosídios.PURPOSE: To evaluate laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis, analyzing the different species and the results of bacterial susceptibility to an antibiotics. METHODS: Retrospective study of the records from the External Disease Laboratory of the Ophthalmology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, with conjunctival or corneal positive bacterial culture for Streptococcus sp, between January 1995 and December 2001. The collected data were age, Streptococcus species and the bacterial susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and vancomicin. RESULTS: The most frequent species were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans. Regarding bacterial

  4. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Anita; Mody, Kalpana; Jha, Bhavanath

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here

  5. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Anita [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Mody, Kalpana [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)]. E-mail: khmody@csmcri.org; Jha, Bhavanath [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here.

  6. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and c...

  7. Antibacterial marine bacterium deter luminous vibriosis in shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of a marine pigmented bacterium - Alteromonas sp. - isolated from Penaeus monodon Fabricius larva against pathogenic and environmental isolates of Vibrio harveyi was studied. All the isolates were inhibited to varying degrees by Alteromonas sp. in vitro. The antibacterial substance produced by the Alteromonas sp. was soluble in organic solvent and closely bound to the external surface of bacterial cells. The antibacterial Alteromonas sp., when allowed to colonize on shrimp...

  8. Initiation of chromosomal replication in predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Makowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small Gram-negative predatory bacterium that attacks other Gram-negative bacteria, including many animal, human, and plant pathogens. This bacterium exhibits a peculiar biphasic life cycle during which two different types of cells are produced: non-replicating highly motile cells (the free-living phase and replicating cells (the intracellular-growth phase. The process of chromosomal replication in B. bacteriovorus must therefore be temporally and spatially regulated to ensure that it is coordinated with cell differentiation and cell cycle progression. Recently, B. bacteriovorus has received considerable research interest due to its intriguing life cycle and great potential as a prospective antimicrobial agent. Although we know that chromosomal replication in bacteria is mainly regulated at the initiation step, no data exists about this process in B. bacteriovorus. We report the first characterization of key elements of initiation of chromosomal replication – DnaA protein and oriC region from the predatory bacterium, B. bacteriovorus. In vitro studies using different approaches demonstrate that the B. bacteriovorus oriC (BdoriC is specifically bound and unwound by the DnaA protein. Sequence comparison of the DnaA-binding sites enabled us to propose a consensus sequence for the B. bacteriovorus DnaA box (5’-NN(A/TTCCACA-3’. Surprisingly, in vitro analysis revealed that BdoriC is also bound and unwound by the host DnaA proteins (relatively distantly related from B. bacteriovorus. We compared the architecture of the DnaA–oriC complexes (orisomes in homologous (oriC and DnaA from B. bacteriovorus and heterologous (BdoriC and DnaA from prey, E. coli or P. aeruginosa systems. This work provides important new entry points toward improving our understanding of the initiation of chromosomal replication in this predatory bacterium.

  9. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrads, G.; de Soet, J.J.; Song, L.; Henne, K.; Sztajer, H.; Wagner-Döbler, I.; Zeng, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two closely related species of mutans streptococci, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, are associated with dental caries in humans. Their acidogenic and aciduric capacity is directly associated with the cariogenic potential of these bacteria. To survive acidic and

  10. Molecular and mathematical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental

  11. Capsular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) from fish using multiplex PCR and serotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) are considered emerging pathogens responsible for approximately $1 billion USD in annual losses to the global tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) aquaculture industry. This study evaluated a published multiplex PCR capsul...

  12. Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [ 14 C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [ 14 C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular [ 14 C]ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of [ 14 C]ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of [ 14 C]ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis

  13. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  14. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Vahey, B.R. [Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, 925 W 34 St, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Pimenta, A.L., E-mail: andrea@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Biologia, ERRMECe, Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2, Av. Adolphe Chauvin 95302 Cergy, Pontoise (France); Integrated Laboratories Technologies (InteLab), Dept. Chemical and Food Engineering (EQA), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-970 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml{sup −1}), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  15. Genome of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Alves, Joao M; Kitten, Todd; Brown, Arunsri; Chen, Zhenming; Ozaki, Luiz S; Manque, Patricio; Ge, Xiuchun; Serrano, Myrna G; Puiu, Daniela; Hendricks, Stephanie; Wang, Yingping; Chaplin, Michael D; Akan, Doruk; Paik, Sehmi; Peterson, Darrell L; Macrina, Francis L; Buck, Gregory A

    2007-04-01

    The genome of Streptococcus sanguinis is a circular DNA molecule consisting of 2,388,435 bp and is 177 to 590 kb larger than the other 21 streptococcal genomes that have been sequenced. The G+C content of the S. sanguinis genome is 43.4%, which is considerably higher than the G+C contents of other streptococci. The genome encodes 2,274 predicted proteins, 61 tRNAs, and four rRNA operons. A 70-kb region encoding pathways for vitamin B(12) biosynthesis and degradation of ethanolamine and propanediol was apparently acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The gene complement suggests new hypotheses for the pathogenesis and virulence of S. sanguinis and differs from the gene complements of other pathogenic and nonpathogenic streptococci. In particular, S. sanguinis possesses a remarkable abundance of putative surface proteins, which may permit it to be a primary colonizer of the oral cavity and agent of streptococcal endocarditis and infection in neutropenic patients.

  16. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D.; Vahey, B.R.; Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S.; Pimenta, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml −1 ), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10 2 CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10 2 CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  17. Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerstavik, D.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 10 10 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

  18. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressley, T F; Hall, M B; Armentano, L E

    2011-04-01

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the hindgut of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total-tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates from the small intestine, hindgut acidosis can occur. Hindgut acidosis is characterized by increased rates of production of short-chain fatty acids including lactic acid, decreased digesta pH, and damage to gut epithelium as evidenced by the appearance of mucin casts in feces. Hindgut acidosis is more likely to occur in high-producing animals fed diets with relatively greater proportions of grains and lesser proportions of forage. In these animals, ruminal acidosis and poor selective retention of fermentable carbohydrates by the rumen will increase carbohydrate flow to the hindgut. In more severe situations, hindgut acidosis is characterized by an inflammatory response; the resulting breach of the barrier between animal and digesta may contribute to laminitis and other disorders. In a research setting, effects of increased hindgut fermentation have been evaluated using pulse-dose or continuous abomasal infusions of varying amounts of fermentable carbohydrates. Continuous small-dose abomasal infusions of 1 kg/d of pectin or fructans into lactating cows resulted in decreased diet digestibility and decreased milk fat percentage without affecting fecal pH or VFA concentrations. The decreased diet digestibility likely resulted from increased bulk in the digestive tract or from increased digesta passage rate, reducing exposure of the digesta to intestinal enzymes and epithelial absorptive surfaces. The same mechanism is proposed to explain the decreased milk fat percentage because only milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids were decreased. Pulse-dose abomasal fructan infusions (1 g/kg of BW) into steers resulted in watery feces, decreased fecal pH, and increased fecal VFA concentrations, without causing an

  19. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on affective memory recall dynamics in depression : A mechanistic model of rumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Hitchcock, Peter; Shahar, Ben; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effects on depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct that aggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control, negative and

  20. Interactions between oral bacteria: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans bacteriocin production by Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacteriocin production both in broth and in biofilms. The inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production by oral bacteria was stronger in biofilms than in broth. Using transposon Tn916 mutagenesis, we identified a gene (sgc; named for Streptococcus gordonii challisin) responsible for the inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production by S. gordonii Challis. Interruption of the sgc gene in S. gordonii Challis resulted in attenuated inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production. The supernatant fluids from the sgc mutant did not inactivate the exogenous S. mutans CSP as did those from the parent strain Challis. S. gordonii Challis did not inactivate bacteriocin produced by S. mutans GS5. Because S. mutans uses quorum sensing to regulate virulence, strategies designed to interfere with these signaling systems may have broad applicability for biological control of this caries-causing organism.

  1. Inhibitory effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Leishman, S J; Walsh, L J; Seow, W K

    2015-06-01

    Oral antiseptics are valuable in controlling oral infections caused by cariogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mouthrinses and pure antiseptic compounds on Streptococcus mutans and non-mutans bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus). The agar diffusion assay was employed to determine bacterial growth inhibition. Commercial mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%) and sodium fluoride (0.05%) produced statistically similar growth inhibition of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus (with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.56 ± 0.52 mm to 7.39 ± 0.53 mm, 17.44 ± 0.94 mm to 18.31 ± 0.62 mm and 8.61 ± 1.43 to 8.67 ± 1.43 mm respectively, p > 0.05). The chlorhexidine mouthwash produced the greatest mean growth inhibition of S. sanguinis and S. mutans compared to all other mouthrinses tested (p mutans could be detected were chlorhexidine gluconate at 0.005% (wt/vol), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.01% (wt/ vol), povidone iodine 10% (wt/vol) and sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (vol/vol). Chlorhexidine (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%), povidone iodine (10%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) are effective at inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  2. In-vitro efficacy of different morphology zinc oxide nanopowders on Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bakhori, Siti Khadijah; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ling, Chuo Ann; Sirelkhatim, Amna Hassan; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Abd Rahman, Rosliza

    2017-09-01

    ZnO with two different morphologies were used to study the inhibition of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans which are closely associated with tooth cavity. Rod-like shaped ZnO-A and plate-like shaped ZnO-B were produced using a zinc boiling furnace. The nanopowders were characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to confirm the properties of the ZnO polycrystalline wurtzite structures. XRD results show that the calculated crystallite sizes of ZnO-A and ZnO-B were 36.6 and 39.4nm, respectively, whereas DLS revealed particle size distributions of 21.82nm (ZnO-A) and 52.21nm (ZnO-B). PL spectra showed ion vacancy defects related to green and red luminescence for both ZnO particles. These defects evolved during the generation of reactive oxygen species which contributed to the antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was investigated using microdilution technique towards S. sobrinus and S. mutans at different nanopowder concentrations. Results showed that ZnO-A exhibited higher inhibition on both bacteria compared with ZnO-B. Moreover, S. mutans was more sensitive compared with S. sobrinus because of its higher inhibition rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinct Biological Potential of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Mui Fern; Old, Lesley A; Paterson, Ian C; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2017-06-07

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque and important agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE). To gain a greater understanding of these two closely related species, we performed comparative analyses on 14 new S. gordonii and 5 S. sanguinis strains using various bioinformatics approaches. We revealed S. gordonii and S. sanguinis harbor open pan-genomes and share generally high sequence homology and number of core genes including virulence genes. However, we observed subtle differences in genomic islands and prophages between the species. Comparative pathogenomics analysis identified S. sanguinis strains have genes encoding IgA proteases, mitogenic factor deoxyribonucleases, nickel/cobalt uptake and cobalamin biosynthesis. On the contrary, genomic islands of S. gordonii strains contain additional copies of comCDE quorum-sensing system components involved in genetic competence. Two distinct polysaccharide locus architectures were identified, one of which was exclusively present in S. gordonii strains. The first evidence of genes encoding the CylA and CylB system by the α-haemolytic S. gordonii is presented. This study provides new insights into the genetic distinctions between S. gordonii and S. sanguinis, which yields understanding of tooth surfaces colonization and contributions to dental plaque formation, as well as their potential roles in the pathogenesis of IE.

  4. Aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Minoru; Kodama, Yoshitoyo; Shimoyama, Yu; Ishikawa, Taichi; Kimura, Shigenobu

    2018-04-17

    Although Streptococcus anginosus constitutes a proportion of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and the oral cavity, it has been reported that S. anginosus infection could be closely associated with abscesses at various body sites, infective endocarditis, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. The colonization in an acidic environment due to the aciduricity of S. anginosus could be the etiology of the systemic infection of the bacteria. To elucidate the aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of the microbe, we examined the viability and growth of S. anginosus under acidic conditions. The viabilities of S. anginosus NCTC 10713 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 at pH 4.0 showed as being markedly higher than those of Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456; however, the viability was partially inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an H + -ATPase inhibitor, suggesting that H + -ATPase could play a role in the viability of S. anginosus under acidic conditions. In addition, S. anginosus NCTC 10713 could grow at pH 5.0 and showed a marked arginine deiminase (ADI) activity, unlike its ΔarcA mutant, deficient in the gene encoding ADI, and other streptococcal species, which indicated that ADI could also be associated with aciduricity. These results suggest that S. anginosus has significant aciduric properties, which can be attributed to these enzyme activities.

  5. RgpF Is Required for Maintenance of Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, C J; Faustoferri, R C; Quivey, R G

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial cell wall dynamics have been implicated as important determinants of cellular physiology, stress tolerance, and virulence. In Streptococcus mutans , the cell wall is composed primarily of a rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) linked to the peptidoglycan. Despite extensive studies describing its formation and composition, the potential roles for RGP in S. mutans biology have not been well investigated. The present study characterizes the impact of RGP disruption as a result of the deletion of rgpF , the gene encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in the construction of the core polyrhamnose backbone of RGP. The Δ rgpF mutant strain displayed an overall reduced fitness compared to the wild type, with heightened sensitivities to various stress-inducing culture conditions and an inability to tolerate acid challenge. The loss of rgpF caused a perturbation of membrane-associated functions known to be critical for aciduricity, a hallmark of S. mutans acid tolerance. The proton gradient across the membrane was disrupted, and the Δ rgpF mutant strain was unable to induce activity of the F 1 F o ATPase in cultures grown under low-pH conditions. Further, the virulence potential of S. mutans was also drastically reduced following the deletion of rgpF The Δ rgpF mutant strain produced significantly less robust biofilms, indicating an impairment in its ability to adhere to hydroxyapatite surfaces. Additionally, the Δ rgpF mutant lost competitive fitness against oral peroxigenic streptococci, and it displayed significantly attenuated virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella infection model. Collectively, these results highlight a critical function of the RGP in the maintenance of overall stress tolerance and virulence traits in S. mutans IMPORTANCE The cell wall of Streptococcus mutans , the bacterium most commonly associated with tooth decay, is abundant in rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP). While these structures are antigenically distinct to S. mutans

  6. Streptococcus mutans Protein Synthesis during Mixed-Species Biofilm Development by High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marlise I.; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (Pmutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism), and molecular chaperones (GroEL). Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the presence of other

  7. Novel role for the Streptococcus pneumoniae toxin pneumolysin in the assembly of biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R; Ludewick, Herbert P; Howery, Kristen E; Sakai, Fuminori; Yi, Hong; Harvey, Richard M; Paton, James C; Klugman, Keith P; Vidal, Jorge E

    2013-09-10

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important commensal and pathogen responsible for almost a million deaths annually in children under five. The formation of biofilms by S. pneumoniae is important in nasopharyngeal colonization, pneumonia, and otitis media. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a toxin that contributes significantly to the virulence of S. pneumoniae and is an important candidate as a serotype-independent vaccine target. Having previously demonstrated that a luxS knockout mutant was unable to form early biofilms and expressed less ply mRNA than the wild type, we conducted a study to investigate the role of Ply in biofilm formation. We found that Ply was expressed in early phases of biofilm development and localized to cellular aggregates as early as 4 h postinoculation. S. pneumoniae ply knockout mutants in D39 and TIGR4 backgrounds produced significantly less biofilm biomass than wild-type strains at early time points, both on polystyrene and on human respiratory epithelial cells, cultured under static or continuous-flow conditions. Ply's role in biofilm formation appears to be independent of its hemolytic activity, as S. pneumoniae serotype 1 strains, which produce a nonhemolytic variant of Ply, were still able to form biofilms. Transmission electron microscopy of biofilms grown on A549 lung cells using immunogold demonstrated that Ply was located both on the surfaces of pneumococcal cells and in the extracellular biofilm matrix. Altogether, our studies demonstrate a novel role for pneumolysin in the assembly of S. pneumoniae biofilms that is likely important during both carriage and disease and therefore significant for pneumolysin-targeting vaccines under development. The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (commonly known as the pneumococcus) is commonly carried in the human nasopharynx and can spread to other body sites to cause disease. In the nasopharynx, middle ear, and lungs, the pneumococcus forms multicellular surface-associated structures called biofilms

  8. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  9. MODELING OF MIXED CHEMOSTAT CULTURES OF AN AEROBIC BACTERIUM, COMAMONAS-TESTOSTERONI, AND AN ANAEROBIC BACTERIUM, VEILLONELLA-ALCALESCENS - COMPARISON WITH EXPERIMENTAL-DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERRITSE, J; SCHUT, F; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    A mathematical model of mixed chemostat cultures of the obligately aerobic bacterium Comamonas testosteroni and the anaerobic bacterium Veillonella alcalescens grown under dual limitation Of L-lactate and oxygen was constructed. The model was based on Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics for the

  10. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a

  11. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil Paratuberculosis in ruminants in Brasil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M. Yamasaki

    2013-02-01

    global distribution and is considered endemic in some regions. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, Office International des Epizooties, have classified paratuberculosis as a notificable disease; considered to be of socio-economic and/or public-health importance, the control of which is necessary for the international trade of animal and animal products. The importance of paratuberculosis is related primarily to economic losses in the animal industry and also because of a potential role for this bacterium in the pathogenesis of Crohn´s disease, a debilitating condition affecting the digestive tract of humans. In Brazil, paratuberculosis has been reported in a variety of ruminant species and shows a broad geographic distribution. The reported incidence of natural cases in Brazil has been limited, but it is believed that interespecific transmission of MAP and dissemination of the agent is driven by the commercialization of infected animals. The main objective of this paper was to collate the published epidemiological, clinic-pathological and diagnostic information in relation to paratuberculosis in cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep in Brazil. Moreover, it served as a platform to emphasize the requirement to implement sanitary policies for control of MAP in the county, which may serve to improve the quality and value of animal products on international markets.

  12. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing mastitis in small ruminants and their susceptibility to antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Mostafa Abdalhamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work aims to isolate and identify bacteria that cause mastitis in small ruminants and evaluates the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts. Materials and Methods: A total of 289 milk samples were collected from udder secretions of sheep (n=189 and goat (n=100 from El-Fayoum, Beni-Suef, and Giza governorates. Screening subclinical mastitis (SCM was done using California Mastitis Test (CMT; identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram's staining, hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, and biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index. Results: On clinical examination, the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM was found to be 5.88% and 7% in sheep and goat, respectively. On CMT, SCM was found to be 25 (13.23% and 11 (10% in sheep and goat, respectively. Bacteriological examination of all milk samples found the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA (31.1%, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (19.5%, Escherichia coli (EC (8.3%, Streptococcus spp. (5.6%, Klebsiella spp. (3.77%, and Pseudomonas spp. (1.89%, while no bacteria were cultured from 81.66% of the samples. Identification of 9 isolates of CNS was achieved by using API staph test to Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The highest bacterial resistance was found in EC (67.14% followed by Kp (45.28% and SA (26.57%. Conclusion: Onion and black cumin essential oils followed by Egyptian honey showed strong antibacterial effects against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Finally, our study proved that Egyptian honey, onion, and black cumin essential oils have a marked strong antibacterial effect against bacteria isolated from small ruminant mastitis, but still further extensive studies are needed to discover the therapeutic properties of these plant extracts and honey.

  13. Acquisition through Horizontal Gene Transfer of Plasmid pSMA198 by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 Points towards the Dairy Origin of the Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Maistrou, Eleni; Plakas, Thomas; Papandreou, Nikos C.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Supply, Philip; Renault, Pierre; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus macedonicus is an intriguing streptococcal species whose most frequent source of isolation is fermented foods similarly to Streptococcus thermophilus. However, S. macedonicus is closely related to commensal opportunistic pathogens of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the pSMA198 plasmid isolated from the dairy strain Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 in order to provide novel clues about the main ecological niche of this bacterium. pSMA198 belongs to the narrow host range pCI305/pWV02 family found primarily in lactococci and to the best of our knowledge it is the first such plasmid to be reported in streptococci. Comparative analysis of the pSMA198 sequence revealed a high degree of similarity with plasmids isolated from Lactococcus lactis strains deriving from milk or its products. Phylogenetic analysis of the pSMA198 Rep showed that the vast majority of closely related proteins derive from lactococcal dairy isolates. Additionally, cloning of the pSMA198 ori in L. lactis revealed a 100% stability of replication over 100 generations. Both pSMA198 and the chromosome of S. macedonicus exhibit a high percentage of potential pseudogenes, indicating that they have co-evolved under the same gene decay processes. We identified chromosomal regions in S. macedonicus that may have originated from pSMA198, also supporting a long co-existence of the two replicons. pSMA198 was also found in divergent biotypes of S. macedonicus and in strains isolated from dispersed geographic locations (e.g. Greece and Switzerland) showing that pSMA198’s acquisition is not a recent event. Conclusions/Significance Here we propose that S. macedonicus acquired plasmid pSMA198 from L. lactis via an ancestral genetic exchange event that took place most probably in milk or dairy products. We provide important evidence that point towards the dairy origin of this species. PMID:25584532

  14. The effects of alfalfa particle size and acid treated protein on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa particle size (long vs. fine) and canola meal treated with hydrochloric acid solution (untreated vs treated) on ruminal chemical composition, liquid, particulate, escapable and non escapable phases in Zel sheep. Four ruminally cannulated sheep received a mixed ...

  15. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. (a) Definitions—(1) Protein derived from mammalian tissues means any protein-containing portion of mammalian animals, excluding: Blood and blood products; gelatin...

  17. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  18. Sex Differences and Response Styles: Subtypes of Rumination and Associations with Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Cristina M.; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Kistner, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    In view of recent findings regarding the multifaceted nature of rumination in adults and older adolescents, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct of rumination as a 2-factor model (brooding and reflection) in a child and early adolescent sample as well as examine sex differences and associations between depressive symptoms and…

  19. Divergent utilization patterns of grass fructan, inulin, and other nonfiber carbohydrates by ruminal microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are an important nonfiber carbohydrate in cool-season grasses. Their fermentation by ruminal microbes is not well described, though such information is needed to understand their nutritional value to ruminants. Our objective was to compare kinetics and product formation of orchardgrass fruc...

  20. Application of cholesterol determination method to indirectly detect meat and bone meals in ruminant feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília M. Bandeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the presence of meat and bone meal (MBM in ruminant feed, by identifying the cholesterol using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The proposed method demonstrated precision, trueness, and capability to detect MBM in the ruminant feed.