WorldWideScience

Sample records for rules promote effective

  1. The EU as a global 'Rule of Law Promoter': the consistency and effectiveness challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pech, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the consistency and effectiveness of the EU as a global promoter of values by focusing on the rule of law, one of the key values on which the EU is based and which is also supposed to guide the EU’s external action. The paper first offers the diagnosis that the EU has failed to properly address a number of key issues: (i) what the EU seeks to promote under the heading ‘rule of law’; (ii) how it measures and monitors a country’s adherence to this principle and (iii) ...

  2. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  3. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  4. Promoting Competition Rules in Romania, 2010 - 2014 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Cristina Bâldan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Promoting Competition Rules in Romania, 2010-2014 Period” presents theactivities carried out by the Competition Council in our country with the purpose of strengtheningcooperation relationships with other institutions, as well as activities carried out with the purposeof enhancing the all stakeholders’ confidence in the benefits provided by competition, during theanalysed period. The promotion of the competition culture is represented by activities performed bythe competition authority by mechanisms that are not directly related to the effective application ofthe law, especially those related to strengthening cooperation relationships with other institutionsand those performed with the purpose of enhancing all stakeholders’ confidence in the benefitsprovided by competition (ministries and state institutions, economic agents, magistrates, businessassociations and trade unions, non-governmental organizations, consumers, etc..

  5. Fuzzy Rule-based Analysis of Promotional Efficiency in Vietnam’s Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Quang VINH; Dam Van KHANH; Nguyen Viet ANH

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine an effective method of measuring the efficiency of promotional strategies for tourist destinations. Complicating factors that influence promotional efficiency (PE), such as promotional activities (PA), destination attribute (DA), and destination image (DI), make it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of PE. This study develops a rule-based decision support mechanism using fuzzy set theory and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the effectiveness o...

  6. Entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L

    2009-07-01

    The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed.

  7. Fuzzy Rule-based Analysis of Promotional Efficiency in Vietnam’s Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang VINH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine an effective method of measuring the efficiency of promotional strategies for tourist destinations. Complicating factors that influence promotional efficiency (PE, such as promotional activities (PA, destination attribute (DA, and destination image (DI, make it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of PE. This study develops a rule-based decision support mechanism using fuzzy set theory and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to evaluate the effectiveness of promotional strategies. Additionally, a statistical analysis is conducted using SPSS (Statistics Package for Social Science to confirm the results of the fuzzy AHP analysis. This study finds that government policy is the most important factor for PE and that service staff (internal beauty is more important than tourism infrastructure (external beauty in terms of customer satisfaction and long-term strategy in PE. With respect to DI, experts are concerned first with tourist perceived value, second with tourist satisfaction and finally with tourist loyalty.

  8. The Filtering Effect of Sharing Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.; de Geest, G.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sharing rules have a filtering effect on violations: they prevent the most harmful violations and let the least harmful ones occur. We show under what conditions the filtering effect improves social welfare and argue that this may explain why, in most areas of the law, sharing rules are, in general,

  9. Does Religiosity Promote Property Rights and the Rule of Law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, Niclas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social and cultural determinants of economic institutions and outcomes have come to the forefront of economic research. We introduce religiosity, measured as the share for which religion is important in daily life, to explain institutional quality in the form of property rights and the rule of law...

  10. Does Religiosity Promote Property Rights and the Rule of Law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, Niclas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social and cultural determinants of economic institutions and outcomes have come to the forefront of economic research. We introduce religiosity, measured as the share for which religion is important in daily life, to explain institutional quality in the form of property rights and the rule of law...... autocracies), which suggests that religiosity affects the way institutions work through the political process. Individual religions are not related to our measure of institutional quality....

  11. Does religiosity promote property rights and the rule of law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, Niclas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Social and cultural determinants of economic institutions and outcomes have come to the forefront of economic research. We introduce religiosity, measured as the share for which religion is important in daily life, to explain institutional quality in the form of property rights and the rule of law...... autocracies), which suggests that religiosity affects the way institutions work through the political process. Individual religions are not related to our measures of institutional quality....

  12. Can decentralisation contribute to promoting rule-of-law structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese ... a country's population to exercise political influence at regional and local level. ... In addition, it raises questions regarding the effect of instruments of international law on ...

  13. MARKET ALLOCATION RULES FOR NONPRICE PROMOTION WITH FARM PROGRAMS: U.S. COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lily; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    1996-01-01

    Rules are derived to indicate the optimal allocation of a fixed promotion budget between domestic and export markets when the commodity in question represents a significant portion of world trade and is protected in the domestic market by a deficiency-payment program. Optimal allocation decisions are governed by advertising elasticities in the domestic and export markets and the export market share. PromotionÂ’'s ability to lower deficiency payments is inversely related to the absolute value ...

  14. Associate editors' foreword: entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Randall R; Cooper, Hanna

    2009-07-01

    A career in health education or health promotion (HE/HP) can be developed in many ways. In past editions of this department, career development has been discussed in relation to distance (Balonna, 2001), consulting (Bookbinder, 2001), certifications (Hayden, 2005), graduate school (Cottrell & Hayden, 2007), and many other topics. This article looks at a less traditional means of career development-entrepreneurship. Health education is a field ripe with opportunities for consulting and for selling health-related products and services. Entrepreneurship can not only create financial rewards but can also provide high visibility and networking contacts that can advance one's career. This article combines both theory and practical applications to assist readers in developing entrepreneurial activities. The authors are experienced in entrepreneurial development and use that expertise to provide relevant examples and develop a framework using "five cardinal rules" for establishing an entrepreneurial enterprise in HE/HP.

  15. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  16. Six rules for accurate effective forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffo, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of forecasting is to identify the full range of possibilities facing a company, society, or the world at large. In this article, Saffo demythologizes the forecasting process to help executives become sophisticated and participative consumers of forecasts, rather than passive absorbers. He illustrates how to use forecasts to at once broaden understanding of possibilities and narrow the decision space within which one must exercise intuition. The events of 9/11, for example, were a much bigger surprise than they should have been. After all, airliners flown into monuments were the stuff of Tom Clancy novels in the 1990s, and everyone knew that terrorists had a very personal antipathy toward the World Trade Center. So why was 9/11 such a surprise? What can executives do to avoid being blind-sided by other such wild cards, be they radical shifts in markets or the seemingly sudden emergence of disruptive technologies? In describing what forecasters are trying to achieve, Saffo outlines six simple, commonsense rules that smart managers should observe as they embark on a voyage of discovery with professional forecasters. Map a cone of uncertainty, he advises, look for the S curve, embrace the things that don't fit, hold strong opinions weakly, look back twice as far as you look forward, and know when not to make a forecast.

  17. Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.

  18. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  20. CAUSE AND EFFECT IN PROMOTING A PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERIAN-VLĂDUȚ IACOB

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a project to be considered successful it is necessary, besides a proper coordination, to be also done a good and wide promotion. In view of communication, promotion and maintenance ensures the organization's image. Disturbances occurring in any type of project, as a result of poor promotion, affect the image of the team and highlight the weaknesses in its management. Therefore, the promotion should be permanently monitored and evaluated. Cause-effect analysis is one of the ways we can identify some of nonconformities of the promotion process within a project.

  1. Isospin sum rule for nuclear photoabsorption: Effect of retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize, M.A.; Fallieros, S.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the close similarity between a sum rule originally derived by Cabibbo and Radicati and a simplified version based on nonrelativistic nuclear physics in the long-wavelength limit, we have investigated the effect of retardation corrections. An account of the contributions due to higher multipolarities is presented, together with a physical interpretation of the results

  2. Quantifying the effects of IT-governance rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, C.

    2007-01-01

    Via quantitative analyses of large IT-portfolio databases, we detected unique data patterns pointing to certain IT-governance rules and styles, plus their sometimes nonintuitive and negative side-effects. We grouped the most important patterns in seven categories and highlighted them separately.

  3. Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2010-01-01

    This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give...

  4. Examining the Rule of Thumb of Not Using Multilevel Modeling: The "Design Effect Smaller than Two" Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mark H. C.; Kwok, Oi-man

    2015-01-01

    Educational researchers commonly use the rule of thumb of "design effect smaller than 2" as the justification of not accounting for the multilevel or clustered structure in their data. The rule, however, has not yet been systematically studied in previous research. In the present study, we generated data from three different models…

  5. 75 FR 7985 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ..., advertising, and promotion of highbush blueberries in the marketplace. The Council recommended increasing the...-09-0021; FV-09-704] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed... amend the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) by increasing the assessment rate...

  6. Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloët, Ian C; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W

    2016-01-22

    In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q|≳0.5  GeV. The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.

  7. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The birds in group A received control diet during the experiment but those in ... genera displayed a growth-promoting effect that was comparable to control diet and also decreased .... Table 3. Effects of dietary probiotics on evolution of broiler weekly BW in control, Enterococcus faecium, and Bifidobacterium.

  8. Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between the perception of (hedonic and utilitarian consumption value and purchase intention for a promoted product and a negative relationship between the perception of consumption value and the perception of financial risk. In addition, it was supposed that the sales promotion type would moderate these direct relationships and that a monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the relationship between purchase intention and perceived product utility, whereas a non-monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the other relationships (hedonic value and financial risk perceptions. Analysis of the outcomes supported the proposed hypotheses.

  9. Promotion of cooperation induced by a self-questioning update rule in the spatial traveler's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Juan; Hu, Meng-long; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Qiu-shi; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2014-01-01

    In sociology and economics, evolutionary game theory has provided a powerful framework to illustrate the social dilemma's problems, and many evolutionary game models are presented, such as prisoner's dilemma game, snowdrift game, public goods game, and so on. In this paper, however, we focus on another typical pair-wise game model: Traveler's Dilemma Game (TDG), which has been deeply investigated in economics, but less attention has been paid to this topic within the physics community. We mainly discuss the influence of strategy update rules on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial TDG, and in detail explore the role of a novel self-questioning or self-learning update mechanism in the evolution of cooperation of the TDG model on the square lattice. In our self-questioning rule, each player does not imitate the strategy state of his or her nearest neighbors and simply plays the traveler's dilemma games twice with nearest neighbors: one is to calculate the actual payoff in the current game round; the other is to perform a virtual game which is used to obtain an intangible payoff if he or she adopts another random strategy. Then, the focal player decides to keep the current strategy or to change into that virtual strategy according to the Fermi-like dynamics. A great number of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that our self-questioning rule is a low information game decision-making mechanism which can greatly promote the evolution of cooperation for some specific conditions in the spatial TDG model. Furthermore, this novel rule can also be applied into the prisoner's dilemma game, and likewise the behavior of cooperation can be largely enhanced. Our results are of high importance to analyze and understand the emergence of cooperation within many real social and economical systems.

  10. Phenomenology of the Higgs Effective Lagrangian via FeynRules

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Sanz, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    The Higgs discovery and the lack of any other hint for new physics favor a description of non-standard Higgs physics in terms of an effective field theory. We present an implementation of a general Higgs effective Lagrangian containing operators up to dimension six in the framework of FeynRules and provide details on the translation between the mass and interaction bases, in particular for three- and four-point interaction vertices involving Higgs and gauge bosons. We illustrate the strengths of this implementation by using the UFO interface of FeynRules capable to generate model files that can be understood by the MadGraph 5 event generator and that have the specificity to contain all interaction vertices, without any restriction on the number of external legs or on the complexity of the Lorentz structures. We then investigate several new physics effects in total rates and differential distributions for different Higgs production modes, including gluon fusion, associated production with a gauge boson and di-...

  11. Complaints, Complainants, and Rulings Regarding Drug Promotion in the United Kingdom and Sweden 2004–2012: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Pharmaceutical Industry Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Merlo, Juan; Mulinari, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Background In many European countries, medicines promotion is governed by voluntary codes of practice administered by the pharmaceutical industry under its own system of self-regulation. Involvement of industry organizations in policing promotion has been proposed to deter illicit conduct, but few detailed studies on self-regulation have been carried out to date. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for promotion and self-regulation in the UK and Sweden, two countries frequently cited as examples of effective self-regulation. Methods and Findings We performed a qualitative content analysis of documents outlining the constitutions and procedures of these two systems. We also gathered data from self-regulatory bodies on complaints, complainants, and rulings for the period 2004–2012. The qualitative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the countries. For example, self-regulatory bodies in both countries are required to actively monitor promotional items and impose sanctions on violating companies, but the range of sanctions is greater in the UK where companies may, for instance, be audited or publicly reprimanded. In total, Swedish and UK bodies ruled that 536 and 597 cases, respectively, were in breach, equating to an average of more than one case/week for each country. In Sweden, 430 (47%) complaints resulted from active monitoring, compared with only two complaints (0.2%) in the UK. In both countries, a majority of violations concerned misleading promotion. Charges incurred on companies averaged €447,000 and €765,000 per year in Sweden and the UK, respectively, equivalent to about 0.014% and 0.0051% of annual sales revenues, respectively. One hundred cases in the UK (17% of total cases in breach) and 101 (19%) in Sweden were highlighted as particularly serious. A total of 46 companies were ruled in breach of code for a serious offence at least once in the two countries combined (n = 36 in the UK; n = 27 in Sweden); seven

  12. Following the white rabbit. Rule users’ effects on the life cycle of holes in rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelen, K.B. van

    2013-01-01

    Professionals encounter problems in their work environments that can be attributed to a generally perceived friction between rules and practice. Part I demonstrates that this professional squeeze is not just a result of a bilateral interaction between worker and friction; it is indicative of the

  13. [Scientific research and academic promotion in occupational medicine: what are the rules of the game?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the National University Council (CUN) recognized the importance of bibliometric indicators in assessing scientific output and the Ministry of Education, University and Research established that the selection committees' decision must be guided by internationally recognized metrics including the impact factor (IF). To analyse methods and tools of metrics to assess scientific performance in Occupational Medicine by examining some critical aspects for entry-level positions and academic promotion in the Universities. By means of different databases (Web of Knowledge, Scopus, SCImago), the h-index was studied to assess the scientific output in the field of Occupational Medicine. The h-index was used as an index of both output and quality of overall output of researchers, disciplines, journals, and countries. Italian scientific output in the Public, Environmental & Occupational Health subject category (h-index = 62) was lower than almost the total of other medical disciplines and, at an international level, is ranked at 12th place (other disciplines ranked 3rd to 9th). Output was 32% compared to that of the USA (other disciplines ranged from 42% and 61%). However, it should be noted that most scientific papers of Occupational Medicine researchers are published mainly in journals of different disciplines (with a higher IF) rather than in journals of Public, Environmental & Occupational Health (with a lower IF). Assuming that selection committees' decisions will be guided by metrics and will respect the minimum standard proposed by CUN, Occupational Medicine researchers aiming at academic promotion will have good reason to ask themselves not only which journals are most useful but also which journals have the greatest impact. This fact could have profound implications for the future of the discipline.

  14. Is renewable energy effective in promoting growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, António Cardoso; Fuinhas, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies panel data techniques to analyze the role of the various energy sources in economic growth, for a set of 24 European countries (1990–2007), controlling for energy consumption and energy dependency. The results suggest that the negative effect of the use of renewables supplants the positive effect of creating income by exploiting a natural resource locally, and thus growth does not appear to improve with the change towards renewables. The high costs of promoting renewables are probably being placed excessively upon the economy, namely by increasing the costs of electricity tariffs, thus inducing a deceleration in economic activity. Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth while natural gas does not appear to be relevant in explaining growth. Coal hampers the capacity for growth, whereas the use of oil stimulates that growth. This is in line with productive structures that are deeply grounded in fossil fuels, particularly oil. - Highlights: ► We empirically test the distinct effects of decomposing energy by source on growth. ► We focus on 24 European Countries (1990–1907) by applying a panel data approach. ► Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth. Coal hampers and oil stimulates it. ► Economic growth does not appear to improve with the paradigm change to renewable. ► High costs of promotion of renewables are being placed excessively upon the economy.

  15. Updating OSHA standards based on national consensus standards. final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-14

    OSHA is confirming the effective date of its direct final rule that revises a number of standards for general industry that refer to national consensus standards. The direct final rule states that it would become effective on March 13, 2008 unless OSHA receives significant adverse comment on these revisions by January 14, 2008. OSHA received no adverse comments by that date and, therefore, is confirming that the rule will become effective on March 13, 2008.

  16. Effect of Temporal Relationships in Associative Rule Mining for Web Log Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Khairudin, Nazli; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The advent of web-based applications and services has created such diverse and voluminous web log data stored in web servers, proxy servers, client machines, or organizational databases. This paper attempts to investigate the effect of temporal attribute in relational rule mining for web log data. We incorporated the characteristics of time in the rule mining process and analysed the effect of various temporal parameters. The rules generated from temporal relational rule mining are then compared against the rules generated from the classical rule mining approach such as the Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms. The results showed that by incorporating the temporal attribute via time, the number of rules generated is subsequently smaller but is comparable in terms of quality. PMID:24587757

  17. 76 FR 14777 - National Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Final Rule on Amendments to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... period would return between $5.49 and $7.07, on average, in net revenue to farmers. Additionally, the... neutrality of all policies and activities of the National Program prior to the distribution of any importer... appropriate expenditure of funds with respect to neutrality. Additionally, as of the effective date of these...

  18. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  19. Pharmaceutical Industry Off-label Promotion and Self-regulation: A Document Analysis of Off-label Promotion Rulings by the United Kingdom Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority 2003-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Vilhelmsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union law prohibits companies from marketing drugs off-label. In the United Kingdom--as in some other European countries, but unlike the United States--industry self-regulatory bodies are tasked with supervising compliance with marketing rules. The objectives of this study were to (1 characterize off-label promotion rulings in the UK compared to the whistleblower-initiated cases in the US and (2 shed light on the UK self-regulatory mechanism for detecting, deterring, and sanctioning off-label promotion.We conducted structured reviews of rulings by the UK self-regulatory authority, the Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority (PMCPA, between 2003 and 2012. There were 74 off-label promotion rulings involving 43 companies and 65 drugs. Nineteen companies were ruled in breach more than once, and ten companies were ruled in breach three or more times over the 10-y period. Drawing on a typology previously developed to analyse US whistleblower complaints, we coded and analysed the apparent strategic goals of each off-label marketing scheme and the practices consistent with those alleged goals. 50% of rulings cited efforts to expand drug use to unapproved indications, and 39% and 38% cited efforts to expand beyond approved disease entities and dosing strategies, respectively. The most frequently described promotional tactic was attempts to influence prescribers (n = 72, 97%, using print material (70/72, 97%, for example, advertisements (21/70, 30%. Although rulings cited prescribers as the prime target of off-label promotion, competing companies lodged the majority of complaints (prescriber: n = 16, 22%, versus companies: n = 42, 57%. Unlike US whistleblower complaints, few UK rulings described practices targeting consumers (n = 3, 4%, payers (n = 2, 3%, or company staff (n = 2, 3%. Eight UK rulings (11% pertaining to six drugs described promotion of the same drug for the same off-label use as was alleged by whistleblowers in the US

  20. Pharmaceutical Industry Off-label Promotion and Self-regulation: A Document Analysis of Off-label Promotion Rulings by the United Kingdom Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Davis, Courtney; Mulinari, Shai

    2016-01-01

    European Union law prohibits companies from marketing drugs off-label. In the United Kingdom--as in some other European countries, but unlike the United States--industry self-regulatory bodies are tasked with supervising compliance with marketing rules. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize off-label promotion rulings in the UK compared to the whistleblower-initiated cases in the US and (2) shed light on the UK self-regulatory mechanism for detecting, deterring, and sanctioning off-label promotion. We conducted structured reviews of rulings by the UK self-regulatory authority, the Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority (PMCPA), between 2003 and 2012. There were 74 off-label promotion rulings involving 43 companies and 65 drugs. Nineteen companies were ruled in breach more than once, and ten companies were ruled in breach three or more times over the 10-y period. Drawing on a typology previously developed to analyse US whistleblower complaints, we coded and analysed the apparent strategic goals of each off-label marketing scheme and the practices consistent with those alleged goals. 50% of rulings cited efforts to expand drug use to unapproved indications, and 39% and 38% cited efforts to expand beyond approved disease entities and dosing strategies, respectively. The most frequently described promotional tactic was attempts to influence prescribers (n = 72, 97%), using print material (70/72, 97%), for example, advertisements (21/70, 30%). Although rulings cited prescribers as the prime target of off-label promotion, competing companies lodged the majority of complaints (prescriber: n = 16, 22%, versus companies: n = 42, 57%). Unlike US whistleblower complaints, few UK rulings described practices targeting consumers (n = 3, 4%), payers (n = 2, 3%), or company staff (n = 2, 3%). Eight UK rulings (11%) pertaining to six drugs described promotion of the same drug for the same off-label use as was alleged by whistleblowers in the US. However

  1. Pharmaceutical Industry Off-label Promotion and Self-regulation: A Document Analysis of Off-label Promotion Rulings by the United Kingdom Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Davis, Courtney; Mulinari, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Background European Union law prohibits companies from marketing drugs off-label. In the United Kingdom—as in some other European countries, but unlike the United States—industry self-regulatory bodies are tasked with supervising compliance with marketing rules. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize off-label promotion rulings in the UK compared to the whistleblower-initiated cases in the US and (2) shed light on the UK self-regulatory mechanism for detecting, deterring, and sanctioning off-label promotion. Methods and Findings We conducted structured reviews of rulings by the UK self-regulatory authority, the Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority (PMCPA), between 2003 and 2012. There were 74 off-label promotion rulings involving 43 companies and 65 drugs. Nineteen companies were ruled in breach more than once, and ten companies were ruled in breach three or more times over the 10-y period. Drawing on a typology previously developed to analyse US whistleblower complaints, we coded and analysed the apparent strategic goals of each off-label marketing scheme and the practices consistent with those alleged goals. 50% of rulings cited efforts to expand drug use to unapproved indications, and 39% and 38% cited efforts to expand beyond approved disease entities and dosing strategies, respectively. The most frequently described promotional tactic was attempts to influence prescribers (n = 72, 97%), using print material (70/72, 97%), for example, advertisements (21/70, 30%). Although rulings cited prescribers as the prime target of off-label promotion, competing companies lodged the majority of complaints (prescriber: n = 16, 22%, versus companies: n = 42, 57%). Unlike US whistleblower complaints, few UK rulings described practices targeting consumers (n = 3, 4%), payers (n = 2, 3%), or company staff (n = 2, 3%). Eight UK rulings (11%) pertaining to six drugs described promotion of the same drug for the same off-label use as was alleged by

  2. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting....... This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...... into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals...

  3. VA Dental Insurance Program--federalism. Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a direct final rule in the Federal Register on October 22, 2013, amending its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Specifically, this rule adds language to clarify the limited preemptive effect of certain criteria in the VADIP regulations. VA received no comments concerning this rule or its companion substantially identical proposed rule published in the Federal Register on October 23, 2013. This document confirms that the direct final rule became effective on December 23, 2013. In a companion document in this issue of the Federal Register, we are withdrawing as unnecessary the proposed rule.

  4. Effective Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease by Means of Association Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, R.; Ramírez, J.; Górriz, J. M.; López, M.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; Illán, I.; Segovia, F.; Padilla, P.

    In this paper we present a novel classification method of SPECT images for the early diagnosis of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). The proposed method is based on Association Rules (ARs) aiming to discover interesting associations between attributes contained in the database. The system uses firstly voxel-as-features (VAF) and Activation Estimation (AE) to find tridimensional activated brain regions of interest (ROIs) for each patient. These ROIs act as inputs to secondly mining ARs between activated blocks for controls, with a specified minimum support and minimum confidence. ARs are mined in supervised mode, using information previously extracted from the most discriminant rules for centering interest in the relevant brain areas, reducing the computational requirement of the system. Finally classification process is performed depending on the number of previously mined rules verified by each subject, yielding an up to 95.87% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for AD diagnosis.

  5. Maintenance rule: a system to guarantee maintenance effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralbo, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years, maintenance activities in nuclear plants have been given prime attention in view of their repercussion on the performance of such plants. One of the results of that attention is a new rule published in the U.S. known as M aintenance Rule . The paper describes the philosophy and main guidelines of the new regulation, and presents the procedure brought into action by the nuclear industry in Spain so to make their application contribute to a real improvement of safety and performance in nuclear plants. (Author)

  6. Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...

  7. 76 FR 11550 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC Relating to Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols February 24, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4...

  8. 76 FR 18814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC Relating to Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols March 30, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''), \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4...

  9. 75 FR 65693 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Exchange has observed the popularity of $0.50 strikes. The open interest in the $2.50 August strike series... Commission may designate, it has become effective pursuant to Section 19(b)(3)(A) of the Act \\9\\ and Rule 19b... are filed with the Commission, and all written communications relating to the proposed rule change...

  10. Promoting Changes in Children's Predictive Rules about Natural Phenomena: The Role of Computer-Based Modelling Strategies. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Micheline

    Trying to change the predictive rule for the sinking and floating phenomena, students have a great difficulty in understanding density and they are insensitive to empirical counter-examples designed to challenge their own rule. The purpose of this study is to examine the process whereby students from sixth and seventh grades relinquish their…

  11. Medical devices: reports of corrections and removals; delay of effective data--FDA. Direct final rule; delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published in the Federal Register of August 7, 1998 (63 FR 42229), a direct final rule. The direct final rule notified the public of FDA's intention to amend the regulations that govern reports of corrections and removals of medical devices to eliminate the requirement for distributors to make such reports. This document delays the effective date of the direct final rule.

  12. Analysis and minimization of overtraining effect in rule-based classifiers for computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Doi Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes have been developed to assist radiologists detect various lesions in medical images. In CAD schemes, classifiers play a key role in achieving a high lesion detection rate and a low false-positive rate. Although many popular classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks have been employed in CAD schemes for reduction of false positives, a rule-based classifier has probably been the simplest and most frequently used one since the early days of development of various CAD schemes. However, with existing rule-based classifiers, there are major disadvantages that significantly reduce their practicality and credibility. The disadvantages include manual design, poor reproducibility, poor evaluation methods such as resubstitution, and a large overtraining effect. An automated rule-based classifier with a minimized overtraining effect can overcome or significantly reduce the extent of the above-mentioned disadvantages. In this study, we developed an 'optimal' method for the selection of cutoff thresholds and a fully automated rule-based classifier. Experimental results performed with Monte Carlo simulation and a real lung nodule CT data set demonstrated that the automated threshold selection method can completely eliminate overtraining effect in the procedure of cutoff threshold selection, and thus can minimize overall overtraining effect in the constructed rule-based classifier. We believe that this threshold selection method is very useful in the construction of automated rule-based classifiers with minimized overtraining effect

  13. BEYOND ZERO HARM: Promoting effective community participation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mining-affected communities globally, and specifically in West Africa, experience both the potential of important socio-economic development opportunities and the ... It does so through the co-production of consistent and meaningful local data on community well-being, the promotion of more transparent and inclusive local ...

  14. Strengthen Context To Enhance Health Promotion Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…

  15. BEYOND ZERO HARM: Promoting effective community participation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It does so through the co-production of consistent and meaningful local data on community well-being, the promotion of more transparent and inclusive local governance, and regional knowledge-sharing on development best practices in mining areas. Led by the World University Service of Canada (WUSC), with the ...

  16. Potential effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...

  17. Effects of student participation in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griebler, Ursula; Rojatz, Daniela; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize systematically the existing evidence for the effects of student participation in designing, planning, implementing and/or evaluating school health promotion measures. The focus was on the effects of participation in school health promotion measur...

  18. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process

    OpenAIRE

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies an...

  19. Wage structure and the incentive effects of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, C.; van Praag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their incentive effects within one firm. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. We furthermore show that a promotion

  20. Effects of Internet Sales Promotion on a Differential Advertising Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising and sales promotion are two important specific marketing communications tools. In this paper, Internet sales promotion is introduced into a differential advertising model and investigated quantitatively. The conditions for the existence and stability of periodic solutions are obtained. Flip bifurcation of periodic solution is investigated analytically. The results show that the sales promotion parameter can modify the stability of the differential advertising model and lead to chaos through flip bifurcation, the sales level will eventually be no less than a given value by adjusting the value of the sales promotion parameter, and the optimal sales promotion strategy can lead to maximum profit. Numerical results for periodic solutions, bifurcation diagrams, and the effects of sales promotion strategies, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. These results have certain significant theoretical and practical value in related markets.

  1. 17 CFR 248.18 - Effective date; transition rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Safeguarding Personal Information Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 248.18 Effective date; transition... customers on the compliance date. By July 1, 2001, you must have provided an initial notice, as required by § 248.4, to consumers who are your customers on July 1, 2001. (2) Example. You provide an initial notice...

  2. The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the viability of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact on the productivity of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa l.)

  3. The effective fracture toughness of structural components obtained with the blend rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, K.

    1998-01-01

    The blend rule for the effective fracture toughness of a layered material was originally derived from the special case of a through crack in a globally elastic material and later extended to accomodate non-linear behaviour. It is now derived from a general case by considering material elements of finite size and of different toughness along and around the tip of a crack. Experimental results obtained with an inhomogeneous ordinary structural steel which support the blend rule are presented. It is shown that the effective fracture toughness governs the load-bearing capacity of a cracked full-scale structure. Some further results found in the literature for the heat-affected zone material of a high-strength microalloyed quenched and tempered structural steel and computational results for a structural steel typical of a nuclear pressure vessel are shown to support the blend rule. (orig.)

  4. Conflict with less distress: promoting team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V I; Bennett, J A; Birdsall, C

    1993-01-01

    As nurses increasingly turn to teamwork as a viable option for accomplishing a myriad of duties and responsibilities, they are discovering that teamwork can also be a source of conflict and stress. This article suggests that conflict is both inevitable and necessary within a team. A model of conflict is presented that aims not at reducing conflict, but at making it less distressing and thus more effective. The authors trace the influence of pre-conflict conditions and perspective-taking on conflict and ultimately team effectiveness. Finally, to apply the conflict model to practice, two examples are presented demonstrating both an ineffective and an effective use of conflict.

  5. Many body effects in nuclear matter QCD sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukarev, E. G.; Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the single-particle nucleon characteristics in symmetric nuclear matter with inclusion of the 3N and 4N interactions. We calculated the contribution of the 3N interactions earlier, now we add that of the 4N ones. The contribution of the 4N forces to nucleon self energies is expressed in terms of the nonlocal scalar condensate (d = 3) and of the configurations of the vector-scalar and the scalar-scalar quark condensates (d = 6) in which two diquark operators act on two different nucleons of the matter.These four-quark condensates are obtained in the model-independent way. The density dependence of the nucleon effective mass, of the vector self energy and of the single-particle potential energy are obtained. We traced the dependence of the nucleon characteristics on the actual value of the pion-nucleon sigma term. We obtained also the nucleon characteristics in terms of the quasifree nucleons, with the noninteracting nucleons surrounded by their pion clouds as the starting point. This approach leads to strict hierarchy of the many body forces.

  6. Approximate methods and working rules for peak stress effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to assess stress concentration effects and associated strain intensification at notches, Neuber's work on this subject is used frequently. Neuber refers to a particular nonlinear stress-strain relation which, he observed, led to the same deferential equation for the lateral displacements as that found by Chaplygin for the velocity potential of compressible flow. for a linearized adiabatic law. This finding has been examined by studying torsion problems, which Involve warping displacements. Although a deformation law of the type τ(γ) has been assumed, the shear strain components remain 'proportional' to the corresponding stress components for problems of the type considered. It has been found that the governing equations and boundary conditions for φ may be made completely analogous to those for the velocity potential of a corresponding compressible flow in a prismatic cylinder of the same shape as that of the solid bar, provided that the constitutive equation. for the solid and the gas correspond in a defined sense. This embodied Neuber's observation, which was restricted to a particular stress strain law, namely that which corresponded to a linear adiabatic gas relationship. The above finding also assimilates a well-known hydrodynamic analogy, to which it reduces for linearly elastic materials. Corresponding governing equations have further been established for the stress function and these have similarly been related to those for an analogous stream function, defined by reference to the flow density of the corresponding compressible fluid

  7. Effective communication and teamwork promotes patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-08-05

    Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care.

  8. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two commercially-available probiotics, based on Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium genera on performance and cholesterol and triglyceride amounts of broiler chicks' sera. One hundred and fifty-six (156), day-old, Ross chicks were randomly divided into groups A, ...

  9. QCD effects to Bjorken unpolarized sum rule for νN deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S I; Kataev, A L

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of the first measurement of Bjorken unpolarized sum rule for F 1 structure function of νN deep-inelastic scattering at neutrino factories is commented. The brief summary of various theoretical contributions to this sum rule is given. Using the next-to-leading set of parton distributions functions, we simulate the expected Q 2 -behaviour and emphasize that its measurement can allow us to determine the value of the QCD strong coupling constant α s with reasonable theoretical uncertainty, dominated by the ambiguity in the existing estimates of the twist-4 non-perturbative 1/Q 2 -effect

  10. The effect of membership rules and voting schemes on the success of international climate agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2005-01-01

    We empirically test the role of membership rules and voting schemes for climate change coalitions with the STAbility of COalitions model (STACO). The model comprises twelve world regions and captures long-run effects of greenhouse gas accumulation. We apply three stability concepts that capture the

  11. Understanding Decision-Making, Communication Rules, and Communication Satisfaction as Culture: Implications for Organizational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela

    A study of decision making processes and communication rules, in a corporate setting undergoing change as a result of organizational ineffectiveness, examined whether (1) decisions about formal communication reporting systems were linked to management assumptions about technical creativity/effectiveness, (2) assumptions about…

  12. Integrative and distributive negotiation in small groups : Effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Bianca; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive on small-group negotiation processes and outcomes. Three-person groups negotiated either within an asymmetrical task structure (in which a majority of group members have compatible interests) or within a

  13. 75 FR 12325 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... LLC To Increase the Monthly ATP Fee for All Options Market Makers and To Reduce the Per- Contract... Exchange Commission (the ``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III... Amex Trading Permit (``ATP'') for options Market Makers. Effective March 1, 2010 the Exchange proposes...

  14. On the conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge states of the fractional quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongshui; Chen Yixin; Su Zhaobin.

    1993-09-01

    The conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge channel currents of a Fractional Quantum Hall Effect state is derived analytically within the Haldane-Halperin hierarchy scheme. We provide also an intuitive interpretation for the hierarchical drift velocities of the edge excitations. (author). 12 refs

  15. Effects of Promotion and Compunction Interventions on Real Intergroup Interactions: Promotion Helps but High Compunction Hurts

    OpenAIRE

    Greenland, Katy; Xenias, Dimitrios; Maio, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discriminatio...

  16. Assessment of the effectiveness of the LEU Reform Rule and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.; Nations, J.O.; Hammond, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its material control and accounting (MC ampersand A) requirements in 1985 for licensees possessing and using special nuclear material (SNM) of low strategic significance in quantities larger than one effective kilogram (kg). The goal of the Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) Reform Rule (i.e., 10CFR 74.31) was to establish MC ampersand A requirements for the LEU licensees at a level consistent with the safeguards risk associated with the relatively low strategic importance of such material. The amended requirements were written in a performance-oriented manner, rather than a prescriptive one, in an effort to allow the licensees the opportunity to choose the most cost-effective means of satisfying the requirements. The LEU Reform Rule was implemented in January 1988 and the fuel cycle facilities have had sufficient experience in implementing the rule to allow a meaningful review of its effectiveness. This document provides technical analysis and recommendations to assist the NRC in making a determination if the rule is achieving its intended purpose, and if not, to make the necessary changes to accomplish this

  17. The Golden Rule and its Consequences: A Practical and Effective Solution for World Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rakhshani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Peace is something desirable and requested by all nations in the world. What makes it necessary to address this issue is the critical, undesirable state of the current world that, despite statements by international organizations with the theme of peace, reveals growing conflict and war and irreversible damages caused by them. This article seeks to provide a practical and effective solution for achieving peace in the global community. To this end, it introduces the golden rule (treating others as you wish others to treat you as a rule common to all nations. This rule which has a special place in moral philosophy and has been the common denominator of all religions and schools of thought from ancient times until the present provides peace throughout the world through its mechanism. With the use of analytical methods, this study examines and explains it. The results show that the most effective and powerful way to achieve world peace is the adherence to the golden rule.

  18. Generalizations on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical promotional expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.T.M.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    We perform a meta-analysis to formulate generalizations on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical promotional instruments. A literature search on this topic yields 58 usable (published and unpublished) sources documenting 781 effects. We investigate different direct-to-physician (DTP) and

  19. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  20. Growth-Promoting Effect of NO Fumigation and Hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindermayr, Christian; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2016-01-01

    can be taken up by plants through ammonium and nitrate or as nitrogen gas through plant-associated microorganisms in root nodules. Interestingly, a plant growth-promoting effect is also described for NO and NO2. In this chapter we want to highlight the positive effect of NO and NO2 on plant growth...

  1. Symmetry-adaptation and selection rules for effective crystal field Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszynski, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to systematically derive an effective Hamiltonian in the presence of crystal fields in such a way as to incorporate relativistic effects and higher order perturbation corrections including configuration mixing. This Hamiltonian will then be conveniently represented as a symmetry-adapted series of one- and two-body double tensor operators whose matrix elements will be analyzed for selection rules. 16 references, 4 tables

  2. The Changing Rules of the Game, Volleyball Player Systematic Structure and Effects in Applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür DİNÇER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We the purpose of this study, ranging from past to present and play volleyball rule changes that occur related to industry structure, how structure affects in applying with a systematic trial. Method: Volleyball, starting from the date of the present day sports entertainment, sport has become a subject performance. . As regards; the changing rules of the game, in terms of volleyball player systematic structure and effects on performance. The changing rules of the game, volleyball player systematic structure and effects the exhibition of the game, tactical understanding of the game is to combine the implementation of different systems to meet the needs of training and competition has created situations. Volleyball to purpose of changing the rules of the game, service, location and block combinations to improve defense, reducing the effect of conditions of service coverage and attack the ball to extend the duration of stay in the game. Thus, the visuals might volleyball, in terms of spectators and media will become attractive. While this study, scan was used during the research literature. Results: According to the data obtained from the literature, that the structural changes in the volleyball is thought to cause the positive and negative impact in the volleyball. Conclusion: Result of this research, the changing rules of the game affected the players' and the exhibition of the game and the diversity of training, volleyball game speed has increased, and became the focus of visual winning. The conclusion of every move made in the field with a number of players has increased and with it the responsibility of the importance of individual tactical exercises may have gained more importance.

  3. Health promotion: An effective tool for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes.

  4. Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ganesan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris; Family: Fabaceae is a potential functional dietary ingredient which has polyphenol-rich content. Several studies have demonstrated that the consumption of lentil is immensely connected to the reduction in the incidence of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancers and cardiovascular diseases due to its bioactive compounds. There has been increasing scientific interest in the study area of lentils as the functional food due to its high nutritive value, polyphenols, and other bioactive compounds. These polyphenols and the bioactive compounds found in lentil play an important role in the prevention of those degenerative diseases in humans. Besides that, it has health-promoting effects. Based on the in vitro, in-vivo and clinical studies, the present review focuses to provide more information on the nutritional compositions, bioactive compounds including polyphenols and health-promoting effects of lentils. Health-promoting information was gathered and orchestrated at a suitable place in the review.

  5. The effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Gang; Yu, Yi-Song; Ding, Ya-Long; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-Sen

    2017-08-16

    Gas hydrate technology is considered as a promising technology in the fields of gas storage and transportation, gas separation and purification, seawater desalination, and phase-change thermal energy storage. However, to date, the technology is still not commercially used mainly due to the low gas hydrate formation rate and the low gas uptake. In this study, the effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake was systematically studied and analyzed based on hydrate-based CH 4 storage and CO 2 capture from CO 2 /H 2 gas mixture experiments. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were employed to analyze the microstructures and gas compositions. The results indicate that the effect of the hydrate promoter on the gas uptake depends on the physical and chemical properties of the promoter and gas. A strong polar ionic promoter is not helpful towards obtaining the ideal gas uptake because a dense hydrate layer is easily formed at the gas-liquid interface, which hinders gas diffusion from the gas phase to the bulk solution. For a weak polar or non-polar promoter, the gas uptake depends on the dissolution characteristics among the different substances in the system. The lower the mutual solubility among the substances co-existing in the system, the higher the independence among the substances in the system; this is so that each phase has an equal chance to occupy the hydrate cages without or with small interactions, finally leading to a relatively high gas uptake.

  6. JUDICIAL PROTECTION EFFECTIVENESS AND THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO PROOF IN THE NEW BRAZILIAN CIVIL PROCEDURE RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Reichelt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to reflect about the effectiveness of the fundamental right of proof considering the Civil Procedure Rules, taking as a measure the ideas of truth discovery through the process and of the rational persuasion. In this sense, it is examined the testimonial evidence with the introduction of the possibility of cross-examination and also the expert witness in the context of the procedural negotiation.

  7. Leptonic decay constants of heavy quarkonia in effective QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The QCD sum rule scheme, which allows one effectively to take into account the heavy quarkonium peculiarities such as nonrelativistic motion and large mass values of the quarks is considered. The phenomenological scaling law is derived for the leptonic constants with the use of the heavy quarkonium mass spectra. The law describes the data on the values of f φ , f ψ and fγ rather good and predicts f B C . 12 refs.; 2 tabs

  8. Effects of Memorization of Rule Statements on Acquisition and Retention of Rule-Governed Behavior in a Computer-Based Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Nelson J.

    One hundred and twenty-four high school students were randomly assigned to four groups: 33 subjects memorized the rule statement before, 29 subjects memorized the rule statement during, and 30 subjects memorized the rule statement after instruction in rule application skills. Thirty-two subjects were not required to memorize rule statements.…

  9. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  10. Effective Techniques for the Promotion of Library Services and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines how Australian academic librarians perceive techniques for promoting services and resources, and the factors affecting the perceptions regarding effectiveness of techniques used. Method: Data were collected from an online survey that was sent to 400 academic librarians in thirty-seven Australian universities. The…

  11. STAS and Logit Modeling of Advertising and Promotion Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Yssing Hansen, Lotte; Grønholdt, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies of the effect of advertising and promotion on purchases using the British single-source database Adlab. STAS and logit modeling are the two measures studied. Results from the two measures have been compared to determine the extent to which, they give...

  12. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SSCs) in vitro are critical to our understanding of male infertility, genetic resources and endangered species conservation. To investigate the effects of growth-promoting factors, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ...

  13. Promoting effective use of library resources and services at Kwame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This explains why various library services have been developed to promote and facilitate effective use of recorded information in all formats by users. This paper examines the resources available and services offered by the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Library. The methodology used ...

  14. Effect of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria inoculation on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in a wet season (Kharif) to study the effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) inoculation on agronomic traits and productivity of Basmati rice (cv. 'Pusa Basmati 1401') in a randomized block with twelve treatments. We evaluated one bacterial (Providencia sp. PW5) and one ...

  15. Wage structure and the incentive effect of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, K.; van Praag, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their consequent incentive effects empirically. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. Our findings indicate

  16. Varying parameter models to accommodate dynamic promotion effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekens, E.W.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic effects of sales promotions. We create dynamic brand sales models (for weekly store-level scanner data) by relating store intercepts and a brand's own price elasticity to a measure of the cumulated previous price discounts - amount and time - for

  17. Feynman rules for the Standard Model Effective Field Theory in R ξ -gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, A.; Materkowska, W.; Paraskevas, M.; Rosiek, J.; Suxho, K.

    2017-06-01

    We assume that New Physics effects are parametrized within the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) written in a complete basis of gauge invariant operators up to dimension 6, commonly referred to as "Warsaw basis". We discuss all steps necessary to obtain a consistent transition to the spontaneously broken theory and several other important aspects, including the BRST-invariance of the SMEFT action for linear R ξ -gauges. The final theory is expressed in a basis characterized by SM-like propagators for all physical and unphysical fields. The effect of the non-renormalizable operators appears explicitly in triple or higher multiplicity vertices. In this mass basis we derive the complete set of Feynman rules, without resorting to any simplifying assumptions such as baryon-, lepton-number or CP conservation. As it turns out, for most SMEFT vertices the expressions are reasonably short, with a noticeable exception of those involving 4, 5 and 6 gluons. We have also supplemented our set of Feynman rules, given in an appendix here, with a publicly available Mathematica code working with the FeynRules package and producing output which can be integrated with other symbolic algebra or numerical codes for automatic SMEFT amplitude calculations.

  18. End-of-life decisions and the reinvented Rule of Double Effect: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Anna; Lynöe, Niels; Juth, Niklas

    2014-09-01

    The Rule of Double Effect (RDE) holds that it may be permissible to harm an individual while acting for the sake of a proportionate good, given that the harm is not an intended means to the good but merely a foreseen side-effect. Although frequently used in medical ethical reasoning, the rule has been repeatedly questioned in the past few decades. However, Daniel Sulmasy, a proponent who has done a lot of work lately defending the RDE, has recently presented a reformulated and more detailed version of the rule. Thanks to its greater precision, this reinvented RDE avoids several problems thought to plague the traditional RDE. Although an improvement compared with the traditional version, we argue that Sulmasy's reinvented RDE will not stand closer scrutiny. Not only has the range of proper applicability narrowed significantly, but, more importantly, Sulmasy fails to establish that there is a morally relevant distinction between intended and foreseen effects. In particular, he fails to establish that there is any distinction that can account for the alleged moral difference between sedation therapy and euthanasia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effective services promotion management in Far North (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabar Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the effective management of services promotion in the Far North (Russia is topical due to the severe weather and climatic conditions and the high price barrier in this industry. The objective of the article is the analysis of consumer market characteristics and the formation of specific recommendations on services promotion for the industries. Statistical methods and methods of analysis, synthesis, decomposition and expert assessments used in the study revealed the features of the consumer market. The article highlights the factors and patterns of communication services market functioning and its development dynamics. Specific recommendations on the actions in competitive market are given to the companies providing communications services.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SPATIAL SMOOTHING ON SOLAR MAGNETIC HELICITY PARAMETERS AND THE HEMISPHERIC HELICITY SIGN RULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, Stella Koch [Department of Physics, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074 (United States); Petrie, Gordon, E-mail: socker@oberlin.edu, E-mail: gpetrie@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The hemispheric preference for negative/positive helicity to occur in the northern/southern solar hemisphere provides clues to the causes of twisted, flaring magnetic fields. Previous studies on the hemisphere rule may have been affected by seeing from atmospheric turbulence. Using Hinode /SOT-SP data spanning 2006–2013, we studied the effects of two spatial smoothing tests that imitate atmospheric seeing: noise reduction by ignoring pixel values weaker than the estimated noise threshold, and Gaussian spatial smoothing. We studied in detail the effects of atmospheric seeing on the helicity distributions across various field strengths for active regions (ARs) NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11243, in addition to studying the average helicities of 179 ARs with and without smoothing. We found that, rather than changing trends in the helicity distributions, spatial smoothing modified existing trends by reducing random noise and by regressing outliers toward the mean, or removing them altogether. Furthermore, the average helicity parameter values of the 179 ARs did not conform to the hemisphere rule: independent of smoothing, the weak-vertical-field values tended to be negative in both hemispheres, and the strong-vertical-field values tended to be positive, especially in the south. We conclude that spatial smoothing does not significantly affect the overall statistics for space-based data, and thus seeing from atmospheric turbulence seems not to have significantly affected previous studies’ ground-based results on the hemisphere rule.

  1. Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network head injuryprediction rules: on the basis of cost and effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökharman, Fatma Dilek; Aydın, Sonay; Fatihoğlu, Erdem; Koşar, Pınar Nercis

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Head injuries are commonly seen in the pediatric population. Noncontrast enhanced cranial CT is the method of choice to detect possible traumatic brain injury (TBI). Concerns about ionizing radiation exposure make the evaluation more challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) rules in predicting clinically important TBI and to determine the amount of medical resource waste and unnecessary radiation exposure.Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 1041 pediatric patients presented to the emergency department. The patients were divided into subgroups of "appropriate for cranial CT", "not appropriate for cranial CT" and "cranial CT/observation of patient; both are appropriate". To determine the effectiveness of the PECARN rules, data were analyzed according to the presence of pathological findings Results: "Appropriate for cranial CT" results can predict pathology presence 118,056-fold compared to the "not appropriate for cranial CT" results. With "cranial CT/observation of patient; both are appropriate" results, pathology presence was predicted 11,457-fold compared to "not appropriate for cranial CT" results.Conclusion: PECARN rules can predict pathology presence successfully in pediatric TBI. Using PECARN can decrease resource waste and exposure to ionizing radiation.

  2. Integrable anyon chains: From fusion rules to face models to effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, Peter E.; Flohr, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the fusion rules for the algebra SO(5) 2 we construct one-dimensional lattice models of interacting anyons with commuting transfer matrices of ‘interactions round the face’ (IRF) type. The conserved topological charges of the anyon chain are recovered from the transfer matrices in the limit of large spectral parameter. The properties of the models in the thermodynamic limit and the low energy excitations are studied using Bethe ansatz methods. Two of the anyon models are critical at zero temperature. From the analysis of the finite size spectrum we find that they are effectively described by rational conformal field theories invariant under extensions of the Virasoro algebra, namely WB 2 and WD 5 , respectively. The latter contains primaries with half and quarter spin. The modular partition function and fusion rules are derived and found to be consistent with the results for the lattice model

  3. Jahn-Teller effect versus Hund's rule coupling in C60N-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrli, S.; Sigrist, M.

    2007-09-01

    We propose variational states for the ground state and the low-energy collective rotator excitations in negatively charged C60N- ions (N=1,…,5) . The approach includes the linear electron-phonon coupling and the Coulomb interaction on the same level. The electron-phonon coupling is treated within the effective mode approximation which yields the linear t1u⊗Hg Jahn-Teller problem whereas the Coulomb interaction gives rise to Hund’s rule coupling for N=2,3,4 . The Hamiltonian has accidental SO(3) symmetry which allows an elegant formulation in terms of angular momenta. Trial states are constructed from coherent states and using projection operators onto angular momentum subspaces which results in good variational states for the complete parameter range. The evaluation of the corresponding energies is to a large extent analytical. We use the approach for a detailed analysis of the competition between Jahn-Teller effect and Hund’s rule coupling, which determines the spin state for N=2,3,4 . We calculate the low-spin-high-spin gap for N=2,3,4 as a function of the Hund’s rule coupling constant J . We find that the experimentally measured gaps suggest a coupling constant in the range J=60-80meV . Using a finite value for J , we recalculate the ground state energies of the C60N- ions and find that the Jahn-Teller energy gain is partly counterbalanced by the Hund’s rule coupling. In particular, the ground state energies for N=2,3,4 are almost equal.

  4. QCD sum rules for D mesons. In-medium effects, chiral symmetry aspects and higher orders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheim, Thomas

    2017-04-11

    Heavy open flavor mesons can serve as probes of hot and dense, strongly interacting matter in heavy-ion collisions suitable to mimic the extreme conditions shortly after the big-bang or in compact stars. Thus, the thorough theoretical investigation of medium modifications of D mesons is of utmost importance for the interpretation of the experimental data. Even at finite thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature and density, the non-perturbative framework of QCD sum rules allows for the determination of hadronic properties which are not accessible in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). By virtue of the separation of scales, long-range effects of hadrons are related to quark and gluon degrees of freedom, where features of the hadron spectrum are linked to condensates parameterizing the complex QCD ground state. This thesis furnishes the conception and calculus of QCD sum rules with emphasis on in-medium effects which are inevitable when addressing such effects in higher order contributions. In this regard, the notion and implications of medium-specific condensates are elucidated. Motivated by the significant numerical impact of four-quark condensates to the ρ meson sum rule we evaluate, for the first time, the corresponding in-medium mass-dimension 6 terms for D mesons tentatively employing the factorization hypothesis. Four-quark condensates containing heavy-quark operators may be included into the sum rule analysis utilizing the in-medium heavy-quark expansion made available here. Particular quark condensates are potential order parameters of chiral symmetry breaking, which is the mass generating mechanism of QCD giving the essential mass fraction to light hadrons. The interplay of altered spectral properties with changing in-medium QCD condensates, i. e. the chiral order parameters, can be studied with chiral partner sum rules. Although, introduced for light spin-1 mesons we foster their generalization to spin-0 open charm mesons demonstrating their

  5. QCD sum rules for D mesons. In-medium effects, chiral symmetry aspects and higher orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Heavy open flavor mesons can serve as probes of hot and dense, strongly interacting matter in heavy-ion collisions suitable to mimic the extreme conditions shortly after the big-bang or in compact stars. Thus, the thorough theoretical investigation of medium modifications of D mesons is of utmost importance for the interpretation of the experimental data. Even at finite thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature and density, the non-perturbative framework of QCD sum rules allows for the determination of hadronic properties which are not accessible in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). By virtue of the separation of scales, long-range effects of hadrons are related to quark and gluon degrees of freedom, where features of the hadron spectrum are linked to condensates parameterizing the complex QCD ground state. This thesis furnishes the conception and calculus of QCD sum rules with emphasis on in-medium effects which are inevitable when addressing such effects in higher order contributions. In this regard, the notion and implications of medium-specific condensates are elucidated. Motivated by the significant numerical impact of four-quark condensates to the ρ meson sum rule we evaluate, for the first time, the corresponding in-medium mass-dimension 6 terms for D mesons tentatively employing the factorization hypothesis. Four-quark condensates containing heavy-quark operators may be included into the sum rule analysis utilizing the in-medium heavy-quark expansion made available here. Particular quark condensates are potential order parameters of chiral symmetry breaking, which is the mass generating mechanism of QCD giving the essential mass fraction to light hadrons. The interplay of altered spectral properties with changing in-medium QCD condensates, i. e. the chiral order parameters, can be studied with chiral partner sum rules. Although, introduced for light spin-1 mesons we foster their generalization to spin-0 open charm mesons demonstrating their

  6. Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), known as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. On August 21, 2017, HHS solicited comments on further delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule to July 1, 2018 (82 FR 39553). HHS proposed this action to allow a more deliberate process of considering alternative and supplemental regulatory provisions and to allow for sufficient time for additional rulemaking. After consideration of the comments received on the proposed rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule, to July 1, 2018.

  7. 75 FR 1091 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... delete NYSE Rule 445 (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program) and adopt new Rule 3310 (Anti-Money..., subject to certain amendments, NASD Rule 3011 (Anti- Money Laundering Compliance Program) and related Interpretive Material NASD IM-3011-1 and 3011-2 as consolidated FINRA Rule 3310 (Anti-Money Laundering...

  8. Functional effectiveness of threat appeals in exercise promotion messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Mairesse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more than 70% of individuals in Western societies can be categorized as sedentary and inactivity has been recognized to lead to a series of serious physical and psychological disorders, the importance of physical activity promotion is ever more emphasized. Many social marketing campaigns use threat (or fear appeals to promote healthy behaviors. Theoretical models, such as the Extended Parallel Process Model integrate concepts as 'perceived threat' and 'perceived efficacy' to explain how such messages operate and can cause diverse behavioral reactions. It is however still not entirely clear how these different aspects are valuated and combined to determine desired versus undesired response behaviors in individuals. In a functional integration task, threat-appeal based exercise promotion messages varying in psychological threat and efficacy content were shown to sedentary employees in order to assess how they affect their intention to engage in physical exercise. Our results show that individuals can be categorized in 4 different clusters depending on the way they valuate threat and efficacy appeals: i.e. individuals sensitive to both types of cues, those sensitive to either the threat or the efficacy component in the message and those insensitive to either one of them. As different segments of receivers of the message react differently to threat and efficacy combinations, it is concluded that different approaches to designing effective mass media campaigns may be required for effective exercise promotion.

  9. Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar; Xu, Baojun

    2017-11-10

    Polyphenols are a group of plant metabolites with potent antioxidant properties, which protect against various chronic diseases induced by oxidative stress. Evidence showed that dietary polyphenols have emerged as one of the prominent scientific interests due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are measured based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Lentil ( Lens culinaris ; Family: Fabaceae) is a great source of polyphenol compounds with various health-promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich lentils have a potential effect on human health, possessing properties such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Based on the explorative study, the current comprehensive review aims to give up-to-date information on nutritive compositions, bioactive compounds and the health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich lentils, which explores their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. All data of in vitro , in vivo and clinical studies of lentils and their impact on human health were collected from a library database and electronic search (Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar). Health-promoting information was gathered and orchestrated in the suitable place in the review.

  10. Effects of differential reinforcement and rules with feedback on preference for choice and verbal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsina, Allen; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M; Vanselow, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of differential reinforcement and accurate verbal rules with feedback on the preference for choice and the verbal reports of 6 adults. Participants earned points on a probabilistic schedule by completing the terminal links of a concurrent-chains arrangement in a computer-based game of chance. In free-choice terminal links, participants selected 3 numbers from an 8-number array; in restricted-choice terminal links participants selected the order of 3 numbers preselected by a computer program. A pop-up box then informed the participants if the numbers they selected or ordered matched or did not match numbers generated by the computer but not displayed; matching in a trial resulted in one point earned. In baseline sessions, schedules of reinforcement were equal across free- and restricted-choice arrangements and a running tally of points earned was shown each trial. The effects of differentially reinforcing restricted-choice selections were evaluated using a reversal design. For 4 participants, the effects of providing a running tally of points won by arrangement and verbal rules regarding the schedule of reinforcement were also evaluated using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design. Results varied across participants but generally demonstrated that (a) preference for choice corresponded more closely to verbal reports of the odds of winning than to reinforcement schedules, (b) rules and feedback were correlated with more accurate verbal reports, and (c) preference for choice corresponded more highly to the relative number of reinforcements obtained across free- and restricted-choice arrangements in a session than to the obtained probability of reinforcement or to verbal reports of the odds of winning.

  11. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule; delay of effective date and reopening of comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    This action temporarily delays the effective date of the November 25, 2008 final rule entitled, Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing" (73 FR 71828) until December 31, 2009. In addition, this action reopens the comment period on the policies set out in the November 25, 2008 final rule, and specifically solicits comments on the effect of certain provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  12. Data describing the effect of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms on promoter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoin Tei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, −906 T/C, −809 G/A, −616G/C, and −521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits.

  13. The effect of sales promotions characteristics on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jabarzadeh Karbasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, retail industry in Iran has faced an increasing competition and this has encouraged the managers of chain stores to find ways to differentiate their own companies. One of the influential factors in this field is brand equity. Concerning this issue, the aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of sale promotions on the brand equity of ETKA chain stores. Therefore, a sample of 500 people among the customers of these stores in Tehran was examined. The achieved information obtained from the questionnaire was analyzed through structural equation modeling. The results showed that monetary and non-monetary promotions could influence on brand association, brand awareness and the perceived quality. On the other hand, it came out that brand association and the perceived quality are influential on brand loyalty. At last, a few suggestions were presented based on the results of this research.

  14. 75 FR 1099 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Laundering Compliance Program) and adopt new Rule 3310--NYSE Amex Equities (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance... amendments, NASD Rule 3011 (Anti- Money Laundering Compliance Program) and related Interpretive Material NASD IM-3011-1 and 3011-2 as consolidated FINRA Rule 3310 (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program), and...

  15. 75 FR 25887 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). The Exchange also proposes to require firms that fail to... by Amendment No. 1, by NYSE Arca, Inc. Amending Rule 4, Capital Requirements, Financial Reports... Change The Exchange proposes to amend certain financial rules contained in Rule 4. A copy of this filing...

  16. 75 FR 32529 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the requirements of Exchange Act Rule 15c3-1. The Exchange has conducted an analysis of financial.... 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend Rule 6.82 by revising the minimum financial...

  17. Criterial noise effects on rule-based category learning: the impact of delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Ing, A David; Maddox, W Todd

    2009-08-01

    Variability in the representation of the decision criterion is assumed in many category-learning models, yet few studies have directly examined its impact. On each trial, criterial noise should result in drift in the criterion and will negatively impact categorization accuracy, particularly in rule-based categorization tasks, where learning depends on the maintenance and manipulation of decision criteria. In three experiments, we tested this hypothesis and examined the impact of working memory on slowing the drift rate. In Experiment 1, we examined the effect of drift by inserting a 5-sec delay between the categorization response and the delivery of corrective feedback, and working memory demand was manipulated by varying the number of decision criteria to be learned. Delayed feedback adversely affected performance, but only when working memory demand was high. In Experiment 2, we built on a classic finding in the absolute identification literature and demonstrated that distributing the criteria across multiple dimensions decreases the impact of drift during the delay. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the effect of drift during the delay is moderated by working memory. These results provide important insights into the interplay between criterial noise and working memory, as well as providing important constraints for models of rule-based category learning.

  18. When a promotion is denied: the effects of decision stage on perceptions of promotion and price fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kukar-Kinney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketers frequently use promotions to enhance sales and increase consumers’ perceptions of value. However, most promotions usually come with restrictions, such as time expiration, quantity or product model restriction, etc. In the present research, the effect of the stage in the purchase process when the consumer finds out about the restriction is investigated. The findings indicate that the later in the purchase process the consumer discovers the restriction, the greater is the perception that the effort invested into the purchase is wasted, consequently resulting in lower promotion and price fairness. This effect is mediated through the feeling of entitlement to the promotional price and the inferred negative retailer’s motive for the promotion. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.

  19. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  20. Gas market distorting effects of imbalanced gas balancing rules: Inefficient regulation of pipeline flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyaerts, Nico; Hallack, Michelle; Glachant, Jean-Michel; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the value and cost of line-pack flexibility in liberalized gas markets through examination of the techno-economic characteristics of gas transport pipelines and the trade-offs between different ways to use the infrastructure: transport and flexibility. Line-pack flexibility is becoming increasingly important as a tool to balance gas supply and demand over different periods. In the European liberalized market context, a monopolist unbundled network operator offers regulated transport services and flexibility (balancing) services according to the network code and balancing rules. Therefore, gas policy makers should understand the role and consequences of line-pack regulation. The analysis shows that the line-pack flexibility service has an important economic value for the shippers and the TSO. Furthermore, the analysis identifies distorting effects in the gas market due to inadequate regulation of line-pack flexibility: by disregarding the sunk costs of flexibility in the balancing rules, the overall efficiency of the gas system is decreased. Finally, the analysis demonstrates that the actual costs of line-pack flexibility are related to the peak cumulative imbalance throughout the balancing period. Any price for pipeline flexibility should, therefore, be based on the related trade-off between the right to use the line-pack flexibility and the provision of transport services. - Research Highlights: →Line-pack flexibility is a main gas balancing instrument. →Capacity related costs of line-pack flexibility depend on peak cumulative imbalances. →Line-pack pricing rules determine choice between ex ante and ex post balancing. →Inefficient line-pack regulation causes gas market distortions.

  1. Promoting sustainable public finances in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Jensen, Svend E. Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    New indices of fiscal rule strength are constructed and, using a dynamic panel econometric model for 27 EU countries over the period 1990–2012, we assess whether national fiscal rules alone help to promote sustainable public finances in the EU or whether they must be supported by good governance...... to implementation of fiscal programs. Supranational rules, however, do not affect the effectiveness of national fiscal rules in reducing the deficit bias. Our results are robust to alternative estimation methods and endogeneity assumptions....

  2. Comparison of Effectiveness in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Ovarian Masses between IOTA Simple Rules and Subjective Sonographic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Tinnangwattana, Dangcheewan; Vichak-Ururote, Linlada; Tontivuthikul, Paponrad; Charoenratana, Cholaros; Lerthiranwong, Thitikarn

    2016-01-01

    To compare diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian masses between IOTA (the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) simple rules and subjective sonographic assessment. Women scheduled for elective surgery because of ovarian masses were recruited into the study and underwent ultrasound examination within 24 hours of surgery to apply the IOTA simple rules by general gynecologists and to record video clips for subjective assessment by an experienced sonographer. The diagnostic performance of the IOTA rules and subjective assessment for differentiation between benign and malignant masses was compared. The gold standard diagnosis was pathological or operative findings. A total of 150 ovarian masses were covered, comprising 105 (70%) benign and 45 (30%) malignant. Of them, the IOTA simple rules could be applied in 119 (79.3%) and were inconclusive in 31 (20.7%) whereas subjective assessment could be applied in all cases (100%). The sensitivity and the specificity of the IOTA simple rules and subjective assessment were not significantly different, 82.9% vs 86.7% and 94.0% vs 94.3% respectively. The agreement of the two methods in prediction was high with a Kappa index of 0.835. Both techniques had a high diagnostic performance in differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian masses but the IOTA rules had a relatively high rate of inconclusive results. The IOTA rules can be used as an effective screening technique by general gynecologists but when the results are inconclusive they should consult experienced sonographers.

  3. Analysis of thermal ratchetting of a cylinder subjected to axially moving temperature front. Effect of kinematic hardening rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Nobutada; Yari, Takashi; Kobayashi, Mineo

    1995-01-01

    When a cylinder is subjected to a temperature front moving cyclically in the axial direction, the circumferential plastic strain may accumulate with the increase of the number of cycles. This is a thermal ratchetting problem induced by a liquid surface moving in a cylinder, and it is important especially in designing fast breeder reactors. In the present paper, the effect of kinematic hardening rule on the thermal ratchetting analysis is discussed by implementing the following four kinds of kinematic hardening rules in a finite element analysis; the perfectly plastic model (PP), the linear kinematic hardening rule (LKH), the classical nonlinear kinematic hardening rule of Armstrong and Frederick (AF), and the rule proposed recently by Ohno and Wang (OW). It is shown that disregard of transient hardening after yielding leads to overestimating the thermal ratchetting, that a rule predicting larger mechanical ratchetting under uniaxial cyclic loading makes the thermal ratchetting more serious, and that the Ohno and Wang rule can render the analysis most realistic among them. (author)

  4. Beyond the Patriot Act: Rulings from the Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC and their Effects on Canadian Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Waller

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OFAC is the Office of Foreign Assets Control, part of the United States Department of the Treasury. OFAC governs sanctions against countries embargoed by the United States and has released rulings that have implications on the licenses signed by Canadian libraries and the provision of information to library users. This paper investigates the effects of the OFAC rulings and presents some suggestions for dealing with these in the Canadian library community.

  5. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. In accordance with a January 20, 2017, memorandum from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Freeze Pending Review," HRSA issued an interim final rule that delayed the effective date of the final rule published in the Federal Register (82 FR 1210, (January 5, 2017)) to May 22, 2017. HHS invited commenters to provide their views on whether a longer delay of the effective date to October 1, 2017, would be more appropriate. After consideration of the comments received on the interim final rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017 final rule, to October 1, 2017.

  6. Graduated driver licensing and differential deterrence: The effect of license type on intentions to violate road rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Brigitte; Blais, Etienne; Faubert, Camille

    2018-01-01

    In keeping with the differential deterrence theory, this article assesses the moderating effect of license type on the relationship between social control and intention to violate road rules. More precisely, the article has two objectives: (1) to assess the effect of license type on intentions to infringe road rules; and (2) to pinpoint mechanisms of social control affecting intentions to violate road rules based on one's type of driver license (a restricted license or a full license). This effect is examined among a sample of 392 young drivers in the province of Quebec, Canada. Drivers taking part in the Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) program have limited demerit points and there is zero tolerance for drinking-and-driving. Propensity score matching techniques were used to assess the effect of the license type on intentions to violate road rules and on various mechanisms of social control. Regression analyses were then conducted to estimate the moderating effect of license type. Average treatment effects from propensity score matching analyses indicate that respondents with a restricted license have lower levels of intention to infringe road rules. While moral commitment and, to a lesser extent, the perceived risk of arrest are both negatively associated with intentions to violate road rules, the license type moderates the relationship between delinquent peers and intentions to violate road rules. The effect of delinquent peers is reduced among respondents with a restricted driver license. Finally, a diminished capability to resist peer pressure could explain the increased crash risk in months following full licensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so-called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes

  8. Effects of Common Structural Rules on hull-girder reliability of an Aframax oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parunov, Josko; Guedes Soares, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the changes in notional reliability levels that result from redesigning an existing Aframax tanker to comply with the Common Structural Rules (CSR) for double-hull oil tankers. The probability of structural failure is calculated using the first-order reliability method. The evaluation of the wave-induced load effects that occur during long-term operation of the ship in the seaway is carried out in accordance with the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS)-recommended procedure, while transfer functions are calculated using the sink-source 3D linear method. The still-water loads are defined on the basis of a statistical analysis of loading conditions from the loading manual. The ultimate collapse bending moment of the midship cross section, which is used as the basis for the reliability formulation, is evaluated by progressive collapse analysis and by a single-step procedure according to CSR. The reliability assessment is performed for 'as-built' and 'corroded' states of the existing ship and a reinforced ship complying with CSR. It is shown that the hull-girder failure probability of an Aframax tanker is reduced several times due to the reinforcements according to CSR. Sensitivity analysis and a parametric study are performed to investigate the variability of results with the change of parameters of pertinent random variables within their plausible ranges. Finally, differences between load combination approaches by Ferry-Borges and Castanheta method and Turkstra's rule are investigated

  9. Rules and more rules: the effects of multiple tasks, extensive training, and aging on task-switching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou G; Hoyer, William J; Cerella, John

    2008-06-01

    Task-switching performance was assessed in young and older adults as a function of the number of task sets to be actively maintained in memory (varied from 1 to 4) over the course of extended training (5 days). Each of the four tasks required the execution of a simple computational algorithm, which was instantaneously cued by the color of the two-digit stimulus. Tasks were presented in pure (task set size 1) and mixed blocks (task set sizes 2, 3, 4), and the task sequence was unpredictable. By considering task switching beyond two tasks, we found evidence for a cognitive control system that is not overwhelmed by task set size load manipulations. Extended training eliminated age effects in task-switching performance, even when the participants had to manage the execution of up to four tasks. The results are discussed in terms of current theories of cognitive control, including task set inertia and production system postulates.

  10. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Louk WH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements of school health education are similar across three particular behavioral domains. Methods A systematic review of reviews of the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs was conducted for the domains of substance abuse, sexual behavior, and nutrition. The literature search spanned the time period between 1995 and October 2006 and included three databases, websites of review centers and backward search. Fifty-five reviews and meta-analyses met predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. A standardized data extraction form was used, with detailed attention to effective elements pertaining to program goals, development, content, methods, facilitator, components and intensity. Two assessors rated the quality of reviews as strong, moderate or weak. We included only strong and moderate reviews in two types of analysis: one based on interpretation of conflicting results, the other on a specific vote-counting rule. Results Thirty six reviews were rated strong, 6 moderate, and 13 weak. A multitude of effective elements was identified in the included reviews and many elements were similar for two or more domains. In both types of analysis, five elements with evidence from strong reviews were found to be similar for all three domains: use of theory; addressing social influences, especially social norms; addressing cognitive-behavioral skills; training of facilitators; and multiple components. Two additional elements had positive results in all domains with the rule-based method of analysis, but had inconclusive results in at least one domain with

  11. [Analyze nanofiltration separation rule of chlorogenic acid from low concentration ethanol by Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cun-Yu; Liu, Li-Cheng; Jin, Li-Yang; Li, Hong-Yang; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    To separate chlorogenic acid from low concentration ethanol and explore the influence of Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect on the nanofiltration separation rule. The experiment showed that solution pH and ethanol volume percent had influences on the separation of chlorogenic acid. Within the pH values from 3 to 7 for chlorogenic acid in 30% ethanol, the rejection rate of chlorogenic acid was changed by 70.27%. Through the response surface method for quadratic regression model, an interaction had been found in molecule weight cut-off, pH and ethanol volume percent. In fixed nanofiltration apparatus, the existence states of chlorogenic acid determinedits separation rules. With the increase of ethanol concentration, the free form chlorogenic acid was easily adsorbed, dissolved on membrane surface and then caused high transmittance due to the solution-diffusion effect. However, at the same time, due to the double effects of Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect, the ionic state of chlorogenic acid was hard to be adsorbed in membrane surface and thus caused high rejection rate. The combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process by nanofiltration, and the results showed that nanofiltration had several big advantages over the traditional vacuum concentrate technology, meanwhile, and solved the problems of low efficiency and serious component lossesin the Chinese medicines separation process for low concentration organic solvent-water solution. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. The Effectiveness of Rule-Governed Democracy Classroom Management Style on Self-Esteem of 3rd-grade High School Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nazari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By utilizing classroom management styles, teachers will be able to get rid of possible students’ misconducts and promote a friendly atmosphere which will in effect promote students’ participation in learning activities. Additionally, increased self-esteem, which is an achievement of such utilization, will influence various aspects of students’ future lives. Taking this point into consideration, the present study aimed at determining the efficacy of rule-governed democracy classroom management style on self-esteem of 3rd-grade high-school male students. All 3rd-grade high-school male students of Abdanan city in the academic year 2013 comprised the statistical population to this study. Using convenience sampling, 38 subjects were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The research design was pretest-post-test. Cooper Smith's self-esteem questionnaire was used as the research instrument which was administered to the two groups at the outset. The experimental group was given seven 90-minutes sessions of treatment and twice-a-week. The two groups were asked to fill out the same questionnaire for the post-test stage afterwards. Descriptive statistics, including the analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the utilization of rule-governed democracy classroom management style in the classroom had significantly increased the self-esteem (public-family-social- and scholastic-professional of male students in the post-test (p<0/001.

  13. Effect of parity on healthy promotion lifestyle behavior in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hakan; Nazik, Evşen; Özdemir, Funda; Gül, Şule; Tezel, Ayfer; Narin, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors are not only for the prevention of a disease or discomfort, but are also behaviors that aim to improve the individual's general health and well-being. Nurses have an important position in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parity on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in women. This descriptive and cross-sectional survey was performed in Adana, Turkey. This study was conducted with 352 women. The questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first part consisted of questions that assessed the socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and the second part employed the "Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale" (HPLP). Data analysis included percentage, arithmetic average, and ANOVA tests. The results revealed that 24.1% of the women had no parity, 13.6% had one parity, 30.7% had two parities, 14.6% had three parities, and 17% had four and above parities. The mean total HPLP was 126.66±18.12 (interpersonal support subscale, 24.46±4.02; nutrition subscale, 21.59±3.92; self-actualization subscale, 24.42±4.30; stress management subscale, 18.73±3.81; health responsibility subscale, 21.75±4.31; and exercise subscale, 15.71±4.22). The health behavior of women was moderate. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of parities and the Health Responsibility, Nutrition, Interpersonal Support, which is the subscale of the HPLP Scale.

  14. Future Costs, Fixed Healthcare Budgets, and the Decision Rules of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Meltzer, David; Brouwer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    Life-saving medical technologies result in additional demand for health care due to increased life expectancy. However, most economic evaluations do not include all medical costs that may result from this additional demand in health care and include only future costs of related illnesses. Although there has been much debate regarding the question to which extent future costs should be included from a societal perspective, the appropriate role of future medical costs in the widely adopted but more narrow healthcare perspective has been neglected. Using a theoretical model, we demonstrate that optimal decision rules for cost-effectiveness analyses assuming fixed healthcare budgets dictate that future costs of both related and unrelated medical care should be included. Practical relevance of including the costs of future unrelated medical care is illustrated using the example of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Our findings suggest that guidelines should prescribe inclusion of these costs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Effect of the school health promotion strategy "Forma Joven"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador

    2017-02-22

    To evaluate the impact of the Youth Form Strategy (EFJ, Estrategia Forma Joven) on the attitudes and behaviours of students in the fourth year of compulsory secondary school in Seville, Spain. A longitudinal observational design was used with two groups; one received the EFJ (EFJ group) and other did not (non-EFJ group). In the initial evaluation, 402 participants were randomly selected and, in the follow-up at 6 months, 322 participants were evaluated (161 per group). Validated data collection tools were used, and 2×2 tables, odds ratio (OR) and general ANOVA for 2×2 mixed factorial design (p<0.05) were calculated. Favourable effects of the EFJ were found: in the area of sexuality, the percentage of participants who had sexual intercourse in the final assessment was lower in the EFJ group (14.9% vs 23.4%; OR=0.57), as were counter-effects: start of tobacco use was higher in the EFJ group (19.5% vs 9.1%; OR=2.43). However, these differences were not statistically significant. The similarities in the school health promotion programme in centres with and without EFJ may have influenced the lack of conclusive results. Individual and/or group counselling at schools, a distinguishing feature of the EFJ, could have delayed sexual intercourse in the EFJ group. Based on the studies on school health promotion activities, good practices that could help to improve the effectiveness of the EFJ are recommended. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of the effects of brief rules, a timer, and preferred toys on self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immediate reinforcer). The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of various interventions in the absence of delay fading (i.e., providing brief rules, providing a countdown timer during the delay, or providing preferred toys during the delay) on self-control. Results suggested that providing brief rules or a countdown timer during the delay was ineffective for enhancing self-control. However, providing preferred toys during the delay effectively enhanced self-control.

  17. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF BRIEF RULES, A TIMER, AND PREFERRED TOYS ON SELF-CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immediate reinforcer). The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of various interventions in the absence of delay fading (i.e., providing brief rules, providing a countdown timer during the delay, or providing preferred toys during the delay) on self-control. Results suggested that providing brief rules or a countdown timer during the delay was ineffective for enhancing self-control. However, providing preferred toys during the delay effectively enhanced self-control. PMID:23060664

  18. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotion Activities on Brand Loyalty: A Study on COCA COLA

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Shankar Singh; Osman Sahin

    2017-01-01

    The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales...

  19. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, Janos; Csiszovski, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    promoter database we found that ~14% of the identified 'forward' promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite direction. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find...... that promoter interference depends on the characteristics of overlapping promoters. The model predicts that promoter strength and interference can be regulated separately, which provides unique opportunities for regulation. Our experimental data suggest that in principle any DNA binding protein can be used......Optimal response to environmental stimuli often requires activation of certain genes and repression of others. Dual function regulatory proteins play a key role in the differential regulation of gene expression. While repression can be achieved by any DNA binding protein through steric occlusion...

  20. Promoting effects on reproduction increase population vulnerability of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatz, Annika; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Gabsi, Faten; Ratte, Hans Toni; Brown, Colin D; Preuss, Thomas G

    2012-07-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is based on single species tests at the individual level with single compounds. However, the protection goal is the sustainability of a population, which faces several natural stressors and mixtures of chemicals in the environment. Therefore, experiments were undertaken to quantify the combined effects of chemicals with different modes of action on Daphnia magna populations. Populations continuously exposed to dispersogen A and at abundance equilibrium were treated with a 2-d pulse of p353-nonylphenol. In previous studies, dispersogen A was shown to act as a natural info-chemical, promoting the reproduction of daphnids (higher offspring quantity) coupled with reduced offspring fitness, whereas nonylphenol in pulsed-exposure caused size-selective mortality. Dispersogen A caused accelerated population growth to maximum abundance, shifted the population structure towards smaller individuals, and increased the population sensitivity to nonylphenol. The authors showed that a positive effect observed at the individual level can be transposed to a negative effect when monitored at the population level. So far, positive effects are not addressed in environmental risk assessment, and even in higher-tier testing, population structure is not quantified. Both factors indicate a potential mismatch between protection aim and risk assessment practice. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. 75 FR 17816 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... in NYSE Rule 51 as ``(1) actual or threatened physical danger, severe climatic conditions, civil... with the Russell Reconstitution in June 2008 and June 2009. Those memos described (among other things... the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/sro.shtml ); or Send an e-mail to...

  2. 75 FR 34498 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... inconsistent regulatory obligations. Similar in concept to Rule 48, which suspends the requirements for... market system and, in general, to protect investors and the public interest. The proposed rule change...) impose any significant burden on competition; and (iii) become operative prior to 30 days from the date...

  3. 75 FR 10532 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Commission (the ``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which... all similarly situated ATP Holders. 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange believes that the proposed rule... to all similarly situated ATP Holders. \\4\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f(b). \\5\\ 15 U.S.C. 78f(b)(4). B. Self...

  4. 77 FR 9290 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... the exemption in NASD Rule 3020 for sole stockholders and sole proprietors. The rule change also... solely as a Designated Market Maker (``DMM''),\\10\\ floor broker or registered floor trader and does not... a one-person firm.\\11\\ Historically, a sole proprietor or sole stockholder member was excluded from...

  5. 77 FR 40935 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Exchange To Amend ISE Rule 715 To Reflect a Modification in the Functionality of the Add Liquidity Order... Add Liquidity Order and to rename the order type. The text of the proposed rule change is available on...), Add Liquidity Order (``ALO''), to add a sentence describing a change to the functionality.\\3\\ \\3\\ ALOs...

  6. 75 FR 61799 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63024; File No. SR-Phlx-2010-134] Self... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule... ``Phlx XL II'' to ``PHLX XL'' for branding purposes. \\4\\ The current rules relevant to this proposal are...

  7. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule; delay of effective data and reopening of comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-27

    In accordance with the memorandum of January 20, 2009, from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Review Plan," this action temporarily delays for 60 days the effective date of the final rule entitled "Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing" (73 FR 71828). The temporary 60-day delay in effective date is necessary to give Department officials the opportunity for further review and consideration of new regulations. In addition, this action reopens the comment period on the policies set out in the November 25, 2008 final rule.

  8. Psychophysiological effects of emotional display rules and the moderating role of trait anger in a simulated call center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sonja; Bechtoldt, Myriam N; Hopp, Henrik; Hodapp, Volker; Zapf, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    In customer interactions, emotional display rules typically prescribe service providers to suppress negative emotions and display positive ones. This study investigated the causal impact of these emotional display rules on physiological indicators of workers' stress and performance. Additionally, the moderating influence of personality was examined by analyzing the impact of trait anger. In a simulated call center, 82 females were confronted with a complaining customer and instructed to react either authentically and show their true emotions or to "serve with a smile" and hide negative emotions. Increases in diastolic blood pressure and heart rates were higher in the smile condition, while verbal fluency was lower. Trait anger moderated the effects on diastolic blood pressure and observer ratings' of participants' professional competence, suggesting more negative effects for high trait anger individuals. Findings imply that emotional display rules may increase call center employees' strain and that considering employees' personality may be crucial for precluding health and performance impairments among call center workers.

  9. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  10. When Rules Really Make a Difference : The Effect of Cooperation Rules and Self-Sacrificing Leadership on Moral Norms in Social Dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia B.; Nelissen, Rob M. A.

    If self-interested behavior conflicts with the collective welfare, rules of cooperation are often installed to prevent egoistic behavior. We hypothesized that installing such rules may instigate personal moral norms of cooperation, but that they fail in doing so when installed by a leader who is

  11. Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting before and after the treatment. Results: Fenbendazole in both the doses had beneficial effect on haemato-biochemical observations like haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase besides showing efficacy as an anthelmintic. The drug also increased body weight gain significantly at higher dose as compared to untreated control. Conclusion: The results support that fenbendazole has the potential for modulating growth of stunted mecheri lambs. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 113-115

  12. Promoting IEP Participation: Effects of Interventions, Considerations for CLD Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Various interventions have been developed to promote student individualized education program (IEP) participation. Although they are generally endorsed by educators and researchers, critics argue that interventions to promote self-determination and IEP participation may be counter to the values of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD)…

  13. Functional Effectiveness of Threat Appeals in Exercise Promotion Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengman, Malaika; Wauters, Birgit; Macharis, Cathy; Mairesse, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    As more than 70% of individuals in Western societies can be categorized as sedentary and inactivity has been recognized to lead to a series of serious physical and psychological disorders, the importance of physical activity promotion is ever more emphasized. Many social marketing campaigns use threat (or fear) appeals to promote healthy…

  14. 75 FR 11559 - Certain Combed Cotton Yarns: Effect of Modification of U.S.-Bahrain FTA Rules of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. Bahrain-FTA-103-025] Certain Combed Cotton Yarns: Effect of Modification of U.S.- Bahrain FTA Rules of Origin AGENCY: United States International Trade... to section 104 of the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Implementation Act (19 U.S.C...

  15. 75 FR 39712 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... investment and risk management strategies and decisions to the movement of the underlying security..., and risk management purposes. 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange believes the proposed rule change is...

  16. Portfolio theory and the alternative decision rule of cost-effectiveness analysis: theoretical and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Pedram; Al, Maiwenn J; Gafni, Amiram; Birch, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Bridges and Terris (Soc. Sci. Med. (2004)) critique our paper on the alternative decision rule of economic evaluation in the presence of uncertainty and constrained resources within the context of a portfolio of health care programs (Sendi et al. Soc. Sci. Med. 57 (2003) 2207). They argue that by not adopting a formal portfolio theory approach we overlook the optimal solution. We show that these arguments stem from a fundamental misunderstanding of the alternative decision rule of economic evaluation. In particular, the portfolio theory approach advocated by Bridges and Terris is based on the same theoretical assumptions that the alternative decision rule set out to relax. Moreover, Bridges and Terris acknowledge that the proposed portfolio theory approach may not identify the optimal solution to resource allocation problems. Hence, it provides neither theoretical nor practical improvements to the proposed alternative decision rule.

  17. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  18. Fitness Promotion for Adolescent Girls: The Impact and Effectiveness of Promotional Material which Emphasizes the Slim Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Susan M.; Kemeny, Lidia

    1989-01-01

    Looked at techniques for promoting fitness participation among adolescent girls, in particular those which emphasize the slim ideal. Relative effectiveness of posters using different models (slim, average, overweight) and different messages (slimness, activity, health) was tested using 627 female high school students. Found slim model to be most…

  19. State child health; revisions to the regulations implementing the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Interim final rule with comment period; revisions, delay of effective date, and technical amendments to final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-25

    Title XXI authorizes the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to assist State efforts to initiate and expand the provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. On January 11, 2001 we published a final rule in the Federal Register to implement SCHIP that has not gone into effect. This interim final rule further delays the effective date, revises certain provisions and solicits public comment, and makes technical corrections and clarifications to the January 2001 final rule based on further review of the comments received and applicable law. Only the provisions set forth in this document have changed. All other provisions set forth in the January 2001 final rule will be implemented without change.

  20. The source of display rules and their effects on primary health care professionals' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Iñigo, David; Totterdell, Peter; Alcover, Carlos Maria; Holman, David

    2009-11-01

    Employees' perceptions of the emotional requirements of their work role are considered a necessary antecedent of emotion work. The impact of these requirements on the emotions employees display, their well-being, and their clients' satisfaction has been explored in previous research. Emotional requirements have been characterized as organizationally-based expectations (e.g., Brotheridge & Lee, 2003), formal and informal organizational rules (e.g., Cropanzano, Weiss & Elias, 2004), occupational norms (e.g., Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987; Smith & Kleinman, 1989) and job-based demands (Brotheridge & Lee, 2002). Although all these definitions assume some kind of shared source for perceptions of emotional requirements, it remains unclear to what extent these different sources contribute and to what extent the requirements are shared by different units, teams and individuals in the organization. The present study analyses the perception of emotional requirements from a survey of ninety-seven Primary Health Care teams composed of general practitioners, nurses and administrative staff (N = 1057). The relative contribution of different sources of variance (team, organizational, and occupational) to perceived emotional requirements and the effects on employees' job satisfaction and well being are examined. Results confirm the relevance of the source and show the contribution of emotional demands to prediction of emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction levels.

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote the tumoricidal effect of HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Mattias; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Gustafsson, Lotta; Duringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-12-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) and HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interact with histones, modify the structure of chromatin, and trigger tumor cell death. This study investigated how the combination of HDIs and HAMLET influences cell viability, histone acetylation, and DNA integrity. The pretreatment of tumor cells with HDIs was shown to enhance the lethal effect of HAMLET and the histone hyperacetylation response to HDIs increased even further after HAMLET treatment. HDIs and HAMLET were shown to target different histone domains as HAMLET bound tailless core histones, whereas HDIs modify the acetylation of the histone tail. DNA damage in response to HAMLET was increased by HDIs. The DNA repair response (p21WAFI expression) was induced by both agonists but abolished when the two agonists were combined. The results suggest that the synergy of HDIs and HAMLET is based on different but converging death pathways, both involving chromatin alterations. We speculate that HAMLET and HDIs might be combined to promote tumor cell death in vivo.

  2. The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyoung Kang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3β level, β-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of β-catenin pathway, and the 5α-reductase inhibition.

  3. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on root morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve the plant growth by a variety of ways like ... preparing textile dye in the Far East, Central and. Northern Asia and ... The experiment was carried out in complete randomized design.

  4. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Key words: Growth-promoting factors, mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), proliferation. INTRODUCTION ... insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can stimulate mitotic ...... A Model for Analysis of Spermatogenesis. Zool. Sci.

  5. The effectiveness of a pregnancy leaflet to promote health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-21

    Nov 21, 2014 ... healthy lifestyle choices and preventive healthcare in order to promote the health of the mother and foetus. .... of the shame and low self-esteem associated therewith. ... maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. According to the.

  6. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  7. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  8. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  9. Effect of promoter strength and signal sequence on the periplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two plasmids, pFLAG-ATS and pET 26b(+), were studied for the periplasmic expression of recombinant human interferon-2b (IFN-2b) in Escherichia coli. The pFLAG-ATS contains ompA signal sequence and tac promoter while pET 26b(+) contains pelB signal sequence and T7lac promoter. It was observed that periplasmic ...

  10. The Effects of Brand Loyalty on Competitive Price Promotional Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jagmohan S. Raju; V. Srinivasan; Rajiv Lal

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role played by brand loyalty in determining optimal price promotional strategies used by firms in a competitive setting. (Loyalty is operationalized as the minimum price differential needed before consumers who prefer one brand switch to another brand.) Our objective is to examine how loyalties toward the competing brands influence whether or not firms would use price promotions in a product category. We also examine how loyalty differences lead to variations in the de...

  11. Effect of tumour promoter iodoacetate on γ-radiation induced chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaria, K.B.; Shirsath, K.B.; Bhat, N.N.; Sreedevi, B.

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that tumour-promoting agents potentiate a number of genetic events induced by initiating agents in vitro Iodoacetate (IA) is reported to be a tumour promoter of moderate potency and although to the best of our knowledge, tumour promoting ability of IA in animals has not been reported, a large number of studies have reported various types of effects of IA, which may result in tumour promotion. In this paper, the modifying effects of tumour promoter IA on radiation induced dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been reported

  12. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  13. Medicare program; update of ratesetting methodology, payment rates, payment policies, and the list of covered procedures for ambulatory surgical centers effective October 1, 1998; reopening of comment period and delay in adoption of the proposed rule as final--HCFA. Notice of reopening of comment period for proposed rule and delay in adoption of provisions of the proposed rule as final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This notice reopens the comment period for a proposed rule affecting Medicare payments to ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs) that was originally published in the Federal Register on June 12, 1998 (63 FR 32290). This document gives notice of a delay in the adoption of the provisions of the June 12, 1998 ASC proposed rule as a final rule to be concurrent with the adoption as final of the hospital outpatient prospective payment system (PPS) that is the subject of a proposed rule published in the Federal Register on September 8, 1998 (63 FR 47551). In addition this document confirms that the current ASC payment rates that are effective for services furnished on or after October 1, 1998, will remain in effect until rebased ASC rates and the provisions of the June 12, 1998 ASC proposed rule are adopted as final to be concurrent with the adoption as final of the Medicare hospital PPS.

  14. Personal Values and Moral Disengagement Promote Aggressive and Rule-Breaking Behaviours in Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviour Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Marinella; Muratori, Pietro; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Buonanno, Carlo; Capo, Rosario; Lochman, John E; Barcaccia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared with a community sample, adolescents with DBD are more inclined to use moral disengagement (MD) to legitimize their aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours. Moreover, regression models showed that self-enhancement values and MD foster externalizing behaviours taking into account both gender and the group they belonged to, that is, either clinical or community sample. Instead, self-transcendence values could prevent externalizing problems by inhibiting MD. Implications of these findings for assessment and therapeutic interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Effective Feature Selection for Classification of Promoter Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouser K

    Full Text Available Exploring novel computational methods in making sense of biological data has not only been a necessity, but also productive. A part of this trend is the search for more efficient in silico methods/tools for analysis of promoters, which are parts of DNA sequences that are involved in regulation of expression of genes into other functional molecules. Promoter regions vary greatly in their function based on the sequence of nucleotides and the arrangement of protein-binding short-regions called motifs. In fact, the regulatory nature of the promoters seems to be largely driven by the selective presence and/or the arrangement of these motifs. Here, we explore computational classification of promoter sequences based on the pattern of motif distributions, as such classification can pave a new way of functional analysis of promoters and to discover the functionally crucial motifs. We make use of Position Specific Motif Matrix (PSMM features for exploring the possibility of accurately classifying promoter sequences using some of the popular classification techniques. The classification results on the complete feature set are low, perhaps due to the huge number of features. We propose two ways of reducing features. Our test results show improvement in the classification output after the reduction of features. The results also show that decision trees outperform SVM (Support Vector Machine, KNN (K Nearest Neighbor and ensemble classifier LibD3C, particularly with reduced features. The proposed feature selection methods outperform some of the popular feature transformation methods such as PCA and SVD. Also, the methods proposed are as accurate as MRMR (feature selection method but much faster than MRMR. Such methods could be useful to categorize new promoters and explore regulatory mechanisms of gene expressions in complex eukaryotic species.

  16. On the effects of adaptive reservoir operating rules in hydrological physically-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Federico; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase of the human influence on the natural systems both at the global and local scale. Accurately modeling the human component and its interaction with the natural environment is key to characterize the real system dynamics and anticipate future potential changes to the hydrological regimes. Modern distributed, physically-based hydrological models are able to describe hydrological processes with high level of detail and high spatiotemporal resolution. Yet, they lack in sophistication for the behavior component and human decisions are usually described by very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the catchment dynamics. In the case of water reservoir operators, these simplistic rules usually consist of target-level rule curves, which represent the average historical level trajectory. Whilst these rules can reasonably reproduce the average seasonal water volume shifts due to the reservoirs' operation, they cannot properly represent peculiar conditions, which influence the actual reservoirs' operation, e.g., variations in energy price or water demand, dry or wet meteorological conditions. Moreover, target-level rule curves are not suitable to explore the water system response to climate and socio economic changing contexts, because they assume a business-as-usual operation. In this work, we quantitatively assess how the inclusion of adaptive reservoirs' operating rules into physically-based hydrological models contribute to the proper representation of the hydrological regime at the catchment scale. In particular, we contrast target-level rule curves and detailed optimization-based behavioral models. We, first, perform the comparison on past observational records, showing that target-level rule curves underperform in representing the hydrological regime over multiple time scales (e.g., weekly, seasonal, inter-annual). Then, we compare how future hydrological changes are affected by the two modeling

  17. 75 FR 6745 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... and approval process for advertisements, correspondence, and institutional sales material. The..., in that it is designed to prevent fraudulent and manipulative acts and practices, to promote just and...

  18. 75 FR 47333 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... 100 shares) orders in a separate, dedicated system, but will trade them on the Display Book system... Rule 501(a)--NYSE Amex Equities, the Exchange proposes to amend the definition of the term ``Closing... proposes to add language to conform the definition of a ``Stop Order'' for Nasdaq Securities with that for...

  19. 75 FR 40001 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... investment and risk management strategies and decisions to the movement of the underlying security... risk management objectives. \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 57478 (March 12, 2008), 73 FR..., and risk management purposes. Finally, the proposal also corrects an internal rule reference in...

  20. 75 FR 17799 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... threatened physical danger, severe climatic conditions, civil unrest, terrorism, acts of war, or loss or... June 2008 and June 2009. Those memos described (among other things) the Exchange's various contingency... following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules...

  1. 75 FR 76509 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... system (``PSX''). The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at http... the price changes upon the net fees paid by a particular market participant will depend upon a number... sizes through pricing or by operating as ``dark pools.'' C. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on...

  2. 75 FR 14221 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... upon execution of incoming orders. The modified logic rewards displayed orders that establish the...). Proposal to Extend the Operation of the NMM Pilot The NYSE established the NMM Pilot to provide incentives... operates to reward aggressive liquidity providers. As such, the Exchange believes that the rules governing...

  3. Effects of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul; Wright, D.; Kreissl, R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the impact of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence, key values and principles of a democratic order. It illustrates how they are implemented and enforced in contemporary surveillance societies, while referring to European law and

  4. 75 FR 34501 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... clarifications are necessary to avoid inconsistent regulatory obligations. Similar in concept to Rule 48, which... and a national market system and, in general, to protect investors and the public interest. The... interest; (ii) impose any significant burden on competition; and (iii) become operative prior to 30 days...

  5. 75 FR 43590 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...), and sends a cancellation notice to the member that originally submitted the order. The instant.... Specifically, the Exchange believes that the proposal benefits customers by improving market efficiency through... the Commission, and all written communications relating to the proposed rule change between the...

  6. The Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on the Learning of Grammar Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Fenfang; Sun, Shuyan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction between two types of explicit instructional approaches, deduction and explicit-induction, and the level of foreign language aptitude in the learning of grammar rules. Results indicate that on the whole the two equally explicit instructional approaches did not differentially affect learning…

  7. 75 FR 1426 - National Futures Association; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ...) require that certain audio and video advertisements that appear on the Internet--like similar radio and... CPO/CTA Advisory Committees considered the growing use of social networking groups such as blogs, chat... advertisements, while participating in a chat room is a public appearance subject to FINRA rules. The guidance...

  8. 75 FR 65683 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... does not significantly affect the protection of investors or the public interest, does not impose any... this proposed rule change is to expand the $.50 Strike Program in order to provide investors with... proposal would expand $.50 strike offerings to market participants, such as traders and retail investors...

  9. 75 FR 65689 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... does not significantly affect the protection of investors or the public interest, does not impose any... rule change is to expand the $.50 Strike Program in order to provide investors with opportunities and... proposal would expand $.50 strike offerings to market participants, such as traders and retail investors...

  10. 76 FR 19165 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...\\ Additionally, the Exchange proposes to increase the number of option classes on individual stocks for which the... underlying stock is traded. Currently, Exchange Rule 6.4 at Commentary .03 permits the listing of options... security and meet their investment, trading and risk management requirements. [[Page 19166

  11. 76 FR 19160 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... market'' is defined in NYSE Amex Rule 900.2NY(62), in respect of an underlying stock or Exchange-Traded Fund Share, as the principal market in which the underlying stock or Exchange-Traded Fund Share is... and meet their investment, trading and risk management requirements. The Exchange is also proposing to...

  12. 75 FR 14234 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... significant number of series being out-of-the-money. For example, a market participant might have a long... with a 100 share multiplier). Because the instant rule change would allow trading below $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier), the procedures would be made available for...

  13. 76 FR 33387 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... calculates the CBOE Gold ETF Volatility Index (``GVZ''), which is based on the VIX methodology applied to options on the SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''). The current filing would permit $0.50 strike price intervals for... exchange-traded fund (``ETF'') options. See Rule 1012, Commentary .05(a)(iv). To the extent that the CBOE...

  14. 75 FR 16217 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ..., Inc. Regarding the Listing of the ProShares Ultra MSCI Mexico Investable Market Fund March 24, 2010... Ultra MSCI Mexico Investable Market. The text of the proposed rule change is available at the Exchange... (``ICUs''): \\4\\ ProShares Ultra MSCI Mexico Investable Market (the ``Fund''). \\4\\ An Investment Company...

  15. 75 FR 2180 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... LLC To Modify Its Liquidity Credits and Establish Separate Liquidity Credits for Supplemental Liquidity Providers January 7, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934... Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to modify its liquidity credits and establish liquidity credits...

  16. 76 FR 9067 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Exchange Rule 1014(b) as a regular member or a foreign currency options participant of the Exchange located... Securities Exchange, LLC's (``ISE'') Schedule of Fees, specifically ISE's Select Symbols and the rates... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63880; File No. SR-Phlx-2011-12] Self...

  17. 75 FR 50785 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... LLC Amending Rule 15--NYSE Amex Equities To Clarify Use of the Last Sale on the Exchange as the Reference Price and To Define the Reference Price of a Security in the Event That There Is No Last Sale in... the last sale on the Exchange as the reference price and to define the reference price of a security...

  18. 75 FR 50787 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Stock Exchange LLC Amending NYSE Rule 15 To Clarify Use of the Last Sale on the Exchange as the Reference Price and To Define the Reference Price of a Security in the Event That There Is No Last Sale in... sale on the Exchange as the reference price and to define the reference price of a security in the...

  19. 75 FR 67791 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... remote disaster recovery sites only). Option 1: Dual 56kb lines (one for redundancy) and $1,000/month... Enhancement software enhancement. Fee) plus 20%. Installation Fee $2,000 per site for dual hubs and routers... $475 per user per month (including data entitlement package). Nasdaq Workstation Post Trade See Rule...

  20. Effect of mixing rule boundary conditions on high pressure (liquid + liquid) equilibrium prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Kang; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prediction of LLE from the combined use of EOS and liquid model are examined. ► The mixing rule used affects the predicted pressure dependence of LLE. ► MHV1 mixing rule predicts decent LLE at low pressures. ► WS mixing rule predicts more accurate excess volume and LLE at high pressures. ► The hybrid of MHV1 and WS mixing rule gives overall the best predictions. - Abstract: We examine the prediction of high pressure (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) from the Peng–Robinson equation with three excess Gibbs free energy (G ex )-based mixing rules (MR): the first order modified Huron–Vidal (MHV1), the Wong–Sandler (WS), and a hybrid of these two (referred to as G ex B 2 ). These mixing rules differ by the boundary conditions used for determination of the temperature and composition dependence of parameters a and b in the PR EOS. The condition of matching the excess Gibbs free energy from the EOS at zero pressure to that from the G ex model, used in MHV1 and G ex B 2 MR, leads to a similar miscibility gap from PR EOS and the G ex model used. On the other hand, the condition of matching excess Helmholtz energy from the EOS at infinite pressure to that from the G ex model, used in the WS MR, shows remarkable deviations. The condition of quadratic composition dependence in the second virial coefficient (B 2 ), used in WS and G ex B 2 MR, allows for both positive and negative values in the molar excess volume. Depending on the mixture, either the increase or decrease of the miscibility gap with pressure can be observed when the WS or the G ex B 2 MR is used. The condition of linear combination of molecular sizes of each component used in the MHV1 MR, however, often leads to small, positive molar excess volumes. As a consequence, the predicted LLE from using the MHV1 MR are insensitive to pressure. Therefore, we find that the G ex B 2 mixing rule provides the best predictive power for the LLE over a wide range of temperature and pressure.

  1. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Lactic Acid Fermentation Promotion by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tadayuki; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The authors have been researching the promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation. In the past research, it was proven that ultrasonic irradiation is effective in the process of fermentation, and the production of yoghurt and kefir was promoted. In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic frequency in this fermentation process was examined. In the frequency range of this study, it was found that the action of fermentation promotion was exponentially proportionate to the irradiated ultrasonic frequency.

  2. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is unanimously admitted that the chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in modern agriculture create a real environmental and public health problems. One of the promising solutions to substitute these agrochemicals products is the use of bio-resources, including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR ...

  3. Effects of rhizobia and plant growth promoting bacteria inoculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth by producing phytohormone which enhances the growth and physiological activities of the host plant. Recently, legume bacteria (Rhizobium spp.) have been considered as a PGPR for legume as well as non-legumes and have the potential for growth ...

  4. Effective Ninth-Grade Transition Programs Can Promote Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Victoria; Thornton, Bill; Usinger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The transition from middle into high school can be perilous for some students. High school freshmen fail at an alarming rate. In a general sense, the environment, expectations, structure, and culture of high schools are different from middle schools. However, school leaders can implement transition programs that may promote success of 9th graders.…

  5. Product's promotion patterns and their effects on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigated the influence of promotional patterns of Coca-Cola products on purchase intentions, loyalty and attitude of consumers in Nigeria. Ninety randomly selected social science undergraduates of a major Nigerian university participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to three new ...

  6. Modelling effective and simultaneous promotion of food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ineffectiveness extends to promoting household food security within the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation on farm lands. To examine this, this paper draws on recently conducted research to sketch the current model within which extension pursues these seemingly dichotomous objectives and identifies ...

  7. Effect of Standard No. 2800 Rules for Moment Resisting Frames on the Elastic and Inelastic Behavior of Dual Steel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Veladi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to most valid Design Codes including the Iranian Seismic Design Code (Standard No. 2800, moment resisting frames in dual systems must have the ability of resisting the 25% of the total lateral load of the dual system independently. This study is conducted to investigate the implementation of this rule for dual steel structures with two types of steel braced frame. Also, its effect on the strength of the structure and the distribution of lateral load between the frames and the bracing system is evaluated. In order to investigate the effect of that rule, structural models with 5, 10 and 15 floors are modeled. Nonlinear static analysis is employed and results are discussed. Following the Standard No. 2008 seems to increase the structure’s lateral resistance and decrease the number of elements entered into the inelastic behavior stage. In general, the structure has a more desirable inelastic behavior.

  8. 76 FR 7619 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ..., PSX has employed a promotional, ``inverted'' pricing structure under which the rebate paid to members..., reflected a promotional pricing structure for a new market entrant under which costs exceed revenues on... determined in that matter, competition is best able to determine whether a strategy of charging fees set at...

  9. Labeling and effectiveness testing; sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use; delay of compliance dates. Final rule; delay of compliance dates; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is delaying the compliance dates for the final rule for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). The final rule establishes labeling and effectiveness testing for certain OTC sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. It also amends labeling claims that are not currently supported by data and lifts the previously-published delay of implementation of the Drug Facts labeling requirements for OTC sunscreens. The 2011 final rule's compliance dates are being delayed because information received after publication of the 2011 final rule indicates that full implementation of the 2011 final rule's requirements for all affected products will require an additional 6 months. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  10. Effects of neonatal inferior prefrontal and medial temporal lesions on learning the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, L; Bachevalier, J; Webster, M; Mishkin, M

    2000-01-01

    The ability of rhesus monkeys to master the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) has a protracted ontogenetic development, reaching adult levels of proficiency around 4 to 5 years of age (Bachevalier, 1990). To test the possibility that this slow development could be due, at least in part, to immaturity of the prefrontal component of a temporo-prefrontal circuit important for DNMS rule learning (Kowalska, Bachevalier, & Mishkin, 1991; Weinstein, Saunders, & Mishkin, 1988), monkeys with neonatal lesions of the inferior prefrontal convexity were compared on DNMS with both normal controls and animals given neonatal lesions of the medial temporal lobe. Consistent with our previous results (Bachevalier & Mishkin, 1994; Málková, Mishkin, & Bachevalier, 1995), the neonatal medial temporal lesions led to marked impairment in rule learning (as well as in recognition memory with long delays and list lengths) at both 3 months and 2 years of age. By contrast, the neonatal inferior convexity lesions yielded no impairment in rule-learning at 3 months and only a mild impairment at 2 years, a finding that also contrasts sharply with the marked effects of the same lesion made in adulthood. This pattern of sparing closely resembles the one found earlier after neonatal lesions to the cortical visual area TE (Bachevalier & Mishkin, 1994; Málková et al., 1995). The functional sparing at 3 months probably reflects the fact that the temporo-prefrontal circuit is nonfunctional at this early age, resulting in a total dependency on medial temporal contributions to rule learning. With further development, however, this circuit begins to provide a supplementary route for learning.

  11. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF BRIEF RULES, A TIMER, AND PREFERRED TOYS ON SELF-CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immedi...

  12. From intermediate to final behavioral endpoints : Modeling cognitions in (cost-)effectiveness analyses in health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are considered an increasingly important tool in health promotion and psychology. In health promotion adequate effectiveness data of innovative interventions are often lacking. In case of many promising interventions the available data are inadequate for CEAs due

  13. Pricing and Promotion Effects on Low-Fat Vending Snack Purchases: The CHIPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Story, Mary; Breitlow, Kyle K.; Baxter, Judith S.; Hannan, Peter; Snyder, M. Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines set up at secondary schools and worksites in Minnesota. Analysis of sales data indicated that reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was very effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both settings. (SM)

  14. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  15. 77 FR 31683 - Notice of Effective Date of Modifications to a Rule of Origin of the United States-Australia Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Rule of Origin of the United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of effective date for goods of Australia of certain modifications to a product-specific rule of origin under the United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement (USAFTA...

  16. Coke formation on hydrodesulphurization catalysts. [Including effects of different promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternan, M.; Furimsky, E.; Parsons, B.I.

    1979-02-01

    The extent of coke formation was measured on a number of different hydrodesulfurization catalysts, primarily as a function of the catalyst chemical composition. Variations in the concentration of MoO/sub 3/ on the alumina, the type of catalyst promoter, the promoter/MoO/sub 3/ ratio, the presulfiding material and the reaction temperature were made. Increases in the reaction rate caused by either changes in the catalyst composition or by moderate changes in the reaction temperature were compared to the catalyst coke content. It was suggested that two types of coke were present on the catalyst, a reactive coke which is subsequently converted to reaction products and an unreactive coke which blocks catalytic sites.

  17. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected......Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999...

  18. The effects of tenure and promotion on surgeon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Adam; Heslin, Martin J; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Chen, Herbert

    2018-07-01

    Studies investigating the impact of promotion and tenure on surgeon productivity are lacking. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship of promotion and tenure to surgeon productivity. We reviewed data for the Department of Surgery at our institution. Relative value units (RVUs) billed per year, publications per year, and grant funding per year were used to assess productivity from 2010 to 2016. We analyzed tenure-track (TT) and non-tenure-track (NT) surgeons and compared the productivity within these groups by rank: assistant professor (ASST), associate professor (ASSOC), and full professor (FULL). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess significance and relationships between the groups. A TT faculty was promoted if they produced more research, with the highest publication rates in TT FULL. TT faculty publishing rates increased from ASST to ASSOC (1 versus 2, P = 0.006) and from ASSOC to FULL (2 versus 4, P production (RVUs) was highest between TT ASSOC and NT FULL. TT faculty increased productivity between ASST and ASSOC (7023 versus 8384, P = 0.001) and decreased between ASSOC and FULL (8384 versus 6877, P production and grant funding, whereas NT FULL has the highest clinical production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modification of selection rules as a P-noninvariant effect in the charge-monopole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolkachev, E.A.; Tomil'chik, L.M.; Shnir, Y.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that P-noninvariance in the theory of magnetic charge, connected with the non-removability of the discontinuity of the phase of the wave function of charged particles in the field of a Dirac monopole, leads to a change in the selection rules for dipole radiation, which can in principle be used as a critical test for a model with magnetically charged quarks

  20. Surface thickness effects and splitting of multipole excitations in deformed nuclei. [Sum rule, hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christillin, P [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Lipparini, E; Stringari, S [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Trento, Italy

    1978-09-25

    A sum-rule approach is used to study the influence of surface thickness upon the splitting of dipole and isoscalar quadrupole energies in deformed nuclei. It is shown that hydrodynamic model results are recovered in the case of a deformed skin thickness. A constant skin thickness leads in the dipole case to slightly different predictions which seem in better agreement with experiments. The splitting of the isoscalar quadrupole mode is not sensitive to the surface thickness shape.

  1. 75 FR 47330 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...'') for any and all of the 1,250,000 outstanding 6.189% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Normal ITS issued by U.S... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62610; File No. SR-NYSEArca-2010-73] Self... Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on July 28...

  2. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  3. Autonomy promotion, responsiveness, and emotion regulation promote effective social support in times of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Russell, Daniel W

    2017-02-01

    Adult attachment theory provides guidance for providing optimal social support in intimate relationships. According to attachment theory, facilitating autonomy (secure base support) sometimes is more important than providing nurturance (safe haven support). In addition, it is important that couples celebrate one another's triumphs and successes (another form of secure base support). A key construct that explains the development of attachment is responsiveness to the individual's needs. Support that is delivered in a responsive manner (i.e., that leads the individual to feel understood, validated, and cared for) is more likely to enhance the relationship and less likely to damage self-esteem than assistance that is not responsive. A responsive exchange is more likely if emotion dysregulation can be prevented. Attachment theory offers explanations for why people vary in their effectiveness at emotion regulation. Appropriate emotion regulation is more likely if disclosures of current difficulties can be made in a way that is not defensive or accusatory, an ability that varies as a function of attachment orientation. Attachment theory also offers guidance regarding the optimal forms of social support for specific individuals. All these insights from adult attachment theory can be integrated into interventions to help couples become more effective support providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the Memorization of Rule Statements on Performance, Retention, and Transfer in a Computer-Based Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Nelson J.

    Research sought to determine whether memorization of rule statements before, during or after instruction in rule application skills would facilitate the acquisition and/or retention of rule-governed behavior as compared to no-rule statement memorization. A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program required high school students to learn to a…

  5. The Bumpy Road of EULEX as an Exporter of Rule of Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentjan Skara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses EULEX mission in Kosovo (hereafter EULEX as an exporter of rule of law. From the deployment of the mission, two mainstream discourses have coined the effectiveness of EULEX establishing the rule of law in Kosovo. From the Brussels point of view, EULEX has marked a lot of progress in promoting the rule of law in Kosovo. On the other hand, based on international indexes and other secondary sources, EULEX has been harshly criticised to deliver its promises in strengthening the rule of law institutions, fighting organised crime, war crimes and reducing corruption. Beyond these discourses, the paper tries to explore whether, how and to what extent, EULEX has promoted rule of law in Kosovo. The paper argues that EULEX has failed to promote rule of law in Kosovo due to 1 the costs of adaptation or compliance as function of the misfit between EULEX institutional approach on rule of law and domestic conditions and 2 incapacity of Kosovo rule of law institutions to interact with EULEX in strengthening the rule of law as a result of political interference on judiciary and police sector.

  6. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  7. The relation between the photonuclear E1 sum rule and the effective orbital g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Wolfgang E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Arima, Akito

    2004-05-17

    The connection between the enhancement factor (1+{kappa}) of the photonuclear E1 sum rule and the orbital angular momentum g-factor (g{sub l}) of a bound nucleon is investigated in the framework of the Landau-Migdal theory for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Special emphasis is put on the role of gauge invariance to establish the {kappa}-g{sub l} relation. By identifying the physical processes which are taken into account in {kappa} and g{sub l}, the validity and limitations of this relation will be discussed. The connections to the collective excitations and to nuclear Compton scattering are also shown.

  8. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p production (β = .359, p promotion. In addition, results of cross-level moderating effect analysis by HLM demonstrated that the effects of organizational health culture on three dimensions of

  9. Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Werrij, M.Q.; Vries, de H.

    2010-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behaviour or the losses associated with unhealthy behaviour. It has been argued that gain-framed messages promoting physical activity (PA) are more effective than loss-framed messages, but empirical findings are

  10. Measuring the Effectiveness of Lamb Advertising and Promotion: An Updated Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    This report updates a previous tentative analysis of the effectiveness of the Lamb Checkoff Program in shifting out the demand for American lamb. The main conclusion is that program has resulted in roughly 8.4 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $44.60 in additional lamb sales per dollar spent on advertising and promotion.

  11. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  12. The spillover effect of disclosure rules and materiality thresholds: Evidence from profit warnings issued in Hong Kong market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencheng Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dual-listed firms simultaneously follow the relevant rules in their home country and in their cross-listed country. In contrast, other firms only listed in the cross-listed country are only subject to the local regulations. Previous literature has found evidence that cross-listing can improve firms’ information transparency because of more stringent listing rules in the cross-listed country. The existing research, however, has not paid enough attention to the potential influence of dual-listed firms and their home country institutional factors (e.g. unique disclosure policies on other firms only listed in the cross-listed country (i.e. spillover effect. In the Hong Kong market, Chinese dual-listed firms are under the mandatory profit warning regulation of mainland China, but other firms listed only in Hong Kong only need to follow the voluntary disclosure rule of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Such a setting provides us with the opportunity to investigate a spillover effect, i.e. whether these Chinese dual-listed firms influence their peers only listed in Hong Kong to release profit warnings. We find that firms only listed in Hong Kong are more likely to issue profit warnings if their Chinese dual-listed peers have also issued warnings. We further find that this spillover effect increases with the market capitalization of Chinese dual-listed firms and increases with the market share of these firms before they dominate the industry. Lastly, due to an underlying duty to disclose material information in Hong Kong, the spillover effect is weaker for firms with large earnings surprises.

  13. Effect of hydroxyurea on the promoter occupancy profiles of tumor suppressor p53 and p73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 tumor suppressor and its related protein, p73, share a homologous DNA binding domain, and mouse genetics studies have suggested that they have overlapping as well as distinct biological functions. Both p53 and p73 are activated by genotoxic stress to regulate an array of cellular responses. Previous studies have suggested that p53 and p73 independently activate the cellular apoptotic program in response to cytotoxic drugs. The goal of this study was to compare the promoter-binding activity of p53 and p73 at steady state and after genotoxic stress induced by hydroxyurea. Results We employed chromatin immunoprecipitation, the NimbleGen promoter arrays and a model-based algorithm for promoter arrays to identify promoter sequences enriched in anti-p53 or anti-p73 immunoprecipitates, either before or after treatment with hydroxyurea, which increased the expression of both p53 and p73 in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116-3(6. We calculated a model-based algorithm for promoter array score for each promoter and found a significant correlation between the promoter occupancy profiles of p53 and p73. We also found that after hydroxyurea treatment, the p53-bound promoters were still bound by p73, but p73 became associated with additional promoters that that did not bind p53. In particular, we showed that hydroxyurea induces the binding of p73 but not p53 to the promoter of MLH3, which encodes a mismatch repair protein, and causes an up-regulation of the MLH3 mRNA. Conclusion These results suggest that hydroxyurea exerts differential effects on the promoter-binding functions of p53 and p73 and illustrate the power of model-based algorithm for promoter array in the analyses of promoter occupancy profiles of highly homologous transcription factors.

  14. Effect of TNFα on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Sergey V.; Mogilenko, Denis A.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TNFα stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. → TNFα acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). → MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPARα and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNFα. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNFα-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNFα on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNFα leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNFα. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPARα and LXRs are important for TNFα-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  15. Spectral sum rules and magneto-roton as emergent graviton in fractional quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, Siavash; Nguyen, Dung X.; Son, Dam T. [Enrico Fermi Institute, James Franck Institute and Department of Physics,University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2016-01-05

    We consider gapped fractional quantum Hall states on the lowest Landau level when the Coulomb energy is much smaller than the cyclotron energy. We introduce two spectral densities, ρ{sub T}(ω) and ρ̄{sub T}(ω), which are proportional to the probabilities of absorption of circularly polarized gravitons by the quantum Hall system. We prove three sum rules relating these spectral densities with the shift S, the q{sup 4} coefficient of the static structure factor S{sub 4}, and the high-frequency shear modulus of the ground state μ{sub ∞}, which is precisely defined. We confirm an inequality, first suggested by Haldane, that S{sub 4} is bounded from below by |S−1|/8. The Laughlin wavefunction saturates this bound, which we argue to imply that systems with ground state wavefunctions close to Laughlin’s absorb gravitons of predominantly one circular polarization. We consider a nonlinear model where the sum rules are saturated by a single magneto-roton mode. In this model, the magneto-roton arises from the mixing between oscillations of an internal metric and the hydrodynamic motion. Implications for experiments are briefly discussed.

  16. Band-to-band transitions, selection rules, effective mass, and excitonic contributions in monoclinic β -Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Alyssa; Korlacki, Rafał; Briley, Chad; Darakchieva, Vanya; Monemar, Bo; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Goto, Ken; Higashiwaki, Masataka; Schubert, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    We employ an eigenpolarization model including the description of direction dependent excitonic effects for rendering critical point structures within the dielectric function tensor of monoclinic β -Ga2O3 yielding a comprehensive analysis of generalized ellipsometry data obtained from 0.75-9 eV. The eigenpolarization model permits complete description of the dielectric response. We obtain, for single-electron and excitonic band-to-band transitions, anisotropic critical point model parameters including their polarization vectors within the monoclinic lattice. We compare our experimental analysis with results from density functional theory calculations performed using the Gaussian-attenuation-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof hybrid density functional. We present and discuss the order of the fundamental direct band-to-band transitions and their polarization selection rules, the electron and hole effective mass parameters for the three lowest band-to-band transitions, and their excitonic contributions. We find that the effective masses for holes are highly anisotropic and correlate with the selection rules for the fundamental band-to-band transitions. The observed transitions are polarized close to the direction of the lowest hole effective mass for the valence band participating in the transition.

  17. Higher-twist effects in the B → π transition form factor from QCD light-cone sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodjamirian, Alexander; Rusov, Aleksey [Universitaet Siegen (Germany). Fakultaet IV, Department Physik, Theoretische Physik 1 Walter-Flex-Strasse 3 57068 Siegen

    2016-07-01

    I report on the progress in calculating new higher-twist corrections to the QCD light-cone sum rule for the B → π transition form factor. First, the expansion of the massive heavy-quark propagator in the external gluonic field near the light-cone was extended to include new terms containing the gluon-field strength derivatives. The resulting analytical expressions for the twist-5 and twist-6 contributions to the correlation function were obtained in a factorized approximation, expressed via the product of the quark-condensate density and the lower-twist pion distribution amplitudes. The numerical analysis of new higher-twist effects is in progress.

  18. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... between the Parties and promoting regional economic integration; promoting broad-based economic development in order to reduce poverty and generate opportunities for sustainable economic alternatives to... rule. CBP also invites comments that relate to the economic, environmental, or federalism effects that...

  19. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument...... promotion intensities are socially excessive. Moreover, the welfare implications are determined by the two opposite effects of price advertising: (1) the informing and therefore welfare-improving effect, and (2) the welfare-harming effect that higher transportation costs incur when promotions are used....... Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  20. Effectiveness of Community-based Intervention to Promote Iran′s Food-based Dietary Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Shariatjafari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The intervention designed based on the Health Belief Model was effective in improving the adherence to FBDGs and could serve as a basic model for the promotion of healthy nutrition behavior among women in the primary health care setting.

  1. Effects of the new karate rules on the incidence and distribution of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, J; Bundalo-Vrbanac, D; Romić, G

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence and distribution of injuries in karate before and after the implementation of new rules established by the World Karate Federation in 2000. Injury incidence was followed up during the official karate competition seasons of 1997 and 2002 in Croatia. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the age and sex of the competitor and localisation and severity of injury. Data were analysed separately for female and male competitors and age categories or = 18 years. A total of 2023.5 and 2584 minutes of active fighting (exposure time) was assessed for 1997 and 2002 respectively. The overall injury incidence rate (IR) was similar in 1997 and 2002 (10.28 and 9.82/100 exposure minutes respectively). The relative risk (RR) of injury was significantly higher in 1997 than in 2002 for competitors younger than 18 years (RR 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 2.16). The overall RR of head injury was significantly higher in 1997 than in 2002 (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.49), but the RR of leg injury was significantly lower in 1997 than in 2002 (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.28). Most injuries (> 98%) were categorised as mild (grade 1) in both periods studied. The results of this study confirm the importance of the new competition rules in the distribution and prevention of injuries in martial arts. Strict judging and heavy penalties for uncontrolled blows, particularly for the youngest competitors, can significantly decrease the risk of injury.

  2. Adolescent in-school cellphone habits: a census of rules, survey of their effectiveness, and fertility implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Smith, Euan; Abramson, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    We explored school cellphone rules and adolescent exposure to cellphone microwave emissions during school with a census and survey, respectively. The data were used to assess health and policy implications through a review of papers assessing reproductive bio-effects after exposure to cellphone emissions, this being most relevant to students' exposure. All schools banned private use of cellphones in class. However, 43% of student participants admitted breaking this rule. A high-exposure group of risk-takers was identified for whom prohibited in-school use was positively associated with high texting rates, carrying the phone switched-on >10h/day, and in-pocket use. The fertility literature is inconclusive, but increasingly points towards significant time- and dose-dependent deleterious effects from cellphone exposure on sperm. Genotoxic effects have been demonstrated from 'non-thermal' exposures, but not consistently. There is sufficient evidence and expert opinion to warrant an enforced school policy removing cellphones from students during the day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Model to Identify the Most Effective Business Rule in Information Systems using Rough Set Theory: Study on Loan Business Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghdasi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a practical model is used to identify the most effective rules in information systems. In this model, first, critical business attributes which fit to strategic expectations are taken into account. These are the attributes which their changes are more important than others in achieving the strategic expectations. To identify these attributes we utilize rough set theory. Those business rules which use critical information attribute in their structures are identified as the most effective business rules. The Proposed model helps information system developers to identify scope of effective business rules. It causes a decrease in time and cost of information system maintenance. Also it helps business analyst to focus on managing critical business attributes in order to achieve a specific goal.

  4. Effectiveness of a Canteen Take Away concept in promoting healthy eating patterns among employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Ernst, Lotte; Poulsen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a relatively novel concept of providing employees with healthy ready-to-heat meals to bring home to their families, here referred to as Canteen Take Away (CTA). Design: Employees’ dietary intake on two weekdays when they received free CTA was compare...... study shows that providing healthy take-away dinners has potential for promoting healthy dietary habits among employees. This reinforces the importance of availability and convenience as effective tools to promote healthy eating habits....

  5. The effect of promoters on the electronic structure of ruthenium catalysts supported on carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guraya, Monica; Sprenger, Susanne; Rarog-Pilecka, Wioletta; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Kowalczyk, Zbigniew; Muhler, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Alkali- and earth-alkali-promoted ruthenium catalysts supported on graphitized carbon were investigated by means of X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) in order to study the effect of promoters on the electronic structure of this metal-support system. Samples were measured as prepared and after thorough reduction in hydrogen. The C 1s spectra of reduced alkali-promoted catalysts showed a shift towards higher binding energies and an asymmetric broadening. Neither non-promoted nor Ba-promoted Ru/C samples exhibited such a behaviour after similar treatments. The most important feature in the UP spectra of the reduced alkali-promoted catalysts was the appearance of a well defined Fermi edge absent in the semimetal-like electronic structure of graphite. No significant effects appeared in the case of non-promoted or Ba-promoted catalysts. The increase in the density of occupied states at the Fermi energy indicates a shift of this level into the conduction band, due to a charge transfer from the promoter to the support. This interpretation also provides an explanation for the observed higher C 1s binding energy and asymmetric broadening, due to the off-set introduced in the binding energy scale and the increasing probability of inelastic excitations near the Fermi level. In addition to photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy ion scattering (ISS) was used to obtain information about the localisation of the promoters. Based on the mild sputtering effect during prolonged series of spectra, it was possible to conclude that potassium covers both the carbon support and the Ru metal particles

  6. Effectiveness of price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts. Consequences of the 2011 BGH rulings; Wirksamkeit von Preisanpassungsklauseln in Fernwaermelieferungsvertraegen. Konsequenzen der BGH-Urteile 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buedenbender, Ulrich; Gromm, Marcel [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Energiewirtschaftsrecht und Arbeitsrecht

    2011-07-01

    In 2011, the BGH had to decide for the first time on price adjustment clauses. There were four court rulings on price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts, and price adjustment clauses were considered to be ineffective in all cases. This is a trend similar to the rulings on gas supply contracts since 2005. This contribution discusses the consequences of the 2011 BGH rulings for future price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts. The contract partners, especially the customers of district heating utilities, must be sure whether a raised supply price will be based on an effective price adjustment clause, or whether it will enable the customer to refuse payment. (orig.)

  7. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  8. Effect of dietary antioxidants on the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauert, H.; Tharappel, J.; Stemm, D.; Spear, B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lehmler, H.J.; Robertson, L. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Mixtures of halogenated biphenyls as well as many individual congeners have been reported to be promoters of carcinogenesis in various liver tumor models. However, their mechanism of action is not known. A number of mechanisms have been investigated, including direct effects on signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress, effects on vitamin A metabolism, and effects on intercellular communication. One mechanism by which PCBs may promote hepatic tumors is by inducing oxidative damage in the liver. Forms of oxidative damage that may be important are the induction of lipid peroxidation, the induction of oxidative DNA damage, and the alteration of gene expression. One possible mechanism for inhibiting the promoting activity of PCBs may be to increase the concentration of antioxidants in the diet. In this study, we examined if dietary selenium or antioxidant phytochemicals could inhibit the hepatic promoting activity of PCBs in rats.

  9. 75 FR 17820 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... 30-day operative delay period contained in Exchange Act Rule 19b- 4(f)(6)(iii).\\3\\ \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b.... In proposing adoption of Rule 1007A, the Exchange stated that Rule 1107A, being similar in concept to... perfect the mechanisms of a free and open market and a national market system, by encouraging listing...

  10. Effects of kinematic hardening rules on thermal ratchetting analysis of cylinders subjected to cyclically moving temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, N.; Kobayashi, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work, thermal ratchetting in a cylinder subjected to a cyclically moving temperature front (i.e. liquid surface induced thermal ratchetting) was analyzed by implementing in a finite element method the four kinds of plasticity models with different kinematic hardening rules. The following findings were thus obtained concerning effects of the kinematic hardening rules on the analysis. (1) If transition nonlinear hardening after yielding is disregarded, the thermal ratchetting becomes significant, as seen in the results of the PP and LKH models. Especially the PP model, which does not express any strain hardening, predicts steady development of the thermal ratchetting. (2) If significant mechanical ratchetting is allowed in the modeling of kinematic hardening, the thermal ratchetting becomes marked, as seen in the results of the AF model. (3) Model dependence of the thermal ratchetting is more noticeable when the difference of temperature at the temperature front, ΔT, is smaller. (4) The OW model makes the thermal ratchetting stop at a smaller number of cycles when ΔT is smaller. On the other hand, the LKH and AF models allow that the thermal ratchetting to develop more constantly when ΔT is smaller. As seen from the above findings, the analysis of liquid surface induced thermal ratchetting has great dependence on the kinematic hardening rules employed. Especially the PP model, which has been used often to analyze the thermal ratchetting so far, gives too large development of the thermal ratchetting. Thus we may say that in order to improve the analysis it is necessary to use an appropriate kinematic hardening model which is capable of expressing appropriately both mechanical ratchetting and transient nonlinear hardening after yielding. (author)

  11. Modeling dynamic effects of promotion on interpurchase times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we put forward a duration model to analyze the dynamic effects of marketing-mix variables on interpurchase times. We extend the accelerated failure-time model with an autoregressive structure. An important feature of our model is that it allows for different long-run and

  12. Modelling the effects of promotion expenditures on sales of pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Jaap E.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2013-01-01

    The successful innovation of pharmaceuticals requires a substantial amount of marketing support, despite concerns about the effects of these marketing efforts. This study considers prior findings that indicate that higher marketing expenditures for a brand reduce its price elasticity of demand,

  13. Moderating factors of immediate, gross, and net cross-brand effects of price promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Horváth (Csilla); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines cross-price promotional effects in a dynamic context. Among other things, we investigate whether previously established findings hold when consumer and competitive dynamics are taken into account. Five main influential effects (asymmetric price effect, neighborhood

  14. Promoting Sustainability: The Effects of Workplace Mindfulness Training

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Heikkilä-Tammi, Kirsi

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness training is enjoying growing popularity in workplaces. In the current study, the effects of workplace mindfulness training were evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methods. The study’s novelty value arises from the implementation of workplace training among factory employees and the mixed-methods approach to evaluation. The quasi-experimental design with training and control groups included pre- and postmeasurements and four focus group interviews. The results of th...

  15. The effect of education of health-promoting behaviors on lifestyle in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Borzou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today improve lifestyle and health promotion is a basic requirement for human society and the need for more tangible factor in the increase in chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis process is followed. As life expectancy increases, due to the importance of promoting behavior change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health promoting behaviors was on the lifestyle of patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this study, 70 patients undergoing hemodialysis training centers - medical Hamadan were selected. That is because Hamedan only two dialysis centers, randomly one of them was selected as a test group and a control group. Of the patients referred to the center for sampling in each group 35 patients were studied. For groups of six 30-minute sessions on an individual basis during hemodialysis, held over three weeks in a row. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and statistical tests of Kolmogorov - Smirnov, T and T were analyzed with SPSS version 16. In the experimental group, health-promoting lifestyle scores before and after intervention showed significant statistical differences (001 / 0 < p. The mean scores of health-promoting lifestyle intervention and control groups after the intervention, there was a significant difference (p<0.05. Teaching with an emphasis on health-promoting behaviors, hemodialysis patients was improved lifestyle. Develop and implement training programs to improve lifestyle behaviors and health promoting effective step is hemodialysis patients.

  16. Effectiveness of Social Marketing Interventions to Promote Physical Activity Among Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuan; Deshpande, Sameer; Bonates, Tiberius

    2016-11-01

    Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to an audience by making them tangible in the form of environmental opportunities to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed "benchmarks," modified from those found in the past literature, that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and the inclusion of which would ensure behavior change effectiveness. In addition, we analyzed behavior change interventions on a "social marketing continuum" to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts. A systematic review of social marketing interventions available in academic studies published between 1997 and 2013 revealed 173 conditions in 92 interventions. Findings based on χ 2 , Mallows' Cp, and Logical Analysis of Data tests revealed that the presence of more benchmarks in interventions increased the likelihood of success in promoting physical activity. The presence of more than 3 benchmarks improved the success of the interventions; specifically, all interventions were successful when more than 7.5 benchmarks were present. Further, primary formative research, core product, actual product, augmented product, promotion, and behavioral competition all had a significant influence on the effectiveness of interventions. Social marketing is an effective approach in promoting physical activity among adults when a substantial number of benchmarks are used and when managers understand the audience, make the desired behavior tangible, and promote the desired behavior persuasively.

  17. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotion Activities on Brand Loyalty: A Study on COCA COLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales promotion activities, to realize the importance of brand loyalty on sales promotion activities. A quantitative method was used to accomplish the purpose of the study. A survey instrument developed taking items to measure all variables with five points likert scale. A sample size of 159 (from 210 incorporated in the study having the reliability of 0.851(more than 0.7. The data analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and regression to measure the effect of independent variable on dependent variable. It is recommend that COCA COLA should improve more on its different activities and produce different product and with tasty fast food or build up different production of equipment to expand its business in the whole world’s market .

  18. Quantifying the effects of promoting smokeless tobacco as a harm reduction strategy in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Adrienne B; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-08-01

    Snus (a form of smokeless tobacco) is less dangerous than cigarettes. Some health professionals argue that snus should be promoted as a component of a harm reduction strategy, while others oppose this approach. Major US tobacco companies (RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris) are marketing snus products as cigarette brand line extensions. The population effects of smokeless tobacco promotion will depend on the combined effects of changes in individual risk with population changes in tobacco use patterns. To quantitatively evaluate the health impact of smokeless tobacco promotion as part of a harm reduction strategy in the US. A Monte Carlo simulation of a decision tree model of tobacco initiation and use was used to estimate the health effects associated with five different patterns of increased smokeless tobacco use. With cigarette smoking having a health effect of 100, the base case scenario (based on current US prevalence rates) yields a total health effect of 24.2 (5% to 95% interval 21.7 to 26.5) and the aggressive smokeless promotion (less cigarette use and increased smokeless, health-concerned smokers switching to snus, smokers in smokefree environments switching to snus) was associated with a health effect of 30.4 (5% to 95% interval 25.9 to 35.2). The anticipated health effects for additional scenarios with lower rates of smokeless uptake also overlapped with the base case. Promoting smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to cigarettes is unlikely to result in substantial health benefits at a population level.

  19. Adolescent ethnic prejudice: understanding the effects of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic goal promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Based on Self-Determination Theory, the role of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic (E / I) goal promotion for adolescent ethnic prejudice and the mechanisms underlying this effect were examined in a sample of adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that paternal and maternal E / I goal promotion had a significantly positive effect on ethnic prejudice. This effect could be accounted for by differences in adolescent right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). In addition, differences in adolescent E / I goal pursuit fully mediated the effects of parental E / I goal promotion on RWA and SDO. Finally, the effects of adolescent E / I goal pursuits on ethnic prejudice were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. Implications of these findings will be discussed.

  20. The Effect of Promoting Brands through the Facebook Network

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana CONSTANTIN; Catalina Gabriela BELGIU CUREA

    2017-01-01

    Facebook is becoming a popular tool for public relations and advertising professionals to reach mass audiences. Facebook fan pages allow brands to create an online community of brand users on the social networking site. By pressing Facebook’s “like” button, a Facebook user can become a fan of the page and can interact with the brand and other consumers. This research aimed to examine whether liking and interacting with a Facebook fan page has an effect on brand loyalty and purchase intentions...

  1. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  2. The Effect of Advertisement and Promotion on Brand Switching Behavior of Mobile Phone Providers in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Runturambi, Fallonia

    2014-01-01

    Companies should pay attention to advertisement and promotion of its brand in order to attract consumers, so, it will influence the brand switching behavior of consumers in choosing mobile phone provider. The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of advertisement and promotion on brand switching behavior. To achieve the objectives, the research method used is associative with multiple regression analysis. The population observed is people who are users of mobile phone providers in Man...

  3. Effects of Experimental Volleyball Rules Quantified by Type and Number of Jumps, Hits and Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Stankovic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the two new rules tested at the inaugural U23 Men’s Volleyball World Championship (21-point set excluding the fifth set, and 15 seconds between rallies–10 seconds from the finished point until the referee’s whistle for serve and five seconds for performing the serve on number and types of jumps and number of contacts and hits. The analysis comprised 25,930 jumps (an essential physical activity for volleyball, 15,706 contacts and 10,224 hits during 36 matches played by 144 males aged under 23 at the first Under 23 Men’s World Championships organized in Uberlandia, Brazil, in 2013. Two investigations were conducted: 1 Analysis of jumps by Jump type, In-game role and Level of set win; 2 Analysis of contacts (reception, setting, block, defense and hits (serve and attack by Type, In-game role and Set outcome. Significant differences (p=0.000 were found between in-game role and jump type, as Middle blocker performed the most (34.7%, followed by Outside hitter (24.9%, Setter (24.6% and Opposite (15.8%. Significant differences were found for number and types of Hits between set Winner and Loser teams only for serves by Setter (p<0.001 and Middle blocker (p<0.05. The results showed major differences in jumps, hits and contacts between in-game roles: Middle blocker was the most frequent jumping position, followed by Outside hitter and Setter. The Libero showed a new tendency of being Setter with a jump after the initial Setter defense.

  4. The sign rule and beyond: boundary effects, flexibility, and noise correlations in neural population codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over repeat presentations of the same stimulus, sensory neurons show variable responses. This "noise" is typically correlated between pairs of cells, and a question with rich history in neuroscience is how these noise correlations impact the population's ability to encode the stimulus. Here, we consider a very general setting for population coding, investigating how information varies as a function of noise correlations, with all other aspects of the problem - neural tuning curves, etc. - held fixed. This work yields unifying insights into the role of noise correlations. These are summarized in the form of theorems, and illustrated with numerical examples involving neurons with diverse tuning curves. Our main contributions are as follows. (1 We generalize previous results to prove a sign rule (SR - if noise correlations between pairs of neurons have opposite signs vs. their signal correlations, then coding performance will improve compared to the independent case. This holds for three different metrics of coding performance, and for arbitrary tuning curves and levels of heterogeneity. This generality is true for our other results as well. (2 As also pointed out in the literature, the SR does not provide a necessary condition for good coding. We show that a diverse set of correlation structures can improve coding. Many of these violate the SR, as do experimentally observed correlations. There is structure to this diversity: we prove that the optimal correlation structures must lie on boundaries of the possible set of noise correlations. (3 We provide a novel set of necessary and sufficient conditions, under which the coding performance (in the presence of noise will be as good as it would be if there were no noise present at all.

  5. Financial restructuring and stranded costs: quantification and effect on market rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, F.; Marcus, W.

    1999-03-01

    Fred Baird, Director of Putnam, Hayes and Bartlett Inc., predicted that the province`s market rules would not inhibit new investment, an important point, since the prime test of real competition is the possibility of new entries into the market. Ontario`s approach to competition will ensure that marginal prices are competitive, and will limit Genco`s ability to charge above-market rents or practice volume accommodation strategies that would lead to unnecessary investment. Genco will not have control over the residual market, since the company will not be the supplier of last resort. These are crucial factors of success since the point of dealing with market power is to move towards an economically efficient outcome. Bill Marcus, Principal Economist of JBS Energy Inc. of Sacramento, California discussed strategies for calculating stranded debt and the treatment of Ontario Hydro`s nuclear recovery costs. He identified two critical differences in Ontario`s administrative method for calculating stranded costs: (1) past costs (such as decommissioning) are lumped in with future costs, and (2) the overall figures are based on aggregate calculations, covering the whole corporation. In most other jurisdictions `going forward costs` like fuel costs, operating and maintenance, capital additions, and retubing, are excluded. The difference is important because operating subsidies (which is what is involved in this method of calculation) harm both competitors as well as ratepayers. With respect to nuclear assets he prophesied that Ontario Hydro`s nuclear optimization program, if successful, will add only limited value to the nuclear assets, but will cannibalize the value of the rest of Ontario Hydro. He recommended that the Ministry of Finance pursue a strategy that maximizes the value of the whole company, not just the nuclear assets.

  6. Promoting open access to science through effective communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Geology is a difficult subject to communicate effectively. Many people associate geology with memorizing rock and mineral names and not with dynamic earth processes. Even more challenging for the non-geologist is the concept of deep time, and why processes that happened millions of years ago are important to us today. Additionally, many people view science itself as inaccessible and difficult. And yet, geology is a naturally accessible subject, as it is all around us. In order to communicate effectively, geologists must convince others that their work is both accessible and relevant, even though it may not directly generate economic benefits or lend insight into solutions for our modern problems like climate change. As scientists, we know the connections are there, but convincing others requires creating face-to-face, positive interactions through the use of active techniques to help bring the audience to an understanding of the process of science in addition to the subject matter itself. My overarching motive for creating and participating in communication activities with a broad audience is thus to demonstrate that science is accessible to everyone, that a scientific way of thinking can be both fun and useful, and that a little knowledge about geology can give you a new perspective on the world. Using this motivation as a guiding principle regardless of the specific audience, two techniques are important to make the communication effective. First, whenever possible, I conduct activities in the field (broadly speaking), or at least bring the field into the talk, and model the scientific process by asking for participation. This allows the audience to fully understand how geologic work is done, including the mundane and the mistakes. Second, I take my audience seriously, including all questions and observations, in order to build confidence in everyone that they are able to contribute to and understand both geology and the scientific process in general. Despite the

  7. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  8. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tozaj Dorian; Xhelilaj Ermal

    2010-01-01

    It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV (2) of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade

  9. Promoting public transport as a subscription service: Effects of a free month travel card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers, book clubs, telephone services and many other subscription services are often marketed to new customers by means of a free or substantially discounted trial period. This article evaluates this method as a means to promote commuting by public transport in a field experiment and based...... that had an effect was the free month travel card, which led to a significant increase in commuting by public transport.As expected, the effect was mediated through a change in behavioural intentions rather than a change in perceived constraints. As expected, the effect became weaker when the promotion...

  10. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  11. Measuring and modelling of the combined thermodynamic promoting effect of tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane on carbon dioxide hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Daraboina, Nagu; Thomsen, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    This work documents both experimental data, and by thermodynamic modelling, the synergistic effect occurring in promoted carbon dioxide hydrate systems at the simultaneous presence of tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane.Cyclopentane has previously been considered a reference among gas hydrate promot...

  12. Student Councils: A Tool for Health Promoting Schools? Characteristics and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Ursula; Nowak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participation is a core value for health promoting schools. Student participation at schools is often implemented in various forms of councils. The aims of this article are to summarise the effects of student participation in student councils, to show who benefits most and to discuss characteristics that make student councils effective.…

  13. Decomposing the sales promotion bump accounting for cross-category effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Selva, Josefa Parreno; Wittink, Dick R.; Dijk, Albertus Alard van

    Extant research on the decomposition of unit sales bumps due to price promotions considers these effects only within a single product category. This article introduces a framework that accommodates specific cross-category effects. Empirical results based on daily data measured at the item/SKU level

  14. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MPP AND TEA ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION EFFORTS IN THE JAPANESE MARKET FOR MEATS

    OpenAIRE

    Comeau, Allison; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.; Wahl, Thomas I.

    1997-01-01

    An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System is utilized to determine the effectiveness of Market Promotion Program (MPP) and Target Export Assistance (TEA) advertising and promotion expenditures in the Japanese market for meat. Using annual data, it is found that beef advertising and promotion has had a positive and significant effect on the demand for beef. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that pork and poultry advertising and promotion increased the demand for either commodity.

  15. Promotions Effectiveness of Kawah Putih Ecotourism by Perhutani’s Independenly Bussines Unit I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menak Aryananda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to measure the effectiveness of the promotion of Wana Wisata Kawah Putih and the calculation of satisfaction, expectation and pereferensi of tourists managed KBM WIJAS 1 Perhutani. Campaign effectiveness can be measured using the EPIC model method. Epic model developed by AC Nielsen, measurement in terms of dimension, empathy, persuasion, impact and communication. Using quantitative methods, and using a sample of 100 respondents taken at random in Wana Wisata Kawah Putih Ciwidey Bandung. Respons to assess promotion of empathy, persuasion, impact and communication dimensions, satisfaction, expectations and preferences. The result of this research is the promotion of KBM Wijas 1 Perhutani rather effective in representing Wana Wisata Kawah Putih in Ciwidey. Satisfaction, expectation, and level of information preferences are very high on the promotion made by KBM WIJAS 1 Perhutani. Thus the results of the study is expected to be a reference for the development of KBM Wijas 1 Perhutani in Ciwidey to increase the number of visitors.Keywords: ciwidey, effective, epic, Perhutani, promotion

  16. Promotion time cure rate model with nonparametric form of covariate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianlei; Du, Pang

    2018-05-10

    Survival data with a cured portion are commonly seen in clinical trials. Motivated from a biological interpretation of cancer metastasis, promotion time cure model is a popular alternative to the mixture cure rate model for analyzing such data. The existing promotion cure models all assume a restrictive parametric form of covariate effects, which can be incorrectly specified especially at the exploratory stage. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric approach to modeling the covariate effects under the framework of promotion time cure model. The covariate effect function is estimated by smoothing splines via the optimization of a penalized profile likelihood. Point-wise interval estimates are also derived from the Bayesian interpretation of the penalized profile likelihood. Asymptotic convergence rates are established for the proposed estimates. Simulations show excellent performance of the proposed nonparametric method, which is then applied to a melanoma study. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Microwave Effect for Glycosylation Promoted by Solid Super Acid in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Maeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of microwave irradiation (2.45 GHz, 200 W on glycosylation promoted by a solid super acid in supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated with particular attention paid to the structure of the acceptor substrate. Because of the symmetrical structure and high diffusive property of supercritical carbon dioxide, microwave irradiation did not alter the temperature of the reaction solution, but enhanced reaction yield when aliphatic acceptors are employed. Interestingly, the use of a phenolic acceptor under the same reaction conditions did not show these promoting effects due to microwave irradiation. In the case of aliphatic diol acceptors, the yield seemed to be dependent on the symmetrical properties of the acceptors. The results suggest that microwave irradiation do not affect the reactivity of the donor nor promoter independently. We conclude that the effect of acceptor structure on glycosylation yield is due to electric delocalization of hydroxyl group and dielectrically symmetric structure of whole molecule.

  18. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  19. Moral Behavior as Rule Governed Behavior: Person and System Effects on Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtines, William M.; And Others

    Recent approaches to research on moral development have considered the preeminence of situational factors in moral development and moral behavior. An open systems approach emphasizes the interactive effects of person and situation variables on moral decision-making. The interactive effects of three sets of variables on moral decision-making were…

  20. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  1. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; Garcia-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data. PMID:28788466

  2. The Effects of the Clock and Kickoff Rule Changes on Actual and Market-Based Expected Scoring in NCAA Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Linna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clock rule changes were introduced in the 2006 season with the goal of reducing the average duration of the game; these changes were reversed in 2007. In addition, in 2007 the kickoff rule was changed to create more excitement and potentially more scoring. We examine what happened to actual and expected scoring during these National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA football seasons. The clock rule change in 2006 led to lower scoring which was not fully encompassed in the betting market, leading to significant returns to betting the under. Multiple rule changes in 2007 led to volatility in the betting market that subsided by season’s end.

  3. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  4. Medicare and Medicaid programs; salary equivalency guidelines for physical therapy, respiratory therapy, speech language pathology, and occupational therapy services; revised effective date and technical correction--HCFA. Final rule; delay of effective date and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-31

    This document delays the effective date of the final rule on salary equivalency guidelines, published in the Federal Register (63 FR 5106) on January 30, 1998, from April 1, 1998 to April 10, 1998. In addition, we are making a technical correction in the preamble to the January 30, 1998 final rule.

  5. WTO rules and practices for transparency and engagement with civil society organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Esteve, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In a rapidly changing trade environment, marked by economic slowdown and impasse in the Doha Round, the success of the WTO in promoting and legitimizing the rules-based multilateral trading system rests, to a large extent, on maintaining effective relations with civil society, including non-governmental organisations. This paper provides an overview of the WTO's rules and practices for transparency and engagement with NGOs. First, it looks at both internal and external transparency. Second, i...

  6. Promoting walking in older adults: Perceived neighborhood walkability influences the effectiveness of motivational messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2017-06-01

    Positively framed messages seem to promote walking in older adults better than negatively framed messages. This study targeted elderly people in communities unfavorable to walking. Walking was measured with pedometers during baseline (1 week) and intervention (4 weeks). Participants ( n = 74) were informed about either the benefits of walking or the negative consequences of not walking. Perceived neighborhood walkability was assessed with a modified version of the Neighborhood Walkability Scale. When perceived walkability was high, positively framed messages were more effective than negatively framed messages in promoting walking; when perceived walkability was low, negatively framed messages were comparably effective to positively framed messages.

  7. Promoting effect of ethanol on dewetting transition in the confined region of melittin tetramer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiuping; Zhou Bo; Wang Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of ethanol molecules on the melittin tetramer folding, we investigated the dewetting transition of the melittin tetramer immersed in pure water and 8% aqueous ethanol solution (mass fraction) by the molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the marked dewetting transitions occurred inside a nanoscale channel of the melittin tetramer both in pure water and in aqueous ethanol solution. Also, ethanol molecules promoted this dewetting transition. We attributed this promoting effect to ethanol molecules which prefer to locate at the liquid-vapor interface and decrease the liquid-vapor surface energy. The results provide insight into the effect of ethanol on the water dewetting phenomena. (authors)

  8. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Landis, Florian [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Tovar Reanos, Miguel Angel [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be ameliorated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms which achieve the same level of electricity generation from renewable energy sources.

  9. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  10. 77 FR 19033 - Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.-Korea FTA Product-Specific Rules of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. Korea FTA-103-026] Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.- Korea FTA Product-Specific Rules of Origin AGENCY: United States... investigation No. Korea FTA-103-026, Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.-Korea FTA...

  11. Effects of K and Pt promoters on the performance of cobalt catalyst supported on CNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Ali, Sardar; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of incorporation of potassium (K) and platinum (Pt) as promoters on the physicochemical properties of cobalt catalyst. The catalyst was prepared by a wet impregnation method on a CNTs support. Samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H 2 -temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K and 1 atm, with H 2 /CO = 2v/v and space velocity, SV of 12 L/g.h for 5 hours. The K-promoted and Pt-promoted Co catalysts have different physicochemical properties and catalytic performances compared to that of the un-promoted Co catalyst. XPS analysis revealed that K and Pt promoters induced electronic modifications as exhibited by the shifts in the Co binding energies. Incorporation of 0.06 wt% K and 0.06 wt% Pt in Co/CNTs catalyst resulted in an increase in the CO conversion and C 5+ selectivity and a decrease in methane selectivity. Potassium was found to be a better promoter for Co/CNTs catalyst compared to platinum

  12. Effects of K and Pt promoters on the performance of cobalt catalyst supported on CNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Ali, Sardar, E-mail: alikhan-635@yahoo.com [Centralized Analytical Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of incorporation of potassium (K) and platinum (Pt) as promoters on the physicochemical properties of cobalt catalyst. The catalyst was prepared by a wet impregnation method on a CNTs support. Samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2}-temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K and 1 atm, with H{sub 2}/CO = 2v/v and space velocity, SV of 12 L/g.h for 5 hours. The K-promoted and Pt-promoted Co catalysts have different physicochemical properties and catalytic performances compared to that of the un-promoted Co catalyst. XPS analysis revealed that K and Pt promoters induced electronic modifications as exhibited by the shifts in the Co binding energies. Incorporation of 0.06 wt% K and 0.06 wt% Pt in Co/CNTs catalyst resulted in an increase in the CO conversion and C{sub 5+} selectivity and a decrease in methane selectivity. Potassium was found to be a better promoter for Co/CNTs catalyst compared to platinum.

  13. Study on effects of turbulence promoter on fluid mixing in T-junction piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Akihiro; Hibara, Hideki; Ochi, Junji; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2004-07-01

    Flows in T-junction piping system with turbulence promoter have been investigated experimentally using flow visualization techniques (the dye injection method) and velocity measurement by LDV. Effects of turbulent promoter on characteristics of fluid mixing and thermal-striping phenomena are examined. From the experiment, following results are obtained. (1) Arch vortex is formed further than the case without promoter in the upstream station and is rapidly transported to the downstream direction. (2) Secondary flow induced in the cross section become stronger and the diffusion of axial momentum is promoted, as the height of turbulence promoter is higher. (3) Main flow deflects towards to the opposite side of branch pipe at the T-junction, as the height of turbulence promoter is higher, and as velocity ratio becomes smaller, and the flow continues to deflect to a considerably downstream station. (4) Velocity fluctuation is observed in the position where the vortex is formed, and it becomes a maximum at z/Dm=2. In the further downstream, velocity fluctuation decreases with the vortex breakdown, and it considerably remains to the downstream. (author)

  14. Effect of school eye health promotion on children's eye health literacy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Yen, Phung Thi; Kovai, Vilas; Naduvilath, Thomas; Ho, Suit May; Giap, Nguyen Viet; Holden, Brien A

    2017-10-06

    Health promotion intervention in schools is a useful strategy to improve students' health awareness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of eye health promotion interventions on eye health literacy in school children in Vietnam. A piloted questionnaire was administered to 300 children from five secondary schools in Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Vietnam at baseline and re-administered after the eye health promotion interventions. McNemar chi-square and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. A total of 300 children aged 12-15 years (mean, 13.3 ± 1.3 years; 60% female) participated in the baseline survey. The participation rate in the post-health promotion survey was 94.7%. After the health promotion interventions, number of children who had correct eye health knowledge increased by 10-20% (60-75% to 70-95%), more children reported having had an eye examination (63.3% to 84.7%; p promotion interventions significantly improve eye health knowledge, attitudes and practices of school children. Additionally, participation of parents and teachers as change agents may further improve children's health literacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Matrix effects break the LC behavior rule for analytes in LC-MS/MS analysis of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Nianbai; Yu, Shanggong; Ronis, Martin Jj; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-04-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are generally accepted as the preferred techniques for detecting and quantitating analytes of interest in biological matrices on the basis of the rule that one chemical compound yields one LC-peak with reliable retention time (Rt.). However, in the current study, we have found that under the same LC-MS conditions, the Rt. and shape of LC-peaks of bile acids in urine samples from animals fed dissimilar diets differed significantly among each other. To verify this matrix effect, 17 authentic bile acid standards were dissolved in pure methanol or in methanol containing extracts of urine from pigs consuming either breast milk or infant formula and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The matrix components in urine from piglets fed formula significantly reduced the LC-peak Rt. and areas of bile acids. This is the first characterization of this matrix effect on Rt. in the literature. Moreover, the matrix effect resulted in an unexpected LC behavior: one single compound yielded two LC-peaks, which broke the rule of one LC-peak for one compound. The three bile acid standards which exhibited this unconventional LC behavior were chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and glycocholic acid. One possible explanation for this effect is that some matrix components may have loosely bonded to analytes, which changed the time analytes were retained on a chromatography column and interfered with the ionization of analytes in the MS ion source to alter the peak area. This study indicates that a comprehensive understanding of matrix effects is needed towards improving the use of HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of analytes in pharmacokinetics, proteomics/metabolomics, drug development, and sports drug testing, especially when LC-MS/MS data are analyzed by automation software where identification of an analyte is based on its exact molecular weight and Rt

  16. Effective delivery of a nematode-repellent peptide using a root-cap-specific promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Catherine J; Wang, Dong; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-02-01

    The potential of the MDK4-20 promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana to direct effective transgenic expression of a secreted nematode-repellent peptide was investigated. Its expression pattern was studied in both transgenic Arabidopsis and Solanum tuberosum (potato) plants. It directed root-specific β-glucuronidase expression in both species that was chiefly localized to cells of the root cap. Use of the fluorescent timer protein dsRED-E5 established that the MDK4-20 promoter remains active for longer than the commonly used constitutive promoter CaMV35S in separated potato root border cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the nematode-repellent peptide under the control of either AtMDK4-20 or CaMV35S reduced the establishment of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. The best line using the AtMDK4-20 promoter displayed a level of resistance >80%, comparable to that of lines using the CaMV35S promoter. In transgenic potato plants, 94.9 ± 0.8% resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida was achieved using the AtMDK4-20 promoter, compared with 34.4 ± 8.4% resistance displayed by a line expressing the repellent peptide from the CaMV35S promoter. These results establish the potential of the AtMDK4-20 promoter to limit expression of a repellent peptide whilst maintaining or even improving the efficacy of the cyst-nematode defence. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujun Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  18. Attainable and Relevant Moral Exemplars Are More Effective than Extraordinary Exemplars in Promoting Voluntary Service Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Kim, Jeongmin; Jeong, Changwoo; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop effective moral educational interventions based on social psychology by using stories of moral exemplars. We tested whether motivation to engage in voluntary service as a form of moral behavior was better promoted by attainable and relevant exemplars or by unattainable and irrelevant exemplars. First, experiment 1, conducted in a lab, showed that stories of attainable exemplars more effectively promoted voluntary service activity engagement among undergraduate students compared with stories of unattainable exemplars and non-moral stories. Second, experiment 2, a middle school classroom-level experiment with a quasi-experimental design, demonstrated that peer exemplars, who are perceived to be attainable and relevant to students, better promoted service engagement compared with historic figures in moral education classes.

  19. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and ending before January 1, 1990. (2) Tax avoidance rules—(i) Transfers of certain residual interests... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-1 Effective dates and transition... inclusions accrue in an amount sufficient to satisfy the taxes on the excess inclusions. (iii) Residual...

  20. Effects of Mode of Modeling, Model Age, and Ethnicity on Rule-Governed Language Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, James I.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of three model variables on student performance of syntactic and semantic language behaviors in the absence of direct or vicarious reinforcement was examined. Subjects were sixth-grade students of both sexes attending New Mexico Schools. Half of the subjects and models were Chicanos and half were Anglos. (BJG)

  1. Comparison on Promotion Effect of Various Types of Surfactants on HCFC-141b Hydrate Induction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Sun, Zhigao; Liu, Chenggang; Zhu, Minggui

    2018-03-01

    Cold storage in air conditioning based on refrigerant hydrate is a new-type energy saving technology to reduce initial investment and running cost of air conditioning equipments and improve system stability. Refrigerant hydrate is generated under critical temperature and pressure condition, while surfactant is an effective medium to promote its phase equilibrium. In this paper, in order to research such promotion effect, different type of surfactants with unique mechanism, SDS, Tween80 and Span80, n-BA were selected to compare the respective impact on HCFC141b hydrate induction time based on temperature curve. Experimental results showed that no obvious change had been discovered when no surfactant was added into pure water system, which coincided with phase equilibrium diagram of HCFC141b. All the four kinds of surfactants had realized promotion effect to various degrees. For each hydration system, a large gap existed between the longest and the shortest induction time in 6 groups of parallel experiments, meaning relatively poor system stability. Under the combined effect of Tween80 (2wt%), Span80 (0.1wt%) and n-BA (0.1wt%), average and the shortest induction time was 20.9min and 17.5min respectively, corresponding to the best promotion effect.

  2. A comparison of Reduced Life Expectancy (RLE) model with Haber's Rule to describe effects of exposure time on toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vibha; Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2015-01-01

    The Reduced Life Expectancy (RLE) Model (LC 50  = [ln(NLE) – ln(LT 50 )]/d) has been proposed as an alternative to Haber's Rule. The model is based on a linear relationship between LC 50 (Lethal Exposure Concentration) and lnLT 50 (Lethal Exposure Time) and uses NLE (Normal Life Expectancy) as a limiting point as well as a long term data point (where d is a constant). The purposes of this paper were to compare the RLE Model with Haber's Rule with available toxicity data and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. When LT 50 is relatively short and LC 50 is high, Haber's Rule is consistent with the RLE model. But the difference between the two was evident in the situation when LT 50 is relatively long and LC 50 is low where the RLE model is a marked departure from Haber's Rule. The RLE Model can be used to appropriately evaluate long term effects of exposure. - Highlights: • The strength and weakness of Haber's Rule in relation to the RLE model is needed. • Haber's Rule now used universally is quite inappropriate for environmental toxicity. • Normal life expectancy, a new parameter l is used to evaluate effects of exposure time on toxicity. • According to RLE model when LC 50 approaches zero, then LT 50  = Normal Life Expectancy. • The RLE model can be used to evaluate long term effects of exposure-accurately and easily. - The RLE approach is a more appropriate alternative particularly to evaluate long term effects of exposure. It can be easily used to estimate long term effects of exposure

  3. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, A.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Flury-Herard, A.; Ourly, F.; Hemidy, P.; Lallemand, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin_ext/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  4. Not All Promotions are Made Equal: From the Effects of a Price War to Cross-chain Cannibalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sotgiu (Francesca)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the huge amount of money allocated every year to sales promotions, brand managers still do not know how often and in what circumstances promotions are truly effective. This dissertation proposes an approach that allows managers to assess the impact of individual promotion events

  5. Effects of sales promotions, weight status, and impulsivity on purchases in a supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Several environmental factors contribute to increased food consumption and play a role in the prevalence of obesity, like portion size, accessibility and relative price of high caloric foods, food commercials, and sales promotions. However, not everyone seems equally sensitive to these environmental cues and both obesity and impulsivity appears to play a role. In this study, food purchases in an internet supermarket are tested in 118 participants, with or without sales promotions for snack foods. Both weight status and response inhibition, an index of impulsivity, are measured. Participants with less inhibitory control purchased in total more calories from the internet supermarket then participants with more inhibitory control. In addition, sales promotion, weight status, and inhibitory control appeared to interact in their effect on snack food purchases: participants with less inhibitory control and overweight bought more calories of snacks in the sales promotions condition, but not in the control condition. For the other participants, with normal weight and/or high inhibitory control, sales promotions had no effect on their purchases of calories of snacks. It seems that especially the combination of low inhibitory control and overweight makes participants vulnerable for environmental cues. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  6. Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, S A; Jeffery, R W; Story, M; Breitlow, K K; Baxter, J S; Hannan, P; Snyder, M P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines. METHODS: Low-fat snacks were added to 55 vending machines in a convenience sample of 12 secondary schools and 12 worksites. Four pricing levels (equal price, 10% reduction, 25% reduction, 50% reduction) and 3 promotional conditions (none, low-fat label, low-fat label plus promotional sign) were crossed in a Latin square design. Sales of low-fat vending snacks were measured continuously for the 12-month intervention. RESULTS: Price reductions of 10%, 25%, and 50% on low-fat snacks were associated with significant increases in low-fat snack sales; percentages of low-fat snack sales increased by 9%, 39%, and 93%, respectively. Promotional signage was independently but weakly associated with increases in low-fat snack sales. Average profits per machine were not affected by the vending interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both adult and adolescent populations. PMID:11189801

  7. Effect of tumor promoters on ultraviolet light-induced mutation and mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, B.A.; Hannan, M.A.; Haynes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that mitotic recombination is involved in tumor promotion. On this basis, one might expect tumor promoters to be recombinagenic. D7 is a diploid strain of yeast in which both mutation and mitotic recombination can be measured. We have used this strain to assay the known tumor promoters, iodacetate, anthralin, and 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and the cocarcinogen, catechol, for mutagenicity, recombinagenicity, and the ability to enhance ultraviolet light (UV)-induced genetic events. In the absence of preirradiation with UV, iodoacetate was found to be recombinagenic whereas catechol was mutagenic; however, in both cases, the effects were small. Iodoacetate, anthralin, and catechol potentiated UV-induced mitotic crossing-over, aberrant colony formation, and mutation, while catechol also increased UV-induced gene conversion. We were unable to detect any mutagenic or recombinagenic effect of 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in either whole cells or spheroplasts. Our results do not indicate any consistent correlation between tumor-promoting activity and the ability of an agent to induce mitotic recombination in yeast. However, the ability to potentiate UV-induced mutation and mitotic recombination may reflect the cocarcinogenic activity of certain promoters

  8. In-store promotional mix and the effects on female consumer buying decisions in relation to cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lee, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between the females' in-store purchasing decision process and the promotional mix. Two cosmetic salesmen groups were interviewed by using focus group interview technique to understand females' buying decision process with in-store promotional mix. The results indicated that females with buying intention will improve the effectiveness of in-store promotional strategies. The purchase behavior stimulated by in-store promotions was related to...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Peer Counselling for the Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    Full Text Available Community based breastfeeding promotion programmes have been shown to be effective in increasing breastfeeding prevalence. However, there is limited data on the cost-effectiveness of these programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a breastfeeding promotion intervention targeting mothers and their 0 to 6 month old children.Data were obtained from a community randomized trial conducted in Uganda between 2006-2008, and supplemented with evidence from several studies in sub-Saharan Africa. In the trial, peer counselling was offered to women in intervention clusters. In the control and intervention clusters, women could access standard health facility breastfeeding promotion services (HFP. Thus, two methods of breastfeeding promotion were compared: community based peer counselling (in addition to HFP and standard HFP alone. A Markov model was used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the two strategies. The model estimated changes in breastfeeding prevalence and disability adjusted life years. Costs were estimated from a provider perspective. Uncertainty around the results was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.Peer counselling more than doubled the breastfeeding prevalence as reported by mothers, but there was no observable impact on diarrhoea prevalence. Estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were US$68 per month of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding and U$11,353 per disability adjusted life year (DALY averted. The findings were robust to parameter variations in the sensitivity analyses.Our strategy to promote community based peer counselling is unlikely to be cost-effective in reducing diarrhoea prevalence and mortality in Uganda, because its cost per DALY averted far exceeds the commonly assumed willingness-to-pay threshold of three times Uganda's GDP per capita (US$1653. However, since the intervention significantly

  10. Effects of student participation in school health promotion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Ursula; Rojatz, Daniela; Simovska, Venka; Forster, Rudolf

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize systematically the existing evidence for the effects of student participation in designing, planning, implementing and/or evaluating school health promotion measures. The focus was on the effects of participation in school health promotion measures rather than on student involvement at school in general. Participation is a core value for health promotion but empirical evidence of its outcomes is scarce. We searched major bibliographic databases (including ASSIA, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, PubMed and the Social Sciences Citation Index). Two reviewers independently decided about inclusion and exclusion of the identified abstracts (n = 5075) and full text articles. Of the 90 full text articles screened, 26 papers met the inclusion criteria. We identified evidence for positive effects, especially for the students themselves, the school as organization, and interactions and social relations at school. Almost all included studies showed personal effects on students referring to an increased satisfaction, motivation and ownership, an increase in skills, competencies and knowledge, personal development, health-related effects and influence on student perspective. Given that student participation has more been discussed as a value, or ideal of health promotion in schools, these findings documenting its effectiveness are important. However, further research is needed to consider the level or intensity of involvement, different approaches and stages of participation in the health promotion intervention, as well as mediating factors such as gender, socio-cultural background or academic achievement, in a more systematic manner. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of cholesterol nucleation-promoting activity on cholesterol solubilization in model bile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A. K.; Ottenhoff, R.; Jansen, P. L.; van Marle, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Human bile contains a factor with cholesterol nucleation-promoting activity that binds to concanavalin A-Sepharose. In this study we have investigated the effect of this activity on the dynamics of lipid solubilization in supersaturated model bile. A concanavalin A binding protein fraction of human

  12. Effects of a Prosocial Television Soap Opera in Promoting Women's Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J.; Cody, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the effects of India's first long-running television soap opera that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Finds that exposure to the program was positively associated with viewers' involvement with the characters in the program and with viewer's television dependency, but did not make viewers more aware of women's…

  13. Effect of Promoters in Co-Mn-Al Mixed Oxide Catalyst on N2O Decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásková, K.; Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Kovanda, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 2 (2010), s. 480-487 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * catalytic decomposition * promoter effect Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.074, year: 2010

  14. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Snoijer, M.; Kok, B.P. de; Vlisteren, J. van; Hofstetter, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at

  15. Effective self-regulation change techniques to promote mental wellbeing among adolescents: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Massey, E.K.; Empelen, P. van

    2017-01-01

    Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary

  16. Effectiveness of Health Promotion Programmes for Truck Drivers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mandy K.; Yousuf, Bilal; Bigelow, Philip Lloyd; Van Eerd, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the characteristics of effective health promotion interventions for reducing chronic diseases and their risk factors in truck drivers. Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and the National Transportation Library were…

  17. Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms

  18. An Empirical Study on Effective Tax Rate and CEO Promotion: Evidence from Local SOEs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of effective tax payment on the CEO promotion in local State Owned Enterprise (SOE in China. Based on the analysis of listed local SOEs in China from 2004 to 2010, this paper tests the relationship between CEO promotion and tax payment. In addition, the moderating effect of pyramid layer is tested. This paper finds that there is a significant positive relationship between Effective Tax Rate (ETR and CEO promotion, which suggests that CEOs may be aggressive in tax payment to please the local governments, who ultimately own the local SOEs. The current paper also finds that the relationship between ETR and CEO promotion is weakened as pyramid layers increase. Our conclusions enrich the literature on CEO turnover and the role of pyramid structure. The conclusions are also helpful for the SOEs’ reform in China and other developing countries. First, this paper is among the first to investigate the relationship between ETR and CEO turnover. Second, this paper highlights the function of pyramid structure in mitigating government intervention. Third, this paper also adds to the research on effective tax.

  19. Authentic Assessment in Business Education: Its Effects on Student Satisfaction and Promoting Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lincoln Then; Casidy, Riza

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of authentic assessment on student satisfaction and promoting behaviour. The sample comprised 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate business programme. A model was proposed and tested using conditional process analysis. It was found that authentic assessments are positively related to…

  20. The effects of nitrogen fixation and plant growth-promoting in rice-diazotroph association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Fan; Wang Lu

    1999-05-01

    This is a review of studies on applications of the genetic engineered ammonium-tolerant diazotroph as an inoculum with the effects of nitrogen-fixation, plant growth-promoting and yield-increasing on rice and some crops by using 15 N tracer in mini-plot and field experiments in resent years

  1. Effectiveness of health-promoting media literacy education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, Lynda J; Carney, Mary E

    2008-06-01

    Media literacy education to promote health among youth involves them in a critical examination of media messages that promote risky behaviors and influence their perceptions and practices. Research on its effectiveness is in its infancy. Studies to date have been conducted with more or less rigor and achieved differing results, leaving many questions about effectiveness unanswered. To elucidate some of these questions, we conducted a systematic review of selected health-promoting media literacy education evaluation/research studies, guided by the following research question: What are the context and process elements of an effective health-promoting media literacy education intervention? Based on extensive analysis of 28 interventions, our findings provide a detailed picture of a small, 16- to 17-year (1990 to July 2006) body of important research, including citation information, health issue, target population/N/age, research design, intervention length and setting, concepts/skills taught, who delivered the intervention and ratings of effectiveness. The review provides a framework for organizing research about media literacy education which suggests that researchers should be more explicit about the media literacy core concepts/skills they are including in their interventions, and should more carefully address who delivered the intervention with what fidelity, in what setting, for how long and utilizing what pedagogical approach.

  2. Effect Of Sales Promotion On The Volume Of Sales Of Agroproduct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of sales promotion on the volume of sales of Royco in Onitsha Urban city of Anambra State for the years 1998 and 1999. Data for the study was collected from 40 respondents (20 staff of UniLever Nig. Plc, producers of Royco and 20 Distributors of Royco) who were ...

  3. Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Riet, Jonathan; Ruiter, Robert A C; Werrij, Marieke Q; de Vries, Hein

    2010-04-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behaviour or the losses associated with unhealthy behaviour. It has been argued that gain-framed messages promoting physical activity (PA) are more effective than loss-framed messages, but empirical findings are inconsistent. Also, no previous studies investigated the effects of gain- and loss-framed messages in the context of a computer-tailored PA intervention. In this study, we provided participants with computer-generated tailored feedback concerning their PA levels. In total, 787 participants entered in the study, of whom 299 completed all measures at a 3-month follow-up. We investigated whether gain- and loss-framed messages promoting PA affected information acceptance, attitude, intention and behaviour differently. The results showed that gain-framed messages resulted in stronger intentions to be physically active than loss-framed messages. This did not result in a significant increase in actual PA, however, as measured by a 3-month follow-up assessment. For information acceptance and attitude, a non-significant advantage of gain-framed messages was found. All effects had small effect sizes. Thus, whereas gain-framed information might be more persuasive than loss-framed information when it comes to promoting PA, the differences between gain- and loss-framed messages are likely to be small.

  4. Link Design Rules for Cost-Effective Short-Range Radio Over Multimode Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visani, Davide; Tartarini, Giovanni; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2010-01-01

    Referring to short-range radio over multimode fiber links, we find out important guidelines for the realization of cost-effective intensity modulated directly detected systems. Since the quality of today's connectors is considerably higher than in the past, we demonstrate that two important...... parameters of the system are the finite detecting area of the photodiode and the laser frequency chirp. Furthemore, we show that the use of the central launch technique inherently determines a lower impact of modal noise fluctuations with respect to the offset launch one. This makes CL more convenient...

  5. Analytical study of the conjecture rule for the combination of multipole effects in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical investigation done on the conjecture law found by tracking for the effect on the dynamic aperture of the combination of two multipoles of various order. A one-dimensional model leading to an integrable system has been used to find closed formulae for the dynamic aperture associated with a fully distributed multipole. The combination has then been studied and the resulting expression compared with the assumed conjecture law. For integrated multipoles small with respect to the focusing strength, the conjecture appears to hold, though with an exponent different from the one expected by crude reasoning.

  6. The influence of spatial effects on wind power revenues under direct marketing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothe, Oliver; Müsgens, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, investments in renewable technologies have been accelerated by fixed feed-in tariffs for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). While fixed tariffs accomplish this purpose, they lack incentives to align the RES production with price signals. Today, the intermittency of most RES increases the volatility of electricity prices and makes balancing supply and demand more complicated. Therefore, support schemes for RES have to be modified. Recently, Germany launched a scheme which gives wind power operators the monthly choice to either receive a fixed tariff or to risk a – subsidized – access to the wholesale electricity market. This paper quantifies revenues of wind turbines under this new subsidy and analyzes whether, when and where producers may profit. We find that the position of the wind turbine within the country significantly influences revenues in terms of EUR/MWh. The results are important for wind farm operators deciding whether electricity should be sold in the fixed feed-in tariff or in the wholesale market. However, no location is persistently, i.e., in every calendar month of the year, above the average. This limits the effect of the new subsidy scheme on investment locations and long term improvements in the aggregated wind feed-in profile. - Highlights: • Germany couples feed-in tariff for renewable energies to hourly market prices. • Analysis of position of wind turbines on relative revenues in EUR/MW. • Quantification of locational effect for policy makers and investors

  7. Comparing the effect of the application of thin capitalization rules on the tax burden of taxpayers in the Czech Republic with respect to detailed definition of joint persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Sobotková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin capitalization rules were introduced in the Czech law on income tax in 1993. During the time of their existence in the law, they however passed through numerous changes, which resulted in a non-uniform exercise of the rules and caused legislative chaos. Due to these reasons, lawmakers subjected them to an essential transformation in 2009 in effort to adjust a stricter regime for the application of thin capitalization rules and to enact their uniform assertion in all credit and loan contracts including annexes regardless of closing date from the beginning of taxing period 2010. In this connexion, a uniform definition was stipulated of joint persons concerned by the rules, which may in some cases adversely affect the assessment base of the taxpayer. The paper investigates the effect of a uniform application of thin capitalization rules including the definition of joint persons in the corporate assessment base in the tax period of 2010 and compares on the basis of comparative analysis whether the original application of rules prior to the tax period of 2010 was more favourable for taxpayers from the taxation point of view or not. The comparison is carried out on model examples on which we veri­fied which procedure is optimal for taxpayers from the taxation point of view. With respect to our findings, the paper also contains a proposal for amendment in the income tax law so that the appli­cation of thin capitalization rules in force since the tax period of 2010 does not impose excessive tax burden on taxpayers.

  8. Institutionalizing shame: The effect of Human Rights Committee rulings on abuse, 1981-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Wade M

    2012-05-01

    What motivates compliance with "toothless" international human rights norms? This article analyzes the effectiveness of procedures that allow individuals to petition an international human rights body, the Human Rights Committee, alleging state abuse of their treaty-protected rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Using methodological tools that account for selection biases arising from a country's decision to authorize petitions and its subsequent propensity to be targeted by abuse claims, I find that basic civil rights and religious freedoms improved after states were found to have violated their human rights treaty obligations, whereas physical integrity abuses such as disappearances and extrajudicial killing were somewhat more impervious to change. These findings are interpreted with reference to the concept of "coupling" as borrowed from organizational sociology, and their implications for treaty design and enforcement are considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rationing of medical care: Rules of rescue, cost-effectiveness, and the Oregon plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Emmet J

    2004-06-01

    Doctors who deal with individual patients fail to avoid interventions with minimal expected benefits. This is one reason that the United States spends more on health care services than any of 28 other industrialized nations. Yet, our money has not bought us health; our infant mortality rate ranks 23rd, and our overall life expectancy rate ranks 20th among the 29 nations. Ours is the only nation without a national health system. Our job-based health insurance system has allowed the number of uninsured persons to reach 44 million, which is 18% of the nonelderly population. This article examines the role of such ethical concepts as beneficence, utilitarianism, and justice in the allocation of health care resources. It also examines the innovative Oregon Health Plan and its use of cost-effectiveness analysis for health care allocation that is based on league tables.

  10. EFFECT OF SALES PROMOTION SCHEMES ON PURCHASE QUANTITY: A STUDY OF MALAYSIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa JALLOW

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to study the effect of sales promotion on the purchase quantity and recommend sales promotional means and methods that could improve sales for retail sector in Malaysia. The impact of coupons, bonus packages, premiums, free samples and price discount is measured on purchase quantity of Malaysian retail consumers. Empirical data is gathered from 150 respondents using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using correlation and regression analysis to examine the relationship between variables. The findings of the study reveal that all independent variables influences purchase quantity positively and significantly while free samples and price discounts are most influential factors for Malaysian market.

  11. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  12. The Moderating Effect of Interaction Avoidance Between Abusive Supervision and Subordinates' Job Promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2017-10-03

    While abusive supervision is shown to have negative stress-related effects on targets, less is known about the factors capable of mitigating these negative effects and their career-related outcomes. In this paper, we drew on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1986) and the upward mobility theory (Turner, 1960) to explore the moderating effect of subordinates' interaction avoidance between abusive supervision and job promotions. To test this moderating effect, we collected data from 604 full-time employees at three points in time over a 12-month time period in Japan. The findings suggest that interaction avoidance moderates the relationship between abusive supervision and promotions, such that this relationship will be less negative as interaction avoidance increases.

  13. A hierarchy of unhealthy food promotion effects: identifying methodological approaches and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; King MPsy, Lesley; Chapman Mnd, Kathy; Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the evidence for a conceptual "hierarchy of effects" of marketing, to guide understanding of the relationship between children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing and poor diets and overweight, and drive the research agenda. We reviewed studies assessing the impact of food promotions on children from MEDLINE, Web of Science, ABI Inform, World Health Organization library database, and The Gray Literature Report. We included articles published in English from 2009 to 2013, with earlier articles from a 2009 systematic review. We grouped articles by outcome of exposure and assessed outcomes within a framework depicting a hierarchy of effects of marketing exposures. Evidence supports a logical sequence of effects linking food promotions to individual-level weight outcomes. Future studies should demonstrate the sustained effects of marketing exposure, and exploit variations in exposures to assess differences in outcomes longitudinally.

  14. Alkali promotion effect in Fischer-Tropsch cobalt-alumina catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Tsapkina, M.V.; Davydov, P.E.; Kazantsev, R.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Belousova, O.S.; Lapidus, A.L. [Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Promoting Co-alumina Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts with alkali and alkaline-earth metals was studied. XRD, oxygen titration and CO chemisorption were used for the characterization of the catalysts. The best results in terms of catalyst selectivity and long-chain alkanes content in synthesized products were obtained with K-promoted catalyst. Catalytic performance strongly depends on K:Co atomic ratio as well as preparation procedure. Effect of K loading on selectivities is non-linear with extreme point at K:Co=0.01. Significant increase in C{sub 5+} selectivity of K-promoted catalyst may be explained as a result of strong CO adsorption on the catalyst surface, as was confirmed in CO chemisorption experiments. (orig.)

  15. Use of information technology by adolescents and young people and its effect on health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Lotrean

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effects of the use of information technology by adolescents and young people and its effect on health promotion among them. The data are based on literature review. The threats posed by the use of these technologies include increasing risk for sedentary behavior in combination with inappropriate alimentary habits, risk for bulling, risk of exposure to advertisement for tobacco and alcohol products. On the other hand, information technologies have the potential to help and boost the implementation of effective, accessible and sustainable health education programs, but there are several research questions and challenges which should be addressed, such as a. type of theoretical concepts, educational strategies and materials which stimulates self-directed, curiosity-based learning and development of skills and increase confidence for adopting healthy lifestyle b. finding ways to improve teachers’ skills or formal education they need to empower learners to pursue their own interests and free class time for more experiential forms of learning c. understanding how social media can be used for healthy lifestyle promotion and how to avoid missteps is very important d. the challenge to enable pupils to work in collaboration with classmates and teachers to create environments which stimulates education for healthy lifestyle promotion. e. creating authentic learning environment stimulated through games, discussions, and group tasks. In the present, in Romania it is under development an educational program for healthy lifestyle promotion for pupils with hearing disabilities using communication networks, information technology and media.

  16. Negative effect of the 5'-untranslated leader sequence on Ac transposon promoter expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scortecci, K C; Raina, R; Fedoroff, N V; Van Sluys, M A

    1999-08-01

    Transposable elements are used in heterologous plant hosts to clone genes by insertional mutagenesis. The Activator (Ac) transposable element has been cloned from maize, and introduced into a variety of plants. However, differences in regulation and transposition frequency have been observed between different host plants. The cause of this variability is still unknown. To better understand the activity of the Ac element, we analyzed the Ac promoter region and its 5'-untranslated leader sequence (5' UTL). Transient assays in tobacco NT1 suspension cells showed that the Ac promoter is a weak promoter and its activity was localized by deletion analyses. The data presented here indicate that the core of the Ac promoter is contained within 153 bp fragment upstream to transcription start sites. An important inhibitory effect (80%) due to the presence of the 5' UTL was found on the expression of LUC reporter gene. Here we demonstrate that the presence of the 5' UTL in the constructs reduces the expression driven by either strong or weak promoters.

  17. The effect of emotions, promotion vs. prevention focus, and feedback on cognitive engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wytykowska Agata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the role of emotions, promotion-prevention orientation and feedback on cognitive engagement. In the experiment participants had the possibility to engage in a categorization task thrice. After the first categorization all participants were informed that around 75% of their answers were correct. After the second categorization, depending on the experimental condition, participants received feedback either about success or failure. Involvement in the third categorization was depended on participants’ decision whether to take part in it or not. Each time, before and after categorization, the emotional state was assessed. Results showed that promotion orientation predicted experiencing curiosity before the task, which in turn led to a higher cognitive engagement in the first categorization. Promotion and prevention orientation moderated the type of emotional response to positive feedback. Promotion orientation also predicted cognitive engagement after the feedback of success was provided. Generally results confirmed the positive effect of positive emotions as well as promotion orientation on cognitive engagement.

  18. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Landis, Florian; Tovar Reaños, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of r...

  19. Effect of religious rules on time of conception in Romania from 1905 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herteliu, Claudiu; Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile; Ausloos, Marcel; Rotundo, Giulia

    2015-09-01

    Does the interdiction of sexual intercourse during Nativity and Lent fasting periods have any effect on when babies are conceived in Romania, in the 20th century? Based on date of birth records from the 20th century, Lent had a greater effect than the Nativity fast on conception within the Eastern Orthodox (ORTHD) population. Seasonality of births (and therefore of conception) is affected by geographical factors (latitude, weather, day-length). Other demographic, economic and socio-cultural characteristics (education, ethnicity, religion) have been proved to have an influence on conception. The analyzed data consists of registered daily birth records for a long time series (35 429 points = 365 (days/year) × 97 years + 24 leap years), with 24 947 061 births in Romania over the period 1905-2001. The data were obtained from the 1992 and 2002 censuses. Based on the reported birth date of each person, the estimated date of conception is computed using a standard gestation period of 280 days. The population was grouped into two categories (ORTHD and Non-Orthodox (NORTHD)) based on religious affiliation. Data analysis is performed in the same manner for both groups. Preliminary data analyses regarding seasonal variations in conception are considered first. Econometric models are applied and tested. The dependent variable in these models is the calculated date of conception, while the independent variables are: (i) religious affiliation; (ii) dates of Nativity and Lent fasts (the latter varies slightly from year to year); (iii) rural versus urban residence; (iv) length of day-light; (v) non-working days and (vi) trend. The models are tested for validity using analysis of variance while the regression coefficients are tested by the Student t-test. All models are statistically valid (P important factor in date of conception. The data do not refer to all births during the analyzed period, but only to those persons still alive at the 1992 and 2002 censuses. The date of

  20. Effect of change in coding rules on recording diabetes in hospital administrative datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Guevarra, Veth M; Stubbs, Joanne M

    2016-10-01

    During 2008-2011 Australian Coding Standards mandated a causal relationship between diabetes and inpatient care as a criterion for recording diabetes as a comorbidity in hospital administrative datasets. We aim to measure the effect of the causality mandate on recorded diabetes and associated inter-hospital variations. For patients with diabetes, all admissions between 2004 and 2013 to all New South Wales acute public hospitals were investigated. Poisson mixed models were employed to derive adjusted rates and variations. The non-recorded diabetes incidence rate was 20.7%. The causality mandate increased the incidence rate four fold during the change period, 2008-2011, compared to the pre- or post-change periods (32.5% vs 8.4% and 6.9%). The inter-hospital variation was also higher, with twice the difference in the non-recorded rate between hospitals with the highest and lowest rates (50% vs 24% and 27% risk gap). The variation decreased during the change period (29%), while the rate continued to rise (53%). Admission characteristics accounted for over 44% of the variation compared with at most two per cent attributable to patient or hospital characteristics. Contributing characteristics explained less of the variation within the change period compared to pre- or post-change (46% vs 58% and 53%). Hospital relative performance was not constant over time. The causality mandate substantially increased the non-recorded diabetes rate and associated inter-hospital variation. Longitudinal accumulation of clinical information at the patient level, and the development of appropriate adoption protocols to achieve comprehensive and timely implementation of coding changes are essential to supporting the integrity of hospital administrative datasets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of dietary glycine on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg), PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD

  2. Mixing rules for and effects of other hydrogen isotopes and of isotopic swamping on tritium recovery and loss to biosphere from fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Efficient recovery of bred and unburnt tritium from fusion reactors, and control of its migration within reactors and of its escape into the biosphere are essential for self-sufficient fuel cycles and for public, plant personnel, and environmental protection. Tritium in fusion reactors will be mixed with unburnt deuterium and protium introduced by (n,p) reactions and diffusion into coolant loops from steam cycles. Rational design for tritium recovery and escape prevention must acknowledge this fact. Consequences of isotopic admixture are explored, mixing rules for projected fusion reactor dilute-solution conditions are developed, and a rule of thumb regarding their effects on tritium recovery methods is formulated

  3. Effects of Physician-directed Pharmaceutical Promotion on Prescription Behaviors: Longitudinal Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anusua; Dave, Dhaval

    2017-04-01

    Spending on prescription drugs (Rx) represents one of the fastest growing components of US healthcare spending and has coincided with an expansion of pharmaceutical promotional spending. Most (83%) of Rx promotion is directed at physicians in the form of visits by pharmaceutical representatives (known as detailing) and drug samples provided to physicians' offices. Such promotion has come under increased public scrutiny, with critics contending that physician-directed promotion may play a role in raising healthcare costs and may unduly affect physicians' prescribing habits towards more expensive, and possibly less cost-effective, drugs. In this study, we bring longitudinal evidence to bear upon the question of how detailing impacts physicians' prescribing behaviors. Specifically, we examine prescriptions and promotion for a particular drug class based on a nationally representative sample of 150,000 physicians spanning 24 months. The use of longitudinal physician-level data allows us to tackle some of the empirical concerns in the extant literature, virtually all of which have relied on aggregate national data. We estimate fixed-effects specifications that bypass stable unobserved physician-specific heterogeneity and address potential targeting bias. In addition, we also assess differential effects at both the extensive and intensive margins of prescribing behaviors and differential effects across physician-level and market-level characteristics, questions that have not been explored in prior work. The estimates suggest that detailing has a significant and positive effect on the number of new scripts written for the detailed drug, with an elasticity magnitude of 0.06. This effect is substantially smaller than those in the literature based on aggregate information, suggesting that most of the observed relationship between physician-directed promotion and drug sales is driven by selection bias. We find that detailing impacts selective brand-specific demand but does

  4. [Are Interventions Promoting Physical Activity Cost-Effective? A Systematic Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionut; Schätzlein, Valentin; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions). Results showed that population-based physical activity interventions are of great health economic potential if reaching a wider population at comparably low costs. Outstanding are political and environmental strategies, as well as interventions supporting behavioural change through information. The most comprehensive documentation for interventions promoting physical activity could be found for individual-based strategies (i. e. exercise advice or exercise programs). However, such programs are comparatively less cost-effective due to limited reach and higher utilization of resources.The present study provides an extensive review and analysis of the current international state of research regarding the health economic evaluation of interventions promoting physical activity. Results show favourable cost-effectiveness for interventions promoting physical activity, though significant differences in the effectiveness between various interventions were noticed. The greatest potential for cost-effectiveness can be seen in population-based interventions. At the same time, there is a need to acknowledge the limitations of the economic evidence in this field which are attributable to methodological challenges and

  5. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix J to Subpart G of... - Substitutes listed in the January 29, 2002 Final Rule, effective April 1, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitutes listed in the January 29, 2002 Final Rule, effective April 1, 2002 J Appendix J to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of Environment... Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. J Appendix J to Subpart G of Part 82...

  7. Modeling and Cognitive Behavior: The Effects of Modeling, Modes of Modeling and Selected Model Attributes on Rule-Governed Language Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, James Ivo

    The effect of modeling on the performance of rule-governed language behaviors of 208 male and female, Anglo and Chicano, sixth grade students in Albuquerque, N.M. was experimentally investigated. Eight boys and 8 girls (4 each Chicano and Anglo) were randomly assigned to each of the 12 experimental conditions and to the control group. Three modes…

  8. Beyond the Patriot Act: Rulings from the Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC and their Effects on Canadian Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Waller

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OFAC is the Office of Foreign Assets Control, part of the UnitedStates Department of the Treasury. OFAC governs sanctions againstcountries embargoed by the United States and has released rulings thathave implications on the licenses signed by Canadian libraries and theprovision of information to library users. This paper investigates theeffects of the OFAC rulings and presents some suggestions for dealingwith these in the Canadian library community.

  9. Radio Gaga? Intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football umpires - effect of radio communication on content, structure and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy J; Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M

    2018-02-01

    Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication. The results identified that radio communication technology increased the frequency and altered the structure of intra-team communication. Examination of the content of the intra-team communication identified impacts on the 'Big Five' teamwork behaviours and associated coordinating mechanisms. Analysis revealed that the communications utilised did not align with the closed-loop form of communication described in the Big Five model. Implications for teamwork models, coaching and training of AFL umpires are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Assessing the impact of technology on performance is of interest to ergonomics practitioners. The impact of radio communications on teamwork is explored in the highly dynamic domain of AFL umpiring. When given radio technology, intra-team communication increased which supported teamwork behaviours, such as backup behaviour and mutual performance monitoring.

  10. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na + -H + exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using [ 14 C]-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 γ phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular [Na + ] > intracellular [Na + ], was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na + -H + exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells

  11. Curcumin and Turmeric Modulate the Tumor-Promoting Effects of Iron In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Donald J; Robinson, Todd; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-04-01

    Free or loosely chelated iron has tumor-promoting properties in vitro. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the food spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), is a potent antioxidant that binds iron. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether curcuminoids prevent tumor-promoting effects of iron in T51B cells, a non-neoplastic rat liver epithelial cell line. Purified curcuminoids (curcumin) or a standardized turmeric extract similarly reduced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity associated with iron overload (IC 50 values near 10 μM, P turmeric for 16 wk in culture; subsequently assayed by soft agar colony formation) was nearly complete at 20 μM of total curcuminoids (P turmeric extract were taken up better by cells, had a longer half-life, and appeared more effective in blocking tumor promotion (P < 0.01), suggesting enhanced curcuminoid delivery to cells in culture. The primary finding that curcuminoids can inhibit tumor promotion caused by iron in T51B cells is tempered by evidence for an underlying increase in neoplastic transformation at lower concentrations.

  12. The effectiveness of different policy regimes for promoting wind power: Experiences from the states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C.; Vachon, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Governments at the state (and to a lesser extent, local) level in the United States have adopted an array of policies to promote wind and other types of 'green' energy, including solar, geothermal, low-impact hydropower, and certain forms of biomass. However, because of different regulatory environments, energy resource endowments, political interests, and other factors, there is considerable variation among the states in their green power policies. This paper analyzes the contribution to wind power development of several state-level policies (renewable portfolio standards (RPS), fuel generation disclosure rules, mandatory green power options, and public benefits funds), along with retail choice (RET) facilitated by electricity restructuring. The empirical results support existing anecdotal and case studies in finding a positive relationship between RPS and wind power development. We also found that requiring electricity suppliers to provide green power options to customers is positively related to development of wind energy, while there is a negative relationship between wind energy development and RET (i.e., allowing retail customers to choose their electricity source)

  13. xF 3( x,Q 2) Structure Function and Gross-Llewellyn Smith Sum Rule with Nuclear Effect and Higher Twist Correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, N.M.; Mukharjee, A.; Das, M.K.; Sarma, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the xF 3 (x,Q 2 ) structure function and Gross-Llewellyn Smith(GLS) sum rule taking into account the nuclear effects and higher twist correction. This analysis is based on the results presented in [N.M. Nath, et al, Indian J. Phys. 90 (2016) 117]. The corrections due to nuclear effects predicted in several earlier analysis are incorporated to our results of xF 3 (x,Q 2 ) structure function and GLS sum rule for free nucleon, corrected upto next-next-to-leading order (NNLO) perturbative order and calculate the nuclear structure function as well as sum rule for nuclei. In addition, by means of a simple model we have extracted the higher twist contributions to the non-singlet structure function xF 3 (x,Q 2 ) and GLS sum rule in NNLO perturbative orders and then incorporated them to our results. Our NNLO results along with nuclear effect and higher twist corrections are observed to be compatible with corresponding experimental data and other phenomenological analysis. (paper)

  14. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Richard P. [NRR/DOTS/TQMP, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, M/S OWFN 10A19, Washington, D.C. 20555 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  15. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  16. Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aston Louise M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health strategies place increasing emphasis on opportunities to promote healthy behaviours within the workplace setting. Previous research has suggested worksite health promotion programmes have positive effects on physical activity and weight loss, yet little is known regarding their effects on dietary behaviour. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of worksite interventions on employee diets. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LexisNexis were searched for relevant articles published between 1995 and April 2009. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed English language publications describing a worksite-based health promotion intervention with minimum study duration of eight weeks. All study designs were eligible. Studies had to report one or more diet-related outcome (energy, fat, fruit, or vegetable intakes. Methodological quality was assessed using a checklist that included randomisation methods, use of a control group, and study attrition rates. Results Sixteen studies were included in the review. Eight programmes focussed on employee education, and the remainder targeted change to the worksite environment, either alone or in combination with education. Study methodological quality was moderate. In general, worksite interventions led to positive changes in fruit, vegetable and total fat intake. However, reliance on self-reported methods of dietary assessment means there is a significant risk of bias. No study measured more robust outcomes such as absenteeism, productivity, or healthcare utilisation. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest that worksite health promotion programmes are associated with moderate improvement in dietary intake. The quality of studies to date has been frequently sub-optimal and further, well designed studies are needed in order to reliably determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Future

  17. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  18. The effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on promotive and prohibitive voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mari; Unterrainer, Christine; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt

    2018-01-01

    Although there is a vast amount of research on leadership and improvement-oriented voice behavior, the amount of cross-lagged research on leadership that also incorporates more challenging forms of voice is sparse. This paper reports on a two-wave study of white-collar workers in a Norwegian...... medical technology company, investigating the relationship among employees’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors, job autonomy, and promotive and prohibitive voice. Testing our results cross-lagged, we demonstrate that perceived transformational leadership is significantly related...... to prohibitive voice over time, whereas this effect worked in the opposite direction for promotive voice. We also explore the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, demonstrating that perceived job autonomy strengthens the effect of transformational leadership on prohibitive voice. Implications...

  19. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Murakami, Taro; Nakai, Naoya; Nagasaki, Masaru; Harris, Robert A

    2004-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that can be oxidized in skeletal muscle. It is known that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is attributed to activation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which catalyzes the second-step reaction of the BCAA catabolic pathway and is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway. This enzyme complex is regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. The BCKDH kinase is responsible for inactivation of the complex by phosphorylation, and the activity of the kinase is inversely correlated with the activity state of the BCKDH complex, which suggests that the kinase is the primary regulator of the complex. We found recently that administration of ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in rats caused activation of the hepatic BCKDH complex in association with a decrease in the kinase activity, which suggests that promotion of fatty acid oxidation upregulates the BCAA catabolism. Long-chain fatty acids are ligands for PPARalpha, and the fatty acid oxidation is promoted by several physiological conditions including exercise. These findings suggest that fatty acids may be one of the regulators of BCAA catabolism and that the BCAA requirement is increased by exercise. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis; this suggests the possibility that BCAAs are a useful supplement in relation to exercise and sports.

  20. Effects of alternative promoters of growth on the performance and cost of production of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tomazini Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics were compared to antimicrobials as alternative growth promoters in male broilers grown from 1 to 42 days of age. Eight treatments were evaluated: a control feed without antimicrobials or alternative growth promoters, a control feed with antimicrobials, a control feed with the antimicrobials colistine and avilamicine, three rations with probiotic Bacillus subtilis in different concentrations and/or under recommended usage, one ration with probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae in addition to a mixture of probiotic Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, and one ration with mananoligossacarids (MOS plus betaglutanes. Antimicrobials and alternative growth promoters were added to an initial feed and to a growth feed common to all birds. Thirteen to 17 replicates of 50 birds of a Cobb line were utilized per treatment in a completely randomized design. Feed consumption, feed conversion and production costs did not significantly differ among treatments. The weights of 42-day-old birds fed on Bacillus subtilis (1,6 x 109CFU/g or the mixture of probiotics were higher or similar to the weights of birds fed on ration with antimicrobials. It was concluded that probiotics can replace antimicrobials as growth promoters for broilers up to 42 days of age without negative effects on growth performance and production cost.

  1. Effective self-regulation change techniques to promote mental wellbeing among adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genugten, Lenneke; Dusseldorp, Elise; Massey, Emma K; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2017-03-01

    Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary prevention interventions on mental wellbeing in adolescents. Forty interventions were included in the analyses. Techniques were coded into nine categories of SRTs. Meta-analyses were conducted to identify the effectiveness of SRTs, examining three different outcomes: internalising behaviour, externalising behaviour, and self-esteem. Primary interventions had a small-to-medium ([Formula: see text] = 0.16-0.29) on self-esteem and internalising behaviour. Secondary interventions had a medium-to-large short-term effect (average [Formula: see text] = 0.56) on internalising behaviour and self-esteem. In secondary interventions, interventions including asking for social support [Formula: see text] 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.11-1.98) had a great effect on internalising behaviour. Interventions including monitoring and evaluation had a greater effect on self-esteem [Formula: see text] 95% CI = 0.21-0.57). For primary interventions, there was not a single SRT that was associated with a greater intervention effect on internalising behaviour or self-esteem. No effects were found for externalising behaviours. Self-regulation interventions are moderately effective at improving mental wellbeing among adolescents. Secondary interventions promoting 'asking for social support' and promoting 'monitoring and evaluation' were associated with improved outcomes. More research is needed to identify other SRTs or combinations of SRTs that could improve understanding or optimise mental wellbeing interventions.

  2. THE ESSENCE OF THE EFFECTIVE MERCHANDISING WHEN PROMOTING A PRIVATE LABEL PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Майковська, Вікторія Ігорівна; Солониченко, Тетяна Сергіївна

    2014-01-01

    The need for own goods mark is disclosed in the article in conditions of competitive retail market. The competitive benefits are grounded which the own brand affords. Characteristic features and peculiarities of the own goods mark are defined. The experience of Private Label applying in the world, Europe and Ukraine is analyzed. The lack of problem development of merchandising effectiveness study in the promoting process of Private Label products is specified. The tasks to make the analysis o...

  3. A New Mission for Schools in Hong Kong in the 21st Century: Promoting Effective KM

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Chan

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management, though a hot topic in business, is quite a new concept in schools and in the education sector in Hong Kong. KM involves identifying, preserving, sharing and making the knowledge assets grow. Proper management of the knowledge assets will make the schools or educational organizations more responsive to changes and to operate successfully in the information age. Thus, there is a need to promote effective knowledge management in schools. The first section of the paper aims ...

  4. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Effectiveness of Using a Portable Video Game for Promoting Healthy Dietary Behavior among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Eri

    2009-01-01

    Currently the use of new technologies takes on a growing importance in education. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-week intervention using portable video game machine "Nintendo DS" and the software "Koharu no DS Uchigohan (Koharu' s DS home cooking)" to increase knowledge and consciousness of cooking and to promote healthier dietary behavior among college students. A pretest was administered to participants before the intervention. In addition to the same test, the questionnaire a...

  6. An Attentional Goldilocks Effect: An Optimal Amount of Social Interactivity Promotes Word Learning from Video

    OpenAIRE

    Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima

    2015-01-01

    Television can be a powerful education tool; however, content-makers must understand the factors that engage attention and promote learning from screen media. Prior research suggests that social engagement is critical for learning and that interactivity may enhance the educational quality of children’s media. The present study examined the effects of increasing the social interactivity of television on children’s visual attention and word learning. Three- to 5-year-old (MAge = 4;5 years, SD =...

  7. Promoting effect of active carbons on methanol dehydrogenation on sodium carbonate - hydrogen spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Su, S.; Prairie, M.; Renken, A.

    1993-01-01

    Methanol dehydrogenation to formaldehyde was conducted in a fixed-bed flow reactor with sodium carbonate catalyst mixed with active carbons or transition metals. The additives promoted the reaction rate at 880-970 K without modifying formaldehyde selectivity. This effect increases with increasing carbon content in the carbon-carbonate mixture. Activation energy of methanol conversion is the same for the mixture and the carbonate alone. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments showed that...

  8. Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, Auliya A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection has been reported to be responsible for the majority of severe diarrhea in children under-5-years-old in Indonesia. Breast milk is considered to give protection against rotavirus infection. Increasing breastfeeding promotion programs could be an alternative target to

  9. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  10. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vandeweghe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children’s eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14, family child care providers (n = 9, and daycare assistants (n = 10. The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Results Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy. Conclusions Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  11. Differential effects of simple repeating DNA sequences on gene expression from the SV40 early promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirhaeri, S; Wohlrab, F; Wells, R D

    1995-02-17

    The influence of simple repeat sequences, cloned into different positions relative to the SV40 early promoter/enhancer, on the transient expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was investigated. Insertion of (G)29.(C)29 in either orientation into the 5'-untranslated region of the CAT gene reduced expression in CV-1 cells 50-100 fold when compared with controls with random sequence inserts. Analysis of CAT-specific mRNA levels demonstrated that the effect was due to a reduction of CAT mRNA production rather than to posttranscriptional events. In contrast, insertion of the same insert in either orientation upstream of the promoter-enhancer or downstream of the gene stimulated gene expression 2-3-fold. These effects could be reversed by cotransfection of a competitor plasmid carrying (G)25.(C)25 sequences. The results suggest that a G.C-binding transcription factor modulates gene expression in this system and that promoter strength can be regulated by providing protein-binding sites in trans. Although constructs containing longer tracts of alternating (C-G), (T-G), or (A-T) sequences inhibited CAT expression when inserted in the 5'-untranslated region of the CAT gene, the amount of CAT mRNA was unaffected. Hence, these inhibitions must be due to posttranscriptional events, presumably at the level of translation. These effects of microsatellite sequences on gene expression are discussed with respect to recent data on related simple repeat sequences which cause several human genetic diseases.

  12. The effects of tobacco sales promotion on initiation of smoking--experiences from Finland and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, M K; Aarø, L E; Rimpelä, A H

    1993-01-01

    Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales

  13. The effects of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act privacy rule on influenza research using geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norisse Tellman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA privacy rule was enacted to protect patients’ personal health information from undue disclosure. Despite its intention to protect patients, recent reports suggest that HIPAA restrictions may be negatively impacting health research. Quantitative, visual geographical and statistical analysis of zip code geographical information systems (GIS mapping, comparing 3-digit HIPAA-compliant and 5-digit HIPAA-non-compliant simulated data, was chosen to identify and describe the type of distortion that may result. It was found that unmitigated HIPAA compliance with HIPAA mapping rules distorted the GIS zip code data by 28% leading to erroneous results. Thus, compliance with HIPAA privacy rule when mapping may lead investigators to publish erroneous GIS maps.

  14. The efficiency of the negligence rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ljubica; Mojašević, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively analizes economic effects of different negligence rules, contained in American law on the one hand, and Serbian law on the other. It is important to establish economic implications of the different negligence rules, based on the incentives for tortfeasor’s and victim’s precaution under the different negligence rules. Study of the efficiency of several different forms of negligence rules: simple negligence, negligence with a defense of contributory negligence, comparat...

  15. The role of the seven crude drug components in the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuko; Fujii, Yuuko; Sugiyama, Reina; Konishi, Tenji

    2016-01-11

    Yokukansan is a traditional Japanese "Kampo" medicine derived from Yi-Gan San in traditional Chinese medicine. Many studies have been published on its effects and mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the sleep-promoting effects of Yokukansan. Yokukansan composes of seven crude drugs: Uncaria Hook, Bupleurm Root, Cnidium Rhizome, Japanese Angelica Root, Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, and Glycyrrhiza. Although each has distinctive effects in isolation, they combine to work as a sleep aid in the Yokukansan formula. We examined the roles of the seven crude drug components in the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan. In this study, we used an easy in vivo assay method which we developed previously to screen sleeping substances using thermography. This assay method focuses on the decrease in skin temperature of mice during sleep inducement. By administering the crude drug components of Yokukansan one at a time, it was possible to separate them into two groups: those that caused a decrease in body temperature (Uncaria Hook, Bupleurm Root, Cnidium rhizome, and Japanese Angelica root) and those that did not (Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, and Glycyrrhiza). Accordingly, it was thought that the crude drugs causing a drop in body temperature were responsible for promoting sleep, while those in the other group would have no such effect in isolation. To investigate whether the crude drugs that did not cause a decrease in body temperature might be unnecessary for the sleep-promoting effect of Yokukansan, a number of decoctions were prepared using only six of the seven crude drug components, excluding a different crude drug in each case. Results showed that when any of the three components (Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, or Glycyrrhiza) of Yokukansan that had no effect on body temperature in isolation were removed from Yokukansan, the resulting extract no longer had any of Yokukansan's sleep-promoting effects. This result

  16. 75 FR 67609 - Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Popcorn promotion...-10-0010] Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Popcorn Promotion...

  17. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging ® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the "face-to-face" and "combined" versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural - artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in editions performed in Spain, revealing its consistency

  18. [A comprehensive evaluation of intervention effects on workplace health promotion in a pharmaceutical company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Li, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Ren, Jun; Li, Chao-lin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the comprehensive workplace health promotion intervention effect in a pharmaceutical company. The evaluation was conducted by using questionnaires, access to information, on-site surveys, satisfaction surveys and interviews. After the intervention, the awareness rate of the staff on "Occupational Disease Prevention Law", occupational disease prevention measures, the definition of hypertension, HIV transmission and high blood pressure, coronary heart disease preventive measures, have been raised from 72.4%, 13.8%, 67.5%, 45.8%, 51.7% to 97.8%, 19.9%, 82.3%, 94.7%, 53.1% respectively. The lifestyle of the staff has been improved, the improvement rate of smoking, drinking, having breakfast 4 times a week and above are 98.5%, 70.2% and 30.6% separately. Out of the 47 evaluation indicators, 41 meet the requirements, 5 basically meet the requirements. After implementing workplace health promotion activities, the level of occupational safety and health management of the pharmaceutical company has been enhanced, the physical and mental health of the staff have been promoted. The WHP comprehensive interventions are feasible and effective.

  19. Effectiveness of Financial and Fiscal Instruments for Promoting Sustainable Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dombrovski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new EU target of achieving 80-95% emission reductions by 2050 calls for novel energy policy solutions. Previous research has failed to evaluate the influence of all relevant elements of energy policy on technology-specific sustainable renewable energy diffusion. This paper adds to existing research by studying the effectiveness of financial and fiscal instruments on diffusion, additionally controlling for potential political, economic, social, and environmental drivers. These drivers are analysed for 26 EU countries over the period 1990-2011. The main results show that feed-in tariffs, quotas, and tenders effectively promote wind technologies. Other explanatory variables have technology- and model-dependent impacts.

  20. A New Mission for Schools in Hong Kong in the 21st Century: Promoting Effective KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Chan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Management, though a hot topic in business, is quite a new concept in schools and in the education sector in Hong Kong. KM involves identifying, preserving, sharing and making the knowledge assets grow. Proper management of the knowledge assets will make the schools or educational organizations more responsive to changes and to operate successfully in the information age. Thus, there is a need to promote effective knowledge management in schools. The first section of the paper aims to define KM and the relationship of knowledge, information and data. The second section discusses some practical ways that lead to effective handling of knowledge in schools.

  1. Electronic game: A key effective technology to promote behavioral change in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Safdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis is a very unpleasant and unbelievable experience. Appropriate management and treatment of these diseases require a high degree of patient engagement. Interactive health electronic games are engaging, fun, challenging, and experiential and have the potential to change the attitude and behavior, which can improve the player's health. The use of these digital tools, as one of the most attractive and entertaining modern technologies, canem power patients, provide suitable palliative care, promote health behavior change strategies, increase patient engagement, enhance healthy lifestyle habits, improve self.management, and finally improve the quality of life of the patients. Finally, the aim of this article was to describe electronic games and their effects on the promotion of behavior change in cancer patients. In addition, this article describes categories, characteristic features, and benefits of this digital media in the lifestyle modification of cancer patients.

  2. Effectiveness of a Social Marketing Campaign Promoting Use of a Sexual Health Text Service by Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide adolescents with accurate sexual health information, but promotion of such services is often limited. This study uses three quantitative methods (service use data, a text message-based questionnaire, and an in-school online survey) to assess the effectiveness of an in-school social marketing campaign promoting a sexual health text message service that connects teens directly with a health educator. The 3-month campaign was associated with increased service use, but use was still relatively low. Follow-up qualitative work that included focus groups and interviews found a number of barriers to use. Teens indicated they did not have sexual health questions, did not think of the service, or were unsure how to use it. Teens also brought up additional barriers such as concern over parents seeing the messages. Implications for text message service providers and health educators are discussed.

  3. Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.C.; Cheung, K.C.; Luo, Y.M.; Wong, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb-Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated plant growth and protected the plant from metal toxicity. Inoculation with rhizobacteria had little influence on the metal concentrations in plant tissues, but produced a much larger above-ground biomass and altered metal bioavailability in the soil. As a consequence, higher efficiency of phytoextraction was obtained compared with control treatments. - Rhizobacteria promoted growth above normal biomass, but did not influence plant metal concentrations

  4. Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.C. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Cheung, K.C. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Luo, Y.M. [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Wong, M.H. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China) and Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-03-15

    A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb-Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated plant growth and protected the plant from metal toxicity. Inoculation with rhizobacteria had little influence on the metal concentrations in plant tissues, but produced a much larger above-ground biomass and altered metal bioavailability in the soil. As a consequence, higher efficiency of phytoextraction was obtained compared with control treatments. - Rhizobacteria promoted growth above normal biomass, but did not influence plant metal concentrations.

  5. Global health promotion: how can we strengthen governance and build effective strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley

    2006-12-01

    This paper discusses what is meant by 'global health promotion' and the extent to which global governance architecture is emerging, enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health within an increasingly global context. A review of selected initiatives on breast-milk substitutes, healthy cities, tobacco control and diet and nutrition suggests that existing institutions are uneven in their capacity to tackle global health issues. The strategic building of a global approach to health promotion will draw on a broad range of governance instruments, give careful attention to implementation in the medium to longer term, reflect on the nature and appropriateness of partnerships and develop fuller understanding of effective policies for harnessing the positive influences of globalization and countering the negatives.

  6. Stopping powers from the inverted doppler shift attenuation method: Z-oscillations; Bragg's rule or chemical effects; solid and liquid state effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.; Hauser, U.; Neuwirth, W.

    1976-01-01

    With the 'Inverted Doppler Shift Attenuation (IDSA)' method stopping cross sections for swift ions can be measured with an accuracy of about 1%. Here results are reported with lithium and carbon projectiles in very different stopping materials. It turns out that the stopping cross section around Bohr's velocity is linearly dependent on the velocity. Stopping cross sections of elements show the expected Z 2 -oscillations. With compound targets strong deviations from Bragg's rule were found which means that the stopping cross section is influenced by the chemical bonding. In electrolytic solutions effects due to ion-dipole interactions can be observed. These phenomena demonstrate the strong sensitivity of electronic stopping cross sections on the specific distribution of the outer electrons of the target atoms. Further Lindhard's formula has been modified which gives a good description of this influence. (Auth.)

  7. Adding effect sizes to a systematic review on interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutzen Rik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary adds effect sizes to the recently published systematic review by De Meester and colleagues and provides a more detailed insight into the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. The main findings based on this evidence were: (1 school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvement in physical activity levels, but there were large differences between interventions with regard to effect sizes; (2 a multi-component approach (including environmental components generally resulted in larger effect sizes, thereby providing evidence for the assumption that a multi-component approach should produce synergistic results; and (3 if an intervention aimed to affect more health behaviours besides physical activity, then the intervention appeared to be less effective in favour of physical activity.

  8. The effect of education of health promotion behaviors on quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzou Seyed Reza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today more than ever, the importance of health promoting behaviors is considered. Maintaining the function, independence and increasing the quality of life of chronic patients such as hemodialysis patients is influenced by health promoting behaviors. The current study was conducted to determine the effect of education of health promoting behaviors on the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Method: In the current quasi-experimental study, 70 hospitalized patients were selected through convenient sampling in hemodialysis wards of two Therapeutic-Educational Centers in Hamadan in 2014. Then, the subjects were randomly allocated into two intervention and control groups of 35 persons. In intervention group, 6 educational sessions were held during the hemodialysis. Quality of life of patients in two groups was measured through Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index-dialysis version before and three months after the intervention. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16, and using chi-square test, independent T-test and paired-T test . Results: In intervention group, the mean score of quality of life after intervention was changed from 18.85 ± 5.4 to 20.11 ± 5.46 (p < 0.001 and in control group from 19.41 ± 4.67 to 18.39 ± 4.10 (p = 0.08. After intervention, quality of life of patients in intervention group was increased in health and functioning domain (18.6 ± 5.7 (p < 0.001 and was increased in psychological/spiritual domain to 19.3 ± 7.02 (p=0.041 Conclusion: Education of health-promoting behaviors improved the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, according to chronic nature of disease, the education of these behaviors can be effective in improving the quality of life.

  9. Effect of Coulomb interaction on the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spin sum rule in rare earths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teramura, Y; Tanaka, A; Thole, BT; Jo, T

    A deviation from the spin sum rule, which relates the integrated intensity of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) signal to the expectation value of the spin operator S-z ((S-z)), is numerically calculated in the case of the 3d --> 4f absorption for rare earths from the trivalent Ce to Tm.

  10. Rules for biocatalyst and reaction engineering to implement effective, NAD(P)H-dependent, whole cell bioreductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratzer, Regina; Woodley, John; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    recycling mode and reaction conditions represent design options that strongly affect bioreduction efficiency. In this paper, each option was critically scrutinized and decision rules formulated based on well-described literature examples. The development chain was visualized as a decision-tree that can...

  11. Can Failure Succeed? Using Racial Subgroup Rules to Analyze the Effect of School Accountability Failure on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Many school accountability programs are built on the premise that the sanctions attached to failure will produce higher future student achievement. Furthermore, such programs often include subgroup achievement rules that attempt to hold schools accountable for the performance of all demographic classes of students. This paper looks at two issues:…

  12. 75 FR 51140 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... through OCC's electronic communications system. The submission of the CEA allows the Exchange to satisfy... 1100, the Exchange proposes to incorporate in Section 1 the concept that instructions are submitted to... expansion to 7:30 p.m. If the operative date of this proposed rule change is more than five business days...

  13. A Comparison of the Effects of Brief Rules, a Timer, and Preferred Toys on Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Matthew H.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining…

  14. Migration and kinship: the differential effect of marriage rules on the processes of Punjabi migration to Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    1990-01-01

    The paper contains an exploration of the reasons why rules of clan exogamy followed by Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs, as opposed to the Mirpuri Muslim preference for close kin marriage, have had such a far-reaching impact on patterns of migration to, and resettlement in, Britain.

  15. 26 CFR 1.6664-1 - Accuracy-related and fraud penalties; definitions, effective date and special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax... definition of “underpayment” of income taxes imposed under subtitle A is set forth in § 1.6664-2. Ordering rules for computing the total amount of accuracy-related and fraud penalties imposed with respect to a...

  16. 78 FR 60352 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... that use complex calculations based on a variety of market factors to compute quotes in their appointed... computations also factor in their market risk models. It is the Exchange's understanding that for some Market... International Securities Exchange LLC To Amend Exchange Rule 604 in Connection With Market Maker Continuous...

  17. Rules and regulations as potential moderator on the relationship between organizational internal and external factors with effective construction risk management in Nigerian construction companies: A proposed framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, A. Y.; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Certain organizational internal and external factors have been found to influence effective construction risk management within the construction company which has contributed to massive risk occurrence on the projects. Yet, the influence of the organizational factors such as effective communication, team competency with skills, active leadership, political factor, organizational culture, technology factor and economic factor on effective construction risk management among the construction companies operating in Abuja and Lagos state Nigeria have not received considerable attention. More so, a moderating variable is proposed. This paper proposes rules and regulations as the potential moderator on the relationship between organisational internal factors, external factors and effective construction risk management.

  18. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT and construal level theory (CLT. We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  19. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  20. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  1. Effects of motivational interviewing to promote weight loss in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M Y; Cheng, May M H

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of motivational interviewing for obese children and telephone consultation for parents to promote weight loss in obese children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide health problem that leads to serious metabolic and physiological consequences. An effective intervention to manage obesity is essential. Motivational interviewing is designed to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behaviour changes. It has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive health behaviour changes. Motivational interviewing has also been proposed as an effective method for improving the weight loss of obese children. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. The study was conducted in four primary schools over an 11-month period in 2010-2011. Obese children (n = 185) were screened from 791 school children studying the equivalent to UK grades 5 and 6 and were divided into three groups: motivational interviewing, motivational interviewing+ and a control group. The motivational interviewing group (n = 70) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling; the motivational interviewing+ group (n = 66) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling while telephone consultation was provided for their parents; and the control group did not receive any intervention (n = 49). Children in both the motivational interviewing and motivational interviewing+ groups showed significant improvement in their weight-related behaviour and obesity-related anthropometric measures from the baseline to the end of the 14-week intervention, while the control group had significant deterioration in their anthropometric measures. Motivational interviewing appears to be a promising intervention for promoting weight loss in obese children. Motivational interviewing counselling may be extended to obese children of different age groups. This study

  2. FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information (e.g. particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via F...

  3. The Stages of Change Model: An Effective Audience Analysis Tool Used To Design and Implement Health Promoting Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronda L.

    Researchers have been slow to acknowledge the salient role communication can play in motivating people to adopt more healthy lifestyles. Because persuasive messages increase awareness and can increase health promoting behaviors, it is important to determine the most effective health promoting messages in various health contexts. Thus, the primary…

  4. The joint effects of promotion and prevention focus on performance, exhaustion and sickness absence among managers and non-managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, Paraskevas; Van den Heuvel, Machteld; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the main and interaction effects of self-rated promotion and prevention regulatory focus on self-rated work performance, emotional exhaustion and sickness absence for managers and non-managers separately. The authors expected that promotion focus

  5. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Differential Effects of Social Media Sites for Promoting Cancer Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns.

  7. Targeting artificial transcription factors to the utrophin A promoter: effects on dystrophic pathology and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Tian, Chai; Danialou, Gawiyou; Gilbert, Rénald; Petrof, Basil J; Karpati, George; Nalbantoglu, Josephine

    2008-12-12

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic defect in the dystrophin gene. The absence of dystrophin results in muscle fiber necrosis and regeneration, leading to progressive muscle fiber loss. Utrophin is a close analogue of dystrophin. A substantial, ectopic expression of utrophin in the extrasynaptic sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers can prevent deleterious effects of dystrophin deficiency. An alternative approach for the extrasynaptic up-regulation of utrophin involves the augmentation of utrophin transcription via the endogenous utrophin A promoter using custom-designed transcriptional activator proteins with zinc finger (ZFP) motifs. We tested a panel of custom-designed ZFP for their ability to activate the utrophin A promoter. Expression of one such ZFP efficiently increased, in a time-dependent manner, utrophin transcript and protein levels both in vitro and in vivo. In dystrophic mouse (mdx) muscles, administration of adenoviral vectors expressing this ZFP led to significant enhancement of muscle function with decreased necrosis, restoration of the dystrophin-associated proteins, and improved resistance to eccentric contractions. These studies provide evidence that specifically designed ZFPs can act as strong transcriptional activators of the utrophin A promoter. These may thus serve as attractive therapeutic agents for dystrophin deficiency states such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of a school-based oral health promotion programme in Yichang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bao-Jun; Jiang, Han; Du, Min-Quan; Peng, Bin

    2009-10-01

    To assess the outcome of oral health promotion in schoolchildren over a 3-year period in Yichang City, Hubei, China. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, the concept of the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Project was applied to primary schoolchildren. Seven intervention schools and eight control schools were randomly selected from one district by stratified cluster sampling. The study was conducted as a 3-year follow-up study. After 3 years, 661 children remained in the intervention group and 697 children in the control group. Data on dental caries, plaque accumulation, and sulcus bleeding were collected by clinical examination, while behavioural data were gathered by self-administered questionnaires. The 3-year net mean DMFS increment score was 0.22 in the intervention schools and 0.35 in the control schools (P schools adopted regular oral health behavioural practices such as brushing their teeth at least twice a day, visiting the dentist within the past calendar year, and using fluoride toothpaste. The study suggests that the school-based oral health promotion was an effective way to reduce new caries incidence, improve oral hygiene and establish positive oral health behavioural practices in the targeted schoolchildren.

  9. Growth-promoting effect on iron-sulfur proteins on axenic cultures of Entamoeba dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa S.A.M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A growth-promoting factor (GPF that promotes the growth of Entamoeba dispar under axenic culture conditions was found in fractions of mitochondria (Mt, hydrogenosomes (Hg and chloroplasts (Cp obtained from cells of six different protozoan, mammalian and plant species. We were able to extract the GPF from the Cp-rich leaf cells of a plant (spiderwort: Commelina communis L. in an acetone-soluble fraction as a complex of chlorophyll with low molecular weight proteins (molecular weight [MW] approximately 4,600. We also found that on treatment with 0.6 % complexes of 2-mercapthoethanol (2ME, complexes of chlorophyll-a with iron-sulphur (Fe-S proteins (e.g., ferredoxins [Fd] from spinach and Clostridium pasteurianum and noncomplex rubredoxin (Rd from C. pasteurianum have a growth-promoting effect on E. dispar. These findings suggest that E. dispar may lack a sufficient quantity of some essential components of Fe-S proteins, such as Fe-S center.

  10. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  11. The Effectiveness of Prompts to Promote Engagement With Digital Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldi, Ghadah; Hamilton, Fiona L; Lau, Rosa; Webster, Rosie; Michie, Susan; Murray, Elizabeth

    2016-01-08

    Digital interventions have been effective in improving numerous health outcomes and health behaviors; furthermore, they are increasingly being used in different health care areas, including self-management of long-term conditions, mental health, and health promotion. The full potential of digital interventions is hindered by a lack of user engagement. There is an urgent need to develop effective strategies that can promote users' engagement with digital interventions. One potential method is the use of technology-based reminders or prompts. To evaluate the effectiveness of technology-based strategies for promoting engagement with digital interventions. Cochrane Collaboration guidelines on systematic review methodology were followed. The search strategy was executed across 7 electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Databases were searched from inception to September 13, 2013, with no language or publication type restrictions, using three concepts: randomized controlled trials, digital interventions, and engagement. Gray literature and reference lists of included studies were also searched. Titles and abstracts were independently screened by 2 authors, then the full texts of potentially eligible papers were obtained and double-screened. Data from eligible papers were extracted by one author and checked for accuracy by another author. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Narrative synthesis was performed on all included studies and, where appropriate, data were pooled using meta-analysis. All findings were reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 14 studies were included in the review with 8774 participants. Of the 14 studies, 9 had sufficient data

  12. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date; reopening of administrative record. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule; delay of effective date; reopening of administrative record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is delaying until October 1, 2001, the effective date and reopening the administrative record to receive additional comments regarding certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). The other provisions of the final rule become effective on December 4, 2000. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA) and the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). FDA is delaying the effective date for certain requirements relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record. FDA is also delaying the effective date of another requirement that would prohibit blood centers functioning as "health care entities" to act as wholesale distributors of blood derivatives. The agency is taking this action to address numerous concerns about the provisions raised by affected parties.

  13. Dual hypocretin receptor antagonism is more effective for sleep promotion than antagonism of either receptor alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    Full Text Available The hypocretin (orexin system is involved in sleep/wake regulation, and antagonists of both hypocretin receptor type 1 (HCRTR1 and/or HCRTR2 are considered to be potential hypnotic medications. It is currently unclear whether blockade of either or both receptors is more effective for promoting sleep with minimal side effects. Accordingly, we compared the properties of selective HCRTR1 (SB-408124 and SB-334867 and HCRTR2 (EMPA antagonists with that of the dual HCRTR1/R2 antagonist almorexant in the rat. All 4 antagonists bound to their respective receptors with high affinity and selectivity in vitro. Since in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments revealed poor brain penetration for SB-408124, SB-334867 was selected for subsequent in vivo studies. When injected in the mid-active phase, SB-334867 produced small increases in rapid-eye-movement (REM and non-REM (NR sleep. EMPA produced a significant increase in NR only at the highest dose studied. In contrast, almorexant decreased NR latency and increased both NR and REM proportionally throughout the subsequent 6 h without rebound wakefulness. The increased NR was due to a greater number of NR bouts; NR bout duration was unchanged. At the highest dose tested (100 mg/kg, almorexant fragmented sleep architecture by increasing the number of waking and REM bouts. No evidence of cataplexy was observed. HCRTR1 occupancy by almorexant declined 4-6 h post-administration while HCRTR2 occupancy was still elevated after 12 h, revealing a complex relationship between occupancy of HCRT receptors and sleep promotion. We conclude that dual HCRTR1/R2 blockade is more effective in promoting sleep than blockade of either HCRTR alone. In contrast to GABA receptor agonists which induce sleep by generalized inhibition, HCRTR antagonists seem to facilitate sleep by reducing waking "drive".

  14. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chu

    Full Text Available Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions.

  15. Effectiveness of the Vertical Gas Ventilation Pipes for Promoting Waste Stabilization in Post-Closure Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumasa Tojo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To make inside of the municipal solid waste (MSW landfill aerobic as much as possible is thought to be preferable for promoting waste stabilization, reducing pollutant's load in leachate, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and shortening post-closure-care period. In Japan, installation of semi-aerobic landfill structure has widely spread in order to promote waste stabilization in MSW landfill from 1980s. In semi-aerobic landfill structure, outlet of main leachate collection pipe is opened to atmosphere. Heat generated by aerobic degradation of waste causes natural convection and natural aeration arises from the outlet of leachate collection pipe to the gas vents. It is so-called stack effect. This air flow is thought to be effective for purifying leachate flowing through drainage layer and leachate collection pipes. And it is also thought to be contributing to expanding aerobic region in waste layer in landfill. Recently, measures attempting the promotion of waste stabilization are taken at several landfills at where stabilization of waste delays, in which many vertical gas vents are newly installed and close structure to semi-aerobic landfill is created. However, in many cases, these gas vents are not connected to leachate collection pipes. Many vertical gas vents are just installed without scientific proof regarding whether they can contribute for waste stabilization. In this study, how such installation of gas vents is effective for waste stabilization and aerobization of waste layer was discussed by numerical analysis. In numerical analysis, heat transfer, gas movement by pressure, gas diffusion, biological degradation of organic matter, and heat generation by biodegradation were taken into account. Simulations were carried out by using the general purpose simulator of finite element method. Three types of landfill structure were assumed. As the results, the following information were obtained. In dig-down type landfill, installation of gas

  16. Adverse effect of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele on HIV-1 disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Kristiansen, T B; Katzenstein, T L

    2001-01-01

    /G transition that has been discovered recently, have also been shown to influence HIV progression. Since genetic linkages make these polymorphisms interdependent variables, the aim of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the effect on HIV disease progression for each of these mutations independently......HIV positive individuals heterozygous for a 32 basepair deletion in the CCR5 encoding gene (CCR5 Delta32) have a reduced number of CCR5 receptors on the cell surface and a slower progression towards AIDS and death. Other human polymorphisms, such as the CCR2 64I and the CCR5 promoter -2459 A...

  17. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cuetoa, Federico J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...... to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods......, organic foods and healthy eating habits....

  18. [Health promotion for long-term unemployed. Effects on motivation for a healthy lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, K; Seeger, K; Heinmüller, M; Limm, H; Waldhoff, H-P; Salman, R; Gündel, H; Angerer, P

    2012-05-01

    Among the long-term unemployed ill health is often a hindrance to successful reintegration in the job market. In a quasi-experimental controlled study we examined the effects of a health promotion intervention program tailored to the specific needs of the long-term unemployed combining individual sessions based on motivational interviewing and participatory group sessions including physical activity. Over a period of 3 months the participants of the intervention group (n = 179) showed more improvement compared to the control group (n = 108) in terms of motivation for lifestyle changes towards more physical activity and healthier nutrition. Participants of the intervention group developed an intention to act significantly more often (active lifestyle: odds ratio 4.44; 95% CI: 2.00-9.83; healthy nutrition: odds ratio 3.94; 95% CI: 1.55-10.00) and actually implemented a behavior change significantly more often (active lifestyle: odds ratio 2.77; 95% CI: 1.35-5.71; healthy nutrition: odds ratio 4.34; 95% CI: 1.92-9.78). In terms of smoking and alcohol consumption no significant intervention effects were detected. The results of the study show the effectiveness of the described health promotion program regarding a lifestyle change towards more healthy nutrition and more physical activity.

  19. Socioeconomic variation in recall and perceived effectiveness of campaign advertisements to promote smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Farrelly, Matthew C; Nonnemaker, James; Davis, Kevin C; Wagner, Lauren

    2011-03-01

    There are large disparities in cigarette smoking rates by socioeconomic status (SES) in many countries. There is mixed evidence about the relative effectiveness of smoking cessation media campaigns in promoting quitting between lower and higher SES populations, and studies suggest that some types of ad content may have differential effects by SES. We analyzed data from five waves of the New York Media Tracking Survey Online (MTSO), a web survey involving over 7000 adult smokers conducted between 2007 and 2009, to assess SES variation in response to smoking cessation ads. Smokers with low levels of education and income less often recalled ads focused on how to quit, and perceived them as less effective, than ads using graphic imagery or personal testimonials to convey why to quit. Contrary to predictions offered by the Stages of Change Model, we found no evidence that variation in readiness to quit smoking explained patterns of response by education. Results offer guidance for theorists and campaign planners in developing campaigns that are likely to promote cessation among less educated populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Promoting effect of various biomass ashes on the steam gasification of low-rank coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkiana, Jenny; Guan, Guoqing; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Hao, Xiaogang; Li, Xiumin; Huang, Wei; Abudula, Abuliti

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass ash was utilized to promote gasification of low rank coal. • Promoting effect of biomass ash highly depended on AAEM content in the ash. • Stability of the ash could be improved by maintaining AAEM amount in the ash. • Different biomass ash could have completely different catalytic activity. - Abstract: Application of biomass ash as a catalyst to improve gasification rate is a promising way for the effective utilization of waste ash as well as for the reduction of cost. Investigation on the catalytic activity of biomass ash to the gasification of low rank coal was performed in details in the present study. Ashes from 3 kinds of biomass, i.e. brown seaweed/BS, eel grass/EG, and rice straw/RS, were separately mixed with coal sample and gasified in a fixed bed downdraft reactor using steam as the gasifying agent. BS and EG ashes enhanced the gas production rate greater than RS ash. Higher catalytic activity of BS or EG ash was mainly attributed to the higher content of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and lower content of silica in it. Higher content of silica in the RS ash was identified to have inhibiting effect for the steam gasification of coal. Stable catalytic activity was remained when the amount of AAEM in the regenerated ash was maintained as that of the original one

  1. The Exposure Advantage: Early Exposure to a Multilingual Environment Promotes Effective Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Samantha P; Liberman, Zoe; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-07-01

    Early language exposure is essential to developing a formal language system, but may not be sufficient for communicating effectively. To understand a speaker's intention, one must take the speaker's perspective. Multilingual exposure may promote effective communication by enhancing perspective taking. We tested children on a task that required perspective taking to interpret a speaker's intended meaning. Monolingual children failed to interpret the speaker's meaning dramatically more often than both bilingual children and children who were exposed to a multilingual environment but were not bilingual themselves. Children who were merely exposed to a second language performed as well as bilingual children, despite having lower executive-function scores. Thus, the communicative advantages demonstrated by the bilinguals may be social in origin, and not due to enhanced executive control. For millennia, multilingual exposure has been the norm. Our study shows that such an environment may facilitate the development of perspective-taking tools that are critical for effective communication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Health promotion effectiveness: developing and testing a system for routine evaluation in health education, workplace health promotion and setting approach supplied by the German statutory health insurance agencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, T; Riemann, K; Bockermann, C; Niederbühl, K; Wanek, V; Koch, U

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a routine evaluation system for all health promotion and education activities funded by the German statutory health insurance companies. The system aims at measuring both individual health effects and the complex organisational effects of setting projects. Measurement instruments were developed synoptically and tested in three field tests (2003-2008). In order to assess the impact of individual health training, 212 courses of the health insurance companies were evaluated. To assess the setting approach, 56 schools participating in a health-promotion project were included, and for workplace health-promotion 6 projects of different health insurance companies were included. The research design was an observational study. Instead of control groups, individual data were compared to reference values for gender- and age-matched groups from national health surveys. The studies consisted of baseline and final assessment (T1/T2), complemented by a follow-up (T3), all adapted to the time of intervention (i. e., 3-24 months for T1/T2 and 3-18 months for T2/T3). The evaluation system provides multilevel-measurement based upon validated questionnaires for health-related structures and processes in institutions, and for the participating individual's subjective health, health problems, health-related quality of life, workplace and institutional satisfaction. Controlling for central confounders is also possible (input and dosage, age, gender, educational background). Thus, short but valid measurement instruments of high usability are available to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention, health promotion and education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. OZI rule and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, M.A.; Zahed, I.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the effects of strangeness mixing in the QCD vacuum described as a quantum disordered phase of instantons and anti-instantons. We find that the constituent mass of the light quarks is a decreasing function of the current quark masses, and that its mass is almost insensitive to the value of the strange quark mass. Our results cannot account for a breach in the OZI rule in the vacuum. The relevance of this result for the amount of santi s pairs in the nucleon and the pion-nucleon sigma term is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Conclusion Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in

  6. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods: Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF (n=35 and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face (n=15, and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results: At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were

  7. "I am active": effects of a program to promote active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. "I am Active" is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31) or a control group (n=33). Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy), nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status), cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy), and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status). Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders.

  8. β-elemene inhibits tumor-promoting effect of M2 macrophages in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomu; Xu, Maoyi; Li, Na; Li, Zongjuan; Li, Hongye; Shao, Shujuan; Zou, Kun; Zou, Lijuan

    2017-08-19

    Macrophages in tumor are mostly M2-polarized and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). β-elemene has therapeutic effects against several cancers, however, it remains unknown whether β-elemene could inhibit cancer by targeting TAMs. Herein, we examined the effect of β-elemene on macrophages to elucidate a novel mechanism of β-elemene in tumor therapy. We showed that the conditioned medium of M2 macrophages promoted lung cancer cells to migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which could be inhibited by β-elemene. Moreover, β-elemene regulated the polarization of macrophages from M2 to M1. β-elemene also inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of lung cancer cells and enhanced its radiosensitivity. These results indicate β-elemene suppresses lung cancer by regulating both macrophages and lung cancer cells, it is a promising drug for combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.

  10. “I am active”: effects of a program to promote active aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Background Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. “I am Active” is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Methods Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31) or a control group (n=33). Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. Results At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy), nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status), cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy), and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status). Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Conclusion Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders. PMID:26005337

  11. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  12. Merging contemporary learning theory with mental health promotion to produce an effective schools-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Knight, Bruce Allen; Withyman, Cathie

    2017-07-01

    Approximately three quarters of all major mental disorders begin in adolescence. Finding ways to buffer against stress, access social support and connection and flexibly draw upon a range of coping mechanisms are vital strategies that young people can use to promote mental health and wellbeing and to navigate this turbulent life transition successfully. Within Australia, like other parts of the world such as the UK and the USA, it is a sad reality that when young people do become distressed they are not self-caring or supporting others effectively, and not seeking or receiving appropriate help. In order to respond proactively to this issue, a nurse-initiated mental health promotion program was developed. It is termed, iCARE, which stands for Creating Awareness, Resilience and Enhanced Mental Health. The aim of this paper is to discuss the underpinning educational theory that assists in developing in young people a sense of belonging, empathy, self-care and resilience, and why the strategies chosen to engage young people are likely to be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Radiosensitizing Effect of Valproic Acid in Differentiation Versus Self-Renewal Promoting Culture Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Xu Wei; Mok, Henry; Li Li; Robertson, Fredika; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, Jim; Lucci, Anthony; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that valproic acid (VA) enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and that breast cancer stem/progenitor cells can be resistant to radiation. From these data, we hypothesized that VA would fail to radiosensitize breast cancer stem/progenitor cells grown to three-dimensional (3D) mammospheres. Methods and Materials: We used the MCF7 breast cancer cell line grown under stem cell-promoting culture conditions (3D mammosphere) and standard nonstem cell monolayer culture conditions (two-dimensional) to examine the effect of pretreatment with VA on radiation sensitivity in clonogenic survival assays and on the expression of embryonic stem cell transcription factors. Results: 3D-cultured MCF-7 cells expressed higher levels of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. The 3D passage enriched self-renewal and increased radioresistance in the 3D mammosphere formation assays. VA radiosensitized adherent cells but radioprotected 3D cells in single-fraction clonogenic assays. Moreover, fractionated radiation sensitized VA-treated adherent MCF7 cells but did not have a significant effect on VA-treated single cells grown to mammospheres. Conclusion: We have concluded that VA might preferentially radiosensitize differentiated cells compared with those expressing stem cell surrogates and that stem cell-promoting culture is a useful tool for in vitro evaluation of novel cancer therapeutic agents and radiosensitizers.

  14. Effectiveness of subsidies in promoting healthy food purchases and consumption: a review of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2013-07-01

    To systematically review evidence from field interventions on the effectiveness of monetary subsidies in promoting healthier food purchases and consumption. Keyword and reference searches were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane Library, EconLit, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (i) intervention: field experiments; (ii) population: adolescents 12–17 years old or adults 18 years and older; (iii) design: randomized controlled trials, cohort studies or pre–post studies; (iv) subsidy: price discounts or vouchers for healthier foods; (v) outcome: food purchases or consumption; (vi) period: 1990–2012; and (vii) language: English. Twenty-four articles on twenty distinct experiments were included with study quality assessed using predefined methodological criteria. Interventions were conducted in seven countries: the USA (n 14), Canada (n 1), France (n 1), Germany (n 1), Netherlands (n 1), South Africa (n 1) and the UK (n 1). Subsidies applied to different types of foods such as fruits, vegetables and low-fat snacks sold in supermarkets, cafeterias, vending machines, farmers’ markets or restaurants. Interventions enrolled various population subgroups such as school/ university students, metropolitan transit workers and low-income women. All but one study found subsidies on healthier foods to significantly increase the purchase and consumption of promoted products. Study limitations include small and convenience samples, short intervention and follow-up duration, and lack of cost-effectiveness and overall diet assessment. Subsidizing healthier foods tends to be effective in modifying dietary behaviour. Future studies should examine its long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at the population level and its impact on overall diet intake.

  15. The impact of stress on tumor growth: peripheral CRF mediates tumor-promoting effects of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Efstathios N

    2010-09-01

    effect. Moreover, antalarmin suppressed neoangiogenesis in 4T1 tumors in vivo. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating that peripheral CRF, at least in part, mediates the tumor-promoting effects of stress and implicates CRF in SMAD2 and β-catenin expression.

  16. Flavonoid Profile of Saskatoon Berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a significant group of secondary metabolites in plants. Many of these compounds are potent antioxidants, being an important part in food products derived from the plants. The current status of research on flavonoid compounds in the fruit of Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and their health promoting effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed. The major classes of flavonoids in the fruit are flavonols (quercetin and rutin, flavanes (proanthocyanidin compounds ranging from dimers through to heptamers and even higher polymers and finally anthocyanins. The flavonoids represented the group of polyphenols that mostly contributed to the antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berries. High content of the flavoinoids antioxidants in the fruit is responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory, antidiadiabetic and chemo-protective effects.

  17. “I'll do it when the snow melts”: The effects of deadlines and delayed outcomes on rule-governed behavior in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Braam, Cassandra; Malott, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the control exerted by different types of rules on the behavior of preschool children. Four similar rules were presented to eight, four-year-old children, using a multielement design. The contingencies the rules described varied in the specification of deadlines and in the delays in the delivery of the reinforcers. The results showed (a) rules specifying only response requirements did not reliably control behavior, (b) rules specifying an immediate deadline with the immedi...

  18. Effects of pharmaceutical promotion on adherence to the treatment guidelines for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Julie M; Berndt, Ernst R; Rosenthal, Meredith; Epstein, Arnold M; Frank, Richard G

    2004-12-01

    We sought to examine the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) and pharmaceutical promotion to physicians on the likelihood that (1) an individual diagnosed with depression received antidepressant medication and that (2) antidepressant medication was used for the appropriate duration. A quasiexperimental design was used to examine treatment patterns of 30,621 depressed individuals whose insurance claims were included in the MarketScan database from 1997 through 2000. The main explanatory variables were spending on DTCA, detailing to physicians, and free samples for 6 antidepressant medications. Individuals diagnosed with depression during periods when class-level antidepressant DTCA spending was highest (cumulative spending more than US 18.5 million dollars) had 32% higher relative odds of initiating medication therapy compared with those diagnosed during periods when DTCA spending was lowest (P < 0.0001). Free samples of medications dispensed to physicians had no effect on odds of initiating antidepressant use. Class-level DTCA spending on antidepressants had a small positive effect on the duration of antidepressant use, whereas DTCA spending for the specific medication taken by an individual had no effect on treatment duration. Detailing spending at the class or product level had no significant effect on duration of treatment with an antidepressant medication. Our results suggest that DTCA of antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of people diagnosed with depression who initiated medication therapy. DTCA was associated with a small increase in the number of individuals treated with antidepressants who received the appropriate duration of therapy. Promotion to physicians was not associated with either the initiation of treatment with an antidepressant or with the duration of therapy.

  19. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  20. Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Christopher R; Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A

    2017-06-01

    Marketing techniques may improve children's vegetable consumption. However, student participation in the design of marketing materials may increase the material's salience, while also improving children's commitment and attitudes towards healthy eating. The impact of student-led design of vegetable promotional materials on choice and consumption was investigated using 1614 observations of students' vegetable choice and plate waste in four public elementary schools in Kearney, Nebraska. Data were collected on children's vegetable choice and consumption in four comparison groups: 1) control; 2) students designed materials only; 3) students were exposed to promotional materials only; and 4) students designed materials that were then posted in the lunchroom. Vegetable choice and consumption data were collected through a validated digital photography-based plate-waste method. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate average treatment effects of the conditions at various time periods. Dependent variables were vegetable choice and consumption, and independent variables included the condition, time period, and interaction terms, as well as controls for gender and grade. Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.001) when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2-3 months later ( p  < 0.05). Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected ( p  < 0.05), but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.01). Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

  1. Dynamic Effects of Topoisomerase I Inhibition on R-Loops and Short Transcripts at Active Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marinello

    Full Text Available Topoisomerase I-DNA-cleavage complexes (Top1cc stabilized by camptothecin (CPT have specific effects at transcriptional levels. We recently reported that Top1cc increase antisense transcript (aRNAs levels at divergent CpG-island promoters and, transiently, DNA/RNA hybrids (R-loop in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of colon cancer HCT116 cells. However, the relationship between R-loops and aRNAs was not established. Here, we show that aRNAs can form R-loops in N-TERA-2 cells under physiological conditions, and that promoter-associated R-loops are somewhat increased and extended in length immediately upon cell exposure to CPT. In contrast, persistent Top1ccs reduce the majority of R-loops suggesting that CPT-accumulated aRNAs are not commonly involved in R-loops. The enhancement of aRNAs by Top1ccs is present both in human colon cancer HCT116 cells and WI38 fibroblasts suggesting a common response of cancer and normal cells. Although Top1ccs lead to DSB and DDR kinases activation, we do not detect a dependence of aRNA accumulation on ATM or DNA-PK activation. However, we showed that the cell response to persistent Top1ccs can involve an impairment of aRNA turnover rather than a higher synthesis rate. Finally, a genome-wide analysis shows that persistent Top1ccs also determine an accumulation of sense transcripts at 5'-end gene regions suggesting an increased occurrence of truncated transcripts. Taken together, the results indicate that Top1 may regulate transcription initiation by modulating RNA polymerase-generated negative supercoils, which can in turn favor R-loop formation at promoters, and that transcript accumulation at TSS is a response to persistent transcriptional stress by Top1 poisoning.

  2. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows......This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  3. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-05

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time.

  4. Recall and Effectiveness of Messages Promoting Smoke-Free Policies in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karen M.; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Kostygina, Ganna; Langley, Ronald E.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Low-cost media campaigns increase demand for smoke-free policies in underserved rural areas. The study examined the impact of loss- and gain-framed smoke-free print ads on recall and perceived effectiveness in rural communities, controlling for personal characteristics. Methods: Following 6- to 9-month print media campaigns in three rural counties, recall and perceived effectiveness of loss-framed (ie, targeting dangers of secondhand smoke [SHS]) and gain-framed (ie, highlighting positive aspects of smoke-free air) ads were assessed using random-digit-dial phone surveys. Respondents were asked if they remembered each ad, whether they liked it, whether they were prompted to contact a smoke-free coalition, whether the ad made them think, and whether it prompted emotion. Mixed modeling assessed whether personal factors predicted ad recall or perceived effectiveness. Results: Loss-framed ads were less likely to be recalled but more likely to prompt emotion. For ads of both frame types, females reported greater recall and perceived effectiveness than males. Those with less education reported higher perceived effectiveness of the ads but lower recall. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to perceive the ads as effective. Knowledge of SHS risk and support for smoke-free workplaces were positively associated with recall and effectiveness. Conclusions: Ad recall and perceived effectiveness were associated with framing and demographic and personal characteristics. Smoke-free efforts in rural areas may be bolstered by continuing to promote benefits of smoke-free workplace policies and educate on SHS risks. Rural areas may need to provide a combination of ad types and framing strategies to appeal to a wide audience. Implications: Rural communities are disproportionately affected by SHS and less likely to be protected by smoke-free policies. This study adds evidence-based guidance for tailoring rural smoke-free media campaigns using different framing

  5. Recall and Effectiveness of Messages Promoting Smoke-Free Policies in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen M; Wiggins, Amanda T; Kostygina, Ganna; Langley, Ronald E; Hahn, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost media campaigns increase demand for smoke-free policies in underserved rural areas. The study examined the impact of loss- and gain-framed smoke-free print ads on recall and perceived effectiveness in rural communities, controlling for personal characteristics. Following 6- to 9-month print media campaigns in three rural counties, recall and perceived effectiveness of loss-framed (ie, targeting dangers of secondhand smoke [SHS]) and gain-framed (ie, highlighting positive aspects of smoke-free air) ads were assessed using random-digit-dial phone surveys. Respondents were asked if they remembered each ad, whether they liked it, whether they were prompted to contact a smoke-free coalition, whether the ad made them think, and whether it prompted emotion. Mixed modeling assessed whether personal factors predicted ad recall or perceived effectiveness. Loss-framed ads were less likely to be recalled but more likely to prompt emotion. For ads of both frame types, females reported greater recall and perceived effectiveness than males. Those with less education reported higher perceived effectiveness of the ads but lower recall. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to perceive the ads as effective. Knowledge of SHS risk and support for smoke-free workplaces were positively associated with recall and effectiveness. Ad recall and perceived effectiveness were associated with framing and demographic and personal characteristics. Smoke-free efforts in rural areas may be bolstered by continuing to promote benefits of smoke-free workplace policies and educate on SHS risks. Rural areas may need to provide a combination of ad types and framing strategies to appeal to a wide audience. Rural communities are disproportionately affected by SHS and less likely to be protected by smoke-free policies. This study adds evidence-based guidance for tailoring rural smoke-free media campaigns using different framing: gain-framed messages (ie, benefits of smoke-free environments) to

  6. Effectiveness of organisational infrastructures to promote evidence-based nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodgren, Gerd; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena; Cole, Nick; Foxcroft, David R

    2012-02-15

    Nurses and midwives form the bulk of the clinical health workforce and play a central role in all health service delivery. There is potential to improve health care quality if nurses routinely use the best available evidence in their clinical practice. Since many of the factors perceived by nurses as barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) lie at the organisational level, it is of interest to devise and assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures designed to promote EBP among nurses. To assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures in promoting evidence-based nursing. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, BIREME, IBECS, NHS Economic Evaluations Database, Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Indexes up to 9 March 2011.We developed a new search strategy for this update as the strategy published in 2003 omitted key terms. Additional search methods included: screening reference lists of relevant studies, contacting authors of relevant papers regarding any further published or unpublished work, and searching websites of selected research groups and organisations.  We considered randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted times series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies of an entire or identified component of an organisational infrastructure intervention aimed at promoting EBP in nursing. The participants were all healthcare organisations comprising nurses, midwives and health visitors. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. For the ITS analysis, we reported the change in the slopes of the regression lines, and the change in the level effect of the outcome at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. We included one study from the USA (re-analysed as

  7. The effectiveness of different interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours in households with children: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Cooper, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i) Medicines only, ii) Other household products only, iii) Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines), iv) Poisonous plants; and v) Possession of poison control centre (PCC) telephone number in households with children. Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model. 28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00) while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13), safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50) and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10). No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the poison

  8. The Effect of Straight-Line and Accelerated Depreciation Rules on Risky Investment Decisions—An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Ackermann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze how depreciation rules influence the decision behavior of investors. For this purpose, we conduct a laboratory experiment in which participants decide on the composition of an asset portfolio in different choice situations. Using an experimental setting with different payment periods, we show that accelerated compared to straight-line depreciation can increase the willingness to invest as hypothesized by theory. However, this expected behavior is only observed in a more complex environment (with a subsidy and not in a less complex environment (without a subsidy.

  9. Promoting health or promoting pleasure? A contingency approach to the effect of informational and emotional appeals on food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, L; Cantin, I

    2000-12-01

    Here, we suggest that the relative effectiveness of informational and emotional appeals in persuasive communications may depend on the dominant basis of attitude towards the focal item (affective or cognitive), and on the precise response being targeted (i.e. influencing affect-based food liking or cognitive-based consumption). Ninety-five participants (milk drinking adults) participated in an experiment in which they were presented with a persuasive communication promoting milk consumption. A mixed design combined as between-participants factors attitude bases (two: affective/cognitive) and persuasive appeals (two: informational/emotional) with, as a within-participants measure, types of effect (two: liking and consumption change intent). We also measured immediate feelings and thoughts responses to the communication. As expected, cognition-based attitudes were not sensitive to a match between persuasive appeals and types of effect. For affect-based attitudes, results confirmed the predicted superiority of a match between the affective and cognitive bases of the targeted responses and that of the persuasive appeal. Food liking was particularly sensitive to an emotional appeal while an informational appeal tended to be more influential on food consumption. The underlying mechanism of these effects and their implication for the practice of health promotion and food marketing are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere and their plant growth promoting effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnwal Arun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is increasing in agriculture and gives an appealing manner to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and dietary supplements. The objective of our research was to access the plant growth promotion traits of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis isolated from the maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere. In vitro studies showed that isolates have the potential to produce indole acetic acid (IAA, hydrogen cyanide, phosphate solubilisation, and siderophore. RNA analysis revealed that two isolates were 97% identical to P. aeruginosa strain DSM 50071 and P. aeruginosa strain NBRC 12689 (AK20 and AK31, while two others were 98% identical to P. fluorescens strain ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens strain IAM 12022 (AK18 and AK45 and one other was 99% identical to B. subtilis strain NCDO 1769 (AK38. Our gnotobiotic study showed significant differences in plant growth variables under control and inoculated conditions. In the present research, it was observed that the isolated strains had good plant growth promoting effects on rice.

  11. The implementation and effectiveness of school-based nutrition promotion programmes using a health-promoting schools approach: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate implementation and effectiveness of nutrition promotion programmes using the health-promoting schools (HPS) approach, to indicate areas where further research is needed and to make recommendations for practice in this field. The searched electronic databases included: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Health Reference Center, Informit Search, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Social Services Abstracts and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were: (i) controlled or before-and-after studies evaluating a nutrition intervention and involving the HPS approach, either fully or in part; (ii) provision of information about components and delivery of the intervention; and (iii) report on all evaluated outcomes. Schools. Students, parents and school staff. All included studies described intervention delivery and six reported on process evaluation. In intervention schools school environment and ethos were more supportive, appropriate curriculum was delivered and parents and/or the community were more engaged and involved. Students participated in interventions at differing levels, but the majority was satisfied with the intervention. The evidence indicates that nutrition promotion programmes using the HPS approach can increase participants' consumption of high-fibre foods, healthier snacks, water, milk, fruit and vegetables. It can also reduce participants' 'breakfast skipping', as well as reduce intakes of red food, low-nutrient dense foods, fatty and cream foods, sweet drinks consumption and eating disorders. It can help to develop hygienic habits and improved food safety behaviours. More professional training for teachers in the HPS approach, further qualitative studies, longer intervention periods, improved follow-up evaluations and adequate funding are required for future school-based nutrition promotion programmes.

  12. Effects of a promotor-based intervention to promote physical activity: Familias Sanas y Activas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2011-12-01

    This within-participants, single time-series study tested a train-the-trainer, promotor-based physical activity (PA) intervention to improve fitness and health indicators. Thirty unpaid promotores were trained to promote PA through free exercise classes. Measurements of 337 female community participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months assessed changes in health indicators, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), aerobic fitness, and hamstring flexibility, as well as self-reported health indicators (PA, depression) and psychosocial factors (barriers, self-efficacy, and social support-all specific to PA). Mixed effects models showed intervention participation improved systolic blood pressure (P ≤ .001), waist circumference (P ≤ .001), fitness (P ≤ .001), and hamstring flexibility (P ≤ .001). We also noted improvements in use of community resources (P ≤ .05), depressed mood and anhedonia (P ≤ .01), perceived barriers to be physically active (P ≤ .05), and community support for PA (P ≤ .001). Self-efficacy decreased (P ≤ .05), and participation dose (i.e., exposure), as measured by attendance at exercise classes, was not associated with observed changes. Promotores can promote PA in their community and achieve meaningful changes in the residents' health.

  13. Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction by a Cooperative Effect of Reactor Design and Titania Metal Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective process based on the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to face on the one hand, the crucial problem of environmental pollution, and, on the other hand, to propose an efficient way to product clean and sustainable energy sources has been developed in this work. Particular attention has been paid to the sustainability of the process by using a green reductant (water and TiO2 as a photocatalyst under very mild operative conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that the efficiency in carbon dioxide photoreduction is strictly related to the process parameters and to the catalyst features. In order to formulate a versatile and high performing catalyst, TiO2 was modified by oxide or metal species. Copper (in the oxide CuO form or gold (as nanoparticles were employed as promoting metal. Both photocatalytic activity and selectivity displayed by CuO-TiO2 and Au-TiO2 were compared, and it was found that the nature of the promoter (either Au or CuO shifts the selectivity of the process towards two strategic products: CH4 or H2. The catalytic results were discussed in depth and correlated with the physicochemical features of the photocatalysts.

  14. The Effect of Branding to Promote Healthy Behavior: Reducing Tobacco Use among Youth and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vallone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy interventions such as public health mass media campaigns disseminate messages in order to improve health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the population level. Only more recently have campaigns that promote health-related behaviors adopted branding, a well-established marketing strategy, to influence how consumers think and feel about a message. This study examines whether positive brand equity for the national truth® campaign is associated with lower likelihood of cigarette use over time using the nationally representative Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults, aged 15–21. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between brand equity and the likelihood of reporting past 30-day smoking over a 12-month period. Respondents who reported positive brand equity were significantly less likely to report past 30-day smoking 12 months later (OR = 0.66, p < 0.05, controlling for covariates known to influence tobacco use behavior. Findings also translate the effect size difference to a population estimate of more than 300,000 youth and young adults having been prevented from current smoking over the course of a year. Building brand equity is a strategic process for health promotion campaigns, not only to improve message recall and salience but also to influence behavioral outcomes.

  15. The Effect of Branding to Promote Healthy Behavior: Reducing Tobacco Use among Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna; Greenberg, Marisa; Xiao, Haijun; Bennett, Morgane; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Policy interventions such as public health mass media campaigns disseminate messages in order to improve health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the population level. Only more recently have campaigns that promote health-related behaviors adopted branding, a well-established marketing strategy, to influence how consumers think and feel about a message. This study examines whether positive brand equity for the national truth® campaign is associated with lower likelihood of cigarette use over time using the nationally representative Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults, aged 15–21. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between brand equity and the likelihood of reporting past 30-day smoking over a 12-month period. Respondents who reported positive brand equity were significantly less likely to report past 30-day smoking 12 months later (OR = 0.66, p < 0.05), controlling for covariates known to influence tobacco use behavior. Findings also translate the effect size difference to a population estimate of more than 300,000 youth and young adults having been prevented from current smoking over the course of a year. Building brand equity is a strategic process for health promotion campaigns, not only to improve message recall and salience but also to influence behavioral outcomes. PMID:29215555

  16. Preparation of chitosan-collagen-alginate composite dressing and its promoting effects on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haixia; Chen, Xiuli; Shen, Xianrong; He, Ying; Chen, Wei; Luo, Qun; Ge, Weihong; Yuan, Weihong; Tang, Xue; Hou, Dengyong; Jiang, Dingwen; Wang, Qingrong; Liu, Yuming; Liu, Qiong; Li, Kexian

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to prepare a composite dressing composed of collagen, chitosan, and alginate, which may promote wound healing and prevent from seawater immersion. Chitosan-collagen-alginate (CCA) cushion was prepared by paintcoat and freeze-drying, and it was attached to a polyurethane to compose CCA composite dressing. The swelling, porosity, degradation, and mechanical properties of CCA cushion were evaluated. The effects on wound healing and seawater prevention of CCA composite dressing were tested by rat wound model. Preliminary biosecurity was tested by cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. The results revealed that CCA cushion had good water absorption and mechanical properties. A higher wound healing ratio was observed in CCA composite dressing treated rats than in gauze or chitosan treated ones. On the fifth day, the healing rates of CCA composite dressing, gauze, and chitosan were 48.49%±1.07%, 28.02%±6.4%, and 38.97%±8.53%, respectively. More fibroblast and intact re-epithelialization were observed in histological images of CCA composite dressing treated rats, and the expressions of EGF, bFGF, TGF-β, and CD31 increased significantly. CCA composite dressing showed no significant cytotoxicity, and favorable hemocompatibility. These results suggested that CCA composite dressing could prevent against seawater immersion and promote wound healing while having a good biosecurity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. An Attentional Goldilocks Effect: An Optimal Amount of Social Interactivity Promotes Word Learning from Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima

    2016-01-01

    Television can be a powerful education tool; however, content-makers must understand the factors that engage attention and promote learning from screen media. Prior research suggests that social engagement is critical for learning and that interactivity may enhance the educational quality of children's media. The present study examined the effects of increasing the social interactivity of television on children's visual attention and word learning. Three- to 5-year-old ( M Age = 4;5 years, SD = 9 months) children completed a task in which they viewed videos of an actress teaching them the Swahili label for an on-screen image. Each child viewed these video clips in four conditions that parametrically manipulated social engagement and interactivity. We then tested whether each child had successfully learned the Swahili labels. Though 5-year-old children were able to learn words in all conditions, we found that there was an optimal level of social engagement that best supported learning for all participants, defined by engaging the child but not distracting from word labeling. Our eye-tracking data indicated that children in this condition spent more time looking at the target image and less time looking at the actress's face as compared to the most interactive condition. These findings suggest that social interactivity is critical to engaging attention and promoting learning from screen media up until a certain point, after which social stimuli may draw attention away from target images and impair children's word learning.

  18. Study on the Promotion Effect of Ionic Liquid on CH4 Hydrate Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ju-Young; Mun, Sungyong; Kang, Seong-Pil; Kim, Kisub

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the kinetics of gas hydrate formation in the presence of ionic liquid (IL). Hydroxyethyl-methyl-morpholinium chloride (HEMM-Cl) was chosen as a material for the promotion effect test. Phase equilibrium curve for CH 4 hydrate with aqueous IL solution was obtained and its induction time and consumed amount of CH 4 gas were also measured. Aqueous solutions containing 20-20,000 ppm of HEMM-Cl was prepared and studied at 70 bar and 274.15 K. To compare the measured results to those of the conventional promoter, sodium dodecyl sulfate was also tested at the same condition. Result showed that the hydrate equilibrium curve was shifted toward higher pressure and lower temperature region. In addition, the induction time on CH 4 hydrate formation in the presence of IL was not shown. The amount of consumed CH 4 was increased with the whole range of tested concentration of IL and the highest consumption of CH 4 happened at 1,000 ppm of HEMM-Cl. HEMM-Cl induced and enhanced the CH 4 hydrate formation with a small amount of addition. Obtained result is expected to be applied for the development of technologies such as gas storage and transport using gas hydrates

  19. Engineering of synthetic, stress-responsive yeast promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajkumar, Arun Stephen; Liu, Guodong; Bergenholm, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology and our understanding of the rules of promoter architecture have led to the development of diverse synthetic constitutive and inducible promoters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the design of promoters inducibleby specific endogenous or environmental conditions...

  20. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  1. CD14+ monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ding; Chen, Ke; Du, Wei Ting; Han, Zhi-Bo; Ren, He; Chi, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Here, the effect of CD14 + monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion capacities of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) as an important soluble mediator. CD14 + monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, either exogenously added or produced by CD14 + monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE 2 by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE 2 expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14 + monocytes and partially restored CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  2. Sum rules for collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma

  3. Marketing instruments of foreign trade promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate the application of these instruments countries have established national bodies for trade promotion. Many studies in the past had argued that national Agencies established to promote export did not had any real success, but recent studies indicate that they could have a significant impact on country export promotion. The result of this rise in impact of national export promotion agencies is due to international effort spearheaded by International Trade Center. The aim of this paper is to point out types and methods of marketing instruments application in trade promotion and to present the effectiveness of these instruments applications.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered

  5. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of television, radio and print advertisements in promoting the New York smokers' quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Hussin, Altijani; Bauer, Ursula E

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the relative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of television, radio and print advertisements to generate calls to the New York smokers' quitline. Regression analysis was used to link total county level monthly quitline calls to television, radio and print advertising expenditures. Based on regression results, standardised measures of the relative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of expenditures were computed. There was a positive and statistically significant relation between call volume and expenditures for television (padvertisements and a marginally significant effect for expenditures on newspaper advertisements (peffect was for television advertising. However, because of differences in advertising costs, for every $1000 increase in television, radio and newspaper expenditures, call volume increased by 0.1%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. Television, radio and print media all effectively increased calls to the New York smokers' quitline. Although increases in expenditures for television were the most effective, their relatively high costs suggest they are not currently the most cost effective means to promote a quitline. This implies that a more efficient mix of media would place greater emphasis on radio than television. However, because the current study does not adequately assess the extent to which radio expenditures would sustain their effectiveness with substantial expenditure increases, it is not feasible to determine a more optimal mix of expenditures.

  6. 76 FR 1201 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ..., and it is designed to promote just and equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and...), 75 FR 3594 (January 21, 2010) (Concept Release on Equity Market Structure, ``Concept Release''). In the Concept Release, the Commission has recognized the strong policy preference under the Act in favor...

  7. 75 FR 76505 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ..., 2010) (Concept Release on Equity Market Structure, ``Concept Release''). See also Mary L. Schapiro... believes that the inclusion of partial trading days \\7\\ may serve to improperly skew the operative... system which NASDAQ operates or controls, and it is designed to promote just and equitable principles of...

  8. Ce - promoted catalyst from hydrotalcites for CO2 reforming of methane: calcination temperature effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Daza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce-promoted Ni-catalysts from hydrotalcites were obtained. The effect of calcination temperature on the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts was studied. Several techniques were used to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of oxides. The apparent activation energies of reduction were determined. Catalytic experiments at 48 L g-1h-1 without pre-reduction in CO2 reforming of methane were performed. The spinel-like phase in these oxides was only formed at 1000 ºC. The reduction of Ni2+ in the oxides was clearly affected by the calcination temperature which was correlated with catalytic performance. The catalyst calcined at 700 ºC showed the greatest activity.

  9. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Snoijer, Mirjam; de Kok, Brenda P H; van Vilsteren, Jeroen; Hofstetter, Hedwig

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees' vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors' role on these outcomes. The 5-month intervention included activities at management, team, and individual level targeting self-management to perform healthy behaviors: a kick-off session, vitality training sessions, workshops, individual coaching, and intervision. Outcome measures were collected using questionnaires, health checks, and sickness absence data at baseline, after the intervention and at 10 months follow-up. For analysis linear and generalized mixed models were used. Vitality, work performance, sickness absence, and self-management significantly improved. Good organizational support and involved supervisors were significantly associated with lower sickness absence. Including all organizational levels and focusing on increasing self-management provided promising results for improving vitality, health, and work-related outcomes.

  10. Effect of asoka on the intracellular glutathione levels and skin tumour promotion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, C D; Nair, S C; Panikkar, B; Panikkar, K R

    1993-04-15

    The bark of Saraka asoca (asoka) is commonly used to treat various diseases by the Indian system of medicine and in Sri Lanka. Further purification and chemical analysis of the active compound from the bark extract of asoka showed that (-)-epicatechin was responsible for the observed antitumour/anticarcinogenic activity. Papilloma formation in mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted using croton oil was inhibited by the topical application of 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of (-)-epicatechin isolated from asoka bark extract. Oral administration of the same dose restricted the growth of s.c. injected 20 methylcholanthrene (MCA) induced soil tissue fibrosarcomas significantly in mice. Elevations of almost 2-4-fold in the intracellular reduced glutathione and related enzymes viz., glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase of sarcoma-180 tumour cells were noted in the presence of 1 microgram/ml of (-)-epicatechin, further highlighting its antiproliferative effect.

  11. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Dejgård Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%–25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000–94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND’s emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND) based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%–25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000–94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND’s emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed. PMID:26133129

  14. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  15. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  16. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent with its caption, the text of the rule controls. [Order 376, 49 FR 21705, May 23, 1984] ...

  17. “I am active”: effects of a program to promote active aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Elva Dolores Arias-Merino2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonala Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Public Health Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Health Sciences, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico Background: Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. “I am Active” is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Methods: Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31 or a control group (n=33. Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. Results: At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy, nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status, cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy, and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status. Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Conclusion: Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders. Keywords: active aging, successful aging, intervention program, randomized controlled trial

  18. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network; final rule revision of comment period and effective dates--HRSA. Extension of comment period and delay of effective date for the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This document sets forth the revisions required by the Fiscal Year 1998 Supplemental Appropriations Act, Public Law 105-174, signed into law by the President on May 1, 1998. Section 4002 of that Act states that public comments on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Final Rule are permitted until August 31, 1998, and that the OPTN rule will not become effective before October 1, 1998. This document is provided to notify the public about these provisions and to make corresponding changes to the regulation.

  19. To the Federal Trade Commission in the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule on Food/Nutrition Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B.

    Food advertising and its effects on children are discussed in this document petitioning the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to amend a proposed rule on food promotion for the benefit of children under twelve. Extensive information is presented on television food commercials and their influence on children's nutritional beliefs and eating habits.…

  20. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  1. Assessing the effects of data selection and representation on the development of reliable E. coli sigma 70 promoter region predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M Abbas

    Full Text Available As the number of sequenced bacterial genomes increases, the need for rapid and reliable tools for the annotation of functional elements (e.g., transcriptional regulatory elements becomes more desirable. Promoters are the key regulatory elements, which recruit the transcriptional machinery through binding to a variety of regulatory proteins (known as sigma factors. The identification of the promoter regions is very challenging because these regions do not adhere to specific sequence patterns or motifs and are difficult to determine experimentally. Machine learning represents a promising and cost-effective approach for computational identification of prokaryotic promoter regions. However, the quality of the predictors depends on several factors including: i training data; ii data representation; iii classification algorithms; iv evaluation procedures. In this work, we create several variants of E. coli promoter data sets and utilize them to experimentally examine the effect of these factors on the predictive performance of E. coli σ70 promoter models. Our results suggest that under some combinations of the first three criteria, a prediction model might perform very well on cross-validation experiments while its performance on independent test data is drastically very poor. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating promoter region predictors using independent test data, which corrects for the over-optimistic performance that might be estimated using the cross-validation procedure. Our analysis of the tested models shows that good prediction models often perform well despite how the non-promoter data was obtained. On the other hand, poor prediction models seems to be more sensitive to the choice of non-promoter sequences. Interestingly, the best performing sequence-based classifiers outperform the best performing structure-based classifiers on both cross-validation and independent test performance evaluation experiments. Finally, we propose a

  2. 组织情绪规则影响情绪耗竭的作用机制%The Effects of Emotional Display Rules on Emotion Exhaustion:The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor and the Moderating Role of Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 王冰; 张芬芳

    2016-01-01

    In service industry, employees'emotion displaying exerts influence on customers'satisfaction, their own per-formance and exhaustion.How an employee express his or her emotion is not only motivated by his own true emotion but also is directed by emotion display rules of the organization.Two kinds of emotional rules, which are expressing positive emotion and inhibiting negative emotion, give burden to ones'emotional sources and cause effect on ones'e-motional exhaustion.Therefore, we hypothesized that expressing emotional displaying rules have positive relation with exhaustion.Emotional labor has direct relation with exhaustion and emotional display.We hypothesized that e-motional labor mediated the relation between inhibiting negative emotion rule and exhaustion, and the relation be-tween expressing positive emotion rule and exhaustion.Rule commitment predict positively whether one perform the rules or not.Only one performs emotional displaying rules of the organization, emotional displaying may have effect on emotion exhaustion.Therefore, rule commitment moderated the relation between emotional displaying rules and exhaustion, and the relation between emotional displaying rules and emotional labor. We established a model presenting the emotional labor's mediating role and rule commitment's moderating role above.Structural equation model was used to test the hypothesis.Consistent with predictions, the results showed that inhibiting negative emotion rules can positively predict emotion exhaustion, and surface labor can positively predict emotion exhaustion.Meanwhile, surface labor mediated the relation between inhibiting negative emotion rules and exhaustion.However, expressing positive emotion rules can not predict emotion exhaustion, and surface labor do not mediated the relation between expressing positive emotion and emotion exhaustion.Commitment to emotion rules can not predict emotion exhaustion.Meanwhile, commitment to emotion rules moderate the relation

  3. Effect of resident evaluations of obstetrics and gynecology faculty on promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Diana S; Stalburg, Caren M; Xu, Xiao; Dewald, Samantha R; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2013-12-01

    Promotion for academic faculty depends on a variety of factors, including their research, publications, national leadership, and quality of their teaching. We sought to determine the importance of resident evaluations of faculty for promotion in obstetrics-gynecology programs. A 28-item questionnaire was developed and distributed to 185 department chairs of US obstetrics-gynecology residency programs. Fifty percent (93 of 185) responded, with 40% (37 of 93) stating that teaching has become more important for promotion in the past 10 years. When faculty are being considered for promotion, teaching evaluations were deemed "very important" 60% of the time for clinician track faculty but were rated as mainly "not important" or "not applicable" for research faculty. Sixteen respondents (17%) stated a faculty member had failed to achieve promotion in the past 5 years because of poor teaching evaluations. Positive teaching evaluations outweighed low publication numbers for clinical faculty 24% of the time, compared with 5% for research faculty and 8% for tenured faculty being considered for promotion. The most common reason for rejection for promotion in all tracks was the number of publications. Awards for excellence in teaching improved chances of promotion. Teaching quality is becoming more important in academic obstetrics-gynecology departments, especially for clinical faculty. Although in most institutions promotion is not achieved without adequate research and publications, the importance of teaching excellence is obvious, with 1 of 6 (17%) departments reporting a promotion had been denied due to poor teaching evaluations.

  4. Effect of Trichoderma on horticultural seedlings' growth promotion depending on inoculum and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, J I; Rodríguez-Romera, P; Lupión-Rodríguez, B; Camacho-Ferre, F; Tello-Marquina, J C

    2016-10-01

    The biostimulant effect of Trichoderma spp. on horticultural crops are highly variable. Thus, practical use of Trichoderma sp. requires feasible formulated products and suitable substrates. This study evaluates the survival and the growth-promotion effect of a Trichoderma saturnisporum rice formulation compared with a nonformulated conidia suspension (seven treatments in total), on tomato, pepper and cucumber seedlings grown in two substrates: (i) rich in organic matter (OM) and (ii) mineral substrate without OM. The results showed beneficial effects on seedling growth in the OM-rich substrate when T. saturnisporum rice formulation (mainly at maximum concentration) was applied, but the effects were opposite when the mineral substrate without OM was used. The effects were closely linked to the level of inoculum in the substrate, which was greater upon application of the formulated inoculum as opposed to the nonformulated one. The use of rice to prepare the inoculum of T. saturnisporum seems to be promising for seedling growth in the nursery when it is applied in a substrate that is rich in organic matter, but it must be considered that under certain conditions of food shortage, Trichoderma sp. could show pathogenicity to seedlings. This study provides evidence of the complexity inherent in the use of micro-organisms in agriculture, while also confirming that the activity of the biofertilizers based on Trichoderma depends on the type of inoculum and its concentration, as well as the properties of the medium in which the fungi develop. Further studies assessing the effectiveness or possible pathogenicity of Trichoderma in different soils under greenhouse conditions must be addressed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Effects of a Program to Promote High Quality Parenting by Divorced and Separated Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin; Gunn, Heather; Mazza, Gina; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Berkel, Cady; Jones, Sarah; Porter, Michele

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the effects on parenting and on children's mental health problems and competencies from a randomized trial of a parenting program for divorced and separated fathers. The program, New Beginnings Program-Dads (NBP-Dads), includes ten group sessions (plus two phone sessions) which promote parenting skills to increase positive interactions with children, improve father-child communication, use of effective discipline strategies, and skills to protect children from exposure to interparental conflict. The program was adapted from the New Beginnings Program, which has been tested in two randomized trials with divorced mothers and shown to strengthen mothers' parenting and improve long-term outcomes for children (Wolchik et al. 2007). Fathers were randomly assigned to receive either NBP-Dads or a 2-session active comparison program. The sample consisted of 384 fathers (201 NBP-Dads, 183 comparisons) and their children. Assessments using father, youth, and teacher reports were conducted at pretest, posttest, and 10-month follow-up. Results indicated positive effects of NBP-Dads to strengthen parenting as reported by fathers and youth at posttest and 10-month follow-up. Program effects to reduce child internalizing problems and increase social competence were found at 10 months. Many of the program effects were moderated by baseline level of the variable, child age, gender, and father ethnicity. This is the first randomized trial to find significant effects to strengthen father parenting following divorce. In view of recent changes in family courts to allot fathers increasing amounts of parenting time following divorce, the results have significant implications for improving outcomes for children from divorced families.

  6. Effect of actions promoting healthy eating on students' lipid profile: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutrition intervention actions on the lipid profile of children and adolescents enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: This nine-month, controlled, intervention study included 202 students aged 7 to 14 years attending two schools (intervention/control located in a poor neighborhood of the municipality of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Actions were implemented in the intervention school to promote healthy eating habits, presented as "Ten steps to healthy eating". The effect of these actions was assessed by subjecting the students at baseline and end of the follow-up to biochemical, maturation, and anthropometric measurements and a produce intake survey. The dependent variables were the changes in the study biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of covariance assessed the changes that occurred over the study period. RESULTS: The mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides of the intervention students decreased 13.18 mg/dL (p=0.001, 7.41 mg/dL (p=0.038, and 12.37 mg/dL (p=0.029, respectively, compared with the control students. CONCLUSION: Actions of this nature have a positive impact on lipid profile. This study adds to those that use effective and viable public health strategies implementable at the primary care level.

  7. Do participant characteristics influence the effectiveness of behavioral interventions? Promoting condom use to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legardy, Jennifer K; Macaluso, Maurizio; Artz, Lynn; Brill, Ilene

    2005-11-01

    This study assessed whether participant baseline characteristics modified the effects of a skill-based intervention promoting condom use. The randomized, controlled trial enrolled 427 women from a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Birmingham, Alabama. The main outcome measures: consistent (100%) and problem-free (correct, no breakage or slippage) condom use were verified by sexual diary self-report and contraceptive product counts. The enhanced intervention group had a 60% higher consistent condom use rate compared to the basic group (risk ratio [RR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-1.8). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in relationship to problem-free, consistent use (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.1). A binomial regression analysis identified the following factors as significant modifiers of intervention effectiveness on consistent condom use: intention to use condoms next time, early-age sexual debut, marital status combined with place of intercourse, and substance use before sex. The results suggest that participant baseline characteristics can be modifiers of intervention effectiveness.

  8. From oil spills to barley growth - oil-degrading soil bacteria and their promoting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Reinhard, Anne; Alimbetova, Anna; Omirbekova, Anel; Pasler, Lisa; Schumann, Peter; Kabisch, Johannes; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2016-11-01

    Heavy contamination of soils by crude oil is omnipresent in areas of oil recovery and exploitation. Bioremediation by indigenous plants in cooperation with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is an economically and ecologically feasible means to reclaim contaminated soils. To study the effects of indigenous soil bacteria capable of utilizing oil hydrocarbons on biomass production of plants growing in oil-contaminated soils eight bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soils in Kazakhstan and characterized for their abilities to degrade oil components. Four of them, identified as species of Gordonia and Rhodococcus turned out to be effective degraders. They produced a variety of organic acids from oil components, of which 59 were identified and 7 of them are hitherto unknown acidic oil metabolites. One of them, Rhodococcus erythropolis SBUG 2054, utilized more than 140 oil components. Inoculating barley seeds together with different combinations of these bacterial strains restored normal growth of the plants on contaminated soils, demonstrating the power of this approach for bioremediation. Furthermore, we suggest that the plant promoting effect of these bacteria is not only due to the elimination of toxic oil hydrocarbons but possibly also to the accumulation of a variety of organic acids which modulate the barley's rhizosphere environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cost effectiveness of a telephone intervention to promote dilated fundus examination in adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde B Schechter

    2008-05-01

    , but would cost approximately 17% less. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the 5th and 95th percentiles of the cost-effectiveness ratio were US$304.05 and US$692.52 per DFE gained, respectively. Our telephone intervention is more expensive than simple mail or telephone reminders used in other settings to promote preventive care; it is, however, also considerably more effective, and is effective in a low-income minority population at greater risk for diabetes complications. The costs are dominated by labor costs, and may be substantially defrayed, without loss of effectiveness, by restricting the number of telephone calls to 5 per patient.Keywords: cost-effectiveness, diabetes mellitus, dilated fundus examination

  10. Inhibitory effect of Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus carrying P53 gene against gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Sun, Bin; An, Ni; Tan, Weifeng; Cao, Lu; Luo, Xiangji; Yu, Yong; Feng, Feiling; Li, Bin; Wu, Mengchao; Su, Changqing; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2011-12-01

    Gene therapy has become an important strategy for treatment of malignancies, but problems remains concerning the low gene transferring efficiency, poor transgene expression and limited targeting specific tumors, which have greatly hampered the clinical application of tumor gene therapy. Gallbladder cancer is characterized by rapid progress, poor prognosis, and aberrantly high expression of Survivin. In the present study, we used a human tumor-specific Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus vector carrying P53 gene, whose anti-cancer effect has been widely confirmed, to construct a wide spectrum, specific, safe, effective gene-viral therapy system, AdSurp-P53. Examining expression of enhanced green fluorecent protein (EGFP), E1A and the target gene P53 in the oncolytic adenovirus system validated that Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus had high proliferation activity and high P53 expression in Survivin-positive gallbladder cancer cells. Our in vitro cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that AdSurp-P53 possessed a stronger cytotoxic effect against gallbladder cancer cells and hepatic cancer cells. The survival rate of EH-GB1 cells was lower than 40% after infection of AdSurp-P53 at multiplicity of infection (MOI) = 1 pfu/cell, while the rate was higher than 90% after infection of Ad-P53 at the same MOI, demonstrating that AdSurp-P53 has a potent cytotoxicity against EH-GB1 cells. The tumor growth was greatly inhibited in nude mice bearing EH-GB1 xenografts when the total dose of AdSurp-P53 was 1 × 10(9) pfu, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) revealed that the apoptotic rate of cancer cells was (33.4 ± 8.4)%. This oncolytic adenovirus system overcomes the long-standing shortcomings of gene therapy: poor transgene expression and targeting of only specific tumors, with its therapeutic effect better than the traditional Ad-P53 therapy regimen already on market; our system might be used for patients with advanced gallbladder cancer and

  11. Sex-specific effects of TLR9 promoter variants on spontaneous clearance of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Janett; Weber, Alexander N R; Böhm, Stephan; Dickhöfer, Sabine; El Maadidi, Souhayla; Deichsel, Danilo; Knop, Viola; Klinker, Hartwig; Möller, Bernd; Rasenack, Jens; Wang, Lisa; Sharma, Manu; Hinrichsen, Holger; Spengler, Ulrich; Buggisch, Peter; Sarrazin, Christoph; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Wiese, Manfred; Probst-Müller, Elsbeth; Malinverni, Raffaele; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Gardiner, Clair; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Berg, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    As pathogen sensors, Toll-like receptors (TLR) play a role in the first defence line during HCV infection. However, the impact of the DNA sensor TLR9 on the natural course of HCV infection is unknown. To address this, TLR9 promoter polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) rs187084 and rs5743836 were investigated for their effect on disease progression. Therefore, the TLR9 SNPs and the interferon lambda 4 ( IFNL4 ) rs12979860 were genotyped in chronically HCV type 1 infected (n=333), in patients who spontaneously cleared the infection (n=161), in the Swiss HCV cohort (n=1057) and the well-characterised German (n=305) and Irish (n=198) 'anti-D' cohorts. Functional analyses were done with promoter reporter constructs of human TLR9 in B cells and assessing TLR9 mRNA levels in whole blood of healthy volunteers. The TLR9 rs187084 C allele was associated with spontaneous virus clearance in women of the study cohort (OR=2.15 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.90) p=0.012), of the Swiss HCV cohort (OR=2.06 (95% CI 1.02 to 4.18) p=0.044) and in both 'anti-D' cohorts (German: OR=2.01 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.55) p=0.016; Irish: OR=1.93 (95% CI 1.10 to 3.68) p=0.047). Multivariate analysis in the combined study and Swiss HCV cohorts supported the results (OR=1.99 (95% CI 1.30 to 3.05) p=0.002). Functional analyses revealed higher transcriptional activities for both TLR9 variants and an association of the C allele of rs5743836 with allele-specific TLR9 mRNA regulation by oestrogens in women. TLR9 promoter SNPs are associated with the natural course of HCV infection and show higher transcriptional activities. Our results imply the DNA sensor TLR9 in natural immunity against the RNA virus, HCV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. [Effect of simvastatin on inducing endothelial progenitor cells homing and promoting bone defect repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Quansheng; Wang, Lingying; Zhu, Jinglin; Han, Xiaoguang; Li, Xu; Yang, Yanlin; Sun, Yan; Song, Chunli

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effect of simvastatin on inducing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) homing and promoting bone defect repair, and to explore the mechanism of local implanting simvastatin in promoting bone formation. Simvastatin (50 mg) compounded with polylactic acid (PLA, 200 mg) or only PLA (200 mg) was dissolved in acetone (1 mL) to prepare implanted materials (Simvastatin-PLA material, PLA material). EPCs were harvested from bone marrow of 2 male rabbits and cultured with M199; after identified by immunohistochemistry, the cell suspension of EPCs at the 3rd generation (2 x 10(6) cells/mL) was prepared and transplanted into 12 female rabbits through auricular veins (2 mL). After 3 days, the models of cranial defect with 15 cm diameter were made in the 12 female rabbits. And the defects were repaired with Simvastatin-PLA materials (experimental group, n=6) and PLA materials (control group, n=6), respectively. The bone repair was observed after 8 weeks of operation by gross appearance, X-ray film, and histology; gelatin-ink perfusion and HE staining were used to show the new vessels formation in the defect. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to show the EPCs homing at the defect site. All experimental animals of 2 groups survived to the end of the experiment. After 8 weeks in experimental group, new bone formation was observed in the bone defect by gross and histology, and an irregular, hyperdense shadow by X-ray film; no similar changes were observed in control group. FISH showed that the male EPC containing Y chromosome was found in the wall of new vessels in the defect of experimental group, while no male EPC containing Y chromosome was found in control group. The percentage of new bone formation in defect area was 91.63% +/- 4.07% in experimental group and 59.45% +/- 5.43% in control group, showing significant difference (P < 0.05). Simvastatin can promote bone defect repair, and its mechanism is probably associated with inducing EPCs

  13. Effects of Promotional Materials on Attitudes and Fear towards Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese Older Adults: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris Y P; Chen, Joanne M T; Lou, Vivian W Q; Wong, Eliza M L; Chan, Aileen W K; So, Winnie K W; Chan, Carmen W H

    2017-07-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy. However, the promotion of CRC screening for older adults may be difficult because reading CRC prevention information may evoke embarrassment, fear, and anxiety towards the screening procedure and cancer diagnosis. This study aims to (1) examine the effects of three promotional materials for CRC screening on the attitudes toward CRC screening tests (screening interest, screening effectiveness, and trust in the screening results) and cancer fear, and (2) to explore the interaction effect of cancer fear with screening effectiveness and trust in the screening results on screening interest of the three screening tests (fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) among Chinese older adults. A total of 114 community-dwelling older adults were asked to look at the corresponding promotional materials (pamphlet, cartoon, and video) of one of the three study groups. The pamphlet and video represent convention strategies and the cartoon represents an innovative strategy. No significant difference was observed in the screening interest and cancer fear across groups. FOBT was the most preferred screening modality. The video group has a large proportion agreed screening effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy than pamphlet and cartoon groups and trusted in the screening results for FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy than the pamphlet group. Logistic regression results showed that the effect of trust in the screening results on screening interest for colonoscopy was greater among participants with higher cancer fear than those with lower cancer fear level. In conclusion, the three promotional groups had produced similar results in their attitudes toward CRC screening and cancer fear. The use of cartoons may be a comparable approach with conventional methods in the promotion of CRC screening. Additional components that can arouse fear and boost response efficacy

  14. CISH promoter polymorphism effects on T cell cytokine receptor signaling and type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Julia; Ahlert, Heinz; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Baechle, Christina; Roden, Michael; Holl, Reinhard W; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas; Jacobsen, Marc

    2018-02-06

    Impaired regulatory T cell immunity plays a central role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for regulatory T cells (T REG ), and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) regulates IL-2R signaling as a feedback inhibitor. Previous studies identified association of CISH promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to infectious diseases. Here we analyzed allele frequencies of three CISH SNPs (i.e., rs809451, rs414171, rs2239751) in a study of T1D patients (n = 260, onset age  10 years). Minor allele frequencies were compared to a control cohort of the 1000 Genomes Project. Assigned haplotypes were determined for effects on T1D manifestation and severity. Finally, the CISH haplotype influence on cytokine signaling and function was explored in T cells from healthy donors. We detected similar minor allele frequencies between T1D patients and the control cohort. T1D onset age, residual serum C-peptide level, and insulin requirement were comparable between different haplotypes. Only minor differences between the haplotypes were found for in vitro cytokine (i.e., IL-2, IL-7)-induced CIS mRNA expression. STAT5 phosphorylation was induced by IL-2 or IL-7, but no differences were found between the haplotypes. T REG purified from healthy donors with the two most common haplotypes showed similar capacity to inhibit heterologous effector T cells. This study provides no evidence for an association of CISH promoter SNPs with susceptibility to T1D or severity of disease. In contrast to previous studies, no influence of different haplotypes on CIS mRNA expression or T cell-mediated functions was found.

  15. Worksite health and safety climate: scale development and effects of a health promotion intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basen-Engquist, K; Hudmon, K S; Tripp, M; Chamberlain, R

    1998-01-01

    Environmental influences on health and health behavior have an important place in research on worksite health promotion. We tested the validity and internal consistency of a new measure of organizational health and safety climate that was used in a large randomized trial of a worksite cancer prevention program (the Working Well Trial). The resulting scales then were applied to assess intervention effects. This study uses data from a subset of 40 worksites in the Working Well Trial. Employees at 20 natural gas pipeline worksite and 20 rural electrical cooperatives completed a cross-sectional questionnaire at baseline and 3-year follow-up. A factor analysis of this self-report instrument produced a two-factor solution. The resulting health and safety climate scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.74 and 0.82, respectively) and concurrent validity. The health climate scale was correlated more highly with organizational measures that were indicative of a supportive health climate than those indicating supportive safety climate, while the reverse was true of the safety climate scale. Changes in health climate were associated with the number of smoking and smokeless tobacco programs offered at the worksites at the time of the 3-year follow-up (r = 0.46 and 0.42, respectively). The scales were not correlated with most employee health behaviors. The health climate scores increased at intervention worksites, compared with scores at control worksites (F[1,36] = 7.57, P = 0.009). The health and safety climate scales developed for this study provide useful instruments for measuring organizational change related to worksite health promotion activities. The Working Well Intervention resulted in a significant improvement in worksite health climate.

  16. Productivity and Economic Effects of Antibiotics Used for Growth Promotion in U.S. Pork Production

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gay Y.; Algozin, Kenneth A.; McNamara, Paul E.; Bush, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    Public health experts are concerned about the diminishing efficacy of antibiotics. Some have called for a ban on growth-promoting antibiotics in animal agriculture. This study identifies the contribution of growth-promoting antibiotics in the grower/finisher phase of U.S. pork production. With National Animal Health Monitoring System swine data, relationships are estimated between growth-promoting antibiotic use and productivity. Results indicate improvements in average daily gain (0.5%), fee...

  17. Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Hughes, Dyfrig; Linck, Pat; Russell, Ian; Woods, Bob

    2010-08-01

    Promoting the mental well-being of older people has been neglected. To examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on mental well-being in people aged 65+. Systematic review, meta-analysis, economic model. Reports published in English, identified by searching 25 databases, 11 websites and references lists of systematic reviews. Eligible studies were those with a comparison or control group or offering qualitative evidence; exercise and physical activity interventions for people aged 65 and above living at home, in the community, in supported housing or in residential care homes; including outcome measures of mental well-being, not simply measures of depression or anxiety. Low-quality studies were excluded from the data synthesis. An overall effect of exercise on mental well-being was found (standardised effect size = 0.27; CI = 0.14-0.40). The included interventions were designed for older people, targeted those who are sedentary and delivered in a community setting, primarily through a group-based approach led by trained leaders. As a minimum, the evidence would suggest two exercise sessions per week, each of 45 min duration. There is some indication that exercise can also improve the mental well-being of frail elders. Economic evidence indicated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (compared with minimal intervention) of pound 7300 and pound 12,100 per quality adjusted life year gained for community-based walking and exercise programmes, respectively. Mental well-being in later life is modifiable through exercise and physical activity. To generalise the findings, there is a need for more evidence of effectiveness from older people in the UK.

  18. CD14{sup +} monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ding, E-mail: qqhewd@gmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ke, E-mail: chenke_59@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Du, Wei Ting, E-mail: duwtpumc@yahoo.com.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); Han, Zhi-Bo, E-mail: zhibohan@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Ren, He, E-mail: knifesharp2000@hotmail.com [National Engineering Research Center of Cell Products, AmCellGene Co. Ltd, TEDA, Tianjin (China); Chi, Ying, E-mail: caizhuying@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union of Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin (China); and others

    2010-09-10

    Here, the effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) secretion capacities of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) as an important soluble mediator. CD14{sup +} monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1{beta}, either exogenously added or produced by CD14{sup +} monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE{sub 2} by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE{sub 2} expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes and partially restored CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell proliferation and IFN-{gamma} secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  19. School Physical Education: The Effectiveness of Health-Related Interventions and Recommendations for Health-Promotion Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitério, Ana Luísa Dias

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of physical education (PE) interventions designed to foster health features among school-aged children, and to present a qualitative perspective of the different approaches that are most effective in promoting health among youth. Design: Systematic review. Method: An extensive electronic literature search was…

  20. Music and Moral Judgment: The Effect of Background Music on the Evaluation of Ads Promoting Unethical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Hoftman, Moran; Geyer, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Background music is often used in ads as a means of persuasion. Previous research has studied the effect of music in advertising using neutral or uncontroversial products. The aim of the studies reported here was to examine the effect of music on the perception of products promoting unethical behavior. Each of the series of three studies described…