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Sample records for rumen holotrich ciliate

  1. A Holotrichous ciliate from the coelom of Chaetognaths

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    A holotrichous ciliate was observed from the body cavity of Chaetognaths Sagitta enflata and S. bedoti collected from the zooplankton samples at Cape Comorin and Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu, India). Species were examined for infected parasites...

  2. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  3. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles James Newbold

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear.Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fibre degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in  phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterisation of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small entodiniium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  4. The role of holotrichs in the metabolism of dietary linoleic acid in the rumen.

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    Girard, V; Hawke, J C

    1978-01-27

    The uptake and metabolism of linoleic acid by rumen holotrichs (mainly Isotricha prostoma and I. intestinalis) has been examined in in vitro infusion experiments. Maximum absorption and metabolism of [1-14C]linoleate by 2 . 10(6) Isotricha suspended in 100 ml buffer was obtained using an infusion rate of 1.6 mg linoleate/h. After 90 min, 84% of the added substrate was recovered within the cells, mainly as free fatty acid or phospholipid. There was a rapid incorporation of radioactivity into phospholipid, mainly phosphatidylcholine, at the commencement of linoleate infusion but no further incorporation after about 40 min. The presence of bacteria during incubations, in approximately the same Isotricha/bacteria ratio as found in the rumen, reduced the uptake of linoleate and the accumulation of free fatty acid by holotrichs but the incorporation into phospholipid remained similar to that obtained in the absence of bacteria. Very little biohydrogenation of linoleic acid occurred in incubations with holotrichs alone. Bacterial suspensions converted linoleic acid to mainly trans monoene and a small amount of stearic acid, but in incubations containing both bacteria and holotrichs, both stearic acid and trans monoene were major products. Using the latter mixed culture, about 20% of the added [1-14C]linoleic acid was present in holotrich phospholipid of which 62% remained as octadecadienoic acid. The Isotricha population was 3 . 10(3)--2 . 10(4)/ml rumen fluid and it contributed about 23% of the linoleic acid in the rumen of a cow on a hay diet.

  5. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions.

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    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. © Federation of European Microbiological Society 2014.

  6. RUMEN CILIATE FAUNA OF THE SPRINGBOK (ANTIDORCAS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Present address: National Institute of Water Research, CSIR, Box 395. ... This species has always been a problem due to frequent confusion with E. duhardi, ..... Lubinsky (1957) showed that in material collected in Pakistan three different species of ..... A new ciliate, Entodinium bovis sp. n. from the stomach of Bos taurus L.,.

  7. Ultrastructure of the rumen ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Paul, R; Butler, R D; Williams, A G

    1989-04-14

    The ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium possesses cilia over the entire surface. Both the oral and somatic kineties are composed of monokinetids comprising a kinetosome, a tangential ribbon of 5 transverse microtubules, a weakly convergent bundle of 5 postciliary microtubules, a short kinetodesmal fibre, and a single microtubule homologous to T(2) of other litostomate ciliates [15]. The reversed orientation of the kineties within and around the vestibulum may be a consequence of the evolutionary migration of the vestibulum from the anterior to the posterior of the cell. The vestibulum leads to the cytostome and a cytopharynx of the rhabdos type [3]. Microtubules lining the exit canals of the posterior contractile vacuole and cytoproct are believed to originate from somatic kinetids. The ecto-endoplasmic boundary layer (eeb) is composed of two microfibrillar layers. A large extension of the eeb connects the vestibulum to the cell cortex but does not form a karyophore as seen in the closely related genus Isotricha [12].

  8. Evaluation of lugol solution used for counting rumen ciliates

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    Marta D'Agosto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a modification of the technique described by PURSER & MOIR (1959 for the quantitative evaluation of rumen ciliate based on an adaptation described by DEHORITY (I984. The modifying process includes: the replacement of two drops of brilliant green dye, for at least four hours, by three drops of lugol solution, for at least 15 minutes. It was made a comparative evaluation of these stainings. It was concluded that lugol solution can replace the brilliant green dye showing the following advantages: staining time reduction and subsequent speeding of sample processing; evidence of skeletal plates of entodiniomorphs making its identification easier; improved observation of small ciliates and inconspicuous structures; improved total counting and generic identification of the ciliates.

  9. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few

  10. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematic

  11. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  13. Phylogeny of intestinal ciliates, including Charonina ventriculi, and comparison of microscopy and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for rumen ciliate community structure analysis.

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    Kittelmann, Sandra; Devente, Savannah R; Kirk, Michelle R; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  15. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Akio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs. More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium. Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75% of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches.

  16. New Primers Targeting Full-Length Ciliate 18S rRNA Genes and Evaluation of Dietary Effect on Rumen Ciliate Diversity in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Sun, Peng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene sequences of rumen ciliates is more reliable for taxonomical classification and diversity assessment than the analysis of partial hypervariable regions only. The objective of this study was to develop new oligonucleotide primers targeting the full-length 18S rRNA genes of rumen ciliates, and to evaluate the effect of different sources of dietary fiber (corn stover or a mixture of alfalfa hay and corn silage) and protein (mixed rapeseed, cottonseed, and/or soybean meals) on rumen ciliate diversity in dairy cows. Primers were designed based on a total of 137 previously reported ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 3'-terminal sequences of the newly designed primers, P.1747r_2, P.324f, and P.1651r, demonstrated >99% base coverage. Primer pair D (P.324f and P.1747r_2) was selected for the cloning and sequencing of ciliate 18S rRNA genes because it produced a 1423-bp amplicon, and did not amply the sequences of other eukaryotic species, such as yeast. The optimal species-level cutoff value for distinguishing between the operational taxonomic units of different ciliate species was 0.015. The phylogenetic analysis of full-length ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences showed that distinct ciliate profiles were induced by the different sources of dietary fiber and protein. Dasytricha and Entodinium were the predominant genera in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle, and Dasytricha was significantly more abundant in cows fed with corn stover than in cows fed with alfalfa hay and corn silage.

  17. The ability of the rumen ciliate protozoan Diploplastron affine to digest and ferment starch.

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    Wereszka, K; Michałowski, T

    2012-07-01

    The ciliate Diploplastron affine is known as a common species of the rumen fauna in cattle and sheep. This protozoon is able to digest cellulose, whereas its amylolytic activity is not well known. The objective of the reported studies was to examine the ability of D. affine to digest starch and to use this polysaccharide to cover the requirement for energy. The enzymatic studies showed that the protozoal cell extract degraded starch to reducing products with the rate being equivalent to 2.4 ± 0.47 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. Maltose, maltotriose and a small quantity of glucose were the end products of starch degradation. The degradation rate of maltose was only 0.05 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. Two peaks in α-amylase and a single peak in maltase activity were found following molecular filtration of ciliate cell extract, whereas three starch-degrading enzymes were identified by a zymographic technique. Incubation of the bacteria-free ciliates with starch in the presence of antibiotics resulted in a release of volatile fatty acids with the net rate of 25 pmol per protozoan per h. Acetic acid followed by butyric acid was the main product of starch fermentation. The results confirmed the ability of D. affine to utilize starch in energy-yielding processes.

  18. Ciliate protozoa in the rumen of Kafue lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis, in Zambia, with the description of four new species.

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    Imai, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Yumura, S; Mulenga, A

    1992-01-01

    The composition of the rumen ciliate fauna in 76 Kafue lechwe inhabiting a limited area in Zambia was surveyed and five genera containing 24 species with 16 formae belonging to the family Ophryoscolecidae were identified. Four new species belonging to Diplodiniinae were recognized and described as Diplodinium lochinvarense n. sp., Diplodinium leche n. sp., Diplodinium zambiense n. sp., and Metadinium ossiculi n. sp. In addition, Ostracodinium gracile form fissilaminatum Dogiel, 1932 was found for the second time and described as Metadinium fissilaminatum n. comb. The species composition was fairly unusual. Seven of the species have been found only in African wild antelopes and these species were found more frequently than cosmopolitan species. There was no evidence of isotrichid species. The average density of ciliates per 1 ml of the rumen fluid was 25.7 x 10(4), and the number of ciliate species per head of host was 10.8.

  19. Effect of the nature of energy and nitrogen sources on the population of ciliates in the rumen of sheep

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    Houcine Selmi,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nature of raw materials in concentrate on the population of ciliated protozoa was evaluated in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde sheep. Four rams with permanent rumen canulas, 4.8 ± 0.5 years with an average live weight of 45.25 ± 3.5 kg were used. Rams were fed a common base ration of hay oats (1.5 kg DM/ head/day. Animals were supplemented with 500g/head/day of one of four iso-energetic and iso-proteic concentrates. The four concentrates were: A concentrate (10% barley, 43.3% corn, 25% wheat bran, 17.7% soybean meal and 4% CMV, B concentrate (71.5% barley, 17.5% horse bean, soybean meal, 7% and 4% CMV, C concentrate (66% white sorghum, 30% fava, 4% CMV and D concentrate (71% triticale, 18% horse bean, soybean meal, 7%, 4% CMV. The determination of ciliates was performed on unfiltered rumen fluid, collected two hours after the morning meal. The enumeration of protozoa and determination of various genuses were carried out with a HAWSKLEY counting room after several dilutions, using a microscope. The population of ciliates for, the concentrate B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those for A, C and D concentrates while different genus of these protozoa were comparable among diets. It can be concluded from this study that the use of local resources in the diet of sheep increased micro organisms in the rumen.

  20. Associative behaviour and antagonism of bovine rumen ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Marta D'Agosto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at obtaining the community profile and verifying the occurrence of antagonism and association among ciliates, samples of rumen content were analysed in 100 bovines soon after their death. The animals were killed at the Juiz de Fora Municipal slaughter house (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil between August 1996 and May 1997. Ciliates occurred, respectively, in the following percents and samples number: Entodinium Stein, 1859 (50,48; 100, Diplodinium Schuberg, 1888 (5,59; 98, Eudiplodinium Dogiel, 1927 (6,91; 97, Ostracodinium Dogiel, 1927 (9,68; 95, hotricha Stein, 1859 (4,15; 93, Dasytricha Schuberg, 1888 (3,31; 93, Metadi nium Awerinzew & Mutafowa, 1914 (3,06; 90, Eremoplastron Kofoid & MacLennan. 1932 (7,39; 87, Epidinium Crawley, 1923 (5,31; 73, Charonina Strand, 1928 (1,33; 65, Eodinium Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (1,49; 59, Diploplastron Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (0,88; 24, Elytroplastron Kofoid & MacLennan, 1932 (0,36; 16, Polyplastron Dogiel, 1927 (0,04; 03 and Buetschlia Schuberg, 1888 (0,02; 01. When the antagonistic behaviour and the association were analyzed, it was observed that Eudiplodinium was detected in the absence of Polyplastron and in the presence of Epidinium in 94% and 73% of the samples, respectively. These data confirm the antagonism and the coexistence among particular populations of rumen ciliates and allowed the identification of 94% of the samples examined as being of profile type B, none of type A and 3% of mixed A-B community and of type O. It is suggested the use of the term community profile instead of population profile, as the respective types involve associations of various ciliate populations.

  1. The Type And Number Of Ciliate Protozoa In The Rumen, Omasum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, the bulk of beef and milk is derived from the national herd of ... shorthorn zebu cattle, the microbes inhabiting the rumen, omasum and colon of ... due to their preference of soluble carbohydrates richly available in the rumen liquor.

  2. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours.

  3. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

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    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  4. Infraciliature and morphogenesis in three rumen Diplodinium ciliates, Diplodinium polygonale, Diplodinium leche, and Diplodinium nanum, observed by light microscopy.

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    Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2005-01-01

    Infraciliature and morphogenesis of three rumen ophryoscolecid ciliates, Diplodinium polygonale Dogiel, 1925, Diplodinium leche Imai et al., 1992, and Diplodinium nanum Imai, 1988, are described from pyridinated silver carbonate-impregnated specimens. These three species have two polybrachykineties in the buccal area and a polybrachykinety in the dorsal ciliary zone. The vestibular polybrachykinety (VP) of D. polygonale and D. leche arises from the dorsal extremity of the adoral polybrachykinety (AP) as in Entodinium species, extending toward the left in D. polygonale and toward the left posterior in D. leche. The VP of D. nanum arises from the inner side of the AP, separate from its dorsal extremity, as in other Diplodinium species and extends toward the left posterior. These series of the polybrachykinety arrangements in D. polygonale, D. leche, and D. nanum can be regarded as transitional forms in the evolution of an Entodinium-like ancestor to Diplodinium. Morphogenesis of these three Diplodinium species is not different from that of other Diplodinium species.

  5. Effect of the rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum, Epidinium ecaudatum and Eudiplodinium maggii, and combinations thereof, on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Amelchanka, Sergej L; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Wereszka, Krzysztof; Meile, Leo; Hartnack, Sonja; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2012-06-01

    The quantitative importance of individual ciliate species and their interaction in the rumen is still unclear. The present study was performed to test whether there are species differences in the influence on ruminal fermentation in vivo and if combinations of ciliates act additive in that respect. Six adult wethers fed a hay-concentrate diet were defaunated, then refaunated either with Entodinium caudatum (EC), Epidinium ecaudatum (EE) or Eudiplodinium maggii (EM) alone, then progressively with all possible species combinations. Feed, faeces, urine, ruminal fluid and gas were sampled for eight days always after at least 21 days of adaptation. With a linear mixed model, accounting for the 2 x 2 x 2 full factorial study design, mean marginal effect sizes, i.e., the magnitude of change in variables as caused by the presence of each ciliate species or of combinations of them, were estimated. The apparent digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre remained unaffected. The apparent N digestibility increased by 0.054 with EM (0.716 with defaunation). Ruminal ammonia increased by 1.6, 4.0 and 8.7 mmol/l in the presence of EM, EC and EE, respectively, compared to defaunation (6.9 mmol/l). In the EM + EE combination, ruminal ammonia was lower than would have been expected from an additive effect. With EE, total short-chain fatty acids increased by 23 mmol/l (100 mmol/l with defaunation), but not when EE was combined with EM. The acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased by 0.73 units in the presence of EE (4.0 with defaunation), but only when EE was the sole ciliate species in the rumen. In the presence of any ciliate species, the 16S rDNA copies of total Bacteria and major fibrolytic species decreased to 0.52- and 0.22-fold values, respectively of that found without protozoa. Total Archaea were unaffected; however, Methanobacteriales copies increased 1.44-fold with EC. The CH4-to-CO2 ratio of ruminal gas decreased by 0.036 with EM and 0.051 with EE (0.454 with

  6. Rumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Roderick I.; McSweeney, Christopher S.; Aminov, Rustam

    2013-01-01

    The rumen is a large pregastric fermentation compartment (foregut), which maintains a diverse but concentrated population of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and fungi that are responsible for a variety of degradative and fermentative reactions. During this process biodegradable organic matter, mainl...

  7. Ruminal degradability and ciliates protozoa population in rumen of Nellore steers fed with high concentrated diet supplemented with live yeast, monensin and salinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Hernades Ortolan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Nelore steers had been used, with average alive weight of 190±32 kg, in experimental delineation by 4x4 latin square, whith the objective of evaluate the effect of the yeast monensin and salinomycin on the parameters of ruminal degradability and the ciliates protozoa population present in the animals rumen. The diet offered to the animals was composed by sorghum silage and concentrated (30:70, respectively, where the four different treatments had been submitted in accordance with the used additive: 5,0g of yeast culture (Beef Sacc®; 0.42g of salinomycin (Coxistac®; 2.0g of monensin (Rumensin® and the control, without additive. The experimental period was subdivided in 21 days of adaptation and seven of harvest, totalized 28 days of experimental period. It had increase of the value for fraction “b” in the dry matter, the treatment with yeast culture, and the salinomycin treatment (P<0,05. The treatment with yeast significantly increased the number of rumen ciliates protozoa (P<0,05.

  8. Rumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Roderick I.; McSweeney, Christopher S.; Aminov, Rustam

    2013-01-01

    plant cell wall polymers, are converted into volatile fatty acids and microbial biomass that supply energy and protein to the host (ruminant) animal. An important reason for the evolution of foregut fermentation is detoxification of phytotoxins (of plant origin) and mycotoxins (of fungal origin......The rumen is a large pregastric fermentation compartment (foregut), which maintains a diverse but concentrated population of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and fungi that are responsible for a variety of degradative and fermentative reactions. During this process biodegradable organic matter, mainly...... in ruminal methanogenesis. Currently, modern ‘Omics’ technologies are being applied to the study of rumen microbial ecology, genomics, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics....

  9. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  10. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  11. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  12. Predação e canibalismo entre protozoários ciliados (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae no rúmen de ovinos (Ovis aries Predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar ocorrências de predação e canibalismo em protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos. Foram analisadas amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cinco ovinos mestiços Santa Inês, fistulados no rúmen, mantidos em pastagem natural de caatinga, no município de Sertânia, Pernambuco. Foram obtidas seis amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cada ovino, totalizando 30 amostras, as quais foram fixadas em formalina 18,5% (v/v. De cada amostra foi retirada uma alíquota de 1 ml de conteúdo ruminal ao qual se adicionaram três gotas de solução de lugol para a coloração e identificação dos protozoários ciliados. Estas alíquotas foram analisadas utilizando-se lâminas e lamínulas, em campos determinados randomicamente. Constatou-se a ocorrência de interações do tipo predador-presa entre ciliados de Ophryoscolecidae Stein, 1859, onde Elytroplastron bubali (Dogiel, 1928 apresentou comportamento predatório sobre Enoploplastron triloricatum (Dogiel, 1925 e sobre outras espécies de Epidinium Crawley, 1923 e de Entodinium Stein, 1859. Foram ainda observados casos de canibalismo entre espécimes de E. bubali, o que consiste no primeiro registro deste tipo de interação nesta espécie. Registra-se, ainda, pela primeira vez a ocorrência de E. bubali no rúmen de ovinos no Brasil.The objective of the present study was to record the occurrence of predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans in the rumen of sheep. The analyzed samples consisted of ruminal contents of five fistulated Santa Inez crossbred sheep, maintained in a natural caatinga (scrubland pasture in the municipality of Sertânia, Pernambuco. Six samples of ruminal content were obtained from each sheep (total of 30 samples and fixed in formalin at 18.5% (v/v. One 1 ml aliquot was obtained from each sample of ruminal content and received tree drops of a lugol solution for staining and identification of protozoa ciliates. These aliquots were analyzed in

  13. População protozoários ciliados e degradabilidade ruminal em búfalos e bovinos zebuínos sob dieta à base de cana-de-açúcar Rumen ciliate protozoa and degradability in buffalo and zebu cattle fed a sugar cane based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Franzolin

    2000-12-01

    after feeding to measure the concentration and composition of ruminal fauna. Ruminal contents were mixed and re inoculated among animals from the same species after five weeks of trial starting. During the last week, degradability of DM, CP, and NDF of sugar cane and DM and CP of the concentrate were determined by in situ technique. The average concentration of total protozoa was higher in cattle (4.85 ×10(5/mL than in buffaloes (3.82 × 10(5/mL. Percent generic composition for Entodinium and subfamily Diplodiniinae was 79.2 and 6.2% in cattle and 32.0 and 54.9% in buffaloes, respectively. There was no interaction between animal species and sampling time. Holotrich concentration increased after 40 minutes of feeding. No difference was observed between buffaloes and cattle in effective degradability of the studied nutrients with differences being observed in degradation kinetic. The buffaloes had lower concentration of rumen protozoa, higher composition of Diplodiniinae and lower Entodinium than cattle. The Holotrich species exhibited capacity of migration and sequestration within the rumen of both species; and differences in ruminal fauna did not show influence on effective degradability of sugar cane and concentrate nutrients.

  14. Rumen ciliate protozoa in sheep raising in the caatinga region of Pernambuco State, Brazil População de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos criados na caatinga de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladston Rafael de Arruda Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to determine the number and genus of rumen ciliate protozoa in caatinga sheep raising, before and four hours after feeding them. There were collected 10 mL of ruminal fluid which was fixed in 10 mL of 10% formalin. After counting and identification of genera, the variables were submitted to variance analysis, the means compared by Tukey test and accomplished of simple correlation test between protozoa and chemical composition diet. Among found genera there was predominance of Entodinium (around 90%. Holotricha subclass only Isotricha genus was registered which represented 1.94% of population. The percentage of protozoa only varied (P <0.05 for Eodinium genus. It’s highest variation was showed in May 2005. Related to the collection schedule, only the pH, the medium number of Entodinium gender and total number of protozoa presented significant difference, being larger before feeding the animals. Other genera also presented the same behavior, thus reflecting the stability of ruminal environment for animals without access to night feeding. The protozoa of Entodiniomorphid subclass present high positive correlation with level of total digestible nutrients and crude protein of the diet. This reflects the necessity, for microorganism, of energy and protein for synthesis (cellular division and storage.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o número e gênero de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos criados na caatinga antes da alimentação e quatro horas após. Foram coletados 10 mL de fluido ruminal, fixados em 10 mL de formalina a 10 %. Após contagem e identificação dos gêneros, as variáveis foram submetidas à análise de variância, as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, sendo, ainda, realizado o teste de correlação simples entre protozoários e a composição química da dieta. Dentre os gêneros encontrados, houve predominância do gênero Entodinium (em torno de 90%. Da subclasse Holotricha, foi registrado

  15. Microorganisms in the rumen and reticulum of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed two different feeding systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franzolin, Raul; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-01-01

    .... Bacteria, methanogenic archaea and ciliate protozoa existing in the rumen and reticulum were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and light microscopy in buffalo in two feeding systems, grazing and feedlot...

  16. Rumen Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rumen microbiome plays a critical role in normal physiology and nutrition of ruminants. Alterations in the rumen microbiome have important physiological and pathological implications. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and rapid development of computational tools and reference...

  17. Microorganisms in the rumen and reticulum of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed two different feeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Franzolin,Raul; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The community of microorganisms in the rumen and reticulum is influenced by feeding as well as the species and geographical distribution of ruminant animals. Bacteria, methanogenic archaea and ciliate protozoa existing in the rumen and reticulum were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and light microscopy in buffalo in two feeding systems, grazing and feedlot. ...

  18. Effect of an energy-deficient diet on populations of ciliate protozoans in bovine rumen Efeito da deficiência de energia na dieta sobre a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten young rumen-cannulated crossbred steers were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (C; n=4, which was fed a balanced diet for daily weight gain of 900g; and a pronounced energy-deprived group (PED; n=6, receiving 30% less of the required energy for maintenance. After 140 days of these alimentary regimes, rumen fluid and urine samples were collected for biochemical and functional tests, before feeding and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours after feeding. The energy-deprivation diet caused a significant reduction in the number of Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium, and Epidinium protozoa. There was no effect of the time of sampling in both groups on the total number of ciliates in rumen fluid. A higher number of protozoan forms in binary division were recorded in the control group, at the 6th and 9th hours after feeding (PForam utilizados 10 novilhos mestiços com cânula ruminal, distribuídos em dois grupos: no grupo controle (C; n=4 receberam dieta balanceada para ganho diário de 900g; no grupo tratado com carência pronunciada de energia (CP; n=6, receberam dieta com 30% a menos do nível de mantença em energia. Após 140 dias sob esses regimes de alimentação, foram coletadas amostras do fluido ruminal e urina, para realização de provas bioquímicas e funcionais, antes e às 1, 3, 6 e 9 horas após o fornecimento do alimento. A carência energética resultou em diminuição significativa na quantidade dos protozoários Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium e Epidinium. Não houve efeito da hora de coleta sobre o total de ciliados nos grupos C e CP. Maior número de formas em divisão binária foi registrado no grupo C, na sexta e nona horas pós-alimentação (P<0,019. Observaram-se altas correlações positivas entre a contagem total de protozoários e a fermentação de glicose, am

  19. Efeito da monensina e do óleo de soja sobre os protozoários ciliados do rúmen e correlação dos protozoários com parâmetros da fermentação ruminal e digestivos Effect of monensin and soybean oil on rumen ciliate protozoa and correlation between protozoa with ruminal fermentation and digestive parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2008-06-01

    lactating cows on the counting of ciliate protozoa beyond establishing correlations between number of protozoa with some parameters of digestion and ruminal fermentation. The treatments consisted of the inclusion of 33 ppm of sodium monensin or soybean oil at 4% DM, as following: control diet, without oil or monensin - CT; diet with monensin - MN; diet with soybean oil - OL; diet with the combination of 33 ppm of monensin and 4% of soybean oil - OM. Occurrence of 11 ciliate genera was observed, being Entodinium the predominant in all treatments. No significant soybean oil × monensin interaction was observed on protozoa number and genera. The genera Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Isotricha reduced in the diets with oil, while monensin reduced the counting of Dasytricha, Eremoplastron and Epidinium. The total number of ciliate protozoa and cellulolytics protozoa was reduced by soybean oil and monensin effects, showing a defaunatory additive effect when combined the oil and the monensin. The ciliate cellulolytics was reduced by linoleic acid intake and was related positively with NDF ruminal digestibility and ruminal ammonia. The total number of protozoa was correlated with the molar proportion of propionate in the ruminal liquid, suggesting that monensin and soybean oil, due their defaunatory effect, can reduce the loss of methane in the rumen.

  20. Rapid identification of rumen protozoa by restriction analysis of amplified 18S rRNA gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensbogenova, M.; Kisidayova, S.; Michalowski, T.; Javorsky, P.; Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Hackstein, J.H.P.; McEwan, N.R.; Jouany, J.P.; Newbold, J.C.; Pristas, P.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for molecular identification of rumen ciliates without the need for cultivation. Total DNA was isolated from single protozoal cells by the Chelex method and nearly complete protozoal 18S rRNA genes were amplified and subjected to restriction fragment length polymorp

  1. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  2. The Preliminary Report on Rumen Protozoa Grazing Rate on Bacteria with a Fluorescence-Labeled Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng-zhi; WANG Hong-rong; LI Guo-xiang; CAO Heng-chun; LU Zhan-jun

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the bacterial predation rate by rumen protozoa were carried out under laboratory conditions using a technique of fluorescence-labeled bacteria (FLB). Four Xuhuai goats were used in this experiment to obtain rumen protozoa and bacteria. Two groups were designed as follows: One group was the whole bacteria which were labeled using fluorescence through removing free bacteria from rumen fluid (WFLB); the other group was the bacteria which were labeled using fluorescence without removing free bacteria from rumen fluid (FLB). The result indicated that the bacterial predation rates of rumen Protozoa was 398.4 cells/(cell h) for the group WFLB, 230.4 cells/(cell h) for the group FLB, when the corresponding values expressed as bacteria-N, they were 2.15Pg N/(cell h) for the group WFLB, and 1.24Pg N/(cell h) for the group FLB, respectively. Extrapolating the assimilation quantity of nitrogen by ciliates on bacteria of Xuhuai goat, there were 103.2mg N/(d capita) for the group WFLB, and 59.5mg N/(d capita) for the group FLB, respectively. It was estimated that protein losses due to microbial recycling were 0.645g pro/(d capita) for the group WFLB and 0.372g pro/(d capita) for the group FLB, respectively. In addition, the fluorescence-labeled technique would be a potential assay for the determination of bacterial predation rate by rumen protozoa.

  3. : a database of ciliate genome rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Kukushkin, Denys; Lindblad, Kelsi; Chen, Xiao; Jonoska, Nataša; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated protists exhibit nuclear dimorphism through the presence of somatic macronuclei (MAC) and germline micronuclei (MIC). In some ciliates, DNA from precursor segments in the MIC genome rearranges to form transcriptionally active genes in the mature MAC genome, making these ciliates model organisms to study the process of somatic genome rearrangement. Similar broad scale, somatic rearrangement events occur in many eukaryotic cells and tumors. The (http://oxytricha.princeton.edu/mds_ies_db) is a database of genome recombination and rearrangement annotations, and it provides tools for visualization and comparative analysis of precursor and product genomes. The database currently contains annotations for two completely sequenced ciliate genomes: Oxytricha trifallax and Tetrahymena thermophila.

  4. From rumen to industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer Michael

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rumen is one of the most complicated and most fascinating microbial ecosystems in nature. A wide variety of microbial species, including bacteria, fungi and protozoa act together to bioconvert (lignocellulosic plant material into compounds, which can be taken up and metabolized by the ruminant. Thus, the rumen perfectly resembles a solution to a current industrial problem: the biorefinery, which aims at the bioconversion of lignocellulosic material into fuels and chemicals. We suggest to intensify the studies of the ruminal microbial ecosystem from an industrial microbiologists point of view in order to make use of this rich source of organisms and enzymes.

  5. Rumen microorganisms and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Castillo-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.

  6. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Henderson

    Full Text Available Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However

  7. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Kittelmann, Sandra; Miri, Vahideh Heidarian; Zethof, Michael; Noel, Samantha J; Waghorn, Garry C; Janssen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data

  8. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  9. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  10. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts.

  11. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Booyse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  12. Imaging features of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Hua Fang; Dan-Jun Dong; Shi-Zheng Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a very rare cystic lesion of the liver that is histologically similar to bronchogenic cyst. We report one case of CHFC that was hard to distinguish from solid-cystic neoplasm in imaging features. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in differentiating these cysts from other lesions.

  13. 3种瘤胃疾病对肉牛瘤胃内环境的影响%Change in rumen environment caused by ruminal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万春云; 杨为为; 蔡召俊

    2012-01-01

    为探讨肉牛瘤胃疾病对瘤胃内环境的影响,采集患病肉牛瘤胃液进行pH、纤毛虫数量和活力的测定,并镜检瘤胃切片.结果表明,肉牛患瘤胃疾病时,一般引起瘤胃液pH降低,酸中毒时,均值为5.03,纤毛虫活力明显减弱,数量显著下降,最低纤毛虫数量为0.病理切片结果显示,主要的病变为瘤胃出血、充血,炎性细胞浸润和固有膜损伤.可见,肉牛瘤胃疾病能极大地影响瘤胃内环境,进而影响牛的健康.%To clarify the effect of ruminal diseases on rumen environment caused by ruminal diseases, the liquid of rumen was sampled ; the pH value, number and activity of ciliates, fermentation of rumen contents were tested; the ruminal tissue pathological slice was prepared. The results showed, pH value decreased when rumen diseases occurred, especially suffered rumen acidosis, the average value was S.03. The number and activity of ciliates also significantly decreased, the lowest number was 0. The pathological slice showed that ruminal hemorrhage, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration and intrinsic membrane injury existed in many of these cases. Above all, beef cattle forestomach disease can significantly affect environments of rumen, furthermore can impact the health of cattle.

  14. Ciliates and the rare biosphere: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunthorn, Micah; Stoeck, Thorsten; Clamp, John; Warren, Alan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief review of the rare biosphere from the perspective of ciliates and other microbial eukaryotes. We trace research on rarity from its lack of much in-depth focus in morphological and Sanger sequencing projects, to its central importance in analyses using high throughput sequencing strategies. The problem that the rare biosphere is potentially comprised of mostly errors is then discussed in the light of asking community-comparative, novel-diversity, and ecosystem-functioning questions.

  15. First report of folliculinid ciliates affecting Caribbean scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cróquer, A.; Bastidas, C.; Lipscomp, D.; Rodríguez-Martínez, R. E.; Jordan-Dahlgren, E.; Guzman, H. M.

    2006-05-01

    This is the first report of a ciliate of the genus Halofolliculina infecting hard coral species of six families (Acroporidae, Agaricidae, Astrocoeniidae, Faviidae, Meandrinidae and Poritidae) and milleporids in the Caribbean. Surveys conducted during 2004 2005 in Venezuela, Panama and México confirmed that this ciliate affects up to 25 scleractinian species. The prevalence of this ciliate at the coral community level was variable across sites, being most commonly found at Los Roques, Venezuela, and at Bocas del Toro, Panama (prevalence 0.2 2.5%), but rarely observed in the Mexican Caribbean. Ciliates were more prevalent within populations of acroporids ( Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis and Acropora prolifera) in Los Roques. Recent observations also corroborate the presence of these ciliates in Curacao and Puerto Rico. Our observations indicate that ciliates affecting corals have a wider distribution than previously thought, and are no longer exclusively found in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea.

  16. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65 psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9 psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5 psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5 psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5 psu, 8.9 psu, 29.5 psu and 50.5 psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5 psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5 psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils.

  17. Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Dier, Jeffery D; Anderson, Kristi L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Franklin, Sharon K; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-08-05

    Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, or two African ruminants (giraffe and bongo). Conjugal transfer was also assessed in these protozoa using Salmonella as the recipient. Virulence gene hyperexpression was only observed following exposure to the rumen protozoa from cattle and sheep while elevated virulence was also observed in these animals. Conjugal transfer events were, however, observed in all protozoa evaluated. It therefore appears that the protozoa-based hypervirulence is not universal to all ruminants while conjugal transfer is more ubiquitous. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Active Bacterial and Eukaryotic Fibrolytic Communities in the Rumen of Dairy Cow Fed a Mixed Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet-Marre, Sophie; Parisot, Nicolas; Lepercq, Pascale; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Mosoni, Pascale; Peyretaillade, Eric; Bayat, Ali R.; Shingfield, Kevin J.; Peyret, Pierre; Forano, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants have a unique ability to derive energy from the degradation of plant polysaccharides through the activity of the rumen microbiota. Although this process is well studied in vitro, knowledge gaps remain regarding the relative contribution of the microbiota members and enzymes in vivo. The present study used RNA-sequencing to reveal both the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) by the rumen microbiota of a lactating dairy cow and the microorganisms forming the fiber-degrading community. Functional analysis identified 12,237 CAZymes, accounting for 1% of the transcripts. The CAZyme profile was dominated by families GH94 (cellobiose-phosphorylase), GH13 (amylase), GH43 and GH10 (hemicellulases), GH9 and GH48 (cellulases), PL11 (pectinase) as well as GH2 and GH3 (oligosaccharidases). Our data support the pivotal role of the most characterized fibrolytic bacteria (Prevotella, Ruminocccus and Fibrobacter), and highlight a substantial, although most probably underestimated, contribution of fungi and ciliate protozoa to polysaccharide degradation. Particularly these results may motivate further exploration of the role and the functions of protozoa in the rumen. Moreover, an important part of the fibrolytic bacterial community remains to be characterized since one third of the CAZyme transcripts originated from distantly related strains. These findings are used to highlight limitations of current metatranscriptomics approaches to understand the functional rumen microbial community and opportunities to circumvent them. PMID:28197133

  19. Reality-and-Desire in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Hoogeboom, Hendrik Jan

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has a number of similarities with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both theories model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper, we show how the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, can be used in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  20. Ciliated Protozoa of the polluted Tees estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, James G.

    1981-03-01

    In a study of the ciliated Protozoa of Bran Sand, a sheltered beach in the Tees estuary, 20 putative species were identified. This beach was richer in species than the nearby North Gare beach. In experimental batch cultures, seawater from the estuary had an inhibitory effect upon growth of a strain of Uronema marinum Dujardin which was isolated from an unpolluted beach at Robin Hood's Bay. The tolerance to metals of a Tees strain of U. marinum was assessed in simple toxicity tests; lethal levels for this strain were found to be similar to those reported elsewhere for the Robin Hood's Bay strain.

  1. Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen of steers. Steers (n=8 total) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via rumen...

  2. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    of ciliate growth, the population of cystic ciliates increased 100-fold. We suggest that internal population regulation is the major factor governing ciliate encystment and that the rate of encystment depends on ciliate density. This model provides a quantitative explanation of ciliatostasis and can explain...

  3. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PSAMMOPHILIC CILIATES OF SUMGAIT CASPIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kh. Alekperov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative data on the species composition and species saprobic indicators of the psammon ciliates from Sumgait coast of the Caspian Sea are given.Methods. “Alive” samples were collected using a small clean plastic wide mouth bottles. Further processing was carried out under laboratory conditions. Small quantities of soil were examined under a binocular microscope MBS-9 . Ciliates detected microvessel caught and fixed castors for further impregnation kinetoma silver nitrate (Chatton et Lwoff, 1930 or silver proteinate. To determine the keys for ciliates used Foyssner’s major publications (Foissner et al., 1991, 1992, 1999 and “Free-living ciliates Atlas” (Alekperov, 2005.Results. We observed 75 species of ciliates during the studies, which species composition and distribution of the collection points are shown in table 1. Diagrams with average data were made relations groups psammophilous ciliates indicators saprobity different zones for each of the sites investigated Sumgait coast.Main conclusions. Environmental analysis using benthic ciliates indicators saprobity different zones showed that as expected, the industrial zone of Sumgayit coast coast, despite the decline in recent years, the total amount of pollution that is still highly contaminated portion of the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea.

  4. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental and modeling evidence of appendicularian-ciliate interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Eloire, Damien; Gobet, Angelique

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between appendicularians and ciliates were observed over the life span of Oikopleura dioica in laboratory cultures and clarified with the use of mathematical modeling and microscopic observations. Complex interactions including competition, parasitism, predation, and histophagy occur...

  6. The effect of salinity on some endocommensalic ciliates from shipworms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    The ciliates, Nucleocorbula adherens, Boveria teredinidi, Trichodina balakrishnia, Thigmozoon fencheli and Nyctothereus marina, live inside the mantle cavity of the ship-worms in the estuaries and backwaters of the south-west coast of India...

  7. Characterization of copper resistant ciliates: Potential candidates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of copper resistant ciliates: Potential candidates for consortia of organisms used in bioremediation of wastewater. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Copper is one of such contaminant found in the wastewater of local industries.

  8. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  9. Some ciliates from the marine wood boring isopod Sphaeroma treubia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, N.B.

    Seven ectocommensalic ciliates, namely, Vorticella companula, Zoothamnium rigidum, Cothurnia gammari, Legenophrys cochinensis sp. nov., Epistylis gammari, Folliculina producta and Foliculina boltoni, all first-time recorded from the wood...

  10. High-rate two-phase process for the anaerobic degradation of cellulose, employing rumen microorganisms for an efficient acidogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gijzen, H.J.; Zwart, K.B.; Verhagen, F.J.M.; Vogels, G.D.

    1988-04-05

    A novel two-stage anaerobic process for the microbial conversion of cellulose into biogas has been developed. In the first phase, a mixed population of rumen bacteria and ciliates was used in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in this acidogenic reactor were subsequently converted into biogas in a UASB-type methanogenic reactor. A stepwise increase of the loading rate from 11.9 to 25.8 g volatile solids/L reactor volume/day (g VS/L/day) did not affect the degradation efficiency in the acidogenic reactor, whereas the methanogenic reactor appeared to be overloaded at the highest loading rate. Cellulose digestion was almost complete at all loading rates applied. The two-stage anaerobic process was also tested with a closed fluid circuit. In this instance total methane production was 0.438 L CH/sub 4//g VS added, which is equivalent to 98% of the theoretical value. The application of rumen microorganisms in combination with a high-rate methane reactor is proposed as a means of efficient anaerobic degradation of cellulosic residues to methane. Because this newly developed two-phase system is based on processes and microorganisms from the ruminant, it will be referred to as Rumen Derived Anaerobic Digestion (RUDAD)-process.

  11. Simultaneous amplicon sequencing to explore co-occurrence patterns of bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic microorganisms in rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Seedorf, Henning; Walters, William A; Clemente, Jose C; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Janssen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Ruminants rely on a complex rumen microbial community to convert dietary plant material to energy-yielding products. Here we developed a method to simultaneously analyze the community's bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, ciliate 18S rRNA genes and anaerobic fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 genes using 12 DNA samples derived from 11 different rumen samples from three host species (Ovis aries, Bos taurus, Cervus elephas) and multiplex 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. We show that the mixing ratio of the group-specific DNA templates before emulsion PCR is crucial to compensate for differences in amplicon length. This method, in contrast to using a non-specific universal primer pair, avoids sequencing non-targeted DNA, such as plant- or endophyte-derived rRNA genes, and allows increased or decreased levels of community structure resolution for each microbial group as needed. Communities analyzed with different primers always grouped by sample origin rather than by the primers used. However, primer choice had a greater impact on apparent archaeal community structure than on bacterial community structure, and biases for certain methanogen groups were detected. Co-occurrence analysis of microbial taxa from all three domains of life suggested strong within- and between-domain correlations between different groups of microorganisms within the rumen. The approach used to simultaneously characterize bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic components of a microbiota should be applicable to other communities occupying diverse habitats.

  12. Passive mechanical properties of ovine rumen tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Stephen J.; Cater, John E.; Walker, Cameron G.; Amirapu, Satya; Waghorn, Garry C.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and structural properties of ovine rumen tissue have been determined using uniaxial tensile testing of tissue from four animals at five rumen locations and two orientations. Animal and orientation did not have a significant effect on the stress-strain response, but there was a significant difference between rumen locations. Histological studies showed two orthogonal muscle layers in all regions except the reticulum, which has a more isotropic structure. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model was fitted to the relaxation stage for each region. Model predictions of the ramp stage had RMS errors of 13-24% and were within the range of the experimental data.

  13. Can fungal zoospores be the source of energy for the rumen protozoa Eudiplodinium maggii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Kowalik, Barbara; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    Results of our earlier studies showed the ability of ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii to digest and metabolize commercial chitin. The natural source of this polysaccharide in the rumen are fungi. The objectives of present research were to determine the effect of fungal zoospores on the survival and population density of E. maggii to quantify the concentration of chitin in the cells of protozoa and to examine the ability of E. maggii, to ferment chitin of fungal zoospores. The cultivation experiment showed that the survival of protozoa was shorter than 4 days when the culture medium was composed of buffer solution and lyophilized fungal spores. An enrichment of this medium with wheat gluten prolonged the survival of ciliates up to 8 days. The supplementation of the last medium with meadow hay enabled the protozoa to survive for 28 days but a positive effect was observed only during the last 8 days of experiment. The chitin content was 0.27 ng and 0.21-0.35 ng per single zoospore and ciliate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was found when protozoa were incubated with zoospores. The production rate of VFA was 46.3 pM/protozoan per h whereas the endogenous production did not exceed 31 pM/protozoan per h. The molar proportion of acetic acid was 77.7% and these of butyric and propionic acids-12.2 and 11.0%, respectively. The obtained results make it evident that carbohydrates present in fungal zoospores were utilized by protozoa in energy yielding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  15. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity of rumen bacteria in canadian cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; Sensen, Christoph W; McAllister, Timothy A; Forster, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the bacteria responsible for the breakdown of lignocellulosic feedstuffs within the rumen has increased due to their potential utility in industrial applications. To date, most studies have focused on bacteria from domesticated ruminants. We have expanded the knowledge of the microbial ecology of ruminants by examining the bacterial populations found in the rumen of non-domesticated ruminants found in Canada. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA was employed to characterize the liquid and solid-associated bacterial communities in the rumen of elk (Cervus canadensis), and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite variability in the microbial populations between animals, principle component and weighted UniFrac analysis indicated that bacterial communities in the rumen of elk and white tail deer are distinct. Populations clustered according to individual host animal and not the association with liquid or solid phase of the rumen contents. In all instances, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacterial phyla, although the relative abundance of these differed among ruminant species and between phases of rumen digesta, respectively. In the elk samples Bacteroidetes were more predominant in the liquid phase whereas Firmicutes was the most prevalent phyla in the solid digesta (P = 1×10(-5)). There were also statistically significant differences in the abundance of OTUs classified as Fibrobacteres (P = 5×10(-3)) and Spirochaetes (P = 3×10(-4)) in the solid digesta of the elk samples. We identified a number of OTUs that were classified as phylotypes not previously observed in the rumen environment. Our results suggest that although the bacterial diversity in wild North American ruminants shows overall similarities to domesticated ruminants, we observed a number of OTUs not previously described. Previous studies primarily focusing on domesticated ruminants do not fully represent the microbial diversity of the rumen and

  17. Diversity of rumen bacteria in canadian cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Interest in the bacteria responsible for the breakdown of lignocellulosic feedstuffs within the rumen has increased due to their potential utility in industrial applications. To date, most studies have focused on bacteria from domesticated ruminants. We have expanded the knowledge of the microbial ecology of ruminants by examining the bacterial populations found in the rumen of non-domesticated ruminants found in Canada. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA was employed to characterize the liquid and solid-associated bacterial communities in the rumen of elk (Cervus canadensis, and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Despite variability in the microbial populations between animals, principle component and weighted UniFrac analysis indicated that bacterial communities in the rumen of elk and white tail deer are distinct. Populations clustered according to individual host animal and not the association with liquid or solid phase of the rumen contents. In all instances, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacterial phyla, although the relative abundance of these differed among ruminant species and between phases of rumen digesta, respectively. In the elk samples Bacteroidetes were more predominant in the liquid phase whereas Firmicutes was the most prevalent phyla in the solid digesta (P = 1×10(-5. There were also statistically significant differences in the abundance of OTUs classified as Fibrobacteres (P = 5×10(-3 and Spirochaetes (P = 3×10(-4 in the solid digesta of the elk samples. We identified a number of OTUs that were classified as phylotypes not previously observed in the rumen environment. Our results suggest that although the bacterial diversity in wild North American ruminants shows overall similarities to domesticated ruminants, we observed a number of OTUs not previously described. Previous studies primarily focusing on domesticated ruminants do not fully represent the microbial diversity of the

  18. Protease activities of rumen protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C W; Lovelock, L K; Krumholz, L; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    1984-01-01

    Intact, metabolically active rumen protozoa prepared by gravity sedimentation and washing in a mineral solution at 10 to 15 degrees C had comparatively low proteolytic activity on azocasein and low endogenous proteolytic activity. Protozoa washed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 4 degrees C and stored on ice autolysed when they were warmed to 39 degrees C. They also exhibited low proteolytic activity on azocasein, but they had a high endogenous proteolytic activity with a pH optimum of 5.8. The endogenous proteolytic activity was inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, for example, iodoacetate (63.1%) and the aspartic proteinase inhibitor, pepstatin (43.9%). Inhibitors specific for serine proteinases and metalloproteinases were without effect. The serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors of microbial origin, including antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin, caused up to 67% inhibition of endogenous proteolysis. Hydrolysis of casein by protozoa autolysates was also inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Some of the inhibitors decreased endogenous deamination, in particular, phosphoramidon, which had little inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Protozoal and bacterial preparations exhibited low hydrolytic activities on synthetic proteinase and carboxypeptidase substrates, although the protozoa had 10 to 78 times greater hydrolytic activity (per milligram of protein) than bacteria on the synthetic aminopeptidase substrates L-leucine-p-nitroanilide, L-leucine-beta-naphthylamide, and L-leucinamide. The aminopeptidase activity was partially inhibited by bestatin. It was concluded that cysteine proteinases and, to a lesser extent, aspartic proteinases are primarily responsible for proteolysis in autolysates of rumen protozoa. The protozoal autolysates had high aminopeptidase activity; low deaminase activity was observed on endogenous amino acids. PMID:6364968

  19. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning indentifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen increases from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, significantly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion in ...

  20. Metagenomics of rumen bacteriophage from thirteen lactating dairy cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, Elizabeth M; Petrovski, Steve; Moate, Peter J; Hayes, Ben J

    2013-01-01

    ... (the rumen microbiome). We used massively parallel sequencing of virus like particles to investigate the diversity of the rumen virome in thirteen lactating Australian Holstein dairy cattle all housed in the same location...

  1. Rumen Impaction with Foreign Indigestible Materials in Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rumen Impaction with Foreign Indigestible Materials in Domestic Ruminants in Nigeria: A ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Rumen impaction due to foreign indigestible materials has become one of the ...

  2. Foreign Body Rumen Impaction with Indigestible Materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign Body Rumen Impaction with Indigestible Materials in Ruminants in Nigeria: A ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Rumen impaction due to foreign indigestible materials has become one of the ...

  3. Colonization dynamics of ciliate morphotypes modified by shifting sandy sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams.

  4. The Comparison of Ruminal Protozoa Morphology and Population of Holstein Cow and Khuzestan Water Buffalo under the Same Feeding Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabbari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to compare the population and morphology of ruminal protozoa of Holstein and Khuzestan water buffalo steers fed with the same diet. Rumen fluid collected from cow and buffaloes (12 head that were fed with the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. The collected samples were fixed by formaldehyde 18.5%, and ciliates were counted and their genus and species were determined. The results of this experiment showed, total rumen protozoal number of khuzestani water buffalo was higher than the cattle (3.68×105 vs. 2.18×105/ mL of rumen content, respectively. The genus of Diplodinium, Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Holotriches of cow and water buffalo was 37.63, 48.77, 0, 3.75, 9.83 and 44.47, 42.35, 5.31, 0.68, 7.18 %, respectively. There was no species from Epidinium genus (Epidinium ecaudatum and Epidinium cudatum and Diplodinium cristagalli species in the rumen of cattle, but they found in the rumen of khuzestani water Buffalo. Also it was identified that there was Ophryoscolex purkynei in both rumen cattle and water buffalo, but in the rumen of cattle was higher in comparison to the buffalos. Therefore, it appears under the same diet, there is a significant difference in total rumen protozoal number and species of Holstein cow and Khuzestani water buffalo.

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Manafiazar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes. Four healthy male River (Azari buffaloes with no previous history of gastrointestinal dysfunction were chosen. There are several surgical techniques that can be used for rumen cannulation in farm animals, including buffaloes. This procedure was performed in a modified two-stage technique. In the first stage, the dorso – lateral portion of the dorsal sac of the rumen wall was sutured to the skin incision in the left para lumbar fossa region. In the second – stage, after six days left, the exposed rumen wall area was incised and the cannula was inserted and fixed manually in the rumenal opening incision site. In order to evaluate the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters, this study was achieved with different levels of NDF, and chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, was measured in a change over design. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00 and 21:00. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility. Increasing NFC reduced ruminal pH at 0.5, 1.0, 4.5, 6.0 9.0 and 10.0 h post feeding. In addition, there were not significant differences on eating time, rumination time and total chewing activity between diets. All data obtained in this study were in normal range may indicating the efficacy of this cannulation method. More investigation should be done to determine the efficacy and comparison of the other surgical rumen cannulation techniques on Azari buffaloes of Iran.

  6. Ultrasonographic Examination of the Rumen in Healthy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Imran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred nonpregnant cows were subjected to transabdominal ultrasonography to develop baseline topographical data of the rumen. The wall of the rumen could be identified as a thick echogenic line adjacent to the left abdominal wall from left flank to 8th intercostal space. The motility pattern of rumen was characterized by approximately 1 contraction every minute. The mean amplitude of the ruminal contraction was 3.2 cm. Ultrasonography of the rumen in healthy cows is a useful adjunct to the noninvasive diagnostic investigation of the rumen.

  7. Rumen content stratification in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Clauss, Marcus; Bertelsen, Mads F;

    2016-01-01

    Ruminants differ in the degree of rumen content stratification, with 'cattle-types' (i.e., the grazing and intermediate feeding ruminants) having stratified content, whereas 'moose-types' (i.e., the browsing ruminants) have unstratified content. The feeding ecology, as well as the digestive...... of these parameters, indicating homogenous rumen content in the giraffes. In addition to the digesta samples, samples of dorsal rumen, ventral rumen and atrium ruminis mucosa were collected and the papillary surface enlargement factor was determined, as a proxy for content stratification. The even rumen papillation...

  8. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González, Javier; Andrés, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  9. Rumen management during aphagia : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants that for any reason are unable to eat enough to survive can be supported via rumen fistulation. To successfully accomplish this task, an understanding of rumen physiology is necessary. Some adaptation and modification of the normal physiological processes will be necessary because the extended time normally required to ingest food will, for obvious practical reasons, be reduced to a few minutes repeated once to three times a day. The physiology of significance to aphagic or dysphagic animals is discussed and relevant examples of clinical cases are used to illustrate practical applications.

  10. An approach to measure ciliate grazing on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.; González, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    . Here we present an approach for the assessment of ciliate grazing on living heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Stationary phase cultures of a heterotrophic nanoflagellate (Cafeteria sp.) were live-stained by allowing them to take up fluorescently labelled macromolecules. Controls revealed that this label...

  11. The symbiotic intestinal ciliates and the evolution of their hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Staay, G.W. van der; Michalowski, T.; Jouany, J.P.; Pristas, P.; Javorsky, P.; Kisidayova, S.; Varadyova, Z.; McEwan, N.R.; Newbold, C.J.; Alen, T. van; Graaf, R. de; Schmid, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of sophisticated differentiations of the gastro-intestinal tract enabled herbivorous mammals to digest dietary cellulose and hemicellulose with the aid of a complex anaerobic microbiota. Distinctive symbiotic ciliates, which are unique to this habitat, are the largest representatives

  12. Transposon domestication versus mutualism in ciliate genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vogt

    Full Text Available Ciliated protists rearrange their genomes dramatically during nuclear development via chromosome fragmentation and DNA deletion to produce a trimmer and highly reorganized somatic genome. The deleted portion of the genome includes potentially active transposons or transposon-like sequences that reside in the germline. Three independent studies recently showed that transposase proteins of the DDE/DDD superfamily are indispensible for DNA processing in three distantly related ciliates. In the spirotrich Oxytricha trifallax, high copy-number germline-limited transposons mediate their own excision from the somatic genome but also contribute to programmed genome rearrangement through a remarkable transposon mutualism with the host. By contrast, the genomes of two oligohymenophorean ciliates, Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia, encode homologous PiggyBac-like transposases as single-copy genes in both their germline and somatic genomes. These domesticated transposases are essential for deletion of thousands of different internal sequences in these species. This review contrasts the events underlying somatic genome reduction in three different ciliates and considers their evolutionary origins and the relationships among their distinct mechanisms for genome remodeling.

  13. On computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rogojin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene assembly in stichotrichous ciliates happening during sexual reproduction is one of the most involved DNA manipulation processes occurring in biology. This biological process is of high interest from the computational and mathematical points of view due to its close analogy with such concepts and notions in theoretical computer science as permutation and linked list sorting and string rewriting. Studies on computational properties of gene assembly in ciliates represent a good example of interdisciplinary research contributing to both computer science and biology. We review here a number of general results related both to the development of different computational methods enhancing our understanding on the nature of gene assembly, as well as to the development of new biologically motivated computational and mathematical models and paradigms. Those paradigms contribute in particular to combinatorics, formal languages and computability theories.

  14. Ultrastructure of extrusomes in hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yao; WANG Zhengjun; ZHANG Jun; GU Fukang

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of extrusomes of the hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova was observed in scanning and transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-cytochemistry. The results show that the distribution, morphological characteristics, morphogenesis process, and extrusive process of the extrusomes in P. nova are different from the trichocysts in Paramecium, suggesting that the extrusomes of P. nova can respond to environmental stimuli, play an important role in the defense of this species, and cannot be regarded as "trichocysts". The results also suggest that the extrusomes might be originated from the Golgi apparatus and mature in the cytoplasm; after the extrusion of mature extrusomes, the residual substance might be reabsorbed and reused by the ciliate cell via food vacuoles, and take part in material recycling of the cell.

  15. Harmful Ciliates and Dominant Genus in Culture Ponds of Young Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建荣; 徐润林; 廖家遗

    2004-01-01

    By using the methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the species composition and dominant genus of harmful, ciliates in young abalone culture ponds are studied. Totally 68 species of ciliates, belonging to 3 classes, 16 orders and 46 genus, are found. The dominant ciliate species are Aspidisca leptaspis, Vorticella sp. and Euplotes rariseta. During the young abalone cultivation, the numbers of young abalones increase first,and then show a trend of decreasing. The relationship between the density and composition of ciliates and the density of algae in the young abalone culture ponds is also discussed.

  16. Functional groups of marine ciliated protozoa and their relationships to water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Xu, Henglong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Warren, Alan; Song, Weibo

    2013-08-01

    Ciliated protozoa (ciliates) play important ecological roles in coastal waters, especially regarding their interaction with environmental parameters. In order to increase our knowledge and understanding on the functional structure of ciliate communities and their relationships to environmental conditions in marine ecosystems, a 12-month study was carried out in a semi-enclosed bay in northern China. Samples were collected biweekly at five sampling stations with differing levels of pollution/eutrophication, giving a total of 120 samples. Thirteen functional groups of ciliates (A-M) were defined based on their specific spatio-temporal distribution and relationships to physico-chemical parameters. Six of these groups (H-M) were the primary contributors to the ciliate communities in the polluted/eutrophic areas, whereas the other seven groups (A-G) dominated the communities in less polluted areas. Six groups (A, D, G, H, I and K) dominated during the warm seasons (summer and autumn), with the other seven (B, C, E, F, J, L and M) dominating in the cold seasons (spring and winter). Of these, groups B (mainly aloricate ciliates), I (aloricate ciliates) and L (mainly loricate tintinnids) were the primary contributors to the communities. It was also shown that aloricate ciliates and tintinnids represented different roles in structuring and functioning of the communities. The results suggest that the ciliate communities may be constructed by several functional groups in response to the environmental conditions. Thus, we conclude that these functional groups might be potentially useful bioindicators for bioassessment and conservation in marine habitats.

  17. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  18. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Guo

    Full Text Available Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups, six (containing 99% of all the sequences belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus, and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  19. concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the amount of starch that can be added without impairing fibre digestion. ... are, in turn, influenced by factors such as rumen pH, ammonia concentration, type ...... of glucose cn arnmonia accumulation in the rumen of sheep. Anst. J. Agric.

  20. the effect of rumen inert fat supplementation and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Familie Lategan

    degradability and rumen inert fat supplementation in starter and finishing diets on .... Both are calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids and their fatty acid profiles are ... of chromic III oxide were administered directly into the rumen twice daily, ..... inert fat supplementation, as well as a high quality protein inclusion in the diet can ...

  1. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter; Kristensen, Lise

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  2. Quantifying terpenes in rumen fluid, serum, and plasma from sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the fate of terpenes consumed by browsing ruminants require methods to quantify their presence in blood and rumen fluid. Our objective was to modify an existing procedure for plasma terpenes to quantify 25 structurally diverse mono- and sesquiterpenes in serum, plasma, and rumen fluid fr...

  3. Variation in rumen fermentation and the rumen wall during the transition period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Strong adaptive changes occur in the peri-parturient dairy cow related to a marked rise in dry matter intake and alteration in diet composition after calving. Early lactation dairy cattle are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired rumen function during the transition period, with

  4. Variation in rumen fermentation and the rumen wall during the transition period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Strong adaptive changes occur in the peri-parturient dairy cow related to a marked rise in dry matter intake and alteration in diet composition after calving. Early lactation dairy cattle are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired rumen function during the transition period, with detrimenta

  5. Reponses of sheep to a vaccination of entodinial or mixed rumen protozoal antigens to reduce rumen protozoal numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Yvette J; Rea, Suzanne M; Popovski, Sam; Pimm, Carolyn L; Williams, Andrew J; Toovey, Andrew F; Skillman, Lucy C; Wright, André-Denis G

    2008-01-01

    Two rumen protozoa vaccine formulations containing either whole fixed Entodinium or mixed rumen protozoa cells were tested on Merino sheep with the aim of decreasing the number and/or activity of protozoa in the rumen. Negative control (no antigen) and positive control (Tetrahymena corlissi antigens) treatments were also included in the experiment. Blood and saliva were sampled to measure the specific immune response. Protozoal numbers in the rumen were monitored by microscopic counts. Vaccination with protozoal formulations resulted in the presence of specific IgG in plasma and saliva, but saliva titres were low. Titres after secondary vaccination were higher (P 0.05) by the vaccination and there was also no difference (P>0.05) between treatments in rumen fluid ammonia-N concentration or wool growth. In vitro studies investigated the binding ability of the antibodies and estimated the amount of antibody required to reduce cell numbers in the rumen. The studies showed that the antibodies did bind to and reduced protozoa numbers, but the amount of antibody generated by vaccination was not enough to produce results in an in vivo system. It is suggested that the vaccine could be improved if specific protozoal antigens are determined and isolated and that improved understanding of the actions of protozoa antibodies in rumen fluid and the relationships between levels of antibodies and numbers of protozoa in the rumen is needed.

  6. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  7. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDziallas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  8. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  9. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  10. Grazing on autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton by ciliates isolated from Lake Kinneret, Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadas, O.; Malinsky-Rushansky, N.; Pinkas, R.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    The rates of ingestion of three ciliates (Colpoda steinii, Cyclidium sp. and Stylonichia sp.) on fluorescently labeled heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus P, CN) and a picoeukaryote isolated from Lake Kinneret were measured. Uptake values were 930, 35 and 1210 bacteria ciliate (

  11. A BRIEF HISTORY OF CILIATE STUDIES (LATE XVII THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XX CENTURY)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The most prominent protistologists who worked with ciliates from the Leeuwenhoek time up to the beginning of the XX century are mentioned. Their achievements in ciliatology and especially in taxonomy of ciliates are briefly discussed on the basis of the original literature and reviews, published during the last 150 years.

  12. The mitochondrial genomes of the ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R.M. de; Alen, T.A. van; Dutilh, B.E.; Kuiper, J.W.P.; Zoggel, H.J. van; Huynh, M.B.; Gortz, H.D.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are thousands of very diverse ciliate species from which only a handful mitochondrial genomes have been studied so far. These genomes are rather similar because the ciliates analysed (Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia) are closely related. Here we study the mitochondrial geno

  13. Actin evolution in ciliates (Protist, Alveolata) is characterized by high diversity and three duplication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Huang, Lijuan; Yang, Ran; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2016-03-01

    Ciliates possess two distinct nuclear genomes and unique genomic features, including highly fragmented chromosomes and extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Recent transcriptomic surveys have revealed that ciliates have several multi-copy genes providing an ideal template to study gene family evolution. Nonetheless, this process remains little studied in ciliated protozoa and consequently, the evolutionary patterns that govern it are not well understood. In this study, we focused on obtaining fine-scale information relative to ciliate species divergence for the first time. A total of 230 actin gene sequences were derived from this study, among which 217 were from four closely related Pseudokeronopsis species and 13 from other hypotrichous ciliates. Our investigation shows that: (1) At least three duplication events occurred in ciliates: diversification of three actin genes (Actin I, II, III) happened after the divergence of ciliate classes but before that of subclasses. And several recent and genus-specific duplications were followed within Actin I (Sterkiella, Oxytricha, Uroleptus, etc.), Actin II (Sterkiella), respectively. (2) Within the genus Pseudokeronopsis, Actin I gene duplication events happened after P. carnea and P. erythrina diverged. In contrast, in the morphologically similar species P. flava and P. rubra, the duplication event preceded diversification of the two species. The Actin II gene duplication events preceded divergence of the genus Pseudokeronopsis. (3) Phylogenetic analyses revealed that actin is suitable for resolving ciliate classes, but may not be used to infer lower taxon relationships.

  14. Effects of early feeding on the host rumen transcriptome and bacterial diversity in lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Wang; Chong Li; Fadi Li; Xiaojuan Wang; Xiaoxue Zhang; Ting Liu; Fang Nian; Xiangpeng Yue; Fei Li; Xiangyu Pan; Yongfu La; Futao Mo; Fangbin Wang; Baosheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Early consumption of starter feed promotes rumen development in lambs. We examined rumen development in lambs fed starter feed for 5 weeks using histological and biochemical analyses and by performing high-throughput sequencing in rumen tissues. Additionally, rumen contents of starter feed-fed lambs were compared to those of breast milk-fed controls. Our physiological and biochemical findings revealed that early starter consumption facilitated rumen development, changed the pattern of ruminal...

  15. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  16. Intestinal ciliate composition found in the feces of racing horses from Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Göçmen, Bayram

    2012-08-01

    Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates were investigated in the feces from 15 racing horses living near Izmir, Turkey. Thirty-seven species belonging to 21 genera were identified. Although no new species were observed, this is the first report on intestinal ciliates in racing horses living in Turkey. The mean number of ciliates was 26.4 ± 13.9 × 10(4) cells ml(-1) of feces and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 18.8 ± 7.1. No ciliates were observed in one horse. Bundleia and Polymorphella were found to be the two dominant genera, occurring in high proportions. In contrast, Didesmis and Prorodonopsis were only observed at a low frequency. Bundleia nana, Blepharoconus hemiciliatus, Paraisotrichopsis composita, Prorodonopsis coli and Spirodinium equi were newly recorded from Turkey. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem:effects on accumulation of ambient ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Hu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ciliated protozoa, Euplotes vannus and Uronema marinum, on accumulation of ammonia in marine waters are detected using experimental ecological method, in order to reveal the contributions and functions of ciliates to the marine ecosystem. During experiments, the concentrations of ammonia-N, and the densities of ciliates and bacteria are measured. The results reveal that ciliates can change the procedure of ammonia accumulation by their grazing activity, and maintain ambient ammonium at low levels through interrupting the stationary phase of bacteria population growth and enhancing their growth and metabolism. The present work confirms that ciliates, as bacteria-predators, play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in intensive mariculture biotopes.

  18. SHORT TIME DYNAMICS OF CILIATE ABUNDANCE IN THE BOHAI SEA (CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 王荣

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate community in the Bohai Sea (China) was studied from23 September to 7 October 1998. A hurricane struck the study area between the two grid station investigations, which were six days apart. Six tintinnid species(Favella panamensis, Leptotintinnus nordqvisti, Tintinnopsis butschlii, T. karajacensis, T. Radix and Wangiella dicollaria) were identified. Total cililate abundance in the surface layer ranged from 20 to 770 ind/l. In the first grid investigation, Tintinnopsis karajacensis dominated in the warm, low salinity waters at the Huanghe River mouth. Aloricate ciliate sp.1 dominated in the cold, high salinity waters in the northwest of the study area and the Bohai Strait. In the second grid investigation, T. Karajacensis almost disappeared. The abundance of aloricate ciliate sp.1 decreased drastically. The aloricate ciliate sp.2 dominatedat the Bohai Strait. The change of ciliate abundance may be due to the disturbance of hurricane.``

  19. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one.

  20. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  1. Diverse modes of reproduction in the marine free-living ciliate Glauconema trihymene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufall Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most free-living ciliates reproduce by equal fission or budding during vegetative growth. In certain ciliates, reproduction occurs inside the cyst wall, viz. reproductive cysts, but more complex reproductive strategies have generally been thought to be confined to parasitic or symbiotic species, e.g. Radiophrya spp. Results In addition to equal fission, asymmetric binary division and reproductive cysts were discovered in the free-living bacterivorous scuticociliate Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. Asymmetric division is an innate physiological state that can be induced by sufficient food, and the higher the food concentration, the longer the asymmetric division persists. During asymmetric division, nuclear and somatic structures divide with transiently arrested cytokinesis and variable positioning of macronuclei. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA sequences, showed that the G. trihymene isolate studied here nests with typical scuticociliates and is paraphyletic to both the symbiotic apostome and astome ciliates, some of which also produce progeny by asymmetric division. Conclusions The asymmetric division in G. trihymene has no precedent among undisturbed free-living ciliates. The coexistence of multiple modes of reproduction may represent a previously undescribed reproductive strategy for ciliates living on food patches in coastal waters. This may also be indicative of similar reproductive strategies among other polyphenic ciliates, which have not been intensively studied. Asymmetric division provides a special opportunity for studying ciliates' phenotypic plasticity and may also illuminate the origins of multicellularity.

  2. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bols, Niels C., E-mail: ncbols@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  3. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  4. The effects of different levels of sodium caseinate on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... composition , total tract apparent digestibility of nutrient, rumen parameters and purine .... (Iran Caseinate Company, ICC Tehran, Iran) that 0, 50 and 100 g/d .... considered to indicate a trend toward significance at 0.05 < P <.

  5. Intake and rumen degradation in cattle fed napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fed napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum ) supplemented with various levels of ... increasing inclusion level of desmodium (74-90 g/kg 0.75) and sweet potato ... Supplementation improved DM degradation but did not change rumen pH.

  6. Report of a case of surgical ciliated cyst in the left maxillary sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Pakravan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surgical ciliated cyst happens as a delayed complication in the maxillary sinus, and is more frequent in Asia in comparison with Western countries. We report a case of surgical ciliated cyst in maxillary sinus in a male patient after 30 years of surgery for sinusitis treatment. The patient had swelling and pain in the region, and his radiographic views showed a cystic lesion. Incisional biopsy was performed and surgical ciliated cyst was reported as diagnosis. Then, Enucleation with curettage was performed for him as treatment.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of methanogens from the bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Robert J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in methanogens from ruminants has resulted from the role of methane in global warming and from the fact that cattle typically lose 6 % of ingested energy as methane. Several species of methanogens have been isolated from ruminants. However they are difficult to culture, few have been consistently found in high numbers, and it is likely that major species of rumen methanogens are yet to be identified. Results Total DNA from clarified bovine rumen fluid was amplified using primers specific for Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of 41 rDNA sequences identified three clusters of methanogens. The largest cluster contained two distinct subclusters with rDNA sequences similar to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium 16S rDNA. A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae, an organism not previously described in the rumen. The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. Conclusions The current set of 16S rRNA hybridization probes targeting methanogenic Archaea does not cover the phylogenetic diversity present in the rumen and possibly other gastro-intestinal tract environments. New probes and quantitative PCR assays are needed to determine the distribution of the newly identified methanogen clusters in rumen microbial communities.

  8. Resistance of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Saunders

    Full Text Available Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrP(c from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrP(Sc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD and scrapie in the environment.

  9. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: report of first case in China and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秀军; 黄迪宇; 梁霄; 虞洪; 李伟; 王先法; 彭淑牖

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and review of literature to introduce the characteristics of this disease for doctors to recognize this disease.Method: Report the clinical procedure of diagnosis and treatment for the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and to review the embryologic genesis, incidence,clinical manifestation, radiologic features and therapeutic principle of this disease. Results: We performed the resection for ciliated hepatic foregut cyst under laparoscopy; the patient recovered well after the procedure. Conclusion: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is quite rare clinically, belongs to non-parasitic,solitary and unilocular cystic lesion, is always less than 4cm in diameter, mostly seen in the left lobe, and has the tendency of malignant change. It should be removed as soon as diagnosed.

  10. Ecology of a heterotrichous ciliate Fabrea salina from salterns of Bombay Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A

    The abundance and population size structure of a heterotrichous ciliate @iFabrea salina@@, was studied in relation to hydrochemical and hydrobiological variables in three hypersaline ponds of Bombay, west coast of India There was a clear seasonal...

  11. Benthic ciliate and meiofaunal communities in two contrasting habitats of an intertidal estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongfen; Xu, Kuidong; Warren, Alan; Lei, Yanli; Dai, Renhai

    2012-05-01

    Annual variations in benthic meiofaunal and ciliated protozoan communities were investigated using monthly samplings from June 2006 to May 2007 in two habitats characterized by different vegetal coverage in an estuarine intertidal wetland of Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay, China. The sediment composition was stable at each site: sediments densely covered with seagrass (Suaeda glauca) in the lower estuarine site (Station S) were finer, with higher content of organic matter, phaeopigments and water than sediments at the upper estuarine site (Station S-P) which was unvegetated other than for patches of S. glauca and common reed (Phragmites australis). Chlorophyll a exhibited a similar distribution in the two habitats. A total of 14 meiofaunal groups, and 249 species of ciliates belonging to 37 genera, 28 families and 16 orders, were isolated from the two sites. Univariate and multivariate measures of the communities were significantly different between the two habitats. There were higher abundances of ciliates and meiofauna, and a greater diversity of ciliates, at Station S than Station S-P (223 vs. 61 species). Herbivorous ciliates were numerically predominant in ciliate communities at both sites. The representative ciliates at Station S-P belonged to the Cyrtophorida and appeared to be a reduced subset of the assemblage at Station S, which was characterized by members of the Prostomatida, Cyrtophorida, Hypotrichida and Scuticociliatida. More than 96% of the total meiofauna were nematodes, accounting for 93% of the differences in the abundance compositions of the meiofaunal communities between habitats. The average individual weights of nematodes were nearly 3 times greater at Station S than Station S-P, indicating a distinctive species composition at each site. Temperature, salinity and food availability were key factors that regulated the ciliate and meiofaunal community structure. Nematodes were the dominant group in terms of the combined abundance, biomass and benthic

  12. Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton in German lakes: Distribution, motility and bacterivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lynn Bickel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and reattachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from one to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate-1 h-1 and 24.33 μl ciliate-1 h-1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations.

  13. Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton in german lakes: distribution, motility, and bacterivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Samantha L; Tang, Kam W; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate(-1) h(-1) and 24.33 μl ciliate(-1) h(-1), respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations.

  14. Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate derived fiber in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate fiber were analyzed to determine intrinsic feed effects and extrinsic ration effects on the retention time of fiber in the rumen. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows (557 + 37 kg body weight, 120 + 21 days in milk, mean + SD), 8 fitted with ruminal cannulas...... fitted to 1 and 2 pool models. Each cow received Yb-labeled fiber of the forage fed in the ration, Sm-labeled fiber of the forage not fed in the ration and concentrate fiber labeled with La, all as a single pulse dose. Nineteen fecal grab samples were taken per cow. Rumen liquid passage was studied using...... Cr-EDTA single pulse dosed into the rumen, followed by sampling of rumen liquid from both, the ventral and medial rumen. Rumen mean retention time did not differ between forages when based on Yb-excretion profiles but was numerically longer for grass silage than corn silage based rations using rumen...

  15. Changes in rumen bacterial community composition following feeding of silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants yield an increase in milk production without increasing fiber digestibility, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that silage treated with a commercial inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum, LP) would improve milk production and would alter rumen bacter...

  16. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  17. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  18. Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Roy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was conducted to examine the modulatory effect of different essential oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using wheat straw based diet (concentrate: wheat straw 50:50. Materials and Methods: Four essential oils i.e. cinnamon, garlic, oregano and rosemary oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/litre (ppm of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique. Total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor. Results: Results indicated that all four essential oils decreased gas production significantly (P<0.05 at 600ppm concentration. However, in case of garlic oil, 300 ppm concentration was also found to be effective in decreasing total gas production. Reduction in methane production was found maximum (P<0.05 at higher doses in most of the oils. Maximum reduction in methane was noticed with garlic oil at 600ppm dose. Ammonia-N concentration was also decreased significantly (P<0.05 with essential oils and was found minimum with oregano oil at 600 ppm dose. Partition factor was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher in 600 ppm concentration of garlic and oregano oil. The degradability of dry matter decreased significantly with higher concentration of essential oil in most of treatment combinations. Conclusion: Supplementation with different essential oils on wheat straw based diet modulates rumen fermentation and reduced methane and ammonia- N production and improved utilization of nutrients.

  19. Determination of succession of rumen bacterial species in nursing beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminants are typically born with a non-functional rumen essentially devoid of microorganisms. The succession of the microbial population in the rumen from birth to animal maturity is of interest due to the key role that the rumen microbial population plays in the overall health and productivity of ...

  20. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: Leading the way in microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not ...

  1. The Effect of Selected Biostimulating Substance on the Degradation in the Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petrášková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cows with the canulla were divided into two groups - experimental and control. One cow was added to experimental product Biopolym FZT, second Biopolym granules. The samples of rumen fluid and feces were analyzed. The growth of microorganisms in the rumen fluid of experimental animals means the possibility of a positive impact of Biopolym on the degradation of feeding the rumen.

  2. Application of nested PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) for the analysis of ciliate communities in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Satoshi; Sambe, Mitsuo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates play important roles as prey and predators in ecosystems. Changes in the ciliate community can affect the composition and population of microfauna and microflora in ecosystems. To investigate the structure of ciliate communities, we developed a nested PCR-DGGE method, which combines a universal eukaryotic-specific primer set in the first PCR step with a ciliate-specific primer set in the second PCR step, to amplify 18S rRNA genes from ciliates. The 300 bp DGGE fragments generated more bands on the gel than the 600 bp DGGE fragments. Prior to bead beating, DNA extraction of ciliates from soil samples was optimized with a combination of freeze-thaw cycles and ultrasonication. We applied this nested PCR-DGGE method to agricultural soils amended with 0, 120, 300, and 600 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ of livestock slurry. The results from the DGGE profiles and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the supplement of slurry to soils influenced the ciliate communities. From phylogenetic analysis, 108 DGGE bands were assigned to six classes, which included Spirotrichea and Colpodea, of the subphylum Intramacronucleata, and one class of the subphylum Postciliodesmatophora. These results indicated that a wide variety of taxonomic groups were detected by DGGE profiling. Thus, the nested PCR-DGGE method described here could clearly differentiate between ciliate communities within soil samples and allowed for the phylogenetic identification of these ciliates at the class level.

  3. Hydrodynamical entrapment of ciliates at the air-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracci, Jonathan; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2012-11-01

    We found the new phenomenon of the entrapment of ciliates at the air-water interface, though they are not trapped by a solid interface. We first characterize the behaviours of cells at the interface by comparing it to those away from interfaces. The results showed that the cell's swimming velocity is considerably reduced at the air-water interface. In order to experimentally verify the possible physiological causes of the entrapment, we observed their behaviours in absence of positive chemotaxis for oxygen and the negative geotaxis. The results illustrated that the entrapment phenomenon was not dependent on these physiological conditions. The experiments using surfactant revealed that the entrapment phenomenon was strongly affected by the velocity-stress conditions at the interface. This fact was confirmed numerically by a boundary element method, i.e. the stress-free condition at the air-liquid interface is one of the main mechanisms of the entrapment phenomenon found in the experiments. Since the entrapment phenomenon found in this study affects the cell-cell interactions and the mass transport at the interface, the knowledge obtained in this study is useful for better understanding the complex behaviours of swimming microorganisms in nature. PhD student in the Physiological Flow Studies Laboratory.

  4. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment. PMID:27079173

  5. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  6. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  7. On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-07-01

    Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal "courtship" dances and contacts. Using simulated "social" trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to "suitors" and "rivals" when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing "harder-to-get" via metabolically wasteful avoidance displays that hinder the exchange of preconjugal touches between "courting" couples. Conversely, prudent savers conserve energy pending situations more favorable for conjugating a partner. These ciliates reply with lower avoidance frequencies, guaranteeing nearby conspecifics of being "easier-to-get". By deciding to switch from behavioral strategies signaling conspicuous consumption to those signaling prudent savings, fitter ciliates learn to altruistically sacrifice net payoffs and persuade suitors to participate in paired reproduction. Less fit ciliates, unable to sustain long periods of high response rates, switch their behavioral strategies of prudent savings to briefly emit conspicuous consumption and thus learn to opportunistically cheat superior rivals. Mating competency depends, in part, on the efficiency of heuristics formed from recursive strategy searches and use. Heuristics represent stored patterns of action which evolve into ordered computational networks supporting entire courting repertoires. As ciliates expand signaling skills over many trials, the connectivity between strategies strengthens from Hebbian-like learning, leading to faster decisions about the appropriateness of courting messages and replies. The best experts master signaling decisions at efficiencies comparable to finding target solutions from superposed states with Grover's quantum search algorithm. I here append these findings with a critique on the feasibility of serial behavioral strategies to

  8. The mitochondrial genomes of the ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Minh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are thousands of very diverse ciliate species from which only a handful mitochondrial genomes have been studied so far. These genomes are rather similar because the ciliates analysed (Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia are closely related. Here we study the mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus. These ciliates are only distantly related to Tetrahymena spp. and Paramecium aurelia, but more closely related to Nyctotherus ovalis, which possesses a hydrogenosomal (mitochondrial genome. Results The linear mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of several Tetrahymena species, Paramecium aurelia and the partially sequenced mitochondrial genome of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis. This study reports new features such as long 5'gene extensions of several mitochondrial genes, extremely long cox1 and cox2 open reading frames and a large repeat in the middle of the linear mitochondrial genome. The repeat separates the open reading frames into two blocks, each having a single direction of transcription, from the repeat towards the ends of the chromosome. Although the Euplotes mitochondrial gene content is almost identical to that of Paramecium and Tetrahymena, the order of the genes is completely different. In contrast, the 33273 bp (excluding the repeat region piece of the mitochondrial genome that has been sequenced in both Euplotes species exhibits no difference in gene order. Unexpectedly, many of the mitochondrial genes of E. minuta encoding ribosomal proteins possess N-terminal extensions that are similar to mitochondrial targeting signals. Conclusion The mitochondrial genomes of the hypotrichous ciliates Euplotes minuta and Euplotes crassus are rather different from the previously studied genomes. Many genes are extended in size compared to mitochondrial

  9. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P Bacillus subtilis natto has the similar function with the live bacteria except for the ratio of acetate and propionate. Except B. fibrisolvens, live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto did not influence or decreased the 16S rRNA gene quantification of the detected bacteria. BSC and BSM altered the relative expression of certain functional bacteria in the rumen. These results indicated that it was Bacillus subtilis natto thalli that played the important role in promoting rumen fermentation when applied as a probiotic in dairy ration.

  10. Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slavov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements, biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

  11. The fate of glycerol entering the rumen of dairy cows and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner Omazic, A; Kronqvist, C; Zhongyan, L; Martens, H; Holtenius, K

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the fate of glycerol entering the rumen, in particular whether glycerol could be absorbed across the rumen epithelium. Three non-lactating rumen-fistulated cows were used to calculate the overall disappearance rate of glycerol in vivo and evaluate the rate of ruminal glycerol absorption. Rumen epithelial tissues isolated from sheep were used to characterise glycerol transport properties. The rate of rumen microbial degradation of glycerol was then studied in an in vitro system under anaerobic and thermo-regulated conditions. The results showed that glycerol can be absorbed from the rumen in significant amounts. The fractional rate of absorption of glycerol was not affected by variations in glycerol concentration in the buffer solution in the in vivo study. The glycerol absorption apparently occurred largely by passive diffusion and was probably not facilitated by carriers. Glycerol also disappeared via microbial digestion and outflow from the rumen through the omasal orifice.

  12. [Lignocellulose degrading bacteria and their genes encoding cellulase/hemicellulase in rumen--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Furong; Zhu, Yaxin; Dong, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lihua; Huang, Li; Dai, Xin

    2010-08-01

    Rumen of ruminant animals is known as a natural reactor involved in highly efficient lignocelluloses degradation. Rumen fibrolytic microbes have attracted an increasing attention for their potential value in biofuel research. Studies on rumen microbes have traditionally entailed the isolation of fibrolytic bacteria and subsequent analysis of fibrolytic enzymes. Developments in genomic and metagenomic approaches have made it possible to isolate directly genes and gene clusters encoding fibrolytic activities from rumen samples, permitting a global analysis of mechanisms of degradation of lignocellulose in rumen. Research in this field shows that lignocellulose degradation in rumen is a complex process involving a number of different microbes and is effected by a huge array of hydrolytic enzymes in a concerted fashion. This review briefly summarizes results from recent studies, especially metagenomic studies, on lignocellulose degradation in rumen.

  13. Involvement of Crawling and Attached Ciliates in the Aggregation of Particles in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Arregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological community in activated sludge wastewater plants is organized within this ecosystem as bioaggregates or flocs, in which the biotic component is embedded in a complex matrix comprised of extracellular polymeric substances mainly of microbial origin. The aim of this work is to study the role of different floc-associated ciliates commonly reported in wastewater treatment plants-crawling Euplotes and sessile Vorticella- in the formation of aggregates. Flocs, in experiments with ciliates and latex beads, showed more compactation and cohesion among particles than those in the absence of ciliates. Ciliates have been shown to contribute to floc formation through different mechanisms such as the active secretion of polymeric substances (extrusomes, their biological activities (movement and feeding strategies, or the cysts formation capacity of some species. Staining with lectins coupled to fluorescein showed that carbohydrate of the matrix contained glucose, manose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and galactose. Protein fraction revealed over the latex beads surfaces could probably be of bacterial origin, but nucleic acids represented an important fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of ciliate origin.

  14. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  15. Are Freshwater Mixotrophic Ciliates Less Sensitive to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation than Heterotrophic Ones?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; SUMMERER, MONIKA; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR. PMID:21414057

  16. Are freshwater mixotrophic ciliates less sensitive to solar ultraviolet radiation than heterotrophic ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Bettina; Summerer, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR.

  17. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  18. [Comparison of ciliate diversity in biodisc reactors which purify industrial wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Pabello, V M; Durán De Bazúa, C; Aladro-Lubel, M A

    1995-01-01

    The comparative study of the ciliate populations present in rotating biological reactors (biodiscs reactors) of 20 l working volume, treating three different wastewaters is the aim of this project. Wastewaters chosen were those of a maize mill, of a sugarcane/ethyl alcohol plant, and of a recycled paper mill. Its dissolved organic contents, measured as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), were 2040 mg COD/l and 585 mg BOD5/l for maize mill effluents (nejayote), 2000 mg COD/l and 640 mg BOD5/l for sugarcane/ethanol effluents (vinasses), and 960 mg COD/l and 120 mg BOD5/l for whitewaters of the paper industry. Results obtained indicate that ciliate proliferate in all chambers of reactors treating these wastewaters. The ciliates were more abundant in vinasses, followed by nejayote, and then whitewaters. Among protozoa, ciliates were present as follows: 19 species in total. Three of them were common for the three systems. Free swimming ciliates were in higher proportion than pedunculated ones. Its diversity was higher for the whitewaters system, next for nejayote, and the lesser, for vinasses, corroborating the fact that less polluted waters have higher organisms' diversity.

  19. Effects of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance and rumen wall characteristics of rosé veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Jarltoft, Terese Christel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance, carcass quality and rumen wall characteristics in rosé veal calf production. Two alternative concentrates (Coarse and Slow) were compared with a traditional (Control...... show a high level of production performance with the three types of pelleted concentrates and indicates that neither the more coarse ingredients nor the additional rumen-escape starch tested, when fed ad libitum, could improve rumen wall characteristics or reduce LAs of rosé veal calves....

  20. Low protein silage associated with rumen impaction in suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-23

    Rumen impaction associated with low protein diets in a suckler cowCampylobacteriosis in suckler cowsPlant toxicity in ewesListerial encephalitis in ewes ITALIC! Chorioptes bovis-associated infertility in ramsThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for January 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  1. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Reduction in methane production increases the efficiency of feed utilization in .... archaea represents a loss of 2% to 12% of gross energy of feeds and ... in the rumen as methane; and 75 to 85 % of the Nitrogen consumed by dairy ..... protozoa; the population of fungi and fibrolytic bacteria were also decreased indicating.

  2. research note disappearance of processed maize grain in the rumen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Key words: Rumen, maize-grain-form, disappearance, dacrutn hag) .... Particle size distibution of maize gain hammermilled through a 6 ... tion feeding level and sex on body cornpositi()n at two live weights. J. Agric. ... R. & (;RHENHAt-GFl, J.F.D., l9ll. ,Alkali treatment as method of processing whole grain for cattle. J. Agrit' ...

  3. Indication of spatial variations in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates to environmental change in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian; Warren, Alan

    2017-03-15

    The indication of spatial variations in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates to environmental changes was studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different hydrographic conditions during a 1-year cycle. The second-stage-matrix-based multivariate approach was used to summarize the internal interactions of the ciliate functional groups among five stations during a 1-year period. The functional groups of the ciliates represented a clear spatial variation in annual cycle among five stations. Mantel analysis demonstrated that the spatial variation in annual cycles of the ciliate functional groups were significantly correlated with the changes nutrients (mainly soluble reactive phosphates and nitrates), alone or in combination with salinity among five stations. Based the results, it is suggested that the spatial variation in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates may indicated the changes of hydrographic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pengaruh Suplemen Katalitik terhadap Karakteristik dan Populasi Mikroba Rumen Domba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Uhi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry season resulted in lower availability of ruminant feeds with subsequent effects on reduction of sheep productivity; therefore nutritive supplement may be required. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of catalytic substrate consisting of gelatinized sago, ammonium sulfate, Co and Zn on the sheep rumen characteristics and its microbial population. Forty lambs with an average live weight of 13 kg were divided into 8 blocks to test 5 feeding treatments. The treatments were feeding low quality forage without supplement (R1, R1 plus catalytic supplement at 10% of ration (R2, 20% (R3, 30% (R4 and a positive control treatment (R0 = R1 + soybean meal. Parameter measurements included rumen pH, ammonia, VFA and microbial population. It was observed that the rumen pH ranging from 6,06 (R1, 6,15 (R2, 6,45 (R4, 6,58 (R3 and 6,85 (R0. The rumen concentrations of ammonia were 5,83 mM (R3, 6,01 mM (R4, 6,35 mM (R2, 8,30 mM (R0 and 9,36 mM (R1 with total volatile fatty acid concentration ranging from 154, 88 mM (R1, 163,70 mM (R2, 180,89 mM (R0, 188,79 mM (R4 and 194,71 mM (R3. Population of rumen bacteri for R3 was 6,09 x 109 cell/ml, which was greater than RO (5,57 x 109 cell/ml, R1 (4,36 x 109 cell/ml, R2 (4,15 x 109 cell/ml, R4 (5,60 x 109 cell/ml, while protozoa R3 (2,59 x 106 cell/ml, was lower than RO (3,51 x 106 cell/ml R1 (5,49 x 106 cell/ml R2 (5,61 x 106 cell/ml R4 (3,31 x 106 cell/ml. Catalytic supplement at 20% of ration (R3 resulted in a normal rumen concentration of ammonia and pH, and increased VFA concentration. It was concluded that catalytic supplement at 20% of ration was the appropriate level for optimal rumen characteristics.

  5. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Dutz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates in live feed cultures can be a pest that lower production yields. This could dramatically affect the management and success of copepod cultures. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ciliate Euplotes sp. on egg production, specific egg production and egg hatching success...... of Acartia tonsa fed with Rhodomonas salina. We found that at a concentration of 2 cells ml-1, Euplotes sp. had no effect on the production and hatching success of eggs but increased/decreased the mortality/quality of non-subitaneous eggs. Euplotes sp. had a good fatty acid profile containing high proportion...

  6. Effect of feeding duration and rumen fill on behaviour in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström; Redbo

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that oral manipulation of feed is a behavioural need in cattle, irrespective of actual rumen load. Twelve rumen fistulated cows were used and subjected to four different treatments: low rumen content+long duration of eating (A), high rumen content+short duration of eating (B), high rumen content+long duration of eating (=positive control) (C) and low rumen content+short duration of eating (=negative control) (D). To obtain treatment A and B, rumen content was transferred by hand from cow A to B through the rumen fistulaes. Each treatment lasted for 3 days with 2 weeks of recovery between each new treatment. The experiment was repeated twice during two consecutive years. All cows were fed the same mixture of silage, concentrate and hay. The cows were videotaped under normal conditions (24h), and on the third day of the experiment. From these videotapes, the behaviours (frequency and duration per 24h) have been analysed.Time spent eating differed between the four treatments (Ptongue-rolling) was longer (Pcattle irrespective of rumen load. A low duration of feeding behaviours combined with a low rumen load, which is a common practice in certain categories of growing cattle or dry dairy cows, seriously impairs the welfare in cattle.

  7. High throughput whole rumen metagenome profiling using untargeted massively parallel sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Elizabeth M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation of microorganism communities in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus is of great interest because of possible links to economically or environmentally important traits, such as feed conversion efficiency or methane emission levels. The resolution of studies investigating this variation may be improved by utilizing untargeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS, that is, sequencing without targeted amplification of genes. The objective of this study was to develop a method which used MPS to generate “rumen metagenome profiles”, and to investigate if these profiles were repeatable among samples taken from the same cow. Given faecal samples are much easier to obtain than rumen fluid samples; we also investigated whether rumen metagenome profiles were predictive of faecal metagenome profiles. Results Rather than focusing on individual organisms within the rumen, our method used MPS data to generate quantitative rumen micro-biome profiles, regardless of taxonomic classifications. The method requires a previously assembled reference metagenome. A number of such reference metagenomes were considered, including two rumen derived metagenomes, a human faecal microflora metagenome and a reference metagenome made up of publically available prokaryote sequences. Sequence reads from each test sample were aligned to these references. The “rumen metagenome profile” was generated from the number of the reads that aligned to each contig in the database. We used this method to test the hypothesis that rumen fluid microbial community profiles vary more between cows than within multiple samples from the same cow. Rumen fluid samples were taken from three cows, at three locations within the rumen. DNA from the samples was sequenced on the Illumina GAIIx. When the reads were aligned to a rumen metagenome reference, the rumen metagenome profiles were repeatable (P  Conclusions We have presented a simple and high throughput method of

  8. Evolution of dispersal and life history strategies – Tetrahymena ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhes Pauline

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has focused on how selection on dispersal and other core life-history strategies (reproductive effort, survival ability, colonization capacity may lead to so-called dispersal syndromes. Studies on genetic variation in these syndromes within species could importantly increase our understanding of their evolution, by revealing whether traits co-vary across genetic lineages in the manner predicted by theoretical models, and by stimulating further hypotheses for experimental testing. Yet such studies remain scarce. Here we studied the ciliated protist Tetrahymena thermophila, a particularly interesting organism due to cells being able to transform into morphs differing dramatically in swim-speed. We investigated dispersal, morphological responses, reproductive performance, and survival in ten different clonal strains. Then, we examined whether life history traits co-varied in the manner classically predicted for ruderal species, examined the investment of different strains into short- and putative long-distance dispersal, while considering also the likely impact of semi-sociality (cell aggregation, secretion of 'growth factors' on dispersal strategies. Results Very significant among-strain differences were found with regard to dispersal rate, morphological commitment and plasticity, and almost all core life-history traits (e.g. survival, growth performance and strategy, with most of these traits being significantly intercorrelated. Some strains showed high short-distance dispersal rates, high colonization capacity, bigger cell size, elevated growth performance, and good survival abilities. These well performing strains, however, produced fewer fast-swimming dispersal morphs when subjected to environmental degradation than did philopatric strains performing poorly under normal conditions. Conclusion Strong evidence was found for a genetic covariation between dispersal strategies and core life history traits

  9. Role and function of short chain fatty acids in rumen epithelial metabolism, development and importance of the rumen epithelium in understanding control of transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epithelial lining of the rumen is uniquely placed to have impact on the nutrient metabolism of the animal. The symbiotic relationship with the microbial populations that inhabit the rumen, serves to provide a constant supply of nutrients from roughage that would otherwise be unusable. Metaboli...

  10. Technical note: Bacterial diversity and fermentation end products in rumen fluid samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge-Ivey, S L; Browne-Silva, J; Horvath, M B

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if sampling rumen contents via a ruminal cannula or oral lavage tube would yield similar denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial community. Two species of ruminally cannulated animals were used for this study (cattle, n = 2; sheep, n = 3). All animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed. Cattle were fed baled unprocessed sorghum-sudan hay (12% CP, 68% NDF; DM basis), whereas sheep were maintained on chopped alfalfa (18% CP, 40% NDF; DM basis). Ruminal fluid was collected (approximately 20 mL) once per week for 3 wk from each animal using a poly tube equipped with a suction strainer with a hand-held suction pump through the rumen cannula or oral cavity. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrates that yield of bacterial diversity was not different between the 2 sampling methods (P = 0.73). When samples were grouped according to band pattern similarity, groups were most stable according to individual animal and species rather than sampling method. Total VFA and molar proportions of individual VFA did not differ by sampling method (P > 0.40). Additionally, rumen ammonia concentrations were similar for both sampling methods (19.3 vs. 19.1 mM +/- 8.0 for cannula vs. lavage, respectively; P = 0.98). These data indicate that rumen samples collected via oral lavage or rumen cannula yield similar results. This knowledge will allow sample collection from a greater population of animals and an ability to maintain the value of research livestock that can be lost due to the surgical implantation of a ruminal cannula.

  11. Cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex as a fluorescent label of surface membranes in living ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Bottiroli, G; Giordano, P

    1981-12-01

    Labelling of surface membrane of living ciliates: Paramecium aurelia and Tetrahymena pyriformis with fluorescent compound--cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex (CDC) has been achieved. Fluorescence micrographs of the dried samples showed specific localization of CDC on the cell membrane without any intracellular penetration. On the contrary the ciliates which have been dead during labelling revealed a non-specific fluorescence of their whole bodies. Microspectrofluorimetric analysis of labelled Paramecium cells was performed with Leitz microspectrograph. Spectrum of fluorescence emission measured over the cell membrane level had maximum at 450 nm. Strikingly, the emission maximum of the cells dead at the moment of labelling was shifted 10 nm to a longer wavelength. The rate of photofading measured in this case was almost 3-fold higher than for the ciliates labelled as living ones. Fluorescence excitation spectra did not show any difference in the peak position. Thus CDC staining appears to be an useful method of supravital labelling of cell surface enabling also to distinguish--on the basis of spectral characteristics--the ciliates being alive from those dead at the moment of fluorochrome binding.

  12. Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB-activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Rossetto, Renato; Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB-activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

  13. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is an important eukaryotic model organism that has been used in pioneering studies of general phenomena, such as ribozymes, telomeres, chromatin structure and genome reorganization. Recent work has shown that Tetrahymena has many classes of small RNA molecules ...

  14. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  15. In situ rumen degradation of amino acids from different feeds corrected for microbial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    González, Javier; Centeno, Carmen; Lamrani, Farida; Rodríguez, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Variations of the amino acid profile produced by rumen actions were established for fish meal (FM), corn grain (CG), corn gluten feed (GF), dehydrated beet pulp (DBP), and lucerne hay (LH), using the nylon bag technique. The effects of degradation of soluble or insoluble proteins were measured by rumen incubations at 0 h (washout value) and 16 h, respectively. Rumen incubations were performed on four cannulated wethers and the microbial contamination of incubated resid...

  16. Research note: investigation on the metabolism of glycerol in the rumen of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijora, C; Bergner, H; Götz, K P; Bartelt, J; Szakács, J; Sommer, A

    1998-01-01

    Two bulls, each fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulas, received (in addition to a hay-grain diet) twice daily an infusion of 200 g glycerol into the rumen over a period of six days. During this preliminary in vivo investigation, the influence of a glycerol application on the rumen environment over a six-day adaptation period was examined. Samples of rumen fluid were collected daily, two hours after glycerol infusion. An additional 15N-urea application into the rumen was given on days 1 (without glycerol infusion), 3 and 7 (with glycerol infusion). Extra samples of rumen fluid and blood plasma (from puncture of vena jungularis) were taken through the 12th hour following urea application. Rumen fluid pH was reduced due to glycerol intake from 6.3 (day 1, without glycerol) to 5.4 by day 7. Molar proportion of acetic acid to propionic acid decreased from 3.5 (day 1) to 2.1 (days 6 and 7). Average glycerol disappearance rate from the rumen was 4.7 gl-1 h-1 for the first hour. Only small amounts of glycerol could be detected in the duodenal digesta. Blood plasma glycerol content was significantly higher after glycerol application (0.061 mmol l-1 vs. 0.019 mmol l-1). The incorporation of 15N into the rumen bacteria and the proportion of bacterial N (as percent of TCA-precipitable N in the rumen fluid) were lower after glycerol influsion. These results, coupled with the lower concentration of iso-acids (isobutyric and isovaleric acids) in the rumen fluid, indicate that the high amount of glycerol infusion (10% of DMI) reduced protein metabolism of rumen bacteria throughout the experimental period.

  17. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Kongmun, Pongthon; Poungchompu, Onanong; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Kaenpakdee, Sujittra

    2012-03-01

    A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and/or saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production. Incorporation and/or supplementation of these plants containing secondary metabolites have potential for improving rumen ecology and subsequently productivity in ruminants.

  18. De novo transcriptomes of a mixotrophic and a heterotrophic ciliate from marine plankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana F Santoferrara

    Full Text Available Studying non-model organisms is crucial in the context of the current development of genomics and transcriptomics for both physiological experimentation and environmental characterization. We investigated the transcriptomes of two marine planktonic ciliates, the mixotrophic oligotrich Strombidium rassoulzadegani and the heterotrophic choreotrich Strombidinopsis sp., and their respective algal food using Illumina RNAseq. Our aim was to characterize the transcriptomes of these contrasting ciliates and to identify genes potentially involved in mixotrophy. We detected approximately 10,000 and 7,600 amino acid sequences for S. rassoulzadegani and Strombidinopsis sp., respectively. About half of these transcripts had significant BLASTP hits (E-value <10-6 against previously-characterized sequences, mostly from the model ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Transcriptomes from both the mixotroph and the heterotroph species provided similar annotations for GO terms and KEGG pathways. Most of the identified genes were related to housekeeping activity and pathways such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and vitamins. Although S. rassoulzadegani can keep and use chloroplasts from its prey, we did not find genes clearly linked to chloroplast maintenance and functioning in the transcriptome of this ciliate. While chloroplasts are known sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS, we found the same complement of antioxidant pathways in both ciliates, except for one enzyme possibly linked to ascorbic acid recycling found exclusively in the mixotroph. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find qualitative differences in genes potentially related to mixotrophy. However, these transcriptomes will help to establish a basis for the evaluation of differential gene expression in oligotrichs and choreotrichs and experimental investigation of the costs and benefits of mixotrophy.

  19. Effects of histamine on ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from guinea pigs nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengwei; Xing, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lei

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through combining high-speed digital microscopy and patch-clamp technology. Ciliated cells were obtained from septum and turbinate of 90-120-day-old healthy male guinea pigs. Tight seal was formed by applying negative pressure on the glass electrode after the drawing and pushing progress. Then, we enrolled high-speed digital microscopy to measure CBF before and after treatment with histamine of different concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol/L in Hank's solution and D-Hank's solution as well as after administrating adenosine triphosphate. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical comparisons. Glass electrode fix up ciliated cell is available at tip diameter of 2-5 μm and negative pressure of 10-20 cmH2O column. The baseline CBF in Hank's solution was higher than in D-Hank's solution. Treatment with 10(-6)-l0(-3) mol/L histamine of concentrations can stimulate a rise of CBF. Nevertheless, CBF in all groups decreased to baseline CBF within 20 min. Generally, 10(-2) mol/L histamine can stimulate a rise of CBF; meanwhile, the high concentration of histamine killed 50% ciliated cell. Histamine at 10(-1) mol/L killed all ciliated cells. Ciliary beating activity decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution. Moreover, adenosine triphosphate could increase CBF effectively after the stimulation effect of histamine. We construct an effective technology integrating patch-clamp technique with CBF measurements on ciliated cells. Extracellular histamine stimulation could increase CBF effectively.

  20. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  1. Relationship between chemical composition and in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize silages in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; van Duinkerken, G; Cone, J W; Klop, A; Blok, M C; Spek, J W; Bruinenberg, M H; Hendriks, W H

    2014-11-01

    Several in situ studies have been conducted on maize silages to determine the effect of individual factors such as maturity stage, chop length and ensiling of maize crop on the rumen degradation but the information on the relationship between chemical composition and in situ rumen degradation characteristics remains scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine and describe relationships between the chemical composition and the rumen degradation characteristics of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), CP, starch and aNDFom (NDF assayed with a heat stable amylase and expressed exclusive of residual ash) of maize silages. In all, 75 maize silage samples were selected, with a broad range in chemical composition and quality parameters. The samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 72 and 336 h, using the nylon bag technique. Large range was found in the rumen degradable fractions of DM, OM, CP, starch and aNDFom because of the broad range in chemical composition and quality parameters. The new database with in situ rumen degradation characteristics of DM, OM, CP, starch and aNDFom of the maize silages was obtained under uniform experimental conditions; same cows, same incubation protocol and same chemical analysis procedures. Regression equations were developed with significant predictors (P<0.05) describing moderate and weak relationships between the chemical composition and the washout fraction, rumen undegradable fraction, potentially rumen degradable fraction, fractional degradation rate and effective rumen degradable fraction of DM, OM, CP, starch and aNDFom.

  2. Effects of early feeding on the host rumen transcriptome and bacterial diversity in lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Chong; Li, Fadi; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Liu, Ting; Nian, Fang; Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Fei; Pan, Xiangyu; La, Yongfu; Mo, Futao; Wang, Fangbin; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Early consumption of starter feed promotes rumen development in lambs. We examined rumen development in lambs fed starter feed for 5 weeks using histological and biochemical analyses and by performing high-throughput sequencing in rumen tissues. Additionally, rumen contents of starter feed-fed lambs were compared to those of breast milk-fed controls. Our physiological and biochemical findings revealed that early starter consumption facilitated rumen development, changed the pattern of ruminal fermentation, and increased the amylase and carboxymethylcellulase activities of rumen micro-organisms. RNA-seq analysis revealed 225 differentially expressed genes between the rumens of breast milk- and starter feed-fed lambs. These DEGs were involved in many metabolic pathways, particularly lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and included HMGCL and HMGCS2. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that ruminal bacterial communities were more diverse in breast milk-than in starter feed-fed lambs, and each group had a distinct microbiota. We conclude that early starter feeding is beneficial to rumen development and physiological function in lambs. The underlying mechanism may involve the stimulation of ruminal ketogenesis and butanoate metabolism via HMGCL and HMGCS2 combined with changes in the fermentation type induced by ruminal microbiota. Overall, this study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of rumen development in sheep. PMID:27576848

  3. Characterization of rumen bacterial strains isolated from enrichments of rumen content in the presence of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Sílvia Cristina; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Forano, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Propolis presents many biological properties, including antibacterial activities, and has been proposed as an additive in ruminant nutrition. Twenty bacterial strains, previously isolated from enrichments of Brazilian cow rumen contents in the presence of different propolis extracts (LLOS), were characterized using phenotyping and 16S rRNA identification. Seven strains were assigned to Streptococcus sp., most likely S. bovis, and were all degrading starch. One amylolytic lactate-utilizing strain of Selenomonas ruminantium was also found. Two strains of Clostridium bifermentans were identified and showed proteolytic activity. Two strains were assigned to Mitsuokella jalaludinii and were saccharolytic. One strain belonged to a Bacillus species and seven strains were affiliated with Escherichia coli. All of the 20 strains were able to use many sugars, but none of them were able to degrade the polysaccharides carboxymethylcellulose and xylans. The effect of three propolis extracts (LLOS B1, C1 and C3) was tested on the in vitro growth of four representative isolates of S. bovis, E. coli, M. jalaludinii and C. bifermentans. The growth of S. bovis, E. coli and M. jalaludinii was not affected by the three propolis extracts at 1 mg ml(-1). C. bifermentans growth was completely inhibited at this LLOS concentration, but this bacterium was partially resistant at lower concentrations. LLOS C3, with the lower concentration of phenolic compounds, was a little less inhibitory than B1 and C1 on this strain.

  4. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgavi, Diego P.; Rahahao-Paris, Estelle; Popova, Milka

    2015-01-01

    and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted) that differentially restricted...... the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult...... sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure...

  5. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods of rumen microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Rivera, Gabriela; Vargas-Cabrera, Yevani; González-Silva, Napoleón; Aguilera-García, Florentino; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Ernestina; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor Manuel; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan José

    2013-02-01

    The dynamism of microbial populations in the rumen has been studied with molecular methods that analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of ribosomal RNA gene fragments (rDNA). Therefore DNA of good quality is needed for this kind of analysis. In this work we report the evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols (mechanical lysis or chemical lysis with CTAB, ethylxanthogenate or DNAzol(®)) from ruminal fluid. The suitability of two of these protocols (mechanical lysis and DNAzol(®)) was tested on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of rDNA of rumen microbial populations. DNAzol(®) was a simple method that rendered good integrity, yield and purity. With this method, subtle changes in protozoan populations were detected in young bulls fed with slightly different formulations of a supplement of multinutritional blocks of molasses and urea. Sequences related to Eudiplodinium maggi and a non-cultured Entodiniomorphid similar to Entodinium caudatum, were related to major fluctuating populations in an SSCP assay.

  6. Volatile compounds in the thermoplastic extrusion of bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Conti e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of raw and extruded bovine rumen, extracted by dynamic headspace, were separated by gas chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS. Raw and extruded materials presented thirty-two volatile compounds. The following compounds were identified in raw bovine rumen: heptane, 1-heptene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, hexanal, ethyl butyrate, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, heptanal, limonene, nonanal, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane and octadecane. The following compounds were identified in the extruded material: 1-heptene, 2,4-dimethylhexane, toluene, limonene, undecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane, octadecane and nonadecane. Mass spectra of some unidentified compounds indicated the presence of hydrocarbons with branched chains or cyclic structure.

  7. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. {sup 32} P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  8. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, G.; Cox, F.; Ganesh, S.; Jonker, A.; Young, W.; Janssen, P.H.; Bannink, A.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was

  10. Milk yield and composition, body condition, rumen characteristics, and blood metabolites of dairy cows fed diet supplemented with palm oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirovski, Danijela; Blond, Bojan; Katić, Marko; Marković, Radmila; Šefer, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplement of palm oil on milk production, milk composition, rumen characteristics, and metabolic variables of early lactating dairy cows...

  11. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study origanum oil (ORO, garlic oil (GAO, and peppermint oil (PEO were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L, on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P≤0.05 in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P≤0.05 correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria.

  12. SEVILLA and U.M. LUSTRIA. 2006. Changes in rumen ecosystem and feed dry matter degradability of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle through cross inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Pamungkas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done to identify changes in rumen ecosystem of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle. As much as three head of fistulated male buffaloes (live weight of 450-550 kg and three fistulated female cattle (live weight 250-380 kg were used. This experiment was done three stage as follows: pre-inoculation, inoculation and post-inoculation. In Pre-inoculation, the sample of rumen content was taken two hours before morning feeding and directly observed for pH rumen liquor, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and total volatile fatty acid (VFA. During the last three days of the first week of pre and post inoculation, the in situ dry matter digestibility was conducted. The samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours in the rumen of the experimental animals. Napier grass, leucaena, and wheat pollard were incubated separately in the nylon bags to determine DM digestibility. The cross inoculation (total of rumen content was done less than 10 minutes. In post-inoculation, the sample of rumen content was taken at two hours before morning feeding as long as two days of two weeks after inoculation. Changes in rumen ecosystem (pH, NH3-N and total VFA were tested by using Completely Randomized Design. Result showed that the transfer of rumen content from cattle to buffalo significantly reduced the pH level in the rumen of buffalo. However, it had no significant effect on the ammonia concentration in the rumen of buffalo and showed significantly decreased of bacteria but it was not affect on the total count of protozoa and fungi. The transfer of rumen content from cattle to buffalo significantly decreased the value of insoluble and potential digestible fraction of leucaena. The DM effective degradability of Napier grass was significantly increase (P<0.05 within outflow rate 0.02 and 0.04 h-1 after cross inoculation. In wheat pollard, a significantly decrease (P<0.05 was occurred when outflow rate was observed at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 h

  13. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  14. Colonization of periphytic ciliated protozoa on an artificial substrate in mariculture waters with notes on responses to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiqiu Li; Henglong Xu; Xiaofeng Lin; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Colonization of periphytic ciliates and their usefulness for monitoring water quality were evaluated using the glass slide method in two enclosed mariculture ponds used to culture crab larva and in a natural seawater reservoir. The results revealed that (1) the ciliate species composition and colonizing process differed between the culturing ponds and the natural reservoir and (2) the dominant ciliate species showed a greater distribution in terms of both the abundance and the occurrence frequency. This study also demonstrated that structural parameters were strongly related to water conditions. For example, the abundance was positively associated with NO-3-N and soluble reactive phosphate (P < 0.05), whereas the species number, species diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with nutrients (e.g. NO-3N and NH3-N) and temperature (P < 0.05). These findings support the evidence that periphytic ciliates are useful bioindicators of water quality in enclosed mariculture ecosystems.

  15. Níveis de proteína degradável para novilhas em crescimento sobre a concentração de protozoários ciliados e outros parâmetros ruminais Levels of degradable protein given to heifers for the ciliate protozoa concentration and other ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Balcells

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Em um ensaio de controle de parâmetros ruminais (pH, ritmo de trânsito (%h, volume ruminal (l, e concentração de protozoários ciliados, foram utilizadas quatro novilhas Holstein, canuladas no rúmen e duodeno, recebendo dietas com 4 níveis de proteína degradável, sem suplementar ou suplementadas com 25, 50 e 75 gramos de proteína degradável por quilo de concentrado em forma de uréia e caseína (98,2 e 93,2% de matéria orgânica e proteína bruta, respectivamente. As rações experimentais foram compostas por 25% de palha de cevada sem tratar e 75% de concentrado formulado em base a diferentes proporções (25/75 e 75/25 de milho/cevada, com 5% de resíduo de trigo e 5% de suplemento vitamínico mineral. Uma contínua infusão de marcador de fluxo de fase líquida (Cr-EDTA foi executada. Os oito tratamentos experimentais (2 dietas x 4 níveis de infusão foram administrados em 8 períodos de balanço em um delineamento cross-over, em esquema fatorial. O nível de infusão de N degradável afetou de forma significativa os valores médios ponderados de pH, que decresceram ao aumentar a suplementação (p 3/mL que de cevada (59,5 x 103/mL; p Entodinium alcançou 87,8% da população total. O gênero Epidinium apresentou menores valores com a dieta de cevada (3,73 vs. 1,89x103/mL, p 3/mL, p 5/mL, p In this experiment four Holstein heifers fitted with rumen and duodenum canulae were utilized to evaluate the rumen parameters as pH, passage rate (%/h, volume (L and ciliated protozoa concentration, when fed diets with four levels of rumen degradable protein. This was achieved supplementing 0, 25, 50 or 75 grams of degradable protein per kg of concentrate as a urea and casein (98.2% OM and 93.2% CP. The diets had 25% of barley straw without treatment and 75% concentrate formulated to contain different proportions (25/75 and 75/25 of corn and barley and also 5% of wheat residue and 5% of mineral and vitamin supplement. A continuous infusion of

  16. Evaluation of Blood-Rumen content Mixture in the diets of starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Blood-Rumen content Mixture in the diets of starter chicks. ... weeks to determine the optimum level of inclusion of Blood-Rumen content Mixture ... to the high crude fiber content and possible amino acid imbalance of such diets.

  17. Characterization of differentially expressed genes in calf rumen epithelium in response to weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen grows to represent from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, directly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion...

  18. Hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate does not reduce rumen lipopolysacharide concentrations in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Everts, H.; Vlaeminck, B.; Doekes, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) to reduce the concentrations of free lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid of cows was investigated. Six, rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry cows were randomly assigned to three experimental rations in a study with

  19. Temporal dynamics of the metabolically active rumen bacteria colonizing fresh perennial ryegrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huws, Sharon A.; Edwards, Joan E.; Creevey, Christopher J.; Stevens, Pauline Rees; Lin, Wanchang; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pachebat, Justin A.; Kingston-Smith, Alison H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated successional colonization of fresh perennial ryegrass (PRG) by the rumen microbiota over time. Fresh PRG was incubated in sacco in the rumens of three Holstein × Friesian cows over a period of 8 h, with samples recovered at various times. The diversity of attached bacteria

  20. Shorten fungal treatment of lignocellulosic waste with additives to improve rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Selective lignin degrading fungi can be used as pre-treatment to make cellulose in plant cell walls accessible for rumen microbes. According to previous studies, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes can increase the in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in 7 to 8 weeks.

  1. Modelling volatile fatty acid dynamics and rumen function in lactating cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical models are developed to quantity and integrate the various processes involved with rumen fermentation. Three extant mechanistic models of rumen fermentation were studied (Baldwin et al., Danfær and Dijkstra et al.), each with a truly dynamic representation but different conceptual appro

  2. Pilot study to monitor body temperature of dairy cows with a rumen bolus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, A.H.; Goense, D.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Roest, H.I.J.

    2008-01-01

    A bolus containing a mote (temperature sensor, processor and radio) was placed in the rumen of a fistulated cow to monitor body temperature. Rumen temperature was measured every minute and stored in the internal buffer of the mote. The measured temperature was also transmitted to a base station by

  3. Metagenomic insights into RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, genes and biological pathways responsible for the biochemical processes in the rumen have yet to be character...

  4. In vitro fermentation of corn silage using rumen fluid buffered or not and different sample amounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Homem Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methodological variations in the amount of sample incubated and the type of rumen fluid used are commonly observed. This study evaluated the effect of three sample amounts (0.6, 1.3 or 2.6g DM 100mL-1 of rumen fluid incubated in rumen fluid buffered (BRF-buffered rumen fluid or not (PRF-pure rumen fluid on total gas volume (TV, methane (CH4 production, dry matter degradation (DM Deg and final pH of corn silage incubated in vitro. The highest DM Deg was reached with the lowest amounts of sample (0.6 and 1.3g of DM 100mL-1 of rumen fluid. The sample amount of 2.6g associated with PRF reduced CH4 production (P0.05. The use of BRF caused no effect on CH4 production (P>0.05, independent of the sample amount. Increasing the amount of substrate resulted in lower final pH of incubation in both fluids (P<0.05. Our results indicate that incubations should be performed with the smallest amount of sample (0.6g of DM 100mL-1 of rumen fluid, using fluid without buffer. Incubation without buffer solution overestimates the CH4 production of corn silage. Further studies should be conducted to verify the possibility of in vitro ruminal incubation of other ingredients using pure rumen fluid.

  5. Measurement of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in serum, plasma, and rumen fluid from sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies involving the consumption, metabolism, and elimination of terpenes by small ruminants consuming terpene-laden shrubs as well as those exploring the potential for natural products as rumen modifiers could benefit from a procedure that measures terpenes in both blood and rumen fluid and that i...

  6. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high-altitude warm-monomictic saline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestová, Dana; Macek, Miroslav; Elena Martínez Pérez, María

    2008-02-01

    The impact of feeding on autotrophic picoplankton (APP) on the ciliate composition of the assemblage was surveyed monthly along a depth gradient in the maar crater, athalassohaline, warm monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico) from June 2003 to December 2005. Numbers of APP were evaluated from their autofluorescence. DAPI staining and the Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria technique were employed to count ciliates and estimate their feeding rates. A total of 38 taxa of ciliates have been identified using Quantitative Protargol Staining. Peritrichs followed by minute spirotrichs (particularly Halteria grandinella) often numerically dominated the ciliate assemblage and emerged as the most efficient APP feeders. A maximum of 54 ciliate cells ml(-1) was observed in the surface layer at the end of the mixing period, during the development of diatoms (Cyclotella alchichicana), the cyanobacterial bloom (Nodularia sp.) and its decay. Vorticellids (Pelagovorticella natans, Vorticella sp.) had the highest APP uptake (median 130 APP cil(-1) h(-1)). Mixotrophic Euplotes cf. daidaleos were important APP grazers near the oxycline. Scuticociliates (Cyclidium glaucoma, Uronema nigricans and an anaerobic cf. Isocyclidium globossum), were numerically dominant within the hypolimnetic assemblages and did not ingest APP. Generally, APP were not an important food source for the majority of the ciliate assemblage, being positively selected by a few species during the APP decay in aerobic and microaerobic conditions.

  7. The bacterivory of interstitial ciliates in association with bacterial biomass and production in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Sascha; Cleven, Ernst-Josef

    2007-07-01

    Rates of bacteria ingestion by interstitial ciliates were estimated and compared to bacterial biomass and production. Investigation was carried out in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream. FISH was applied to quantitatively determine bacteria within the ciliate's food vacuoles. To estimate bacteria ingestion rates using FISH, we had to strike a new path. When numbers of bacteria in the food vacuoles remains constant with time (bacterial digestion and ingestion are at equilibrium), ingestion rate can be estimated based on the digestion time and the average number of bacteria per cell. Ciliate community was predominantly composed of bacterivorous ciliates. FISH-signals deriving from ingested bacteria were detected in Cinetochilum margaritaceum, 'other small scuticociliates', Pleuronema spp., and Vorticella spp. Ingestion rates for these taxa were 78, 150, 86, and 38 bacteria ind(-1) h(-1), respectively. The grazing impacts on bacterial biomass and carbon production were calculated based on these ingestion rates. Ciliate grazing caused a decrease in bacterial biomass of 0.024% day(-1) and in bacterial carbon production of 1.60%. These findings suggest that interstitial ciliate grazing impact on bacteria biomass and production was too low to represent an important link in the carbon flow of the hyporheic zone under study.

  8. Beyond the "Code": A Guide to the Description and Documentation of Biodiversity in Ciliated Protists (Alveolata, Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alan; Patterson, David J; Dunthorn, Micah; Clamp, John C; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Aescht, Erna; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Carr, Martin; Day, John G; Dellinger, Marc; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Fan, Yangbo; Gao, Feng; Gao, Shan; Gong, Jun; Gupta, Renu; Hu, Xiaozhong; Kamra, Komal; Langlois, Gaytha; Lin, Xiaofeng; Lipscomb, Diana; Lobban, Christopher S; Luporini, Pierangelo; Lynn, Denis H; Ma, Honggang; Macek, Miroslav; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline; Makhija, Seema; Mansergh, Robert I; Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; McMiller, Nettie; Montagnes, David J S; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Ong'ondo, Geoffrey Odhiambo; Pérez-Uz, Blanca; Purushothaman, Jasmine; Quintela-Alonso, Pablo; Rotterová, Johana; Santoferrara, Luciana; Shao, Chen; Shen, Zhuo; Shi, Xinlu; Song, Weibo; Stoeck, Thorsten; La Terza, Antonietta; Vallesi, Adriana; Wang, Mei; Weisse, Thomas; Wiackowski, Krzysztof; Wu, Lei; Xu, Kuidong; Yi, Zhenzhen; Zufall, Rebecca; Agatha, Sabine

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have revolutionized research on all aspects of the biology of organisms, including ciliates, and created unprecedented opportunities for pursuing a more integrative approach to investigations of biodiversity. However, this goal is complicated by large gaps and inconsistencies that still exist in the foundation of basic information about biodiversity of ciliates. The present paper reviews issues relating to the taxonomy of ciliates and presents specific recommendations for best practice in the observation and documentation of their biodiversity. This effort stems from a workshop that explored ways to implement six Grand Challenges proposed by the International Research Coordination Network for Biodiversity of Ciliates (IRCN-BC). As part of its commitment to strengthening the knowledge base that supports research on biodiversity of ciliates, the IRCN-BC proposes to populate The Ciliate Guide, an online database, with biodiversity-related data and metadata to create a resource that will facilitate accurate taxonomic identifications and promote sharing of data. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Molecular evidence that phylogenetically diverged ciliates are active in microbial mats of deep-sea cold-seep sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Kakizoe, Natsuki; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Cold seeps are areas of the seafloor where hydrogen sulfide- and methane-rich fluid seepage occurs, often sustaining chemosynthetic ecosystems. It is well known that both archaea and bacteria oxidize sulfides and methane to produce chemical energy and that several endemic animals use this energy to thrive in cold seeps. On the other hand, there is little knowledge regarding diversity and ecology of microbial eukaryotes in this ecosystem. In this study we isolated environmental RNA and DNA from microbial mats of cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan, and retrieved eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences with polymerase chain reaction methods followed by clone library construction. Most RNA-derived clones obtained were from ciliates, although DNA-derived clones were mainly from the fungus Cryptococcus curvatus, suggesting that ciliates are active in the environment. The ciliate sequences were phylogenetically diverse, and represented eight known class lineages as well as undesignated lineages. Because most ciliates are bacterivorous, it is highly likely that the ciliates for which sequences were recovered play a role in the food web of this ecosystem as grazers of microbial mats. In addition, given that the environment studied is under highly reduced (anoxic) conditions, based on the prokaryotic community structure deduced from T-RFLP profiles, the ciliates detected may be obligatory or facultative anaerobes.

  10. Necessity Is the Mother of Invention: Ciliates, Transposons, and Transgenerational Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah E; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    Ciliates are a fascinating model system for the study of the interaction between eukaryotic germlines and somatic lines, especially with regard to the invasion and defence against transposable elements. They separate their germline and somatic line into two nuclei within the same cell, and they silence transposons and repetitive elements by way of deleting them from their somatic genome. This large-scale deletion event uses a series of intricate sequence targeting pathways involving small RNAs and transposases, part of which consists of a transnuclear comparison between maternal soma and daughter germline. We present recent progress in this dynamic field, and argue that these DNA targeting pathways provide an optimal system for the transgenerational inheritance of acquired traits. Ciliates thus also demonstrate the evolutionary value of transposable elements, both as sources of sequence diversity and also as drivers of adaptive evolution by necessitating defensive systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dependence of reproductive rate on cell size and temperature in freshwater ciliated protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Reproductive rates have been calculated for ten species of ciliated protozoa in defined conditions. Interspecific double log regressions of generation time vs. cell volume have been computed at each of three temperatures (8.5/sup 0/C, 15/sup 0/C, and 20/sup 0/C) indicating a significant dependence of reproductive rate on cell size. Recorded generation times varied from 6.38 h in Vorticella microstoma at 20/sup 0/C to 1004 h in Spirostomum teres at 8.5/sup 0/C. These values correspond to a range in r/sub m/ (day)/sup -1/ of 2.607 to 0.017 and lambda (day)/sup -1/ of 13.554 to 1.017. The relationship between these data and similar published data for marine ciliates is examined and the value of such regressions in ecological studies of the protozoa is discussed.

  12. Ciliated foregut cyst of the pancreas: another differential in the diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Soumil; Luong, Tu Vinh; Yu, Dominic; Rahman, Sakhanat

    2014-11-28

    With the more frequent use of cross sectional imaging, the detection of cystic pancreatic incidentalomas has become a relatively common entity. The commonest cystic incidentalomas are neoplastic. Pseudocysts are the most single common pathological entity. Foregut cystic lesions as a pathological entity are rare but mostly observed in the mediastinum. Ciliated foregut cysts of the pancreas are very rare and an extremely uncommon cause of a cystic lesion within the pancreas. We present herewith an uncommon case of a large cystic lesion, confirmed as a ciliated foregut cyst on final histology arising from the body and tail of the pancreas. The lesion was very effectively treated with a laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. The rarity of the lesion makes the case worth reporting.

  13. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    Full Text Available Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates. Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems.

  14. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley Clark

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by rivals and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via power or refrigeration cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and nonmodal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  15. First report on the colony-forming freshwater ciliate Ophrydium versatile in an African river

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available if this is evaluated on chlorophyll content alone (Hecky and Kling, 1981; Amblard et al., 1993). However, freshwater ciliated protozoa that form sessile colonies are relatively rare, especially species that possess photosynthetic cells. The species O. versatile (O... not previously been reported from Africa and little is known of its distribution in rivers or its relationship with the limnological features of rivers. Both phytoplankton and protozoa include acellular organ- isms that live close to minimal conditions...

  16. Assessing mariculture water quality with the structural and functional characteristics of a ciliate community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiqiu; XU Henglong; LIN Xiaofeng; AL-RASHEID Khaled A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in micro-ecosystems, especially in marine biotopes. However, few studies have been carried out on the periphytic, or aufwuch, forms in mariculture waters so far. In this study, we sampled periphytic ciliate communities in two closed mariculture ponds (ponds CP1 and CP2) and a natural seawater reservoir (pond RP) using a glass slide method to evaluate their colonizing processes and general ecological features, as well as their application as water quality indicators. We analyzed species compositions, structural parameters (species number, richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and dBP) and functional parameters (G, Seq, and T90%). Pond RP was characterized by higher levels of structural parameters (except for abundance and dBp) and more equal proportion of the major taxonomic groups. The values of 5eq were significantly higher in pond RP and similar in both pond CP1 and CP2. It was also demonstrated that environmental factors, including NO2-H, NO3-H, NH3-H, soluble reactive phosphate, temperature and pH, were the first principal factors affecting the communities. Among them, temperature and chemical factors were all significantly and negatively correlated with species number (P<0.01), richness (P<0.01), diversity (P<0.01), and positive correlated with abundance (P<0.01). Opposite correlations between pH and structural parameters were observed. This study showed that there were significant differences in species composition, structural parameters and functional parameters of the periphytic ciliate communities among the ponds, which were in agreement with the water quality. Results of this study confirmed the periphytic ciliate communities to be useful bioindicators of water quality in intensive mariculture waters.

  17. Morphological Studies on the Infraciliature of a Planktonic Ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis (Ciliophora: Tintinina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A poorly-described marine planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, collected from the Taiping Cape of Qingdao, China, was morphologically investigated based on permanent preparation after protargol impregnation and was compared with other related congeners. According to the infraciliature, three ciliary groups can be recognized, which reveals a very stable structure among specimens and denotes that the pattern of infraciliature is, apart from the features of the lorica, a highly reliable criterion for species identification.

  18. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  19. Chloroplast symbiosis in a marine ciliate: ecophysiology and the risks and rewards of hosting foreign organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, George B; Schoener, Donald M; Haberlandt, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous use of both heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolism ("mixotrophy") is common among protists. Strombidium rassoulzadegani is a planktonic mixotrophic marine ciliate that saves chloroplasts from its algal food and obtains a nutritional subsidy via photosynthesis. Cultures from the northeast, northwest, and southwest Atlantic Ocean show similar numerical response parameters (maximum growth rate, food concentration at which growth is half its maximum, and threshold food concentration for growth), and some isolates have been maintained in vitro for over 3 years. This ciliate grows equally well when fed on the green alga Tetraselmis chui (strain PLY429) or the cryptophyte Rhodomonas lens (strain RHODO). It appears to be an obligate mixotroph, requiring both food and light to achieve positive growth, when feeding on either of these algae. However, it has also been grown for several weeks (>10 generations) heterotrophically on the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (strain EXUV) during which it grows better in dark than in light. In this paper, we review the ecology of S. rassoulzadegani, discuss some aspects of its photo- and feeding physiology, and speculate on benefits and costs to the ciliate of chloroplast symbiosis.

  20. Ciliates and the rare biosphere-community ecology and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Application of deep sequencing technologies to environmental samples and some detailed morphological studies suggest that there is a vast, yet unexplored rare ciliate biosphere, tentatively defined in terms of operational taxonomic units. However, very few studies complemented molecular and phylogenetic data with morphological and ecological descriptions of the species inventory. This is mainly because the sampling effort increases strongly with decreasing species abundance. In spite of this limited knowledge, it is clear that species that are rare under certain environmental conditions (temporal rare biosphere) may become abundant when the physical, chemical, and biological variables of their habitat change. Furthermore, some species may always be present in low numbers if their dispersal rates are exceedingly high (accidental rare biosphere). An intriguing question is whether there are some species that are always rare, i.e., in every suitable environment. This permanent rare biosphere is conceptually different from the temporal rare biosphere. This review characterizes typical aquatic habitats of the rare ciliate biosphere, portrays different scenarios under which some or even many species may be permanently rare (background fauna), and identifies some fundamental questions that need to be addressed to achieve a better understanding of the population dynamics of the rare ciliate biosphere.

  1. Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Wolfgang; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Schiftner, Uwe; Quesada, Antonio; Cynan Ellis-Evans, J

    2007-02-01

    Ciliate diversity was investigated in situ in freshwater ecosystems of the maritime (South Shetland Islands, mainly Livingston Island, 63 degrees S) and continental Antarctic (Victoria Land, 75 degrees S), and the High Arctic (Svalbard, 79 degrees N). In total, 334 species from 117 genera were identified in both polar regions, i.e. 210 spp. (98 genera) in the Arctic, 120 spp. (73 genera) in the maritime and 59 spp. (41 genera) in the continental Antarctic. Forty-four species (13% of all species) were common to both Arctic and Antarctic freshwater bodies and 19 spp. to both Antarctic areas (12% of all species). Many taxa are cosmopolitans but some, e.g. Stentor and Metopus spp., are not, and over 20% of the taxa found in any one of the three areas are new to science. Cluster analysis revealed that species similarity between different biotopes (soil, moss) within a study area was higher than between similar biotopes in different regions. Distinct differences in the species composition of freshwater and terrestrial communities indicate that most limnetic ciliates are not ubiquitously distributed. These observations and the low congruence in species composition between both polar areas, within Antarctica and between high- and temperate-latitude water bodies, respectively, suggest that long-distance dispersal of limnetic ciliates is restricted and that some species have a limited geographical distribution.

  2. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost.

  3. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Unfolding Thermodynamics of Cysteine-Rich Proteins and Molecular Thermal-Adaptation of Marine Ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cazzolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii and mesophilic (E. raikovi protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones.

  5. Lethal giant larvae 2 regulates development of the ciliated organ Kupffer's vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Hwee Goon; Schulze, Sabrina K; Compagnon, Julien; Foley, Fiona C; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Yost, H Joseph; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2013-04-01

    Motile cilia perform crucial functions during embryonic development and throughout adult life. Development of organs containing motile cilia involves regulation of cilia formation (ciliogenesis) and formation of a luminal space (lumenogenesis) in which cilia generate fluid flows. Control of ciliogenesis and lumenogenesis is not yet fully understood, and it remains unclear whether these processes are coupled. In the zebrafish embryo, lethal giant larvae 2 (lgl2) is expressed prominently in ciliated organs. Lgl proteins are involved in establishing cell polarity and have been implicated in vesicle trafficking. Here, we identified a role for Lgl2 in development of ciliated epithelia in Kupffer's vesicle, which directs left-right asymmetry of the embryo; the otic vesicles, which give rise to the inner ear; and the pronephric ducts of the kidney. Using Kupffer's vesicle as a model ciliated organ, we found that depletion of Lgl2 disrupted lumen formation and reduced cilia number and length. Immunofluorescence and time-lapse imaging of Kupffer's vesicle morphogenesis in Lgl2-deficient embryos suggested cell adhesion defects and revealed loss of the adherens junction component E-cadherin at lateral membranes. Genetic interaction experiments indicate that Lgl2 interacts with Rab11a to regulate E-cadherin and mediate lumen formation that is uncoupled from cilia formation. These results uncover new roles and interactions for Lgl2 that are crucial for both lumenogenesis and ciliogenesis and indicate that these processes are genetically separable in zebrafish.

  6. Lethal giant larvae 2 regulates development of the ciliated organ Kupffer’s vesicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Hwee Goon; Schulze, Sabrina K.; Compagnon, Julien; Foley, Fiona C.; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Yost, H. Joseph; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Amack, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Motile cilia perform crucial functions during embryonic development and throughout adult life. Development of organs containing motile cilia involves regulation of cilia formation (ciliogenesis) and formation of a luminal space (lumenogenesis) in which cilia generate fluid flows. Control of ciliogenesis and lumenogenesis is not yet fully understood, and it remains unclear whether these processes are coupled. In the zebrafish embryo, lethal giant larvae 2 (lgl2) is expressed prominently in ciliated organs. Lgl proteins are involved in establishing cell polarity and have been implicated in vesicle trafficking. Here, we identified a role for Lgl2 in development of ciliated epithelia in Kupffer’s vesicle, which directs left-right asymmetry of the embryo; the otic vesicles, which give rise to the inner ear; and the pronephric ducts of the kidney. Using Kupffer’s vesicle as a model ciliated organ, we found that depletion of Lgl2 disrupted lumen formation and reduced cilia number and length. Immunofluorescence and time-lapse imaging of Kupffer’s vesicle morphogenesis in Lgl2-deficient embryos suggested cell adhesion defects and revealed loss of the adherens junction component E-cadherin at lateral membranes. Genetic interaction experiments indicate that Lgl2 interacts with Rab11a to regulate E-cadherin and mediate lumen formation that is uncoupled from cilia formation. These results uncover new roles and interactions for Lgl2 that are crucial for both lumenogenesis and ciliogenesis and indicate that these processes are genetically separable in zebrafish. PMID:23482490

  7. Assessing mariculture water quality with the structural and functional characteristics of a ciliate community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqiu; Xu, Henglong; Lin, Xiaofeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in micro-ecosystems, especially in marine biotopes. However, few studies have been carried out on the periphytic, or aufwuch, forms in mariculture waters so far. In this study, we sampled periphytic ciliate communities in two closed mariculture ponds (ponds CP1 and CP2) and a natural seawater reservoir (pond RP) using a glass slide method to evaluate their colonizing processes and general ecological features, as well as their application as water quality indicators. We analyzed species compositions, structural parameters (species number, richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and d BP) and functional parameters ( G, S eq and T 90%). Pond RP was characterized by higher levels of structural parameters (except for abundance and d BP) and more equal proportion of the major taxonomic groups. The values of S eq were significantly higher in pond RP and similar in both pond CP1 and CP2. It was also demonstrated that environmental factors, including NO2-H, NO3-H, NH3-H, soluble reactive phosphate, temperature and pH, were the first principal factors affecting the communities. Among them, temperature and chemical factors were all significantly and negatively correlated with species number ( Pquality. Results of this study confirmed the periphytic ciliate communities to be useful bioindicators of water quality in intensive mariculture waters.

  8. Protozoa ciliates community structure in urban streams and their environmental use as indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Debastiani

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to investigate the patterns of diversity and abundance of ciliates protozoa community in three tropical urban streams and verify which species can be considered bioindicators of water quality. In each stream, three regions (headwater, middle and mouth were sampled in two years, in the rainy and dry seasons. The abiotic factors (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, width, depth, flow and conductivity and biotic factors (total coliforms, bacterioplankton, chlorophyll and flagellates were analyzed using appropriate methods and ciliates were identified and counted through specialized literature. We identified 84 species distributed into 24 orders. Peniculida was the most representative order followed by Prorodontida. The RDA scores showed a spatial difference between streams. On the other hand, regarding the temporal variation, there was no separation of the sampled data. The Indval analysis showed ten species indicators, such as Coleps hirtus, Euplotes moebiusi and Tintinidium pusillum. The Cluster analysis per stream versus period showed a greater distinction of the streams in the dry season. On the other hand, a low similarity was observed between sections within the same stream. In summary, the results indicated that the ciliates can be used as important tools as bioindicators in lotic environments affected by different degrees of pollution, due to the fact that they have short life cycle, allowing the detection of impacts on a small time scale, as well as by having direct answers to environmental changes and high sensitivity to contaminants.

  9. Protozoa ciliates community structure in urban streams and their environmental use as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, C; Meira, B R; Lansac-Tôha, F M; Velho, L F M; Lansac-Tôha, F A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the patterns of diversity and abundance of ciliates protozoa community in three tropical urban streams and verify which species can be considered bioindicators of water quality. In each stream, three regions (headwater, middle and mouth) were sampled in two years, in the rainy and dry seasons. The abiotic factors (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, width, depth, flow and conductivity) and biotic factors (total coliforms, bacterioplankton, chlorophyll and flagellates) were analyzed using appropriate methods and ciliates were identified and counted through specialized literature. We identified 84 species distributed into 24 orders. Peniculida was the most representative order followed by Prorodontida. The RDA scores showed a spatial difference between streams. On the other hand, regarding the temporal variation, there was no separation of the sampled data. The Indval analysis showed ten species indicators, such as Coleps hirtus, Euplotes moebiusi and Tintinidium pusillum. The Cluster analysis per stream versus period showed a greater distinction of the streams in the dry season. On the other hand, a low similarity was observed between sections within the same stream. In summary, the results indicated that the ciliates can be used as important tools as bioindicators in lotic environments affected by different degrees of pollution, due to the fact that they have short life cycle, allowing the detection of impacts on a small time scale, as well as by having direct answers to environmental changes and high sensitivity to contaminants.

  10. Epithelial ciliated beating cells essential for ex vivo ALI culture growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Delphine; Petit, Aurélie; Charriot, Jérémy; Knabe, Lucie; Alagha, Khuder; Gamez, Anne Sophie; Garulli, Céline; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle

    2017-05-03

    Bronchial epithelium plays a key role in orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. The fate of ex vivo airway epithelial cultures growing at the air liquid interface (ALI) derived from human endobronchial biopsies or brushings is not easy to predict. Calibrating and differentiating these cells is a long and expensive process requiring rigorous expertise. Pinpointing factors associated with ALI culture success would help researchers gain further insight into epithelial progenitor behavior. A successful ALI culture was defined as one in which a pseudostratified epithelium has formed after 28 days in the presence of all differentiated epithelial cell types. A 4-year prospective bi-center study was conducted with adult subjects enrolled in different approved research protocols. 463 consecutive endobronchial biopsies were obtained from normal healthy volunteers, healthy smokers, asthmatic patients and smokers with COPD. All demographic variables, the different fiber optic centers and culture operators, numbers of endo-bronchial biopsies and the presence of ciliated cells were carefully recorded. Univariate and multivariate models were developed. A stepwise procedure was used to select the final logistic regression model. ALI culture success was independently associated with the presence of living ciliated cells within the initial biopsy (OR = 2.18 [1.50-3.16], p money. It is still unknown whether successful ALI culture is related to indicators of general cell viability or a purported stem cell state specifically associated with ciliated beating cells.

  11. Integrative taxonomy of ciliates: Assessment of molecular phylogenetic content and morphological homology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2017-02-24

    The very diverse and comparatively complex morphology of ciliates has given rise to numerous taxonomic concepts. However, the information content of the utilized molecular markers has seldom been explored prior to phylogenetic analyses and taxonomic decisions. Likewise, robust testing of morphological homology statements and the apomorphic nature of diagnostic characters of ciliate taxa is rarely carried out. Four phylogenetic techniques that may help address these issues are reviewed. (1) Split spectrum analysis serves to determine the exact number and quality of nucleotide positions supporting individual nodes in phylogenetic trees and to discern long-branch artifacts that cause spurious phylogenies. (2) Network analysis can depict all possible evolutionary trajectories inferable from the dataset and locate and measure the conflict between them. (3) A priori likelihood mapping tests the suitability of data for reconstruction of a well resolved tree, visualizes the tree-likeness of quartets, and assesses the support of an internal branch of a given tree topology. (4) Reconstruction of ancestral morphologies can be applied for analyzing homology and apomorphy statements without circular reasoning. Since these phylogenetic tools are rarely used, their principles and interpretation are introduced and exemplified using various groups of ciliates. Finally, environmental sequencing data are discussed in this light.

  12. Chromosome copy number variation and control in the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Spring

    Full Text Available Copy number variations are widespread in eukaryotes. The unusual genome architecture of ciliates, in particular, with its process of amitosis in macronuclear division, provides a valuable model in which to study copy number variation. The current model of amitosis envisions stochastic distribution of macronuclear chromosomes during asexual reproduction. This suggests that amitosis is likely to result in high levels of copy number variation in ciliates, as dividing daughter cells can have variable copy numbers of chromosomes if chromosomal distribution during amitosis is a stochastic process. We examined chromosomal distribution during amitosis in Chilodonella uncinata, a ciliate with gene-size macronuclear chromosomes. We quantified 4 chromosomes in evolving populations of C. uncinata and modeled the amitotic distribution process. We found that macronuclear chromosomes differ in copy number from one another but that copy number does not change as expected under a stochastic process. The chromosome carrying SSU increased in copy number, which is consistent with selection to increase abundance; however, two other studied chromosomes displayed much lower than expected among-line variance. Our models suggest that balancing selection is sufficient to explain the observed maintenance of chromosome copy during asexual reproduction.

  13. Degradability of mulberry (Morus alba and rice bran in the rumen of sheep fed different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of dry matter (DM and protein of mulberry and rice bran when incubated in nylon bag in the rumen at different incubation times and different rumen environments of rumen-cannulated adult sheep. Three different rumen conditions were created by feeding the three rumen-cannulated sheep with urea-treated rice straw as basal diet and offered with three supplemental treatment diets on different source of energy and nitrogen. Mulberry, urea and rice bran were used as source of fermentable energy and protein. Treatments consisted of control diet mulberry and molasses (T0; 50% mulberry was replaced by rice bran and urea (T1; and 100% of mulberry was replaced with rice bran and urea (T2. The diets were formulated in iso protein and iso energy. Supplemental diets were offered at 1.2% BW. The study was conducted in three periods. For each period, the sheep was offered with one of three supplemental treatment diets. The nylon bags each, contains sample of either mulberrry or rice bran were incubated in the rumen of sheep at different incubation times in reverse order (48, 24, 12, 9, 6, and 3h. Degradation characteristic data were obtained by analyzing degradability data with the equation of p = a+b(1-e-ct using Neway computer package. Data of degradation characteristic, degradability of DM and CP, DMI, rumen NH3-N and pH were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using a SAS software package. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI and rumen pH were not significantly different between diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than that of T0. However, the rumen ammonia concentration was higher than that of critical value for rumen microbial synthesis (>5mg/100ml. The rate (c value of DM degradability of mulberry and rice bran was affected by diet treaments, where T2 diet resulted in lower c of mulberry and rice bran. Only CP degradability of mulberry on

  14. Produk Metabolisme Rumen pada Sapi Peranakan Ongole Fase Tumbuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N.O. Suwandyastuti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rumen metabolism product on growing cattle ongole grade ABSTRACT. The utilization of fermented fibrous waste material had improved the product of rumen metabolism in vitro, nevertheless, it was not always the same result if treated on animal, in vivo. An experiment had been conducted to investigate the result of the in vitro trial to the growing male cattle of Ongole Grade.  The experiment had been conducted by experimental method using twelve (12 growing male cattle of Ongole Grade.  The trial was conducted in Completely Randomized Block Design, during seven months period, three months adaption, two weeks preliminary, three months feeding trial and two weeks digestion trial.  The treatment tested were: R0 = control ration, non fermented; R1 = mesh type fermented and R2 = pellet type fermented. The variables measured were: the production of Total Volatile Fatty Acid (T-VFA; asetate (C2, propionate (C3, butyrate (C4.  The result shown that the treatment, biological and physical, of complete feed, does not influence on the production of T-VFA as well as on the composition (C2, C3 and  C4.  Nevertheless based on all the variables measured, the biological treatment with fermentation tends to increase the production of rumen metabolism, and the highest result of the products of T-VFA = 112,43 + 17,2 mM/L, C2 = 40,46 + 8,98 mM/L, C3 = 34,57 + 7,35 mM/L, C4 = 31,17 + 7,35 mM/L,  were resulted from pellet type of complete feed.  The result of experiment concludes : (1 based on the production of VFA as well as its composition, and the balance of C2 / C3, the utilization of complete feed both mesh and pellet type increases the efficiency of energy utilization on the growing male of Ongole Grade Cattle;  (2 based on rumen metabolism product, the recommended complete feed for growing male cattle of Ongole grade is in the form of fermented pellet.

  15. Propionate uptake by rumen microorganisms: the effect of ruminal infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Nozière, P; Gachon, S.; DOREAU, M.

    2003-01-01

    International audience; We assessed the ability of rumen microbes to significantly incorporate propionate when they are subjected in vivo to no infusion, long-term infusion of minerals, and short- and long-term infusion of high amounts of propionate. Four ruminally cannulated sheep fed 1000 g hay (8 meals per d) were used in a $4 \\times 4$ Latin square design. The treatments consisted of no infusion (C), ruminal infusion of propionate (86 g$\\cdot$d$^{-1}$) for 1 (P1) and 7 d (P7), and of mine...

  16. Strategies to Reduce Nitrogen Excretion from Ruminants: Targeting the Rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Foskolos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral se llevó a cabo en el marco del proyecto financiado por la Unión Europea Rednex. El objetivo principal de la tesis fue utilizar tecnologías innovadoras aplicadas al rumen para proponer soluciones que pueden reducir la excreción de N en el ganado bovino lechero. Se llevaron a cabo cuatro estudios para evaluar: la espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano como herramienta para mejorar la precisión en la formulación de raciones en la granja; el uso de anticuerpos policlonales (APs...

  17. [The effect of virginiamycin on rumen fermentation in vitro after adaptation of donors to the inoculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marounek, M; Skrivanová, V; Simůnek, J

    1995-05-01

    Virginiamycin is an antibiotic active against grampositive bacteria in the alimentary tract, which is also suitable for supplementation of diets of growing and finishing ruminants. The aim of this work was to specify the effect of virginiamycin on some parameters of rumen fermentation in vitro with inoculi taken from wethers adapted or non-adapted to the virginiamycin intake. Incubations were performed anaerobically at 39 degrees C in serum bottles closed with Bunsen valves. Virginiamycin was added at 0 or 10 mg/l to the rumen fluid diluted with McDougall buffer. Virginiamycin significantly decreased production and utilization of lactic acid, production of methane and decomposition of casein when rumen fluid was taken from non-adapted wethers. Most of its effects disappeared when rumen fluid was sampled from wethers adapted to the virginiamycin intake (100 mg per head daily for 2 months). Adaptation of wethers to virginiamycin was further confirmed by analyses of the rumen fluid which was used for inoculation of in vitro cultures. Molar percentages of acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were the same before and after the adaptation. Therefore it can be concluded that the effects of virginiamycin on rumen parameters are not stable and its addition to ruminant diets cannot be recommended, with exception of the milk nutrition period. In the last experiment the stability of virginiamycin in the rumen fluid of adapted wethers was investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Quantification of the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis in steers fed green tropical grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen L. Mullik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rate of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP supply to the intestines is a crucial element in the current rumen models to predict respond of ruminants to a certain diet. Data from tropical pastures are always below predicted results from the existing rumen models. Thus, quantification of the rumen MCP supply from tropical forage will improve predictive rate under tropical feeding conditions. Four Brahman crossbred steers (457 ± 20.1 kg were used in a metabolism study. Pangola grass (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal was harvested every morning and fed to the animals soon afterward. Parameters measured were EMPS, intake, fractional passage rates, and rumen ammonia concentration. The EMPS was estimated using purine derivative excretion in urine. Mean crude protein and water soluble carbohydrate was 6.3 and 7.4% of dry matter (DM respectively. Mean DM intake was 1.6% liveweight. Average rumen ammonia concentration was 69 mg/L whilst rumen passage rates were 7.84 and 6.92%/h for fluid and solids respectively. Mean EMPS was only 72 g MCP/kg digestible organic matters. It is concluded that EMPS in steers consuming green pangola grass was at the level below the minimum recommended value for forage diets adopted in the current feeding standards.

  19. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Li

    Full Text Available The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX, or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies.

  20. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies.

  1. Effects of feed intake on composition of sheep rumen contents and their microbial population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Redondo, R; Cajarville, C

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of feed intake on the composition of the rumen contents of sheep and on their bacterial densities. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous inter-rumen infusion of 15NH3 from four rumen-cannulated wethers successively fed on a hay-concentrate diet (2:1, w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight0.75. Total weight and chemical composition of rumen contents, as well as the distribution by size and chemical composition of particles, were determined. The populations of bacteria associated with the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria, LAB) and solid (solid-associated bacteria, SAB) fractions of rumen digesta and the distribution of SAB according to feed particle size were also examined. The greater feed intake caused an increase in the mass of the rumen contents, while its chemical composition did not change, except for a higher content of organic matter (P=0.023). The distribution of feed particles by size was similar at both levels of intake. The concentrations of neutral- and acid-detergent fibre in feed particles decreased and those of total, dietary, and microbial N increased, both with a quadratic response (P=0.001), as particle size decreased. The proportion of LAB in the microbial biomass of rumen digesta reached only 8.0 %. This proportion and the density of LAB were unaffected by the level of feed intake, whereas an apparent reduction (10.4 %) occurred with the SAB biomass in whole rumen contents. A systematic, but not significant, reduction (mean value 11.9 %) in the level of microbial colonisation in the different particle fractions with the increase of feed intake was also observed.

  2. Fermentation of cottonseed and other feedstuffs in cattle rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ian C; Ames, Michael L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Reilly, Peter J

    2002-04-10

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically over 48 h with cottonseed, corn, alfalfa, or a mixture of these substrates in anaerobic mineral buffer. Samples taken at different incubation times were derivatized with n-butanol and subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. No unusual fermentation end-products from the cottonseed substrate were detected. Cottonseed supported rumen fermentation at levels comparable to those of the other substrates. Major components were usually found in the decreasing order of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate, although acetate and propionate concentrations decreased late in the alfalfa and mixed-feed fermentations, eventually allowing butyrate concentrations to exceed those of propionate. As expected, lactate was produced in high concentrations when corn was fermented. The minor components 2-methylpropionate, 2- and 3-methylbutyrate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, and caproate also accumulated, with their relative concentrations varying with the substrate. Succinate was produced in substantial amounts only when corn and alfalfa were fermented; it did not accumulate when cottonseed was the substrate. Samples containing cottonseed were derivatized and subjected to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, revealing that gossypol concentrations did not change during fermentation.

  3. Potential of Selected Rumen Bacteria for Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Zorec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous animals harbour potent cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microorganisms that supply the host with nutrients acquired from degradation of ingested plant material. In addition to protozoa and fungi, rumen bacteria contribute a considerable part in the breakdown of recalcitrant (hemicellulosic biomass. The present review is focused on the enzymatic systems of three representative fibrolytic rumen bacteria, namely Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans. R. flavefaciens is known for one of the most elaborated cellulosome architectures and might represent a promising candidate for the construction of designer cellulosomes. On the other hand, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans produce multiple free, but highly efficient xylanases. In addition, P. xylanivorans was also shown to have some probiotic traits, which makes it a promising candidate not only for biogas production, but also as an animal feed supplement. Genomic and proteomic analyses of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial species aim to identify novel enzymes, which can then be cloned and expressed in adequate hosts to construct highly active recombinant hydrolytic microorganisms applicable for different biotechnological tasks.

  4. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats

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    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.

  5. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique Using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Candace L; Ribeiro, Gabriel O; Oba, Masahito; McAllister, Tim A; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast ≥ 4.18% h(-1)) and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow ≤ 3.17% h(-1)) were chosen as inoculum donors for this study. Two Rusitec apparatuses each equipped with eight fermenters were used in a completely randomized block design with two blocks (apparatus) and four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (Fast or Slow rumen inoculum and untreated or AFEX treated straw). Fast rumen inoculum and AFEX straw both increased (P 0.05) methane production per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus (P straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013). These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  6. QUANTIFICATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN STEERS FED GREEN TROPICAL GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHEN L. MULLIK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rate of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP supply to the intestines is a crucial element in the current rumen models to predict respond of ruminants to a certain diet. Data from tropical pastures always below predicted results from the existing rumen models. Thus, quantification of the rumen MCP supply from tropical grass will improve predictive rate under tropical feeding conditions. Four Brahman crossbred steers (457±20.1 kg were used in a metabolism study. Pangola grass (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal was harvested every morning and fed to the animals soon after. Parameters measured were EMPS, intake, fractional passage rates, and rumen ammonia concentration. The EMPS was estimated using purine derivative excretion in urine. Crude protein and water soluble carbohydrates content were 6.3 and 7.4% of dry matter (DM respectively. DM intake was 1.6% live weight. Average rumen ammonia concentration was 69 mg/L whilst rumen passage rates were 7.84 and 6.92 %/h for fluid and solids respectively. EMPS was only 72 g MCP/kg digestible organic matter. It might be concluded that EMPS in steers consuming green pangola grass was below the minimum level for forage diets adopted in the current feeding standards. ABSTRAK Tingkat pasokan protein mikroba rumen (MCP ke usus halus merupakan salah satu unsur kunci dalam meramal respon pertumbuhan ruminan terhadap ransum tertentu. Data MCP hijauan tropis selalu berada di bawah nilai prediksi model rumen yang dipakai saat ini. Dengan demikian, kuantifikasi pasokan MCP rumput tropis diharapkan menjadi masukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan prediksi model rumen untuk pakan daerah tropis. Empat sapi jantan muda Brahman persilangan (457±20,1 kg digunakan dalam sebuah penelitian metabolisme. Rumput pangola (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal dipanen setiap pagi dan langsung diberikan kepada ternak dalam kandang metabolis. Parameter yang diukur adalah produksi MCP dan efisiensi sintesis MCP (Emps, konsumsi, laju

  7. A mechanistic model of hydrogen-methanogen dynamics in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuancheng; Janssen, Peter H; Lynch, Tammy A; Brunt, Bruce van; Pacheco, David

    2016-03-21

    Existing mathematical models to estimate methane production in the rumen are based on calculation of hydrogen balances without considering the presence of methanogens. In this study, a mechanistic model of methane production is proposed that depicts the interaction between hydrogen concentration and methanogens in the rumen. Analytical results show that it meets biological expectations, namely increased fractional passage rate leads to a greater growth rate of methanogens, and a greater steady state hydrogen concentration. This model provides a basis on which to develop a more comprehensive model of methane production in the rumen that includes thermodynamics and feed fermentation pathways.

  8. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wakita, M; Hoshino, S.

    1987-01-01

    1.The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro.2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate: propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent p...

  9. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  10. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T. G.; Miller, G.W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total...

  11. Digestibility, rumen protozoa, and ruminal fermentation in goats receiving dietary palm oil by-products

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Abubakr; A.R. Alimon; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N; Ivan, M

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen goats fitted with a rumen cannula were used in completely randomized block design to test the effects of dietary crude palm oil (PO), palm kernel cake (PKC) and decanter cake (DC) on rumen total protozoa counts, rumen fermentation, and digestibility. Goats received once daily (1.5% of BW) one of four concentrate diets: reference diet (RD), DC diet (DCD), PKC diet (PKCD) and RD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD). The RD was based on corn grain and soybean meal and was fed to all goats for 28 days ...

  12. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 bovine rumen fluid proteome reflects adaptive bacterial responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kudva, Indira T.; Stanton, Thaddeus B; John D Lippolis

    2014-01-01

    Background To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) survival mechanisms in the bovine rumen, we defined the growth characteristics and proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (RF; pH 6.0-7.2 and low volatile fatty acid content) obtained from rumen-fistulated cattle fed low protein content “maintenance diet” under diverse in vitro conditions. Results Bottom-up proteomics (LC-MS/MS) of whole cell-lysates of O157 cultured under anaerobic conditions in filter-sterilized RF (fRF; d...

  13. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: feed resources and rumen approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rowlins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal feed resources are of prime importance for swamp buffaloes to support the efficient production under the prevailing small-holder farming systems. Manipulations of rumen microorganisms, fermentation and subsequent absorption by the animals are essential. Current research work on locally available feed resources such as urea-treated rice straw, cassava hay etc. revealed significant improvement in rumen ecology with higher cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores and subsequent fermentation endproducts. However, investigation of rumen microorganisms diversity of swamp buffalo and their roles in fermentation using molecular technique especially the use of PCR – DGGE/ Real Time- PCR warrant future research undertakings.

  14. Phylogenetic position of Licnophora, Lechriopyla, and Schizocaryum, three unusual ciliates (phylum Ciliophora) endosymbiotic in echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Denis H; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela

    2002-01-01

    Various echinoderms are colonized by species from several classes of the Phylum Ciliophora, indicating that the echinoderm "habitat" has been invaded independently on numerous occasions throughout evolutionary history. Two "echinoderm" ciliates whose phylogenetic positions have been problematic are Licnophora macfarlandi Stevens, 1901 and Schizocaryum dogieli Poljansky and Golikova, 1957. Licnophora macfarlandi is an endosymbiont of the respiratory trees of holothuroids, and S. dogieli is found in the esophagus of echinoids. A third species, Lechriopyla mystax Lynch, 1930, is a plagiopylid ciliate found in the intestine of echinoids. Host echinoderms were collected near the Friday Harbor Laboratories, San Juan Island, WA. Specimens of S. dogieli and L. mystax were obtained from the esophagus and intestine, respectively, of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus. Specimens of L. macfarlandi were collected from the fluid obtained from the respiratory trees of Parastichopus californicus. Using small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) sequences of these three ciliates and a global alignment of SSrRNA sequences of other ciliates, we established the following. 1) Licnophora is a spirotrich ciliate, clearly related to the hypotrichs and stichotrichs; this is corroborated by its possession of macronuclear replication bands. 2) Lechriopyla is the sister genus to Plagiopyla and is a member of the Class Plagiopylea, which was predicted based on its cytology. 3) Schizocaryum clusters in the Class Oligohymenophorea and is most closely related to the scuticociliates; there are currently no morphological features known to relate Schizocaryum to the scuticociliates.

  15. Novel Ciliate Genetic Code Variants Including the Reassignment of All Three Stop Codons to Sense Codons in Condylostoma magnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Stephen M; Mariotti, Marco; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Atkins, John F; Baranov, Pavel V

    2016-11-01

    mRNA translation in many ciliates utilizes variant genetic codes where stop codons are reassigned to specify amino acids. To characterize the repertoire of ciliate genetic codes, we analyzed ciliate transcriptomes from marine environments. Using codon substitution frequencies in ciliate protein-coding genes and their orthologs, we inferred the genetic codes of 24 ciliate species. Nine did not match genetic code tables currently assigned by NCBI. Surprisingly, we identified a novel genetic code where all three standard stop codons (TAA, TAG, and TGA) specify amino acids in Condylostoma magnum We provide evidence suggesting that the functions of these codons in C. magnum depend on their location within mRNA. They are decoded as amino acids at internal positions, but specify translation termination when in close proximity to an mRNA 3' end. The frequency of stop codons in protein coding sequences of closely related Climacostomum virens suggests that it may represent a transitory state. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Experimental acute rumen acidosis in sheep: consequences on clinical, rumen, and gastrointestinal permeability conditions and blood chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, A; Ahmed, S; Trevisi, E; Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Bertoni, G; Jahan, N; Bani, P

    2014-09-01

    Acute acidosis was induced in sheep, and gastrointestinal permeability was assessed by using lactulose as a permeability marker. Metabolism was evaluated by monitoring blood metabolites. Four rams (72.5 ± 4.6 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 changeover design experiment. The experimental period lasted 96 h from -24 to 72 h. After 24 h of fasting (from -24 to 0 h) for both controls and acidosis-induced rams (ACID), 0.5 kg of wheat flour was orally dosed at 0 and 12 h of the experimental period to ACID, while the basal diet (grass hay, ad libitum) was restored to control. At 24 h, a lactulose solution (30 g of lactulose in 200 mL of water) was orally administered. Blood samples were collected at -24, 0, 24, 48, and 72 h of the experimental periods for the analysis of metabolic profiles and during the 10 h after lactulose dosage to monitor lactulose changes in blood. In addition, rumen and fecal samples were collected at 24 h of the experimental period. The acidotic challenge markedly reduced (P acidosis was effectively induced by our model. The increase of lactulose in blood in ACID indicates that gastrointestinal permeability for the marker increased and the large increment after 2 h from dosage suggests that most of the passage occurred through the rumen or abomasal walls.

  17. Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos e bubalinos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com monensina ou própolis Ruminal ciliate protozoa of cattle and buffalo fed on diet supplemented with monensin or extracts from propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Barros Ríspoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas suplementadas com monensina ou produtos à base de própolis, nas populações de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos (Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis. Quatro bovinos da raça Holandesa e quatro búfalos da raça Murrah adultos, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino (4x4. A dieta constituiu-se de 50% de silagem de milho e 50% de concentrado à base de milho em grãos e farelo de soja, com adição de monensina sódica ou aditivo à base de própolis LLOSA2 ou LLOSC1. As amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram coletadas duas horas após a alimentação. O gênero Entodinium foi o mais representativo em todos os tratamentos, para ambas as raças de ruminantes. Em búfalos, foi observado o efeito redutor do tratamento LLOSC1 nas populações do gênero Entodinium, além do efeito redutor dos tratamentos monensina e LLOSA2 sobre os gêneros da subfamília Diplodiniinae. A média de ciliados foi maior em bubalinos (56x10(4 mL-1 do que em bovinos (26x10(4 mL-1. Houve aumento do pH ruminal dos bovinos no tratamento com monensina. O extrato de própolis LLOSC1 reduziu os ciliados do rúmen em bubalinos.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with monensin or with extracts of propolis, on the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Four Holstein cattle and four Murrah buffalo, fistulated in the rumen, were distributed in 4x4 Latin square design. The diet was constituted by 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate based on corn grain and soybean meal, and the supplementation of monensin sodium or propolis extracts LLOSA2 or LLOSC1. Samples of ruminal contents were collected two hours after feeding. The genus Entodinium was the most common in all treatments for both cattle and buffalo. The LLOSC1 treatment reduced the populations of the genus Entodinium in buffalo

  18. Macronuclear genome structure of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis: Single-gene chromosomes and tiny introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landweber Laura F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nyctotherus ovalis is a single-celled eukaryote that has hydrogen-producing mitochondria and lives in the hindgut of cockroaches. Like all members of the ciliate taxon, it has two types of nuclei, a micronucleus and a macronucleus. N. ovalis generates its macronuclear chromosomes by forming polytene chromosomes that subsequently develop into macronuclear chromosomes by DNA elimination and rearrangement. Results We examined the structure of these gene-sized macronuclear chromosomes in N. ovalis. We determined the telomeres, subtelomeric regions, UTRs, coding regions and introns by sequencing a large set of macronuclear DNA sequences (4,242 and cDNAs (5,484 and comparing them with each other. The telomeres consist of repeats CCC(AAAACCCCn, similar to those in spirotrichous ciliates such as Euplotes, Sterkiella (Oxytricha and Stylonychia. Per sequenced chromosome we found evidence for either a single protein-coding gene, a single tRNA, or the complete ribosomal RNAs cluster. Hence the chromosomes appear to encode single transcripts. In the short subtelomeric regions we identified a few overrepresented motifs that could be involved in gene regulation, but there is no consensus polyadenylation site. The introns are short (21–29 nucleotides, and a significant fraction (1/3 of the tiny introns is conserved in the distantly related ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. As has been observed in P. tetraurelia, the N. ovalis introns tend to contain in-frame stop codons or have a length that is not dividable by three. This pattern causes premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and potentially degradation of unspliced mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Conclusion The combination of short leaders, tiny introns and single genes leads to very minimal macronuclear chromosomes. The smallest we identified contained only 150 nucleotides.

  19. Effect of different feeding regimes on pre-weaning growth rumen fermentation and its influence on post-weaning performance of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Tripathi, M K; Verma, D L; Karim, S A

    2009-10-01

    Influence of pre-weaning live weight on post-weaning growth performance was assessed on thirty-nine 15-day-old Indian native lambs, randomly fed in three equal groups until 180 days of age. During pre-weaning phase lambs were maintained under feeding regimen of grazing (C-0; Control), grazing and ad lib creep mixture supplementation (C-AL) or grazing, with ad lib creep mixture and milk replacer supplementation (C-ALMR). Lambs were allowed to suckle respective dam in morning and evening till 90 days of age, and fed ad lib green leaves of Ailanthus excelsa after grazing. After weaning all lambs were maintained on grazing and ad lib finisher concentrates supplementation. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (17.2 kg), average daily gain (ADG; 154 g) and feed conversion ratio 3.73 was higher (p < 0.01) in C-ALMR lambs but total gain and ADG were similar among three groups during post-weaning phase. However, improved pre-weaning plane of nutrition and growth rate increased (p < 0.01) finishing weight (FW) of lambs in C-AL, 33 kg and C-ALMR, 32 kg. Dry matter intake was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in C-AL and C-ALMR lambs due to combined effect of feeding. Rumen pH was lowest (p = 0.049) in C-AL lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (10(4)/ml) decreased in C-ALMR lambs (4.3) but increased in C-AL lambs (50.0) more so in C-0 Lambs (19.8). Concentrate feeding of C-AL lamb improved nutrient digestibility. Lambs of C-0 group consumed more DM during post-weaning phase that improved growth performance, while nutrient digestibility was not affected by pre-weaning nutrition. Thus, pre-weaning nutrition has significant influence on FW, however influence of milk replacer feeding on lamb growth need further studies.

  20. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initi...

  1. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 29354 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Zootaxa_1810_60.pdf.txt stream_source_info Zootaxa_1810_60.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Accepted by A. Wright: 16 Apr... coast. Key words: Ciliophora, Suctorea, Halacaridae, epibionts Introduction Representatives of several groups of freshwater and marine aquatic mites have been identified as hosts of suc- torian ciliates (Suctorea) (Precht 1935; Matthes 1956; Matthes...

  2. On the marine ciliate, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, ciliophora, scuticociliatida) with comparison of its related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Ma, Hong-Wei; Song, Wei-Bo

    2002-09-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 (1 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the right of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  3. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA,CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system o f the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964 , collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by obser vation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton -Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13-14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1-2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the rig ht of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometri cally tabulated.

  4. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  5. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by a mixed culture of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, M J; Goderis, H L; Tobback, P P

    1986-08-01

    The biohydrogenation of C-18 unsaturated fatty acids was examined in a mixed culture of microorganisms prepared by inoculating a proper growth medium with a sample of rumen fluid. Some major factors influencing the hydrogenation capacity have been investigated. The age of the mixed culture, the type of inoculum used, the concentration of substrates as well as the presence of sterile rumen fluid in the growth medium were found to be important factors determining biohydrogenation behavior. It could be shown that the mixed microbial culture, which had been grown for about 24 h on a medium similar to that of Bryant and Robinson, contained sterile rumen fluid (10% v/v), and had been inoculated with a sample of the whole untreated rumen content, had the best biohydrogenation capacity. The culture was able to carry out the complete conversion of linoleic and linolenic acid to stearic acid.

  7. Parameters of rumen fermentation in a continuously fed sheep: evidence of a microbial rumination pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, R E; Reichl, J; Prins, R

    1971-12-01

    The feed and feces of a continuously fed sheep were analyzed for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, with oxygen as the remainder. The daily feed-feces weight difference was used as the reactant in an equation representing the rumen fermentation. The measured products were the daily production of volatile fatty acids (VFA), CH(4), CO(2), and ammonia. The carbon unaccounted for was assumed to be in the microbial cell material produced in the rumen and absorbed before reaching the feces. The ratio of C to H, O, and N in bacteria was used to represent the elemental composition of the microbes formed in the rumen fermentation, completing the following equation:C(20.03)H(36.99)O(17.406)N(1.345) + 5.65 H(2)O --> C(12)H(24)O(10.1) + 0.83 CH(4) VFA + 2.76 CO(2) + 0.50 NH(3) + C(4.44)H(8.88)O(2.35)N(0.785) microbial cells absorbed With C arbitrarily balanced and O balanced by appropriate addition of water, any error is reflected in the H. The H recovery was 98.5%. The turnover rate constant for rumen liquid equilibrating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) was 2.27 per day. Direct counts and volume measurements of the individual types of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen were used to calculate the total microbial cell volume in the rumen, not equilibrating with it. The dry matter in the rumen (582 g) and the nitrogen content (12.05) of the microbes in the rumen were estimated, the latter constituting 85% of the measured N in the rumen. Calculations for rumen dry matter and nitrogen turning over at the PEG rate introduce big discrepancies with other parameters; a rumination pool must be postulated. Its size and composition are estimated. Arguments are presented to support the view that dry matter and some of the microbes, chiefly the protozoa, do not leave the rumen at the PEG rate. One experiment with the same sheep fed twice daily showed significantly less production of microbial cells than did the continuous (each 2 hr) feeding. Analysis of the microbial cell yield suggests that

  8. Using Plant Source as a Buffering Agent to Manipulating Rumen Fermentation in an Gas Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of banana flower powder (BAFLOP supplementation on gas production kinetics and rumen fermentation efficiency in in vitro incubation with different ratios of roughage to concentrate in swamp buffalo and cattle rumen fluid. Two male, rumen fistulated dairy steers and swamp buffaloes were used as rumen fluid donors. The treatments were arranged according to a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement in a Completely randomized design by using two ratios of roughage to concentrate (R:C; 75:25 and 25:75 and 3 levels of BAFLOP supplementation (0, 2 and 4% of dietary substrate into two different kinds of rumen fluid (beef cattle and swamp buffalo. Under this investigation, the results revealed that the rumen ecology was affected by R:C ratio. The pH declined as a result of using high concentrate ratio; however, supplementation of BAFLOP could buffer the pH which led to an improvement of ruminal efficiency. BAFLOP supplementation affected acetic acid (C2 when the proportion of concentrate was increased. However, there were no effect on total volatile fatty acid (TVFA and butyric acid (C4 by BAFLOP supplementation. The microbial community was affected by BAFLOP supplementation, especially the bacterial population. As revealed by real-time PCR, the populations of F. succinogenes and R. albus were reduced by the high concentrate treatments while that of R. flavafaciens were increased. The populations of three dominant cellulolytic bacteria were enhanced by BAFLOP supplementation, especially on high concentrate diet. BAFLOP supplementation did not influence the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration, while R:C did. In addition, the in vitro digestibility was improved by either R:C or BAFLOP supplementation. The BAFLOP supplementation showed an effect on gas production kinetics, except for the gas production rate constant for the insoluble fraction (c, while treatments with high concentrate ratio resulted in the

  9. Rumen microbial (meta)genomics and its application to ruminant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, D P; Kelly, W J; Janssen, P H; Attwood, G T

    2013-03-01

    Meat and milk produced by ruminants are important agricultural products and are major sources of protein for humans. Ruminant production is of considerable economic value and underpins food security in many regions of the world. However, the sector faces major challenges because of diminishing natural resources and ensuing increases in production costs, and also because of the increased awareness of the environmental impact of farming ruminants. The digestion of feed and the production of enteric methane are key functions that could be manipulated by having a thorough understanding of the rumen microbiome. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and bioinformatics are transforming our understanding of complex microbial ecosystems, including the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. The application of these techniques to the rumen ecosystem has allowed the study of the microbial diversity under different dietary and production conditions. Furthermore, the sequencing of genomes from several cultured rumen bacterial and archaeal species is providing detailed information about their physiology. More recently, metagenomics, mainly aimed at understanding the enzymatic machinery involved in the degradation of plant structural polysaccharides, is starting to produce new insights by allowing access to the total community and sidestepping the limitations imposed by cultivation. These advances highlight the promise of these approaches for characterising the rumen microbial community structure and linking this with the functions of the rumen microbiota. Initial results using high-throughput culture-independent technologies have also shown that the rumen microbiome is far more complex and diverse than the human caecum. Therefore, cataloguing its genes will require a considerable sequencing and bioinformatic effort. Nevertheless, the construction of a rumen microbial gene catalogue through metagenomics and genomic sequencing of key populations is an attainable goal. A rumen

  10. Survival of the recombinant Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain BTX in in vitro rumen incubations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, M A; Whitehead, T R; Rasmussen, M A

    1997-06-01

    The survival of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain BTX under rumen-simulating conditions was studied. Strain BTX is a recombinant variant of strain 5482 engineered for the production of high levels of xylanase, an enzyme important in the degradation of hemicellulose. Strain BTX was not inhibited by compounds present in rumen fluid and it grew well in media containing rumen fluid (up to 75%) or high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (total concentration, 100 mmol l-1). The ability of strain BTX to compete with other microorganisms under rumen-like conditions was studied in in vitro incubations of rumen contents. These experiments employed a consecutive batch culture (CBC) system consisting of alfalfa suspended in a rum flid buffer inoculated with blended rumen contents and maintained by transfers (10%, v/v) at 48 h intervals. CBC cultures contained a diversity of microbial morphotypes and accumulated fermentation products in rumen-like proportions. WHen added alone, the numbers of BTX cells were maintained for only a few hours, and then declined precipitously until undetectable after 48 h. If CBC cultures were also supplemented with chondroitin sulphate (a mucopolysaccharide used by Bact. thetaiotaomicron), strain BTX grew and the pattern of its population generally followed that of the total population of ruminal bacteria in these cultures. When transferred into fresh CBC cultures containing chondroitin sulphate, BTX was again able to grow and increase in numbers, but to a diminished degree. Although BTX was able to survive and maintain itself in chondroitin sulphate supplemented cultures, this was at a very low level (10(5) ml-1). The potential for manipulation of rumen function by inoculation with recombinant bacteria is discussed.

  11. Pemanfaatan Isi Rumen Dari Limbah Rumah Potong Hewan Sebagai Bahan Pakan Dalam Ransum Ikan Nila

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Arida Fauzana

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mengetahui kandungan gizi isi rumen sebagai bahan pakan ikan yang bergizi , 2) mengetahui pengaruh kandungan protein dalam ransum ikan dan penambahan filtrat air abu sekam terhadap pertumbuhan ikan dan (3) menetapkan konsentrasi isi rumen yang terbaik sebagai bahan pakan dalam ransum ikan. Parameter yang diamati adalah pertumbuhan mutlak ikan nila yang meliputi pertambahan berat (gr) dan pertambahan panjang (cm), pertumbuhan relatif (%) baik berat maupun ...

  12. Methylotrophic methanogenic Thermoplasmata implicated in reduced methane emissions from bovine rumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Schwab, Clarissa; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2013-01-01

    Rumen methanogens are major sources of anthropogenic methane emissions, and these archaea are targets in strategies aimed at reducing methane emissions. Here we show that the poorly characterised Thermoplasmata archaea in bovine rumen are methylotrophic methanogens and that they are reduced upon...... potential as target in future strategies to mitigate methane emissions from ruminant livestock. Our findings and the findings of others also indicate a wider distribution of methanogens than previously anticipated....

  13. Tea saponins affect in vitro fermentation and methanogenesis in faunated and defaunated rumen fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei-lian; WU Yue-ming; LIU Jian-xin; GUO Yan-qiu; YE Jun-an

    2005-01-01

    The effect of tea saponins (TS) on rumen fermentation and methane emission was examined using an in vitro gas production technique named Reading Pressure Technique. Three levels of TS addition (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/ml) were evaluated in the faunated and defaunated rumen fluid. Compared to the control, TS addition decreased the 24 h gas production in the faunated rumen fluid, but had a minor effect on gas yield in the defaunated rumen fluid. The TS significantly reduced methane production in vitro. In the faunated rumen fluid, 0.2 or 0.4 mg/ml TS decreased the 24 h methane emission by 12.7% or 14.0%, respectively.Rumen fluid pH value was affected neither by TS addition nor by defaunation. The TS addition had only minor effects on volatile fatty acids, but the yield and pattern of volatile fatty acids were greatly affected by defaunation. While the molar proportion of acetate was not affected by defaunation, the propionate was significantly increased and the butyrate significantly decreased.Ammonia-N concentration and microbial protein yield were influenced by TS inclusion and defaunation. Inclusion of 0.4 mg/ml TS increased the microbial protein mass by 18.4% and 13.8% and decreased the ammonia-N concentration by 8.3% and 19.6% in the faunated and defaunated rumen fluid, respectively. Protozoa counts were significantly reduced by TS inclusion. The current study demonstrated the beneficial effect of TS on methane production and rumen fermentation, and indicated that this may be due to the effect of the associated depression on protozoa counts.

  14. EFFECTS OF FEEDING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF Balanites aegyptiaca (HEGLIG) KERNEL CAKE ON CATTLE RUMEN ENVIROMENT

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. MORKAZ; K M Elamin; Ahmed, S H; S.A. Omer

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment aimed to investigate the effects of replacing groundnut cake with Balanites aegyptiaca kernel cake up to 15% on rumen environment in local kenana cattle. The study was conducted at the experimental unit of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production College, Sudan University of Science and technology at Hillat Kuku. Traits studied were rumen pH ammonia concentration (NH3), volatile fatty acids concentration (VFAs) and bacterial count (BC). No significance difference was o...

  15. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive value. However, perennial ryegrass suffers from two main disadvantages: firstly, its unbalanced nutrient content in terms of crude protein (CP) and energy availability at rumen level and secondly, its low dry matter...

  16. Transformations and effects of lipids in the rumen: three decades of research at Gent University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, D I; van Nevel, C J

    1995-01-01

    A survey is given of research results on ruminant lipid digestion obtained at the authors' laboratory. Results are presented in terms of lipid changes occurring in the rumen and in terms of effects on nature, extent and site of digestion. The rumen can be adapted to an extremely high capacity for triglyceride lipolysis, preferentially releasing polyunsaturated fatty acids that are then further hydrogenated with accumulation of oleic acid isomers in vitro only. Evidence was obtained for both microbial incorporation and synthesis of polyunsaturated acids. In vitro lipolysis is inhibited by pH values below 6.3 and by ionophores. Free fatty acids inhibit methanogenesis with associated increases in propionate production and decreases in acetate and butyrate productions; the latter being related to their defaunating effect. Both in the faunated and defaunated rumen, free fatty acids decrease fibre digestion, which is shifted to the hindgut, at least in sheep. Defaunation increases rumen microbial growth efficiency and may result in a higher duodenal flow of both feed and microbial protein, provided these increases are not overcome by a decreased apparent rumen OM digestibility. Considerable between animal variability exists for these effects, associated with variable effects on rumen particle and liquid volumes and outflow rates.

  17. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litai Zhang

    Full Text Available Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats.

  18. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Bai; Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Yan, Tianhai; Wang, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF) on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats. PMID:26445479

  19. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Bai; Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Yan, Tianhai; Wang, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF) on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats.

  20. Effect of bromochloromethane and fumarate on phylogenetic diversity of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene in bovine rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Makoto; Matsui, Hiroki; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Shinkai, Takumi; Takenaka, Akio; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the methane inhibitor, bromochloromethane (BCM) and dietary substrate, fumarate, on microbial community structure of acetogen bacteria in the bovine rumen was investigated through analysis of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs). The fhs sequences obtained from BCM-untreated, BCM-treated, fumarate-untreated and fumarate-treated bovine rumen were categorized into homoacetogens and nonhomoacetogenic bacteria by homoacetogen similarity scores. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that most of the fhs sequences categorized into homoacetogens were divided into nine clusters, which were in close agreement with a result shown in a self-organizing map. The diversity of the fhs sequences from the BCM-treated rumen was significantly different from those from BCM-non-treated rumen. Principal component analysis also showed that addition of BCM to the rumen altered the population structure of acetogenic bacteria significantly but the effect of fumarate was comparatively minor. These results indicate that BCM affects diversity of actogens in the bovine rumen, and changes in acetogenic community structure in response to methane inhibitors may be caused by different mechanisms.

  1. Nisbah Sinkronisasi Suplai N-Protein dan Energi dalam Rumen Sebagai Basis Formulasi Ransum Ternak Ruminansia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the optimum synchronization ratio of N-protein and fermented organic matter (OM in the rumen for the purpose of ration formulation for ruminant animals, in order to improve efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis and feed efficiency. Nylon bag technique was adopted to determine ruminal characteristic of protein and OM degradation of feedstuffs (forage and concentrate diet for which the synchronized index of N-protein and fermented OM in the rumen might be determined. By randomized block design, twelve local cattle were arranged to four groups. Each group was fed three types of diet that was different in synchronization ratio of supplying N-protein and fermented OM in the rumen, namely 20 g N/kg OM (R20; 25 g N /kg OM (R25; and 30 g N /kg MO (R30. The diets had iso-energy and iso-protein contents and had the same synchronization index. The results showed that the type of diet had no effect (P>0.05 on intake and digestibility of nutrients, N retention, average daily gain (ADG, and feed efficiency. But R20 had better parameter values than those of R25 and R30. It might be concluded that the diet having a synchronization ratio of 20 g N/kg fermented OM in the rumen will generate more efficient protein synthesis of rumen microbes and feed efficiency.

  2. Rumen function in vivo and in vitro in sheep fed Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 % L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 % L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P Leucaena CP degradation was higher in T2 and T3 but for P. purpureum it was only significantly higher in T3. Leucaena aNDF and CP degradation rate (c) was 50 % higher (P 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P leucaena (P leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake.

  3. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Wang

    Full Text Available Ciliates (protozoa are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  4. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Cao, Wenqing; Zheng, Lianming; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates (protozoa) are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida) were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  5. Rumen Microorganisms Decrease Bioavailability of Inorganic Selenium Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, M L; Vorachek, W R; Estill, C T; Whanger, P D; Bobe, G; Davis, T Z; Hall, J A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the availability of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study was to determine whether rumen microorganisms (RMO) alter the bioavailability of Se sources commonly used in Se supplements. Rumen microorganisms were isolated from ewes (n = 4) and incubated ex vivo with no Se (control), with inorganic Na selenite or Na selenate, or with organic selenomethionine (SeMet). Total Se incorporated into RMO and the amount of elemental Se formed were determined under equivalent conditions. Incorporation of Se from Na selenite, Na selenate, or SeMet into RMO was measured as fold change compared with control (no added Se). Incorporation of Se into microbial mass was greater for SeMet (13.2-fold greater than no-Se control) compared with inorganic Se supplements (P = 0.02); no differences were observed between inorganic Na selenate (3.3-fold greater than no-Se control) and Na selenite (3.5-fold greater than no-Se control; P = 0.97). Formation of non-bioavailable, elemental Se was less for RMO incubated with SeMet compared with inorganic Se sources (P = 0.01); no differences were observed between Na selenate and Na selenite (P = 0.09). The clinical importance of these results is that the oral bioavailability of organic SeMet should be greater compared with inorganic Se sources because of greater RMO incorporation of Se and decreased formation of elemental Se by RMO.

  6. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside, a nonionic surfactant, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen fermentation, amino acid composition of rumen content, bacteria and plasma in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bo; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Tan, Chuanyan; Zhong, Rongzhen; Hea, Zhixiong; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of different forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and an alkyl polyglycoside (APG) supplementation on parameters of rumen and blood metabolism were investigated in goats. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was arranged within a 4 x 4 Latin square design (four 22-day periods), using four wether goats equipped with permanent ruminal cannulas. The experimental diets included two F:C levels (40:60 vs. 60:40), and two APG supplementation levels (None or 13 ml APG daily per animal). Rumen contents and blood samples were collected at the end of each period. Dietary F:C alteration affected plasma urea and influenced the proportions of leucine, histidine, arginine, glycine, proline, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, cysteine and tyrosine in rumen content, and the proportions of methionine, threonine and proline in solid-associated bacteria (SAB) significantly. Dietary APG decreased the proportions of valine and phenylalanine in rumen content, and the histidine content of liquid-associated bacteria. The interaction between dietary F:C and APG was significant for the proportions of glycine and alanine in rumen content, and the proportions of lysine and threonine in SAB. The proportion of lysine was greater, but the proportion of threonine was less in SAB for goats fed high F:C diet without APG supplementation. The proportions of plasma free amino acids and glucose concentration were not affected by experimental treatments. These results indicated that dietary APG addition affected the amino acid composition of the rumen content and ruminal bacteria, but this depended on the dietary F:C ratio. It is necessary to validate the effectiveness of dietary APG supplementation in further studies with more animals.

  7. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L.; Vercoe, Phillip E.; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Background.Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of...

  8. Short communication: Initial evidence supporting existence of potential rumen epidermal stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, T T; Tucker, H L M; Parsons, C L M; Geiger, A J; Akers, R M; Daniels, K M

    2016-09-01

    The bovine rumen epidermis is a keratinized multilayered tissue that experiences persistent cell turnover. Because of this constant cell turnover, epidermal stem cells and their slightly more differentiated daughter cells, epidermal progenitor cells, must exist in the stratum basale of rumen epidermis. To date, these 2 epidermal cell populations and any unique cellular markers they may possess remain completely uncharacterized in the bovine rumen. An important first step in this new research area is the demonstration of the relative abundance and existence of markers for these cells in rumen tissue. A related second step is to document rumen epidermal proliferative responses to an extrinsic signal such as nutrient concentration within the rumen. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extrinsic effect of diet on (1) gene expression of 6 potential rumen epidermal stem or progenitor cell markers and (2) rumen epidermal cell proliferation within the stratum basale. Twelve preweaned Holstein heifers were fed either a restricted diet (R) or an enhanced diet (EH). Animals on R received a milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg of powder dry matter (DM)/d (20.9% crude protein, 29.8% fat, DM basis) and EH received MR at 1.08kg of powder dry matter/d (28.9% crude protein, 26.2% fat, DM basis). All calves had access to a 20% crude protein starter and were weaned during wk 7 of the experiment. Lifetime DM intake was 0.73kg of DM/calf per day for R (5.88 Mcal of net energy/calf per day) and 1.26kg of DM/calf per day for EH (10.68 Mcal of net energy/calf per day). Twenty-four hours before slaughter heifers received an intravenous dose of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. Heifers were slaughtered at 8 wk of age, and rumen samples from the ventral sac region were obtained and stored in RNA preservative and processed for routine histology. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to analyze relative abundance of genes. Candidate

  9. An annotated and revised checklist of pleurostome ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora: Litostomatea) from Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, L'ubomír

    2014-02-04

    Pleurostomatids are predatory ciliates, living especially in the periphyton and benthos of various freshwater and marine habitats. In the present work, we provide an annotated and revised checklist of this ciliate group from the territory of Slovakia. Altogether 29 pleurostome species belonging to five genera have been reported there: Acineria incurvata, Ac. punctata, Ac. uncinata, Amphileptus claparedii, Am. falcatus, Am. fusiformis, Am. parafusidens, Am. pleurosigma, Am. procerus, Am. punctatus, A. rotundus, Litonotus alpestris, Li. anguilla, Li. carinatus, Li. crystallinus, Li. cygnus, Li. fasciola, Li. fusidens, Li. hirundo, Li. lamella, Li. minisculus, Li. muscorum, Li. obtusus, Li. triqueter, Li. varsaviensis, Loxophyllum helus, Lo. meleagris, Lo. rostratum, and Siroloxophyllum utriculariae. We have catalogued these records providing the following data for each species: (1) author(s) and date of publication; (2) name(s) of the species as appeared in the publication(s) followed by chronologically listed references including relevant page(s) in literature; (3) nomenclatural and taxonomic notes if needed; (4) main morphological characters; (5) morphological data on Slovak populations if available; and (6) all faunistic records.

  10. Diversity of apostome ciliates, Chromidina spp. (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae), parasites of cephalopods of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chromidina spp. are enigmatic apostome ciliates (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae) that parasitise the renal and pancreatic appendages of cephalopods. Only four species have been described, among which only three have been formally named. No DNA sequence has been reported so far. To investigate Chromidina spp. diversity, we sampled cephalopods in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunis, Tunisia, and identified two distinct Chromidina spp. in two different host species: Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis. From haematoxylin-stained slides, we described morphological traits for these parasitic species and compared them to previous descriptions. We also re-described the morphology of Chromidina elegans (Foettinger, 1881) from Chatton and Lwoff’s original materials and designated a neohapantotype and paraneohapantotypes for this species. We describe a new species, Chromidina chattoni Souidenne, Florent and Grellier n. sp., found in L. vulgaris off Tunisia, and evidence for a probable novel species, found in S. officinalis off Tunisia, although this latter species presents similarities to some morphological stages previously described for Chromidina cortezi Hochberg, 1971. We amplified, for the first time, an 18S rDNA marker for these two Chromidina species. Phylogenetic analysis supports the association of Chromidina within apostome ciliates. Genetic distance analysis between 18S rDNA sequences of representative apostomes indicates Pseudocollinia as the most closely related genus to Chromidina. PMID:27530149

  11. Diversity of apostome ciliates, Chromidina spp. (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae, parasites of cephalopods of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souidenne Dhikra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromidina spp. are enigmatic apostome ciliates (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae that parasitise the renal and pancreatic appendages of cephalopods. Only four species have been described, among which only three have been formally named. No DNA sequence has been reported so far. To investigate Chromidina spp. diversity, we sampled cephalopods in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunis, Tunisia, and identified two distinct Chromidina spp. in two different host species: Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis. From haematoxylin-stained slides, we described morphological traits for these parasitic species and compared them to previous descriptions. We also re-described the morphology of Chromidina elegans (Foettinger, 1881 from Chatton and Lwoff’s original materials and designated a neohapantotype and paraneohapantotypes for this species. We describe a new species, Chromidina chattoni Souidenne, Florent and Grellier n. sp., found in L. vulgaris off Tunisia, and evidence for a probable novel species, found in S. officinalis off Tunisia, although this latter species presents similarities to some morphological stages previously described for Chromidina cortezi Hochberg, 1971. We amplified, for the first time, an 18S rDNA marker for these two Chromidina species. Phylogenetic analysis supports the association of Chromidina within apostome ciliates. Genetic distance analysis between 18S rDNA sequences of representative apostomes indicates Pseudocollinia as the most closely related genus to Chromidina.

  12. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts.

  13. Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates.

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    Kateřina Pomajbíková

    Full Text Available Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2. We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Balantidium entozoon from edible frog and Buxtonella sulcata from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of B. coli, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of B. coli at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely B. entozoon, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from B. coli. Thus, we propose a new genus Neobalantidium for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes clustered with B. sulcata with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of Buxtonella and Neobalantidium are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of Buxtonella-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans.

  14. Evolutionary relationship and species separation of four morphologically similar stichotrichous ciliates (Protozoa,Ciliophora)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenzhen Yi; John Clamp; Khaled A.S.A1-Rasheid; Abdulaziz A.Al-Khedhairy; Zigui Chen; Weibo Song

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on ciliate protists using molecular approaches have been demonstrated to be very reliable to form strong conclusions and results.In the present work,species separation of some morphologically similar stichotrichous ciliates,two species of Pseudokeronopsis and two species of Apokeronopsis,was reexamined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (PCRRFLP).Five of 10 restriction enzymes revealed species-specific polymorphic patterns,of which four similar stichotrichs could be significantly separated and identified.Among them,EcoR I offered almost no significantly different restriction fragment patterns,but the four species could be separated from one another and identified with Hae III.Distinctly different restriction digestion haplotypes and similarity indices separated the species,and were used to construct a phylogeny.Phylogenies based on ITS2 nucleotide sequences and ITS2 secondary structures supported the separation of Pseudokeronopsis and Apokeronopsis using RFLP analysis,although three Pseudokeronopsis carnea populations did not cluster together.In addition,phylogenetic analyses using multiple algorithms confirmed that these two genera formed two distinct groups within the urostylids.(C) 2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  15. Differential localization and functional specialization of centrin analogs in the parasitic ciliate Trichodina pediculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguès, Bernard; Colombet, Jonathan; Damaj, Raghida

    2016-09-01

    Trichodinids are ciliated protozoans that reversibly attach to the tegument of marine and freshwater host-organisms via an adhesive disc. In this study, we have used permeabilized cell models of Trichodina pediculus to examine the distribution of centrins, a Ca(2+)-binding protein associated with centrioles and/or contractile filamentous structures in a large number of protists. The previous finding that filamentous material of the adhesive disc comprised a 23-kDa centrin analog suggested that this protein might be a disc-specific isoform. This possibility was explored through immunolabeling methods using two distinct antibodies, anti-ecto-endoplasmic boundary (EEB) and anti-Hscen2 previously shown to react respectively with centrin-based filament networks and with centrioles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that anti-EEB reacts with filamentous material of the disc but not with basal bodies. Conversely, anti-Hscen2 cross-reacted with basal bodies but failed to label any type of structure occurring in the disc area. More detailed data on localization of this protein was obtained by immunoelectron microscopy showing gold particles deposits in the lumen of basal bodies. The different patterns revealed by this immunochemical approach suggest that the two protein antigens concerned by this study are distinct centrin isoforms that presumably perform organelle-specific function in the ciliate T. pediculus.

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium

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    Lynch Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa remains a virtually unexplored issue. Results By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Our observations 1 shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2 are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3 reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  17. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  18. A cover of glass: first report of biomineralized silicon in a ciliate, Maryna umbrellata (Ciliophora: Colpodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Weissenbacher, Birgit; Krautgartner, Wolf-Dietrich; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Using hydrofluoric acid, scanning electron microscope-assisted X-ray microanalysis, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, we present the first definite proof of biomineralized silicon [(SiO(2))](n) in a ciliophoran protist, Maryna umbrellata, a common inhabitant of ephemeral pools. In the trophic specimen, the amorphic silicon (glass) granules are accumulated in the anterior half of the body. When entering the dormant stage, most glass granules are excreted to form the surface cover of the globular resting cyst. Most likely, the silicon granules are synthesized in vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. First, nanospheres with a size of 20-40 nm are formed in a fibrous matrix; they grow to be spongious complexes, eventually becoming amorphous glass granules with an average size of 819 nm x 630 nm. In the transmission electron microscope, the silicon granules show the characteristic fracture pattern of glass known from many other silicon-bearing organisms. A literature survey suggests that silicon is very rare in ciliates. The fine structure and genesis of silicon granules in M. umbrellata are very similar to those of other organisms, including vascular plants and animals, indicating a common mechanism. Light perception and protection against mechanical stress and predators might be functions of the silicon granules in M. umbrellata. The palaeontological significance of glass cysts in ciliates is also discussed.

  19. ATP4 and ciliation in the neuroectoderm and endoderm of Xenopus embryos and tadpoles

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    Peter Walentek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During gastrulation and neurulation, foxj1 expression requires ATP4a-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for ciliation of the gastrocoel roof plate (Walentek et al. Cell Rep. 1 (2012 516–527. and the mucociliary epidermis (Walentek et al. Dev. Biol. (2015 of Xenopus laevis embryos. These data suggested that ATP4a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulate foxj1 throughout Xenopus development. Here we analyzed whether foxj1 expression was also ATP4a-dependent in other ciliated tissues of the developing Xenopus embryo and tadpole. We found that in the floor plate of the neural tube ATP4a-dependent canonical Wnt signaling was required for foxj1 expression, downstream of or in parallel to Hedgehog signaling. In the developing tadpole brain, ATP4-function was a prerequisite for the establishment of cerebrospinal fluid flow. Furthermore, we describe foxj1 expression and the presence of multiciliated cells in the developing tadpole gastrointestinal tract. Our work argues for a general requirement of ATP4-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling for foxj1 expression and motile ciliogenesis throughout Xenopus development.

  20. Methane Inhibition Alters the Microbial Community, Hydrogen Flow, and Fermentation Response in the Rumen of Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Denman, Stuart E.; Yang, Chunlei; Cheung, Jane; Mitsumori, Makoto; McSweeney, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Management of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen has been identified as an important consideration when reducing ruminant CH4 emissions. However, little is known about hydrogen flux and microbial rumen population responses to CH4 inhibition when animals are fed with slowly degradable diets. The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, chloroform, on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, and H2/CH4 production were investigated in vivo. Eight rumen fistulated Brahman steers were fed a roughage hay diet (Rhode grass hay) or roughage hay:concentrate diet (60:40) with increasing levels (low, mid, and high) of chloroform in a cyclodextrin matrix. The increasing levels of chloroform resulted in an increase in H2 expelled as CH4 production decreased with no effect on dry matter intakes. The amount of expelled H2 per mole of decreased methane, was lower for the hay diet suggesting a more efficient redirection of hydrogen into other microbial products compared with hay:concentrate diet. A shift in rumen fermentation toward propionate and branched-chain fatty acids was observed for both diets. Animals fed with the hay:concentrate diet had both higher formate concentration and H2 expelled than those fed only roughage hay. Metabolomic analyses revealed an increase in the concentration of amino acids, organic, and nucleic acids in the fluid phase for both diets when methanogenesis was inhibited. These changes in the rumen metabolism were accompanied by a shift in the microbiota with an increase in Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and a decrease in Archaea and Synergistetes for both diets. Within the Bacteroidetes family, some OTUs assigned to Prevotella were promoted under chloroform treatment. These bacteria may be partly responsible for the increase in amino acids and propionate in the rumen. No significant changes were observed for abundance of fibrolytic bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which suggests that fiber degradation was not impaired. The observed 30% decrease in

  1. Methane Inhibition Alters the Microbial Community, Hydrogen Flow, and Fermentation Response in the Rumen of Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Denman, Stuart E; Yang, Chunlei; Cheung, Jane; Mitsumori, Makoto; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Management of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen has been identified as an important consideration when reducing ruminant CH4 emissions. However, little is known about hydrogen flux and microbial rumen population responses to CH4 inhibition when animals are fed with slowly degradable diets. The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, chloroform, on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, and H2/CH4 production were investigated in vivo. Eight rumen fistulated Brahman steers were fed a roughage hay diet (Rhode grass hay) or roughage hay:concentrate diet (60:40) with increasing levels (low, mid, and high) of chloroform in a cyclodextrin matrix. The increasing levels of chloroform resulted in an increase in H2 expelled as CH4 production decreased with no effect on dry matter intakes. The amount of expelled H2 per mole of decreased methane, was lower for the hay diet suggesting a more efficient redirection of hydrogen into other microbial products compared with hay:concentrate diet. A shift in rumen fermentation toward propionate and branched-chain fatty acids was observed for both diets. Animals fed with the hay:concentrate diet had both higher formate concentration and H2 expelled than those fed only roughage hay. Metabolomic analyses revealed an increase in the concentration of amino acids, organic, and nucleic acids in the fluid phase for both diets when methanogenesis was inhibited. These changes in the rumen metabolism were accompanied by a shift in the microbiota with an increase in Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and a decrease in Archaea and Synergistetes for both diets. Within the Bacteroidetes family, some OTUs assigned to Prevotella were promoted under chloroform treatment. These bacteria may be partly responsible for the increase in amino acids and propionate in the rumen. No significant changes were observed for abundance of fibrolytic bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which suggests that fiber degradation was not impaired. The observed 30% decrease in

  2. Methane inhibition alters the microbial community, hydrogen flow and fermentation response in the rumen of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martinez-Fernandez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Management of metabolic hydrogen ([H] in the rumen has been identified as an important consideration when reducing ruminant CH4 emissions. However, little is known about hydrogen flux and microbial rumen population responses to CH4 inhibition when animals are fed with slowly degradable diets. The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, chloroform, on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology and H2 /CH4 production were investigated in vivo. Eight rumen fistulated Brahman steers were fed a roughage hay diet (Rhode grass hay or roughage hay:concentrate diet (60:40 with increasing levels (low, mid and high of chloroform in a cylcodextrin matrix. The increasing levels of chloroform resulted in an increase in H2 expelled as CH4 production decreased with no effect on dry matter intakes. The amount of expelled H2 per mole of decreased methane, was lower for the hay diet suggesting a more efficient redirection of hydrogen into other microbial products compared with hay:concentrate diet. A shift in rumen fermentation towards propionate and branched-chain fatty acids was observed for both diets. Animals fed with the hay:concentrate diet had both higher formate concentration and H2 expelled than those fed only roughage hay. Metabolomic analyses revealed an increase in the concentration of amino acids, organic and nucleic acids in the fluid phase for both diets when methanogenesis was inhibited. These changes in the rumen metabolism were accompanied by a shift in the microbiota with an increase in Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and a decrease in Archaea and Synergistetes for both diets. Within the Bacteroidetes family, some OTUs assigned to Prevotella were promoted under choloroform treatment. These bacteria may be partly responsible for the increase in amino acids and propionate in the rumen. No significant changes were observed for abundance of fibrolytic bacteria, protozoa and fungi, which suggests that fibre degradation was not impaired. The observed 30

  3. Host Immune Selection of Rumen Bacteria through Salivary Secretory IgA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Fouhse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiome is integral to efficient production in cattle and shows strong host specificity, yet little is known about what host factors shape rumen microbial composition. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA is produced in large amounts in the saliva, can coat both commensal and pathogenic microbes within the gut, and presents a plausible mechanism of host specificity. However, the role salivary SIgA plays in commensal bacteria selection in ruminants remains elusive. The main objectives of this study were to develop an immuno-affinity benchtop method to isolate SIgA-tagged microbiota and to determine if salivary SIgA preferentially binds selected bacteria. We hypothesized that SIgA-tagged bacteria would differ from total bacteria, thus supporting a potential host-derived mechanism in commensal bacterial selection. Whole rumen (n = 9 and oral secretion samples (n = 10 were incubated with magnetic beads conjugated with anti-secretory IgA antibodies to enrich SIgA-tagged microbiota. Microbial DNA from the oral secretion, whole rumen, SIgA-tagged oral secretion, and SIgA-tagged rumen was isolated for amplicon sequencing of V1–V3 region of 16S rDNA genes. Whole rumen and oral secretion had distinctive (P < 0.05 bacterial compositions indicated by the non-parametric multidimensional scaling plot using Euclidean distance metrics. The SIgA-tagged microbiota from rumen and oral secretion had similar abundance of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Fibrobacter, candidate phyla TM7, and Tenericutes and are clustered tightly. Composition of SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota was more similar to whole rumen microbiota than whole oral secretion due to enrichment of rumen bacteria (Lachnospiraceae and depletion of oral taxa (Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseriaceae, and Lactobacillales. In conclusion, SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota had an increased resemblance to whole rumen microbiota, suggesting salivary SIgA-coating may be one host

  4. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI RUMEN SAPI TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Dewi Artanti Putri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse merupakan limbah yang dihasilkan oleh produksi bioetanol yang mempunyai kandungan COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand yang tinggi. Dengan karakteristik tersebut vinasse lebih tepat diuraikan dengan proses anaerob menjadi biogas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suhu dan perbandingan rumen sapi  yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biogas dengan hasil yang optimum. Suhu mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dan kecepatan reaksi dalam pembentukan biogas. Rumen sapi adalah inokulum atau starter yang merupakan bahan yang perlu ditambahkan ke dalam sistem digester biogas. Percobaan dilakukan dalam digester volum 500 ml, dioperasikan pada pH 7 dengan memvariasikan perbandingan suhu,yaitu suhu ruang, suhu 50 oC, dan suhu60 oC dan variasi konsentrasi rumen sapi  5%, 10%, 15%. Proses fermentasi dilakukan dengan cara batch dengan pengukuran gas setiap 2-3 hari menggunakan metode water displacement technique sampai gas tidak terbentuk selama 60 hari. Respon yang diambil pada penelitian ini adalah volume gas yang dihasilkan berdasarkan pengaruh suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi terhadap produksi biogas. Perubahan suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi sangat mempengaruhi produksi biogas. Hasil yang terbaik dari penelitian ini adalah pada konsentrasi rumen 15% pada suhu ruang yaitu sebanyak 370 ml. Kata kunci: biogas, vinasse, suhu, rumen sapiVinasse is the waste generated by the production of bioethanol which has high content of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand. With these characteristics, it is more appropriate to convert it into biogas through anaerobic digestion process. This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature and the cow rumen concentration needed to obtain biogas with optimum results. Temperature affects the growth of microorganisms and speed of reaction in the formation of biogas. The cow rumen was used as inoculum or starter material that needs to be added to the biogas digester system. Experiments conducted in the digester

  5. Meiosis gene inventory of four ciliates reveals the prevalence of a synaptonemal complex-independent crossover pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jingyun; Mahé, Frédéric; Loidl, Josef; Logsdon, John; Dunthorn, Micah

    2014-03-01

    To establish which meiosis genes are present in ciliates, and to look for clues as to which recombination pathways may be treaded by them, four genomes were inventoried for 11 meiosis-specific and 40 meiosis-related genes. We found that the set of meiosis genes shared by Tetrahymena thermophila, Paramecium tetraurelia, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and Oxytricha trifallax is consistent with the prevalence of a Mus81-dependent class II crossover pathway that is considered secondary in most model eukaryotes. There is little evidence for a canonical class I crossover pathway that requires the formation of a synaptonemal complex (SC). This gene inventory suggests that meiotic processes in ciliates largely depend on mitotic repair proteins for executing meiotic recombination. We propose that class I crossovers and SCs were reduced sometime during the evolution of ciliates. Consistent with this reduction, we provide microscopic evidence for the presence only of degenerate SCs in Stylonychia mytilus. In addition, lower nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation rates of some of the meiosis genes suggest that, in contrast to most other nuclear genes analyzed so far, meiosis genes in ciliates are largely evolving at a slower rate than those genes in fungi and animals.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Francisella endociliophora Strain FSC1006, Isolated from a Laboratory Culture of the Marine Ciliate Euplotes raikovi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Andreas; Öhrman, Caroline; Bäckman, Stina; Lärkeryd, Adrian; Granberg, Malin; Lundmark, Eva; Karlsson, Edvin; Nilsson, Elin; Vallesi, Adriana; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Stenberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    A strain of Francisella endociliophora was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine ciliate Euplotes raikovi. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the bacterial strain FSC1006 (Francisella Strain Collection, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden). PMID:25428973

  7. Downregulation of cellular protective factors of rumen epithelium in goats fed high energy diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hollmann

    Full Text Available Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants.

  8. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations.

  9. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Yanez-Ruiz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonisation that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early-life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early-life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations.

  10. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Manfred; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Sabitzer, Sonja; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants. PMID:24349094

  11. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  12. Observations on the biology, epidemiology and economic relevance of rumen flukes (Paramphistomidae) in cattle kept in a temperate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, Neil; Francis, Emily; Davison, Chloe; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian; Mazeri, Stella

    2016-03-30

    There is concern about the probable recent introduction, increased prevalence and potential economic impact of rumen fluke infection of United Kingdom cattle. A study of 339 cattle slaughtered in a Scottish red meat abattoir was undertaken with the aims of describing the prevalence and geographical distribution of rumen fluke infection, estimating its effect on production, and evaluating faecal egg counts (FECs) as a tool to diagnose infection in live animals and study the epidemiology of the disease. The overall proportion of cattle consigned to the abattoir from northern United Kingdom with rumen fluke infection in the forestomachs was 0.29. Rumen flukes were distributed predominantly in the cranial sac of the rumen and adjacent to the reticular groove. Overall, a mean of 213 and median of 44 rumen flukes was identified in the forestomachs of rumen fluke-positive cattle. The mean and median FECs of animals were 26.01 and 5.20 eggs per gram (epg), respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean FECs per rumen fluke of 0.08 and 0.13 epg during summer/autumn and winter sampling periods, respectively. The overall correlation between rumen fluke FECs and the number of flukes in the forestomach was high, albeit lower in the summer/autumn than in the winter period. The sensitivities of rumen fluke FECs for the identification of flukes in the forestomach during the summer/autumn and winter sampling periods were 0.65 and 0.85, respectively. These results will aid in the interpretation of rumen fluke FECs when monitoring cattle health and production and studying the parasite's epidemiology in a temperate environment, thereby informing rational, precise and sustainable disease control.

  13. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa,Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32x-9.51 (R2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was fotnd to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86x+0.89 (R2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2862.85e-0.0ax (R2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y = 127.15e-0.13x (R2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  14. Evaluation of double formalin--Lugol's fixation in assessing number and biomass of ciliates: an example of estimations at mesoscale in NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; Van Wambeke, France; Dalby, Andrew P

    2004-03-01

    Ciliated protozoa are potential grazers of primary and bacterial production and act as intermediaries between picoplankton and copepods and other large suspension feeders. Accurate determination of ciliate abundance and feeding mode is crucial in oceanic carbon budget estimations. However, the impact of different fixatives on the abundance and cell volume of ciliates has been investigated in only a few studies using either laboratory cultures or natural populations. Lugol's solution and formalin are the most commonly used fixatives for the preservation of ciliates samples. In the present study, the aim was to compare 0.4% Lugol's solution and 2% borated-formalin fixation and evaluate the need of counting duplicate samples each using a different fixative. For this, a large number of samples (n = 110) from the NE Atlantic was analyzed in the frame of POMME program (Multidisciplinary Mesoscale Ocean Program). We established a statistically significant relationship (p Lugol's and formalin fixed samples for both abundance (r2 = 0.50) and biomass (r2 = 0.76) of aloricate ciliates which showed that counts were higher in Lugol's solution by a factor of 2 and a non-taxon specific cell-loss in formalin. However, loricate ciliate abundance in our samples which were represented primarily by Tintinnus spp. did not show any difference between the two treatments. Abundance and biomass of mixotrophic ciliates (chloroplast-bearing cells) were for various reasons underestimated in both treatments. Our results show that unique fixation by formalin may severely underestimate ciliates abundance and biomass although their population may not alter. For this reason, Lugol's solution is best for the estimation of their abundance and biomass. However, for counts of mixotrophs and the evaluation of the ecological role of ciliates in carbon flux, double fixation is essential. Compromises regarding the fixatives have lead to severe underestimations of mixotrophs in studies conducted by now.

  15. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  16. A simplified experimental model for clearance of some pathogenic bacteria using common bacterivorous ciliated spp. in Tigris river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Talib Hassan; Saleh, Dhuha Saad

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-specific uptake rates of three different protozoan taxa on a pure and mixed bacterial community was studied by means of a simplified and functionally reproducible experimental model. The bacterial species Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were isolated and classified from stool samples of patients suffering from diarrhea. Paramecium caudatum, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Halteria grandinella, free living ciliate Protozoans, were isolated and identified from Tigris river water. Pure and mixed ( E. coli + S. typhi), ( E. coli + Sh. flexneri) bacterial cultures were used with each ciliate genera to evaluate the following: predator duplication rate, prey reduction rate, clearance rate and net grazing rate. We used selective lactose fermentation phenomena of enteric bacteria on MacConkey medium for the quantification of bacteria cultural characteristics. The final bacteria concentration was reduced by growing protozoa of 98-99.9 % compared to protozoa-free controls. It showed that Tetrahymena pyriformis had the highest duplication rate (4.13 time/day) in both types of cultures (pure and mixed), followed by Paramecium caudatum and Halteria grandinella, respectively. Paramecium caudatum had the highest rate of ingestion in both types of cultures (26 × 103 bacteria/organism/hr) and yielded the longest time required for 90 % bacterial reduction in a pure suspension of S. typhi (166 h). Clearance rates of pathogenic bacteria by ciliates ranged between 106 nanoliter/organism/h by P. caudatum to S. typhi and 1.92 nanoliter/organism/h seen in T. pyriformis in ( E. coli + S. typhi) mixed culture. We used aquatic experimental microcosms under controlled conditions to explore bacteria-dependent ciliate growth and examined whether these ciliates could discriminate between equally sized bacterial preys in a mixture.

  17. Influence of ciliated protozoa and heterotrophic nanoflagellates on the fate of primary production in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; van Wambeke, France; Denis, Michel; Moutin, Thierry

    2005-07-01

    Heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates and their herbivorous activity were studied within the framework of the Programme Océan Multidisciplinaire Méso Echelle (POMME) in the northeastern Atlantic between 16°-22°W and 38°-45°N during winter, spring, and late summer/autumn 2001. Ciliate ingestion rates of Synechococcus and eukaryotic algae were measured using fluorescently labeled prey. Heterotrophic nanoflagellate ingestion rates of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus were also estimated. Heterotrophic nanoflagellate and ciliate standing stock within the surface layer (0-100 m) showed seasonal variation, with maximal values in spring (866 mg C m-2 and 637 mg C m-2, respectively). Oligotrichs dominated the ciliate assemblages, except at one site visited during spring, where a tintinnid bloom was observed. Ingestion of photosynthetic cells less than 10 μm in size was positively correlated (r = 0.7, p consumption reflected differences in the evolution of the phytoplankton bloom and in the structure of the microbial food web, both associated with the strong mesoscale hydrodynamic variability of the study area. In that context it is worthy to note that when tintinnids reached high abundances locally (1260 cells L-1), their impact as phytoplankton grazers was important and reached 69% of primary production. Generally, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates were relatively more important in determining the fate of phytogenic carbon during spring. Another interesting feature of primary production consumption was that during the autumn, when Prochlorococcus dominated the phytoplankton community, the protozoan grazing activity was ineffective in regulating the fate of primary producers.

  18. Importance and nutritional value of large ciliates for the reproduction of Acartia clausi during the post spring-bloom period in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Peters, J.

    2008-01-01

    of the mineral and lipid content confirmed a high seston nutritional quality. The 20 to 48 mu m fraction reflected the composition of female diets and indicated an enrichment of N and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet compared to total seston. The fraction > 48 mu m consisted mostly of ciliates...... (> 97 %) and was particularly important in providing N to copepods. Ciliates were also rich in PUFA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is normally characteristic of diatoms. We conclude that large ciliates constitute an excellent food source for the reproduction of A. clausi. The occurrence...

  19. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  20. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  1. Studies of method of conserving grass herbage and frequency of feeding in cattle. 2. Eating behaviour, rumen motility and rumen fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiago, L R; Gill, M; Sissons, J W

    1992-05-01

    The influence of the method of conserving grass herbage and the frequency of feeding on eating behaviour, rumen motility and rumen fill was studied in growing steers. Silage and hay were offered to twelve rumen-cannulated Friesian steers (average initial live weight (LW) 128 kg) at a restricted level of intake (20 g dry matter (DM)/kg LW) either once or eight times daily. With once daily feeding, the daily intake of hay was consumed in a single large meal which lasted about 2 h, while silage was eaten in many small meals throughout the day. The proportion of the day spent ruminating was higher (0.39) for steers offered hay once daily than for those offered silage (0.28) or hay eight times per day (0.29). There was little effect of conservation method on frequency of rumen contraction, but contractile intensity (integration of frequency and amplitude) increased during the second half of the 24 h feeding cycle in steers offered hay either once daily or eight times daily, while the same effect was only observed when silage was offered once daily. Total daily contractile activity (the integration of the frequency and duration of myoelectric spike bursts) was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in steers offered hay, compared with silage, once daily. The mean weight of organic matter in the reticulo-rumen of steers offered hay was significantly higher than for silage both with once (1593 v. 1326 g organic matter (OM)/100 kg LW, P less than 0.01) and eight (1367 v. 1160 g OM/100 kg LW, P less than 0.05) times daily feeding. The proportion of the particulate pool which was present as small (less than 1.2 mm) particles was always greater than 0.60.

  2. Effects of pistachio by-products in replacement of alfalfa hay on populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation and fermentative parameters in the rumen of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, M H; Tahmasbi, A-M; Khorvash, M; Naserian, A-A; Ghaffari, A H; Valizadeh, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sundried pistachio by-products (PBP) as a replacement of alfalfa hay (AH) on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation (BH) in Baluchi sheep. Four adult male Baluchi sheep (41 ± 1.3 kg, BW) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) control, (ii) 12% PBP (0.33 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP), (iii) 24% PBP (0.66 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP) and (iv) 36% PBP (all of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP). The basal diet was 360 g/kg dry matter (DM) alfalfa hay, 160 g/kg DM wheat straw and 480 g/kg DM concentrate. The trial consisted of four periods, each composed of 16 days adaptation and 4 days data collection including measurement of blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and population of bacteria. No differences were observed in rumen pH among the treatments, while rumen ammonia-N concentrations were decreased (p< 0.05) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM of the diets. Using of 36% PBP in the diet reduced (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportion of acetate, while the concentration of propionate, butyrate and acetate to propionate ratio were similar to all other treatments. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreased (p < 0.01) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM in the diets of sheep. However, other blood metabolites were not affected by the experimental diets. It was concluded that PBP in replacement of AH had no effects on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in relation to the control diet.

  3. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NOREEN SHER AKBAR; ADIL WAHID BUTT; DHARMENDRA TRIPATHI; O ANWAR BÉG

    2017-03-01

    The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re $\\ll$ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.

  4. New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-San Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC, 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC, 8-12 transverse cirri (TC, 1 buccal cirrus (BC, 9-12 midventral pairs (MP, 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK, and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC, 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.

  5. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar

    2017-03-01

    The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.

  6. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  7. Divisional morphogenesis in the marine ciliate Anteholosticha manca(Kahl,1932) Berger,2003(Ciliophora: Urostylida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liqiong; HU Xiaozhong; WARREN Alan; AL-RASHEID Khaled A S; AL - FARRAJ Saleh A; SHAO Chen; SONG Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The cortical development and macronuclear evolution of the marine hypotrichous ciliate Anteholosticha manca,collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao,China,were investigated using the protargol impregnation method.The morphogenesis of A.manca is generally typical for the genus,and can be characterized as the following features:(1) in the proter,a new oral primordium is formed on the bottom (beneath the pellicle) of the buccal cavity,disorganization of the parental undulating membranes do not contribute to the formation of this primordium; (2) FVT-cirral anlagen in both dividers develop independently,and very likely on-ly a few midventral cirri join in the formation of these primordia; (3) both marginal row and dorsal kinety anlagen develop intraki-netally within the parental structure; (4) at the middle stage,macronuclear segments fuse together to form a single mass as ob-served in most of its related forms.

  8. Thermodynamic Stability of Psychrophilic and Mesophilic Pheromones of the Protozoan Ciliate Euplotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Wüthrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three psychrophilic protein pheromones (En-1, En-2 and En-6 from the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, and six mesophilic pheromones (Er-1, Er-2, Er-10, Er-11, Er-22 and Er-23 from the temperate-water sister species, Euplotes raikovi, were studied in aqueous solution for their thermal unfolding and refolding based on the temperature dependence of their circular dichroism (CD spectra. The three psychrophilic proteins showed thermal unfolding with mid points in the temperature range 55–70 °C. In contrast, no unfolding was observed for any of the six mesophilic proteins and their regular secondary structures were maintained up to 95 °C. Possible causes of these differences are discussed based on comparisons of the NMR structures of the nine proteins.

  9. Current status of parasitic ciliates Chilodonella spp. (Phyllopharyngea: Chilodonellidae) in freshwater fish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Gomes, G; Jerry, D R; Miller, T L; Hutson, K S

    2016-07-30

    Freshwater fish farming contributes to more than two-thirds of global aquaculture production. Parasitic ciliates are one of the largest causes of production loss in freshwater farmed fishes, with species from the genus Chilodonella being particularly problematic. While Chilodonella spp. include 'free-living' fauna, some species are involved in mortality events of fish, particularly in high-density aquaculture. Indeed, chilodonellosis causes major productivity losses in over 16 species of farmed freshwater fishes in more than 14 countries. Traditionally, Chilodonella species are identified based on morphological features; however, the genus comprises yet uncharacterized cryptic species, which indicates the necessity for molecular diagnostic methods. This review synthesizes current knowledge on the biology, ecology and geographic distribution of harmful Chilodonella spp. and examines pathological signs, diagnostic methods and treatments. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics and the ability to culture Chilodonella spp. in vitro will enable the development of preventative management practices and sustained freshwater fish aquaculture production.

  10. Tannin on non-degradable digestible protein from proteic sources in cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mezzomo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several tannins at different inclusion levels of protein-rich food and water addition on the amount of rumen undegradable protein (RUP and digestible RUP (RUPd in the rumen were evaluated. Sixty treatments were analyzed, namely: three mixtures of tannin (with different concentrations of hydrolysable and condensed tannins were added at four different amounts (0, 1, 2.5 and 5% in three protein foods (soybean meal, whole soybean meal and peanut meal with and without moisture. Samples were incubated in cattle, via rumen cannula, in triplicate, to quantify rumen degraded protein (RDP, rumen undegradable protein (RUP and digestible RUP (RUPd. Divergence in protein nutritional rate, based on discriminating variables among the groups, was estimated by cluster analysis. Increase in RUPd of treatments required soybean meal with 2.5% tannin, with 85% of condensed tannins and 15% hydrolysable tannins, in an aqueous medium. The inclusion of tannin is recommended to test in in vivo evaluations for productivity increase and inclusion level used.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Sodium Fluoroacetate Degrading Bacteria from Caprine Rumen in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito K. A. Camboim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report the isolation of two fluoroacetate degrading bacteria from the rumen of goats. The animals were adult goats, males, crossbred, with rumen fistula, fed with hay, and native pasture. The rumen fluid was obtained through the rumen fistula and immediately was inoculated 100 μL in mineral medium added with 20 mmol L−1 sodium fluoroacetate (SF, incubated at 39°C in an orbital shaker. Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain DSM 8341 was used as positive control for fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity. Two isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Pigmentiphaga kullae (ECPB08 and Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus (ECPB09. These bacteria degraded sodium fluoroacetate, releasing 20 mmol L−1 of fluoride ion after 32 hours of incubation in Brunner medium containing 20 mmol L−1 of SF. There are no previous reports of fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity for P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus. Control measures to prevent plant intoxication, including use of fences, herbicides, or other methods of eliminating poisonous plants, have been unsuccessful to avoid poisoning by fluoroacetate containing plants in Brazil. In this way, P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus may be used to colonize the rumen of susceptible animals to avoid intoxication by fluoroacetate containing plants.

  12. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Enzim Karbohidrase Cairan Rumen Sapi Asal Rumah Potong Hewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Widyastuti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment were to identify carbohydrases in rumen liquor of cattle, and to determine optimum temperature and pH of enzymes, as well as to evaluate the effect of metal ions and chemical substances on enzymes activity. Optimum precipitation of the enzymes from local and imported cattle was reached at the concentration of 60% and 70% of ammonium sulphate, respectively. The enzymes (xylanase, mannanase, and amylase had optimum temperature in the range of 50–60 °C, except for cellulase from imported cattle which had optimum temperature at 39 oC, optimum pH of the enzymes were 6–7 except for cellulase was at pH 4. The enzymes mostly needed methal ions as activators. EDTA and β-mercaptoethanol inhibited activity of cellulase from rumen liquor of local cattle, while enzymes from rumen liquor of imported cattle EDTA inhibited xylanase activity and β-mercaptoethanol inhibited mannanase and amylase activity. Activity of cellulase in rumen liquor of local cattle was higher than those of imported cattle. It is concluded that rumen liquor of imported and local cattles from abbatoir contained cellulase, xylanase, mannase and amylase that most of them had optimum temperature and pH at 50-60 oC and 6-7, respectively, and they needed methal ions as activators.

  13. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production.

  14. Temporal dynamics of the metabolically active rumen bacteria colonizing fresh perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, Sharon A; Edwards, Joan E; Creevey, Christopher J; Rees Stevens, Pauline; Lin, Wanchang; Girdwood, Susan E; Pachebat, Justin A; Kingston-Smith, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated successional colonization of fresh perennial ryegrass (PRG) by the rumen microbiota over time. Fresh PRG was incubated in sacco in the rumens of three Holstein × Friesian cows over a period of 8 h, with samples recovered at various times. The diversity of attached bacteria was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA (cDNA). Results showed that plant epiphytic communities either decreased to low relative abundances or disappeared following rumen incubation, and that temporal colonization of the PRG by the rumen bacteria was biphasic with primary (1 and 2 h) and secondary (4-8 h) events evident with the transition period being with 2-4 h. A decrease in sequence reads pertaining to Succinivibrio spp. and increases in Pseudobutyrivibrio, Roseburia and Ruminococcus spp. (the latter all order Clostridiales) were evident during secondary colonization. Irrespective of temporal changes, the continually high abundances of Butyrivibrio, Fibrobacter, Olsenella and Prevotella suggest that they play a major role in the degradation of the plant. It is clear that a temporal understanding of the functional roles of these microbiota within the rumen is now required to unravel the role of these bacteria in the ruminal degradation of fresh PRG.

  15. Effect of biochanin A on corn grain (Zea mays) fermentation by bovine rumen amylolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Flythe, M D; Aiken, G E

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of biochanin A (BCA), an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), on corn fermentation by rumen micro-organisms. When bovine rumen bacterial cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39°C) with ground corn, amylolytic bacteria including group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC; Streptococcus bovis; enterococci) proliferated, cellulolytic bacteria were inhibited, lactate accumulated and pH declined. Addition of BCA (30 μg ml(-1) ) inhibited lactate production, and pH decline. BCA had no effect on total amylolytics, but increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC. The initial rate and total starch disappearance was decreased by BCA addition. BCA with added Strep. bovis HC5 supernatant (containing bacteriocins) inhibited the amylolytic bacteria tested (Strep. bovis JB1; Strep. bovis HC5; Lactobacillus reuteri, Selenemonas ruminatium) to a greater extent than either addition alone. BCA increased cellulolytics and dry matter digestibility of hay with corn starch. These results indicate that BCA mitigates changes associated with corn fermentation by bovine rumen bacteria ex vivo. BCA could serve as an effective mitigation strategy for rumen acidosis. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of BCA on mitigating rumen acidosis in vivo. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Effect of media composition, including gelling agents, on isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonyo, T; Shinkai, T; Tajima, A; Mitsumori, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel anaerobic media using gellan gum for the isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Four anaerobic media, a basal liquid medium (BM) with agar (A-BM), a modified BM (MBM) with agar (A-MBM), an MBM with phytagel (P-MBM) and an MBM with gelrite (G-MBM) were used for the isolation of rumen bacteria and evaluated for the growth of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Of the 214 isolates composed of 144 OTUs, 103 isolates (83 OTUs) were previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Most of the previously uncultured strains were obtained from A-MBM, G-MBM and P-MBM, but the predominant cultural members, isolated from each medium, differed. A-MBM and G-MBM showed significantly higher numbers of different OTUs derived from isolates than A-BM (P MBM showed the highest diversity (H' = 3·89) compared with those of G-MBM, P-MBM and A-BM (H' = 3·59, 3·23 and 3·39, respectively). Although previously uncultured rumen bacteria were isolated from all media used, the ratio of previously uncultured bacteria to total isolates was increased in A-MBM, P-MBM and G-MBM.

  17. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Henglong; ZHU Mingzhuang; JIANG Yong; GAO Shan; MIN Gi-Sik; AL-RASHEID Khaled A.S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  18. Emerging roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C in the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondaritis, George; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2011-09-01

    Phospholipases C (PLCs) that hydrolyze inositol phospholipids regulate vital cellular functions in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The PLC superfamily consists of eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific PLCs (PI-PLCs), bacterial PLCs and trypanosomal PLCs.1 PI-PLCs hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P(2)) to produce inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins1,4,5P(3)) and constitute a hallmark feature of eukaryotic cells. In metazoa, this reaction is coupled to receptor signaling via specific PI-PLC isoforms and results in acute increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels by Ins1,4,5P(3)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels (IP(3)-receptors, IP3Rs).2 A striking result of many studies so far has been the presence of a single PI-PLC gene in all unicellular eukaryotes investigated, as opposed to expansion of PI-PLC isoforms in metazoa;3 this has suggested that a single housekeeping PI-PLC represents an archetypal and simplified form of PI-PLC signaling.3 Several studies however have noted a unique expansion of PI-PLC/IP3R pathway components in ciliates.4,5 In a recent paper we showed the presence of multiple functional PI-PLC genes in Tetrahymena thermophila and biochemical characterization, pharmacological studies and study of their expression patterns suggested that they are likely to serve distinct non-redundant roles.4 In this report we discuss these studies and how they advance our understanding of PI-PLC functions in ciliates.

  19. Minerals disappearance rate of leaves of some acacia trees after digestion in goats’ rumen using nylon bags technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al shafei N. K

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The browse plants, including acacia species, provide excellent forage with high nutritive value for ruminants especially in dry areas of Africa. In this study, some minerals (P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined in leaves of browse plants (Acacia albida, Acacia nubica, Acacia sieberiana, Balanites aegyptiaca and Ziziphus spina- christi collected from different areas of Sudan before and after digestion of the sample in goat’s rumen by using nylon bag technique. Nylon bags containing the samples were inserted through the rumen fistula into the goat’s rumen, and were incubated for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. After incubation periods, it was found that there were a high loss of minerals and this is attributed to the rumen digestion and solubility of minerals in rumen liquor. The results indicate that the time of incubation and the type of mineral likely had a significant effect on the loss of minerals in the rumen. It can be observed from these figures that the disappearance rates (slope of the curves vary across mineral types and species of acacia trees. Disappearance rates suggest that the rumen microorganisms have a significant role in the digestion of minerals and their disappearance rates are due to the solubility of minerals in the rumen liquor and the loss of minerals due to utilization of microorganisms to a certain amount for their maintenance.

  20. Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckaert, C.; Vlaeminck, B.; Dijkstra, J.; Issa-Zacharia, A.; Nespen, van T.; Straalen, van W.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experime

  1. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  2. The bacterial community composition of the bovine rumen detected using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rumen as a complex microbial ecosystem plays a critical role in sustainable agriculture. Rumen microorganisms perform important biochemical conversions, including the fermentation of plant fiber to small molecules such as short-chain fatty acids for meat and dairy production. In this study, we s...

  3. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-06-26

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid base in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows was obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same fetal time. For each milk stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and milk stages of dairy (P acids, especially odd-chain fatty acids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (P acid bases which established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low SEs and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  4. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cowproductivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairycows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Controlfed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%,Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet +probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurementswere conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methaneproduction. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improvedFCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and totalsolid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%;11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination ofCRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combinationof CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. ProbioticNoterae improved milk quality.

  5. Evaluation of bovine rumen contents as a feed for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Njidda, Ahmed Amin

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of increasing levels of dried rumen contents (DRC) on voluntary intake, growth performance, digestibility, nutritive value, N utilization, microbial protein supply (MPS), and purine derivatives excretion (PDE) of lambs fed with Afzelia africana basal forage. Sixteen lambs (13.7 ± 0.1 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to one of the four eight diets containing 0, 200, 400 and 600 g DRC/kg dry matter (DM) in a completely random design. Intakes of concentrate, DM, crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), digestible CP (DCP), digestible OM (DOM), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME), CP and OM digestibility, DOM, DCP, DE, ME, N intake and retention, weight gain, cost/kg BW gain, MPS and PDE increased with increasing DRC level up to 400 g/kg DRC and declined at 600 g/kg DRC (P DRC level increased from 0 to 400 g/kg and peaked at 600 g/kg DRC (P DRC level. Results indicate that DRC can be incorporated up to 400 g/kg in a compounded ration for sheep.

  6. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  7. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

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    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  8. Rumen protozoa and methanogenesis: not a simple cause-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Diego P; Martin, Cécile; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Ranilla, Maria José

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interactions between hydrogen producers and consumers in the rumen ecosystem is important for ruminant production and methane mitigation. The present study explored the relationships between rumen protozoa, methanogens and fermentation characteristics. A total of six donor sheep harbouring (F, faunated) or not (D, defaunated) protozoa in their rumens (D animals were kept without protozoa for a period of a few months (D - ) or for more than 2 years (D+)) were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro the absence of protozoa decreased NH3 and butyrate production and had no effect on methane. In contrast, the liquid-associated bacterial and methanogens fraction of D+ inocula produced more methane than D -  and F inoculum (P protozoa may affect differently the methanogen community and methane emissions in wethers.

  9. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

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    S. Puppo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  10. EFFECTS OF FEEDING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF Balanites aegyptiaca (HEGLIG KERNEL CAKE ON CATTLE RUMEN ENVIROMENT

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    M.G. MORKAZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment aimed to investigate the effects of replacing groundnut cake with Balanites aegyptiaca kernel cake up to 15% on rumen environment in local kenana cattle. The study was conducted at the experimental unit of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production College, Sudan University of Science and technology at Hillat Kuku. Traits studied were rumen pH ammonia concentration (NH3, volatile fatty acids concentration (VFAs and bacterial count (BC. No significance difference was observed for pH, NH3, VFAs and BC between treatments. Generally, NH3 and VFAs was increased with time post feeding. But, BC decreased with time post feeding. It was concluded that incorporation of B. Aegyptiacua kernel cake at 5, 10, 15% to replace equal percentages of groundnut cake did not significantly (P<0.05 affected rumen environment.

  11. Relationship between liver and low rumen pH in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z; Jiang, X; Ye, P; Zhang, Y; Ni, Y; Zhuang, S; Shen, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the response of dry goat liver to sub-acute ruminal acidosis induced by a highly concentrated diet. Non-pregnant, non-lactating female Poll-goats (N = 12) were randomly assigned to either a high-concentrate (HG) or a low-concentrate (LG) diet. Low rumen pH was successfully induced with HG (more than 3 h with rumen pH liver was decreased in the HG group compared to the LG group. These data indicate that the expression of hepatic proteins alters the regulation of endogenous lipopolysaccharide during low rumen pH in dry dairy goats. In particular, the protective effect of the liver may occur through inhibition of aldehyde and/or peroxide formation.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of the rumen epithelium of beef cattle differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rebecca S G; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Stothard, Paul; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-08-09

    Feed efficient cattle consume less feed and produce less environmental waste than inefficient cattle. Many factors are known to contribute to differences in feed efficiency, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Our study aimed to understand how host gene expression in the rumen epithelium contributes to differences in residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, using a transcriptome profiling based approach. The rumen epithelial transcriptome from highly efficient (low (L-) RFI, n = 9) and inefficient (high (H-) RFI, n = 9) Hereford x Angus steers was obtained using RNA-sequencing. There were 122 genes differentially expressed between the rumen epithelial tissues of L- and H- RFI steers (p feed efficiency.

  13. Manipulating Protein Degradability in the Rumen to Support Higher Ruminant Production

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    Budi Haryanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein is digested to a certain extent in the rumen causing decreases its potency as source of amino acids for the animal. Dietary protein should mostly reach the intestines where the protein digestion takes place and absorption occurs in the form of intact amino acids and subsequently becomes nutrient deposition in muscles or milk. The higher muscle or milk protein synthesis, the higher the protein in the products of animal, as long as energy for the metabolism is available. Strategies of feeding rumen degradable versus undegradable protein in ruminant have become a research interest for decades. Technologies of dietary protein protection to reduce its degradability in the rumen by heating, chelating or coating have been developed.

  14. Influence of several feeds on bacteria in sheep and goat rumen liquor in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, J; Salmeron, V; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Silva-Colomer, J; Boza, J

    1990-01-01

    Bacteriological studies were made with in vitro sheep and goat ruminal fluids supplemented with several feeds (alfalfa hay, wheat straw, Agave americana, Opuntia ficus indica and Atriplex nummularia) during anaerobic incubation at 38-39 degrees C. Drastic changes in the bacterial population of sheep ruminal fluids occurred in the presence of different feeds, particularly with addition of feeds of low nutritional quality (wheat straw, A. americana and O. ficus indica). However, the bacterial population in goat rumen liquor was little affected by the addition of the same feeds. These results, which suggest that the rumen bacteria in goats are less affected by different nutritional conditions than the rumen bacteria in sheep, are discussed.

  15. Ciliate community structure and interactions within the planktonic food web in two alpine lakes of contrasting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Koinig, Karin A; Rott, Eugen; Sommaruga, Ruben; Tartarotti, Barbara; Trattner, Florian; Sonntag, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Climate warming is accelerating the retreat of glaciers and recently, many 'new' glacial turbid lakes have been created. In the course of time, the loss of the hydrological connectivity to a glacier causes, however, changes in their water turbidity and turns these ecosystems into clear ones.To understand potential differences in the food-web structure between glacier-fed turbid and clear alpine lakes, we sampled ciliates, phyto-, bacterio- and zooplankton in one clear and one glacial turbid alpine lake, and measured key physicochemical parameters. In particular, we focused on the ciliate community and the potential drivers for their abundance distribution.In both lakes, the zooplankton community was similar and dominated by the copepod Cyclops abyssorum tatricus and rotifers including Polyarthra dolichoptera, Keratella hiemalis, Keratella cochlearis and Notholca squamula. The phytoplankton community structure differed and it was dominated by the planktonic diatom Fragilaria tenera and the cryptophyte alga Plagioselmis nannoplanctica in the glacial turbid lake, while chrysophytes and dinoflagellates were predominant in the clear one.Ciliate abundance and richness were higher in the glacial turbid lake (∼4000-27 800 Ind L(-1), up to 29 species) than in the clear lake (∼570-7150 Ind L(-1), up to eight species). The dominant species were Balanion planctonicum, Askenasia cf. chlorelligera, Urotricha cf. furcata and Mesodinium cf. acarus. The same species dominated in both lakes, except for Mesodinium cf. acarus and some particle-associated ciliates, which occurred exclusively in the glacial turbid lake. The relative underwater solar irradiance (i.e. percentage of PAR and UVR at depth) significantly explained their abundance distribution pattern, especially in the clear water lake. In the glacial turbid lake, the abundance of the dominating ciliate taxa was mainly explained by the presence of predatory zooplankton.Our results revealed an unexpected high

  16. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  17. Next generation sequencing to define prokaryotic and fungal diversity in the bovine rumen.

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    Derrick E Fouts

    Full Text Available A combination of Sanger and 454 sequences of small subunit rRNA loci were used to interrogate microbial diversity in the bovine rumen of 12 cows consuming a forage diet. Observed bacterial species richness, based on the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, was between 1,903 to 2,432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs when 5,520 reads were sampled per animal. Eighty percent of species-level OTUs were dominated by members of the order Clostridiales, Bacteroidales, Erysipelotrichales and unclassified TM7. Abundance of Prevotella species varied widely among the 12 animals. Archaeal species richness, also based on 16S rRNA, was between 8 and 13 OTUs, representing 5 genera. The majority of archaeal OTUs (84% found in this study were previously observed in public databases with only two new OTUs discovered. Observed rumen fungal species richness, based on the 18S rRNA gene, was between 21 and 40 OTUs with 98.4-99.9% of OTUs represented by more than one read, using Good's coverage. Examination of the fungal community identified numerous novel groups. Prevotella and Tannerella were overrepresented in the liquid fraction of the rumen while Butyrivibrio and Blautia were significantly overrepresented in the solid fraction of the rumen. No statistical difference was observed between the liquid and solid fractions in biodiversity of archaea and fungi. The survey of microbial communities and analysis of cross-domain correlations suggested there is a far greater extent of microbial diversity in the bovine rumen than previously appreciated, and that next generation sequencing technologies promise to reveal novel species, interactions and pathways that can be studied further in order to better understand how rumen microbial community structure and function affects ruminant feed efficiency, biofuel production, and environmental impact.

  18. Microbial and chemical composition of liquid-associated bacteria in goats' rumen and fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, L; Soto, E C; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between chemical composition and microbial profile of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in vivo (Murciano-Granadina goats) and in a rumen simulation system (single-flow continuous-culture fermenters). To achieve this aim, analyses of purine bases along with some molecular techniques (quantitative PCR to assess abundance and DGGE to identify biodiversity and bacterial profile) were carried out. A control diet (AHC) based on alfalfa hay (AH) and concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio and two experimental diets (AHCBI and AHCBII), in which concentrate was partially replaced with multinutrient blocks, were used. Diets AHCBI and AHCBII included multinutrient blocks differing in the relative amount of two-stage olive cake and the source of protein (sunflower meal vs. fava beans). We aimed to investigate the effect of these blocks on rumen microbiota to evaluate their potential as safe substitutes of cereal-based concentrates. Similar patterns of response to diet were found for chemical composition, microbial abundances and diversity in LAB isolated from goat's rumen and fermenters. Whereas bacterial density (log10 gene copies/g FM: 11.6 and 9.4 for bacteria and methanogens, respectively, in rumen) and diversity indexes (Shannon index: 3.6) were not affected by diet, DGGE analyses showed that bacterial community profile was affected. The cluster analysis suggested differences in bacterial profile between LAB pellets isolated from the rumen of goat and fermenters. A relationship between chemical composition and bacterial community composition in LAB pellets seems to exist. Changes in the former were reflected in the bacterial community profile. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between chemical and microbial composition of ruminal bacterial pellets with diets of different quality.

  19. Ruminal fermentation response and nitrogen retention from sheep fed rumen undegradable protein

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    Wisri Puastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of rumen undegradable protein, could increase supply of amino acids in small intestine to meet host protein requirement. To increase the utilization of feed protein, feed protein source which is highly degradable should be protected from degradation in the rumen. The objective of the study was to increase nitrogen retention through substitution of fish meal protein with soy bean meal protected by banana stem juice observed from rumen fermentation activities. The study used 18 late pregnant Sumatera Composite breed ewes. Rations consisted of fresh chopped elephant grass, supplemented with a commercial concentrate and mineral block in the form of Comin plus and different types of protein supplement as treatment diets. The type of protein supplements were: soya bean meal (RK, soy bean meal protected with banana stem juice (RKT and fish meal (RTI. Treatment diets were offered during late pregnancy (from two months before to two months after partus, two weeks adaptation period was carried out before data recording. Design of the study used randomized complete block design. Results of the study show that rumen ammonia concentration in sheep fed on RKT was not significantly different either from RTI or from RK, however, the nitrogen retention was significantly (P 0.05, however, proportion of C2 and nC4 was significantly different between diet treatment. Methane emission was higher (70.3 mM or 37.2% higher from total energy VFA in diet RKT which is indicated that fermentation system was not efficient. It can be concluded the higher rumen ammonia concentration and lower nitrogen retention in protected soy bean meal supplement indicated that soy bean meal protected by banana stem juice in the ration was not able to substitute fish meal protein which is resistance from degradation in the rumen.

  20. Esubacute acidosis in rumen of high-yield dairy cows: Prevalence and prevention

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    Petrujkić Branko T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations presented in this paper was to establish the frequency of the incidence of subacute acidosis in the rumen of cows (SARA in the first three months of lactation and the possibilities for its prevention using a mineral mix based on bentonite, zeolite, magnesium oxide, and sodium bicarbonate (Mix plus. The values obtained for the rumen pH content show that subacute rumen acidosis occurs in in 20 percent of the examined cows in the early stage of lactation. For these investigations, cows in early stages of lactation were chosen and divided into 2 groups. Cows of the experimental group were administered a fodder mix which contained the mineral mix for a buffer effect (Mix plus. The average values of the rumen pH content in the control and the experimental group of cows at the beginning and on the 30th day of the experiment were approximately the same and did not differ significantly (p>0.05. On the 60th day of the experiment, the values for the electrochemical reaction of the rumen content for the control group amounted to an average of 6.219±0.18, and for the experimental group of cows it was 6.772±0.23. The obtained difference was statistically very significant (p<0.001. At the end of the experiment, on the 90th day, the average pH value of the rumen content of cows of the control group was 6.308±0.16, while this value in the experimental group of cows was significantly higher and amounted to 6.676±0.29 (p<0.01.

  1. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition

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    G. Jayaprakash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumenprotected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  2. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

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    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  3. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2009-01-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine...... the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...

  4. Structure and seasonal dynamics of the protozoan community (heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, amoeboid protozoa) in the plankton of a large river (River Danube, Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Aron Keve; Acs, Eva; Kiss, Keve Tihamér; Török, Júlia Katalin

    2009-05-01

    Seasonal dynamics of all major protozoan groups were investigated in the plankton of the River Danube, upstream of Budapest (Hungary), by bi-weekly sampling over a 1-year long period. Sixty-one heterotrophic flagellate, 14 naked amoeba, 50 testate amoeba, 4 heliozoan and 83 ciliate morphospecies were identified. The estimated abundance ranges of major groups throughout the year were as follows: heterotrophic flagellates, 0.27-7.8 x 10(6)ind.l(-1); naked amoebae, max. 3300ind.l(-1); testaceans, max. 1600ind.l(-1); heliozoans, max. 8500ind.l(-1); ciliates, 132-34,000ind.l(-1). In terms of biovolume, heterotrophic flagellates dominated throughout the year (max. 0.58mm(3)l(-1)), and ciliates only exceeded their biovolume in summer (max. 0.76mm(3)l(-1)). Naked amoeba and heliozoan biovolume was about one, and testacean biovolume 1-3, orders of magnitude lower than that of ciliates. In winter, flagellates, mainly chrysomonads, had the highest biomass, whilst ciliates were dominated by peritrichs. In 2005 from April to July a long spring/summer peak occurred for all protozoan groups. Beside chrysomonads typical flagellates were choanoflagellates, bicosoecids and abundant microflagellates (large chrysomonads and Collodictyon). Most abundant ciliates were oligotrichs, while Phascolodon, Urotricha, Vorticella, haptorids, Suctoria, Climacostomum and Stokesia also contributed significantly to biovolume during rapid succession processes. In October and November a second high protozoan peak occurred, with flagellate dominance, and slightly different taxonomic composition.

  5. Ectopic Ciliated Cyst in the Mandible Secondary to Genioplasty and Lefort after Two Years: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Safoura; Sohanian, Shabnam; Khakbaz, Oveis; Abesi, Farida; Aliakbarpour, Fatemeh; Rayani, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The ectopic ciliated cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst which occurs as a delayed complication after maxillary sinus radical surgery; this lesion emerges due to the destruction of the sinus mucosa during the surgery and entrapment of the respiratory epithelium in the region. This lesion has been observed in very rare cases following genioplasty and bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Case Report: We reported a case of the ectopic ciliated cyst in in the mandible of a 37-year-old Iranian woman following genioplasty and Lefort 1 surgery after 2 years. Its treatment was enucleation. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up after cosmetic surgery of both jaws is recommended due to the probability of this cyst. PMID:27738612

  6. [Relationship of bacteria of Bacillus genus with ciliate Colpoda steinii and their impact on germination of plant seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2012-01-01

    Features of symbiotic coexistence of bacteria of the genus Bacillus with ciliates Colpoda steinii have been studied. In their mutual cultivation during 10 days the number of bacteria B. subtilis IMV V-7023 was reduced 4.4 times, B. pumilus 3 - 3.4 times, B. megaterium 12 - 2.5 times. In the mixed culture with B. pumilus 3 the number of the ciliates increased gradualluy while under availability of the other two bacilli strains the number of protozoan increased in the first two days, after that their amount decreased. Treatment of some plants seeds by suspension of B. subtilis IMV V-7023 with the protozoan increased their germination and stimulated the growth of plants at the early stages of development.

  7. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae, on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schefter, M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations. Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been documented in situ and that multi-scale patchiness has been reported for a benthic ciliate. Colonies were mapped and monitored; some patches over 1 m diameter were recorded. Since 2008, the distribution has again consisted of scattered colonies, as it did from 1999–2004.

  8. Amino acid composition of rumen bacteria and protozoa in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, M; Ouellet, D R; Firkins, J L; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2017-07-01

    Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively). In addition, Cys and Met reported concentrations were retained only when an adequate protection of the sulfur groups was performed before the acid hydrolysis. The total AA (or true protein) fraction represented 82.4% of CP in bacteria. For 10 AA, including 4 essential AA, the AA composition differed between protozoa and bacteria. The most noticeable differences were a 45% lower Lys concentration and 40% higher Ala concentration in bacteria than in protozoa. Differences between FAB and PAB were less pronounced than differences between bacteria and protozoa. Assuming 33% FAB, 50% PAB, and 17% of protozoa in MCP duodenal flow, the updated concentrations of AA would decrease supply estimates of Met, Thr, and Val originating from MCP and increase those of Lys and Phe by 5 to 10% compared with those calculated using the FAB composition reported previously. Therefore, inclusion of the contribution of PAB and protozoa to the duodenal MCP flow is needed to adequately estimate AA supply from microbial origin when a factorial method is used to estimate duodenal AA flow. Furthermore, acknowledging the fact that hydrolysis of 1 kg of true microbial protein yields 1.16 kg of free AA substantially increases the estimates of AA supply from MCP. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of trace elements in freshwater rotifers and ciliates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfl, S.; Óvári, M.; Nimptsch, J.; Neu, T. R.; Mages, M.

    2016-02-01

    Element determination in plankton is important for the assessment of metal contamination of aquatic environments. Until recently, it has been difficult to determine elemental content in rotifers or ciliates derived from natural plankton samples because of the difficulty in handling and separation of these fragile organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for separation of rotifers and large ciliates from natural plankton samples (μg range dry weight) and subsequent analysis of their elemental content using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). Plankton samples were collected from different aquatic environments (three lakes, one river) in Chile, Argentina and Hungary. From one to eighty specimens of five rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus falcatus, Asplanchna sieboldii, Asplanchna sp., Philodina sp.) and four to twelve specimens of one large ciliate (Stentor amethystinus) were prepared according to the dry method originally developed for microcrustaceans, and analysed by TRXF following in situ microdigestion. Our results demonstrated that it possible to process these small and fragile organisms (individual dry mass: 0.17-9.39 μg ind- 1) via careful washing and preparation procedures. We found species-dependent differences of the element mass fractions for some of the elements studied (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb), especially for Cu, Fe and Mn. One large rotifer species (A. sieboldii) also showed a negative correlation between individual dry weight and the element content for Pb, Ni and Cr. We conclude that our application of the in situ microdigestion-TRXF method is suitable even for rotifers and ciliates, greatly expanding the possibilities for use of plankton in biomonitoring of metal contamination in aquatic environments.

  10. Occurrence of APUD-type cells in the ciliated cyst of the parathyroid gland of ozone-exposed dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemsingh, R.S.; Atwal, O.S.

    1983-01-01

    Presence of APUD-type cells in the ciliated cysts of the parathyroid glands of ozonized dog is described in this report. These cells were present on the abluminal side of the cyst wall and contained secretory granules with dense core, homogeneous matrix and coated vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. Intermixed with the granules were sheaves of microfilaments which were mostly seen in the perinuclear area. The APUD cells formed hemidesmosomes with the basal lamina.

  11. The influence of environmental characteristics on the distribution of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora in an urban stream of southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJP. Dias

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the ciliated protozoa community at three sampling stations that receive different levels of domestic sewage along the São Pedro Stream in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to determine the influence of organic pollution on this community and to assess the feasibility of using ciliates as water quality indicators. Four physical-chemical parameters of the water samples were evaluated: dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, pH and temperature. The sediment was obtained manually, using dredges with capacity of 300 mL, at each collection point. Point 1 was located in a rural region that receives a low sewage load, while Points 2 and 3 were located in populated regions receiving high sewage loads. We found 22 ciliate species, of which 18 are included in the saprobic system and are considered bioindicators. These showed beta-mesosaprobic environments at Point 1 and alfa-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic environments at Points 2 and 3. The low levels of dissolved oxygen and the high electrical conductivity values at Points 2 and 3, together with the strong similarity between the ciliate taxocenoses of these points and the weak similarity between Point 1 and the other two, confirm the high sewage loads received at the latter two points. The combination of the biological indicators and physical-chemical analyses therefore proved itself to be an efficient method of evaluating water quality, and has excellent potential to support decisions on the conservation of headwaters and recuperation of degraded environments in lotic systems.

  12. The influence of environmental characteristics on the distribution of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in an urban stream of southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R J P; Wieloch, A H; D'Agosto, M

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the ciliated protozoa community at three sampling stations that receive different levels of domestic sewage along the São Pedro Stream in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to determine the influence of organic pollution on this community and to assess the feasibility of using ciliates as water quality indicators. Four physical-chemical parameters of the water samples were evaluated: dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, pH and temperature. The sediment was obtained manually, using dredges with capacity of 300 mL, at each collection point. Point 1 was located in a rural region that receives a low sewage load, while Points 2 and 3 were located in populated regions receiving high sewage loads. We found 22 ciliate species, of which 18 are included in the saprobic system and are considered bioindicators. These showed beta-mesosaprobic environments at Point 1 and alfa-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic environments at Points 2 and 3. The low levels of dissolved oxygen and the high electrical conductivity values at Points 2 and 3, together with the strong similarity between the ciliate taxocenoses of these points and the weak similarity between Point 1 and the other two, confirm the high sewage loads received at the latter two points. The combination of the biological indicators and physical-chemical analyses therefore proved itself to be an efficient method of evaluating water quality, and has excellent potential to support decisions on the conservation of headwaters and recuperation of degraded environments in lotic systems.

  13. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  14. Generation of novel AAV variants by directed evolution for improved CFTR delivery to human ciliated airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Johnson, Jarrod S; Zhijian, Wu; Grieger, Joshua C; Ping-Jie, Xiao; Drouin, Lauren M; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Pickles, Raymond J; Samulski, R Jude

    2009-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have been used to deliver CFTR to the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no significant CFTR function has been demonstrated likely due to low transduction efficiencies of the AAV vectors. To improve AAV transduction efficiency for human airway epithelium (HAE), we generated a chimeric AAV library and performed directed evolution of AAV on an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium. Two independent and novel AAV variants were identified that contained capsid components from AAV-1, AAV-6, and/or AAV-9. The transduction efficiencies of the two novel AAV variants for human ciliated airway epithelium were three times higher than that for AAV-6. The novel variants were then used to deliver CFTR to ciliated airway epithelium from CF patients. Here we show that our novel AAV variants, but not the parental, AAV provide sufficient CFTR delivery to correct the chloride ion transport defect to ~25% levels measured in non-CF cells. These results suggest that directed evolution of AAV on relevant in vitro models will enable further improvements in CFTR gene transfer efficiency and the development of an efficacious and safe gene transfer vector for CF lung disease.

  15. Generation of Novel AAV Variants by Directed Evolution for Improved CFTR Delivery to Human Ciliated Airway Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Johnson, Jarrod S; Zhijian, Wu; Grieger, Joshua C; Ping-Jie, Xiao; Drouin, Lauren M; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Pickles, Raymond J; Samulski, R Jude

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have been used to deliver CFTR to the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no significant CFTR function has been demonstrated likely due to low transduction efficiencies of the AAV vectors. To improve AAV transduction efficiency for human airway epithelium (HAE), we generated a chimeric AAV library and performed directed evolution of AAV on an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium. Two independent and novel AAV variants were identified that contained capsid components from AAV-1, AAV-6, and/or AAV-9. The transduction efficiencies of the two novel AAV variants for human ciliated airway epithelium were three times higher than that for AAV-6. The novel variants were then used to deliver CFTR to ciliated airway epithelium from CF patients. Here we show that our novel AAV variants, but not the parental, AAV provide sufficient CFTR delivery to correct the chloride ion transport defect to ~25% levels measured in non-CF cells. These results suggest that directed evolution of AAV on relevant in vitro models will enable further improvements in CFTR gene transfer efficiency and the development of an efficacious and safe gene transfer vector for CF lung disease. PMID:19603002

  16. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  17. Acute Toxicities of Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, and Lugol's Iodine Solution to a Marine Ciliate,Pleuronema coronatum ( Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yantao; SONG Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a commonly occurred ma-rine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the resultshighlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capabili-ty to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper,and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00 × 10-6 and 43.57 × 10 6, while those of Lugol's solutions were 90.13 and67.84 × 10 6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol' s iodine solutionand potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  18. Diversification dynamics of rhynchostomatian ciliates: the impact of seven intrinsic traits on speciation and extinction in a microbial group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, Ľubomír; Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Jang, Seok Won; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2017-08-30

    Ciliates are a suitable microbial model to investigate trait-dependent diversification because of their comparatively complex morphology and high diversity. We examined the impact of seven intrinsic traits on speciation, extinction, and net-diversification of rhynchostomatians, a group of comparatively large, predatory ciliates with proboscis carrying a dorsal brush (sensoric structure) and toxicysts (organelles used to kill the prey). Bayesian estimates under the binary-state speciation and extinction model indicate that two types of extrusomes and two-rowed dorsal brush raise diversification through decreasing extinction. On the other hand, the higher number of contractile vacuoles and their dorsal location likely increase diversification via elevating speciation rate. Particular nuclear characteristics, however, do not significantly differ in their diversification rates and hence lineages with various macronuclear patterns and number of micronuclei have similar probabilities to generate new species. Likelihood-based quantitative state diversification analyses suggest that rhynchostomatians conform to Cope's rule in that their diversity linearly grows with increasing body length and relative length of the proboscis. Comparison with other litostomatean ciliates indicates that rhynchostomatians are not among the cladogenically most successful lineages and their survival over several hundred million years could be associated with their comparatively large and complex bodies that reduce the risk of extinction.

  19. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Ecological functions of ciliated protozoa in marine ecosystem: effects of ammonium on the population growth of Euplotes vannus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Henglong; Song Weibo; Zhu Mingzhuang; Wang Mei; Ma Honggang; Xu Xiaozhong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ammonium on the population growth of the marine ciliate, Euplotes vannus, were examined using ecotoxicological method. It is showed that ammonium exerts inhibitory effects on the growth of the ciliate populations in a concentration-dependent way. Statistical analysis reveals that the population growth dynamics exposed to ammonium-N concentration over 100mg/L are significantly different from that in the control at P<0.05 level. Linear regression determined that the 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h and 84h IC50 values of ammonium-N are 19.68, 201.51, 167.49, 47.86, 50.43 and 43.11 concentration over 100mg/L, respectively (P<0.05; pH 8.2; salinity 28 ppt; temperature, 25℃). The results indicate that the tolerance to ammonium in E. vannus is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, such as cultured prawns and oysters. Therefore, it is believed that the high tolerance to ammonium is necessary for ciliated protozoa to play positive roles in maintaining and improving water quality in marine ecosystems, especially in the intensive aquaculture waters with high-level ammonium. In addition, the correlation between IC50 values and exposure time was discussed.

  1. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions.

  2. The differentiated airway epithelium infected by influenza viruses maintains the barrier function despite a dramatic loss of ciliated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nai-Huei; Yang, Wei; Beineke, Andreas; Dijkman, Ronald; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thiel, Volker; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Meng, Fandan; Herrler, Georg

    2016-12-22

    Virus-host interactions in the respiratory epithelium during long term influenza virus infection are not well characterized. Therefore, we developed an air-liquid interface culture system for differentiated porcine respiratory epithelial cells to study the effect of virus-induced cellular damage. In our well-differentiated cells, α2,6-linked sialic acid is predominantly expressed on the apical surface and the basal cells mainly express α2,3-linked sialic acid. During the whole infection period, release of infectious virus was maintained at a high titre for more than seven days. The infected epithelial cells were subject to apoptosis resulting in the loss of ciliated cells together with a thinner thickness. Nevertheless, the airway epithelium maintained trans-epithelial electrical resistance and retained its barrier function. The loss of ciliated cells was compensated by the cells which contained the KRT5 basal cell marker but were not yet differentiated into ciliated cells. These specialized cells showed an increase of α2,3-linked sialic acid on the apical surface. In sum, our results help to explain the localized infection of the airway epithelium by influenza viruses. The impairment of mucociliary clearance in the epithelial cells provides an explanation why prior viral infection renders the host more susceptible to secondary co-infection by another pathogen.

  3. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Roles of Dietary Cobalt and Administration of Mixed Rumen Bacteria in Regulating Hematological Parameters of Pre-weaning Twin Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Adelina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt (Co is required by rumen microorganism for vitamin B12 synthesis. Vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for methionine synthesis and gluconeogenesis. In young ruminants up to 6–8 wk old, the rumen has not been completely developed and rumen microorganisms are not ready to supply vitamin B12. The aim of this research was to determine the potency of mixed rumen bacteria and dietary supplementation of Co and its effect on plasma glucose, blood minerals (Co, Fe, and Zn concentrations, and hematology of pre-weaning twin lambs. Twelve one month-old local twin lambs were assigned to 4 groups in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were fed cow milk at 10% body weight, adjusted weekly for 80 d. Mixed rumen bacteria were offered at 15 mL/d (8.295x1010 cfu. Dietary treatments were: 1 basal diet (Control, 2 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM cyanocobalamin (VitB12 and 3 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM of Co + administration of 15 mL mixed rumen bacteria (CoBac. There were no treatment effects on neither plasma glucose and blood mineral concentrations nor hematological profiles. This study demonstrated that pre-weaning twin lambs are not responsive to supplementation of Co and administration of mixed rumen bacteria.

  5. The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

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    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54. The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system

  6. The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to quantify some rumen bacterial strains in an in vitro rumen system

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    Lucy Onime

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to quantify four rumen bacterial strains (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Streptococcus bovis, Megasphaera elsdenii in an in vitro batch rumen fermentative system by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. The experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement with two types of liquid rumen, collected from dairy cows (DC and fattening bulls (FB and two types of fermentation substrate (forage:concentrate ratios, 75:25 and 25:75 and was replicated in two fermentation runs. Fermentation fluids from FB compared to those from DC had lower pH, higher total VFA concentrations (averages of 0 and 24 h samplings, 6.70 vs 7.04 and 72.6 vs 42.7 mmol/l P<0.001 and contained less acetic (P=0.014 and more propionic (P<0.01 and butyric (P=0.029 acids. The two types of substrates incubated produced very small differences in the end fermentation products. B. fibrosolvens concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in the DC fermentation fluids compared to that from bulls (averages of 0 and 24 h sampling times, 3.47 vs 1.38 x109 copies /mL, while M. elsdenii was detected only in FB fermentation fluids. R. albus and S. bovis concentrations were not different between the two types of rumen liquid. With the only exception for B. fibrosolvens, bacteria strains considered in this study increased their concentrations in the fermentation fluid during the 24 h of in vitro incubation.

  7. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12-13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6-11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  8. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

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    Jonathan A Eisen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC, which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases, using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters, and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins. In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from

  9. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

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    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  10. Influence of Inoculum Content on Performance of Anaerobic Reactors for Treating Cattle Manure using Rumen Fluid Inoculum

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    Sunarso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas productions of cattle manure using rumen fluid inoculums were determined using batch anaerobic digesters at mesophilic temperatures (room and 38.5 oC. The aim of this paper was to analyze the influence of rumen fluid contents on biogas yield from cattle manure using fluid rumen inoculums. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively. The research showed that, either in room temperature as well as in 38.5 C, the best performance of biogas production was obtained with rumen fluid in the range of 25-50 %. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. This is suggest that, due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. However, intensively research need to be carried in further research to study interaction effect of TS and rumen content to biogas production.

  11. The trophic role and impact of plankton ciliates in the microbial web structure of a tropical polymictic lake dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria

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    Alfonso Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the plankton structures and dynamics in tropical and subtropical lakes has revealed important trends that set these lakes apart from temperate lakes, and one of the main differences is the enhanced importance of the microbial food web with respect to net plankton. Ciliates are a key component of subtropical and tropical microbial webs because of their role as dominant picoplankton grazers and their ability to channel picoplankton production to the uppermost trophic levels. Plankton ciliates have been found to play a crucial role in the survival of fish larvae in lakes that share several features with Lake Catemaco, a eutrophic tropical Mexican lake. Therefore, the plankton ciliate composition, abundance, and biomass of Lake Catemaco were studied to assess their role in the microbial food web. The data were obtained from surface and bottom water samples collected at eleven points during three surveys in 2011 and an additional survey in 2013, with the surveys covering the local climatic seasons. The most abundant components of the plankton ciliate assemblages were small prostomatids (Urotricha spp., choreotrichs (Rimostrombidium spp., cyclotrichs (Mesodinium and Askenasia, and scuticociliates (Cyclidium, Cinetochilum, Pleuronema, and Uronema. Other important ciliates in terms of abundance and/or biomass were haptorids (Actinobolina, Belonophrya, Monodinium, Paradileptus, and Laginophrya, Halteria, oligotrichs (Limnostrombidium and Pelagostrombidium, Linostomella, Bursaridium, Cyrtolophosis, and Litonotus. The ciliate abundance averaged 57 cells mL-1 and ranged from 14 to 113 cells mL-1. The mean ciliate biomass was 71 µg C L-1 and ranged from 10 to 202 µg C L-1. Differences were not detected in ciliate abundance or biomass between the sampling points or sampling depths (surface to bottom; however, significant differences were observed between seasons for both variables. Nano-sized filamentous cyanobacteria were the most

  12. The effect of combined probiotics with catalyst supplementation on digestion and rumen characteristic in Priangan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantan Krisnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of combined supplementation of probiotics and catalyst on digestion and rumen characteristic in Priangan sheep. The trial was conducted using 16 heads of young male Priangan sheep with average initial weight of 18 kg in completely randomized design with factorial 2x2 and 4 replication. The first factor was two types of probiotics mixed with catalyst supplement, while the second factor was two levels of supplement percentage of catalyst at 0.5 and 1.0% of concentrate. The type of probiotics applied was probion and probiotics of buffaloes rumen microbes. The feeding level was set at 3% of body weight based on dry matter and consisting of forage (King grass and concentrate at 50:50 ratio. The results indicated a significantly greater fibre digestion value (NDF and proportion of acetate molar in the group of sheep fed combination of probiotics of buffaloes rumen microbes and catalyst supplement. It was concluded that the recommendation level of the combined rumen microbe probiotics with catalyst supplement in sheep ration was 0.5%.

  13. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: II. Rumen Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the rumen development of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 male Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2

  14. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  15. Kualitas Nutrisi Silase Berbahan Baku Singkong yang Diberi Enzim Cairan Rumen Sapi dan Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sandi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the nutrient quality of cassava-based materials silage with cattle rumen liquor enzymes and Leuconostoc mesenteroides as poultry feed. The cassava material was hydrolyzed with cattle rumen liquor enzyme and incubated for 24 hours. The hydrolyzed product was added L. mesenteroides and ensiled in mini silo for 30 days. The experiment was designed in completely randomized design with 15 treatments and 3 replications. The result showed that temperature of cassava-based silage ranged from 26 to 30 oC. The flavor was sour and fresh fragrant and changed in color. Addition of cattle rumen liquor enzyme and L. mesenteroides bacteria significantly affected (P<0.05 pH (3.73-4.86, dry matter(30.14%-43.28%, cyanide (86.71%-96.50% and crude fiber content (0.78%-5.05%, but gave a fluctuate effect on protein content (-1.92%-2.39%. However, the treatment didnot affect dry matter losses (1.20%-2.66%. It is concluded that nutrient quality of cassava-based silage improved when it was added with cattle rumen liquor enzymes and L. mesenteroides by decreasing crude fiber and cyanide content. The best silage quality was obtained on tuber substrate and it increased protein KDUO (peel+leaves+tuber+tapioca waste silage.

  16. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  17. Quantitative analysis of cellulose degradation and growth of cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminant animals digest cellulose via a symbiotic relationship with ruminal microorganisms. Because feedstuffs only remain in the rumen for a short time, the rate of cellulose digestion must be very rapid. This speed is facilitated by rumination, a process that returns food to the mouth to be re-...

  18. Effects of forage maize type and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with forage maize plants representing early and late-ripening types of Dry Down and Stay Green cultivar types was conducted to study the effects of cultivar and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and to investigate the validity of the generally supposed

  19. Snapshot of the eukaryotic gene expression in muskoxen rumen--a metatranscriptomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herbivores rely on digestive tract lignocellulolytic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to derive energy and carbon from plant cell wall polysaccharides. Culture independent metagenomic studies have been used to reveal the genetic content of the bacterial species within gut microbiomes. However, the nature of the genes encoded by eukaryotic protozoa and fungi within these environments has not been explored using metagenomic or metatranscriptomic approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to investigate the functional diversity of the eukaryotic microorganisms within the rumen of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus, with a focus on plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Polyadenylated RNA (mRNA was sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer II system and 2.8 gigabases of sequences were obtained and 59129 contigs assembled. Plant cell wall degrading enzyme modules including glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases and polysaccharide lyases were identified from over 2500 contigs. These included a number of glycoside hydrolase family 6 (GH6, GH48 and swollenin modules, which have rarely been described in previous gut metagenomic studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The muskoxen rumen metatranscriptome demonstrates a much higher percentage of cellulase enzyme discovery and an 8.7x higher rate of total carbohydrate active enzyme discovery per gigabase of sequence than previous rumen metagenomes. This study provides a snapshot of eukaryotic gene expression in the muskoxen rumen, and identifies a number of candidate genes coding for potentially valuable lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  20. Proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids in relation to milk fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dewhurst, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in order to develop and validate principal component (PC) regressions for predicting rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) proportions, based on a combination of milk odd and branched chain fatty acids (MOBCFA). Grass- or legume silage and concentrate-based diets were fed

  1. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  2. Diurnal dynamics of gaseous and dissolved metabolites and microbiota composition in the bovine rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingen, van Henk J.; Edwards, Joan E.; Vaidya, Jueeli D.; Gastelen, van Sanne; Saccenti, Edoardo; Bogert, van den Bartholomeus; Bannink, André; Smidt, Hauke; Plugge, Caroline M.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of ruminal fermentation metabolites and microbial communities are not commonly assessed when investigating variation in ruminal CH4 production. The aims of this study were to monitor diurnal patterns of: (i) gaseous and dissolved metabolite concentrations in the bovine rumen, (ii)

  3. Comparison between two different methods for evaluating rumen papillae measures related to different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Brusaferro, Andrea; Catorci, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Although the Geographical Information System (GIS), which integrates computerized drawing computer assisted design (CAD) and relational databases (data base management system (DBMS)), is best known for applications in geographical and planning cartography, it can also use many kinds of information concerning the territory. A multidisciplinary project was initiated since 5 years a multidisciplinary study was initiated to use GIS to integrate environmental and ecological data with findings on animal health, ethology, and anatomy. This study is chiefly aimed at comparing two different methods for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. To this scope, 21 female sheep (Ovis aries) on different alimentary regimes (e.g., milk and forage mixed diet, early herbaceous diet, dry hay diet, and fresh hay diet at the maximum of pasture flowering and at the maximum of pasture dryness) were used; after slaughtering, 20 papillae were randomly removed from each sample collected from four indicator regions of rumen wall, placed near a metric reference and digitally photographed. The images were developed with the ArcGIS™ software to calculate the area of rumen papillae by means of GIS and to measure their mid-level width and length to calculate the papillae area as previously performed with a different method. Spatial measurements were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. This work demonstrates that the GIS methodology can be efficiently used for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. In addition, GIS demonstrated to be a rapid, precise, and objective tool when compared with previously used method.

  4. Potential role of the bovine rumen microbiome in modulating milk composition and feed efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Jami

    Full Text Available Ruminants are completely dependent on their microbiota for feed digestion and consequently, their viability. It is therefore tempting to hypothesize a connection between the composition and abundance of resident rumen bacterial taxa and the physiological parameters of the host. Using a pyrosequencing approach, we characterized the rumen bacterial community composition in 15 dairy cows and their physiological parameters. We analyzed the degree of divergence between the different animals and found that some physiological parameters, such as milk yield and composition, are highly correlated with the abundance of various bacterial members of the rumen microbiome. One apparent finding was a strong correlation between the ratio of the phyla Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and milk-fat yield. These findings paralleled human studies showing similar trends of increased adiposity with an increase in Bacteroidetes. This correlation remained evident at the genus level, where several genera showed correlations with the animals' physiological parameters. This suggests that the bacterial community has a role in shaping host physiological parameters. A deeper understanding of this process may allow us to modulate the rumen microbiome for better agricultural yield through bacterial community design.

  5. Effect of Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S® on rumen ecosystem in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Abdul-Majeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antimicrobials (Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S® on sheep rumen ecosystem (pH, viscosity, microbial activity and protozoal activity was investigated in adult rams. The rams were randomly divided into two groups; each group included four rams dosaged orally one time daily for three successive days according to the manufacturer recommendations. Ruminal fluid was analyzed before dosage, after 24 hrs of the first, second and third doses, and after 3, 7 and 10 days after the last dose (3rd dose. No significant differences in ruminal fluid pH and viscosity with oral antimicrobial administration were noticed. Microbial activity tests used (methylene blue reduction test and floatation/sedimentation test showed a significant reduction of microbial activity of rumen (P<0.05 without differences in staining characters of bacterial population. Protozoal activity of the rumen was influenced significantly (P<0.05 by oral antimicrobials with some differences between Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S®. It was concluded from this study that dosing of Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S® orally to rams one time daily for three successive days had an obvious effects on microbial and protozoal activity of the rumen.

  6. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  7. Variation between individual cows in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Duinkerken, van G.; Klop, A.; Blok, M.C.; Bruinenberg, M.; Khan, N.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Different numbers of animals have been used in different studies to cover the variation between individual animals in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages. The objective of this study was to determine whether three cows are sufficient or not to cover the variation bet

  8. Analysis of rumen motility patterns using a wireless telemetry system to characterize bovine reticuloruminal contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize rumen motility patterns of cattle fed once daily. Eight ruminally-cannulated Holstein steers (BW = 321 ± 11 kg) were fed alfalfa cubes once daily at 1.5 × NEm top-dressed with a TM-salt pre-mix. Three 24-h collection periods were conducted and each com...

  9. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects.

  10. A dynamic mechanistic model of lactic acid metabolism in the rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.N.; Crompton, L.A.; Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Hook, S.E.; Benchaar, C.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for ruminants are too imprecise to describe diets in terms of their acidosis risk. The dynamic mechanistic model described herein arises from the integration of a lactic acid (La) metabolism module into an extant model of whole-rumen function. The model was evaluated

  11. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M) ...

  12. The role of dynamic modelling in understanding the microbial contribution to rumen function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Mills, J.A.N.; France, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanistic models of microbial metabolism in the rumen aim at an improved understanding and integration for research purposes or at an improved prediction for practical purposes. The standard way of representing such models is the rate: state formalism. The system is defined by a number of state va

  13. Effects of chop length and ensiling period of forage maize on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chop length and ensiling period on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of forage maize was studied in two experiments. In the first experiment, maize plants of eight cultivars representing different combinations of Dry Down, Stay Green, early ripening, late ripening, starch and

  14. Effects of forage maize type and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with forage maize plants representing early and late-ripening types of Dry Down and Stay Green cultivar types was conducted to study the effects of cultivar and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and to investigate the validity of the generally supposed quali

  15. Effects of ginger extract on smooth muscle activity of sheep reticulum and rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mamaghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reticulorumen hypomotility leads to the impaired physiologic functions of the digestive tract. Prokinetic action of ginger has been demonstrated in the laboratory animals and human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on contraction and motility of reticulum and rumen of ruminants. Collected samples of reticulum and rumen from eight sheep were investigated in vitro. The extract at the concentration of 0.1 and 1.0 mg L-1 had no effect on any preparations. Contraction of reticulum and rumen preparations was occurred at 10.0 and 100 mg L-1 concentrations (p < 0.05. Concentration of 1000 mg L-1 caused a relaxation in preparations contracted with 10.0 and 100 mg L-1. Likewise, the concentration of 1000 mg L-1 significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited ACh-induced contraction in both tissues. Six sheep were involved in electromyographic study. Administration of 40 mg kg-1 of the extract increased the overall frequency of contractions of the reticulum and rumen at the subsequent three days with the prominent increase at the second day (p < 0.05. Results of in vitro study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger contained spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents. The results in vivo study represented evidences that the extract may have stimulant effect on reticulorumen motility in 40 mg kg-1 concentration.

  16. PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACIDIPROPIONICI P169 AND GLUCOGENIC PRECURSORS TO IMPROVE RUMEN PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW QUALITY FORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle grazing dormant western rangelands tend to have a high ruminal acetate to propionate ratio (A:P) and may have low tissue clearance of acetate. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of P. acidipropionici, P169 (P169) on VFA production, forage digestibility, and rumen bacterial eco...

  17. Motility of the reticulum and rumen of sheep given juice-extracted pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, L M; Kokich, D C; Hockey, H U; Trigg, T E

    1982-01-01

    1. Sheep were fed on different diets of juice-extracted herbage to determine what effect juice-extraction had on reticulo-rumen motility. 2. The frequency of A and B sequences of contraction of the reticulo-rumen were recorded during eating, rumination and inactivity for continuous periods of 24-72 h by using integrated electromyograms obtained from electrodes implanted in the musculature of the reticulum and cranial dorsal rumen. 3. Animals were fed on herbage in which approximately 200 g/kg drug matter had been removed in juice extracted from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), mixed ryegrass-white clover and lucerne (Medicago sativa). 4. Over all the frequency of A sequences of contraction did not differ in animals fed on pressed herbage or the unpressed material from which it was derived, although it was slower during rumination on some of the pressed material. In contrast, the frequency of B sequences was higher on the pressed material. The frequencies of contraction of A and B sequences in animals fed on pressed herbage was related to the activity of the animals in the order eating greater than rumination greater than inactivity. 5. Changes in reticulo-rumen motility due to juice extraction were small and the frequencies of A and B sequences of contraction in sheep fed on pressed herbage were in the range encountered in ruminants consuming more conventional foods.

  18. Isolation and characterization of novel lipases/esterases from a bovine rumen metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privé, Florence; Newbold, C Jamie; Kaderbhai, Naheed N; Girdwood, Susan G; Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N; Scollan, Nigel D; Huws, Sharon A

    2015-07-01

    Improving the health beneficial fatty acid content of meat and milk is a major challenge requiring an increased understanding of rumen lipid metabolism. In this study, we isolated and characterized rumen bacterial lipases/esterases using functional metagenomics. Metagenomic libraries were constructed from DNA extracted from strained rumen fluid (SRF), solid-attached bacteria (SAB) and liquid-associated rumen bacteria (LAB), ligated into a fosmid vector and subsequently transformed into an Escherichia coli host. Fosmid libraries consisted of 7,744; 8,448; and 7,680 clones with an average insert size of 30 to 35 kbp for SRF, SAB and LAB, respectively. Transformants were screened on spirit blue agar plates containing tributyrin for lipase/esterase activity. Five SAB and four LAB clones exhibited lipolytic activity, and no positive clones were found in the SRF library. Fosmids from positive clones were pyrosequenced and twelve putative lipase/esterase genes and two phospholipase genes retrieved. Although the derived proteins clustered into diverse esterase and lipase families, a degree of novelty was seen, with homology ranging from 40 to 78% following BlastP searches. Isolated lipases/esterases exhibited activity against mostly short- to medium-chain substrates across a range of temperatures and pH. The function of these novel enzymes recovered in ruminal metabolism needs further investigation, alongside their potential industrial uses.

  19. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    content of the diets while the NFC was held constant at 401 g/kg of DM. ... formulation with higher percentages of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) because ... On the other hand, in many studies dietary protein was changed by replacing high-protein supplements .... P ≤0.05, and a trend was noted if 0.05< P ≤0.10.

  20. Relationship between phenolic acids during rumen degradation of maize samples and in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.P.H.; Kregting, C.F.; Loo, van E.N.; Snijders, C.H.H.; Lommen, A.; Dolstra, O.

    1996-01-01

    The organic matter (OMD) and cell wall (CWD) digestibility of stalks of 25 different maize samples were determined in an in vitro assay using rumen fluid. The stalk OMD and CWD varied between 62-80% and 44-62%, respectively. The free phenolic acids formed in the liquid phase during fermentation in

  1. Methanogen community structure in the rumens of farmed sheep, cattle and red deer fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Kirs, Marek; Ronimus, Ron S; Hoskin, Simone O; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-05-01

    Development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on knowledge of the methanogens present. We investigated the composition of archaeal communities in the rumens of farmed sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to generate fingerprints of archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The total archaeal communities were relatively constant across species and diets, and were less variable and less diverse than bacterial communities. There were diet- and ruminant-species-based differences in archaeal community structure, but the same dominant archaea were present in all rumens. These were members of three coherent clades: species related to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter olleyae; species related to Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae; and species of the genus Methanosphaera. Members of an archaeal group of unknown physiology, designated rumen cluster C (RCC), were also present. RCC-specific DGGE, clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were very diverse and made up an average of 26.5% of the total archaea. RCC sequences were not readily detected in the DGGE patterns of total archaeal 16S rRNA genes because no single sequence type was abundant enough to form dominant bands.

  2. The sheep genome illuminates biology of the rumen and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material. We have developed and analyzed a high-quality reference sheep gen...

  3. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  4. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  5. A dynamic mechanistic model of lactic acid metabolism in the rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.N.; Crompton, L.A.; Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Hook, S.E.; Benchaar, C.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for ruminants are too imprecise to describe diets in terms of their acidosis risk. The dynamic mechanistic model described herein arises from the integration of a lactic acid (La) metabolism module into an extant model of whole-rumen function. The model was evaluated

  6. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L.F.; Smith, L.M.J.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation c

  7. The impact of diet on the composition and relative abundance of rumen microbes in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaizhen Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to explore the impact of diet on the ruminal microbial community in goats. Methods Twelve goats were divided into two groups and fed complete feed (CF or all forage (AF diet. The total microbial DNAs in the rumen liquid were extracted. The V4 region of microbial 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced using high-throughput. Information of sequences was mainly analyzed by QIIME 1.8.0. Results The results showed that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most predominant microbial phyla in the rumen of all goats. At genus level, the abundance of fiber-digesting bacteria such as Ruminococcus and Lachnospiracea incertae sedis was significantly higher in AF than that in CF, while the levels of fat-degrading bacterium Anaerovibrio and protein-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas were opposite. The core shared genera, Prevotella and Butyrivibrio were widespread in the rumen of goats and no significant difference was observed in relative abundance between groups. Conclusion We concluded that the richness of fiber-, protein-, and fat-digesting bacteria was affected by diet and tended to increase with the rise of their corresponding substrate contents in the ration; some bacteria shared by all goats maintained stable despite the difference in the ration, and they might be essential in maintaining the normal function of rumen.

  8. Rumen escape protein in concentrate ingredients determined with the nylon bag and enzymatic techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Kamman, A.A.; Gelder, A.H. van; Hindle, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for 26 concentrate feed ingredients using the nylon bag technique and in vitro using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation was observed between percentage

  9. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on rumen development in newborn calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR) or in starter mixture (SM) or in both MR and SM on performance, selected blood parameters, and rumen development in newborn calves was determined. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (±1) d were randomly allocated...

  10. Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1, Its Impact on Silage and In vitro Rumen Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 on silage and in vitro rumen fermentation on alfalfa and corn silage. Four trials were conducted in alfalfa in second (35 and 32% DM) and third harvest (38 and 31% DM), and two in forage corn, hybrids Mycogen 797...

  11. In vitro Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joch, M; Cermak, L; Hakl, J; Hucko, B; Duskova, D; Marounek, M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO) on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, and β-pinene) at a dose of 1,000 μL/L were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber). Three fistulated Holstein cows were used as donors of rumen fluid. The reduction in methane production was observed with nine ACEO (up to 86% reduction) compared with the control (pproduction, and only bornyl acetate produced less methane per mol of VFA compared with the control (pproduction of two concentrations (500 and 2,000 μL/L) of bornyl acetate, the most promising ACEO from the first trial, were evaluated using the same in vitro incubation method that was used in the first trial. In trial 2, monensin was used as a positive control. Both doses of bornyl acetate decreased (pproduction and did not inhibit VFA production. Positive effects of bornyl acetate on methane and VFA production were more pronounced than the effects of monensin. These results confirm the ability of bornyl acetate to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen.

  12. The comparison of digestibility of treated sugarcane tops silage by bacteria or whole microorganisms of Holstein cow and buffalo rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Afrooz; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding sulfuric acid to sugarcane tops silage on rumen bacteria and whole rumen microorganisms (WRM) and compare the digestibility of sugarcane tops treated with different amount of urea, molasses and sulfuric acid between Holstein cow and Khouzestan buffalo. Regardless of the type of the treatment, potential of gas production (B) by cow WRM (130.670 mL) was more than buffalo (104.060 mL) (p silage treated by cow rumen bacteria and whole microorganisms was higher than buffalo. PMID:27872716

  13. Incomplete sterols and hopanoids pathways in ciliates: gene loss and acquisition during evolution as a source of biosynthetic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Mariela L; Poklepovich, Tomas J; Nudel, Clara B; Nusblat, Alejandro D

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic triterpenoids, such as sterols and hopanoids, are essential components of plasmatic membrane in eukaryotic organisms. Although it is generally assumed that ciliates do not synthesize sterols, and many of them are indeed auxotrophic, a large set of annotated genomic sequences and experimental data from recently studied organisms indicate that they can carry putative genes and respond to the presence/absence of precursors in various ways. The pre-squalene pathway, for instance, is largely present in all sequenced ciliates except in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis; although Paramecium tetraurelia lacks the squalene synthase and Oxytricha trifallax the squalene hopene synthase, in addition to the former. On the other hand, the post-squalene pathway, requiring oxygen in several steps, is mostly incomplete in all ciliates analyzed. Nevertheless, a number of predicted genes, with high sequence similarity to C-4 methyl oxidase/s, C-14 demethylase, C-5 and C-7 desaturases and C-24 reductase of sterols are found in Tetrahymena and Paramecium, and scattered in other Stichotrichia ciliates. Moreover, several of these sequences are present in multiples paralogs, like the C-7 desaturase in Paramecium, that carries six versions of the only one present in Tetrahymena. The phylogenetic analyses suggest a mixed origin for the genes involved in the biosynthesis of sterols and surrogates in this phylum; while the genes encoding enzymes of the pre-squalene pathway are most likely of bacterial origin, those involved in the post-squalene pathway, including the processing of sterols obtained from the environment, may have been partially retained or acquired indistinctly from lower eukaryotes or prokaryotes. This particular combination of diverse gene/s acquisition patterns allows for survival in conditions of poor oxygen availability, in which tetrahymanol and other hopanoids may be advantageous, but also conditions of excess oxygen availability and abundant sterols, in which the

  14. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  15. Supersaturation of Dissolved Hydrogen and Methane in Rumen of Tibetan Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ungerfeld, Emilio M.; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Chuan She; Basang, Zhu Zha; Ao, Si Man; Tan, Zhi Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is an essential substrate for methanogens to produce methane (CH4), and also influences pathways of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production in the rumen. Dissolved H2 (H2 (aq)) is the form of H2 available to microbes, and dissolved CH4 (CH4 (aq)) is important for indicating methanogens activity. Rumen H2 (aq) concentration has been estimated by assuming equilibrium with headspace gaseous H2 (H2 (g)) concentration using Henry's law, and has also been directly measured in the liquid phase in some in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this in vivo study, H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentration measured directly in rumen fluid and their corresponding concentrations estimated from their gaseous phase concentrations, were compared to investigate the existence of equilibrium between the gas and liquid phases. Twenty-four Tibetan sheep were randomly assigned to two mixed diets containing the same concentrate mixed with oat grass (OG diet) or barley straw (BS diet). Rumen gaseous phase and contents were sampled using rumenocentesis and oral stomach tubing, respectively. Rumen H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentration and VFA profile differed between sheep fed OG and BS diets. Measured H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentration were greater than H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentrations estimated using gas concentrations, indicating lack of equilibrium between gas and liquid phase and supersaturation of H2 and CH4 in rumen fluid. As a consequence, Gibbs energy changes (ΔG) estimated for various metabolic pathways were different when calculated using dissolved gases concentrations directly measured and when using dissolved gases concentrations assuming equilibrium with the gaseous phase. Dissolved CH4, but not CH4 (g), was positively correlated with H2 (aq). Both H2 (aq) and H2 (g) concentrations were positively correlated with the molar percentage of butyrate and negatively correlated with the molar percentage of acetate. In summary, rumen fluid was supersaturated with both H2 and CH4

  16. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  17. Adaptation responses of individuals to environmental changes in the ciliate Euplotes crassus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ju, Se-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Although the response unit of living organisms to environmental changes is at the individual level, most experiments on the adaptation responses of ciliates have been conducted in batches, comprising multiple-individuals, due to their microscopic size. However, here, we confirmed that individuals undergo different division cycles in monocultures of Euplotes crassus. They also exhibited transcript variations of 4.63-fold in SSU and of 22.78- fold in Hsp70. Additionally, in salt-stressed E. crassus individuals, SSU transcripts of individuals varied by 6.92-fold at 27 psu, 8.69- fold at 32 psu, and 2.51-fold at 37 psu. However, the maximum difference in Hsp70 was only 4.23-fold under all conditions. These results suggest there may be different biological rhythms even in siblings derived from the same parent. It can also be inferred that various environmental factors have different effects on different E. crassus individuals. Therefore, to elucidate relationships between organism adaptations and environmental changes, studies at the individual level should be conducted with multi-individual approaches.

  18. Distribution of a centrosomal antigen during morphogenesis in the ciliated protozoan Euplotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A; Lemullois, M; Coffe, G

    1998-07-01

    Ciliates assemble basal bodies in great number at many stages of the life-cycle. In order to understand their assembly mechanisms, we screened a library of monoclonal antibodies directed against pericentriolar material. One of these antibodies, CTR210, was used previously to follow steps of this assembly process: in Paraurostyla, new basal bodies appear along a scaffold of linear structures recognized by this antibody. The very unusual behavior of this antigen deserved confirmation in other species. In the present study, we show by immunofluorescence that, in another phylogenetically very distant species, Euplotes, basal bodies are assembled in the same pathway during division. In addition, this antibody recognizes a filamentous ring located at the division furrow and linking many basal body assemblages. By cell fractionation and cytoskeletal extraction, we obtained fractions enriched in basal bodies and associated material. Such fractions still display a high complexity in protein composition. These fractions were used to characterize the main target of the antibody as a doublet of 45 kDa. These results confirm previous results in terms of functionality of the protein recognized by the antibody, but raise new questions in terms of the assignment of the recognized protein to the HSP70 family as hypothesized previously.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs.

  20. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Moraes Ramos Valladão

    Full Text Available In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae, from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided.

  1. Genealogical analyses of multiple loci of litostomatean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Litostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vd'ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-11-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of free-living and endocommensal species. However, their traditional morphology-based classification conflicts with 18S rRNA gene phylogenies indicating (1) a deep bifurcation of the Litostomatea into Rhynchostomatia and Haptoria+Trichostomatia, and (2) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea. To test whether 18S rRNA molecules provide a suitable proxy for litostomatean evolutionary history, we used eighteen new ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region sequences from various free-living litostomatean orders. These single- and multiple-locus analyses are in agreement with previous 18S rRNA gene phylogenies, supporting that both 18S rRNA gene and ITS region sequences are effective tools for resolving phylogenetic relationships among the litostomateans. Despite insertions, deletions and mutational saturations in the ITS region, the present study shows that ITS1 and ITS2 molecules can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships not only at species level but also at higher taxonomic ranks when their secondary structure information is utilized to aid alignment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium in ciliated protozoa: sources, regulation, and calcium-regulated cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Klauke, N

    2001-01-01

    In ciliates, a variety of processes are regulated by Ca2+, e.g., exocytosis, endocytosis, ciliary beat, cell contraction, and nuclear migration. Differential microdomain regulation may occur by activation of specific channels in different cell regions (e.g., voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cilia), by local, nonpropagated activation of subplasmalemmal Ca stores (alveolar sacs), by different sensitivity thresholds, and eventually by interplay with additional second messengers (cilia). During stimulus-secretion coupling, Ca2+ as the only known second messenger operates at approximately 5 microM, whereby mobilization from alveolar sacs is superimposed by "store-operated Ca2+ influx" (SOC), to drive exocytotic and endocytotic membrane fusion. (Content discharge requires binding of extracellular Ca2+ to some secretory proteins.) Ca2+ homeostasis is reestablished by binding to cytosolic Ca2+-binding proteins (e.g., calmodulin), by sequestration into mitochondria (perhaps by Ca2+ uniporter) and into endoplasmic reticulum and alveolar sacs (with a SERCA-type pump), and by extrusion via a plasmalemmal Ca2+ pump and a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Comparison of free vs total concentration, [Ca2+] vs [Ca], during activation, using time-resolved fluorochrome analysis and X-ray microanalysis, respectively, reveals that altogether activation requires a calcium flux that is orders of magnitude larger than that expected from the [Ca2+] actually required for local activation.

  3. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julius C; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis.

  4. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role.

  5. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the microfibrillar ecto-endoplasmic boundary in the ciliate Isotricha prostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigues, B; Metenier, G; Groliere, C A

    1984-01-01

    The cytoplasm of the ciliated protozoan Isotricha prostoma is compartmented by a continuous fibrillar system made up of a double layer of 4 nm-diameter filaments: the microfibrillar ecto-endoplasmic boundary (EEB). Isolation of this structure after treatment of the cells in a buffer of low ionic strength in the presence of the detergent Triton X-100 evidenced connections linking the two filamentous layers. One dimensional electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gel of EEB fractions revealed several major proteins with apparent molecular weights between 11 and 23 K. Of these, two neighboring bands of MW22 and 23 K were removed from gels and used as antigens to obtain rabbit antibodies. The antiserum obtained reacted specifically with injected proteins as shown by the technique of immunological detection on nitrocellulose sheets using the peroxidase reaction product. Electron microscopy localization of the antigens with anti-IgG coupled with colloidal gold showed significant labeling of the EEB within the cortex of Isotricha permeabilized with Triton X-100. We hope that the 22-23 K antiserum will prove to be a useful tool for the comparative study of other non-actin filament systems in Protozoa.

  6. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard A; Morsci, Natalia S; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Hall, David H; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-03-03

    Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to the small size (100 nm) of the ECVs. We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies. Intraflagellar transport and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail-chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating-related behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of the photoreceptor stentorins from the ciliate stentor coeruleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savikhin, S.; Struve, W.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)); Tao, N.; Song, P.S. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

    1993-11-25

    Polarized absorption difference profiles have been obtained with 3-6-ps resolution between 565 and 630 nm for the chromoproteins stentorin I and stentorin II, isolated from the protozoan ciliate Stentor coeruleus. Control experiments were performed on hypericin and on the stentorin chromophore in methanol. The isotropic decays of stentorin I and the stentorin chromophore are dominated by components with lifetimes conservatively longer than 1 ns. Stentorin I, the stentorin chromophore, and hypericin all develop, within <5 ps, an intense excited-state absorption band that is blue-shifted from and polarized essentially perpendicular to the main long-wavelength absorption band. The presence of this excited-state absorption band is signaled by the appearance of strongly wavelength-dependent initial anisotropies r(0), which assume large positive as well as negative values (>0.4 and <[minus]0.2). To our knowledge, such anisotropies have not been reported in polarized pump-probe studies of rotational diffusion in solution or of energy-transfer kinetics in photosynthetic antennae. Hypericin itself exhibits 0.4-6-ps excited-state absorption decay kinetics, which are likely associated with intramolecular excited-state proton transfer. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Electrochemical study of the interaction between Eu{sup 3+} and ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Baojuan; Wang Ziwei [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Tian Yanni, E-mail: tianyann@sxu.edu.c [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Wang Zhijun [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Yang Binsheng, E-mail: yangbs@sxu.edu.c [Institute of Molecular Science, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A new species was formed when protein P{sub 23} (one segment of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin) was added to a solution of Eu{sup 3+}. The interaction between P{sub 23} and Eu{sup 3+} was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 7.4) using a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The formal potential (E{sup o}') of Eu{sup 3+} shifted from -0.61 to -0.84 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) after P{sub 23} was added to the Eu{sup 3+} solution. The diffusion coefficient (D), the charge-transfer coefficient (alpha) and the electron transfer standard rate constant (k{sub s}) were obtained in the absence and the presence of P{sub 23}. The affinity constant of Eu{sup 3+} and P{sub 23} was determined to be (1.89 +- 0.51) x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}. The electrochemical investigation of europium bound to the protein provided useful data for the studies of calcium-binding proteins.

  9. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Sánchez Medina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available noxia, and ciliates might play a very important role in the plankton community budget there. We analysed changes in the composition and biomass of the ciliate assemblage and other microbial loop components throughout the oxycline just at the end of stratification in a warm-monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica, Mexico (four samplings: 2006-2008, 2010; the results were compared with those obtained from another lake from the region, La Preciosa, sampled in 2010. Bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton (APP and flagellates were analysed using epifluorescence microscopy. Ciliates were evaluated either in DAPI stained samples (looking for pigmented organelles and/or ingested phototrophs or in quantitative protargol stain (QPS permanent preparations, where they were identified at the genus or species level. The end of the stratification period in Lake Alchichica was characterized by almost uniform heterotrophic picoplankton (HPP numbers (106 cells mL-1 throughout the water column. Meanwhile, APP showed epilimnetic and/or metalimnetic maxima of 105 cells mL-1 followed by an order of magnitude drop in the hypolimnion. A very important peak (105 cells mL-1 of the autotrophic or mixotrophic flagellate Pyramimonas sp. was observed repeatedly above and within the oxycline of Lake Alchichica. Ciliate biomass maxima were found around the oxycline and in the above-bottom layer. The top of the oxycline was dominated by Euplotes spp. and Spirostomum teres fine- to coarse-filter feeders (feeding upon APP, nanodiatoms and algae. Raptorial haptorids (in particular, Phialina sp. were the second most important group, generally occupying the layer below euplotids, followed by Holophrya and Prorodon facultative anaerobic prostomes. Sometimes, strictly anaerobic Caenomorpha sp. was found to be important in the anoxic hypolimnion. Minute picoplankton feeding species (both APP and heterotrophic bacteria feeders were important throughout the water column: in the epilimnion

  10. Distribution and Abundance of Interstitial Ciliates in Southampton Water in Relation to Physicochemical Conditions, Metal Pollution and the Availability of Food Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheid, K. A. S.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1995-07-01

    Sediment samples were collected at low tide from eight sandy and muddy shores around Southampton Water on one occasion in July and one occasion in September. The temperature and pH of the sediments were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The population densities of bacteria and microflagellates were determined and the ciliates in sub-samples were identified to genus level and enumerated. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and nickel in the interstitial water and in the dried sediments were measured by the dithizone and atomic absorption methods, respectively. These metal concentrations were compared with literature values for other British estuaries. Ciliates belonging to 23 genera were found in the sediments, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Bacterial numbers (mean ˜5×10 8 cm -3) at the various stations correlate with the surface area of the sediment particles and also correlate weakly with flagellate numbers (mean ˜2×10 4 cm -3). Total ciliate numbers (mean ˜1×10 3 cm -3) correlated quite strongly with flagellate numbers, but not with bacterial numbers. Euplotes, Strombidiumand Uronemawere common at all stations and generally dominated; Didinium, Mesodinium pulexand Pleuronemawere also found at all stations, and the latter two were often numerous; Uronychiawas found at seven stations. The distributions of Acinetopsis, Blepharisma, Lacrymaria, M. pulex, Paramecium, Spirostomum, Strombidiumand Vorticellashowed similar correlations to one another, and tended to favour sites nearer to sources of freshwater; these ciliates also showed a correlation with pH, river waters locally being alkaline. None of the ciliates showed correlations with any physical characteristics of the sediments. There were no negative correlations of ciliate distributions with metal pollutants. The levels of metal pollutants found in water drained

  11. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  12. Rumen microbiome composition determined using two nutritional models of subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafipour, Ehsan; Li, Shucong; Plaizier, Jan C; Krause, Denis O

    2009-11-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a metabolic disease in dairy cattle that occurs during early and mid-lactation and has traditionally been characterized by low rumen pH, but lactic acid does not accumulate as in acute lactic acid acidosis. It is hypothesized that factors such as increased gut permeability, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and inflammatory responses may have a role in the etiology of SARA. However, little is known about the nature of the rumen microbiome during SARA. In this study, we analyzed the microbiome of 64 rumen samples taken from eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR. We used rumen samples from two published experiments in which SARA had been induced with either grain or alfalfa pellets. The results of TRFLP analysis indicated that the most predominant shift during SARA was a decline in gram-negative Bacteroidetes organisms. However, the proportion of Bacteroidetes organisms was greater in alfalfa pellet-induced SARA than in mild or severe grain-induced SARA (35.4% versus 26.0% and 16.6%, respectively). This shift was also evident from the real-time PCR data for Prevotella albensis, Prevotella brevis, and Prevotella ruminicola, which are members of the Bacteroidetes. The real-time PCR data also indicated that severe grain-induced SARA was dominated by Streptococcus bovis and Escherichia coli, whereas mild grain-induced SARA was dominated by Megasphaera elsdenii and alfalfa pellet-induced SARA was dominated by P. albensis. Using discriminant analysis, the severity of SARA and degree of inflammation were highly correlated with the abundance of E. coli and not with lipopolysaccharide in the rumen. We thus suspect that E. coli may be a contributing factor in disease onset.

  13. Failure of cellulolysis in the rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Olsen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Three male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were brought from mountain pastures in April and fed regrowth timothy (Phleum pratense silage with 76% leaves and 24.0% dry matter (DM ad libitum. The silage contained (on DM basis 25.4% cellulose, 12.0% crude protein and 19-6% water soluble carbohydrates. After an initial period of 11 days the daily silage intake rose to almost similar values for all animals, but independently of food intake, body mass (BM increased by as much as 13.3 kg for animal R3 during the first 21 days, compared to 4.4 kg and 2.8 kg for Rl and R2, respectively. At slaughter the wet weight of the rumen contents of animal R3 constituted 30.2% of the total BM, compared to 18.5% and 19.1% in animals Rl and R2, respectively. A reduced ability of the rumen micro-biota to ferment pure cellulose in vitro was observed in R3. The ruminal pH was 7.07 and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was only 50.0 mM in R3, indicating a low rate of fermentation. The initial rates of in vitro dry matter digestibility of timothy silage and standard hay were also affected by the rumen fermentation failure in animal R3. Depressed rumen cellulolysis, which may be related to natural periods of starvation prior to the feeding experiment, could have caused the low rate of fermentation and the large rumen size observed in this animal.

  14. Effect of zeolite A on rumen fermentation and phosphorus metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Hilde; Spolders, Markus; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Fürll, Manfred; Grün, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zeolite A on several physiological parameters and on mineral metabolism in the rumino-intestinal-tract of cows. Eight double fistulated (rumen and proximal duodenum) cows were fed maize silage, grass silage and concentrate. Zeolite A was added to the ration over a period of three weeks at 0, 10 and 20 g/kg dry matter (DM). The daily feed amounts were adjusted to the current performance and varied between 3.9 and 15.5 kg/d. Rumen fluid, duodenal chyme and faeces were sampled to characterise the nutrient digestibility. Blood samples were taken to analyse the concentration of inorganic phosphate. Zeolite A supplementation led to a significantly reduced ruminal DM digestibility and fermentation of organic matter. The molar proportion of acetate in the rumen increased, and propionate as well as valerate decreased significantly after zeolite A supplementation. The concentration of the total fatty acids and ruminal pH were not affected. No effect on faecal digestion of DM, organic matter nor on calcium and magnesium digestion was observed. Otherwise the phosphorus (P) concentration in rumen fluid correlated negatively with the mean zeolite A intake (r (2) = 0.75; p = 0.0003). Further, the faecal excretion of P increased significantly for cows with the highest zeolite A dosage (36.9 g P/d) compared to the control group (29.9 g P/d). The lower digestibility of P resulted in a significantly decreased concentration of inorganic P in serum from a basal value of 2.05-1.16 mmol/l six days after starting zeolite A supplementation. The zeolite A treated cows showed a significantly higher Al concentration already in rumen fluid (14.31 and 13.84 mmol/l) compared to the control cows (6.33 mmol/l). The Al flow in the duodenum was also higher for zeolite A treated cows.

  15. Functional gene analysis suggests different acetogen populations in the bovine rumen and tammar wallaby forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, Emma J; Denman, Stuart E; Padmanabha, Jagadish; Zadbuke, Someshwar; Al Jassim, Rafat; Morrison, Mark; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2010-12-01

    Reductive acetogenesis via the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway is an alternative hydrogen sink to methanogenesis in the rumen. Functional gene-based analysis is the ideal approach for investigating organisms capable of this metabolism (acetogens). However, existing tools targeting the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs) are compromised by lack of specificity due to the involvement of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) in other pathways. Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) is unique to the acetyl-CoA pathway and, in the present study, acetyl-CoA synthase genes (acsB) were recovered from a range of acetogens to facilitate the design of acsB-specific PCR primers. fhs and acsB libraries were used to examine acetogen diversity in the bovine rumen and forestomach of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), a native Australian marsupial demonstrating foregut fermentation analogous to rumen fermentation but resulting in lower methane emissions. Novel, deduced amino acid sequences of acsB and fhs affiliated with the Lachnospiraceae in both ecosystems and the Ruminococcaeae/Blautia group in the rumen. FTHFS sequences that probably originated from nonacetogens were identified by low "homoacetogen similarity" scores based on analysis of FTHFS residues, and comprised a large proportion of FTHFS sequences from the tammar wallaby forestomach. A diversity of FTHFS and ACS sequences in both ecosystems clustered between the Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae acetogens but without close sequences from cultured isolates. These sequences probably originated from novel acetogens. The community structures of the acsB and fhs libraries from the rumen and the tammar wallaby forestomach were different (LIBSHUFF, P < 0.001), and these differences may have significance for overall hydrogenotrophy in both ecosystems.

  16. Accuracy of the estimates of ammonia concentration in rumen fluid using different analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K.P. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of two different methods in measuring the ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 concentration in rumen fluid were evaluated: a catalyzed indophenol colorimetric reaction (CICR and the Kjeldahl distillation (KD. Five buffered standard solutions containing volatile fatty acids, true protein, and known ammonia concentrations (0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 N-NH3 mg/dL were used to simulate rumen fluid. Different ratios (10:1, 7.5:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, 1:1, 1:2.5, 1:5, 1:7.5, and 1:10 of a potassium hydroxide solution (KOH, 2 mol/L to standard solutions were evaluated by the KD method. The accuracy of each method was evaluated by adjusting a simple linear regression model of the estimated N-NH3 concentrations on the N-NH3 concentrations in the standard solutions. When the KD method was used, N-NH3 was observed to be released from the deamination of true protein (P0.05. The estimates of the N-NH3 concentration obtained by the CICR method were found to be accurate (P>0.05. After the accuracy evaluation, ninety-three samples of rumen fluid were evaluated by the CICR and KD methods (using the 5:1 ratio of KOH solution to rumen fluid sample, assuming that the CICR estimates would be accurate. The N-NH3 concentrations obtained by the two methods were observed to be different (P<0.05 but strongly correlated (r = 0.9701. Thus, it was concluded that the estimates obtained by the Kjeldahl distillation using a 5:1 ratio of KOH solution to rumen fluid sample can be adjusted to avoid biases. Furthermore, a model to adjust the N-NH3 concentration is suggested.

  17. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy dodecane (Empicol. After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0. On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3 was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining

  18. Nutritional intervention in early life to manipulate rumen microbial colonization and methane output by kid goats postweaning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abecia, L; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to study whether intervention in early life of goat kids has an impact on methane emissions and the microbial ecosystem in the rumen and whether the effects persist postweaning...

  19. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, bacteria composition, and gene expressions involved in intracellular pH regulation of rumen epithelium in finishing Hu lambs differing in residual feed intake phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y S; Li, G Z; Li, X Y; Lü, J Y; Li, F D; Tang, D F; Li, F; Deng, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Z L; Weng, X X

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of residual feed intake (RFI) on rumen function in finishing lambs. A total of 60 male Hu lambs (average initial BW = 25.2 ± 2.5kg) were used and were offered a pelleted high-concentrate diet, of which the forage to concentrate ratio was 25:75. Individual feed intake was recorded over a period of 42 d, then 10 lambs with the lowest RFI and the highest RFI were selected, respectively. The rumen fluid used for fermentation variables and relative abundance of bacteria measurement was obtained on d 10 and 20 after RFI measurement. At the end of this experiment, the selected lambs were slaughtered and rumen epithelium and liver tissues were collected for RNA extraction. Low-RFI lambs had lower ( 0.05). Additionally, RFI was positively ( = 0.57; 0.05) were not affected by RFI classification. Nonetheless, low-RFI group lambs had a greater ( 0.05) on gene expression associated with intracellular pH regulation (, , , , , , , and ) in rumen epithelium and β-hydroxybutyrate metabolism () in both rumen epithelium and liver tissues. In conclusion, even though low-RFI lambs had lower DMI, however, the number of was lower. Additionally, there was no difference in gene expressions level associated with intracellular pH regulation in rumen epithelium between RFI groups.

  20. Ciliate Nassula sp. grazing on a microcystin-producing cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii): impact on cell growth and in the microcystin fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, Audrey; Dellinger, Marc [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cadel-six, Sabrina [' Unite Caracterisation des Toxines' - Laboratoire de securite des aliments de Maisons-Alfort - ANSES, F-94701 Maisons Alfort Cedex (France); Amand, Severine [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comte, Katia, E-mail: kcomte@mnhn.fr [' Molecules de communication et adaptation des microorganismes' , UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-01-15

    The proliferation of microcystins (MCs)-producing cyanobacteria (MCs) can have detrimental effects on the food chain in aquatic environments. Until recently, few studies had focused on the fate of MCs in exposed organisms, such as primary consumers of cyanobacteria. In this study, we investigate the impact of an MC-producing strain of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii on the growth and physiology of a Nassula sp. ciliate isolated from a non-toxic cyanobacterial bloom. We show that this Nassula sp. strain was able to consume and grow while feeding exclusively on an MC-producing cyanobacterium over a prolonged period of time (8 months). In short-term exposure experiments (8 days), ciliates consuming an MC-producing cyanobacterial strain displayed slower growth rate and higher levels of antioxidant enzymes than ciliates feeding on two non-MC-producing strains. Three high-performance methods (LC/MS, LC/MS-MS and ELISA) were used to quantify the free and bound MCs in the culture medium and in the cells. We show that ciliate grazing led to a marked decrease in free MCs (methanol extractable) in cells, the MCs were therefore no longer found in the surrounding culture medium. These findings suggest that MCs may have undergone redistribution (free vs bound MCs) or chemical degradation within the ciliates.

  1. Ultrastructure of the ciliated cells of the free-swimming larva, and sessile stages, of the marine sponge Haliclona indistincta (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kelly M; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lalor, Pierce; McCormack, Grace P

    2013-11-01

    We provide a detailed, comparative study of the ciliated cells of the marine haplosclerid sponge Haliclona indistincta, in order to make data available for future phylogenetic comparisons at the ultrastructural level. Our study focuses on the description and analysis of the larval epithelial cells, and choanocytes of the metamorphosed juvenile sponge. The ultrastructure of the two cell types is sufficiently different to prevent our ability to conclusively determine the origin of the choanocytes from the larval ciliated cells. However, ciliated, epithelial cells were observed in a migratory position within the inner cell mass of the larval stages. Some cilia were observed within the cell's cytoplasm, which is indicative of the ciliated epithelial cell undergoing transdifferentiation into a choanocyte; while traces of other ciliated epithelial cells were contained within phagosomes, suggesting they are phagocytosed. We compared our data with other species described in the literature. However, any phylogenetic inference must wait until further detailed comparisons can be made with species whose phylogenetic position has been determined by other means, such as phylogenomics, in order to more closely link genomic, and morphological information.

  2. In vitro rumen simulated (RUSITEC) metabolism of freshly cut or wilted grasses with contrasting polyphenol oxidase activities

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated in vitro simulated rumen metabolism of freshly cut and wilted cocksfoot [Dactylis glomerata; high polyphenol oxidase (PPO)] and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; low PPO). A 16-vessel RUSITEC was used with the four treatment combinations: cocksfoot wilted (C(w)); cocksfoot fresh (C(f)); tall fescue wilted (TF(w)) and tall fescue fresh (TF(f)). Rumen liquor was collected from four fistulated dairy cows maintained on permanent pasture. The experiment ran for 12 d with sam...

  3. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  4. Technical note: Protozoa-specific antibodies raised in sheep plasma bind to their target protozoa in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Rea, S M; Popovski, S; Skillman, L C; Wright, A-D G

    2014-12-01

    Binding of IgG antibodies to Entodinium spp. in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries) was investigated by adding IgG, purified from plasma, directly into the rumen. Plasma IgG was sourced from sheep that had or had not been immunized with a vaccine containing whole fixed Entodinium spp. cells. Ruminal fluid was sampled approximately 2 h after each antibody dosing. Binding of protozoa by a specific antibody was detected using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. An antibody titer in the ruminal fluid was determined by ELISA, and the concentration of ruminal fluid ammonia-N and ruminal pH were also determined. Entodinium spp. and total protozoa from IgG-infused sheep were enumerated by microscopic counts. Two-hourly additions of IgG maintained a low antibody titer in the rumen for 12 h and the binding of the antibody to the rumen protozoa was demonstrated. Increased ammonia-N concentrations and altered ruminal fluid pH patterns indicated that additional fermentation of protein was occurring in the rumen after addition of IgG. No reduction in numbers of Entodinium spp. was observed (P>0.05). Although binding of antibodies to protozoa has been demonstrated in the rumen, it is unclear how much cell death occurred. On the balance of probability, it would appear that the antibody was degraded or partially degraded, and the impact of this on protozoal populations and the measurement of a specific titer is also unclear.

  5. Effect of maturity and conservation of grass/clover on digestibility and rumen pH in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    .2 before feeding to 5.9 three h post feeding. Rumen pH was unaffected by type of conservation, but early compared to late harvest resulted in lower minimum and mean rumen pH (Pindicate that early harvest improves OM, NDF and DNDF digestibility and lowers rumen pH, and that ensiling improves......The study aimed to evaluate effects of maturity and conservation of primary growth grass/clover on apparent digestibility and rumen pH. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay......, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) was determined after 288 h in situ. Apparent digestibility of OM and NDF was estimated using Cr3O2 as marker. Rumen fluid pH in the medial and ventral rumen was measured with 1 h intervals from 0730 to 1530 h. Data...

  6. Composition of bacteria harvested from the liquid and solid fractions of the rumen of sheep as influenced by feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Repetto, J L; Centeno, C; Lamrani, F

    2000-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the feed intake on the chemical composition of bacteria associated with the solid (solid-associated bacteria; SAB) and liquid (liquid-associated bacteria; LAB) fractions of rumen digesta, the digestive passage kinetics and their relationships. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous infusion of 15NH3 from four ruminally-cannulated wethers provided successively with a hay-concentrate diet (2 : 1 w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight 0.75. SAB had a higher content of organic matter and total lipids (P bacteria and a decrease (P = 0.033) in their amino acid concentrations. Significant increases of rumen outflow rates of liquid and particles were also observed with increased feed intake. Rates of rumen outflow showed positive and negative linear relationships (P bacteria respectively. SAB contained significantly higher proportions of leucine, isoleucine, lysine and phenylalanine and lower proportions of alanine, methionine and valine than LAB. The increase in feed intake also induced significant changes in the amino acid profile of bacteria, increasing arginine and methionine and decreasing alanine and glycine proportions. Results show that the outflow rate of rumen contents is a major factor in determining the proportion of nucleic acids and protein in rumen bacteria and explains some of the differences observed between LAB and SAB.

  7. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Covadonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate. Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan. BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value -5 hits and further Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289. Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

  8. Evaluate the potential environmental toxicity of quantum dots on ciliated protozoa by microcalorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Qi [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang, Shan, E-mail: huangs@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Su, Wei [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li, Peiyuan [College of Pharmacy, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liang, Zuocui; Ou, Jianzhen; Ma, Jianqiang [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: prof.liuyi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxic effects of QDs to T. thermophila BF{sub 5} using a TAM air microcalorimeter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs were acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicity of different ligands-capped QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs could be ingested by cells and affect the morphology of T. thermophila BF{sub 5}. - Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)-capped CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs to particle-ingesting model ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila BF{sub 5} (T. thermophila BF{sub 5}) by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. These results suggested that both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs were indeed acutely toxic for T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the toxicities of both MAA-CdSe QDs and MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs increased dramatically after UV irradiation due to the liberation of more toxic Cd{sup 2+}, which indicated that the toxicity of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs was less than that of MAA-CdSe QDs. Furthermore, the toxicity of different ligands-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs on T. thermophila BF{sub 5} was also investigated. The uptake of MAA-CdSe/ZnS QDs and adenosine 5 Prime -monophosphate (AMP)-CdSe/ZnS QDs by cells and the morphological change during the process of T. thermophila BF{sub 5} growth incubated with these QDs were further studied by fluorescence inverted microscopy.

  9. Further insights into the phylogeny of two ciliate classes Nassophorea and Prostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Yi, Zhenzhen; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Gong, Jun; Song, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    The Nassophorea and Prostomatea are two of the key classes in understanding the morphological diversification and higher classification of the phylum Ciliophora. However, their phylogenetic relationships with other ciliate groups within the subphylum Intramacronucleata remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the small and large subunit (SSU and LSU) rRNA gene-based phylogeny of these groups with sequences of additional taxa including several key species. The results show that: (1) the class Nassophorea remains polyphyletic, with the microthoracids clustering with the Phyllopharyngea, whereas the nassulids represent a basal group of the CONthreeP superclade in the SSU tree; (2) the Prostomatea is not depicted as a monophyletic group in phylogenetic trees, and the monophyly of this class is marginally rejected by statistical tree topology tests; (3) the nassulid genus Parafurgasonia is more closely related to the family Colpodidiidae than to Furgasonia; (4) Paranassula, which was previously thought to be a nassulid, is phylogenetically related to the oligohymenophorean peniculids in both the SSU and LSU trees; (5) the microthoracid genus Discotricha does not group with the other microthoracids in either SSU or LSU trees; (6) the family Plagiocampidae is closely related to the prostome parasite Cryptocaryon irritans and to the family Urotrichidae in the order Prorodontida; and (7) the family Placidae, represented by Placus salinus, is sister to the family Holophryidae in the order Prorodontida. Based on the present data, we consider the genus Discotricha to be an unclassified taxon within the CONthreeP. We also propose resurrecting the order Paranassulida and classifying it within the subclass Peniculia, class Oligohymenophorea. Primary and secondary structure signatures for higher taxa within Phyllopharyngea and Nassophorea are supplied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological reorganization in the hypotrich ciliate Apoamphisiella vernalis (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotricha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A. M. de Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physiological reorganization is described for the first time for the hypotrich ciliate genus Apoamphisiella Foissner, 1997, based on a population of A. vernalis (Stokes, 1887 Berger, 2006 collected from an eutrophic pond in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stomatogenesis is epiapokinetal, and the cirral pattern reorganizes from six typical fronto-ventral-transverse primordia, plus at least one short primordium located between IV and V. Primordia I and II originate from disaggregating undulating membranes and buccal cirrus, respectively; primordium III originates from left frontoventral cirrus plus a streak of basal bodies extending from the anterior end of oral primordium; primordium IV and the short extra primordia are formed from basal bodies perhaps associated to the posterior end of III plus the disaggregation of anteriormost cirri of the left ventral row. Primordia V and VI arise within the right ventral row as a single streak, splitting to form the two primordia. Marginal primordia develop initially within the pre-existent marginal rows, continuing to reorganize outside, pushing the old marginal cirri leftwards. Two dorsomarginal kineties develop associated to the right marginal row primordium. Dorsal ciliature also reorganizes from within the pre-existent dorsal kineties. The two macronuclear nodules approach each in middle reorganizers, briefly touching each other. At least one micronucleus undergo division. The process of physiological reorganization in A. vernalis resembles that of the North American Paraurostyla weissei complex representative, and along with features of the interphase morphology, indicate that Apoamphisiella belongs or is related to the Cyrtohymena-Paraurostyla group, within the Dorsomarginalia.

  11. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

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    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  12. Gene expression in a paleopolyploid: a transcriptome resource for the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

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    Kapusta Aurélie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, a unicellular model that belongs to the ciliate phylum, has been shaped by at least 3 successive whole genome duplications (WGD. These dramatic events, which have also been documented in plants, animals and fungi, are resolved over evolutionary time by the loss of one duplicate for the majority of genes. Thanks to a low rate of large scale genome rearrangement in Paramecium, an unprecedented large number of gene duplicates of different ages have been identified, making this organism an outstanding model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of polyploidization. The most recent WGD, with 51% of pre-duplication genes still in 2 copies, provides a snapshot of a phase of rapid gene loss that is not accessible in more ancient polyploids such as yeast. Results We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray platform for P. tetraurelia genome-wide expression profiling and used the platform to measure gene expression during 1 the sexual cycle of autogamy, 2 growth of new cilia in response to deciliation and 3 biogenesis of secretory granules after massive exocytosis. Genes that are differentially expressed during these time course experiments have expression patterns consistent with a very low rate of subfunctionalization (partition of ancestral functions between duplicated genes in particular since the most recent polyploidization event. Conclusions A public transcriptome resource is now available for Paramecium tetraurelia. The resource has been integrated into the ParameciumDB model organism database, providing searchable access to the data. The microarray platform, freely available through NimbleGen Systems, provides a robust, cost-effective approach for genome-wide expression profiling in P. tetraurelia. The expression data support previous studies showing that at short evolutionary times after a whole genome duplication, gene dosage balance constraints and not functional change are

  13. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators.

  14. Proteomic approach to reveal the proteins associated with encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus.

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    Jiwu Chen

    Full Text Available In order to identify and reveal the proteins related to encystment of the ciliate Euplotes encysticus, we analyzed variation in the abundance of the proteins isolated from the resting cyst comparing with proteins in the vegetative cell. 2-D electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS techniques and Bioinformatics were used for proteome separation, quantification and identification. The comparative proteomics studies revealed 26 proteins with changes on the expression in the resting cysts, including 12 specific proteins and 14 differential proteins. 12 specific proteins and 10 out of the 14 differential proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The identified specific proteins with known functions included type II cytoskeletal 1, keratin, Nop16 domain containing protein, protein arginine n-methyltransferase, epsilon-trimethyllysine hydroxylase and calpain-like protein. The identified differential proteins with known functions included Lysozyme C, keratinocyte growth factor, lysozyme homolog AT-2, formate acetyltransferase, alpha S1 casein and cold-shock protein. We discussed the functions of these proteins as well as their contribution in the process of encystment. These identified proteins covered a wide range of molecular functions, including gene regulation, RNA regulation, proteins degradation and oxidation resistance, stress response, material transport and cytoskeleton organization. Therefore, differential expression of these proteins was essential for cell morphological and physiological changes during encystment. This suggested that the peculiar proteins and differential proteins might play important roles in the process of the vegetative cells transforming into the resting cysts. These observations may be novel findings that bring new insights into the detailed mechanisms of dormancy.

  15. Prediction of rumen fiber pool in cattle from dietary, fecal, and animal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Detmann, E; Krizsan, S J

    2016-07-01

    Feed intake control in ruminants is based on the integration of physical constraints and metabolic feedbacks. Physical constraints are related to the fill caused by the weight or volume of digesta in the reticulo-rumen. The amount of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in the rumen (RNDF) may be used as an indicator of rumen fill. The objective of this study was to develop equations predicting RNDF from diet and animal characteristics using a meta-analysis technique. A treatment mean data set (n=314) was obtained from 84 studies, in which rumen pool size and diet digestibility were determined in lactating cows (n=231) or growing cattle (n=83). The data were analyzed using linear and nonlinear mixed models. Intake, rumen pool size, and fecal output of NDF were scaled to body weight (BW)(1.0). Due to the heterogeneous nature of dietary NDF, predictions of RNDF based on NDF intake were not precise. Predictions were markedly improved by dividing NDF into potentially digestible and indigestible fractions, because rumen turnover time of indigestible NDF was 2.7 times longer than that of potentially digestible NDF. At equal NDF intake, RNDF was negatively associated with dietary crude protein concentration and positively with the proportion of concentrate in the diet. Models based on fecal NDF output generally performed better than those based on NDF intake, probably because the effects of intrinsic characteristics of dietary cell walls and associative effects of dietary components collectively influence fecal NDF output. The model based on fecal NDF output was improved by including dietary concentration of forage NDF in the model, reflecting slower turnover of forage NDF compared with concentrate NDF. The curvilinear relationship between fecal NDF output and RNDF could be described by a quadratic, Mitscherlich, or power function equation, which performed better than the quadratic or Mitscherlich equation. In addition to fecal NDF output and dietary concentration of forage NDF

  16. Effect of trace minerals and starch on digestibility and rumen fermentation in diets for dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, F; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forms of trace minerals (TM) and the use of different starch levels in dairy heifer diets on rumen fermentation and digestibility. Eight rumen cannulated dairy heifers (15.4 ± 0.8 mo of age and 438.31 ± 18.08 kg of body weight) were subjected to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design with 19-d periods: 15d of adaptation and 4d of sampling. The whole-plot factor was type of TM; organic as proteinates (OTM) or inorganic sulfates (ITM), and the subplot was starch level (3.54, 12.95, 22.25, and 31.73%). Total collection of feces and urine was completed on d 15 to 19 to determine digestibility and TM excretion. Rumen contents were sampled on d 18 to 19 at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 22 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate TM concentrations and enzymatic activity for ceruloplasmin, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Starch level affected pH, individual VFA concentrations, and nutrient excretion. Trace mineral intake was lower for OTM compared with ITM. No effect of TM form on dry matter digestibility was detected, but as level of starch increased, diet dry matter digestibility increased. Rumen pH was lower for diets with OTM, which is consistent with higher total VFA production and butyrate proportion observed for heifers fed OTM diets. These variables may be explained by the higher bioavailability of OTM and faster utilization and fermentation by rumen microorganisms. Heifers that consumed ITM had higher moisture in feces and higher urine excretion, which increased total manure production. Total excretion of TM was not different by treatment. Blood plasma mineral concentration was not different between treatments except for Mn, which was higher for OTM. Enzymatic activity was not affected by treatments. Mineral intake was reduced and blood mineral levels were not different, suggesting enhanced

  17. Utilization of complete rumen modifier on sheep fed high fibrous forages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A research to improve livestock productivity and lower enteric methane production on ruminant was conducted by manipulation approach on rumen system using a complete rumen modifier (CRM. An in vivo experiment was carried out using twenty four sheep ( mean weight 18 kg which were distributed into 3 treatment groups of feed additive: I. control ( without treatment: K; II: K + CRM-LG; III: K + CRM-EL. Diet given consisted of fermented rice straw (ad libitum + concentrate containing 16 % protein (400 g/head/day, and drinking water was given ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks based on completely randomized design. By the end of the experiment, animals were placed in the metabolism cages for 2 weeks (ie. 1 week for adaptation and 1 week for data collection. Rumen liquid of each treated animal was taken for the measurement of rumen characteristics. Parameter measuremed were: total gas production; gas composition of CO2 and CH4; in vitro DMD; NH3 and VFA contents; pH; bacterial and protozoal counts; consumption/ DMI; in vivo DMD; ADG and FCR. The results showed that productivity of sheep was improved by CRM treatments followed by lowered enteric methane production. The ADG values of CRM treatments (71.4 to 73.5 g were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than that of control (50 g. The improvement of average daily gain was followed by a better feed conversion (P < 0.05 (ie. 10.6 vs. 12.8. The CRM treatments lowered the percentage of CH4 by 24% compared to Control (P < 0.05. The total and composition of VFA of CRM-treated rumen liquor were significantly different (P<0.05 compared to that of rumen liquor of Control (ie. the total VFA: 85.3 vs 73.5 mM and the percentage of acetic acid: 67.8 vs 60.3%. It is concluded that CRM treatment resulted in positive effects on growth of ruminant fed high fibrous forages such as rice straw and could lower enteric methane production.

  18. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  19. A mesocosm study of the changes in marine flagellate and ciliate communities in a crude oil bioremediation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Näther, Daniela J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Malpass, Mark C; Golyshin, Peter N

    2010-07-01

    Protozoan grazers play an important role in controlling the density of crude-oil degrading marine communities as has been evidenced in a number of microcosm experiments. However, small bioreactors contain a low initial titre of protozoa and the growth of hydrocarbon-depleting bacteria is accompanied by the fast depletion of mineral nutrients and oxygen, which makes microcosms rather unsuitable for simulating the sequence of events after the oil spill in natural seawater environment. In the present study, the population dynamics of marine protozoan community have been analysed in a 500 l mesocosm experiment involving bioaugmented oil booms that contained oil sorbents and slow-release fertilisers. A significant increase in numbers of marine flagellates and ciliates on biofilms of oil-degrading microbes was microscopically observed as early as 8 days after the start of the experiment, when protozoa exhibited a population density peak making up to 3,000 cells ml(-1). Further, the protozoan density varied throughout the experiment, but never dropped below 80 cells ml(-1). An 18S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting analysis revealed several changes within the eukaryotic community over the whole course of the experiment. Initial growth of flagellates and small ciliates was followed by a predominance of larger protozoa. According to microscopic observations and SSU rRNA molecular analyses, most predominant were the ciliates belonging to Euplotidae and Scuticociliatia. This is the first study to characterise the eukaryotic communities specifically in a large-scale oil bioremediation trial using both microscopy-based and several molecular techniques.

  20. Cross-study analysis of genomic data defines the ciliate multigenic epiplasmin family: strategies for functional analysis in Paramecium tetraurelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravet Viviane

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sub-membranous skeleton of the ciliate Paramecium, the epiplasm, is composed of hundreds of epiplasmic scales centered on basal bodies, and presents a complex set of proteins, epiplasmins, which belong to a multigenic family. The repeated duplications observed in the P. tetraurelia genome present an interesting model of the organization and evolution of a multigenic family within a single cell. Results To study this multigenic family, we used phylogenetic, structural, and analytical transcriptional approaches. The phylogenetic method defines 5 groups of epiplasmins in the multigenic family. A refined analysis by Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA identifies structural characteristics of 51 epiplasmins, defining five separate groups, and three classes. Depending on the sequential arrangement of their structural domains, the epiplasmins are defined as symmetric, asymmetric or atypical. The EST data aid in this classification, in the identification of putative regulating sequences such as TATA or CAAT boxes. When specific RNAi experiments were conducted using sequences from either symmetric or asymmetric classes, phenotypes were drastic. Local effects show either disrupted or ill-shaped epiplasmic scales. In either case, this results in aborted cell division. Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Their affiliation with the distinctive structural groups of Paramecium epiplasmins demonstrates an interspecific multigenic family. Conclusion The epiplasmin multigenic family illustrates the history of genomic duplication in Paramecium. This study provides a framework which can guide functional analysis of epiplasmins, the major components of the membrane skeleton in ciliates. We show that this set of proteins handles an important developmental information in Paramecium since maintenance of epiplasm organization is crucial for cell morphogenesis.

  1. Role of essential lipids in copepod nutrition: no evidence for trophic upgrading of food quality by a marine ciliate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein Breteler, W.; Koski, Marja; Rampen, S.

    2004-01-01

    -quality Rhodomonas sp. diet. The specific mass of fatty acids in S. sulcatum was much lower than in the Dunaliella sp. diet, However, the fatty acid composition of the protozoan more or less resembled that of the food, lacking long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Sterols only occurred in Dunaliella sp......., although in low abundance of unuseful Delta7 sterols. Obviously, S. sulcatum did not biochemically enhance bacterial or algal food for subsequent use at higher trophic levels, and only transferred fatty acids without further conversion. The results indicate a deficiency in the ciliate of HUFAs and sterols...

  2. Planktonic ciliates Choreotrichida and Strombidiida from the inner zone of Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

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    Rosa E. Pettigrosso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of aloricate planktonic ciliates were identified using protargol staining. Choreotrichida: Strombidinopsidae, Strombidinopsis elongata Song & Bradbury, 1998; Strobiliidae, Strobilidium epacrum Lynn & Montagnes, 1988 and Strombidiida: Strombidiidae, Strombidium capitatum (Leegaard, 1915 Kahl, 1932; S. emergens (Leegaard, 1915 Kahl, 1932; S. acutum Leegaard, 1915; S. dalum Lynn, Montagnes & Small, 1988 and Cyrtostrombidium longisomum Lynn & Gilron, 1993; they were collected from the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca estuary in the southern region of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina. These species represent new records to South America (Argentina.

  3. Scuticociliatid ciliate outbreak in Australian potbellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827): clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and treatment with metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cicco, Emiliano; Paradis, Erika; Stephen, Craig; Turba, Maria Elena; Rossi, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    A severe outbreak of scuticociliatosis occurred in Australian pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1872), kept at the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada). Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, irregular respiration, and death. Cytology and histopathology revealed a high number of histophagous ciliated protozoa within the tissues. The parasite, identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi, was observed in several internal organs that appeared edematous and hemorrhagic upon postmortem examination. Severe histopathologic lesions were reported in particular in the ovary, the kidney, and the intestine. This infection was successfully treated with metronidazole via bath therapy. No further evidence of this parasite was found in the treated fish.

  4. ON THE MARINE CILIATE, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA, SCUTICOCILIATIDA) WITH COMPARISON OF ITS RELATED SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚骏; 马宏伟; 宋微波

    2002-01-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen ; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 - 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 ( 1 - 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the fight of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  5. Minimized Bolus-Type Wireless Sensor Node with a Built-In Three-Axis Acceleration Meter for Monitoring a Cow's Rumen Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Hirofumi; Arai, Shozo; Okada, Hironao; Zhan, Lan; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2017-03-27

    Monitoring rumen conditions in cows is important because a dysfunctional rumen system may cause death. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a typical disease in cows, and is characterized by repeated periods of low ruminal pH. SARA is regarded as a trigger for rumen atony, rumenitis, and abomasal displacement, which may cause death. In previous studies, rumen conditions were evaluated by wireless sensor nodes with pH measurement capability. The primary advantage of the pH sensor is its ability to continuously measure ruminal pH. However, these sensor nodes have short lifetimes since they are limited by the finite volume of the internal liquid of the reference electrode. Mimicking rumen atony, we attempt to evaluate the rumen condition using wireless sensor nodes with three-axis accelerometers. The theoretical life span of such sensor nodes depends mainly on the transmission frequency of acceleration data and the size of the battery, and the proposed sensor nodes are 30.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length and have a life span of over 600 days. Using the sensor nodes, we compare the rumen motility of the force transducer measurement with the three-axis accelerometer data. As a result, we can detect discriminative movement of rumen atony.

  6. Disentangling sources of variation in SSU rDNA sequences from single cell analyses of ciliates: impact of copy number variation and experimental error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Yurui; Katz, Laura A; Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo

    2017-07-26

    Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) is widely used for phylogenetic inference, barcoding and other taxonomy-based analyses. Recent studies indicate that SSU rDNA of ciliates may have a high level of sequence variation within a single cell, which impacts the interpretation of rDNA-based surveys. However, sequence variation can come from a variety of sources including experimental errors, especially the mutations generated by DNA polymerase in PCR. In the present study, we explore the impact of four DNA polymerases on sequence variation and find that low-fidelity polymerases exaggerate the estimates of single-cell sequence variation. Therefore, using a polymerase with high fidelity is essential for surveys of sequence variation. Another source of variation results from errors during amplification of SSU rDNA within the polyploidy somatic macronuclei of ciliates. To investigate further the impact of SSU rDNA copy number variation, we use a high-fidelity polymerase to examine the intra-individual SSU rDNA polymorphism in ciliates with varying levels of macronuclear amplification: Halteria grandinella, Blepharisma americanum and Strombidium stylifer We estimate the rDNA copy numbers of these three species by single-cell quantitative PCR. The results indicate that: (i) sequence variation of SSU rDNA within a single cell is authentic in ciliates, but the level of intra-individual SSU rDNA polymorphism varies greatly among species; (ii) rDNA copy numbers vary greatly among species, even those within the same class; (iii) the average rDNA copy number of Halteria grandinella is about 567 893 (s.d. = 165 481), which is the highest record of rDNA copy number in ciliates to date; and (iv) based on our data and the records from previous studies, it is not always true in ciliates that rDNA copy numbers are positively correlated with cell or genome size. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the phosphoinositide kinome from two ciliates reveals novel evolutionary links for phosphoinositide kinases in eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leondaritis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complexity of phosphoinositide signaling in higher eukaryotes is partly due to expansion of specific families and types of phosphoinositide kinases (PIKs that can generate all phosphoinositides via multiple routes. This is particularly evident in the PI3Ks and PIPKs, and it is considered an evolutionary trait associated with metazoan diversification. Yet, there are limited comprehensive studies on the PIK repertoire of free living unicellular organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a genome-wide analysis of putative PIK genes in two free living ciliated cells, Tetrahymena and Paramecium. The Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia genomes were probed with representative kinases from all families and types. Putative homologs were verified by EST, microarray and deep RNA sequencing database searches and further characterized for domain structure, catalytic efficiency, expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships. In total, we identified and characterized 22 genes in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome and 62 highly homologues genes in Paramecium tetraurelia suggesting a tight evolutionary conservation in the ciliate lineage. Comparison to the kinome of fungi reveals a significant expansion of PIK genes in ciliates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study highlights four important aspects concerning ciliate and other unicellular PIKs. First, ciliate-specific expansion of PI4KIII-like genes. Second, presence of class I PI3Ks which, at least in Tetrahymena, are associated with a metazoan-type machinery for PIP3 signaling. Third, expansion of divergent PIPK enzymes such as the recently described type IV transmembrane PIPKs. Fourth, presence of possible type II PIPKs and presumably inactive PIKs (hence, pseudo-PIKs not previously described. Taken together, our results provide a solid framework for future investigation of the roles of PIKs in ciliates and indicate that novel functions and novel regulatory

  8. Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 2. In vivo and in sacco evaluations of rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Scollan, N D; Moorby, J M; Merry, R J; Wilkins, R J

    2003-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the basis for higher voluntary intakes and increased alpha-linolenic acid content in milk from cows offered clover silages. Six cows with rumen and duodenal cannulae were used in a four-period changeover-design experiment. Cows received 8 kg/d of dairy concentrate and had ad libitum access to one of six silage treatments: grass, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, and 50/50 (dry matter basis) mixtures of grass with red clover or white clover. The rumen fermentability of grass, red clover, white clover, and grass/red clover silages was also evaluated in a nylon bag study. Legume silages led to increased dry matter intake and milk production in comparison with grass silage. There was no significant effect of legume silages on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations, but a significant increase in rumen ammonia concentration with the legume silages, reflecting their higher protein content. The inclusion of white clover or alfalfa silage, but not red clover silage, in diets led to an increase in molar proportions of isobutyric, iso-valeric, and n-valeric acids in comparison with diets based on grass silage. Rumen fill was significantly lower, and rumen passage rates were significantly higher for cows offered alfalfa or white clover silages. However, the markedly different particle size distribution of rumen contents with these feeds suggests very different mechanisms for the high intake characteristics: high rates of particle breakdown and passage with alfalfa, and high rates of fermentation and passage with white clover. Microbial energetic efficiency (grams microbial N per kilogram organic matter apparently digested in the rumen) was highest for cows offered alfalfa silage, intermediate for clover silage, and lowest for cows offered grass silage. These differences reflect the higher rumen outflow rates for legume silages in comparison with grass silage. However, the effect of these differences on N-use efficiency

  9. Changes in Microbiota in Rumen Digesta and Feces Due to a Grain-Based Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaizier, Jan C; Li, Shucong; Danscher, Anne Mette; Derakshani, Hooman; Andersen, Pia H; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2017-02-08

    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on bacteria in the rumen and feces of lactating dairy cows were determined. Six lactating, rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows were used in a cross-over study with two periods. Periods included two cows on a control diet and two cows on a SARA challenge. The control diet was a total mixed ration containing 45.5% dry matter (DM), 43.8% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 19.6% DM starch. The SARA challenge was conducted by gradually substituting the control diet with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley over 3 days to reach a diet containing 55.6% DM, 31.3% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 31.8% DM starch, which was fed for four more days. Rumen fluid samples were collected at day 7 and 10 of experimental periods. Feces samples were collected on days 8 and 10 of these periods. Extracted DNA from the rumen and feces samples was analyzed to assess their bacterial communities using MiSeq Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The induction of SARA reduced the richness, diversity, and stability of bacterial communities and resulted in distinctly different microbiota in the rumen and feces. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla and, combined, they represented 76.9 and 94.4% of the bacterial community in the rumen fluid and the feces, respectively. Only the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the rumen was increased by the SARA challenge. In rumen fluid and feces, the abundances of nine out of the 90 and 25 out of the 89 taxa, respectively, were affected by the challenge. Hence, SARA challenge altered the composition of the bacterial community at the lower taxonomical level in the feces and therefore also likely in the hindgut, as well as in the rumen. However, only reductions in the bacterial richness and diversity in the rumen fluid and feces were in agreement with those of other studies and had a biological basis. Although the composition of the

  10. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  11. Effect of inclusion of tree leaves in feed on nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvansi, S K S; Prasad, R; Mishra, A S; Chaturvedi, O H; Tripathi, M K; Misra, A K; Saraswat, B L; Jakhmola, R C

    2007-02-01

    The effect of inclusion of tree leaves in mustard (Brassica campestris) straw (MS) based complete feed blocks (CFB) on nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation was studied in adult male sheep. Four types of CFB diets (Roughage:Concentrate:Molasses, 70:25:5) were prepared. The compaction process increased bulk density (g/cm(3)) of MSB, MSNL, MSSL and MSAL by 2.9, 1.79, 2.40 and 2.26 times, respectively. The dry matter intake (g/day) was higher (Ptree leaves, while digestibility of dry matter and organic matter showed small improvement. However, inclusion of tree leaves did not affect digestibility of neutral detergent fibre, cellulose and energy. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen was significantly higher in MSAL than in MSB or MSSL. Blood bio-chemical parameters were within the normal physiological range in all the groups.

  12. Methylotrophic methanogenic Thermoplasmata implicated in reduced methane emissions from bovine rumen - in: GGAA2013 Conference Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    was sampled from the top and bottom part of the frontal, mid and distal section of the rumen (25 ml per section), pooled, physically disrupted to release microorganisms from organic matter and filtered (pore size: 0.5 mm). Total nucleic acids were extracted using a standard phenol-chloroform bead......-beating procedure. DNA was removed and double-stranded complementary DNA (ds-cDNA) was synthetized from purified RNA. The ds-cDNA was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 system (≈160bp; paired-end sequenced from 2×100bp read lengths). Concatenated small subunit (SSU) rRNA reads were analyzed according to Urich....... Analysis of SSU rRNA reads revealed that archaea were significantly decreased upon RSO supplementation, whereas bacterial and eukaryotic taxa were basically unaffected. The decrease of archaea could be assigned to a novel group of methanogens distantly related to Thermoplasmata (“Rumen Cluster C”, RCC...

  13. Morphological and histological identification of Paramphistomum cervi (Trematoda: Paramiphistoma in the rumen of infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayata Chaoudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to identify Paramphistomum cervi on the basis of its morphology and histology to be the common cause of paramphistomosis in infected sheep and its differentiation from other similar Paramphistomes in Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Adult rumen flukes were recovered from the rumen of naturally infected sheep slaughtered in various abattoirs in Gujarat. Some adult flukes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, and some were sectioned in the median sagittal plane and histological slides of the flukes were prepared for detailed morphological and histological studies. Result: Microscopic pictures of the parasite used in identification define the similarity in the morphology and histology of the anterior sucker, pharynx, esophagus, genital atrium, posterior sucker (acetabulum and testes to the P. cervi. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the most common species found in sheep infected with Paramphistomosis is P. cervi on the basis of its histo-morphological appearance in Gujarat.

  14. Short communication: rearrangement of rumenic Acid in ruminant fats: a marker of thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, F; Japiot, C; Chouinard, P Y; Arul, J; Angers, P

    2005-05-01

    Rumenic (cis-9,trans-11 18:2) acid is the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer in milk and other ruminant fats. Anhydrous regular and high-CLA butterfats were heated at 200 degrees C for 2, 4, and 6 h under atmospheric conditions. [1,5] Sigmatropic isomerization of rumenic acid occurred, resulting in the formation of trans-8,cis-10 18:2 acid, as determined by mass spectrometry of its 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivative. Rate of isomerization was monitored by gas-liquid chromatography, using a 120-m capillary column coated with 70% equivalent cyanoalkylpolysiloxane polymer, and reaction was of first order. Furthermore, [1,5] sigmatropic rearrangement product analysis can be used as an indicator of heat treatment of natural fats and oils containing CLA.

  15. Seasonal changes in the digesta-adherent rumen bacterial communities of dairy cattle grazing pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Attwood, G T; Rakonjac, J

    2017-01-01

    The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only...... to learn more about the stability of this community over time. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed a high level of bacterial diversity, totalling 1539 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, grouped at 96% sequence similarity) across all samples, and ranging from 653 to 926 OTUs per individual sample. The nutritive....... These results demonstrate a general invariability of the ruminal bacterial community structure in these grazing dairy cattle....

  16. Growth performance and rumen microorganism differ between segregated weaning lambs and grazing lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shou-kun; JIANG Cheng-gang; LI Rui; DIAO Qi-yu; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; SI Bing-wen

    2016-01-01

    Two feeding patterns of the segregated weaning or grazing in the pasture are carried out worldwide in animal production. To investigate the difference of growth performance and rumen microorganism population related to methane metabolism in the two feeding patterns, three groups of lambs (70 in total) were used: Weaning at 21 days old and being subjected to high-concentration diets (3WK group with 20 lambs), weaning at 35 days old and being subjected to high-concentration diets (5WK group with 20 lambs), or grazing at pasture with the nursing mother (Grazing group with 30 lambs). The growth performance, pH value of rumen content, and the rumen microbes were investigated during weaning period and fatten-ing period with approximately 3 months. Our results showed that lambs in 3WK and 5WK groups demonstrated a better growth performance than the lambs in Grazing group, but no signiifcant difference was observed in the pH value between the three groups (P>0.05). The total rumen bacterial population of the Grazing lambs was signiifcantly lower than that of 3WK lambs (P<0.05) and 5WK lambs (P<0.05); however, the population of methanogens was 4.2- and 2.7-fold lower in the 3WK (P<0.05) and 5WK (P<0.05) lambs compared with Grazing lambs, respectively; protozoa were also 3.5- and 3.4-fold lower in the 3WK (P<0.05) and 5WK (P<0.05) lambs, respectively. The results revealed that segregated weaning lambs may have better growth performance, and reduce methane-producing microbes.

  17. Some Properties of Purified and Non-purified Rumen Tissue Arginase in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ERİŞİR, Mine; OZAN, Sema Temizer

    1998-01-01

    Some biochemical properties of purified and non-purified rumen tissue arginase were compared. Homogenization, heating, treatment with aceton, precipitation with ammonium sulfate, dialysis, several centrifugations, gel filtration on sephadex G-200 processes were utilized in the purification procedure of the enzyme. It was found that pre-incubation temperature (60 °C) of arginase and Km (4mM) to its substrate, L-arginine, did not change before and after purification. While pre-incubation peri...

  18. Milk Odd- and Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Relation to the Rumen Fermentation Pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Tamminga, S.; Dewhurst, R.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Brabander, de D.; Demeyer, D.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether a relationship exists between molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the rumen and milk odd-and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations (i.e., iso C13:0, anteiso C13:0, iso C14:0, C15:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, iso C16:0, C17:0, iso

  19. Eating timing an evolutionary manager of postmodern rumen physiology and health: a review

    OpenAIRE

    NIKKHAH, Akbar

    2011-01-01

    Akbar NikkhahDepartment of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IranAbstract: Natural diurnal patterns of grazing and rumination lead intensive ruminant production. Ruminants have evolved to ruminate mostly overnight and to graze during the day, especially during sunrise, the afternoon, and sunset. Accordingly, rumen fermentation, postrumen nutrient assimilation, and peripheral metabolism possess circadian patterns. The evolutionary patterns of eati...

  20. Effects of chop length and ensiling period of forage maize on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, De; Schooten, van, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chop length and ensiling period on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of forage maize was studied in two experiments. In the first experiment, maize plants of eight cultivars representing different combinations of Dry Down, Stay Green, early ripening, late ripening, starch and cell wall types were chopped at harvest into pieces of 6 or 15 mm and ensiled in small laboratory silos. After 8 weeks, silage samples were taken and freeze-dried (not ground) before in vitro rume...