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Sample records for rufotuberculatus hemiptera reduviidae

  1. Hallazgo de Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae en ambiente domiciliario en la Región Piura, Perú Intra-domiciliary capture of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in Piura, Peru

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    Edgard Marín

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus presenta una amplia distribución en América Central y del Sur con un comportamiento de especie silvestre. En el Perú ha sido registrado en Tumbes, Piura y Cuzco, siendo descrito en casas de localidades de este último departamento. En el presente trabajo se documenta evidencia de domiciliación de P. rufotuberculatus en la localidad de Chirinos-La Pareja, Distrito de Suyo, Provincia de Ayabaca, Región Piura, Perú (4º46'S, 79º93'W. Se capturaron 28 especímenes: 3 ninfas II, 4 ninfas III, 2 ninfas IV, 8 ninfas V, 3 machos y 8 hembras, lo que evidencia la existencia de una colonia intradomiciliar en "cuyeros" (criaderos de Cavia porcellus camas y paredes del dormitorio de la vivienda. Exámenes parasitológicos de heces evacuadas espontáneamente fueron negativos a infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi. A pesar de que se ha reportado la presencia de P. rufotuberculatus en localidades de Tumbes y Piura, es la primera vez que se documenta su tendencia sinantrópica en la Región. La importancia de esta especie y posteriores investigaciones permitirán evaluar su etología y potencial vectorial de trypanosomiasis americana. Se recomienda una cuidadosa actividad de vigilancia entomo-epidemiológica para esta especie y las otras que coexisten simpátricamente, actualmente en esta región del norte de Perú.Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Peru, it has been found in Tumbes, Piura, and Cuzco. The authors report the presence of P. rufotuberculatus in Chirinos-La Pareja, Suyo district, Ayabaca Province, Piura Region, Peru. Twenty-eight specimens were collected in two of 15 dwellings: three 2nd instar, four 3rd instar, two 4th instar, and eight 5th instar nymphs, three male and eight female, in an intra-domiciliary colony of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, raised indoors as a source of diet protein and beds and bedroom walls. None of the fecal samples were naturally

  2. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

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    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs.

  3. Systematics of Mepraia (Hemiptera-Reduviidae): cytogenetic and molecular variation.

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    Calleros, L; Panzera, F; Bargues, M D; Monteiro, F A; Klisiowicz, D R; Zuriaga, M A; Mas-Coma, S; Pérez, R

    2010-03-01

    The haematophagous insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) have great epidemiological importance as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Mepraia was originally described as a monotypic genus comprised of Mepraia spinolai, distributed along coastal areas of northern Chile (from Region I to the Metropolitan Region). Recently, some M. spinolai populations have been ranked as a new species named Mepraia gajardoi. Several populations along the distribution range of the genus were sampled, and genetic differentiation was studied based upon the analysis of three molecular markers: cytogenetics (karyotype and chromosome behaviour during meiosis using the C-banding technique), mitochondrial DNA (a cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment), and nuclear ribosomal DNA (intergenic region including the two internal transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene). The data here presented indicate that populations within the Mepraia genus (excluding Region II specimens) can be divided into two separate lineages. One lineage is comprised of specimens from the northernmost Region I and represents M. gajardoi. The other includes samples from the southern III, IV and the Metropolitan Regions, and represents M. spinolai. Region II individuals deserve particular attention as their relationship to the two identified lineages is not clear-cut. While they appear to belong to M. spinolai based on cytogenetics and rDNA markers, COI results indicate a closer relationship to M. gajardoi. This disagreement can be due to mitochondrial DNA introgression or the retention of ancestral polymorphisms.

  4. Cytogenetics and genome evolution in the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

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    Panzera, F; Pérez, R; Panzera, Y; Ferrandis, I; Ferreiro, M J; Calleros, L

    2010-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease, includes over 140 species. Karyotypic information is currently available for 80 of these species. This paper summarizes the chromosomal variability of the subfamily and how it may reveal aspects of genome evolution in this group. The Triatominae present a highly conserved chromosome number. All species, except 3, present 20 autosomes. The differences in chromosome number are mainly caused by variation in the number of sex chromosomes, due to the existence of 3 sex systems in males (XY, X(1)X(2)Y and X(1)X(2)X(3)Y). However, inter- and intraspecific differences in the position, quantity and meiotic behavior of constitutive heterochromatin, in the total genome size, and in the location of ribosomal 45S rRNA clusters, have revealed considerable cytogenetic variability within the subfamily. This cytogenetic diversity offers the opportunity to perform cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, as well as structural, evolutionary, and functional analyses of the genome. The imminent availability of the complete genome of Rhodnius prolixus also opens new perspectives for understanding the evolution and genome expression of triatomines. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for the mapping of genes and sequences, as well as comparative analyses of genome homology by comparative genomic hybridization will be useful tools for understanding the genomic changes in relation to evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation to different environments.

  5. Application of RNA interference in triatomine(Hemiptera:Reduviidae)studies

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    Rafaela M.M.Paim; Ricardo N.Araujo; Michael J.Lehane; Nelder F.Gontijo; Marcos H.Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Triatomines(Hemiptera: Reduviidae)are obligate hematophagous insects.They are of medical importance because they are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi,the causative agent of Chagas disease in the Americas.In recent years,the RNA interference (RNAi)technology has emerged as a practical and useful alternative means of studying gene function in insects,including triatomine bugs.RNAi research in triatomines is still in its early stages,several issues still need to be elucidated,including the description of the molecules involved in the RNAi machinery and aspects related to phenotype evaluation and persistence of the knockdown in different tissues and organs.This review considers recent applications of RNAi to triatomine research,describing the major methods that have been applied during the knockdown process such as the double-stranded RNA delivery mechanism(injection,microinjection,or ingestion)and the phenotype characterization (mRNA and target protein levels)in studies conducted with the intent to provide greater insights into the biology of these insects.In addition to the characterization of insect biomolecules,some with biopharmacological potential,RNAi may provide a new view of the interaction between triatomine and trypanosomatids,enabling the development of new measures for vector control and transmission of the parasite.

  6. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

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    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  7. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  8. Comparative biology of the two sister species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Biologia comparativa de duas espécies irmãs de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Ana Laura Carbajal de la Fuente

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae are two Brazilian vectors of Chagas disease. The first is an arboricolous species in sylvatic environment and considered a vector of T. cruzi in peridomestic structures; the second, a rupicolous species in the wild environment of no epidemiological importance. In order to test the assumption that sister species share biological traits, comparative studies of their development cycle and blood ingestion were conducted. METHODS: Eggs laid by five field females of each species were randomly selected. The nymphs were observed daily and fed on mice weekly. The time required to pass through the different stages to adulthood was recorded in days. The triatomines were weighed individually before and after feeding. The mortality rate according to each nymphal stage was calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results shows that they display only minor biological differences even though they exhibit a distinct ecology. This suggests that the biological traits are important criteria to determine the relationship between species.INTRODUÇÃO: Triatoma pseudomaculata e T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae são dois vetores Brasileiros da doença de Chagas. A primeira é uma espécie arborícola em ambiente silvestre e considerada vetor do T. cruzi em estruturas peridomesticas. A segunda é rupícola em ambientes silvestres e sem importância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de testar a hipótese que espécies irmãs compartilham características semelhantes, realizamos um estudo comparativo do ciclo biológico e ingesta alimentar. MÉTODOS: Ovos pertencentes a cinco fêmeas de cada espécie provenientes do campo foram selecionados aleatoriamente. As ninfas foram observadas diariamente e alimentadas com camundongos semanalmente. O tempo requerido para passar até o estágio adulto foi registrado em dias. Os triatomíneos foram pesados

  9. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

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    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  10. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae.

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    Silvia A Justi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae.We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly.We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region.

  11. Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Marcio B. P. Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the methanolic fraction of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae (PALAM on individuals of the species Rhodnius nasutus Stål (Hemiptera, Triatominae. Many of the insects treated with the substance presented deformities and these may interfere in the feeding and possibly hinder the reproductive capacity. They also presented significant mortality during the molt when compared to the control group, noting a gradual increase in mortality. The treated insects also presented delayed nymphal development (5th instar and higher adult longevity.

  12. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

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    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. PMID:27759763

  13. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

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    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects.

  14. First record of Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini in Riohacha, La Guajira – Colombia

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    Edith Natalia Gómez-Melendro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiologic agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective. To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results. 79.6% (n = 90 of the specimens were collected around the homes and 20.3% (n = 23 inside the homes, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848. The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion. This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira.

  15. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Vanessa Bellini Bardella

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae.

  16. Genetic variability of Triatoma flavida and Triatoma bruneri (Hemiptera: Reduviidae by RAPD-PCR technique

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    Jorge Fraga

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae contains the principal and potential Chagas disease vectors present in Mexico, Central America and South America. Triatoma flavida and T. bruneri are Cuban species. These species are closely related according to morphology and were considered synonyms until 1981, when they were separated on the grounds of external characters of the body and the morphology of male genitalia. The present study seeks to analyze genetic polymorphism of T. flavida and T. bruneri populations using RAPD techniques, and to assess the genetic relationship between these species. Ten random primers were used to evaluate the genetic variability among species using RAPD-PCR. The genetic flow among them was calculated. The dendrogram based on calculated Jaccard distances showed two clearly distinguishable clusters which coincided with the studied species. Within each species, moderate genetic differentiation (Fst 0.05-0.15 and migration rates (N > 1 were found among populations, that reveal gene flow and genetic homogeneity. Between species, the Fst value showed a high genetic differentiation and the migration rate was insufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity, and confirmed the absence of gene flow between them. Our results confirm the genetic variability among T. flavida and T. bruneri species.

  17. Genetic variability of Triatoma flavida and Triatoma bruneri (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) by RAPD-PCR technique.

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    Fraga, Jorge; Rodriguez, Jinnay; Fuentes, Omar; Hernández, Yenin; Castex, Mayda; Gonzalez, Raul; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé

    2011-01-01

    The Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) contains the principal and potential Chagas disease vectors present in Mexico, Central America and South America. Triatoma flavida and T. bruneri are Cuban species. These species are closely related according to morphology and were considered synonyms until 1981, when they were separated on the grounds of external characters of the body and the morphology of male genitalia. The present study seeks to analyze genetic polymorphism of T. flavida and T. bruneri populations using RAPD techniques, and to assess the genetic relationship between these species. Ten random primers were used to evaluate the genetic variability among species using RAPD-PCR. The genetic flow among them was calculated. The dendrogram based on calculated Jaccard distances showed two clearly distinguishable clusters which coincided with the studied species. Within each species, moderate genetic differentiation (Fst 0.05-0.15) and migration rates (N > 1) were found among populations, that reveal gene flow and genetic homogeneity. Between species, the Fst value showed a high genetic differentiation and the migration rate was insufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity, and confirmed the absence of gene flow between them. Our results confirm the genetic variability among T. flavida and T. bruneri species.

  18. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

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    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  19. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

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    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-06-03

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  20. Description of the male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo, and comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini).

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    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Galvão, Cleber

    2013-12-13

    The male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo are described and illustrated for the first time. Comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky are presented (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini). A discussion on previous data in the literature on male genitalia of species of Belminus Stål is provided.

  1. Cinco especies nuevas de Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini para México Five new species of Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico

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    Harry Brailovsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 5 especies nuevas de Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae recolectadas en México (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora y Tamaulipas y en los Estados Unidos de América (Arizona. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey se registra por primera vez para la República Mexicana. Se ilustran caracteres diagnósticos del pronoto, del borde posterior del segmento abdominal VII, de la cápsula genital del macho (pigóforo y parámeros. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies basada principalmente en los genitales masculinos.Five new species of Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco,Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora and Tamaulipas and from the United States of America (Arizona are described. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey is a new record for Mexico. Diagnostic taxonomic characters of pronotum, posterior border of abdominal segment VII, male genital capsule (pygophore and parameres are illustrated. An identification key based mainly on the male genitalia is included.

  2. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

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    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  3. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae: insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

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    Wei Song Hwang

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp. and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies to date based on molecular data (5 markers. This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma, but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma. The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of

  4. [Development of Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 fed on mice and through a silicone membrane (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)].

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    Rocha, D da S; da Fonseca, A H; Costa, F A; Jurberg, J; Galvão, C

    1997-01-01

    Rhodnius pictipes (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) from Serra Norte, State of Pará, Brazil, acclimatized in an insectary at the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, were fed through a silicone membrane. In order to know the viability and the efficiency of this membrane compared with insects fed on mice, the number of bloodmeals taken, period of development of the five nymphal instars, longevity of adults, average amount of blood intake in each meal and percent of mortality were observed. A total of 310 insects, were used, comprising 50 nymphs of each instar, as well as 30 male and 30 female adults. Insects fed artificially had reduced minimal and maximal periods of development than the group fed on mice. The largest relative increase of body weight was observed in the 2nd instar followed by the 1st, and the amount of blood ingested increased during the development, to the 5th instar for both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups fed artificially and in vivo according to Tukey's test for p > 0.05. The percent of mortality in the 1st instar was 18% for artificially fed and 16% for the group fed on mice; these percentages decreased as insects developed until the 4th instar, without mortality, returning to increase in the 5th instar. R. pictipes was shown to be easily adaptable to artificial feeding, and could be considered as an important and viable experimental model.

  5. First observation of alternative food usage (extrafloral nectar by the assassin bug Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.

  6. Resin gathering in neotropical resin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): functional and comparative morphology.

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    Forero, Dimitri; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Weirauch, Christiane

    2011-02-01

    Apiomerini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) collect plant resins with their forelegs and use these sticky substances for prey capture or maternal care. These behaviors have not been described in detail and morphological structures involved in resin gathering, transfer, and storage remain virtually undocumented. We here describe these behaviors in Apiomerus flaviventris and document the involved structures. To place them in a comparative context, we describe and document leg and abdominal structures in 14 additional species of Apiomerini that represent all but one of the 12 recent genera in the tribe. Based on these morphological data in combination with the behavioral observations on A. flaviventris, we infer behavioral and functional hypotheses for the remaining genera within the tribe Apiomerini. Setal abdominal patches for resin storage are associated with maternal care so far only documented for species of Apiomerus. Based on the occurrence of these patches in several other genera, we propose that maternal care is widespread within the tribe. Ventral abdominal glands are widespread within female Apiomerini. We propose that their products may prevent hardening of stored resins thus providing long-term supply for egg coating. Judging from the diverse setal types and arrangements on the front legs, we predict six different behavioral patterns of resin gathering within the tribe.

  7. Chromosomal variation, macroevolution and possible parapatric speciation in Mepraia spinolai (Porter (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Frias Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepraia spinolai is an endemic species in Chile that lives in wild and domestic habitats. It is the only species of the Reduviidae family that shows alate polymorphism; females are always wingless, but males can be found with and without wings. The M. spinolai karyotype consists of 10 pairs of autosomes and a complex sex determination system. Males from the northernmost regions I and II (latitude 18°-26° South are always winged (braquipterous and are X1X2Y, with a large Y chromosome. From region III to the metropolitan region (latitude 26°-33° South, males may be either winged or wingless but appear to be polymorphic for a small neo-Y chromosome, which may have originated by fracture of the large holocentric Y chromosome found in populations from farther north. Experimental crosses suggest that the genes for wings are linked in the Y chromosome and also that there are two cytologically indistinguishable types of neo-Y chromosomes. One form (Y1 bears a gene or genes for wings while the other (Y2 lacks such genes. Males that are X1X2Y1, X1X2Y1Y1 and X1X2Y1Y2 are winged, while the absence of Y1 (X1X2Y2 and X1X2Y2Y2 results in a wingless male. These chromosomes and morphological changes are correlated with a shift of the southern population into more arid habitats of the interior in the metropolitan region and region III.

  8. A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens.

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    Zhang, Guanyang; Hart, Elwood R; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The New World assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini) is revised based on more than 10,000 specimens. Seventy-one species are recognized and twenty-four described as new: Zelus aithaleos sp. n., Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus antiguensis sp. n., Zelus auralanus sp. n., Zelus bahiaensis sp. n., Zelus banksi sp. n., Zelus casii sp. n., Zelus championi sp. n., Zelus cordazulus sp. n., Zelus fuliginatus sp. n., Zelus gilboventris sp. n., Zelus gracilipes sp. n., Zelus grandoculus sp. n., Zelus kartaboides sp. n., Zelus lewisi sp. n., Zelus panamensis sp. n., Zelus paracephalus sp. n., Zelus rosulentus sp. n., Zelus russulumus sp. n., Zelus spatulosus sp. n., Zelus truxali sp. n., Zelus umbraculoides sp. n., Zelus umbraculus sp. n., and Zelus xouthos sp. n. Five species, Zelus araneiformis Haviland, 1931, Zelus gradarius Bergroth, 1905, Zelus modestus (Stål, 1862), Zelus subfasciatus Stål, 1860 and Zelus vittaticeps Stål, 1866, are removed from Zelus and placed incertae sedis within Harpactorini. Nine new synonyms are recognized (senior synonym in parentheses): Zelus atripes Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus conjungens [Stål, 1860]), Zelus dispar Fabricius, 1803 syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris Fabricius, 1803), Zelus formosus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål, 1860) syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris), Zelus pallidinervus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus kartabensis Haviland, 1931), Zelus personatus Berg, 1879 syn. nov. (=Zelus versicolor Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848), Zelus trimaculatus Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus means Fabricius, 1803), Zelus trimaculicollis (Stål, 1855) syn. nov. (=Zelus means), and Zelus tristis Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis). Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860) stat. rev. Is resurrected from junior synonymy with zealous armillatus (Lepeletier & Seville, 1825). Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 stat. rev. and Zelus

  9. A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens

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    Hart, Elwood R; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The New World assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini) is revised based on more than 10,000 specimens. Seventy-one species are recognized and twenty-four described as new: Zelus aithaleos sp. n., Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus antiguensis sp. n., Zelus auralanus sp. n., Zelus bahiaensis sp. n., Zelus banksi sp. n., Zelus casii sp. n., Zelus championi sp. n., Zelus cordazulus sp. n., Zelus fuliginatus sp. n., Zelus gilboventris sp. n., Zelus gracilipes sp. n., Zelus grandoculus sp. n., Zelus kartaboides sp. n., Zelus lewisi sp. n., Zelus panamensis sp. n., Zelus paracephalus sp. n., Zelus rosulentus sp. n., Zelus russulumus sp. n., Zelus spatulosus sp. n., Zelus truxali sp. n., Zelus umbraculoides sp. n., Zelus umbraculus sp. n., and Zelus xouthos sp. n. Five species, Zelus araneiformis Haviland, 1931, Zelus gradarius Bergroth, 1905, Zelus modestus (Stål, 1862), Zelus subfasciatus Stål, 1860 and Zelus vittaticeps Stål, 1866, are removed from Zelus and placed incertae sedis within Harpactorini. Nine new synonyms are recognized (senior synonym in parentheses): Zelus atripes Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus conjungens [Stål, 1860]), Zelus dispar Fabricius, 1803 syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris Fabricius, 1803), Zelus formosus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål, 1860) syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris), Zelus pallidinervus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus kartabensis Haviland, 1931), Zelus personatus Berg, 1879 syn. nov. (=Zelus versicolor Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848), Zelus trimaculatus Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus means Fabricius, 1803), Zelus trimaculicollis (Stål, 1855) syn. nov. (=Zelus means), and Zelus tristis Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis). Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860) stat. rev. Is resurrected from junior synonymy with zealous armillatus (Lepeletier & Seville, 1825). Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 stat. rev

  10. Embryology of Triatoma infestans (KLUG, (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, a Chagas' disease vector Embriología del Triatoma infestans, vector de la enfermedad de Chagas

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    Laura E. Fichera

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the embryogenesis of T. infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae. Morphological parameters of growth sequences from oviposition until hatching (12-14 d 28ºC were established. Five periods, as percent of time of development (TD, were characterized from oviposition until hatching. The most important morphological features were: 1 formation of blastoderm within 7% of TD; 2 germ band and gastrulation within 30% of TD; 3 nerve cord, limb budding, thoracic and abdominal segmentation and formation of body cavity within 50% of TD; 4 nervous system and blastokinesis end, and development of embryonic cuticle within 65% of TD; 5 differentiation of the mouth parts, fat body, and Malphigian tubules during final stage and completion of embryo at day 12 to day 14 around hatching. These signals were chosen as appropriate morphological parameters which should enable the evaluation of embryologic modifications due to the action/s of different insecticidesEn este estudio se caracterizó el desarrollo embrionario del T. infestans (Hemiptera Reduviidae. Se establecieron parámetros morfológicos secuenciales de crecimiento desde la oviposición hasta la eclosión, (12-14 d 28ºC. Cinco períodos de crecimiento fueron determinados y expresados como fracciones porcentuales del tiempo total del desarrollo (TD hasta la eclosión. Los eventos morfológicos mas importantes fueron: 1 La formación del blastodermo hasta el 7% del TD; 2 La aparición de la banda germinativa y su gastrulación transcurridos un 30% del TD; 3 El comienzo de la formación del cordón nervioso, de las extremidades, la segmentación torácica y abdominal y la formación del mixocele cuando la embriogénesis alcanzó el 50% del TD; 4 La terminación de la blastoquinesis, el desarrollo completo del sistema nervioso y la aparición de la cutícula embrionaria hasta el 65% del TD; 5 En la etapa final de la embriogenesis se observó la diferenciación del aparato mandibular, el cuerpo graso

  11. Fauna Triatominae do Estado de Bahia, Brasil.V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini Triatomidae fauna of the State of Bahia, Brazil. V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. - Hemiptera,Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolderini

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. de Hemíptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini, é descrita no presente trabalho com base em um exemplar coletado em domicílio da cidade do Salvador, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. A espécie se distingue facilmente das outras conhecidas do gênero, principalmente por apresentar asas sem manchas e conexivo com largas manchas claras e escuras alternadas.Microtriatoma pratai n. sp. (Hemíptera, reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini is described from a single specimen collected inside a house in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species is easily distinguished from the others belonging to the genus principally by the existence of alternating broad light and dark coloured spots on the connexivum and the absence of spots on the hemelytra.

  12. Comparative study of enzymes in testes and ovaries from adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Correlation with fine structural organization

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    PY Scaraffia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of hexokinase (HK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK, glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes.

  13. Genetic Relationships and Spatial Genetic Structure Among Populations of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia and Venezuela Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome-b Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Marín, K P; Angulo-Silva, V M; Hernández-Torres, J; Ruiz-García, M

    2016-11-26

    One hundred twenty Rhodnius prolixus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens from 6 Colombian Departments and 1 Venezuelan State had 594-bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene sequenced to improve the understanding of evolutionary processes that shape the main vector of Chagas disease. The levels of genetic diversity for this species were low-medium with reference to other bugs. The genetic heterogeneity among the populations was very limited which means there has been extensive gene flow and/or very recent split processes. The overall sample as well as some individual populations showed evidence of recent population expansions (with the exception of Arauca, which yielded evidence of a bottleneck for a mismatch distribution). This expansion (11,000 or 2000-25,000 year ago depending of two procedures employed) coincides with the ending of the last intense glacial conditions during the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene that had a warmer and wetter climate. Some of our autocorrelation analyses (AIDA and Genetic Landscape Interpolation Analysis) indicated local patches of high genetic similarity but no globally significant spatial structure. We did show an original haplotype distributed throughout the entirety of the geographical area studied.

  14. Análise das relações taxonômicas e sistemáticas entre espécies de triatomíneos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) de colônias mantidas pelo Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara, inferida de seqüências de genes mitocondriais

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Ceretti Junior

    2008-01-01

    Os insetos da subfamília Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), também conhecidos como barbeiros, constituem um grupo amplamente distribuído pela região Neotropical que comporta hoje, 142 espécies ocorrentes e uma fóssil, distribuídas em 18 gêneros, são insetos hematófagos estritos em todas as fases da vida e reconhecidos vetores da Doença de Chagas. Essa enfermidade é considerada um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde na América Latina, com cerca de...

  15. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

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    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Vassena, Claudia V; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans.All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  16. Miridae, Reduviidae and Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera collected in Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Iberá watershed, Corrientes, Argentina Reduviidae, Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera recolectados en Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Esteros de Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

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    María C. Melo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of contributing to the knowledge of the biodiversity in the protected areas of Argentina, terrestrial Heteroptera were collected in the Natural Reserve of the Iberá. The sampling site was the locality of Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57° 09'W and the following collection methods were used: sweeping, beating, fogging and light-trapping. A list is presented, with 90 species belonging to the superfamilies Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae, and Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae and Rhyparochromidae, 13 of them are new records for the Argentine Republic (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis, Oncopeltus luctuosus, Ischnodemus gayi, Oedancala nana, Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus, Pseudopachybrachius vinctus and 36 new records for the province of Corrientes.Con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad en las áreas protegidas de la Argentina, se realizaron recoleccciones de Heteroptera terrestres en la Reserva Natural del Iberá. El sitio de muestreo fue la localidad de Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57°09'W y se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de recoleccion: rastreo, golpeteo, fogging y trampa de luz. Se presenta una lista con 90 especies pertenecientes a las superfamilias Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae y Rhyparochromidae, de las cuales 13 representan primeras citas para la República Argentina (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis , Oncopeltus luctuosus , Ischnodemus gayi , Oedancala nana , Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus

  17. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

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    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  18. Distribuição Geográfica e Dispersão Alti-latitudinal de Alguns Gêneros e Espécies da Tribo Triatomini Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Galvão Cleber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Distribution and Alti-latitudinal Dispersion of Some Genera and Species of the Tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae - With the currently known distribution of genera and species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, maps and diagrams were prepared, showing the geographical area occupied by the species and their respective dispersion in grades of latitude and altitude. Two genera are not treated: Panstrongylus Berg, 1879, already published and Triatoma Laporte, 1832, that is being published partially in several articles. Genus Eratyrus Stal, 1859, has two species, while Dipetalogaster Usinger, 1939, Mepraia Mazza, Gajardo & Joerg, 1940, Paratriatoma Barber, 1938 and recently created genus Hermanlentia Jurberg & Galvão, 1997, have only one each. The study of these maps and diagrams permits a better knowledge about some ecological requirements of Chagas' disease vectors and detects gaps in the geographical distribution, where the species were not found but probably they could be prevalent

  19. Alguns aspectos da biologia de Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964, em condições de laboratório (Hemiptera:Reduviidae:Triatominae

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    Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Biology of Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964, under Laboratory Conditions (Hemiptera:Reduviidae:Triatominae - Observations were made on the evolutive cycle of Triatoma pseudomaculata, held under laboratory conditions, fed weekly on bird (pigeon. Of 60 eggs obtained, only 34 nymphs reached the adult stage in a period of X(S=398±76 days. The following parameters were observed: the time immature stages took to develop from egg to adult emergence; the occurrence of the first meal; the time-lapse between the presenting of the blood-meal and the begining of feeding; time of feeding; amount of blood ingested; variation of weight 24 hr after the blood-meal and until the next blood-meal; and the defecation pattern. The experiment was carried out for 20 months, held in BOD incubator with the average of temperature and humidity of 28±1ºC and 80±5% RU, respectively

  20. Nuclear rDNA-based molecular clock of the evolution of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease

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    Bargues MD

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history and times of divergence of triatomine bug lineages are estimated from molecular clocks inferred from nucleotide sequences of the small subunit SSU (18S and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these reduviids. The 18S rDNA molecular clock rate in Triatominae, and Prosorrhynchan Hemiptera in general, appears to be of 1.8% per 100 million years (my. The ITS-2 molecular clock rate in Triatominae is estimated to be around 0.4-1% per 1 my, indicating that ITS-2 evolves 23-55 times faster than 18S rDNA. Inferred chronological data about the evolution of Triatominae fit well with current hypotheses on their evolutionary histories, but suggest reconsideration of the current taxonomy of North American species complexes.

  1. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

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    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  2. Entomological and ecological aspects of six sylvatic species of triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae from the collection of the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, Central America

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    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 797 specimens of wild adult triatomines, belonging to six species from the entomological collections of the Costa Rican National Biodiversity Institute, was studied from the standpoint of their relative abundance, as reflected by light traps, distribution in the country, seasonal variations and climatic and altitudinal preferences. Triatoma dimidiata was the most abundant species (32.9% of the total specimens, with a very extensive distribution in different ecological zones, being more common between 100 to 400 m above sea level mainly at the end of the dry season. T. dispar was the third in frequency (21.5%, with narrower distribution, more abundant between 600 to 800 m and scarce during the dry season. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. rufotuberculatus, second and fourth in frequency (22.1% and 15.1%, respectively, were widely distributed on both the Pacific and Caribbean basins, the former being more common between 80 to 270 m all year round and the latter below 800 m mainly during the first semester. Eratyrus cuspidatus which represented only 4.9% of the insects, was also present on both basins mainly below 200 m with a tendency to be scarce during certain months of the year, and was found in all types of ecological zones. Finally, Rhodnius pallescens, the least abundant species (3.6% was restricted to very humid areas below 20 m, on the north side and Caribbean basin. With the exception of R. pallescens, males were more commonly found than females. Some epidemiological implications related to the six species are discussed.

  3. Sinopse dos Chryxinae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Synopsis of the Chryxinae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma sinopse da taxonomia dos Chryxinae com chaves para os gêneros e espécies da subfamília são apresentados. Chryxus bahianus sp. nov. e o macho de Wygodzinskyella travassosi (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1944 são descritos.Synopsis of the Chryxinae with keys to the genera and species of the subfamily are presented. Chryxus bahianus sp. nov. and the male of Wygodzinskyella travassosi (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1944 are described.

  4. Behavioural Response of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to Quinazolines

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    E. Zerba

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavioural responses of the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans towards some previously identified components of its faeces: 4-methylquinazoline, 2,4- dimethylquinazoline and their mixtures were evaluated using a video tracking system. Fifth instar nymphs and females but not males were significantly attracted to polyethylene glycol formulations of 4-methyl + 2,4-dimethylquinazoline (50 μg each. Fifth instar nymphs were also attracted to 4-methylquinazoline alone (50 μg but females were only attracted by the mixture of both methyl quinazolines (50 μg each. Syntheses of both methyl quinazolines were carried out starting from 2-aminoacetophenone by modifying the conditions of reported procedures.

  5. Simplified membrane feeding of bloodsucking triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

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    Duarte, Glennyha F; Macedo, Dayane B; Luz, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory-reared hematophagous triatomines that are the main vectors of Chagas disease are generally fed on small vertebrates or on blood-filled membrane devices. Such devices allow a large-scale rearing of these vectors without sacrificing host animals but are almost always expensive, fragile, not easily purchased, and usually difficult to use because they need to be sterilized before and carefully cleaned after each feeding. We present here a simple device to feed triatomines that is composed of a circular series of alternating short pieces of stainless steel and silicon tubing connected to a pump that circulates water heated at 50° C in a water bath. An unlubricated condom filled with 50ml of blood, is fixed around each steel tube section and placed onto the screened tops of containers with triatomines. Nymphs and adults access the blood source by climbing a vertical piece of folded filter paper. After feeding, each condom can be easily and safely removed and discarded. This device consists of simple, cheap, safe and robust components that can be easily purchased, assembled and used. Contamination during or after feeding is practically excluded. The technique is successfully used in our Laboratory for almost two years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae salivary gland cells

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    Fernanda F Rocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants of salivary cultures contained mainly 16-24 kDa proteins and presented anticoagulant and apyrase activities. Secretion vesicles were observed budding from the cellular monolayer of the main salivary canal cells. These results indicate that R. prolixus salivary proteins may be produced in vitro and suggest that the main salivary canal may have a possible secretory role.

  7. Impacts of 2 species of predatory Reduviidae on bagworms in oil palm plantations.

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    Jamian, Syari; Norhisham, Ahmad; Ghazali, Amal; Zakaria, Azlina; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-04-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is widely practiced in commercial oil palm agriculture. This management system is intended to minimize the number of attacks by pest insects such as bagworms on crops, as well as curb economic loss with less dependency on chemical pesticides. One practice in IPM is the use of biological control agents such as predatory insects. In this study, we assessed the response of predatory natural enemies to pest outbreak and water stress, and document the habitat associations of potential pest predators. The abundances of 2 predatory insect species, namely Sycanus dichotomus and Cosmolestes picticeps (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), were compared bagworm outbreak sites and nonoutbreak sites within oil palm plantations. We also examined habitat characteristics that influence the abundances of both predatory species. We found that the abundance of C. picticeps was significantly higher in bagworm outbreak sites than in nonoutbreak sites. There were no significant differences in the abundance of S. dichotomus among outbreak and non-outbreak sites. Both species responded negatively to water stress in oil palm plantations. Concerning the relationship between predatory insect abundance and in situ habitat quality characteristics, our models explained 46.36% of variation for C. picticeps and 23.17% of variation for S. dichotomus. Both species of predatory insects thrived from the planting of multiple beneficial plants in oil palm plantations. The results suggest that C. picticeps can be used as a biological agent to control bagworm populations in oil palm plantations, but S. dichotomus has no or little potential for such ecosystem service. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Descrição de ovos e ninfas de Triatoma klugi (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Description of eggs and nymphs of Triatoma klugi (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    José Jurberg

    Full Text Available Os autores descreveram as características morfológicas de Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão, 2001 pertencente ao grupo de espécies que compõem o "complexo T. oliveirai". Até o presente tem sido difícil separar essas espécies com base nas características ninfais, o que justifica o desenvolvimento deste trabalho. Os espécimes foram coletados em frestas de rochas no morro Malavok na localidade de Linha Brasil, município de Nova Petrópolis, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O local de captura dos triatomíneos situa-se entre 700 e 800 m de altitude (29º18'38''S, 51º04'57''W. Juntamente com T. oliveirai (Neiva, Pinto & Lent, 1939, espécie morfologicamente mais próxima, são as únicas do complexo que não foram encontradas, até o momento, no Estado do Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás, Brasil. Em condições experimentais, já foi testada e comprovada a sua susceptibilidade à infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 e Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. A análise comparativa das ornamentações do exocório dos ovos e de três estádios ninfais de T. klugi por microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou algumas particularidades morfológicas, com destaque para: a face ventral da cabeça, o sulco estridulatório e os últimos segmentos abdominais (IX, X - futura genitália e XI - tubo anal. Esses dados contribuem para a ampliação dos parâmetros diferenciais visando à diagnose de T. klugi durante o seu desenvolvimento ninfal.The authors had described the morphologic characteristics of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão, 2001 to the group of species belonging to "T. oliveirai complex". Until the moment it has been difficult to separate on the nymphs characteristics basis these species, what it justifies the development of this work. The specimens had been collected in openings of rocks in the Malavok mount in the locality of Linha Brazil, city of Nova Petrópolis, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The local of capture of the Triatominae is placed enters 700 and 800 m of altitud (29º18'38''S, 51º04'57''W. Together with T. oliveirai (Neiva, Pinto & Lent, 1939, its morphologically related species, is the only ones of the complex that had not been found, until the moment, in the State of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, Brazil. In experimental conditions, already it was tested and proven its susceptibilities to the infection for Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 and Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. The comparative analysis of the ornaments of the exocorium of eggs and of three nymphs of T. klugi by optic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed some morphologic particularities, with prominence for: the ventral face of the head, the stridulatory sulcus and the last abdominal segments (IX, X - future genitalia and XI - anal duct. These data contribute for the magnifying of the distinguishing parameters aiming at diagnosis of T. klugi during its nymphal development.

  9. Triatoma melanosoma, novo status para Triatoma infestans melanosoma Martinez, Olmedo & Carcavallo, 1987 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Triatoma melanosoma, new status for Triatoma infestans melanosoma Martinez, Olmedo & Carcavallo, 1987 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Herman Lent

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans melanosoma was described in 1987 by Martinez, Olmedo & Carcavallo. In the present work the authors make a redescription, adding new characters, and based on biological and morphological aspects raise up to the level of species and being identified as Triatoma melanosoma. A detailed morphological study of the external male genitalia was made.

  10. Rhodnius stali n. sp., afim de Rhodnius pictipers Stal, 1872 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Rhodnius stali n. sp. related to Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Herman Lent

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhdnius stali n. sp. was described based on specimens deposited in the Herman Lent Collection of Entomological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute, until now identified as Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 and compared with specimens of R. pictipes proceeding from state of Amazonas and Pará, Brazil. R. stali is related to R. pictipes though distinguished by the total length, 15 to 17 mm male and 16,5 to 19 mm female, the anteocular region 2,5 times larger than postocular region and by the shape of phallic strictures known as: phallosoma, struts, gonopore process and endosoma process.

  11. Estudo morfométrico do gênero Panstrongylus Berg, 1879 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Morphometric study of the genus Panstrongylus Berg, 1879 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Carolina Magalhães dos Santos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae is actually represented by 137 species distributed among 6 tribes and 19 genera. Within this subfamily, the genus Panstrongylus, Berg 1879, is composed by 13 species widespread in sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic habitats of Neotropical regions. These species are vectors of Chagas disease and consequently are found associated with its main hosts, such as birds and mammals. Interest in species of this genus has been increasing in the last few years. Reports of several authors indicate these Triatominae to invade and colonize houses, increasing their epidemiological significance. Morphometry was used in this study to investigate correlations among possible closely related species. We measured 224 specimens among 13 species through a set of metric variables of the head. The results indicated that the genus Panstrongylus seems to be homogeneous since 10 of the 14 species were shown to be closely related.

  12. Importance of species of Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Grant-Guillén, Y; Morales-Corona, Z Y; Haro-Rodríguez, S; Ventura-Rodríguez, L V; Nogueda-Torres, B; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiological risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in human populations of western Mexico is still under study. Although most vectors in this region and their vector capability are already known, new studies estimating the risk and the importance of individual Triatominae species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) for T. cruzi transmission are necessary. For 1 yr, every month, > 400 human dwellings and their surroundings in eight communities of two western Mexico states were searched for triatomines. More than 1,000 specimens representing four species were collected and checked for T. cruzi infection. Based on the usual entomological indices, only the inhabitants of Gavilán El Progreso-La Villita are at serious risk of vectorial infection by T. cruzi. A population of Meccus longipennis (Usinger) was found living in peridomestic rock pile boundary walls after an insecticide spraying. It was confirmed the major role of peridomestic habitats as shelter areas for triatomines, particularly in rock pile boundary walls and chicken roosts. Triatominae presence also was verified in certain sylvatic habitats, including primarily heaps of stones. The important role of M. longipennis in the potential transmission of T. cruzi in the region and the secondary role of M. picturatus (Usinger) and Triatoma barberi Usinger also were confirmed. Null colonization of houses by T. barberi, which was collected primarily in peridomestic habitats, differs from its common intradomiciliary collection in other studies. Meccus pallidipennis (Stål) most probably does not exist in Nayarit. Meccus mazzottii (Usinger) and Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) are no longer found in Nayarit and Jalisco. Additional studies are necessary to determine the current epidemiological situation in other areas of western Mexico.

  13. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  14. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Eder dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. PMID:27833419

  15. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Teresa Cristina Monte Goncalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. [Biology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). II. Resistance to fasting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, T C; Victório, V M; Jurberg, J; Cunha, V

    1989-01-01

    Following the study on the biology of Triatoma vitticeps (Gonçalves et al., 1988) observations have been made on its resistance to starvation. Of the 286 eggs obtained only 201 hatched and reached the intended stage for observation. The others did not eclode, neither reached the ecdisis nor died, without explanation. The nymphs were kept, separately, in Borrel flasks and properly listed. The blood-meal was performed in mice, although the insects were kept without feeding as soon as moulted. The starvation was evaluated in two ways: the time-lapse in days between the last meal/death and between moult/death. The starvation was directly related with the developmental stage. In relation to the parameters last meal/death and moult/death, both sexes were less resistant than 3rd and 2nd stage, respectively. The experiment have been carried out for 15 months and by this time the average minimum and maximum temperatures and the humidity were 25 +/- 2 degrees C - 28 +/- 2 degrees C and 81 +/- 3% UR, respectively. The material spent belongs to the triatomine colony of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute Department of Entomology.

  17. Morphological and Genetic Differentiation within the Southernmost Vector of Chagas Disease: Triatoma patagonica (Hemiptera - Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattero, Julieta; Pita, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Crocco, Liliana; Panzera, Yanina; Rodríguez, Claudia S; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of Chagas disease vectors largely depends on their spreading ability and adaptation to domestic habitats. Triatoma patagonica is a secondary vector of Chagas disease endemic of Argentina, and it has been found colonizing domiciles and most commonly peridomiciliary structures in several Argentine provinces and morphological variation along its distribution range have been described. To asses if population differentiation represents geographic variants or true biological species, multiple genetic and phenotypic approaches and laboratory cross-breeding were performed in T. patagonica peridomestic populations. Analyses of chromatic variation of forewings, their size and the content of C-heterochromatin on chromosomes revealed that populations are structured following a North-South latitudinal variation. Cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) nucleotide analysis showed a mean genetic distance of 5.2% between the most distant populations. The cross-breeding experiments suggest a partial reproductive isolation between some populations with 40% of couples not laying eggs and low hatching efficiency. Our findings reveal phenotypic and genetic variations that suggest an incipient differentiation processes among T. patagonica populations with a pronounced phenotypic and genetic divergence between the most distant populations. The population differentiation here reported is probably related to differential environmental conditions and it could reflect the occurrence of an incipient speciation process in T. patagonica.

  18. Morphological and Genetic Differentiation within the Southernmost Vector of Chagas Disease: Triatoma patagonica (HemipteraReduviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Crocco, Liliana; Panzera, Yanina; Rodríguez, Claudia S.; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of Chagas disease vectors largely depends on their spreading ability and adaptation to domestic habitats. Triatoma patagonica is a secondary vector of Chagas disease endemic of Argentina, and it has been found colonizing domiciles and most commonly peridomiciliary structures in several Argentine provinces and morphological variation along its distribution range have been described. To asses if population differentiation represents geographic variants or true biological species, multiple genetic and phenotypic approaches and laboratory cross-breeding were performed in T. patagonica peridomestic populations. Analyses of chromatic variation of forewings, their size and the content of C-heterochromatin on chromosomes revealed that populations are structured following a North-South latitudinal variation. Cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) nucleotide analysis showed a mean genetic distance of 5.2% between the most distant populations. The cross-breeding experiments suggest a partial reproductive isolation between some populations with 40% of couples not laying eggs and low hatching efficiency. Our findings reveal phenotypic and genetic variations that suggest an incipient differentiation processes among T. patagonica populations with a pronounced phenotypic and genetic divergence between the most distant populations. The population differentiation here reported is probably related to differential environmental conditions and it could reflect the occurrence of an incipient speciation process in T. patagonica. PMID:28005972

  19. Existence of a sex pheromone in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: I. Behavioural evidence

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    Gabriel Manrique

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Assembling behaviour associated with mating was investigated in Triatoma infestans. The spatial distribution of both sexes was observed by video films, in the presence or absence of a copulating pair. Males aggregated around copulating pairs. Females did not exhibit this behaviour and their mean spatial density remained unaffected. Spontaneous aggregation tendency was observed in males in the absence of a copulating pair, but the temporal course significantly differed from that observed in the presence of a mating pair. Results support the existence of an aggregation signal that is released during mating, affecting the behaviour of males.

  20. Effects of juvenile hormone analogue on ecdysis prevention induced by precocene in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Patricia de Azambuja

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Precocene II, added to the meal of fourth-instar larvae of Rhodnius prolixus (25 mug/ml of blood, induced an in crease in the duration of the molting cycle. This effect was related to the decrease of both the nuclear area of the prothoracic gland cells and the mitotic activity in epidermal cellS. juvenile hormone analogue applied topically (60 mug/insect together with Precocene II treatment avoided atrophy of the prothoracic glands and induced a higher number of epidermal mitosis accelerating the time of subsequent ecdysis. A possible relationship between juvenile hormone and production of ecdysone is discussed.Adicionado ao sangue alimentar na dose de 25 mug/ml o precoceno II causou um aumento no período de intermuda em ninfas de 4o. estadio de Rhodnius prolixus. Este atraso da muda foi relacionado com a diminuição da área dos núcleos das celulas das glandulas protoracicas e com a queda da atividade mitotica das células da epiderme do inseto. Um análogo de hormônio juvenil aplicado topicamente (60 mug/inseto junto com o tratamento oral com precoceno II preveniu a atrofia das glândulas protorácicas e induziu um aumento no número de mitoses nas células da epiderme, diminuindo o período de intermuda nestes insetos.A possivel relação entre a ação do hormônio juvenil e a producao de ecdisona pelas glândulas protorácicas e discutida.

  1. Lignanes from the Brazilian Melia azedarach, and their activity in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Marise M. O. Cabral

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the phagoinhibitor and anti-moulting activities of the Brazilian Melia azedarach, collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, allowed the isolation of four lignanes identified as pinoresinol, bis-epi-pinoresinol, the hemicetal and the diacid. These substances are devoid of anti-moulting activity.

  2. Systematics of Triatoma sordida, T. guasayana and T. patagonica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    David E. Gorla

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the relative epidemiological significance of Triatoma sordida, T. guasayana and T. patagonica, and the need to resolve doubts about their taxonomic validity, we report here a detailed taxonomic comparison of the three species using multivariate analysis of morphometric measures combined with comparisons of their genitalia and antennal structures. From the 17 metric variables studied, the length of the second segment of the rostrum and the anteocular length provided a discrimination function able to separate without error T. sordida from T. guasayana and T. patagonica. The multivariate discriminant functions classified T. guasayana and T. patagonica with an error of 2.44%. Comparison of the male genitalia of T. guasayana and T. sordida showed that there are minor differences in the articulatory apparatus, the median process of the pygophore, the phallosome support and the vesica, with bigger differences in the endosomal process and the phallosome. However, the already described male genitalia of T. patagonica is very similar to that of T. sordida. Analysis of antennal structure by scanning electron microscope showed that sensilla distribution around the pedicel is slightly different in the three species and sensilla density is highest in T. sordida and lowest in T. patagonica. The study showed that the three species form a closely related group. The results confirm the earlier classification of sordida and guasayana as separate species, but they raise some doubts about the taxonomic status of T. patagonica.

  3. Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Ângela Pinheiro Carneiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20% was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus.La enfermedad de Chagas se convirtió en un problema de salud debido a su importancia epidemiológica, es producida por el protista Trypanosoma cruzi, cuyos insectos vectores son del género Triatoma y Panstrongylus. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad biocida del extracto de Annona coriacea en las ninfas de Rhodnius neglectus y en sus adultos. Se evaluaron 14 concentraciones de 25, 50, 100 y 200mg/ml del extracto etanólico, así como el control, en este caso agua de DMSO (20%. Se utilizo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con tres repeticiones para el bioensayo con 10 ninfas y 10 adultos (cinco machos y cinco hembras para cada tratamiento. La acción del extracto se observo durante 28 días en ambos bioensayos. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el extracto de A. coriacea fue capaz de interrumpir el desarrollo de las ninfas y adultos de R. neglectus, con una mortalidad de más del 90%, 36% y 100%, correspondiendo a las concentraciones más altas. También hubo inhibición de la muda de las ninfas, una menor capacidad reproductiva de las hembras, disuasión alimentaria y cambios morfológicos en las ninfas y adultos. Se concluye que el extracto de A. coriacea presentó acción insecticida en ninfas y adultos de R. neglectus.

  4. Mecanismo antidiurético en Rhodnius Prolixus (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Ivonne Gómez

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Se propone para R. prolixus un mecanismo antidiurético, cuya actividad se pone de manifiesto una vez transcurrido el periodo diurético y se mantiene hasta que el insecto es alimentado nuevamente. Presumiblemente este mecanismo actua a nivel del esfinter rectal proximal y es inhibido por la ingesta, distención mecanica del buche y desinhibición central por decapitación. Se sugiere que la actividad antidiurética es mantenida por vía nerviosa y se modifica cuando hay distensión del buche o canudo es interrumpida la senãl nerviosa por decapitación. Se pone de manifiesto que la excreción de orina en R. prolixus no es controlada exclusivamente por la hormona diurética, sino que factores no ligados a la hemolinfa mantienen en estado diurético y no diurético a los insectos.An antidiuretic mechanism is proposed for Rhodnius prolixus, whose activity is manifested when the diuretic phase has terminated and is maintained until the insect has fed again. Presumably this mechanism acts at the level of the proximal rectal sphincter and is inhibited by ingestion, mechanical distension of the gut and central desinhibition by decapitation. It is suggested that the antidiuretic activity is maintained by the nervous system and is modified when there is distention of the gut or when the nervous signal is interrupted by decapitacion. It is demonstrated that the excretion of urine in R. prolixus is not controlled exclusively by the diuretic hormone, but rather that factors not linked to the haemolvmph maintain the insects in a diuretic or nondiuretic state.

  5. Triatoma mexicana (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Guanajuato, Mexico: house infestation and seasonal variation

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    Paz María Salazar Schettino

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma mexicana was described by Herrich-Schaeffer in 1848. In 1940, a male specimen was found in Hidalgo. In 1970, this species was recorded in the state of Queretaro. Later, it was registered in Guanajuato and San Luis Potosi. In the present paper we performed an investigation in 545 dwellings from three counties in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, from March 2003 to May 2004. The search and capture of triatomines were seasonally performed indoors and outdoors. Entomological indexes were calculated. The risk and no risk relations between triatomine presence and housing construction materials were analyzed. Fourteen triatomines were collected indoors and 151 outdoors. The vectors were collected in houses built with either risky and non-risky materials. Adults go indoors but do not settle there, hence, no relationship was found between the building materials and infestation of houses. Conventional interventions like house improvement or insecticide spraying are not efficient for the control of T. mexicana, because its developmental cycle is accomplished outdoors in the area surrounding the houses.

  6. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

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    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  7. Isoenzymes Detect Variation in Populations of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Costa Jane

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the northeast of Brazil. Intraspecific morphological and behavioural variation has been reported for different populations. Results for four distinct populations using eight isoenzymes are reported here. The literature describes three subspecies: T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent, 1941 and T. brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956. These subspecies differ mainly in their cuticle colour pattern and were regarded as synonyms by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to evaluate whether the chromatic pattern is a morphological variation of different melanic forms within T. brasiliensis or due to interspecific variation, field collections were performed in localities where these three subspecies have been described: Caicó (Rio Grande do Norte, the type-locality for T. b. brasiliensis; Petrolina (Pernambuco for T. b. macromelasoma and Espinosa (Minas Gerais for T. b. melanica. A fourth distinct chromatic pattern was found in Juazeiro (Bahia. A total of nine loci were studied. Values of Nei's genetic distance (D were calculated. T. b. brasiliensis and T. b. macromelasoma are the closest populations with a D=0.295. T. b. melanica had a D ³ 0.537 when compared to the others, a distance in the range of interspecific variation for other triatomine species

  8. Occurrence of synanthropic triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the Federal District of Brazil

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    Maicon Hitoshi Maeda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Entomological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Federal District of Brazil (DF, has recorded the following triatomine species: Panstrongylus megistus, P. geniculatus, P. diasi, Rhodnius neglectus, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and T. sordida. We aimed to analyze the spatial and temporal occurrence of triatomine species collected in DF, and their indices of natural infection with trypanosomes. METHODS: The Health State Secretariat of DF recorded triatomines between 2002 and 2010 in 20 administrative regions. This retrospective analysis considered the number of adults and nymphs of each species collected and infected in both intradomicile and peridomicile. RESULTS: A total of 754 triatomines were collected in 252 reported domiciles. Panstrongylus megistus was the most frequent species (65%, followed by T. pseudomaculata (14%. Of the 309 examined insects, only 3 (1% specimens of P. megistus were infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. The spatial occurrence indicated a higher diversity of triatomines and frequency of T. sordida in rural areas. Moreover, there was a predominance of P. megistus in urban areas. The number of records of P. megistus in the rainy season was two times higher than that during the dry season. The largest number of triatomines was collected in November. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. megistus specimens infected with trypanosomes in domiciles, shows the potential risk of human infection in DF. Thus, it is essential to continue entomological surveillance, intensifying it in the rainy season and in regions of greater occurrence.

  9. Chromosome variability in the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Rhodniini

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    Andrés Gómez-Palacio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius pallescens is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Panama and one of the most relevant secondary vectors in Colombia. Despite the importance of this species, there is limited knowledge about the genetic variability along its geographical distribution. In order to evaluate the degree of karyotype variability we analyzed the meiotic behavior and banding pattern of the chromosomes of 112 males of R. pallescens coming from different regions of Colombia and Panama. Using the C-banding technique we identified two chromosomal patterns or cytotypes characterized by differences in the amount, size and distribution of constitutive heterochromatic regions in the chromosome complement (2n = 20 autosomes plus XY in males. The individuals can be easily classified in each cytotype by the analysis of the chromosomes during first meiotic prophase. The frequencies of the cytotypes are variable according to the geographic origin of the populations. This chromosomal divergence together with morphological data supports the existence of three genetically different populations of R. pallescens and provides new information to understand the distribution dynamics of this species.

  10. Long-term effects and parental RNAi in the blood feeder Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera; Reduviidae).

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    Paim, Rafaela M M; Araujo, Ricardo N; Lehane, Michael J; Gontijo, Nelder F; Pereira, Marcos H

    2013-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely employed as a useful alternative to study gene function in insects, including triatomine bugs. However, several aspects related to the RNAi mechanism and functioning are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the persistence and the occurrence of systemic and parental RNAi in the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus. For such, the nitrophorins 1 to 4 (NP1-4), which are salivary hemeproteins, and the rhodniin, an intestinal protein, were used as targets for RNAi. The dsRNA for both molecules were injected separately into 3rd and 5th instar nymphs of R. prolixus and the knockdown (mRNA levels and phenotype) were progressively evaluated along several stages of the insect's life. We observed that the NP1-4 knockdown persisted for more than 7 months after the dsRNA injection, and at least 5 months in rhodniin knockdown, passing through various nymphal stages until the adult stage, without continuous input of dsRNA. The parental RNAi was successful from the dsRNA injection in 5th instar nymphs for both knockdown targets, when the RNAi effects (mRNA levels and phenotype) were observed at least in the 2nd instar nymphs of the F1 generation. However, the parental RNAi did not occur when the dsRNA was injected in the 3rd instars. The confirmation of the long persistence and parental transmission of RNAi in R. prolixus can improve and facilitate the utilization of this tool in insect functional genomic studies.

  11. Diversidad de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Santander, Colombia: implicaciones epidemiológicas

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    Lyda Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias en la diversidad de las dos regiones, además del potencial de las especies silvestres para ocupar ecótopos artificiales. La intrusión de triatominos y la reciente incriminación de especies silvestres en la transmisión de Trypanosoma cruzi, indican la necesidad de un mayor conocimiento de la ecología de estos vectores para orientar las estrategias de control.

  12. Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Jane Costa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941, the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956, the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

  13. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in the State of Acre, Brazil

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    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius montenegrensis in the State of Acre, Brazil. METHODS: Two female R. montenegrensis were collected in a dwelling in the rural area of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. RESULTS: The occurrence of this species was confirmed, and the number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from four to five. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies should be performed to reach a clearer understanding of the ecology of this arthropod, its possible role in transmitting Chagas' disease and rangeliosis, and its current geographical distribution in the region.

  14. Factors associated with peridomestic Triatoma sanguisuga (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) presence in southeastern Louisiana.

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    Moudy, Robin M; Michaels, Sarah; Jameson, Samuel B; Londono, Berlin; Lopez, Velma; Caillouet, Kevin A; Hallmark, Camden J; Davis, Justin K; Foppa, Ivo M; Dorn, Patricia L; Wesson, Dawn M

    2014-09-01

    Although rare, there have been isolated reports of autochthonous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in the United States. In June 2006, a human case of domestically transmitted T. cruzi was identified in southern Louisiana. To examine the localized risk of human T. cruzi infection in the area surrounding the initial human case, environmental surveys of households in the area and a serological survey of the residents were performed between September 2008 and November 2009. Human T. cruzi infection was determined using a rapid antigen field test, followed by confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing in the laboratory. A perimeter search of each participating residence for Triatoma sanguisuga (LeConte), the predominant local triatomine species, was also performed. No participating individuals were positive for antibodies against T. cruzi; however, high levels of T. cruzi infection (62.4%) were detected in collected T. sanguisuga. Households with T. sanguisuga presence were less likely to use air conditioning, and more likely to have either chickens or cats on the property. While the human risk for T cruzi infection in southeastern Louisiana is low, a high prevalence of infected T. sanguisuga does indicate a substantial latent risk for T. cruzi peridomestic transmission. Further examination of the behavior and ecology of T. sanguisuga in the region will assist in refining local T. cruzi risk associations.

  15. Biology of three species of North American Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae fed on rabbits

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, lifetime, number of blood meals for molting, mortality, feeding time, and postfeeding defecation delay were evaluated and compared in each instar of three North American Triatominae: Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma lecticularia and Triatoma protracta, all of them fed on rabbits. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were found among the three species regarding mean hatching rate, which was close to 20 days. Egg-to-adult development times were significantly shorter (p < 0.05 for T. lecticularia. Number of blood meals for molting to next instar ranged from one to five for T. protracta, and from one to six for T. gerstaeckeri and T. lecticularia. Mortality rates were higher in younger nymphs of T. lecticularia and T. protracta, while rates in T. gerstaeckeri were higher in fifth-instar nymphs. Mean feeding time was longest in T. gerstaeckeri, followed by T. lecticularia. More than twice the number of T. gerstaeckeri nymphs completed the development process, if compared to the nymphs from the other two species. Defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. lecticularia, T. protracta and the youngest nymphs of T. gerstaeckeri. Results point out that these three species may be important potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi for human populations, in areas of Mexico where these species are currently present.

  16. Infestation of Palm Trees by Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    Resumo. As palmeiras desempenham papéis importantes como habitats de reprodução e alimentação para triatomíneos silvestres, vetores da doença de Chagas. A ocorrência de triatomíneos em palmeiras peridomiciliares pode aumentar o risco de invasão desses insetos em domicílios e deve ser considerada para desenvolver estratégias de prevenção. Com objetivo de investigar a infestação de palmeiras por triatomíneos no Estado da Bahia e determinar a infecção natural desses insetos por Trypanosoma spp., foram amostradas 183 palmeiras em 12 municípios entre 2006 e 2011 utilizando captura manual e/ou armadilhas adesivas iscadas com camundongos. Os triatomíneos foram detectados em 79 palmeiras (43% das espécies Copernicia prunifera (Mart. Becc., Mauritia flexuosa L. e Attalea spp. (Attalea burretiana Bondar ou Attalea salvadorensis Glassman. Em outras espécies de palmeiras (Syagrus coronata (Mill H.E. Moore, Attalea funifera Mart ex. Spreng e Elaeis guineensis Jacq não foram detectados triatomíneos. Rhodnius neglectus Lent, Triatoma sordida (Stål, e Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola ocorreram em C. prunifera ao longo do rio São Francisco. No extremo oeste da Bahia, R. neglectus e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg foram detectados em M. flexuosa, enquanto Triatoma tibiamaculata (Pinto ocorreu em Attalea sp. em áreas urbanas de Salvador. No total, 180 triatomíneos foram capturados, principalmente R. neglectus. A maior taxa de infecção natural (61% foi observada em T. tibiamaculata. Os resultados indicam que pelo menos três espécies de palmeiras são habitats favoráveis para triatomíneos no estado da Bahia e ocorrem no ambiente peridomiciliar, o que pode aumentar a probabilidade de invasão de triatomíneos nas casas.

  17. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae infection by Trypanosoma rangeli

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    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study reports for the first time the infection of Rhodnius montenegrensis by Trypanosoma rangeli. Methods: The triatomines were manually collected in Attalea speciosa in the municipality of Buritis, Rondônia. The identification of the trypanosomatid species was confirmed by multiplex PCR. Results: All of the collected triatomines were R. montenegrensis. The analysis confirmed that all of the adults were infected with the epimastigote form of T. rangeli. Conclusions: This report of a new vector of T. rangeli raises a warning for the State of Rondônia because the simultaneous presence of T. rangeli with T. cruzi in the same geographic region enables the occurrence of mixed infections in hosts and vectors, which complicates the differential diagnosis.

  18. Estudo morfológico de Triatoma guazu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Galindez-Girón Itamar

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A female of Triatoma guazu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979, a rare species from which the allotype was recently described, was studied by scanning electronic microscopy and videomicroscope. Some structures of the head and the thorax are shown. Some of them could have taxonomic importance, as the oculo-ocellar region, the buccula, the anterolateral angle of the collar, the scutellum, wings and the stridulatory sulcus, which has an unusual lateral high rim

  19. Biogeography of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Ecuador: implications for the design of control strategies

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    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil, the Natural History Museum London (UK, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK, the National Institute of Hygiene (Quito, and the Vozandes Hospital (Quito. A critical review of published information and new field records are presented. We analysed these data in relation to the life zones where triatomines occur (11 life zones, excluding those over 2,200 m altitude, and provide biogeographical maps for each species. These records are discussed in terms of epidemiological significance and design of control strategies. Findings relevant to the control of the main vector species are emphasised. Different lines of evidence suggest that Triatoma dimidiata is not native to Ecuador-Peru, and that synanthropic populations of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in southern Ecuador-northern Peru might be isolated from their sylvatic conspecifics. Local eradication of T. dimidiata and these R. ecuadoriensis populations might therefore be attainable. However, the presence of a wide variety of native species indicates the necessity for a strong longitudinal surveillance system.

  20. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from western Amazonia

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    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador. R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  1. The interaction between Poultry and Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in an experimental model

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    Nicolás J. Schweigmann

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the predation pressure that ducks and chickens exert on triatomines. For the tests, these birds were placed in individual boxes together with a known number of Triatoma infestans and left to interact from 6 p.m. till the next morning, involving a long lasting period of complete darkness limited by two short-term periods of semi-darkness. There was a shelter which could prevent the bugs from being predated. The number of live and dead triatomines was recorded, considering missing bugs as predated by the birds. Ducks exhibited a greater predatory activity than chickens, that could be due to a long term active period at night while chickens sleep motionless from sunset to dawn. Surviving triatomines that had fed on chickens outnumbered those fed on ducks suggesting that these were less accessible to the triatomine biting. If ducks are better than chickens to detect and eat bugs and to interfere with their feeding in the field, an increase in duck number might help to diminish triatomine density. Further research is needed to determine the feasibility of application of these experimental results.

  2. A genitália externa na tribo Bolboderini (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Herman Lent

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da tribo bolboderini, pertencentes aos gêneros Bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma e Parabelminus, duas das quais já encontradas naturalmente infectadas com Trypanosoma cruzi, foram analisadas e comparadas tendo como enfoque oito estruturas da genitália externa dos machos: Processo mediano do pigóforo (PrP, Processo da conjuntiva (PrCj, Extensão mediana da placa basal (EPIb, Processo do endosoma (PrEn, Suporte do falosoma (SPh, Falosoma (Ph, Processo do gonoporo (PrG e a Vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (lent, 1951 e M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 mostraram um plano estrutural morfológico semelhante a Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e P. carioca Lent, 1943 e deferindo nitidamente de Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954 e B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e de Bolbodera scabrosa, Valdés, 1910, não só pela ausência como pela forma de determinadas estruturas. Estas observações comparativas confirmam as afinidades entre Microtriatoma e Parabelminus e suas relações com belminus e Bolbodera.Seven species of the Bolboderini tribe belonging to the genera bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma and Parabelminus, two of them found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, were analysed and compared emphasizing eight structures of the male external genitalia: median process of pygophore (PrP, conjunctiva process (PrCj, pedicel (EP1b, endosoma process (PrEn, struts (SPh, phallosoma (Ph, medium bridge (PrG and vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (Lent, 1951 and M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 have shown a structural morphological aspect similar to Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and P. carioca Lent, 1943 differing clearly from Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954, B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and Bolbodera scabrosa valdés, 1910, not only by the absence but by the shape of some structures. These comparative observations confirm the affinity between Microtriatoma and Parabelminus and their relations with Belminus and Bolbodera.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of the dorsal vessel of Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Nadir Francisca Sant'Anna Nogueira

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the microanatomy of the dorsal vessel of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus. The organ is a tuble anatomically divided into an anterior aorta anad a posterior heart, connected to the body wall through 8 pairs of alary muscles. The heart is divided in 3 chambers by means of 2 pairs of cardiac valves. a pair of ostia can be observed in the lateral wall of each chamber. A bundle of nerve fibers was found outside the organ, running dorsally along its major axis. A group of longitudinal muscular fibers was found in the ventral portion of the vessel. The vessel was found to be lined both internally and externally by pericardial cells covered by a thin laminar membrane. Inseide the vessel the pericardial cells were disposed in layers and on the outside they formed clusters or rows.

  4. Susceptibility of Triatoma sordida Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to alpha-cypermethrin under natural climatic conditions

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    Grasielle Caldas DÁvila Pessoa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite the recommendations by interpretation of resistance ratios obtained in laboratory bioassays, little is known about the actual impact of these results in the effectiveness of vector control activities in the field. In this context, our objective was to determine the mean value of different resistance ratios obtained by laboratory bioassays performed as part of the chemical control strategies of Triatoma sordida in the field.METHODS:Field bioassays were developed in Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus (Southeast, Brazil. In each location, samples were formed with three domestic units treated with alpha-cypermethrin 20.0% (Alfatek (r 200 SC. One day after spraying, 10 fifth-instar nymphs remained in contact with the surfaces treated (adobe with plaster, adobe without plaster, or wood with insecticide in plastic cones for 72h. Three cones were exposed inside the intradomicile and the peridomicile. The insects in the control group were exposed to an insecticide-free piece of cardboard. Mortality was measured 72h after removal of the insects from the treated surfaces. The tests were realized in triplicate.RESULTS:Mortality was 100.0% in all locations, except for Monte Azul; Landinho (96.6% and Coração de Jesus; Barriguda (96.6%.CONCLUSIONS:Although the resistant populations in laboratory tests proved to be susceptible in the field, this observation is not sufficient to suggest that the cut-off points used to justify the resistance ratio should be changed. In this sense, we recommend that laboratory and field bioassays are carried out with a greater number of Triatominae populations to allow more in-depth consideration of the subject.

  5. Genetic structure of Triatoma venosa (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: molecular and morphometric evidence

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    Erika Vargas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma venosa presents a restricted geographical distribution in America and is considered as a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia and Ecuador. A total of 120 adult insects were collected in domestic and peridomestic habitats in an endemic area of the department of Boyacá, Colombia, in order to determine their genetic structure through morphometric and molecular techniques. The head and wings of each specimen were used for the analyses of size, shape, and sexual dimorphism. A significant sexual dimorphism was found, although no differences in size among the studied groups were detected. Differences were found in the analyzed structures except for male heads. DNA was extracted from the legs in order to carry out the internal transcriber space-2 (ITS-2 amplification and the randon amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analyses. Length polymorphisms were not detected in the ITS-2. Fst and Nm values were estimated (0.047 and 3.4, respectively. The high genetic flow found among the insects captured in the domicile and peridomiciliary environment does not permit a genetic differentiation, thus establishing the peridomicile as an important place for epidemiological surveillance.

  6. Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae

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    Panzera Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome characteristics, which differ from those observed in all other triatomine species. However, no cytogenetic differences were observed between the four chromatic forms of T. brasiliensis. The lack of chromosome differentiation among them could indicate that the populations of this species are in a process of differentiation that does not involve their chromosomal organization.

  7. Biology and Behavior of Six Species of Reduviids (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) in a Cashew Ecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srikumar, KK; Bhat, PS; Raviprasad, TN; Vanitha, K; Saroj, PL; Ambrose, DP

    2014-01-01

    ...) were found feeding on H. antonii in cashew in India. They were Endochus albomaculatus Stal, Epidaus bicolor Distant, Euagoras plagiatus Burmeister, Irantha armipes Stal, Panthous bimaculatus Distant, and Sphedanolestes signatus Distant...

  8. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats.

  9. Sylvatic triatominae of the phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) around the community of Carrillo Puerto, Nayarit, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón-Gastélum, E; Lozano-Kasten, F; Flores-Pérez, A; Bosseno, M F; Brenière, S F

    2001-09-01

    Research on domestic and sylvatic triatomines within the community of Carrillo Puerto and neighboring areas of Nayarit, Mexico, documented that Triatoma longipennis (Usinger) and Triatoma picturata (Usinger) were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (L.) in both habitats. T. picturata was the predominant species in both habitats. Mouse baited-traps increased the effectiveness of collecting sylvatic triatomines, which were difficult to sample by inspecting habitats such as burrows, caves, and cliffs. The colonization of sylvatic and peridomestic habitats by Triatoma, the occurrence of high rates of infection with T. cruzi and the possibility that bugs move between habitats may require modification of current control strategies in Mexico.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity in response to food source in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattero, Julieta; Malerba, Romina; Rodríguez, Claudia S; Crocco, Liliana

    2013-10-01

    In the Gran Chaco region of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay, vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is still a severe problem because, among other causes, houses are reinfested with Triatoma infestans, the main vector of T. cruzi in southern South America. A better understanding of adaptation and evolution of T. infestans populations may contribute to the selection of appropriate vector control strategies in this region. Phenotypic plasticity is essential to understand development and maintenance of morphological variation. An experimental phenotypic plasticity study was conducted to assess if blood meal source induced head shape and size variation during development in T. infestans. Eighteen full-sib families were assigned to one of two food sources (pigeon and guinea pig) to examine the effect of food source on head shape and size in all nymph instars and adults. Data were analyzed using geometric morphometric tools and phenotypic plasticity analyses. Significant differences in head shape and size were observed between adults fed on different food sources. Allometric effects at the adult stage were observed. Head size showed significant food source × family interaction for fifth-instar nymphs and adults. For head size, significant differences between food sources were observed at stages and in ontogenetic trajectory. Phenotypic plasticity expression was found for head shape and size in adults; indeed, bugs fed on guinea pigs exhibited greater changes in head shape and larger heads than those fed on pigeon. Full-sib families exhibited different patterns of phenotypic expression in response to food source. Food source × family interaction may indicate that the observed variation in phenotypic plasticity may contribute to changes in head morphometry. These results may contribute to the selection of an appropriate control strategy for T. infestans in the Gran Chaco region, since they provide evidences of morphological plasticity in this species.

  11. Potential Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia, Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Escudero, Laura C.; González-Caro, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling of Triatominae bugs allow us to establish the local risk of transmission of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. This information could help to guide health authority recommendations on infection monitoring, prevention, and control. In this study, we estimated the geographic distribution of triatomine species in Colombia and identified the relationship between landscape structure and climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 2451 records of 4 triatomine species (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pallescens, R. prolixus, and Triatoma maculata) were analyzed. The variables that provided more information to explain the ecologic niche of these vectors were related to precipitation, altitude, and temperature. We found that the species with the broadest potential geographic distribution were P. geniculatus, R. pallescens, and R. prolixus. In general, the models predicted the highest occurrence probability of these vectors in the eastern slope of the Eastern Cordillera, the southern region of the Magdalena valley, and the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. PMID:28115946

  12. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:24473808

  13. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti, a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l., but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the "robustus lineage", i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l., including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  14. [Morphological and histological study of eggs of six species of the Triatoma genus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Marcos T; da Rosa, João A; da Silva, Nilza N; Ceretti, Walter; Urbinatti, Paulo R; Barata, José M S; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the morphological and histological characteristics of eggs from six triatomine species in order to obtain a generic and specific characterization of this group of Trypanosoma cruzi vectors and better understand their phylogenetic and taxonomic aspects. The eggs of the respective species came from the collection of the Laboratório de Triatomíneos e Culicídeos da Faculdade de Saúde Pública/USP, from the Insetário do Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara - SESA and from the Triatomine insectary of the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos (FIOCRUZ), in Rio de Janeiro. Morphological studies were done with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses used only optical microscopy. All of the species analyzed showed a predominance of hexagonal cells. The exchorion of Triatoma breyeri Del Ponte, T. costalimai Verano Galvão, and T. tibiamaculata (Pinto) consists of unornamented cells, overlapping or slightly separated, with a smooth, padded appearance. Meanwhile, in T. matogrossensis Leite Barbosa, T. sherlocki Papa, Juberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira Barata, and T. williami Galvão, Souza Lima, the exchorion cells are ornamented on their entire surface with perforations and fissures. Egg histology showed undulations, pores, and orifices. The study helps to expand the generic and specific knowledge of the Triatominae subfamily. The characteristics identified in the exchorion of the eggshells can help separate close species. These new parameters will back the elaboration of future dichotomous keys, help to determine each vector species role and expand knowledge of the various species.

  15. Incoordination, Paralysis and Recovery after Pyrethroid Treatment on Nymphs III of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Raúl A Alzogaray

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of poisoning for deltamethrin and cis-permethrin on nymphs III of Triatoma infestans were described. The time required for incoordination and paralysis were determined. Deltamethrin was equal or more rapid in the onset of the first effect (accordingly to dose, and cis-permethrin in the onset of the second one. There were no significant differences between incoordination doses 50% (IncD50s at different times for the two pyrethroids. They showed equivalent incoordination power, but the nymphs treated with deltamethrin recovered slightly more rapid and in greater amount than the nymphs treated with cis-permethrin. The recovery was inhibited by the simultaneus application of piperonyl butoxide. This result suggests that biotransformation by mixed-function microsomal oxidases are involved in the process of recovery

  16. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo; Kitron, Uriel Dan; Obed, Yamila; Yoshioka, Miho; Gottdenker, Nicole; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  17. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  18. Flight metabolism in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: the role of carbohydrates and lipids

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    Lilián E Canavoso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001. High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.

  19. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  20. Catalog of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. VI. Hexapoda: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to May, 2012. A total of 37 holotypes and 61 lots of paratypes of 78 species are listed in their families: Miridae and Reduviidae (infraorder: Cimicomorpha); Mesoveliidae and Velfidae (Gerromorpha); Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, and Notonectidae (Nepomorpha); and Coreidae, Geocoridae [the older sense of "Lygaeidae"], and Pentatomidae (Pentatomomorpha). The taxa are presented alphabetically by infraorders, families, and genera, followed by epithet, bibliographic citation, type category, collection number, method of preservation, and present data on the labels. When necessary, we added localities data, and changes in taxonomic status of some species

  1. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as termin

  2. Exocrine secretion of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp): clarification and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assassin bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in the genus Arilus are among the largest of the New World reduviids, and can inflect extremely painful bites. The most common North American species, A. cristatus (the “wheel bug”), possesses eversible osmeterial glands that reportedly produce an obnoxious od...

  3. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  4. Sobrevivência e ocorrência de muda em Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera, Reduviidae após choque de temperatura Survival and molting occurrence in Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera, Reduviidae after temperature shocks

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    Vera Lúcia C.C. Rodrigues

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available A sobrevivência e a ocorrência de mudas em espécimes de Triatoma infestans foram estudados num período de 30 dias após choques de temperatura. Foi demonstrado que choques hipertérmico e hipotérmico interferem nesses processos, na dependência da temperatura do choque, tempo de sua duração, fase de desenvolvimento e sexo dos espécimes. Dentre as situações experimentais utilizadas, o choque a 0°C por 12 h pareceu produzir a ação mais deletéria, porém choques a 40°C e 0°C mesmo por uma hora são admitidos como afetando o desenvolvimento hormonal que controla a muda. Casos de aumento de sobrevivência pós-choque são sugeridos como tendo sido favorecidos por ação de proteínas de choque térmico.Survival and molting occurrence were studied in specimens of Triatoma infestans over 30 days after temperature shocks. Hyperthermal and hypotermal shocks could be found to affect both survival and molting incidence as a function of temperature and period of the developement phase and sex of the specimens. Considering the various test conditions, the shock at 0°C for 12 h was found to elicit the most deleterious effect, whereas shocks at 40°C and 0°C even for 1 h are interpreted as affecting the hormonal balance which controls molting. Cases of a rise in post-shock survival are suggested to have been favored by heat-shock protein action.

  5. Detección de triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos. Corrientes, Argentina Detection of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in domiciliary and extra-domiciliary ecotopes. Corrientes, Argentina

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    Miryam Pieri Damborsky

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar los triatominos que predominan en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos de diferentes departamentos de la Provincia de Corrientes mediante muestreos llevados a cabo desde 1985 hasta 1995. En los ecótopos domiciliarios se detectaron Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811 y Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835. T. infestans y T. sordida se hallaron también en ambientes peridomésticos. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida y Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 se colectaron en biótopos silvestres. En los domicilios, se confirmó el predominio de T. infestans. Esta especie fue la única parasitada por tripanosomas cruziformes. Si bien T. sordida fue más frecuente en los ecótopos extradomésticos, se demostró su tendencia a colonizar los ambientes domésticos.In order to identify intra- and extra-domiciliary triatomines, a study in different counties of Corrientes Province, Argentina, was conducted from 1985 to 1995. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811, and Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 were detected in domestic ecotopes. T. infestans and T. sordida were also found in the peridomicile. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida, and Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 were collected in sylvatic biotopes. T. infestans was confirmed as the predominant species in the domestic environment and was the only species infected with Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites. T. sordida was most frequent in extra-domiciliary ecotopes, but could be considered capable of colonizing human dwellings.

  6. Estudos sobre a resistência ao jejum e aspectos nutricionais de Triatoma lecticularia (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Studies on the resistance to fasting and nutritional aspects of Triatoma lecticularia (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    José Jurberg

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo sobre a resistência ao jejum em todas as fases evolutivas e pesagens em diferentes situações nutricionais de Triatoma lecticularia (alimentado; não alimentado; na morte após o jejum com temperatura e umidade registradas. Observou-se que os períodos de resistência das fases ninfais apresentaram médias (dias crescentes: 1º: 45,84; 2º: 61; 3º: 88,74; 4º: 123,47; 5º 162,30. Na fase adulta as médias foram aproximadas à do 3º estádio (para os machos 88,94 e para as fêmeas 83,66. O procedimento de pesagens permitiu registrar a quantidade de sangue ingerido, a perda de peso durante o jejum e o respectivo percentual em relação ao peso inicial. Esta espécie tem assinalada sua distribuição geográfica na região Neártica, onde tem sido encontrda infectada com Trypanosoma cruzi associada a Neotoma micropus Baird e Spermophilus variagatus (Erxeleben.The resistance to fasting of Triatoma lecticularia was studied in all phases of the life cycle and the insect weighed in different nutritional situations (fed, not fed, death after starvation. The temperature and humidity level were also recorded. The nymphal phases showed increasing resistance to fasting as demonstrated by the following averages (days 1st 45.84; 2nd 61; 3rd 88.74; 4th 123.44; 5th 162.30. Upon the adult phase, the averages were similar to those of the 3rd stage for the male insects 88.94 and for females 83.66. The weighing technique allowed for the measeurement of the quantity of blood ingested, the weight loss during the fast and the percentage weight lost as related to the initial weight. The species is found in the Neartic region where it has been found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and is associated with the terrestial rodents Neotoma micropus Baird and Spermophilus variagatus (Erxelebem.

  7. Estudos sobre a resistência ao jejum e aspectos nutricionais de Cavernicola lenti Barrett & Arias, 1985 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Studies on the resistance to fasting and nutritional aspects of Cavernicola lenti Barret & Arias, 1985 (Hemiptera, Reduviida, Triatominae

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    Jane Margaret Costa

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to widen the present knowledge on the biology of this species, a study on the resistance to starvation was carried out among all nymphal stages and the adult stage (male and female. All evolutive stages were weighed on precision scale in three different nutritional situations: fed, non-fed and death registered after starvation. This procedure has allowed us to calculate the amount of blood taken in each stage and during the whole cycle, the average loss of weight during starvation and its relations with the initial weight. The insects were fed on mice and after eclosion or ecdisis they were isolated for observation of the starving period. Throuhout the whole experiment they were kept in a B. O. D./DOB incubator (28ºC and 90%R.U.. The resistance to starvation of the insects has grown from the first stage on (average of 15.5 days to the fifth stage (average of 75.64 days; on the adult stage, the resistance period was equal to the third stage with an average of 41.76 for the males and 44.82 for the females. The amount of ingested blood was greater at the fifth stage worth 34.14 mg, corresponding to 2,04 times its initial weight. The average weight loss during the starvation was greater at the adult stage (23.95 mg, corresponding to 61.52% of the total weight.

  8. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Silvio Favero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Chagas é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública na América Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a ação inseticida de óleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3° e 4° estádios de desenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por ação tópica e pressão a vapor (fumigação. Para o teste tópico foram realizadas duas repetições cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3° e 4° estádios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1µL de cada concentração na região dorsal de cada indivíduo. Para o teste de fumigação foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os óleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividade inseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em média 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigação, somente o óleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans, sendo que para os outros óleos não foi observado efeito de fumigação. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a ação inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumígenos para o controle de triatomíneos. Os resultados são importantes devido à busca por novos modelos moleculares com ação inseticida em triatomíneos resistentes aos inseticidas sintéticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1µL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.

  9. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae = Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Suellem Petilim Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A doenca de Chagas e um dos maiores problemas de saude publica na America Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a acao inseticida de oleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3‹ e 4‹ estadios dedesenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por acao topica e pressao a vapor (fumigacao. Para o teste topico foram realizadas duas repeticoes cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3‹ e 4‹ estadios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1ƒÊL de cada concentracao na regiao dorsal de cada individuo. Para o teste de fumigacao foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os oleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividadeinseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em media 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigacao, somente o oleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans , sendo que para os outros oleos nao foiobservado efeito de fumigacao. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a acao inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumigenos para o controle de triatomineos. Os resultados sao importantes devido a busca por novos modelos moleculares com acao inseticida em triatomineos resistentes aos inseticidas sinteticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1ƒÊL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.

  10. Morfometria comparada de Triatoma infestans, T. rubrovaria e T. platensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae do Uruguai Comparative Morphometry among Triatoma infestans, T. rubrovaria and T. platensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae from Uruguay

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    Carolina M. dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available No Uruguai, são conhecidas 10 espécies de triatomíneos com importância epidemiológica variável, dentre as quais destacamse Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 e T. rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843, consideradas as principais espécies vetoras. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913, apesar de ser uma espécie silvestre, pode conviver com T. infestans em galinheiros, chegando a gerar híbridos férteis. Estas três espécies fazem parte do "complexo T. infestans", formado por cinco espécies. Devido à importância epidemiológica dessas espécies no Uruguai e com a finalidade de ampliar o conjunto dos parâmetros morfológicos diferenciais destas espécies apresentamos uma abordagem morfométrica comparativa da cabeça e do pronoto. Foram medidas quatro variáveis da cabeça e quatro do pronoto a partir de 50 machos e 50 fêmeas, de cada espécie, provenientes de criação de laboratório. O programa JMP foi utilizado para as análises de Componentes Principais (ACP e Discriminante (AD. Os resultados demonstraram que os dois primeiros componentes principais (CP1 e CP2 exibem aproximadamente 77% da variação total. Os caracteres mais importantes para a distinção das espécies foram a região anteocular (RAO e a região pós-ocular (RPO, indicando que a morfometria da cabeça se mostrou mais eficiente que o pronoto para diferenciar estas espécies. A análise discriminante possibilitou separar T. platensis e T. rubrovaria mas não foi capaz de separá-las de T. infestans.In Uruguay, we can find 10 species with different epidemiological importance, amongst them we emphasize Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 and T. rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843, considered main vectors. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913, that although being a wild species can cohabit with T. infestans in chicken coops. These three species, belong to "T. infestans complex", wich is composed by five species. Because the epidemiological importance of these species in Uruguay and, with the aim to increase morphological parameters, we present here a comparative morphometric approach from head and pronotum. A series of four head and four pronotum measurements were taken from 50 males and 50 females, from each species, reared in laboratory. All calculations used JMP software, throughout Principal Component Analysis and Discriminant Analysis. Results demonstrate that the first principal components display 77% of total variation. The best characters to distinguish these species are: anteocular region (RAO and postocular region (RPO, indicating that head morphometry was more useful than pronotum morphometry to revealed differences among these species. The discriminant analysis provides a discrimination function able to separate T. platensis and T. rubrovaria but not T. infestans.

  11. Ocorrência de Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Occurrence of Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, relata-se a ocorrência de Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 pela primeira vez no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Em 2006, um espécime foi capturado em um ambiente peridomiciliar do município de Miranda, incluindo o Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, na distribuição geográfica dessa espécie.This paper describes the occurrence of Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911, for the first time in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. In 2006, a specimen was caught in a peridomestic environment in the municipality of Miranda, thereby including Mato Grosso do Sul within the geographical distribution of this species.

  12. Estadísticos poblacionales de Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera : Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales Population statistics of Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in experimental conditions

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    Elena B. Oscherov

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.Foram estudados diferentes parâmetros populacionais de Triatoma sordida em condições de laboratório. Realizou-se um seguimento longitudinal de quatro coortes de 100 ovos cada uma; os insetos foram criados a 28°C ± 3°C e 63% ± 10% de umidade relativa, e alimentados cada sete dias sobre galinha (Gallus domesticus durante 40'. As coortes foram controladas uma vez por semana. A expectativa de vida média dos machos foi de 37,4 semanas e a das fêmeas de 36,8.O tempo médio de desenvolvimento foi de 61,7 semanas. A taxa reprodutiva líquida indica que esta população aumentará 143,2 vezes durante cada geração. A taxa intrínseca do crecimento natural foi de 0,082 por semana. A média do valor máximo reprodutivo verificou-se na terceira semana no início do estádio adulto.A distribuição estável de idades de T. sordida seria de 32% ovos, 26% ninfas do primeiro estádio, 19% ninfas do segundo estádio, 13% ninfas do terceiro estádio, 6% ninfas do quarto estádio, 3% ninfas do quinto estádio e 1% de adultos. A análise dos parâmetros permite considerar que esta espécie comporta-se como K-estrategista em condições experimentais.Four cohorts of 100 Triatoma sordida eggs were reared under standard laboratory conditions (28ºC, 63% R.H. and fed weekly on hens during 40 minutes. The numbers of dead insects, moults and eggs laid were recorded weekly. A constant survival value was observed without any important peaks in the four cohorts. Life expectancy was 37.4 weeks for males and 36.8 weeks for females. The average generation time was 61.7 weeks. The average net reproduction rate suggests that this population would increase 143.2 times during each generation. The average intrinsic rate of natural increase was 0.082 per individual per week. The highest reproductive value was observed 3 weeks after entering the adult stage. The age structure, assuming stable age distribution, would be 32% eggs, 26% of first instar nymphs, 19% of second instar nymphs, 13% of third instar nymphs, 6% of fourth instar nymphs, 3% of fifth instar nymphs and 1% of adults. Our results suggest that this species behaves as a k-strategist under experimental conditions.

  13. La aerotermia como alternativa para el control de Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae resistentes a deltametrina Air temperature elevation as an alternative for the control of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Alberto G. Gentile

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se exploraron los efectos de la elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire sobre las formas embrionarias, ninfales y adultas de Triatoma infestansresistentes a Deltametrina. En laboratorio, se expuso a temperaturas crecientes del aire la progenie completa de T. infestans, para determinar viabilidad de huevos y supervivencia en ninfas y adultos; sobre el terreno, la experimentación se llevó a cabo en una vivienda tipo rancho previamente evaluada como colonizada. Durante la fase de laboratorio se comprobó la inviabilidad del 100% de los huevos y la mortalidad del 100% de las ninfas y adultos expuestos a temperaturas del aire estanco de entre 45ºC y 55ºC, mientras que en la fase de terreno se logró reproducir el efecto ovicida del calor, como así también la negativización de las evaluaciones entomológicas de la vivienda de experimentación, llevadas a cabo a las 72 horas, a los 30, 60 y 90 días. La elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire estanco en las habitaciones resultó ser un método de control de eficacia aceptable, inocuo y técnicamente sencillo.This study explores the effects of artificial air temperature elevation on the embryonic, nymphal, and adult forms of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans. In the laboratory, complete offspring of T. infestanswere exposed to increasing air temperatures to determine the viability of eggs and survival of nymphs and adults; in the field, the experiment was conducted in a poor rural dwelling previously identified as infested with the vector. The laboratory phase showed 100% non-viability of eggs and 100% mortality of nymphs and adults exposed to airtight temperatures from 45ºC to 55ºC, while the field phase succeeded in reproducing the heat's ovicidal effect and negative conversion of entomological assays in the experimental dwelling, as conducted over the course of 72 hours at 30, 60, and 90 days from the baseline evaluation. Artificial elevation of airtight temperature on dwellings proved to be an acceptable, harmless, and technically simple control method.

  14. Estudos bionômicos de Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae: III. Dinâmica populacional Bionomics studies of Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae: III. Population dynamics

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    Jane Margareth Costa

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A population dynamics study of D. maximus was caried out under laboratory condictions (28-C e 65% ñ 5% U.R. and the methodology was the same that have been used for hearing this insects. In order to evaluate the population growth rate of this species, during a 24 months period, five colonies started with a couple recently emerged were observed. Each couple (a male and a female was mantained in a glass container measuring 20 cm of diameter and 20 cm in height with filter paper on the botton. The insects were monthly feeding with normal mice blood, and at this day the number of eggs, nymphal stages and adults was registered. All graphical representations of the populations growth rate showed the same shape. It was found that the average of nymphal stage represented 64.31% of the hole population whereas the oviposition curved showed to be inverse to this one (28.57% a small percentage of adults was found: males 3.85% and females 3.12%. In this study observations on the biologycal cycle, longevity and fertility rates were also carried out.

  15. Registro de ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil New records of Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Aécio Moraes de Paula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, relata-se pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius no Estado de Mato Grosso. Entre 2001 e 2009, cinco espécimes foram capturados pelos moradores dos municípios de Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso e Guarantã do Norte e enviados ao Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso, onde foram identificados como Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837. O encontro dessa espécie no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil, amplia a sua distribuição geográfica.In this paper is reported for the first time the occurrence of Panstrongylus lignarius in the State of Mato Grosso. From 2001 to 2009, five specimens were caught in the municipalities of Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso and Guarantã do Norte, and sent to the Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso where they were identified as Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837. The presence of this species in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil expands its geographical distribution.

  16. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

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    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  17. Description and characterization of the melanic morphotype of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the first time we provide the description of the melanic (dark morphotype of Rhodnius nasutus and determine the pattern of genetic inheritance for this characteristic. Methods Dark morph R. nasutus specimens were crossbred with standard (typically patterned R. nasutus. Results We present the first occurrence of the melanic morphotype in the genus Rhodnius. The crossbreeding results demonstrate that the inheritance pattern of this characteristic follows Mendel's simple laws of segregation and an independent assortment of alleles. Conclusions Phenotypic variation of R. nasutus reinforces the heterogeneity found in the Triatominae. Descriptions of new species in this subfamily require rigorous validation criteria.

  18. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex.

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    Mendonça, Vagner José; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Pinotti, Heloisa; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Pita, Sebastián; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Panzera, Francisco; De Araújo, Renato Freitas; Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela De; Rosa, João Aristeu Da

    2016-05-02

    Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, and T. pessoai Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 were described based on material collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These species were later included in the T. brasiliensis complex based on their geographic distribution. Triatoma bahiensis and T. pessoai were subsequently synonymized with T. lenti. However, the phylogenetic position of T. lenti within the T. brasiliensis complex has remained doubtful. This study aims to assess the taxonomic status of T. bahiensis and to infer the phylogenetic relationships between T. lenti, T. bahiensis and the other members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The identities of the species in concern were confirmed by comparisons with high resolution photos of the respective type materials; lectotypes are designated for T. pessoai and T. bahiensis. Morphological, morphometric, molecular, and cytogenetic approaches as well as experimental crosses were used. The low viability of experimental crosses combined with morphological and morphometric data allow the differentiation of T. bahiensis and T. lenti. Pairwise cyt b sequence divergence between T. lenti and T. bahiensis was 2.5%. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses grouped T. lenti and T. bahiensis as members of the T. brasiliensis complex. These results revalidate the specific status of T. bahiensis.

  19. [Indicators of infestation, colonization and infection of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Campeche, México].

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    Hernández, Jorge L; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Infante, Francisco; Morón, Alejandro; Castillo, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is considered to be one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease in Southern Mexico and Central America. The objective of the present study was to obtain ecological information on T. dimidiata in two rural communities of Campeche, Mexico, where the vector is poorly studied. Our work consisted of monthly samplings carried out during one-year time at three levels: sylvatic, peridomestic and intradomestic, in order to estimate the population abundance of this species and its rate of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Triatoma dimidiata was the unique vector of this disease collected in San Juan Bautista Sakcabchen (SJBS) and Crucero San Luis (CSL). The total of 145 individuals were captured in SJBS; from these, 26.9%, 20% and 53.1% were collected in the sylvatic, peridomestic and intradomestic area, respectively. In CSL captures yielded 108 individuals: 40.7% in the sylvatic area, 20.4% peridomestic and 38.9% intradomestic. We found no correlation between climatic variables and population abundance of T. dimidiata. Dataset obtained suggests that individuals from the sylvatic area exhibit a high rate of natural infection by T. cruzi, with monthly percentages up to 61.5% for SJBS and 50% for CSL. At the peri and intradomestic level, the reservoirs apparently play an important role in the transmission, as the seroprevalence in dogs was 61.5% y 65.4%, for SJBS y CSL, respectively. Based on these findings, it was concluded that inhabitants of both communities are at a high risk of Chagas disease infection.

  20. Anatomy of the Spermatophore in Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and Its Applications to the Study of Chagas Disease Vector Biology

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    Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Freitas, Simone P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution. PMID:23958911

  1. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

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    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2007-11-15

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  2. Estadísticos poblacionales de Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera : Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales

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    Oscherov Elena B.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.

  3. Toxicity of pyrethroids and repellency of diethyltoluamide in two deltamethrin-resistant colonies of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Valeria Sfara

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the currrent investigation was to evaluate (a the toxicity of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin; (b the effect of these insecticides on the locomotor activity; and (c the repellent effect of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET on two deltamethrin-resistant strains of Triatoma infestans from Argentina (El Chorro and La Toma, and one susceptible strain. The resistance ratios (RRs obtained for the La Toma strain were: > 10,769, 50.7, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The RRs for the El Chorro strain were: > 10,769, 85.8, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The hyperactivity usually caused by the three pyrethroids was in both the deltamethrin-resistant strains compared to the susceptible reference strain. No differences were observed in the repellent effect of DEET between the three groups. These results indicate that the deltamethrin-resistant insects have a cross resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and tetramethrin, and are also resistant to the first symptom of pyrethroid poisoning (hyperactivity. However, the sensorial process related to DEET repellency does not appear to be altered.

  4. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus - like (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) wing asymmetry under controlled conditions of population density and feeding frequency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E J Màrquez; C I Saldamando-Benjumea

    2013-09-01

    Habitat change in Rhodnius spp may represent an environmental challenge for the development of the species, particularly when feeding frequency and population density vary in nature. To estimate the effect of these variables in stability on development, the degree of directional asymmetry (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the wing size and shape of R. prolixus and R. robustus–like were measured under laboratory controlled conditions. DA and FA in wing size and shape were significant in both species, but their variation patterns showed both inter-specific and sexual dimorphic differences in FA of wing size and shape induced by nutrition stress. These results suggest different abilities of the genotypes and sexes of two sylvatic and domestic genotypes of Rhodnius to buffer these stress conditions. However, both species showed non-significant differences in the levels of FA between treatments that simulated sylvan vs domestic conditions, indicating that the developmental noise did not explain the variation in wing size and shape found in previous studies. Thus, this result confirm that the variation in wing size and shape in response to treatments constitute a plastic response of these genotypes to population density and feeding frequency.

  5. New structures for goat corrals to control peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the Gran Chaco of Argentina

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    David Eladio Gorla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja. Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling.

  6. Eye colour as a genetic marker for fertility and fecundity of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Pires Herton Helder Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye colour of Triatoma infestans is controlled at a single autosomal locus, with black-eye as the dominant gene and red-eye as the recessive. Inheritance of these characters follows a classical Mendelian system, enabling eye colour to be used as a marker for studies of mating frequency. We found no significant differences in oviposition rates and egg hatching rates irrespective of parental phenotypes. Different mating schedules between red-eye and black-eye parents showed that eye colour did not affect mating competence. Females mated with a single male or with different males together or in succession produced similar numbers of fertile eggs, with the eye colour of the offspring reflecting exposure to the different males. We conclude that although a single mating can provide sufficient sperm for the whole reproductive life of the female, multiple matings can result in balanced assortative sperm usage from the spermatheca.

  7. Selective Insecticide Applications Directed Against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Affected a Nontarget Secondary Vector of Chagas Disease, Triatoma garciabesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Planes, L I; Vazquez-Prokopec, G M; Cecere, M C; Canale, D M; Gürtler, R E

    2016-01-01

    The control of nondomiciliated triatomine species adapted to peridomestic habitats represents a challenge because they are connected to sylvatic colonies, and pyrethroid insecticides have limited effects outdoors. The effects of residual insecticide spraying have rarely been assessed on secondary triatomines. Triatoma garciabesi (Carcavallo, Martinez, Cichero, Prosen & Ronderos, 1967) is a nontarget vector that inhabits the dry western Chaco region, and a member of the Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 complex. Little is known on the capacity of T. garciabesi to invade and establish viable domestic or peridomestic colonies, and on its response to residual insecticide sprays directed against Triatoma infestans Klug 1834. The presence and abundance of triatomines were assessed by timed manual collections annually or biannually (spring and fall) during 10 yr after a community-wide insecticide spraying campaign and selective insecticide sprays directed against T. infestans in a rural village of northwestern Argentina. T. garciabesi mainly occupied peridomestic habitats associated with chickens, and was unable to colonize human sleeping quarters. Trees with chickens occurred in nearly all houses and were infested in >25% of the occasions. The abundance of bugs at house-compound level was best explained by a generalized estimating equation model that included selective insecticide sprays during the previous semester (negative effects), chicken abundance (positive effects), seasonality, and their interactions. Our results suggest that insecticide applications targeting T. infestans affected the abundance of T. garciabesi, and reduced the likelihood of future infestation.

  8. Molecular evidence of demographic expansion of the chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in Colombia.

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    Andrés Gómez-Palacio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatoma dimidiata is one of the most significant vectors of Chagas disease in Central America and Colombia, and, as in most species, its pattern of genetic variation within and among populations is strongly affected by its phylogeographic history. A putative origin from Central America has been proposed for Colombian populations, and high genetic differentiation among three biographically different population groups has recently been evidenced. Analyses based on putatively neutral markers provide data from which past events, such as population expansions and colonization, can be inferred. We analyzed the genealogies of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 4 (ND4 and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1-mitochondrial genes, as well as partial nuclear ITS-2 DNA sequences obtained across most of the eco-geographical range in Colombia, to assess the population structure and demographic factors that may explain the geographical distribution of T. dimidiata in this country. RESULTS: The population structure results support a significant association between genetic divergence and the eco-geographical location of population groups, suggesting that clear signals of demographic expansion can explain the geographical distribution of haplotypes of population groups. Additionally, empirical date estimation of the event suggests that the population's expansion can be placed after the emergence of the Panama Isthmus, and that it was possibly followed by a population fragmentation process, perhaps resulting from local adaptation accomplished by orographic factors such as geographical isolation. CONCLUSION: Inferences about the historical population processes in Colombian T. dimidiata populations are generally in accordance with population expansions that may have been accomplished by two important biotic and orographic events such as the Great American Interchange and the uplift of the eastern range of the Andes mountains in central Colombia.

  9. Presence of Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae and Risk of Transmission of Chagas Disease in Colima, México

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    Espinoza-Gómez Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the risk of transmission of the Chagas disease in the State of Colima, México, an entomological survey was performed to obtain triatominae and the rate of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi determined by examination of its dejections. Two hundred eighteen houses located in 16 villages were sampled. In each house the intradomestic and peridomestic habitats were examined by the man-hour-house method, sensor boxes and mouse-baited traps. Also, 12 silvatic places were explored around the same areas using the same techniques as the ones sampled. In total, 456 specimens were captured, of which 139 correspond to Triatoma phyllosoma pallidipennis; 80 to T. p. longipennis; one specimen of T. dimidiata and 236 nymphs of Triatoma sp. Two hundred ninety seven insects were captured in the intradomestic habitat, 132 in the peridomestic and 26 in the silvatic. The index of positive houses was 27%, located in the central area of the state. The rate of natural infection with T. cruzi showed 25.6%. This results confirmed the presence of two important vectors of the Chagas disease in Colima. Its preference for the domestic habitat and its high levels of natural infection with T. cruzi suggested the existence of a significant risk for its transmission in this area of the country.

  10. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Catalá SS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles. Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long-established laboratory material for experimental studies designed to extrapolate the natural behaviour and physiology of these species.

  11. Description and characterization of the melanic morphotype of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: For the fi rst time we provide the description of the melanic (dark) morphotype of Rhodnius nasutus and determine the pattern of genetic inheritance for this characteristic. Methods: Dark morph R. nasutus specimens were crossbred with standard (typically patterned) R. nasutus. Results: We present the fi rst occurrence of the melanic morphotype in the genus Rhodnius. The crossbreeding results demonstrate that the inheritance pattern of this characteristic follows Mendel’s...

  12. [Triatoma vandae sp.n. of the oliveirai complex from the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcavallo, Rodolfo U; Jurberg, José; Rocha, Dayse da Silva; Galvao, Cleber; Noireau, François; Lent, Herman

    2002-07-01

    There are several specific complexes belonging to the genus Triatoma Laporte, 1832, which are generally associated to specific geographic areas. Recent publications have linked the oliveirai complex to ecosystems of Mato Grosso, which are also present in other Brazilian states and even in other bordering countries as eastern Paraguay. The study of the abundant material collected during the last years allowed the description of several new species of the oliveirai complex: T. jurbergi Carcavallo, Galvão Lent, 1998; T. baratai Carcavallo Jurberg, 2000 and T. klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent Galvão, 2001. Another new species belonging to the same complex is described here as T. vandae sp.n. It originates from the state of Mato Grosso, and has been reared in the insectary of the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro.

  13. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-06-20

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms.

  14. Distribution and infection of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae by Trypanosoma cruzi in the state of Michoacán, Mexico

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An entomological study of triatomine species was carried out to assess their prevalence in 10 localities of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. Entomological indices were calculated to estimate the risk for vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to the human population in this area. Four triatomine species (Triatoma barberi, Triatoma dimidiata, Meccus pallidipennis and Meccus longipennis were collected from the study area. This is the first report of M. longipennis and T. dimidiata in Michoacán. M. pallidipennis was significantly (p < 0.05 more abundant than any of the other species collected in the study area. Infection indices were greater than 50% for each of the four collected triatomine species. Significantly more triatomines were collected from intradomiciliary areas than from peridomiciliary or sylvatic areas. Infestation, crowding and density indices were low, whereas colonisation indices were high in five localities. The current vectorial conditions in the study area require continuous entomological and serological surveillance to diminish the risk of T. cruzi transmission to human populations.

  15. First report of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius stali in the state of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Specimens of R. stali were collected by the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco. RESULTS: The number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from five to six. This was also the first report of R. stali in the Brazilian Amazon. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of R. stali is worrisome, since this species has been found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and there has been evidence of its domiciliation capabilities.

  16. Influence of temperature and humidity on the biology of Triatoma mexicana (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Several biological parameters related to the Triatoma mexicana life-cycle were evaluated in this study. Three cohorts were maintained under different combinations of temperature and relative humidity (RH: 25ºC/50% RH; 25ºC/75% RH; and 30ºC/75% RH. Observed hatching rates varied from 49-57.5% whereas the average time of hatching varied from 19.5-22.7 days. In the three cohorts studied, the mean time-lapse between presentation of the blood meal and the beginning of feeding was less than 5 min in all instars; the mean feeding time was longer than 10 min in all the instars; the post-feed defecation delay was over 10 min in all the instars. Less than 50% of nymphs in each cohort completed the cycle and the average time from 1st instar nymph to adult was more than 255 days for the three cohorts. The number of blood meals before molt at each nymphal instar varied from 1-9. Our results appear to indicate a lack of influence of temperature and RH on the biological parameters of T. mexicana that were studied, which could reflect the adaptation capacity of this species. We also conclude that T. mexicana can not be considered an effective transmitter of Trypanosoma cruzi to human populations in areas where this species is currently present.

  17. Influence of the blood meal source on the biology of Meccus picturatus Usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Martínez-Ibarra José Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, time-lapse between presenting the blood meal and beginning of feeding, feeding time, postfeed defecation delay,life time, mortality and fecundity for each stage of Meccus picturatus, life-cycle were evaluated and compared in two cohorts of M. picturatus fed on hens or rabbits. The hatching rate observed for each of the two studied groups of eggs was 78.1% (n = 2298 on the group fed on hens and 82.1% (n = 2704 on that fed on rabbits, and the average time of hatching was 20 days. Mean time-lapse for beginning feeding was under 3 min in nymphal stages and postfeed defecation delay was under 10 min in all stages, in both cohorts. Mean feeding time was significantly (P 0.05 differences were recorded among the average times from NI to adult in the cohort fed on hens (196.8 ± 15.8 days and the average time in the cohort fed on rabbits (189.5 ± 22.9. The average span in days for each stage fed on hens was not significantly different to the average span for each stage fed on rabbits. The number of blood meals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 6 in both cohorts. The mortality rates were higher on fifth nymphal stage, in both cohorts. No significant (P > 0.05 differences were recorded on mortality rates on most nymphal stages of both cohorts. The average number of eggs laid per female from the cohort fed on hens in a 9-month period was 791.1, whereas the average number of eggs in the cohort fed on rabbits was 928.3.

  18. Juvenile hormone III and nutrition effects on spermatogenesis in the 4th instar nymphs of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Maria José Costa Schuetz

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available When 4th instar nymphs of Panstrongylus megistus are fed with a saturant blood meal, there is an intense proliferation of the spermatogonia. At the end of the intermoult, the older spermatogonial cysts differentiate into 1st primary spermatocyte cysts. In the nymphs deprived of the blood meal this evolution is not observed, but a small growth of the testicular follicles occurs, due to a few mitotic divisions. This growth is observed at least, until 25 days after ecdysis. Since day 15, an autolytic process starts in the older spermatogonial cysts. The presence of exogenous juvenile hormone III (JH III does not promote the development of the germ cells in the fasting insects. There is only a small growth of the testicular follicles and the autolytic process is also observed. In the precocious adults obtained by allatectomy or precocene II treatment, germ cells are observed in all development stages, except packed and elongated spermatozoa bundels.

  19. Nuevos registros de flebotominos (Diptera: Psychodidae y triatominos (Hemiptera:Reduviidae para Risaralda, Cauca y Valle del Cauca,Colombia.

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    Mauricio Barreto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los flebotominos y los triatominos son insectos hematófagos. Buena parte de los primeros transmiten leishmaniasis y los segundos la enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana. Con técnicas como trampas de luz, cebo humano, red entomológica, y búsqueda en sitios de reposo, se capturaron flebotominos y triatominos en 12 localidades rurales colombianas (de las que se dan las alturas sobre el nivel del mar y sus formaciones ecológicas de los siguientes departamentos: Cauca (municipios: Guapi, Popayán; Risaralda (Guática, La Virginia, Pereira, Pueblo Rico; y Valle del Cauca (Buenaventura, Cali, Calima o Darién. Sólo en Cali las capturas se hicieron en la zona urbana. Se colectaron 21 especies o subespecies de flebotominos y dos de triatominos. Tanto de los unos como de los otros se establecen nuevos registros que amplían la distribución geográfica de estos insectos en Colombia. Se discuten sus relaciones en la transmisión de enfermedades.

  20. Distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in genomes of Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae inferred from genomic in situ hybridization.

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    Sebastian Pita

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, comprises 140 species characterized by a highly homogeneous chromosome number. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatominae genomes by Genomic in situ Hybridization using Triatoma delpontei and Triatoma infestans genomic DNAs as probes. Hybridizations were performed on their own chromosomes and on nine species included in six genera from the two main tribes: Triatomini and Rhodniini. Genomic probes clearly generate two different hybridization patterns, dispersed or accumulated in specific regions or chromosomes. The three used probes generate the same hybridization pattern in each species. However, these patterns are species-specific. In closely related species, the probes strongly hybridized in the autosomal heterochromatic regions, resembling C-banding and DAPI patterns. However, in more distant species these co-localizations are not observed. The heterochromatic Y chromosome is constituted by highly repeated sequences, which is conserved among 10 species of Triatomini tribe suggesting be an ancestral character for this group. However, the Y chromosome in Rhodniini tribe is markedly different, supporting the early evolutionary dichotomy between both tribes. In some species, sex chromosomes and autosomes shared repeated sequences, suggesting meiotic chromatin exchanges among these heterologous chromosomes. Our GISH analyses enabled us to acquire not only reliable information about autosomal repeated sequences distribution but also an insight into sex chromosome evolution in Triatominae. Furthermore, the differentiation obtained by GISH might be a valuable marker to establish phylogenetic relationships and to test the controversial origin of the Triatominae subfamily.

  1. Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

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    Jane Costa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.

  2. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Stenocereus Eichlamii (Cactaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Bor, Silvia; Monroy, M Carlota

    2004-12-01

    A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae, Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease) in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections, 24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T. ryckmani. In comparison with other areas of Guatemala, T ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5, density = 2.3 and crowding index 4.3). The insects were mainly found (52.4%) in the dead portions of S. eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X2 = 26.0, P < 0.00001), followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%). They were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground. A considerable proportion (75.7%) had no aparent blood in their digestive systems. To determine the presence of flagellates, 43 of the bugs were dissected, but none were found. This is the first report on T. ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat.

  3. Environmental management for the control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Costa Rica: a pilot project

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    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological control method, using environmental management operations, based on biological and behavioral characteristics of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, was implemented as a pilot project in an area of Costa Rica where the bug is prevalent. The sample was represented by 20 houses with peridomestic colonies (two also had indoor infestation, divided in two equivalent groups of 10 each. In one group we intervened the houses, i.e. all objects or materials that were serving as artificial ecotopes for the bugs were removed, and the second group was used as control houses. After a year of periodic follow up, it became evident that in those houses with a modified environment the number of insects had decreased notoriously even after the first visits and this was more evident after a period of 12.5 to 13.5 months in which no insects were detected in eight of the houses. It also became clear that in this group of houses, recolonization by wild bugs from the surrounding areas, became more difficult, probably due to the absence of protection from bug predators. In the control houses, with the exception of three in which the inhabitants decided to intervene on their own, and another house with a peculiar situation, the insect populations remained the same or even showed a tendency to increase, as confirmed at the end of the experiment. We believe that the method is feasible, low costing and non contaminating. It could be used successfully in other places where T. dimidiata is common and also in countries where other species colonize peridomestic areas of homes. Environmental management of this kind should seek the participation of the members of the communities, in order to make it a more permanent control measure.

  4. Occurrence of hybrids and laboratory evidence of fertility among three species of the Phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Mexico

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In seven studied communities of Western Mexico, triatomine specimens were sympatrically collected, some with atypical morphological characteristics in contrast to pure specimens, which were presumed to be hybrids. More than 200 specimens of Meccus pallidipennis and Meccus longipennis with brown-yellow markings on dorsal connexival segments were collected in Ahuacapán and Quitupan. In La Mesa, more than 60 specimens similar to Meccus picturatus in most morphological characteristics (including size were collected, although they presented a largely yellowish corium like M. pallidipennis. Interfertility was proven between all of the studied wild hybrid specimens, as well as between all the experimental laboratory hybrids. Two different phenotypes (M. picturatus and M. longipennis were obtained from crosses between M. picturatus x M. picturatus and M. longipennis x M. longipennis from the three studied localities in state of Nayarit as from La Mesita. Results support the hypothesis that the subspecific ranking of those triatomines may, therefore, be more appropriate because reproductive isolation has not been developed and complete interbreeding was recorded.

  5. Occurrence of hybrids and laboratory evidence of fertility among three species of the Phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Vences, Mauro Omar; Tapia-González, José María; Espinoza-Gutiérrez, Bertha

    2009-12-01

    In seven studied communities of Western Mexico, triatomine specimens were sympatrically collected, some with atypical morphological characteristics in contrast to pure specimens, which were presumed to be hybrids. More than 200 specimens of Meccus pallidipennis and Meccus longipennis with brown-yellow markings on dorsal connexival segments were collected in Ahuacapán and Quitupan. In La Mesa, more than 60 specimens similar to Meccus picturatus in most morphological characteristics (including size) were collected, although they presented a largely yellowish corium like M. pallidipennis. Interfertility was proven between all of the studied wild hybrid specimens, as well as between all the experimental laboratory hybrids. Two different phenotypes (M. picturatus and M. longipennis) were obtained from crosses between M. picturatus x M. picturatus and M. longipennis x M. longipennis from the three studied localities in state of Nayarit as from La Mesita. Results support the hypothesis that the subspecific ranking of those triatomines may, therefore, be more appropriate because reproductive isolation has not been developed and complete interbreeding was recorded.

  6. Influence of the palm tree species on the variability of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Paula, Alexandre Silva de; Belisário, Carlota Josefovicz; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Harry, Myriam; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2011-07-01

    This work evaluated the occurrence and genetic structure of Rhodnius nasutus sampled in two sites using morphometry and microsatellites. These sites, presented distinct abiotic features and palm trees: (i) nine Attalea speciosa palm trees, so called babaçu, were sampled from the Meruoca Mountain Ridge, a sloping region of reminiscent forest in the state of Ceará, Brazil, and (ii) 17 Copernicia prunifera palm trees, so called carnaúba, were sampled in the scrub savanna region (Sobral district) that surrounds the mountain ridge. Of the twenty-six palm trees dissected, 70.6% of carnauba and 88.9% of babaçu were infested by R. nasutus. The micro-climatic data where R. nasutus were sheltered demonstrated that the babaçu and carnaúba palm trees presented significant differences (p < 0.05) in relation to the external environment, except for temperature and relative humidity regulation, suggesting that the architecture of the babaçu crown keeps a more stable micro-environment. The morphometric studies of the F1 generation demonstrated that insects from the babaçu (A. speciosa) were significantly larger (p = 0.000) than those collected in carnaúba (C. prunifera) palm trees. Also, microsatellite analysis demonstrated a high genetic differentiation between the two groups of R. nasutus (R(st) = -0.77). Our results suggest that the difference in size between the populations is probably related to an incipient process of genetic drift in populations associated to each palm tree, probably also driven by the different climatic features observed in these micro-environments.

  7. Sylvatic triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia: trends toward domesticity and possible infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noireau, F; Bosseno, M F; Carrasco, R; Telleria, J; Vargas, F; Camacho, C; Yaksic, N; Brenière, S F

    1995-09-01

    The risk of domestic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas) by sylvatic triatomines was assessed in an isolated area of the subandean region of Bolivia. None of the 390 residents examined had serological evidence of infection. Two sylvatic triatomine species, Eratyrus mucronatus (Stål) and Triatoma sordida (Stål), were found in houses and in peridomestic structures. The collection of nymphal instars of both species from some houses indicated possible domesticity. Microscopic examination of feces from 92 insects showed no parasites, and cultures from the guts of 30 insects were negative. Nevertheless, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test performed on the same fecal samples showed the presence of T. cruzi DNA in 19.1 and 12.5% of E. mucronatus and T. sordida, respectively. These 16 PCR-positive samples were hybridized with 2 T. cruzi-specific probes known from the domestic cycle in Bolivia (clones 20 and 39). At least 1 of these clones was identified in 7 bugs (5 E. mucronatus and 2 T. sordida). Moreover, no hybridization was observed with these probes in S E. mucronatus and 1 T. sordida samples that showed an amplified band by PCR. These data indicated that T. cruzi clones, genetically unrelated to clones 20 and 39, also were circulating in this area. Based on these results, the 2 sylvatic triatomine species encountered in Apolo should not be overlooked as possible local vectors of T. cruzi.

  8. Genetic Variation of North American Triatomines (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Initial Divergence between Species and Populations of Chagas Disease Vector

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are principal factors in acquiring Chagas disease. For this reason, increased knowledge of domestic transmission of T. cruzi and control of its insect vectors is necessary. To contribute to genetic knowledge of North America Triatominae species, we studied genetic variations and conducted phylogenetic analysis of different triatomines species of epidemiologic importance. Our analysis showed high genetic variations between different geographic popul...

  9. Short-Range Responses of the Kissing Bug Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to Carbon Dioxide, Moisture, and Artificial Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indacochea, Andres; Gard, Charlotte C; Hansen, Immo A; Pierce, Jane; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-08-29

    The hematophagous bug Triatoma rubida is a species of kissing bug that has been marked as a potential vector for the transmission of Chagas disease in the Southern United States and Northern Mexico. However, information on the distribution of T. rubida in these areas is limited. Vector monitoring is crucial to assess disease risk, so effective trapping systems are required. Kissing bugs utilize extrinsic cues to guide host-seeking, aggregation, and dispersal behaviors. These cues have been recognized as high-value targets for exploitation by trapping systems. A modern video-tracking system was used with a four-port olfactometer system to quantitatively assess the behavioral response of T. rubida to cues of known significance. Also, response of T. rubida adults to seven wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LED) in paired-choice pitfall was evaluated. Behavioral data gathered from these experiments indicate that T. rubida nymphs orient preferentially to airstreams at either 1600 or 3200 ppm carbon dioxide and prefer relative humidity levels of about 30%, while adults are most attracted to 470 nm light. These data may serve to help design an effective trapping system for T. rubida monitoring. Investigations described here also demonstrate the experimental power of combining an olfactometer with a video-tracking system for studying insect behavior.

  10. Potential for entomopathogenic fungi to control Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, a vector of Chagas disease in Mexico

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    María Guadalupe Vázquez-Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control disease vectors has become relevant because traditional chemical control methods have caused damage to the environment and led to the development of resistance among vectors. Thus, this study assessed the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in Triatoma dimidiata. Methods Preparations of 108 conidia/ml of Gliocladium virens, Talaromyces flavus, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were applied topically on T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. Controls were treated with the 0.0001% Tween-80 vehicle. Mortality was evaluated and recorded daily for 30 days. The concentration required to kill 50% of T. dimidiata (LC50 was then calculated for the most pathogenic isolate. Results Pathogenicity in adults was similar among B. bassiana, G. virens and T. flavus (p>0.05 and differed from that in triatomine nymphs (p=0.009. The most entomopathogenic strains in adult triatomines were B. bassiana and G. virens, which both caused 100% mortality. In nymphs, the most entomopathogenic strain was B. bassiana, followed by G. virens. The native strain with the highest pathogenicity was G. virens, for which the LC50 for T. dimidiata nymphs was 1.98 x108 conidia/ml at 13 days after inoculation. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana and G. virens showed entomopathogenic potential in T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. However, the native G. virens strain presents a higher probability of success in the field, and G. virens should thus be considered a potential candidate for the biological control of triatomine Chagas disease vectors.

  11. The biology of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta and Triatoma rubida

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The values of biological parameters related to hatching, lifespan, the number of blood meals between moults, mortality, time lapse before the beginning of feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for each instar of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae, Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta (former subspecies protracta and Triatoma rubida (former subspecies uhleri, were evaluated and compared. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were recorded among the three species with respect to the average time required to hatch. This time was approximately 19 days. The average egg-to-adult development time was significantly (p < 0.05 shorter for T. rubida. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from one-five for each species. The mortality rates were higher for the first-instar nymphs of the three species studied. The mean time lapse before the beginning of feeding was between 0.3-3 min for most nymphs of all instars of each species studied. The mean feeding time was the longest for T. recurva, followed by T. protracta. The defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. recurva and T. rubida. Given these results, only T. rubida should be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans in areas of Mexico where these species exist, whereas T. recurva and T. protracta would be of secondary importance.

  12. Alberprosenia malheiroi Serra, Atzingen & Serra, 1987 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: redescrição e bionomia Alberprosenia malheiroi Serra, Atzingen & Serra, 1987 (Hemiptera, Rediviidae: redescription and bionomics

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    Rodolfo U. Carcavallo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sobre Alberprosenia malheiroi n. sp. deu-se a conhecer uma diagnose resumida em 1980, porém sem valor bibliográfico. Em 1987 publicou-se a mesma diagnose anexando uma foto e alguns comentários, porém sem realizar uma descrição formal. Descreve-se para esta espécie, os adultos, os estádios imaturos, determina-se a série sintípica e apresenta-se dados bionômicos e de criação em insetário. As diferenças mais evidentes com A. goyovargasi, a única espécie que se conhecia do gênero até então, são a coloração geral negra, o espaço interocular maior que o tamanho de um olho visto dorsalmente, os tubérculos do colar com o ápice agudo e o tamanho maior, na nova espécie, quase o dobro do da primeira espécie. Os ovos são pequenos, fixados ao substrato em grupos de 3 ou 4, elipsóides, não achatados lateralmente, com o opérculo proeminente, convexo, sem estruturas evidentes. As ninfas apresentam em todos os estádios caracteres típicos do gênero e da tribo, com região anteocular menos longa que a post-ocular e característica pilosidade do tegumento que vai se acentuando a cada estádio. A. malheiroi n. sp. foi capturado em ecótopos silvestres em palmeiras em floresta no Estado do Pará, associados com morcegos ou aves. Nenhum dos exemplares estava infectado com Trypanosoma cruzi. Esses triatomíneos foram mantidos em insetários a ± 25°C e ± 60% UR, são insetos ágeis e voam com relativa facilidade. Alimentaram-se bem em pombos e morcegos e não aceitaram alimentação em ratos, camundongos ou hamsters. O período de incubação dos ovos foi em média treze dias e o tempo de evolução do período ninfal foi em média cento e trinta e dois dias.Alberprosenia malheiroi n. sp. first became known through an informal publication of a paper submitted a Congress, in 1980. The same diagnosis with a photograph was published in 1987, but no formal description has yeet been made. The present authors describe adults and immature instars, establish a sintypical series and introduce bionomic data and data on the rearing of this species in insectary.The most evident differences between A. malheiroi n. sp. and A. goyovargasi, the former generic species, are the general colour pattern which is completely black; the interocular area, wider than an eye in dorsal view; the acute apex in collar tubercules and the significantly larger size, almost double that of the latter specie. The eggs are small attach themselves to the substratum in groups of either 3 or 4, are elipsoid with no lateral flattening, having a convex and prominent operculum, without conspicuous structures. Nymphs have the typical tribal and generic characteristics in each stage, the anteocular region being shorter than the postocular one. Pilosity appears in the second instar and becomes more evident with instar development. A. malheiroi n. sp. was captured in a forest, in wild (palm-tree ecotopes associated with bats or birds, in the State of Para, Brazil. Trypanosoma cruzi was not found in any specimens. These triatomines were reared in ± 25°C and ± 60 % RH, the insects are quick and fly without difficulty. They fed well on pigeons and bats but not on rats, mice or hamsters. The eggs incubation period was thirteen days on average, and the evolution time of the nymphal period was a hundred and thirty two days on average.

  13. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  14. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

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    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  15. Vector Surveillance to Determine Species Composition and Occurrence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection at Three Military Installations in San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    blood-sucking triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae; Triatominae). The disease is endemic to south Texas, but exists almost exclusively as a zoonosis ...sucking triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae; Triatominae). The disease is endemic to south Texas, but exists almost exclusively as a zoonosis

  16. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

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    Pamela Durán

    Full Text Available For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.

  17. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a "cockroach diet" was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a "mouse diet", the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.

  18. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species. PMID:27706376

  19. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  20. A new synonymy in Alitocoris Sailer (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new synonymy in Alitocoris Sailer (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae. Alitocoris manni Sailer is considered a junior synonym of Alitocoris brunneus Sailer after the comparison of the holotypes with specimens from Mexico, El Salvador and Honduras.

  1. La aparición de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae de Eucalyptus y su depredación por Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier y Serville (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae

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    Marliton Barreto

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The most important lepidopterans for eucalyptus crop are called defoliators. In Brazil, some species occur from the Amazônia to Rio Grande do Sul State and Thyrinteina arnobia arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is cited as the most important lepidopteran defoliator in Brazil and some predatory species of the family Reduviidae are associated with various forest crops. Thus, this study recorded the ocorrence of Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville preying T. arnobia in eucaliptus crop in Sorriso city, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

  2. Efecto de la alimentación con sangre humana sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se observó el efecto de diferentes fracciones de sangre humana sobre la ovipostura (fecundidad), la eclosión (fertilidad) y el ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 utilizando un alimentador artificial. En los ejemplares alimentados con sangre de hombre, la fecundidad fue mayor que en los alimentados con sangre de mujer. No hubo diferencia significativa en la fertilidad relacionada con la procedencia de las fracciones. En cada estadio se estimaron los tiempos de permanencia y el núme...

  3. Alimentación y defecación en triatominos del género Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) alimentados con sangre humana

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió el comportamiento alimenticio y de defecación de Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 y R. pictipes Stal, 1872 alimentados artificialmente con sangre humana en condiciones de laboratorio. La ninfa I de todas las especies no defecó en la primera media hora después de haber iniciado la ingesta. R. pictipes no se acercó a picar en el alimentador artificial aunque sí lo hizo cuando el alimento se ofreció directamente sobre el cuerpo humano. La...

  4. Density estimates of the domestic vector of Chagas disease, Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), in rural houses in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, J E; Gürtler, R E; Leal, J A; Feliciangeli, D

    1995-01-01

    We reported the use of the timed manual method, routinely employed as an indicator to the relative abundance of domestic triatomine bugs, to estimate their absolute density in houses. A team of six people collected Rhodnius prolixus Stål bugs from the walls and roofs of 14 typical palm-leaf rural houses located in Cojedes, Venezuela, spending 40 minutes searching in each house. One day after these manual collections, all the houses were demolished and the number of triatomine bugs were identified by instar and counted. Linear regression analyses of the number of R. prolixus collected over 4 man-hours and the census counts obtained by house demolition indicated that the fit of the data by instar (stage II--adult) and place of capture (roof versus palm walls versus mud walls) was satisfactory. The slopes of the regressions were interpreted as a measure of "catchability" (probability of capture). Catchability increased with developmental stage (ranging from 11.2% in stage II to 38.7% in adults), probably reflecting the increasing size and visibility of bugs as they evolved. The catchability on palm wall was higher than that for roofs or mud walls, increasing form 1.3% and 3.0% in stage II to 13.4% and 14.0% in adults, respectively. We reported, also, regression equations for converting field estimates of timed manual collections of R. prolixus into absolute density estimates.

  5. Cytogenetic and morphologic approaches of hybrids from experimental crosses between Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 and T. sherlocki Papa et al., 2002 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vagner José; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Medeiros, Lívia Maria de Oliveira; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2014-08-01

    The reproductive capacity between Triatoma lenti and Triatoma sherlocki was observed in order to verify the fertility and viability of the offspring. Cytogenetic, morphological and morphometric approaches were used to analyze the differences that were inherited. Experimental crosses were performed in both directions. The fertility rate of the eggs in crosses involving T. sherlocki females was 65% and 90% in F1 and F2 offspring, respectively. In reciprocal crosses, it was 7% and 25% in F1 and F2 offspring, respectively. The cytogenetic analyses of the male meiotic process of the hybrids were performed using lacto-acetic orcein, C-banding and Feulgen techniques. The male F1 offspring presented normal chromosome behavior, a finding that was similar to those reported in parental species. However, cytogenetic analysis of F2 offspring showed errors in chromosome pairing. This post-zygotic isolation, which prevents hybrids in nature, may represent the collapse of the hybrid. This phenomenon is due to a genetic dysregulation that occurs in the chromosomes of F1. The results were similar in the hybrids from both crosses. Morphological features, such as color and size of connexive and the presence of red-orange rings on the femora, were similar to T. sherlocki, while wins size was similar to T. lenti in F1 offspring. The eggshells showed characteristics that were similar to species of origin, whereas the median process of the pygophore resulted in intermediate characteristics in the F1 and a segregating pattern in F2 offspring. Geometric morphometric techniques used on the wings showed that both F1 and F2 offspring were similar to T. lenti. These studies on the reproductive capacity between T. lenti and T. sherlocki confirm that both species are evolutionarily closed; hence, they are included in the brasiliensis subcomplex. The extremely reduced fertility observed in the F2 hybrids confirmed the specific status of the species that were analyzed.

  6. Fauna triatominae do Estado da Bahia, Brasil II - o gênero Rhodnius, com estudos sobre a genitália (Hemiptera, reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available O Rhodnius neglectus é assinalado para a Fauna do Estado da Bahia como a única espécies do gênero ali ocorrente. Dados sobre sua biologia e a morfologia, são apresentados. É feito um estudo do aparelho genital dessa espécie e são salientados os caracteres morfológicos que serão adotados para a diferenciação específica dos triatomíneos nos seguintes trabalhos a serem publicados na série sobre a fauna de hemípteros do Estado.One female specimen of Rhodnius neglectus was collected inthe State of Bahia, Brazil and is considered the only species of the genus so far found in that State. The AA. present data on the biology and morphology of the insect and make a thorough study of the genital apparatus of the species, which will be used for species differentiation in the future papers about the fauna of Triatominae of the State of Bahia.

  7. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C R Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population.

  8. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  9. Domestic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) infestation in Northern Peru: a comparative trial of detection methods during a six-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba Cuba, César Augusto; Vargas, Franklin; Roldan, Judith; Ampuero, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Two passive methods in the assessment of intradomiciliary infestation by Rhodnius ecuadoriensis were tested: (i) the Gomes Nu ez sensor box (GN), (ii) sheets of white typing paper and (iii) one active timed manual method. The study was carried out in the Alto Chicama River Valley, Province of Gran Chim , Department of La Libertad. The study design consisted of an initial searching of triatomines inside of the domestic environment by the manual capture active procedure (man/hour) covering all the studied houses. Then, matched pairs of GN boxes and paper sheets were simultaneously installed in the bedrooms of 207 households distributed in 19 localities. A comparative prospective trial of these passive detection devices were monitored at 2, 4 and, finally 6 months follow-up. Parasitological Trypanosoma rangeli and/or T. cruzi infections were investigated in two houses with high level of infestation by R. ecuadoriensis. 16.9% of the 207 households investigated by an initial active manual method were infested with R. ecuadoriensis. The proportion of infested houses fluctuated from 6.2 to 55.5% amongst the 19 localities investigated. T. rangeli natural infection was detected in R. ecuadoriensis specimens collected in two households. Parasite rates in the bugs ranged from 16.6 to 21.7% respectively. The most striking fact was an average rate of salivary gland infection ranging from 7.4 to 8.3%. At the end of the sixth month period, a cumulative incidence of 31.4% of positive GN boxes against 15.9% for paper sheets was recorded. All three methods combined detected domestic infestation in 129 (62.3%) of the 207 houses studied in the 19 localities. The range of houses infested varies from 6.7% to 92.9%. In areas with low bug density infestation rates, the methodology experienced in our studies, seems to be the best choice for investigations on domestic R. ecuadoriensis populations.

  10. Alimentación y defecación en triatominos del género Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae alimentados con sangre humana

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    E. Aldana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento alimenticio y de defecación de Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 y R. pictipes Stal, 1872 alimentados artificialmente con sangre humana en condiciones de laboratorio. La ninfa I de todas las especies no defecaron en la primera media hora después de haber iniciado la ingesta. R. pictipes no se acercó a picar en el alimentador artificial aunque si lo hizo cuando el alimento se ofreció directamente sobre el cuerpo humano. Las ninfas y adultos de R. prolixus mostraron índices de defecación (ID superiores a los correspondientes de las otras especies, y la ninfa III presentó el mayor ID=1.62. La mayoría de individuos de todos los estadíos de desarrollo aceptaron el alimento en un tiempo entre 0 y 3 min y se alimentaron en menos de 15 minutos.Feeding and defecaction behavior of Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 and R. pictipes Stal, 1872, artificially fed on human blood, were studied under laboratory conditions. In all species, first instar nymphs did not defecate in the first 30 minutes after feeding. R. pictipes did not accept artificial feeding but fed directly on humans. Nymph and adult R. prolixus had a higher defecation index (DI than other species; third instar nymphs had the highest DI=1.62. In all instars, most individuals accepted the food in £ 3 minutes and finished feeding in less than 15 minutes.

  11. Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae II: trophic resources and ecological observations of five populations collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Almeida Carlos Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma rubrovaria has become the most frequently captured triatomine species after the control of T. infestans in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. Isoenzymatic and chromatic studies indicate the existence of, at least, two distinct phenotypic patterns of T. rubrovaria in RS. The geographic variation noted through molecular tools may also result in distinct profiles of vectorial potentiality. In order to enhance our understanding of the bionomic knowledge of T. rubrovaria separate batches of the species were collected from different municipalities of RS distant from 72 to 332 km: Santana do Livramento (natural ecotope, Santana do Livramento (artificial ecotope, Santiago (natural ecotope, Canguçu (peridomicile and Encruzilhada do Sul (natural ecotope. A total of 285 specimens were collected, 85 specimens kept sufficient fecal material in their guts for the precipitin analysis. The results indicated the food eclecticism for this species and the anti-rodent serum showed the highest positivity in most localities. From the total of analyzed samples, only 1.3% of unique positivity for human blood was registered, all of them for Santiago population. This reactivity to human blood may be associated to pastures activities in the field.

  12. Triatoma mexicana Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) Descripción de la Genitalia Externa del Macho y Morfología Externa de la Hembra.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma mexicana fue descrita originalmente en 1848 por Herrich-Schaeffer nombrándola Conorhinus mexicanus Herrich-Schaeffer. Actualmente se registra su hallazgo en los estados de Guanajuato, Hidalgo Querétaro y San Luis Potosí. Los estudios sobre su distribución espacial, índices entomológicos, presencia en el intradomicilio y peridomicilio, biología y riesgo de transmisión de Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas demuestran que es una especie impo...

  13. Natural Crossbreeding between Sympatric Species of the Phyllosoma Complex (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Indicate the Existence of Only One Species with Morphologic and Genetic Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernandez, Fernando; Martínez-Ibarra, Jose A.; Catalá, Silvia; Villalobos, Guiehdani; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan P.; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Espinoza, Bertha

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome B gene and the antennal phenotypes were analyzed for the following triatomine species: Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma pallidipennis, and Triatoma picturata, which belong to the Phyllosoma complex. These species inhabit sympatric areas from Talpa de Allende, Autlan de Navarro, and Teocuitatlan de Corona in Jalisco, Mexico. Molecular marker analysis showed that the sympatric individuals are the natural crossbred descendents of different individuals living in close proximity in these natural areas that resulted in mixed populations. The antennal phenotype results are coincident with these genetic findings, which point to the high similitude between all Phyllosoma complex populations analyzed. These data support the hypothesis that these species are morphotypes with chromatic and genetic varieties, which preserves the possibility of natural breeding with fertile descent. In conclusion, our results strongly support the hypothesis that T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, and T. picturata are subspecies of the Phyllosoma complex. PMID:20064999

  14. Efecto de la alimentación con sangre humana sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    E. Aldana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se observó el efecto de diferentes fracciones de sangre humana sobre la ovipostura (fecundidad, la eclosión (fertilidad y el ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 utilizando un alimentador artificial. En los ejemplares alimentados con sangre de hombre, la fecundidad fue mayor que en los alimentados con sangre de mujer. No hubo diferencia significativa en la fertilidad relacionada con la procedencia de las fracciones. En cada estadio se estimaron los tiempos de permanencia y el número de ingestas necesarias para mudar al siguiente estadio ninfal. Los animales alimentados sólo con plasma no completaron el desarrollo ninfal, mientras que los alimentados sólo con glóbulos rojos se desarrollaron hasta el tercer estadio. El ciclo de vida se completó en 129 días en los individuos alimentados con sangre sin fraccionar.The effect of several human blood fractions artificially fed to Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 on oviposture (fecundity, egg-hatching (fertility and life cycle was observed. Specimens fed on man's blood were more fecund than those fed with woman's blood. There were no significant differences in fertility related to host sex. The nymphal development time and number of feedings to molt to the following instar were estimated. Animals fed only on blood plasm did not finish nymphal development, while those fed only blood red cells ended their life cycle in the third nymphal instar. Total life cycle lasts 129 days in individuals fed with whole blood.

  15. Patrones electroforéticos de hemoproteínas salivares (nitroforinas de Rhodnius colombiensis y Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Andrea Arévalo

    2007-01-01

    Conclusión. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad de la técnica para la diferenciación entre R. prolixus y R. colombiensis en adición a métodos morfométricos y moleculares previamente utilizados para diferenciar estas dos especies.

  16. Cría masiva y uso de ninfas de Rhodnius pallescens, Barber, 1932 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae para ensayos biológicoso

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    Mónica Flórez M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Rhodnius pallescens es una especie silvestre que hace intrusión a las viviendas en zonas en las cuales se han presentado brotes de Chagas agudo en Colombia; y para el estudio de sus características biológicas y el monitoreo de la susceptibilidad o resistencia de poblaciones de campo a insecticidas, se requiere del uso de una gran cantidad de insectos mantenidos en el laboratorio. Objetivo: Establecer condiciones de cría de ninfas de R. pallescens que permitan su mejor aprovechamiento en ensayos biológicos. Metodología: Se utilizó una cepa de laboratorio de R. pallescens proveniente de San Martin (Cesar, Colombia y se realizaron bioensayos para: estimar el tiempo de alimentación, establecer condiciones de cría, estimar tiempos de desarrollo ninfal y comparar la fecundidad usando dos fuentes de alimentación y varios tipos de soporte. Resultados: 60 minutos de ofrecimiento de alimento permite la alimentación de 95% de las ninfas. El promedio de oviposición diario/hembra fue de 2,7 huevos y no varío significativamente con el consumo de sangre de gallina o ratón. La duración promedio del ciclo de vida desde huevo hasta el estadio ninfa-V fue de 128,6 días. El uso de cartulina negra y plumas dentro de los frascos de cría mejora la oviposición. Ninfas-V alimentadas desde ninfa-I y pesadas a los 5 o 6 días permite un aprovechamiento del 89% de las ninfas. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este trabajo brindan conocimiento para la cría masiva y el uso de ninfas de Rhodnius pallescens en ensayos biológicos.

  17. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

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    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  18. Estudo de ovos de quatro espécies do gênero Meccus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, vetores da doença de Chagas

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    Marcos Takashi Obara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the morphological, morphometrical, and histological characteristics of eggs of four triatomine bugs species still not studied, in order to understand phylogenetic aspects and to facilitate parameters used in taxonomy, with the purpose of a specific and generic characterization of these vectors in public health. The eggs of each species had come from the collections of the Laboratory of Triatomine bugs and Culicid mosquitoes of the Faculdade de Saúde Pública - USP (Faculty of Public Health/USP. The morphologic studies were carried out through optic microscopy (OM and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The eggs were measured with the help of the digital paquimeter Starrett® 727. In relation to histological measures, Microtome Leica RM 2145® was used. Similarities were evidenced in the exocorial architecture of the eggs when they were studied by OM and SEM. This similarity among the eggs suggests a recent speciation, probably derived from common ancestry, representing a monophyletic group. Some structures were also detected by the histological cuts. The study has contributed to the magnification and recognition in generic and specific terms of the Triatominae subfamily. These new data will be able to subsidize a better understanding to determine roles for each vector species and to facilitate parameters to be used in taxonomy.

  19. Life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under constant and fluctuating conditions of temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Miryam P; Bar, María E; Gorla, David

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature and relative humidity influence in the life cycle, mortality and fecundity patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria. Four cohorts with 60 recently laid eggs each were conformed. The cohorts were divided into two groups. In the controlled conditions group insects were maintained in a dark climatic chamber under constant temperature and humidity, whereas triatomines of the ambiental temperature group were maintained at room temperature. Average incubation time was 15.6 days in the controlled conditions group and 19.1 days in the ambiental temperature. In group controlled conditions the time from egg to adult development lasted 10 months while group ambiental temperature took four months longer. Egg eclosion rate was 99.1% and 98.3% in controlled conditions and ambiental temperature, respectively. Total nymphal mortality in controlled conditions was 52.6% whereas in ambiental temperature was 51.8%. Mean number of eggs/female was 817.6 controlled conditions and 837.1 ambiental temperature. Fluctuating temperature and humidity promoted changes in the life cycle duration and in the reproductive performance of this species, although not in the species mortality.

  20. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-09-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.

  1. Risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by wild Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia supported by the detection of human blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Nelly Lilian Rosio; Bosseno, Marie France; Waleckx, Etienne; Brémond, Philippe; Vidaurre, Pablo; Zoveda, Faustine; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the food sources of Bolivian wild Triatoma infestans (the main vector of Chagas disease in this country), to assess the role of these populations in the epidemiological context of Chagas disease. Ninety-eight blood meals were identified by heteroduplex assay and sequencing. Most of them were from wild mammals but surprisingly 27 were from humans. This brings to light the occurrence of human-vector contacts at risk of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the wild environment by highly infected insects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biology of Triatominae (Reduviidae, Hemiptera from north of formosa county (Goiás - Brazil II. Length of life cycle of Rhodnius Neglectus lent, 1954

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the life cycle of Rhodnius neglectus was studied. The mean length from egg to adult was 119 days. The mean length in day from each stage was: 17.4 (± 1.15 for first, 18.2 (± 1.28 for second, fourth and 29.8 (± 1.46 for fifth.

  3. A genitália externa dos machos no complexo Triatoma phyllosoma (Burm. espécies mexicanas transmissoras da doença de Chagas (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Herman Lent

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as genitálias externas masculinas das cinco espécies que constituem o complexo phyllosoma: Triatoma phyllosoma (Burmeister, 1835, T. pallidipennis (Stal, 1872, T. longipennis Usinger, 1939, T. picturata Usinger, 1939 e T. mazzottii Usinger, 1941, todas encontradas naturalmente infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, e, com exceção de T. picturata, colonizando no domicílio humano. São espécies muito próximas, não só pelo aspecto externo, como pela área geográfica onde ocorrem, a região ocidental do México. As estruturas constituintes dessas genitálias foram analisadas comparativamente, com o intuito de ampliar o estudo das aludidas espécies, criando informações morfológicas adicionais à taxonomia atualmente aceita. Foram evidenciadas quatro estruturas no edeago: falosoma, suporte da falosoma, processo do endosoma e vesica; uma no aparelho articular, o processo do gonoporo; e outra no pigóforo, o processo do pigóforo. Essas estruturas apresentam pequenas variações no tamanho e na forma, acentuando a proximidade das espécies entre si e a dificuldade existente para a compreensão perfeita do status taxonômico de cada uma. O trabalho completar-se-á com a discussão dos já conhecidos aspectos morfológicos externos e os evidenciados pela morfologia das genitálias.A study was made of the male genitalia of five species which constitute the phyllosoma complex: Triatoma phyllosoma (Burmeister, 1835, T. pallidipennis (Stal, 1872, T. longipennis Usinger, 1939, T. picturata Usinger, 1939 and T. mazzottii Usinger, 1941; all of them were found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, and, except T. picturata colonizing human houses. These species are very similar, not only by the external aspects but also by their geographical occurence in Mexico. The structures which constitute these genitalias were analysed comparatively with the intention to increase the knowledge of the mentioned species, showing some morphological informations to the modern taxonomy. There were identified four aedeagus structures: phallosoma, struts, endosoma and vesica processes; one on articulatory apparatus, the gonopore process; and other on pygophore, the pygophore process. These structures show small variations in size and shape, emphasizing the relatioship between the species and the dificulty to the perfect understanding of the taxonomic status of each one.

  4. A nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) potentially useful for the separation of Rhodnius prolixus from members of the Rhodnius robustus cryptic species complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Márcio G.; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Lawrence, Gena G.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Dotson, Ellen M.; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka; Randall-Maher, Jennifer; Monteiro, Fernando A.

    2013-01-01

    The design and application of rational strategies that rely on accurate species identification are pivotal for effective vector control. When morphological identification of the target vector species is impractical, the use of molecular markers is required. Here we describe a non-coding, single-copy nuclear DNA fragment that contains a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with the potential to distinguish the important domestic Chagas disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus, from members of the four sylvatic Rhodnius robustus cryptic species complex. A total of 96 primer pairs obtained from whole genome shotgun sequencing of the R. prolixus genome (12,626 random reads) were tested on 43 R. prolixus and R. robustus s.l. samples. One of the seven amplicons selected (AmpG) presented a SNP, potentially diagnostic for R. prolixus, on the 280th site. The diagnostic nature of this SNP was then performed on 154 R. prolixus and R. robustus s.l. samples aimed at achieving the widest possible geographic coverage. The results of a 60% majority rule Bayesian consensus tree and a median-joining network constructed based on the genetic variability observed reveal the paraphyletic nature of the R. robustus species complex, with respect to R. prolixus. AmpG region is located in the fourth intron of the Transmembrane protein 165 gene, which seems to be in the R. prolixus X chromosome. Other possible chromosomal locations of the AmpG region in the R. prolixus genome are also presented and discussed. PMID:23219914

  5. Morphometric variability among the species of the Sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): evidence for differentiation across the distribution range of Triatoma sordida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattero, Julieta; Piccinali, Romina Valeria; Macedo Lopes, Catarina; Hernández, María Laura; Abrahan, Luciana; Lobbia, Patricia Alejandra; Rodríguez, Claudia Susana; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura

    2017-09-06

    The Sordida subcomplex (Triatominae) comprises four species, Triatoma garciabesi, T. guasayana, T. patagonica and T. sordida, which differ in epidemiological importance and adaptations to human environments. Some morphological similarities among species make taxonomic identification, population differentiation and species delimitation controversial. Triatoma garciabesi and T. sordida are the most similar species, having been considered alternatively two and a single species until T. garciabesi was re-validated, mostly based on the morphology of male genitalia. More recently, T. sordida from Argentina has been proposed as a new cryptic species distinguishable from T. sordida from Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay by cytogenetics. We studied linear and geometric morphometry of the head, wings and pronotum in populations of these species aiming to find phenotypic markers for their discrimination, especially between T. sordida and T. garciabesi, and if any set of variables that validates T. sordida from Argentina as a new species. Head width and pronotum length were the linear variables that best differentiated species. Geometric morphometry revealed significant Mahalanobis distances in wing shape between all pairwise comparisons. Triatoma patagonica exhibited the best discrimination and T. garciabesi overlapped the distribution of the other species in the morphometric space of the first two DFA axes. Head shape showed differentiation between all pairs of species except for T. garciabesi and T. sordida. Pronotum shape did not differentiate T. garciabesi from T. guasayana. The comparison between T. garciabesi and T. sordida from Argentina and T. sordida from Brazil and Bolivia revealed low differentiation based on head and pronotum linear measurements. Pronotum and wing shape were different between T. garciabesi and T. sordida from Brazil and Bolivia and T. sordida from Argentina. Head shape did not differentiate T. garciabesi from T. sordida from Argentina. Wing shape best delimited the four species phenotypically. The proposed cryptic species, T. sordida from Argentina, differed from T. sordida from Brazil and Bolivia in all measured shape traits, suggesting that the putative new species may not be cryptic. Additional studies integrating cytogenetic, phenotypic and molecular markers, as well as cross-breeding experiments are needed to confirm if these three entities represent true biological species.

  6. Resistencia a lambdacihalotrina y fenitrotión en una población de campo de Panstrongylus geniculatus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Flor A. Torres P

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Panstrongylus geniculatus es un triatomino silvestre, vector del Trypanosoma cruzi, intruso en domicilios humanos. Determinar la susceptibilidad a insecticidas de uso común en esta especie es indispensable para detectar prematuramente cepas resistentes. Objetivo: Este estudio se propuso analizar la susceptibilidad a lambdacihalotrina y fenitrotión en dos cepas (laboratorio y campo de P. geniculatus. Metodología: se estableció la susceptibilidad a lambdacihalotrina y fenitrotión por aplicación tópica, en la cepa de laboratorio-Molagavita 2003 y en la población de campo-Chorreras 2012 en ninfas del primer estadio de P. geniculatus. Se calcularon valores de dosis letal 50 y dosis letal 99 (DL50 y la DL99 para cada insecticida. También se determinaron valores de grado de resistencia (GR para cada insecticida: DL50 población de campo/DL50 cepa de laboratorio. Resultados: Las DL50 y DL99 en la población de campo y la cepa de laboratorio (en ng/i, fueron: 1,194; 5,764 y 0,024; 0,131 para lambdacihalotrina y 1,476; 7,354 y 0,482; 5,471 para fenitrotión, respectivamente. Los grados de resistencia fueron: GR= 48,9 para lambdacihalotrina y GR= 3,06 para fenitrotión. Conclusiones: La población de campo mostró resistencia a lambdacihalotrina y fenitrotión, probablemente como consecuencia del uso de agroquímicos en la zona. Implementar medidas para la detección temprana de resistencia en triatominos es importante en el diseño de programas de control vectorial.

  7. Conducta alimentaria de poblaciones de triatoma dimidiata (hemiptera: reduviidae: triatominae) en una zona endémica y sus implicaciones epidemiológicas

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    Farfán-García, Ana E.; Angulo-Silva, Víctor M.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar la conducta alimentaria de Triatoma dimidiata en hábitats domiciliarios y extradomiciliarios en una zona endémica de Santander, Colombia. Materiales y métodos Mediante la técnica de ELISA, se procesaron 367 contenidos intestinales de insectos capturados en zonas rurales de los municipios de Capitanejo y Macaravita. Estos fueron procesados por medio de la técnica de ELISA, con 12 antisueros policlonales anti-especie animal específicos. Los hospederos de T. dimidiata fueron ...

  8. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

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    Guillermo Carvajal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01. A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.

  9. Patrones electroforéticos de hemoproteínas salivares (nitroforinas) de Rhodnius colombiensis y Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

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    Andrea Arévalo; Julio César Carranza; Felipe Guhl; Gustavo Adolfo Vallejo

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. La electroforesis de hemeproteínas salivares en geles de almidón es una técnica de reciente aplicación para diferenciar especies del género Rhodnius que poseen gran similaridad fenotípica o para diferenciar subpoblaciones de la misma especie, separadas geográficamente. De las 15 especies de Rhodnius descritas en latinoamérica, por lo menos ocho han sido reportadas en el territorio colombiano. Objetivo. Utilizar la electroforesis de hemeproteínas salivares para diferenciar R. ...

  10. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil

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    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera, catolé (Syagrus oleracea and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens. Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species. The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  11. Biology of Triatominae (Reduviidae Hemiptera from North of Formosa County (Goiás-Brazil I. Length of life cycle of Triatoma sordida (Stal. 1859

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the life cycle of Triatoma sordida was studied. The mean length from egg to adult was 213 days. The mean length in days from each stage was: 24.3 (± 1.30 for the first. 32.8 (± 1.45 (2nd, 36.1 (± 1.50 (3rd, 44.6 (± 1.85 (4th and 52.0 (± 1.92 (5th. The mean egg incubation períod was 23.2 (± 1.40. Overall mortality was 18.8% and egg viability was 82.5%.Foi estudado no presente trabalho o ciclo biológico do Triatoma sordida A média da duração do ciclo de ovo a adulto foi 213 dias. A média de duração em dias para cada estágio foi 24,3 (± 1,30 para o primeiro, 32,8 (± 1,45 para o segundo, 36,1 (± 1,50 para o terceiro, 44,6 (± 1,85 para o quarto e 52,0 (± 1,92 para o quinto. A média do período de incubação dos ovos foi 23,2 (± 1,40. A mortalidade em todos ps estágios foi 18,8% e a viabilidade dos ovos foi 82,5%.

  12. Life cycle, feeding and defecation patterns of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Lent & León 1958 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Anita G Villacís

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory conditions of two populations of this specie [from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region and Loja (Andean region]. Egg-to-adult (n = 57 development took an average of 189.9 ± 20 (Manabí and 181.3 ± 6.4 days (Loja. Mortality rates were high among Lojan nymphs. Pre-feeding time (from contact with host to feeding initiation ranged from 4 min 42 s [nymph I (NI] to 8 min 30 s (male; feeding time ranged from 14 min 45 s (NI-28 min 25 s (male (Manabí and from 15 min 25 s (NI-28 min 57 s (nymph V (Loja. The amount of blood ingested increased significantly with instar and was larger for Manabí specimens (p < 0.001. Defecation while feeding was observed in Manabí specimens from stage nymph III and in Lojan bugs from stage nymph IV. There was a gradual, age-related increase in the frequency of this behaviour in both populations. Our results suggest that R. ecuadoriensis has the bionomic traits of an efficient vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Together with previous data on the capacity of this species to infest rural households, these results indicate that control of synanthropic R. ecuadoriensis populations in the coastal and Andean regions may have a significant impact for CD control in Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  13. Sobre a variação intra-específica em Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille e Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Herman Lent

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A observação de oito exemplares de Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811 de procedência diversas, com vistas a procurar caracterizar as estruturas da genitália externa dos machos (processo do endosoma, suporte do falosoma, falosoma e visica levou-nos a constatar a mesma variabilidade que a espécie demonstra em relação aos seus caracteres externos de colorido e relações da cabeça e do rosto. Por associação de idéias, ampliamos um estudo anterior sobre a genitália masculina de Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, também espécie de larga distribuição geográfica, porém com caracteres externos estáveis. Encontramos assim mesmo, embora em percentagem pequena, que os espinhos do processo do endosoma, habitualmente em número reduzido, podiam não existir. Desta espécie observamos quinze exemplares, de procedências diversas.The analysis of eight speciemens of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811 of diverse origins, in order to characterize the structure of the male external genitalia (endosoma process, struts, phallosoma, vesica led us to point out that the same variability is demonstrate by the species in relation to its external colour characters and the relation between the head and rostrum. Triatoma dimidiata is a vector of Chagas' disease in several American countries, from Mexico (extreme north of its distribution to the north of South America, including Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. Similarly we have carried out a large scale study on male genitalia of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 which also has a wide geographic distribution, but with stable external characters. The spines of the endosoma process which generally are few in number, might not exist in a small percentage of cases. We analysed fifteen specimens of diverse origins.

  14. Sensibilidad de diferentes especies de Rhodnius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae a una cepa brasileña de Trypanosoma rangeli (SC58/KP1-

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    Daniella Barreto-Santana

    2015-03-01

    Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron treinta ninfas de cada especie después de xenodiagnóstico artificial en sangre infectada con T. rangeli. Se examinaron periódicamente muestras de heces y hemolinfa. Los insectos con hemolinfas infectadas fueron alimentados en ratones a fin de comprobar la transmisión por picadura y posteriormente disecados para confirmar la infección de las glándulas salivales. Resultados. En Rhodnius pictipes se encontró un mayor porcentaje de infección intestinal que en las otras especies. Se detectaron epimastigotes y tripomastigotes en la hemolinfa de las cuatro especies, y se encontró que el parasitismo fue menor en las especies del linaje R. robustus. Rhodnius robustus y R. neglectus no transmitían T. rangeli a ratones por picadura: después de la disección, sus glándulas no estaban infectadas. Solo un espécimen de R. nasutus y dos de R. pictipes transmitieron el parásito por la picadura. La tasa de infección glandular fue de 16 % para R. pictipes y de 4 % para R. nasutus. Conclusiones. La capacidad infecciosa (hemolinfática, intestinal y glandular y la transmisión de T. rangeli (SC-58/KP1- fueron mayores y más eficientes en R. pictipes. Estos resultados refuerzan la hipótesis de que estos triatominos actúan como filtros biológicos en la transmisión de T. rangeli.

  15. Comparación de métodos para la captura de triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en palmas Attalea butyracea en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

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    Víctor Manuel Angulo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El estudio de los triatominos en sus ecótopos naturales tiene gran significado en la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas. La recolección de insectos vivos y su establecimiento en insectarios permite realizar incontables estudios. Por ello se necesitan métodos efectivos para la captura de triatominos silvestres, especialmente especies intrusas como Rhodnius prolixus. Objetivo. Comparar cuatro métodos para la captura de triatominos en palmas para medir su efectividad. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Maní, departamento de Casanare, Colombia, con predominio de Attalea butyracea. Se compararon cuatro metodologías en 67 palmas: trampas con cebo vivo, búsqueda directa en palmas, tala y disección. Resultados. Los métodos fueron efectivos para recolectar ejemplares juveniles y adultos. La tala y la búsqueda manual mostraron los mayores índices de infestación (100 % y 83,33 %. La trampa Angulo mostró mayores índices de hacinamiento (4,93, densidad (3,76, rango de abundancia (1-13 e índice adulto/ninfa (0,22. La tala y la disección fue el método que significativamente recolectó más triatominos en comparación con los otros (p0,05. Conclusiones. Aunque la tala fue el mejor método para la recolección del mayor número de triatominos, los métodos con el cebo vivo con adhesivos o refugios para atrapar los insectos, fueron una buena alternativa. Entre ellos, la trampa Angulo mostró mejores resultados y evitó la exposición del investigador al riesgo y la intervención de ecotopos naturales.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i4.835

  16. The storage of nutritional resources during vitellogenesis of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): the pathways of lipophorin in lipid delivery to developing oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruttero, Leonardo L; Frede, Silvia; Rubiolo, Edilberto R; Canavoso, Lilián E

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we have analyzed the pathways by which lipophorin (Lp) delivers its lipid cargo to developing oocytes of Panstrongylus megistus, a hematophagous vector of Chagas' disease. Lp, vitellin, total lipids and proteins were measured in ovarian tissues at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Localization of Lp in developing oocytes, mainly at their cortical area, was demonstrated by immunofluorescence assays using an anti-Lp antibody labeled with FITC. In vivo approaches injecting fluorescently labeled Lp to follow the course of the entire particle (Lp-DiI or Lp-Oregon Green) or its lipid cargo (Lp-Bodipy-FA) were monitored by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Significant increases in the amounts of lipids, proteins and vitellin were observed in ovarian tissue with the progress of vitellogenesis. Unexpectedly, an increase in the amount of Lp was also observed. The experiments in vivo demonstrated that the uptake of fluorescent Lp labeled on its protein or lipid moiety by developing oocytes occurred very fast, being impaired at low temperatures. The co-injection of fluorescent Lp and vitellogenin (Vg) showed that both particles co-localized inside yolk bodies, confirming the endocytic pathway for Lp. When the fate of lipids transferred to oocytes was evaluated in vitellogenic females by co-injecting Lp-Bodipy-FA and Lp-DiI, the signal for Bodipy-FA was found in both lipid droplets and yolk bodies. In contrast, in injected females kept at 4°C the fluorescence was reduced, being observed exclusively in lipid droplets, implying that lipid transfer to the oocyte was diminished but not abolished. Taken together, the results demonstrate that in the hematophagous P. megistus, the storage of lipid resources by developing oocytes occurs by the convergence of different pathways by which Lp maximizes the delivery of its lipid cargo. In addition, it was also shown that, to some extent, lipids stored in the oocyte lipid droplets can also originate from endocytosed Vg. The relevance of these events in the context of the physiology of reproduction in P. megistus is discussed.

  17. Effect of sequential heat and cold shocks on nuclear phenotypes of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Garcia Simone L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal shocks induce changes in the nuclear phenotypes that correspond to survival (heterochromatin decondensation, nuclear fusion or death (apoptosis, necrosis responses in the Malpighian tubules of Panstrongylus megistus. Since thermal tolerance increased survival and molting rate in this species following sequential shocks, we investigated whether changes in nuclear phenotypes accompanied the insect survival response to sequential thermal shocks. Fifth instar nymphs were subjected to a single heat (35 or 40°C, 1 h or cold (5 or 0°C, 1 h shock and then subjected to a second shock for 12 h at 40 or 0°C, respectively, after 8, 18, 24 and 72 h at 28°C (control temperature. As with specimen survival, sequential heat and cold shocks induced changes in frequency of the mentioned nuclear phenotypes although their patterns differed. The heat shock tolerance involved decrease in apoptosis simultaneous to increase in cell survival responses. Sequential cold shocks did not involve cell/nuclear fusion and even elicited increase in necrosis with advancing time after shocks. The temperatures of 40 and 0ºC were more effective than the temperatures of 35 and 5ºC in eliciting the heat and cold shock tolerances, respectively, as shown by cytological analysis of the nuclear phenotypes. It is concluded that different sequential thermal shocks can trigger different mechanisms of cellular protection against stress in P. megistus, favoring the insect to adapt to various ecotopes.

  18. Role of two Triatoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) species in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) to man in the west coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Bárcenas-Ortega, N M; Nogueda-Torres, B; Alejandre-Aguilar, R; Lino Rodríguez, M; Magallón-Gastélum, E; López-Martínez, V; Romero-Nápoles, J

    2001-02-01

    From August 1997 to August 1998, 334 specimens of Triatoma longipennis and 62 of T. picturata were collected in four groups of localities placed in the zone from Guadalajara, Jalisco to Tepic, Nayarit, in the West Coast of Mexico. Most T. longipennis were collected outdoors (69.2%) while most T. picturata (58.1%) were collected indoors. All collected specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which was detected on 98 (29.3%) T. longipennis and 17 (27.4%) T. picturata. This study confirms the role of T. longipennis and T. picturata as some of the main T. cruzi vectors to humans in Mexico. Habitation Infestation Rate with T. longipennis was of 0.09 and with T. picturata was of 0.03 and the predominating ecotopes were pile of blocks, chicken coops, pigsties, wall crawls and beds.

  19. Role of two Triatoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae species in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae to man in the West Coast of Mexico

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available From August 1997 to August 1998, 334 specimens of Triatoma longipennis and 62 of T. picturata were collected in four groups of localities placed in the zone from Guadalajara, Jalisco to Tepic, Nayarit, in the West Coast of Mexico. Most T. longipennis were collected outdoors (69.2% while most T. picturata (58.1% were collected indoors. All collected specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which was detected on 98 (29.3% T. longipennis and 17 (27.4% T. picturata. This study confirms the role of T. longipennis and T. picturata as some of the main T. cruzi vectors to humans in Mexico. Habitation Infestation Rate with T. longipennis was of 0.09 and with T. picturata was of 0.03 and the predominating ecotopes were pile of blocks, chicken coops, pigsties, wall crawls and beds.

  20. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Casanova, Cláudio; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera), catolé (Syagrus oleracea) and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens). Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species). The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  1. Survival and immune response of the Chagas vector Meccus pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) against two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Villegas, A. Laura; Cabrera-Bravo,Margarita; Toriello, Conchita; Bucio-Torres, Martha I.; Salazar-Schettino,Paz María; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a key health problem in Latin America and is caused and transmitted by Trypanosoma cruzi and triatomine bugs, respectively. Control of triatomines has largely relied on the use pyrethroids, which has proved to be ineffective in the long term. Alternatively, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been implemented to control triatomine bugs. These fungi are highly efficient as they induce a reduction in immune response on insects. Meccus pallidipennis is the main tri...

  2. Triatoma gerstaeckeri (Hemiptera: Reduviidae infectada con Trypanosoma cruzi en Nuevo León, México, y capacidad patógena de la cepa regional

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    Zinnia J. Molina-Garza

    2015-09-01

    Conclusiones. La presencia de vectores domiciliarios naturalmente infectados con T. cruzi, es un factor de riesgo importante para la salud pública de la región, considerando que este es el principal mecanismo de la transmisión del parásito y que la cepa NE de T. cruzi tiene una virulencia similar a la de otras cepas mexicanas y texanas, y causó infección chagásica en 11 de los 12 ratones inoculados.

  3. Resistência ao jejum de Rhodnius stali Lent, Jurberg & Galvão, 1993 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) em condições de laboratório

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    Cailleaux, Solange Ribeiro Peixoto; Cunha,Vanda; Verly, Sergio; Lamas Junior, Valdir Dias; Jurberg, José

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a capacidade de resistência à privação alimentar de Rhodnius stali Lent, Jurberg, & Galvão, 1993, em condições de laboratório sob temperatura e umidade média ambiental registrada. Ovos recémcolocados, de casais previamente separados, foram transferidos para tubos de polipropileno com tampa de rosca, com capacidade para 50 mL, forrados com papel filtro e, em seu interior, foi colocada uma tira do mesmo papel, dobrada, para aumentar a área de contat...

  4. Entomological indices, feeding sources, and molecular identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection indices were 2.1% in San Mateo del Mar and 39.4% in Tehuantepec City. This difference could be related to the high numbers of triatomine feeding on hens in the former community. In contrast, in Tehuantepec, dogs were the principal triatomine feeding sources. All nymphs and adults that were genetically analyzed belonged to the species T. phyllosoma. Low levels of genetic variation were found between vectors from both communities.

  5. Natural Crossbreeding between Sympatric Species of the Phyllosoma Complex (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Indicate the Existence of Only One Species with Morphologic and Genetic Variations

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome B gene and the antennal phenotypes were analyzed for the following triatomine species: Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma pallidipennis, and Triatoma picturata, which belong to the Phyllosoma complex. These species inhabit sympatric areas from Talpa de Allende, Autlan de Navarro, and Teocuitatlan de Corona in Jalisco, Mexico. Molecular marker analysis showed that the sympatric individuals are the natural crossbred descendents of different individuals liv...

  6. Species of the subfamily Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae present in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC, State of Minas Gerais

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    Rita de Cássia Moreira de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biological collections are depositories of information on different species and contribute to the knowledge, protection, conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. Methods A list of triatomine species currently included in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC was prepared from the database made available by the Reference Center on Environmental Information. Results COLVEC curatorship houses 4,778 specimens of triatomines, of which 811 come from other American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the United States of America, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela and 3,967 are autochthonous from Brazil. Altogether, 56 species of Chagas disease vectors are represented in the COLVEC: two species of the Tribe Cavernicolini Usinger, 1944; fifteen species of the tribe Rhodniini Pinto, 1926, of which 12 are of the genus Rhodnius and 3 are of the genus Psamolestes; and 39 species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, represented by the genus Dipetalogaster, two species of the genus Eratyrus, two of the genus Meccus, seven of the genus Panstrongylus and 27 of the genus Triatoma. Conclusions This list provides important data on the diversity of triatomines currently included in COLVEC, including the expanded area of Panstrongylus lutzi occurrence in the municipalities Pirapora and Januária, State of Minas Gerais. The maintenance and expansion of the collection ensures the preservation of biodiversity and further studies.

  7. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Jane Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

  8. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

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    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  9. Índice de defecación y éxito reproductivo de Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera:Reduviidaeen condiciones de laboratorio

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    E Aldana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento reproductivo y de defecación de Triatoma maculata (Erichson 1848alimentando artificialmente con sangre humana.Los estadios II y III mostraron mayor frecuencia de defecaciones (ID=0.6 n=40,el estadio V no alcanzó la diferenciación sexual, la fertilidad fue 55%(n=865,fecundidad 8 huevos/hembra/semana (n=26,22 días de desarrollo embrionario (n=477,longevidad de hembras 51 días (n=26,el tiempo intermuda aumenta progresivamente desde 35 días en el estadio I hasta 46 días en el estadio IV,el porcentaje de muda varió desde 0%en el estadio V hasta 63%en el estadio III,la mortalidad varió desde 8%en el estadio III hasta 100%en el estadio V (n=40.Los resultados del presente trabajo aportan evidencias que explican la menor capacidad vectorial y la baja densidad de T.maculata en el domicilio humano.Defecation index and reproductive success of Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae under laboratory conditions.The reproductive and defecating behavior of Triatoma maculata (Erichson 1848was studied on animals from an university culture in Venezuela.This species does not reach the importance of Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 as Chagas disease vector in Venezuela.This study addressed the role of defecating frequency,an index of how dangerous the animals are for the human population,and its relationship with why T.maculata is a less important vector than R.prolixus .Human blood was fed to the insects through an artificial feeding device.The 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs defecated more frequently (Id=0.6,n=40,and our Vth instar nymphs did not complete sexual differentiation.Fertility was 55%(n=865and fecundity 8 eggs/female/week (n=26. Egg incubation lasted 22 days (n=477.Female longevity was 51 days (n=26.Intermould time grew progressively from 35 days for 1st to 40 days for 4th instar nymphs (n=40.Mould percentage varied from 0% for Vth to 63%for 3rd instar nymphs.Mortality varied from 8% for 3rd to 100% for Vth instar nymphs

  10. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

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    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

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    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  12. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

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    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  13. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  14. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  15. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  16. Biologia do Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 em condições de laboratório (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: II. Resistência ao jejum Biology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: II. Resistance to starvation

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    Teresa Cristina M. Gonçalves

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Em prosseguimento ao estudo da biologia do Triatoma vitticeps (Gonçalves et al., 1988, foram feitas observações sobre a sua resistência ao jejum. Dos 286 ovos obtidos, apenas 201 eclodiram e atingiram o estádio pretendido para as observações. Os demais não eclodiram, não completaram a muda ou morreram sem motivo aparente. As ninfas foram acondicionadas, individualmente em frascos de Borrel, devidamente registrados. Para a alimentação foram utilizados camundongos e a medida que as ninfas atingiam o estágio pretendido a alimentação era suspensa até ocorrer a morte. A avaliação da resistência ao jejum foi feita da seguinte forma: o intervalo de dias entre o último repasto e a morte e entre a muda e a morte. Verificou-se que a resistência está diretamente relacionada com a fase de desenvolvimento. Para os parâmetros último repasto/morte e muda/morte, ambos os sexos foram menos resistentes do que as ninfas de 3º e 2º estádios, respectivamente. O experimento teve duração de 15 meses e neste período as temperaturas máxima e mínima e a umidade relativa do ar variaram em média de 25 ± 2ºC e 81 ± 3% UR, respectivamente. O material foi proveniente da criação de triatomíneos mantida no Departamento de Entomologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.Following the study on the biology of Triatoma vitticeps (Gonçalves et al. 1988 observations have been made on its resistance to starvation. Of the 286 eggs obtained only 201 hatched and reached the intended stage for observation. The others did not eclode, neither reached the ecdisis nor died, without explanation. The nymphs were kept, separately, in Borrel flasks and properly listed. The blood-meal was performed in mice, although the insects were kept without feeding as soon as moulted. The starvation was evaluated in two ways: the time-lapse in days between the last meal/death and between mult/death. The starvation was directly related with the developmental stage. In relation to the parameters las meal/death and moult/death, both sexes were less resistant than 3rd and 2nd stage, respectively. The experiment have been carried out for 15 months and by this time the average minimum and maximum temperatures and the humidity were 25 ± 2ºC and 81 ± 3% UR, respectively. The material spent belongs to the triatomine colony of the Oswaldo Cruz Institut Department of Entomology.

  17. Estrutura de populações de Rhodnius neglectus Lent e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg (Hemiptera, Reduviidae em ninhos de pássaros (Furnariidae presentes na palmeira Mauritia flexuosa no Distrito Federal, Brasil Population structure of Rhodnius neglectus Lent and Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg (Hemiptera, Reduviidae in bird nests (Furnariidae on Mauritia flexuosa palm trees in Federal District of Brazil

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    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 {Rn}e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 {Pt} são triatomíneos que ocorrem em ninhos de aves, principalmente da família Furnariidae. O ciclo biológico dessas espécies é conhecido em condições de laboratório, sendo poucos estudos em ecótopos silvestres. Para analisar a infestação e estrutura de populações de Rn e Pt em ninhos de aves presentes na palmeira Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus, em duas estações climáticas do Brasil Central, foram amostradas 41 palmeiras com evidências de nidificação de Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 (22 na estação chuvosa e 19 na estação seca em quatro áreas do Distrito Federal. Os insetos foram capturados usando-se coleta manual na copa da palmeira, identificados morfologicamente, separados por sexo e estádio ninfal. Fezes e glândulas salivares de Rn foram examinadas para verificar infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 e/ou T. rangeli Tejera, 1920. Trinta e cinco palmeiras com ninhos de P. ruber estavam infestadas por Rn (85% e 22 por Pt (53%. 442 indivíduos foram coletados na estação seca (200 Rn e 242 Pt e 267 na estação chuvosa (136 Rn e 131 Pt. O único fator relacionado significativamente com a densidade de triatomíneos nas palmeiras foi a área. A estrutura etária das populações mostrou: a maior abundância de adultos nas populações de Pt, b maior abundância de machos em ambas as espécies e c presença de fêmeas ovipondo em ambas as estações. Nenhum dos 177 triatomíneos examinados estava infectado por T. cruzi ou T. rangeli. A estrutura etária das populações de Rn e Pt não diferiu significativamente entre as estações amostradas, indicando ausência de marcada sazonalidade para essas espécies.Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 {Rn}and Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 {Pt} are triatomines that occur in bird nests, mainly furnarid nests. Their biological cycles are known in laboratory conditions and few studies were done in wild ecotopes. To analyze the infestation and population structure of Rn and Pt in bird nests on Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus palm trees in two climatic seasons we sampled 41 palm trees with Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 nests (22 in the wet season and 19 in the dry season in four areas of Distrito Federal. The insects were collected by manual capture in the crown of palms, identified, separated by sex and immature stages. Faeces and salivary glands of Rn were examined to verify Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 and/or T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 infection. Thirty five palm trees with P. ruber nests were infested by Rn (85% and 22 by Pt (53%. 442 insects were collected in the dry season (200 Rn and 242 Pt and 267 in the wet season (136 Rn and 131 Pt. The area was the only factor related with triatomine density in palm trees. The population structure showed: a higher abundance of adults in Pt populations, b higher abundance of males in both species and, c females laying eggs in both seasons. Within the 177 insects examined none was infected by T. cruzi or T. rangeli. The population structure of Rn and Pt were not significantly different in the wet and the dry season, suggesting no seasonality reproduction.

  18. A genitália externa dos machos de sete espécies de Triatoma Laporte, 1832 da região Neártica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Male external genitalia in seven species of Triatoma Laporte, 1832 from neartic region (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Herman Lent

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da região neártica: Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gertaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 e T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 foram analisadas comparativamente, tendo como enfoque as estruturas da genitália do macho: falosoma (Ph, suporte do falosoma (SPh, processo do endosoma (PrEn, vesica (V e aparelho articular (Apb. As estruturas fálicas se mostraram capazes de serem usadas como critério morfológico suplementar aos padrões atualmente usados, em taxonomia. Estas espécies silvestres são encontradas nos Estados Unidos e México, naturalmente infectadas pelo T. cruzi; algumas vivem no perdomicílio e outras eventualmente no domicílio, sem contudo colonizá-lo.Seven species from the neartic region, Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gerstaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 and T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 were comparatively analysed with emphasis on the genital structures of the male bug: the phallosome (Ph, the phallosome struts (SPh, the endosoma process (PrEn, the vesica (V and the articulatory apparatus (Apb. The phallic structures were useful as a supplementary morphological criterion to the present taxonomical standards. These wild species are found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States and Mexico. Some of them live outside human dwellings while other are occasionally domiciliary, although they do not colonize these homes.

  19. Ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Triatoma deaneorum Galvão, Souza & Lima 1967, nova denominação para Triatoma deanei (Hemiptera, Reduviidae New geographical distribution of Triatoma deaneorum Galvão, Souza & Lima 1967, new designation for Triatoma deanei (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Cleber Galvão

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição geográfica de Triatoma deaneorum Galvão, Souza & Lima, 1967, nova denominação para Triatoma deanei, é ampliada baseada em um espécime recentemente encontrado no município de Chapada de Guimarães, próximo a Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. A nova denominação é baseada no Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.Authors extend the geographical distribution of Triatoma deaneorum Galvão, Souza & Lima, 1967, new designation for Triatoma deanei, based on a specimen recently found in Chapada dos Guimarães, near to Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new designation is based on the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

  20. Monitoramento da suscetibilidade de populações de Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae ao inseticida deltametrina, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Monitoring the susceptibility of Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to deltamethrin insecticide, in Central-Western Brazil

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    Marcos Takashi Obara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Populações de Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 foram investigadas quanto à suscetibilidade à deltametrina. MÉTODOS: Análise por meio de bioensaios por aplicação tópica em 11 populações de T. sordida procedentes dos Estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul. RESULTADOS: As estimativas de DL50 e RR50 demonstraram elevados níveis de suscetibilidade (DL50 INTRODUCTION: Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 populations were investigated for susceptibility to deltamethrin. METHODS: This study aimed to analyze the resistance of 11 populations of insects from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul by topical application bioassays. RESULTS: The estimated LD50 and RR50 showed high levels of susceptibility (LD50 < 1 and RR50 < 2. However, analysis of the slope of the dose response curve showed that the populations of insects in the towns of Firminópolis/GO, Posse/GO, Poxoréu/MT, Douradina/MS and Aparecida do Taboado/MS present great probability of evolving resistance and, thus, are more likely to tolerate treatment with deltamethrin. CONCLUSIONS: Small changes in susceptibility and low levels of resistance were detected, but the temporal changes of susceptibility should be continuously monitored to adequately guide the actions of vector-control of DC.

  1. Triatoma brasiliensis (Neiva,1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: observações sobre seu comportamento em relação à fonte alimentar em galinheiro experimental Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: observations on dynamics of feeding behavior in an artificial ecotope

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    Vera Lúcia C. C. Rodrigues

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem a finalidade de estudar o comportamento de triatomíneos no interior de ecótopos artificiais. Para tanto, construiu-se galinheiro experimental com paredes internas formadas por blocos de barro desmontáveis, abrigando aves como fonte alimentar. O galinheiro foi subdividido em 4 áreas, duas destas separadas por telas e tijolos furados, sendo a menor o local de soltura dos triatomíneos e a maior o galinheiro propriamente dito. Dessa maneira buscou-se a coleta de informaç��es a respeito do deslocamento, sobrevida e locais de abrigo de ninfas do 4º estádio de Triatoma brasiliensis, na certeza de que os mesmos iriam se acomodar nas proximidades da fonte alimentar. As paredes do galinheiro foram desmontadas e pesquisadas mensalmente durante 6 meses e as ninfas encontradas, marcadas com diferentes cores de acordo com o mês da leitura e a posição das mesmas nas áreas. Os resultados alcançados mostraram que 88,5% das ninfas estavam engorgitadas e foram encontradas próximas ao local de repouso (poleiro da fonte alimentar. Após a primeira alimentação, não abandonavam as proximidades da fonte. Os resultados alcançados apresentam, não apenas interesse epidemiológico, como também interesse na área de controle dos vetores da doença de Chagas, tendo em vista as possíveis implicações quanto aos procedimentos na aplicação do inseticida.In order to study the behavior of triatomine bugs under artificial ecotopic conditions, an experimental, double-walled poultry coop was built. Its inside walls were made of sun-dried clay blocks which could be broken apart for better access to the insects hiding in their crevices. The coop was subdivided into two main areas of different sizes using wire netting and a wall made of perforated bricks. The chickens, the only food source available for the triatomines, were kept in the larger, rectangular area, further subdivided diagonally. The triatomines were released in the smaller area and were allowed to migrate to the larger one though the holes in the bricks. Information about migration, survival, and hiding places of fourth-stage nymphs of Triatoma brasiliensis was thus gathered. At 30-day intervals, over a period of six months, the inner walls of the house were taken apart and inspected. The nymphs were marked with different colors according to the month and place of capture. It was found that 88.5% of the nymphs were captured near the roost and found engorged. After having taken their first blood meal, they would remain in the vicinity of their food source. The results obtained are considered epidemiologically relevant, and particularly so as pertaining to the control of the vectors of Chagas’ disease.

  2. A Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae population from Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, has some bionomic characteristics of a potential Chagas disease vector Uma população de Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae proveniente de Roraima, Amazônia, Brasil, possui algumas características bionômicas de vetor potencial de doença de Chagas

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    José Francisco Luitgards-Moura

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though Chagas disease is rare in the Brazilian Amazon, the conditions for the establishment of domiciliated cycles prevail in many areas where triatomines are of frequent occurrence. In Roraima, a previous serological and entomological survey in three agricultural settlements showed the existence of all transmission cycle elements, i.e., individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, triatomine species previously found harboring T. cruzi in the broader Amazon region of neighboring countries and, domicile/ peridomicile conditions favorable to triatomine colonization. Triatoma maculata was the most frequent species, found in chicken houses in the peridomicile and sporadically within residences. Aiming to investigate the possibility of T. maculata to possess the potentiality to transmit T. cruzi in the area, bionomic characteristics were studied under laboratory conditions. These were feeding frequency, time for defecation after a blood meal, time elapsed in voluntary fasting pre- and pos-ecdysis, moulting time periods, pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and index of oviposition, incubation period, egg viability, longevity and mortality rate. Results show that the Passarão population of T. maculata should be considered a potential vector of T. cruzi since it shows a capacity to infest artificial ecotopes in the peridomicile, to carry out large number of meals during the nymphal cycle, to have a relatively short developmental cycle capable of producing 2.9 generations/year, to blood source eclecticism, to defecate immediately after the blood meal while still on the host and to the fact that has been previously found naturally infected by T.cruzi.A doença de Chagas é de rara ocorrência na Região Amazônica Brasileira, onde contudo as condições para o estabelecimento de ciclos domésticos existem. Um estudo previamente realizado em áreas de colonização agrícola no Estado de Roraima, mostrou a possibilidade de ciclos autóctones de transmissão virem a ocorrer uma vez que todos os elementos estavam lá presentes, indivíduos infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi, espécies de triatomíneos anteriormente descritas como infectadas por T. cruzi na Região Amazônica de países fronteiriços e, ambientes domiciliares e peri-domiciliares favoráveis à colonização de triatomíneos. Triatoma maculata foi a espécie mais frequentemente encontrada, tendo sido coletada em galinheiros no peridomicílio e esporadicamente nos domicílios. Visando investigar a potencialidade de T. maculata como espécie vetora na área, algumas características bionômicas foram estudadas em condições de laboratório incluindo freqüência de alimentação, tempo de defecação pós-prandial, tempo de jejum voluntário na pré- e na pós-ecdise, período inter-mudas, períodos de pré-oviposição e de oviposição, índice de oviposição, período de incubação, viabilidade dos ovos, índices de longevidade e de mortalidade. Os resultados mostraram que a população de T. maculata da Colônia Agrícola do Passarão deve ser considerada vetora em potencial do T. cruzi uma vez que mostrou capacidade de infestar ecótopos artificiais no peridomicílio, de se alimentar com freqüência durante o período ninfal, de possuir um ciclo de desenvolvimento relativamente curto com 2,9 gerações/ano, de possuir hábitos ecléticos de alimentação, de defecar imediatamente após a hematofagia quando ainda no hospedeiro e devido ao fato de ter sido previamente encontrada infectada por T. cruzi.

  3. DNA barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera.

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    Robert G Foottit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage.

  4. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

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    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...

  5. An assassin among predators: the relationship between plant-ants, their host Myrmecophytes and the Reduviidae Zelus annulosus.

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    Messika Revel

    Full Text Available Tropical plants frequently live in association with ants that protect their foliage from defoliators. Among them, myrmecophytes have evolved mutualisms with a limited number of plant-ants that they shelter and feed, and, in return, benefit from some protection. Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae, for example, houses Allomerus decemarticulatus (Myrmicinae that build gallery-shaped traps to catch large prey. In French Guiana, we frequently observed the assassin bug Zelus annulosus (Reduviidae, Harpactorinae on the leaves of H. physophora. Here, we studied the distribution of Zelus annulosus among understory plants in the Guianese rainforest and found it only on pubescent plants, including H. Physophora, whether or not it was sheltering an A. decemarticulatus colony, but only rarely on other myrmecophytes. The relationship between Z. annulosus and its host plants is, then, also mutualistic, as the plant trichomes act as an enemy-free space protecting the nymphs from large predatory ants, while the nymphs protect their host-plants from herbivorous insects. Through their relationship with A. decemarticulatus colonies, Z. annulosus individuals are protected from army ants, while furnishing nothing in return. In those cases where H. physophora sheltered both an A. decemarticulatus colony and Z. annulosus nymphs, certain plant individuals repeatedly sheltered nymphs, indicating that female bugs may select not only pubescent plants but also particular H. physophora treelets having characteristics more favourable to the development of their progeny.

  6. An assassin among predators: the relationship between plant-ants, their host Myrmecophytes and the Reduviidae Zelus annulosus.

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    Revel, Messika; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Roux, Olivier

    2010-10-01

    Tropical plants frequently live in association with ants that protect their foliage from defoliators. Among them, myrmecophytes have evolved mutualisms with a limited number of plant-ants that they shelter and feed, and, in return, benefit from some protection. Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae), for example, houses Allomerus decemarticulatus (Myrmicinae) that build gallery-shaped traps to catch large prey. In French Guiana, we frequently observed the assassin bug Zelus annulosus (Reduviidae, Harpactorinae) on the leaves of H. physophora. Here, we studied the distribution of Zelus annulosus among understory plants in the Guianese rainforest and found it only on pubescent plants, including H. Physophora, whether or not it was sheltering an A. decemarticulatus colony, but only rarely on other myrmecophytes. The relationship between Z. annulosus and its host plants is, then, also mutualistic, as the plant trichomes act as an enemy-free space protecting the nymphs from large predatory ants, while the nymphs protect their host-plants from herbivorous insects. Through their relationship with A. decemarticulatus colonies, Z. annulosus individuals are protected from army ants, while furnishing nothing in return. In those cases where H. physophora sheltered both an A. decemarticulatus colony and Z. annulosus nymphs, certain plant individuals repeatedly sheltered nymphs, indicating that female bugs may select not only pubescent plants but also particular H. physophora treelets having characteristics more favourable to the development of their progeny.

  7. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  8. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  9. (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE SOBRE FRÍJOL

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    Luisa Fernanda SUAREZ GONZALEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La biología y ecología de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyroridae, se encuentra ampliamente documentada. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no hay reportes acerca de la tasa de consumo de alimento por este fitófago, un parámetro necesario para modelos de simulación. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue la medición indirecta del consumo de alimento por el adulto e instares inmaduros de T. vaporariorum basado en metodologías encontradas en la literatura científica. La estimación de la tasa de consumo de alimento por adultos se realizó bajo condiciones de laboratorio, utilizando como unidad experimental una planta de fríjol de dos semanas de edad. El experimento consistió de dos tratamientos: (T1 plantas libres de cualquier fitófago y (T2 plantas sometidas a infestaciones con T. vaporariorum , cada tratamiento con 20 repeticiones y una réplica en el tiempo de todo el experimento. Se registró el peso fresco diariamente en ambos tratamientos. Para el caso de los inmaduros, la unidad experimental consistió en una hoja cotiledónea de fríjol, infestada con una población determinada de inmaduros de cada instar de mosca blanca teniendo así cinco tratamientos (Instar I, II, III, IV y Control cada uno con 17 repeticiones. Se registró diariamente el peso fresco de las hojas. Se obtuvo un consumo promedio de alimento por el adulto de 0,277 ± 0,0042 mg.dia -1 . Para los dos primeros instares ninfales se estimó una tasa de consumo de 0,052 mg.dia -1 , en el tercer instar de 0,14 mg.dia -1 , y para el cuarto instar de 0,19 mg.dia -1 . Un adulto de mosca blanca puede consumir en un día seis veces su peso y un inmaduro ocho veces, gracias a su rápido metabolismo y la constante excreción de mielecilla.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  11. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species “Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis” in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Maureen; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion’s disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii. Conclusions As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue. PMID:28095503

  12. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species "Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis" in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae.

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    Maureen Laroche

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated.In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion's disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii.As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue.

  13. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  14. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  15. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  16. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  18. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  19. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  20. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  1. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  2. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

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    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  3. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  4. El género Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, con redescripción de dos especies The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species

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    Patricia González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species. Apiococcus Hempel is a genus from Brazil composed of four gall-inducing species. The adult females of two species, Apiococcus globosus Hempel and A. singularis Hempel, from Brazil, are redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the species of the genus and their galls are given.

  5. Effects of irradiation on Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. Dosages of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) of Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), focusing on females due to its parthenogenesis ability, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150-250 Gy has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its survival rate, percentage of adult reproduction, oviposition, and fertility rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and fertility rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs, but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dosage of 150-250 Gy.

  6. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  7. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bemisia afer (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Xiao, Na; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Colvin, John; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The length of the Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 14,968 bp and consists of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 control region. Apart from one serine transfer RNA gene (tRNA-Ser) which is absent, the synteny is consistent with the mitogenomes of other whitefly species. The overall base composition of the heavy strand for A, G, T and C is 28.96, 18.97, 36.7 and 15.37%, respectively, with a slight AT bias. Two rare codons (GTG and TTG) are employed as start codons by some PCGs. B. afer is a group of cryptic species. This first mitogenome cloned from African cassava B. afer, therefore, both enrich the whitefly molecular resource and will aid the sequencing of the other species' mitogenomes. It will contribute significantly to resolving the systematics of the B. afer complex.

  10. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  11. Estudo anatômico e morfométrico dos folículos testiculares de algumas espécies de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Anatomic and morphometric studies of testicular follicles of some species of Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina M. Gonçalves

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Os folículos testiculares nas ordens dos insetos, vêm demonstrando papel relevante sob o ponto de vista da Sistemática e Filogenia. Nos triatomíneos, os folículos testiculares são em número de sete, sendo que o comprimento e a espesura variam consideravelmente entre os gêneros, e pouco entre as espécies. Verificou-se que em Rhodnius spp existem dois folículos longos e grossos e cinco curtos e fuinnos; em Triatoma spp existem dois longos e finos, dois médios e grossos e três curtos e finos; e em Panstrongylus spp existem sete aproximadamente iguais. Através das medições do comprimento dessas estruturas, evidenciou-se que os valores das médias e desvios padrão das médias, foram muito próximos entre as espécies do mesmo gênero, tornando-se inviável estabelecer limites que pudessem caracterizá-las. Em busca de resultados mais precisos, fizeram-se comparações interespecíficas através da análise de variância: entre as diferentes espécies do mesmo gênro (comparação simultânea; entre cada duas espécies do mesmo gênro (comparação aos pares; e entre espécies iguais de procedência diferentes. Os resultados obtidos não demostraram possibilidades de utilização na Sistemática, contudo foram promissores no que concerne à Filogenia, desde que seja observado um número maior de espécies.The testicular follicle in the varous insect orders, has given evidence of relevance from the point of view of Systematics ans Phylogeny. In the triatomines, the testicular follicles are in number of seven, their lenght and thickness ranging considerabley between the genera and with less variation between the species. It was observed that in Rhodnius spp there exist two long and thick follicles and five short and thin; in Triatoma spp there extist two long and thick, two medium and thick and three short and thin; and in Panstrongylus spp seven, almost identical. Through the measurements of length of these structures, it was observed that the medium value of the averages and the standard deviation of the averages were very close, between the species of the same genus, consequently it was impossible to establish limits characterizing the species. Seecking precise results, interspecific comparisons were made through analysis of variance, as follows: - between different species of the same genus (simultaneous comparison; - between every two species of the same genus (couple comparison; - between identical species of different origin. The results didn't demonstrate the possibility of using this character in Systematics, although they seem to be promising as regards Phylogeny, provided that a great number of species is observed.

  12. Distribuição espacial de populações de triatomíneos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae em palmeiras da espécie Mauritia flexuosa no Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Gurgel-Gonçalves Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar e analisar a distribuição espacial de populações silvestres de triatomíneos no Distrito Federal, Brasil, foram amostradas 150 palmeiras da espécie Mauritia flexuosa em seis veredas de diferentes paisagens (silvestre, rural e periurbana na estação chuvosa. Os triatomíneos foram identificados morfologicamente, separados por sexo e estadio ninfal e examinados para verificar infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma rangeli. Vinte e oito (18,6% palmeiras estavam infestadas por Rhodnius neglectus e 14 (9,5% por Psammolestes tertius. A freqüência dessas espécies em palmeiras com e sem ninhos foi significativamente diferente, sendo superior nas palmeiras com ninhos de aves e mamíferos na copa. O maior número médio de insetos/palmeira foi observado nas áreas rurais, com estimativas de até 838 insetos/hectare. A composição etária das espécies apresentou um padrão diferente, Rhodnius neglectus com predomínio de ninfas e Psammolestes tertius com predomínio de adultos, sendo que muitos ovos de Rhodnius neglectus foram coletados indicando um evento reprodutivo em fevereiro de 2003. Entre os ninhos encontrados nas palmeiras, o do pássaro Phacellodomus ruber (Furnariidae apresentou as maiores abundâncias de triatomíneos, ocorrendo em 42% das palmeiras. A abundância relativa de Rhodnius neglectus e Psammolestes tertius foi maior em áreas rurais que possuíram maior número de ninhos nas palmeiras e menor densidade de palmeiras por hectare. Nenhum dos 96 triatomíneos examinados estava infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi ou Trypanosoma rangeli, apesar de encontrarmos infecção de Rhodnius neglectus por esses parasitas em estudos anteriores.

  13. Morfologia comparada dos ovos e ninfas de Triatoma vandae Carcavallo, Jurberg, Rocha, Galvão, Noireau & Lent, 2002 e Triatoma williami Galvão, Souza & Lima, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Araújo Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Eggs and all nymphs of these species were studied employing light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The major differences observed by LM in the eggs were related to the presence and the distribution of pores on the surface of their chorion. Morphological differences among three nymphal stages (1st, 3rd, and 5th development of each species were observed. The differential characteristics are chromatic and in the shape of connexival spots. The ultrastructure of the ventral region of the head and the IX, X, and XI abdominal segments (anal tube of the both species were described demonstrating morphological differences that can be used for diagnosis of the species.

  14. Attalea butyracea próximas a las viviendas como posible fuente de infestación domiciliaria por Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Angulo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La presencia de Rhodnius prolixus en palmas en los Llanos Orientales, zona de alto riesgo para la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi, y su frecuente visita al intradomicilio, hacen necesario confirmar este hábitat como posible fuente de infestación. Objetivo. Comprobar la infestación por R. prolixus en Attalea butyracea próximas a viviendas en los Llanos Orientales. Materiales y métodos. Se examinaron palmas próximas a las viviendas rurales en los departamentos de Casanare y Arauca, utilizando trampas con cebo vivo, y mediante búsqueda activa y vigilancia comunitaria, se recolectaron triatominos en el intradomicilio. Con criterios morfológicos se determinó la especie recolectada y con la técnica de PCR se estableció la infección natural. Resultados. Se recolectaron 529 ninfas y adultos de R. prolixus y 5 ninfas de Eratyrus mucronatus en 111/172 (64,53 % A. butyracea ubicadas a menos de 500 m de las viviendas. En el mismo periodo se recolectaron en el intradomicilio 132 R. prolixus y especímenes de Psammolestes arthuri, Cavernicola pilosa, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus y 20 ninfas de E. mucronatus en un cúmulo de adobes en el corredor de una vivienda. Se detectó infección natural por T. cruzi en 28,76 % de R.prolixus de palmas y 30 % del intradomicilio. Conclusiones. Los resultados del presente estudio revelan una nueva situación epidemiológica de transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas, caracterizada por las altas tasas de infestación de R. prolixus en palmas próximas a viviendas y su frecuente intrusión; su impacto debe ser evaluado para diseñar medidas de prevención de la enfermedad.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.430

  15. Validation of reference genes for expression analysis in the salivary gland and the intestine of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae under different experimental conditions by quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paim Rafaela M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Recently, genomic resources for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens have increased significantly, and R. prolixus has been one of the main species studied among the triatomines. However, the paucity of information on many of the fundamental molecular aspects of this species limits the use of the available genomic information. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies by identifying the most suitable reference genes for the normalization of mRNA expression data from qPCR. Results The expression stability of five candidate reference genes (18S rRNA, GAPDH, β-actin, α-tubulin and ribosomal protein L26 was evaluated by qPCR in two tissues (salivary gland and intestine and under different physiological conditions: before and after blood feeding and after infection with T. cruzi or T. rangeli. The results were analyzed with three software programs: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. All of the evaluated candidate genes proved to be acceptable as reference genes, but some were found to be more appropriate depending on the experimental conditions. 18S, GAPDH and α-tubulin showed acceptable stability for studies in all of the tissues and experimental conditions evaluated. β-actin, one of the most widely used reference genes, was confirmed to be one of the most suitable reference genes in studies with salivary glands, but it had the lowest expression stability in the intestine after insect blood feeding. L26 was identified as the poorest reference gene in the studies performed. Conclusions The expression stability of the genes varies in different tissue samples and under different experimental conditions. The results provided by three statistical packages emphasize the suitability of all five of the tested reference genes in both the crop and the salivary glands with a few exceptions. The results emphasise the importance of validating reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in R. prolixus studies.

  16. Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, with new records and taxonomic notes on Ectrichodiinae from Brazil, and with keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Baena, Manuel; Grillo, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005 is considered a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, 1924. Ectrichodiella minima (Valdés, 1910) and E. rafaeli (Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005), new. comb. are redescribed. Taxonomic notes on Brontostoma alboannulatum (Stål, 1860), B. discus (Burmeister, 1835), B. nanus Carpintero, 1980, B. rubrovenosum (Stål, 1860), and B. trux (Stål, 1859) are given. Brontostoma diringshofeni Gil-Santana & Baena, 2009, B. nanus, and Racelda robusta Bérenger & Gil-Santana, 2005 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. Keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World are presented.

  17. Molecular Phylogenetic Placement of the Recently Described Armored Scale Insect Abgrallaspis aguacatae and Several Congeners (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Jeremy C. Andersen; Joseph G. Morse; Benjamin B. Normark; Richard Stouthamer

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Hass’ avocado, Persea americana Miller, fruit being imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of a previously unknown species of armored scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae...

  18. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  19. Behavior of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae vectors of Chaga's disease: IV. Fecundity, fertility and longevity of Panstrongylus megistus (Burm., 1835 pairs and virgin females starved under laboratory conditions Comportamento de triatomíneos Hemiptera: Reduviidae vectores da doença de Chagas. IV. Fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de casais e fêmeas adultas de Panstrongylus megistus Burm, 1835, privados de alimento, em condições de laboratório

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    Marli Maria Lima

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted on the fecundity, fertility and life span of Panstrongylus megistus pairs and on the fecundity and life span of P. megistus virgin females submitted to starvation after the last moulting. Of the mated females, 22.2% laid eggs, 4.4% of which were fertile. Females resisted starvation more than males. Of the starved virgin females, only 10% laid eggs, with a low egg-laying rate (0.47 per female. Resistance to starvation was lower in virgin than in mated females.Efetuou-se, em laboratório, um estudo sobre a fecundidade, fertilidade e duração de vida de casais de Panstrongylus megistus e da fecundidade e duração de vida de fêmeas virgens dessa espécie, submetidos a jejum, após a última ecdise. Das fêmeas acasaladas, 22,2% puseram ovos, dos quais 4,4% estavam férteis. As fêmeas tiveram maior resistência ao jejum que os machos. Das fêmeas virgens em jejum, apenas 10% puseram ovos, com baixa de ovipostura por fêmeas (0,47. A resistência ao jejum foi mais baixa nas fêmeas virgens do que naquelas que permaneceram sempre com os machos.

  20. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

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    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  1. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  2. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

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    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  3. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  4. Phylogenetics and evolutionary morphology of the Neotropical true bug genus Epipolops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Epipolops Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), comprising the largest genus of Pamphantinae, are among the most bizarre true bugs because of their striking morphology. To elucidate evolutionary morphology in Epipolops, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 17 species and 36 ad...

  5. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  6. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  7. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  8. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  9. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  10. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  11. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  12. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  13. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  14. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  15. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  16. Effects of founder population size on the performance of Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castañe, C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Carvalho, L.M.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a key predator of thrips and is mass reared in large numbers for use in biological control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of founder population size on the biological and behavioral performance of O. laevigatus over time. Laboratory li

  17. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  18. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  19. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  20. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  1. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Moore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  2. Wolbachia infection differs among divergent mitochondrial haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four mitochondrial (cytrochrome oxidase I) haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (S'ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), have been identified in North America: western, central, northwestern,and southwestern. A recent study found that females of the northwestern haplotype mated by males o...

  3. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mariani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  4. An update of the types of Heteroptera (Hemiptera) housed at the Museo de La Plata Entomological Collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara Itzel; Dellapé, Pablo Matías

    2013-01-08

    We present a list of the type material of Heteroptera deposited in the entomological collection of the Museo de La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the last six years and or, not included in previous catalogs. This catalog includes 244 specimens belonging to 43 holotypes, one neotype, and 200 paratypes. The type material examined belongs to 50 species from 43 genera distributed in 16 families: Schizopteridae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Thaumastocoridae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Reduviidae, Alydidae, Rhopalidae, Largidae , Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, and Rhyparochromidae.

  5. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  6. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  7. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios.

  9. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana MARIANI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  10. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  11. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  12. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

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    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  13. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  14. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  15. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a key pest of clementines. Biological control of A. spiraecola is still poorly known and efforts were based on the use and conservation of parasitoids but it did not success. With all this said, the aims of this thesis were: i) to disentangle the reasons behind the low parasitism of A. spiraecola; ii) to determine when and how predators can control A. spiraecola populations; and, finally, iii) to evaluate whether a ground cover of Poaceae...

  16. Novas Plantas Hospedeiras para o Percevejo Fitófago Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae

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    Evaldo Pires

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae is a phytophagous bug that can be found in several crops due to availability of food and favorable conditions for the development. The aim of this research was to record the occurrence of L. zonatus colonizing plants of Malpighia emarginata Sessé & Moc (Malpighiaceae, Morus nigra Linnaeus (Moraceae, Mangifera indica Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae in Municipality of Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. L. zonatus should be included in monitoring for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM in these plants.

  17. Brachygastra mellifica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Predation preference and feeding behavior on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Rosas, M. A.; Loera-Gallardo, J.; López-Arroyo, J. I.; Buck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In previous field studies in Northern Mexico, we found the wasp Brachygastra mellifica (Say 1837) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) preying voraciously the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the vector of the bacteria Ca. Liberibacter spp., the putative agent of Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating citrus disease in the world.   As in Mexico, the ACP management considers the use of pest biological control, the availability of potential agents for the con...

  18. Scale insect genus-group names and their families (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Douglas J; Denno, Barbara D

    2014-06-05

    Genus names of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are listed with their current families. The list includes all generic names that are currently valid with synonyms, unjustified emendations, homonyms, nomia nuda and misspellings. The list has been compiled from many sources as discussed in the introduction. This is the first list to be prepared in recent years of all generic names and it is in alphabetical order.

  19. Primer Registro para el Perú de Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Walter Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae, “pulgón pardo del duraznero”. La especie ha sido colectada en el departamento de Tacna. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Referencial de Insectos de la Unidad del Centro de Diagnóstico de Sanidad Vegetal del SENASA, Lima, Perú.

  20. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-01-01

    Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise), Coccidae (sagtedopluise) en Kerriidae (lakdopluise) is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhoudi...

  1. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren A. Cirino; Christine W Miller

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, inclu...

  2. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  3. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management.

  4. Lethality of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviiae, vectors of Chagas' disease, feeding on blood baits containing synthetic insecticides, under laboratory conditions Letalidade de triatomíneos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, vetores da doença de Chagas, alimentados sobre iscas de sangue contendo inseticidas sintéticos, em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Lima

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to test the toxicity of synthetic insecticides added to defibrinated sheep blood kept at room temperature and offered as food to the following triatomine species: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma vitticeps, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma brasiliensis and Rhodnius prolixus. The insecticides used, at a concentration of 1g/l, were: HCH, DDT, Malathion and Trichlorfon, and the lethalithy observed at the end of a 7-day period varied according to the active principle of each. HCH was the most effective by the oral route, killing 100% of the insects, except P. megistus (95.7% and T. pseudomaculata (94.1%. Trichlorfon killed the insects at rates ranging from 71.8% (T. vitticeps to 98% (R. prolixus. Malathion was slightly less efficient, killing the insects at rates from 56.8% (T. vitticeps to 97% (T.brasiliensis. DDT was the least effective, with a killing rate of 10% (T. vitticeps to 75% (T.brasiliensis. Since the tests were performed at room temperature, we suggest that baits of this type should be tried for the control of triatomines in the field.Ensaiou-se, em laboratório, o efeito tóxico de inseticidas sintéticos, adicionados ao sangue de carneiro desfibrinado, mantidos em temperatura ambiente, oferecidos como fonte alimentar às seguintes espécies de triatomíneos: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma vitticeps, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma brasiliensis e Rhodnius prolixus. Os inseticidas usados, na concentração de 1g/l, foram: HCH, DDT, Malathion e Triclorfon e a letalidade observada, ao fim de 7 dias variou, de acordo com o princípio ativo. HCH foi o mais efetivo por via oral, matando 100% dos insetos, exceto P. megistus (95,7% e T. pseudomaculata (94,1%. Triclorfon eliminou entre 71,8% (T. vitticeps e 98% (R. prolixus. Malathion ficou ligeiramente abaixo, matando entre 56,8% (T. vitticeps e 97% (T. brasiliensis. DDT foi o menos efetivo, matando entre 10% (T. vitticeps e 75% (T. brasiliensis. Como os testes foram feitos em temperatura ambiente, espera-se que iscas desse tipo possam ser usadas no controle de triatomíneos no campo.

  5. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

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    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  6. Efecto de la alternación de fuentes sanguíneas sobre la fecundidad y la fertilidad de Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Elis José Aldana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evidencia que si el éxito reproductivo de Rhodnius prolixus Stal está relacionado a la fuente alimentaria, entonces las necesidades biológicas del insecto son satisfechas en modos diferentes según el tipo de alternancia entre dichas fuentes de alimentación; tales diferencias son reveladas mediante los cambios en fertilidad y fecundidad del insecto. Se realizaron nueve alternancias, en cada una se suministraron dos alimentaciones, en unas se alternó la fuente de alimentación y en los controles se suministraron dos alimentaciones con la misma fuente. Las fuentes alimentarias fueron paloma, gallina y humano, esta última mediante un aparato de alimentación artificial; estas fuentes se escogieron en el supuesto que son fuentes alimentarias encontradas en los ecotopos silvestre, peri-domicilio y domicilio respectivamente. En todos los tipos de alternancia se encontró una relación lineal entre la fecundidad y el tiempo de oviposición, que la relación entre cantidad de sangre ingerida y la fecundidad varían, que la tasa de fecundidad aumenta en la segunda alimentación respecto a la primera y que la fertilidad fue superior al 95 %. Effects of alternating blood sources on fecundity and fertility of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: ReduviidaeIn this work it is argued that if the reproductive parameters of Rhodnius prolixus Stal are related to the blood source upon which it feeds, then the insects biological needs must be satisfied in different ways by the alternation between blood sources, reveled through changes in the fecundity and fertility of individuals of this insect species. Nine experiments were conducted, each one consisting of two feedings, in which the blood source were either alternated or remained the same. The meal sources used were pigeon, hen and human blood, selected according to the resources found in the sylvatic, peri-domestic and domestic ecotopes respectively. It was found that the quantity of

  7. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  8. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkie Spodek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The first-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae are described and illustrated. This species is compared with K. vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region.

  9. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  10. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  11. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  12. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  13. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  14. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  15. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

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    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  16. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid

  17. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  18. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

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    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  19. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  20. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  1. Efficacy of orchard-applied insecticides against the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) attacking pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polyphagous brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southcentral and southeastern U.S.A. Management of this pest in both orchards and row crops i...

  2. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid femal

  3. Review of the grassland leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) from the Chinese mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yani; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mainland species of the leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) (Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler), Nephotettix malayanus Ishihara & Kawase, Nephotettix nigropictus (Stål), Nephotettix parvus Ishihara & Kawase rec. n., and Nephotettix virescens (Distant)) are reviewed. This genus is redescribed. Variation is described and illustrated. Keys for their separation are provided together with a worldwide checklist.

  4. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  5. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  6. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  7. Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae – an unknown trophobiotic association

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    ILIA GJONOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera, Issidae by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798. It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

  8. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  9. [First record of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), in Tipuana tipu (Benth.), from Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Dalva L Q; Burckhardt, Daniel; Aguiar, António M F

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Acizzinae), is reported for the first time, in Brazil. The psyllid was observed causing injuries on leaves and shoots of Tipuana tipu (Benth.), in urban areas of Paraná State. P. nigrivirga are tiny sap-sucking insects that feed on phloem and cause curling, stains and fall of leaves. The excrements of these insects accumulate on the leaves propitiating fungus growth on the leaves, or they fall in great amount on the cars dirtying them as if they were sparkling of white and sticky ink.

  10. Records of Natural Enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L C; Lourenção, A L; Costa, V A; Souza, B; Costa, M B; Tanque, R L

    2014-04-01

    Collections of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were made in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the greenhouse, 6,495 predators and 16,628 parasitoids belonging to three families were collected. In the field, 267 predators and 344 parasitoids belonging to five families were found. For the first time in Brazil, five species of predators associated with this whitefly were reported. Because of the diversity of natural enemies of B. tabaci biotype B recorded, this study points out the importance of these data for studies on integrated pest management.

  11. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae with the description of a new species

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    Éva Szita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, A. cataphracta (Olafsen, A. occidentalis (Douglas and A. pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided.

  12. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  13. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  14. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  15. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

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    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  16. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material.

  17. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Paradell, Susana L

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28 degrees 48' to 39 degrees 17' S and 64 degrees 06' to 70 degrees 04' W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions.

  18. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)%The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfeng ZHANG; Yingping XIE; Jiaoliang XUE; Xiaohong FU; Weimin LIU

    2012-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy,we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug,Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae).We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular,quinquelocular,and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts,recording characteristics of their structure,size and distribution.We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers—the procuticle,epidermis and basement membrane—and four sub-layers of the procuticle—the epicuticle,exocuticle,endocuticle and formation zone.The waxsecreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis.All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells.These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage.Synthesized by the glandular cells,the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  19. Primeiro registro da cochonilha Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae no Brasil First record of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Kussler

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae foi registrada atacando plantas de erva-mate, pela primeira vez no Brasil, no município de Chapecó (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W,SC de setembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2003, mas outros 32 ervais não apresentaram a ocorrência desse inseto. Esta cochonilha pode causar danos como a degeneração dos ramos primários devido a constante sucção de seiva. O contorno do corpo é oval arredondado (2,68mm x 2,60mm com antenas curtas e robustas com sete segmentos. Esta espécie é caracterizada pela presença e distribuição de poros preoperculares e setas hipopigiais.The presence of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae was reported for the first time in Brazil in the town of Chapecó, Santa Catarina State (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W, attacking Paraguay tea plants (Ilex paraguariensis, from September 2002 to January 2003. Other 32 Paraguay tea plantations were inspected and there was not occurrence of this insect. This cochineal can cause degeneration of the branches where they are due to the constant suction of the sap. The contour of the body is rounded oval (2.68mm x 2.60mm and it has short and robust antennas with seven segments. This species is characterized by the presence and distribution of preoperculary pores and hypopygial arrows.

  20. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  1. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  2. Morfometría geométrica del borde corial y del collar de huevos de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Páez-Colasante

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La taxonomía y sistemática de la subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae se basan principalmente en caracteres biométricos y morfológicos de las formas adultas y, en algunos casos, de las ninfas. La Morfometría Geométrica es capaz de descomponer la forma en sus componentes tamaño isométrico y conformación. En el presente trabajo se utilizó laMorfometría Geométrica como herramienta de análisis de la configuración geométrica que resulta de la unión de los extremos del borde corial y del collar (configuración borde corial-collar de los huevos eclosionados de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal. Los huevos se observaron por Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y las imágenes digitalizadas fueron analizadas morfogeométricamente. Estudiando el tamaño geométrico de la configuración borde corial-collar, se halló que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las cinco especies deTriatominos. En cuanto a la conformación, se determinaron diferencias entre las especies al ser sometidas a un análisis discriminante. Se encontró además que la variación del tamaño contribuye a la variación en la conformación, es decir, efecto alométrico. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la conformación de la configuración geométrica “borde corial-collar” de los huevos de Rhodnius podría ser utilizada como herramienta taxonómica para este grupo. Morfometria geométrica da borda corial e colarinho de ovos de cinco espécies do Gênero Rhodnius (Heteroptera Reduviidae, Triatominae.Resumo. A taxonomia e sistemática da subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera Reduviidae esta baseada principalmente em caracteres biométricos e morfológicos das formas adultas, e em alguns casos, das ninfas. A morfometria geométrica é capaz de descompor a forma em seus componentes, tamanho isométrico e conformação. No presente trabalho utilizou-se a morfometria geométrica como ferramenta de análise da configura

  3. Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae at Rio de Janeiro State = Ocorrência de Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Coutinho de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Blackfly’s, Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is considered by the National Plant Protection Organization/Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (NPPO/MAPA as a present quarantine pest (List A2, which occurs in 20 Brazilian States. The aim of this study is to report its occurrence in the Rio de Janeiro State, since its first notification in 2010. = A Mosca-Negra-dos-Citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, é considerada pela Organização Nacional de Proteção Fitossanitária/Ministério da Agricultura (ONPF/MAPA, como praga quarentenária presente (Lista A2, com registros oficiais de ocorrência em 20 Estados brasileiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar sua ocorrência no Rio de Janeiro desde a sua primeira notificação, no ano de 2010.

  4. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) in Roraima, Brazil = Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel; Marcos Wanderley da Silva; Anderson Gonçalves da Silva; Ruy Guilherme Correia; Paulo Roberto Silva Farias; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2011-01-01

    The Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of citrus. Originated in Asia, this pest was detected in Brazil for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil in 2001. In the culture of citrus fruits the black fly carries direct and indirect damage, impeding the development and production of plants. In addition to restricting trade in local areas from its occurrence to the presence of the plague, since the A. woglumi quarantine pest is considered present (A2) of...

  5. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii...

  6. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

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    Ibrahim Samah Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking tomato plants in Egypt

  7. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

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    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  8. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data

    OpenAIRE

    Masumeh Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species ...

  9. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  10. Studies on idiocerine leafhoppers with descriptions of Chinaocerus gen. nov. and three new species from China (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus of the tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), Chinaocerus, is described from the southwest China together with three new species, C. kangdingensis Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province), C. bispinatus Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Yunnan Province) and C. shii Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province). Descriptions and illustrations of these three new species are provided, and a key for their separation is also given.

  11. A revision of the tribe Coelidiini of the Oriental, Palearctic and Australian biogeographical regions (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.

    2016-01-01

    Within the tribe Coelidiini, subfamily Coelidiinae (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera), fragmentation of the genera Calodia Nielson, Olidiana McKamey and Taharana Nielson established the following 13 new genera: Cladolidia, type-species, Lodiana cladopenis Zhang; Creberulidia, type-species, Calodia paucita Nielson; Glaberana, type-species, Glaberana spadix, sp. nov.; Hamusolidia, type-species, Hamusolidia introrsa, sp. nov.; Hiatusorus, typespecies, Taharana schonhorsti Nielson; Laosolidia, type-specie...

  12. Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae em duas cultivares de abacaxi Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on two pineapple cultivars

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas para vasos (250 mL e aclimatadas em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas com até um dia de vida foram confinadas em gaiolas de PVC (1 cm de diâmetro, e fixadas em folhas de ambas as cultivares. Não foram detectadas diferenças no desenvolvimento de D. brevipes nos dois substratos alimentares utilizados. O desenvolvimento ninfal de fêmeas e machos de D. brevipes foi 39,9 e 32,0 dias na cv. Pérola e 38,5 e 32,4 dias na cv. Cayenne, respectivamente. A sobrevivência da fase ninfal foi 32,3 e 40,5%; a razão sexual, 0,39 e 0,33; e a longevidade de fêmeas, 20,3 e 26,1 dias nas cvs. Pérola e Cayenne, respectivamente.The pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the main pest on pineapple crops and biological studies of this insect are necessary on different cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development time of this mealybug on the pineapple cultivars Pérola and Cayenne. The experiment was performed in climated chambers at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase. Pinneapple plants were reproduced in vitro, transplanted to pots (250 mL and kept in greenhouse. One-day-old nymphs were kept inside a clipcage (1 cm diameter fixed on the plants. No differences in development of D. brevipes among the cultivars were found. Development times of females and males, respectively, were 39.9 and 32 days on cv. Pérola and 38.5 and 32.4 days on cv. Cayenne. Nymphs survivals were 32.3 and 40.5%, sexual rates

  13. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" the flavobacterial endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-03-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family.

  14. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea

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    Ferenc Kozár

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %, to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera; Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera; Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera; Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera; Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus; and Cerococcidae (1 species. Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  15. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  16. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  17. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  18. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  19. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  20. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidaesensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  1. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature.

  2. Identifikasi kutukebul (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae dari beberapa tanaman inang dan perkembangan populasinya

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    Purnama Hidayat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae can cause direct and indirect damages on plants, especially vegetables. There is only limited information regarding taxonomy and population dynamic of whiteflies attacking vegetables in Indonesia. This research is conducted to identify species of whitefly collected from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean, and to study their population dynamic. The information gathered from these studies will be useful to support whitefly management in the field. Based on morphology identification of the puparium collected directly from the host plants, there were four species of whitefly identified from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi, i.e. Bemisia tabaci, Aleurodicus dispersus, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and Dialeurodes sp. The presence of B. tabaci on chili pepper and tomato was associated with virus infection that causes yellowing and leaf curl disease. This population of B. tabaci tended to increase along with plant growth and generally reached the highest population when the plant was 60-70 days after planting.

  3. Advances in the use of the RNA interference technique in Hemiptera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Xiao-Ping Wang; Man-Qun Wang; Wei-Hua Ma; Hong-Xia Hua

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference(RNAi)suppresses the expression of target genes by posttranscriptional regulation.Because double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)mediated gene silencing is a conserved mechanism in many eukaryotes,RNAi has become a valuable tool for unveiling gene function in many model insects.Recent research has also shown that RNAi can also be effective in the downregulation of target genes in Hemiptera.In this review,we discuss the use of the RNAi technique in gene functional analysis in hemipterans,highlighting the methods of dsRNA uptake by these insects and discuss the knock-down efficiency of these techniques.Although the RNAi technique has disadvantages,our primary goal here is to determine whether it can be exploited further in the discovery of new gene functions,and as a pest control strategy,in some important Hemipteran pests.

  4. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  5. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  6. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae in Formosa, Argentina, with descriptions of two new species

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    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y Platygastridae de Taosa (Cuernavaca longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Este dictiofárido se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach, y fue colectado en Formosa, Argentina, donde algunos de sus huevos estaban parasitados. Se describen dos especies nuevas: Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus taosae Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae y Telenomus formosanus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Telenominae. La última especie, que pertenece al grupo crassiclava de especies de Telenomus Haliday, también ataca los huevos de Taosa sp. sobre Pontederia subovata (Seubert Lowden. Estos son los primeros parasitoides oófagos registrados para el género Taosa Distant.

  7. Leaf Damaged by Nymph of Cardiaspina albitextura and Cardiaspina retator (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

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    NISMAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardispina (Hemiptera: Pshyllidae is one of the most important genera of the Australian Psyllidae, owing to the spectacular damage to Eucalyptus spp. The increase of C. albitextura and C. retator populations in high numbers caused severe damage on leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Both species have similarities, i.e. they occur on the same host plant and prefer mature leaves of E. camaldulensis for oviposition and feeding sites. They might thus be more likely to show competition than the less closely related taxa. The purpose of the study was to examine degree of the resource use by measuring the area of leaves damaged by the nymphs of C. albitextura and C. retator. The results indicated that the nymph of C. retator caused damage twice more damages than that of C. albitextura. The leaves area damaged by the females of both species was greater than that by the males.

  8. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  9. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts.

  10. On dorsal prothoracic appendages in treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae and the nature of morphological evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mikó

    Full Text Available A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2 and 3rd (T3 thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1 the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs; 2 the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3 the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies.

  11. On dorsal prothoracic appendages in treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the nature of morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J; Hines, Heather M; Deitz, Lewis L; Bertone, Matthew A; Seltmann, Katja C; Wallace, Matthew S; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies.

  12. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae); Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail: fbio_almeida@yahoo.com.br; Goncalves, Lenicio [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal. Area de Biologia], e-mail: lencygon@globo.com

    2007-10-15

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 {+-} 1 deg C, 80 {+-} 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 {+-} 2.6 deg C, 73.3 {+-} 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  13. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  14. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  15. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  16. Characterization of twelve novel microsatellite markers of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) identified from next generation sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. ...

  17. Can we predict brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) abundance in corn using previous pheromone trap capture and early season weather data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the southern US. Scouting stink bugs in corn is time consuming and could be improved if scouts were aware of conditions that favored imminent stink bug infestations. Changes in seas...

  18. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  19. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  20. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  1. Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase (

  2. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  3. Preliminary evaluation of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)as a predator of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The predatory lady beetle Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent against the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants. Adult D. catalinae females were starved for ...

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gordon M; Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus.

  5. First record of the leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    The erythroneurine leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) is reported for the first time from China, with descriptions and illustrations of two new species, Zyginopsis paraverticalis and Zyginopsis gracilis spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China, Zyginopsis verticalis Ahmed n. rec. A key for identification of Chinese species (adult males) is provided.

  6. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  7. Repellency of mustard (Brassica juncea) and arugula (Eruca sativa) plants, and plant oils against the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an economic complex of at least 36 cryptic species, comprising a highly polyphagous and serious pest of vegetable, fiber and ornamental crops. Sustainable alternative measures such as cultural controls can be effective ...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Shigehiko Shiyake; Adalgisa Caccone; Adalgisa Caccone

    2006-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest of unknown origin that is causing severe mortality to hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in eastern North America. Adelgids also occur on other Tsuga species in western North America and East Asia, but these trees are not significantly damaged. The purpose of this study is to use...

  9. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  10. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, MyLo L; Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII)-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3)-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the mitochondrial genome

  11. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Paul

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the

  12. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul"

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatella,Roberto; Basmadjián,Yester; Rosa,Raquel; Martínez, María; Mendaro,Gabriela; Civila,Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae), especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul) en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Passeriformes, Furnariidae) donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.

  13. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  14. First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2 under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA and is not widespread in the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

  15. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  16. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  17. Resurrection of Auritibicen shikokuanus (Kato, 1959 stat. rev. & comb. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cryptotympanini from Ehime and Hiroshima of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young June Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Auritibicen shikokuanus (Kato, 1959 stat. rev. & comb. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cryptotympanini from Ehime Prefecture (Shikoku of Japan is resurrected from junior synonymy with Auritibicen kyushyuensis (Kato, 1926. Auritibicen ishiharai (Kato, 1959 syn. nov. & comb. nov. from Hiroshima Prefecture (Honshu of Japan is resurrected from junior synonymy with A. kyushyuensis and then is synonymized with A. shikokuanus. Morphological comparisons are made among closely related species, A. shikokuanus, A. kyushyuensis, and Auritibicen intermedius (Mori, 1931.

  18. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea with new records and distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Moghaddam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger, D. wuenni (Lindinger, Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, E. pamiricus (Bazarov, E. reynei Schmutterer, E. sanguinairensis Goux and E. saxidesertus (Borchsenius and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  19. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  20. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kondo, Takumasa

    2015-01-01

    A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinariacaballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficussoatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles Pulvinariadrymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimyswinteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., Pulvinariacaballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas Pulvinariadrymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  1. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellieu, Louis, E-mail: louis.dellieu@unamur.be; Sarrazin, Michaël, E-mail: michael.sarrazin@unamur.be; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Department of Physics, University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  2. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  3. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  4. Fitness of Encarsia sophia(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Luo; Tong-Xian Liu

    2011-01-01

    Fitness and efficacy of Encarsia sophia(Girault & Dodd)(Hymenoptera:Aphelinidae)as a biological control agent was compared on two species of whitefly(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)hosts,the relatively smaller sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)biotype 'B',and the larger greenhouse whitefly,Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood).Significant differences were observed on green bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in the laboratory at 27± 2℃,55% ± 5% RH,and a photoperiod of 14 : 10 h(L : D).Adult parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum were larger than those emerging from B.tabaci,and almost all biological parameters of E.sophia parasitizing the larger host species were superior except for the developmental times of the parasitoids that were similar when parasitizing the two host species.Furthermore,parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum parasitized more of these hosts than did parasitoids emerging from B.tabaci.We conclude that E.sophia reared from larger hosts had better fitness than from smaller hosts.Those from either host also preferred the larger host for oviposition but were just as effective on smaller hosts.Therefore,larger hosts tended to produce better parasitoids than smaller hosts.

  5. Susceptibility of twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) life stages to entomophagous arthropods in turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Guillebeau, L P; Braman, S K; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), the twolined spittlebug, is an economic pest of turfgrass in the southeastern United States. No data concerning natural enemies of P. bicincta in turfgrass have been reported previously. We compared predation of spittlebug eggs, nymphs, and adults in the laboratory by potential generalist predators commonly found in turfgrass: bigeyed bugs Geocoris uliginosus Say and Geocoris punctipes Say; red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren; wolf spiders (Lycosa sp. Walckenaer); carabid beetles Harpalaus pensylvanicus DeGeer and Calosoma sayi Dejean; and tiger beetles Megacephala carolina carolina L. Eggs were readily consumed by generalist predators. S. invicta consumed 100% of the eggs offered. H. pensylvanicus and C. sayi were also significant predators of P. bicincta eggs. Nymphs live in spittlemasses that protect them from attack by predators, but exposed nymphs were susceptible to attack when mechanically removed from their spittlemasses. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina caused significant mortality of exposed nymphs. P. bicincta adults are aposematic and have the ability to reflex bleed; however, reflex bleeding did not prevent attack by predators. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina killed 100% of the adult spittlebugs offered in laboratory bioassays. Lycosa sp. are less voracious predators of adults. Sound background knowledge about P. bicincta and its potential natural enemy complex is important for the development and implementation of a detailed, site-specific, biologically based pest management program in turfgrass.

  6. Feeding preference ofNezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and attractiveness of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrain de Santana Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is a cosmopolitan insect that causes economic damages to several cultures, in particular soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Among the techniques that involve Integrated Pest Management, the resistance of plants is pointed as a tool of great value and can contribute to the reduction of populations of insects. The feeding preferences of adults of southern green stink bug (N. viridula, and the attractiveness of soybean genotypes were evaluated under laboratory conditions to detect the most resistant material against attack from this insect. A choice test, using mature grains and green pods of the genotypes was carried out, in which the number of individuals attracted in different periods was counted. Feeding preference was evaluated in the choice tests using green pods and the number of pricks and the average time spent feeding by pricks were evaluated. In addition, texture and trichome density in the green pods were evaluated. The mature grains of 'TMG 117RR' and 'TMG 121RR' were less attractive to the adults of N. viridula. Regarding the green pods, 'IAC 17' and PI 227687 were less attractive; 'IAC 17' and 'IAC PL1' were less consumed, indicating the feeding non-preference as a resistance mechanism. 'IAC 17', 'TMG-117RR' and PI 227687 presented high levels of trichome density, and in 'IAC 17' this morphological characteristic was considered to be the main resistance factor against N. viridula. These results may be useful for breeding programs that focus on the resistance of soybeans to insects.

  7. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  8. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI.

  9. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  10. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection.

  11. Genetics, realized heritability and possible mechanism of chlorfenapyr resistance in Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2016-10-01

    Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively. The genetic basis of inheritance of chlorfenapyr resistance was also studied by crossing the chlorfenapyr selected (Chlorfenapyr-SEL) and laboratory population (Lab-PK). Results revealed an autosomal and incompletely dominant mode of inheritance for chlorfenapyr resistance in the Chlorfenapyr-SEL population of DCB. The results of the monogenic model test showed chlorfenapyr resistance was controlled by multiple genes. Estimated realized heritability for chlorfenapyr resistance in the tested DCB strain was 0.123. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate revealed chlorfenapyr resistance might be due to esterase activity. These results would be useful for devising an effective resistance management strategy against DCB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots’ dry matter, and the forage’s ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria.

  13. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  14. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912. We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing. For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.

  15. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  16. Characterization of resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Lina M; Cardona, César; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Nymphs and adults of several spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species are key pests of forage brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of resistance to adult feeding damage were carried out. Five genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and three nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 36087, CIAT 6294, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.), A. reducta (Lallemand), and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). The nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to all spittlebug species tested. Tolerance in these genotypes can be classified as only moderate given the extent of losses (60-80%) caused by both female and male adults. None of the nymph-resistant genotypes had antibiotic effects on adults feeding on foliage. The results also indicated that antixenosis for feeding is not a plausible explanation for lower damage scores and less biomass losses in resistant genotypes. The fact that adult longevity (usually 8 d) was not affected when the adults were forced to feed on roots of a genotype with strong antibiotic resistance to nymphs is regarded as additional evidence that resistances to nymphs and to adults in Brachiaria are largely independent.

  17. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  18. Biotypic diversity in greenbug (Hemiptera: Aphididae): microsatellite-based regional divergence and host-adapted differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Perumal, Azhaguvel; Burd, John D; Rudd, Jackie C

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen isolates of the cereal aphid pest greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were collected from wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; or noncultivated grass hosts in five locations from Colorado and Wyoming. Parthenogenetic colonies were established. Biotypic profiles of the 19 isolates were determined based on their abilities to damage a set of host plant differentials, and 13 new biotypes were identified. Genetic diversity among the 19 isolates and five previously designated greenbug biotypes (E, G, H, I, and K) was examined with 31 cross-species transferable microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers. Neighbor-joining clustering analysis of marker data revealed host-adapted genetic divergence as well as regional differentiation of greenbug populations. Host associated biotypic variation seems to be more obvious in "agricultural biotypes," whereas isolates collected from noncultivated grasses tend to show more geographic divergence. It seems that the biotype sharing the most similar biotypic profiles and the same geographic region with current prevailing one may have the greatest potential to become the new prevailing biotype. Close monitoring of greenbug population dynamics especially biotypic variation on both crop plants and noncultivated grasses in small grain production areas may be a useful strategy for detecting potentially new prevailing virulent biotypes of the greenbug.

  19. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  20. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  1. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions.

  2. Seasonal variation of Hemiptera community of a temple pond of Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study records seven families, 11 genera and 14 species of hemipteran insect community in different seasons in a temple pond near Silchar, Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India. The pond is very rich in macrophytes like Nelumbo nucifera (Water Lotus, Hygrorhiza aristata (Indian Lotus, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda Grass, Philotria sp. etc. The hemipteran families recorded in the system were Corixidae, Gerridae, Aphididae, Mesoveliidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae and Belostomatidae. The species were Micronecta haliploides, Micronecta (Basileonecta scutellaris scutellaris (Stål (Corixidae; Neogerris parvula (Stål, Limnogonus nitidus (Mayr, Tenagogerris sp., Rhagadotarsus sp. (Gerridae; Enithares ciliata (Fabricius, Anisops lundbladiana Landsbury, (Notonectidae; Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius and Diplonychus annulatus (Fabricius (Belostomatidae, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (Linnaeus (Aphididae, Ranatra elongata (Fabricius, Ranatra varipes varipes (Stål (Nepidae and Mesovelia vittigera Horváth (Mesoveliidae. The highest population of Hemiptera was recorded during the post-monsoon followed by the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. The lowest was recorded in the winter. Shannon Weiner diversity index (H/ and evenness index (J/ showed the highest diversity and evenness during the post monsoon period. Berger Parker index of dominance (d was found highest in winter. In winter both diversity and density were the lowest. The study revealed the presence of four dominant species and three sub-dominant species in the pond. Insect diversity did not show any significant relationship with the environmental variables.

  3. Dose-response relationships of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Baxendale, F P; Heng-Moss, T M; Siegfried, B D; Blankenship, E E; Gaussoin, R E

    2011-02-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae), has emerged as a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchlod dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann. In general, neonicotinoid insecticides effectively control a variety of turfgrass insects, particularly phloem-feeding pests. However, because of well documented inconsistencies in control, these compounds are generally not recommended for chinch bugs. This study was designed to document the contact and systemic toxicity of three neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to B. occiduus. In contact bioassays, thiamethoxam was approximately 20-fold less toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid to B. occiduus nymphs and three-fold more toxic to adults. In adult systemic bioassays, thiamethoxam was up to five-fold more toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid. Interestingly, thiamethoxam was significantly more toxic to adults than to nymphs in both contact and systemic bioassays. This was not observed with clothianidin or imidacloprid. Bifenthrin, used for comparative purposes, exhibited 1844-fold and 122-fold increase in toxicity to nymphs and adults, respectively. These results provide the first documentation of the relative toxicity of these neonicotinoid insecticides to B. occiduus.

  4. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance.

  5. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  6. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent. PMID:27694345

  7. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  8. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

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    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  9. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  10. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  11. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  12. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  13. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  14. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  16. Molecular characterization and gene functional analysis of Dicer-2 gene from Nilaparvata lugens(Hemiptera:Geometroidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Zhang; Kai Lu; Jia-Liang Zhou; Qiang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens(St((A)l)(Hemiptera: Geometroidea),a serious rice pest in many countries of Asia,causes a great loss in rice production every year.RNA interference (RNAi)is a powerful technology for gene function study in insects and a potential tool for pest control.As a core component of RNAi pathway,Dicer-2(Dcr-2)protein determines the production of small interfering RNA(siRNA)and is crucial for the efficiency of RNAi.In this study,the full-length complementary DNA(cDNA)ofN.lugens Dcr-2(NlDcr-2)was first cloned and analyzed,and then the RNAi experiment was conducted to explore the function of NIDcr-2 gene.The complete Dcr-2 cDNA ofN.lugens was 4971 bp in length with an open reading frame(ORF)of 1,656 amino acids.Phylogenetic and protein domain analysis showed that the predicted NlDcr-2 protein was similar to Tribolium castaneum.In the RNAi experiment,the messenger RNA level of NIDcr-2 was significantly reduced by NlDcr-2double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)(dsDcr-2).Fifty-five per cent decrease of NlDcr-2 was found after 4 days of unremitting feeding.No significant effect was observed on the development ofN.lugens after dsRNA ingestion.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  18. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S V; Hanula, J L; Braman, S K; Byrne, F J

    2011-06-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji & McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees between 15 and 38 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g imidacloprid (Merit 75 WP) per 2.5 cm dbh and were either fertilized or not, in a 3 by 2 factorial design. After 2 yr, imidacloprid reduced the numbers of ovisacs and eggs found on trees in a dosage-dependent manner, while enhancing tree growth parameters such as new shoots or needles and the length of new shoots. Fertilized trees had greater adelgid fecundity, which was positively correlated with total foliar N in both winter generations. In February 2009 (27 mo after imidacloprid treatment), higher imidacloprid dosages to unfertilized trees resulted in reduced adelgid fecundity. Concentrations of N, P, and K were higher in the foliage of trees treated with insecticide, whereas foliar aluminum concentrations were consistently lower in trees with higher insecticide dosages. Trees treated with low rates of imidacloprid were healthier than untreated trees, but only trees treated with the 0.1 x dosage had sufficient adelgids to possibly sustain predators over extended periods.

  19. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sriyanka; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  20. Evaluation of digital photography for quantifying Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) density on American beech trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieferich, D J; Hayes, D B; McCullough, D G

    2013-06-01

    Beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) is an invasive forest insect established in the eastern United States and Canada. It predisposes American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) trees to infection by Neonectria spp. Fungi causing beech bark disease. White wax secreted by the diminutive scales obscures individual insects, making it difficult to accurately quantify beech scale density. Our goals were to 1) evaluate the relationship between the area of wax and number of beech scales on bark samples, 2) determine whether digital photos of bark could accurately quantify beech scale density, and 3) compare efficiency and utility of a qualitative visual estimate and using the quantitative digital photo technique to assess beech scale populations. We visually estimated beech scale abundance and photographed designated areas on the trunk of 427 trees in 40 sites across Michigan. Photos were analyzed using a binary threshold technique to quantify the area of beech scale wax on each photo. We also photographed and then collected 104 bark samples from 45 additional beech trees in ten sites. We removed the wax, counted individual scales on each sample using a microscope, and assessed the linear relationship between wax area and scale counts. Area of wax explained approximately 80% of the variability in scale density. We could typically quantify beech scale density on 15 photographs per hour. Qualitative visual assessments of beech scale in the field corresponded with estimates derived from photos of bark samples for 79% of trees.

  1. Effect of population structure and size on aggregation behavior of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2009-09-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), occurs in aggregations until the conditions are no longer beneficial, leading to dispersal. Active and passive bed bug dispersal causes migrations from main aggregations either within a room, from room to room within a building, or from building to building. Because bed bug movement is an important factor in the spread of infestations, we wanted to determine how population structure and size affect bed bug aggregations. Engorged bed bugs were placed in glass petri dish arenas at varying densities, sex ratios, and population compositions. Nymphs had a high tendency to aggregate, varying between 94 and 98%, and therefore were not the likely dispersal stage of the bed bug. At densities of 10 and 40 adults at a 1:1 sex ratio, there were significantly more lone females than lone males. When the population composition was varied, the percentage of lone females was significantly higher than that of males and nymphs at population compositions of 40 and 80% adults. When the sex ratio of adults was varied, there were significantly more lone females than males in arenas with 20, 50, and 80% males. Females, being found away from aggregations significantly more often than any other life stage, are potentially the dispersal stage of the bed bug. Active female dispersal away from main aggregations can potentially lead to treatment failures and should be taken into account when using control methods.

  2. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  3. Remote sensing and spatial statistical techniques for modelling Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) habitat and population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; R Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental, and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus. An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental, and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops.

  4. Biology and systematics of gall-inducing triozids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, René G S; Burckhardt, Daniel; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-01-01

    Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) shelters the gall inducer Nothotrioza myrtoidis gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) which is described and illustrated here. Nothotrioza belongs to the family Triozidae and is probably most closely related to Neolithus, a monotypic Neotropical genus associated with Sapiun (Euphorbiaceae). Three species are recognized within Nothotrioza: the type species N. myrtoidis sp. n. associated with Psidium myrtoides, N. cattleiani sp. n. (misidentified by Butignol & Pedrosa-Macedo as Neotrioza tavaresi) with Psidium cattleianum, and N. tavaresi (Crawford) comb. n. (from Neotrioza) with an unidentified species of Malpighiaceae, respectively. A lectotype is designated here for Neotrioza tavaresi. Also, the diversity of insect galls associated with P. myrtoides and the biology of N. myrtoidis were examined. N. myrtoidis presents five instars and an annual life cycle synchronised with the phenology of P. myrtoides. Gall size was proportional to the insect developmental stages, and rates of parasitism and mortality were 15.7 % and 29.8 %, respectively. The red colour is an important macroscopic diagnostic feature of the gall that could be associated with parasite-free condition of the galling insect. The biological features presented by the system Psidium myrtoides--Nothotrioza myrtoidis are in accordance with other systems involving sucking galling insects, however, it is exceptional by its univoltine life cycle associated with a perennial plant in the Neotropics. The galls induced by the three known Nothotrioza spp. are morphologically similar, i.e. closed, globoid and unilocular, as well as the opening mechanism for releasing the adults.

  5. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  7. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  8. Efficacy of commercially available ultrasonic pest repellent devices to affect behavior of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yturralde, K M; Hofstetter, R W

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the potential for acoustic communication in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), or the use of sound as cues in host location, although many hemipterans are known to communicate with sound. Most behavioral research has focused on bed bug pheromones that are used in aggregation and as alarm signals. We investigated the influence of sound as a deterrent and as an attractant, either of which could ultimately be used to monitor and control bed bugs. Female bed bugs were tested in two-choice tests with four different commercially available ultrasonic repellent devices. We found that female bed bugs were equally likely to occur in arenas with or without sound produced by ultrasonic devices. These devices did not repel or attract bed bugs during choice trials. However, more bed bugs preferred the middle corridor between the test (sound) and control (no sound) arenas when the sound devices were played. Bed bugs were also more likely to exit the middle corridor during control trials compared with treatment trials with ultrasonic devices. Our results confirm that commercial devices producing ultrasound are not a promising tool for repelling bed bugs.

  9. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008).

  11. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  12. Bacteria Associated With Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), With Special Reference to Those Transmitted by Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Park, Jong-Seok; Howells, Andrea; Tikhe, Chinmay V; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-01

    The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is a rapidly growing pest damaging southern US agriculture. Pentatomid stink bugs are known to vector bacterial, fungal, and viral plant diseases. However, bacteria associated with redbanded stink bugs and their vector potential have not yet been assessed. In this study, we 1) cultured and identified bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug and 2) described bacteria from guts of redbanded stink bug individuals using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nineteen bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug on soybean agar were isolated and identified via Sanger sequencing of near full length 16S RNA genes. The transmitted bacteria belonged to at least a dozen species in eight genera and included potential plant pathogens (Phaseolibacter flectens), plant beneficials (Bacillus atropheus), and possible insect beneficials (Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter farmeri). A total of 284,448 reads were captured from Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the uncultured gut bacteria community. Fifty-one putative bacteria species (74% of the estimated total species richness) were identified via matches to NCBI databases. The bacteria metagenome contained potential plant and insect pathogens (Erwinia persicina, E. rhaponici, Brenneria nigrifluens, Ralstonia picketti, and Serratia marcescens) and beneficials (Pantoea dispersa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Clostridium butyricum, and Citrobacter farmeri). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant.

  14. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans

    2014-07-22

    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  15. Characterization of a newly discovered symbiont of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum." The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and OLO. Based on these results, we propose "Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus" for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci.

  16. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  17. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

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    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  18. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

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    Mohammadreza Lashkari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB, is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida. The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1, Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1, and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6, to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001. The body length (BL, circumanal ring length (CL, antenna length (AL, forewing length (WL and Rs vein length of forewing (RL were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1 Iran, (2 USA (Florida and (3 Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution.

  20. The hemiptera (insecta of Canada: constructing a reference library of DNA barcodes.

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    Rodger A Gwiazdowski

    Full Text Available DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs, sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD, allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided.

  1. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

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    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea (Insecta: Hemiptera is one of the most dominant groups of phytophagous insects. It comprises about 20 families, containing a total of 9000 species worldwide. Despite several recent studies, the phylogeny of Fulgoroidea is not yet satisfactorily resolved and the phylogenetic positions of several key families, especially Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Tettigometridae, Nogodinidae, Acanaloniidae and Issidae, are contentious. Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work using additional nuclear (18S and 28S and novel mitochondrial (16S and cytb markers. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded robust phylogenetic trees. In these topologies, a group containing Cixiidae and Delphacidae is recovered as the sister group to the remaining taxa. Tettigometridae is placed in a more nested position and is grouped with Caliscelidae. Sister relationships are found between Flatidae and Ricaniidae, and between Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae. Nogodinidae and Issidae are confirmed to be non-monophyletic families. For major nodes of interest, divergence date estimates are generally older than those from the fossil record.

  2. The Spread of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae Species from its First Occurrence in Romania

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    Ioana Grozea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately in horticultural agroecosystems from Romania joined several insect species autochthonous. Among these is a species of bugs known as southern green stink bugs or Nezara viridula L. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Unlike other new entrants this bug species has a diversified polifagism being present in many plants but obvious damage produce only tomato fruit. The causes are unknown. Can be found in gardens, green spaces and parks. Often is observed in vegetable gardens where populations comprise all stages (egg, larva/nymph, adult. Although it has African origins of a warm area is interesting installation and survival in temperate zones like those in Europe. Presence in Europe appears to be more random which excludes primarily spread through the neighborhood. By observations made in west of Romania, during 2010-2015 we wanted to watch the evolution of the insect from the first point of occurrence (Timișoara, 2010. Also, were monitored tomato crops and ornamentals in gardens and green spaces from 5 counties. Only in four monitored counties it was observed this species. Most adults and larvae were registered in Timis county (5-6 adults or 7-8 larvae/tomato plant and 10 -11 adults or 15-20 larvae/ornamental shrub. In our country the insect has proven to be capable of a rapid spread in a relatively short time interval including surrounding counties.

  3. Estados de desarrollo y biología de tres especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae Life stages and biology of three species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae

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    Luis Cervantes-Peredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los estados de desarrollo (huevo, ninfas y adulto de 3 especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae, Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard principalmente asociada con especies de Asteraceae y Convolvulaceae, y Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus(Say y Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål asociadas con Asclepiadaceae. Las descripciones están basadas en ejemplares colectados en los estados de Oaxaca y Guerrero (México y criados en el laboratorio. Se ilustra cada uno de los estadios y se incluyen notas acerca de su biología y plantas huéspedes.The life stages (egg, nymphs, and adult of 3 species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae are described. Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard is mainly associated with species of Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae, whereas Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus (Say and Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål are associated with Asclepiadaceae. Descriptions are based on individuals collected in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero (Mexico, and reared in laboratory. Illustrations of each instar are also included, as well as notes about their biology and host plants.

  4. Nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae en el oriente del Estado de México New records of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae in the east of Mexico State

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    Marina Ruiz-Machuca

    Full Text Available El nopal tunero (Opuntia spp. se cultiva en todo el país, pero sólo en el Estado de México se concentra cerca de 35% de la producción nacional de tuna. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller, es la especie predominante en la obtención de tunas, pero se carece de información que identifiquen taxonómicamente algunas plagas del cultivo; tal es el caso de la chinche roja (Hemiptera: Miridae. se realizaron colectas sistemáticas de este insecto sobre nopales (Opuntia spp., en diferentes municipios del Estado de México en 2008 y se encontraron 20 nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter.The prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. is cultivated throughout entire country, but 35% of the national production is found only within State of Mexico. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller is the predominant species for obtaining prickly pears, but there is not any information available that would taxonomically identify some plagues particular to this crop; such is the case of red bug (Hemiptera: Miridae. Some of these insects were gathered from prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. in different municipalities of State of Mexico in 2008 and 20 new cases of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter were found.

  5. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

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    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  6. Descrição dos Ovos e dos Estádios Ninfais de Triatoma jurbergi Carcavallo, Galvão & Lent, 1998 Vistos Através de Microscopia Óptica e Eletrônica de Varredura (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Description of Eggs and Nymphs of Triatoma jurbergi Carcavallo, Galvão & Lent, 1998 Through Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

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    José Jurberg

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Eggs and nymphs of Triatoma jurbergi were described using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. T. jurbergi is a wild species, found in State of Mato Grosso (15ºS and 300 m.a.s.l, Brazil. Eggs showed the operculum and surface with pentagonal and hexagonal cells, with small fractures and punctuations randomly distributed. Differences were found in the five nymphal stages of T. jurbergi, that allow their to be distinguished from the similar species T. guazu. The diagnostic characters most useful for differentiation were the general color of the insect, abdomen shape and its length.

  7. Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi against nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: AleyrodidaeVirulência de fungos entomopatogênicos a ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Alfredo Gouvea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity and virulence of isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Unioeste 47 and Unioeste 57, Metarhizium anisopliae (Unioeste 43 and Esalq 09 and Isaria sp. (IBCB 367 a d IBCB 394 against Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. Suspensions of the isolates (1.0 × 109 conidia/mL were sprayed on third instar nymphs on cabbage leaves. It was performed four replications, each one with 20 insects, for each treatment. The control consisted of sterile distilled water + Tween® 80 (0.01%. The number of killed nymphs was evaluated during seven days, and then they were kept in a moist chamber. To estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50, isolates suspensions of 1.0 × 105, 1.0 × 106, 1.0 × 107, 1.0 × 108 and 1.0 × 109 conidia/mL were sprayed on third instar nymphs. The number of nymphs with confirmed mortality was evaluated. The isolates B. bassiana Unioeste 47 (84.1% and Isaria sp. IBCB 367 (98.6% did not differ significantly, causing the highest mortalities. However, the isolate M. anisopliae Esalq 09 caused the lower confirmed mortality (23.2%. The LC50 of the B. bassiana isolates varied from 1.8 × 105 and 4.1 × 105 conidia/mL (Unioeste 57 and Unioeste 47, respectively. Among the isolates of M. anisopliae, Esalq 09 presented the highest LC50 value (7.8 × 108 conidia/mL, whereas Unioeste 43 presents the lowest (4,3 × 105 conidia/mL. The Isaria sp. isolates presented LC50 of 2.5 × 105 and 3.1 × 105 conidia/mL (IBCB 367 and IBCB 394, respectively. Therefore, B. bassiana Unioeste 47 e Isaria sp. IBCB 367 isolates had potential to B. tabaci control and for future field studies.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência dos isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Unioeste 47 e Unioeste 57, Metarhizium anisopliae (Unioeste 43 e Esalq 09 e Isaria sp. (IBCB 367 e IBCB 394 a Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. Suspensões dos isolados (1,0 × 109 conídios/ m

  8. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  9. OCORRÊNCIA DE Gryon gallardoi (BRETHES (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE PARASITANDO OVOS DE Leptoglossus zonatus (DALLAS (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE EM ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRASIL OCCURRENCE OF Gryon gallardi (BRETHES (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE PARASITING EGGS OF Leptoglossus zonatus (DALLAS (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE IN ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRAZIL

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, em Goiás, de Gryon gallardoi (Bréthes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae parasitando ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, em milho cultivar Dekalb 601, no município de Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hymenoptera; Hemiptera; parasitóides; controle natural.

    This work reports the first occurrence in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil, of Gryon gallardoi (Bréthes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae parasitizing eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae in maize.

    KEY-WORDS: Hymenoptera; Hemiptera; parasitoids; natural controle.

  10. Jumping performance of flea hoppers and other mirid bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae).

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    Burrows, M; Dorosenko, M

    2017-02-13

    The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs which were respectively 140% and 190% longer than the front legs. In three species with masses ranging from 3.4 to 12.2 mg, depression of the coxo-trochanteral and extension of femoro-tibial joints accelerated the body in 8-17 ms to take-off velocities of 0.5 to 0.8 m s(- 1) The middle legs lost ground contact 5-6 ms before take-off so that the hind legs generated the final propulsion. The power requirements could be met by the direct muscle contractions so that catapult mechanisms are not implicated. Second, other species combined the same leg movements with wing beating to generate take-off during a wing downstroke. In the third strategy, up to four wing beat cycles preceded take-off and were not assisted by leg movements. Take-off velocities were reduced and acceleration times lengthened. Other species from the same habitat did not jump. The lower take-off velocities achieved by powering jumping by direct muscle contractions may be offset by eliminating the time taken to load catapult mechanisms.

  11. Corixidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera en el lago urbano del parque Tezozomoc, Azcapotzalco, México, D. F.

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    G. Contreras-Rivero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios ecológicos sobre la familia Corixidae (Hemiptera en México son escasos y fragmentados, por lo que se analiza su variación espacial y temporal en un lago urbano con algunas variables ambientales. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente, de julio de 2000 a junio de 2001, ubicando tres estaciones litorales de muestreo; en cada una se determinó: profundidad, transparencia, temperatura, oxígeno, pH, conductividad, dureza y alcalinidad. Los coríxidos se capturaron con red de cuchara de forma rectangular. Se efectuó un análisis de correlación simple entre la abundancia total de los coríxidos y las variables físicas y químicas registradas. Se registraron tres especies: Graptocorixa abdominalis (Say, 1832, con 53% de abundancia; Corisella edulis (Champion, 1901 con 43% y Krizousacorixa femorata (Guérin, 1857 con 1%. De un total de 2423 organismos capturados, la mayor abundancia se registró en marzo, junto con los valores más altos de profundidad y oxígeno. La menor abundancia se presentó en junio, con los valores más bajos de alcalinidad. La correlación de variables y abundancia total fue positiva y significativa con profundidad, oxígeno y conductividad. La Estación I presentó la mayor abundancia de coríxidos y la estación III la menor abundancia. Las variaciones registradas en la abundancia se deben al aporte de agua y a la ubicación de las estaciones de muestreo.

  12. Lack of fitness costs associated with acetamiprid resistance in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

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    Basit, Muhammad; Sayyed, Ali H; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq A

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a devastating pest that can cause severe damage to a range of crops by direct feeding and by plant virus transmission. Because of indiscriminate use of insecticides, this whitefly has developed resistance to several insecticides, including neonicotinoids. Our objectives were to determine fitness components affected by acetamiprid resistance in B. tabaci. Assay results showed that selection with acetamiprid had removed heterozygotes from the field population because the survival rate of the resistant population was significantly greater than that of the field population at a very high dose. Comparison of various life traits between the acetamiprid-selected (Aceta-SEL) population and three other populations showed that the numbers of eggs laid by acetamiprid Aceta-SEL population were significantly lower compared with that of other populations but that the proportions of eggs hatched were significantly higher. However, the time taken by nymphal stages of the Aceta-SEL population to develop was significantly higher than that of the susceptible populations. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and doubling time of Aceta-SEL was significantly higher than Lab-PK and UNSEL populations, but the growth index was similar for all populations. The growth index and high intrinsic value of Aceta-SEL population suggest that the resistance allele may not have detrimental impact. The lack of fitness costs in B. tabaci could promote the rapid development of resistance to acetamiprid and other neonicotinoids. This resistance could threaten the sustainability of whitefly management program on genetically engineered cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) where neonicotinoids are being sprayed to manage sucking pests in the field.

  13. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

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    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

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    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%).

  15. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China.

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    Li Wang

    Full Text Available The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear.Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts-hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash-were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants.Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant.

  16. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae

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    Xiang Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae, is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. Methods & Results In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa. They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2nd and 5th instar nymphs of T. papillosa. B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa, with values for cadaver rate, LC50 and LT50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 107 conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. Discussion This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa. This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  17. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  18. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagata, Katayo; Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts.

  19. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayo Sagata

    Full Text Available Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C, 2050 (25°C and 2100 (29°C, respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C. This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts.

  20. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  1. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E

    2013-12-01

    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  3. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Blaauw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.. Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  5. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB.

  6. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  7. Relationship of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to soybean plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Takuji; Gratton, Claudio; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Brewer, Michael J; Mueller, Emily E; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Heimpel, George E; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2010-02-01

    In the north central United States, populations of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are highly variable across space, complicating effective aphid management. In this study we examined relationships of plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies with soybean aphid abundance across Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, representing the range of conditions where soybean aphid outbreaks have occurred since its introduction. We sampled soybean aphid and its natural enemies, quantified vegetation land cover and measured soybean nutrients (potassium [K] and nitrogen [N]) in 26 soybean sites in 2005 and 2006. Multiple regression models found that aphid abundance was negatively associated with leaf K content in 2005, whereas it was negatively associated with habitat diversity (Simpson's index) and positively associated with leaf N content in 2006. These variables accounted for 25 and 27% of aphid variability in 2005 and 2006, respectively, suggesting that other sources of variability are also important. In addition, K content of soybean plants decreased with increasing prevalence of corn-soybean cropland in 2005, suggesting that landscapes that have a high intensification of agriculture (as indexed by increasing corn and soybean) are more likely to have higher aphid numbers. Soybean aphid natural enemies, 26 species of predators and parasitoids, was positively related to aphid abundance; however, enemy-to-aphid abundance ratios were inversely related to aphid density, suggesting that soybean aphids are able to escape control by resident natural enemies. Overall, soybean aphid abundance was most associated with soybean leaf chemistry and landscape heterogeneity. Agronomic options that can ameliorate K deficiency and maintaining heterogeneity in the landscape may reduce aphid risk.

  8. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  9. Mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions.

  10. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  11. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Chong, Juang-Horng; Epsky, Nancy D; Mannion, Catharine M

    2008-12-01

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C. At 15, 34, and 35 degrees C, the eggs hatched after 27.5, 5.9, and 5.5 d of incubation, respectively, but further development of the first-instar nymphs was arrested. No eggs hatched at 37 degrees C. The developmental time for egg to adult was the longest at 18 degrees C for both males and females. Approximately 80-90% of the eggs survived between 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest fecundity was at 25 degrees C with each female producing an average of 300 eggs. Adult longevity, and preoviposition and oviposition periods increased with decreasing temperature up to 25 degrees C. The proportion of females was approximately 42% at 25 degrees C and was between 70 and 80% at 18, 20, and 30 degrees C. Adult males and females required 303.0 and 294.1 degree-days (DD), respectively, to complete their development. The estimated minimum temperature thresholds for the adult males and females were 14.5 and 13.9 degrees C, respectively. For adult males, the estimated optimum and maximum temperature thresholds were 28.7 and 31.9 degrees C; and for adult females, they were 28.4 and 32.1 degrees C, respectively. The ability of P. marginatus to develop, survive, and reproduce successfully between 18 and 30 degrees C suggests that it has the capability to develop and establish in areas within this temperature range.

  12. Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Vaughn M; Daane, Kent M; Bentley, Walter J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Larsen, Thomas E; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. The sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in June. Compared with a no-pheromone control, there were significantly lower season-long trap catches of adult males, season-long mealybug densities (2003 only), and crop damage in mating disruption plots. The amount of mealybug reduction and mechanisms that resulted in lower crop damage in mating disruption plots is discussed. In samples taken during the growing season (April to September), mealybug density was only 12.0 +/- 15.6 and 31.1 +/- 11.6% lower in the mating disruption plots than in control plots in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the mating disruption treatment, mealybug egg production was significantly lower (2003 only), as were the proportion of ovisacs and crawlers produced. There was no treatment impact on percentage of parasitism. Mealybug density influenced treatment impact. In 2004, vines were categorized as having low, medium, or high mealybug densities during a preapplication survey. After treatment application, mealybug density was reduced by 86.3 +/- 6.3% on vines in the low mealybug density category, but it was unchanged on vines in the high density category. Another factor that reduced treatment impact was the relatively short effective lifetime of the sprayable formulation.

  13. DNA barcoding of common soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-B; Deng, J; Zhang, J-T; Zhou, Q-S; Zhang, Y-Z; Wu, S-A

    2015-10-01

    The soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) are a group of sap-sucking plant parasites, many of which are notorious agricultural pests. The quarantine and economic importance of soft scales necessitates rapid and reliable identification of these taxa. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (barcoding region) and 28S rDNA were generated from 340 individuals of 36 common soft scales in China. Distance-based [(best match, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD)], tree-based (neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference), Klee diagrams, and general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) models were used to evaluate barcoding success rates in the data set. Best match showed that COI and 28S sequences could provide 100 and 95.52% correct identification, respectively. The average interspecific divergences were 19.81% for COI data and 20.38% for 28S data, and mean intraspecific divergences were 0.56 and 0.07%, respectively. For COI data, multiple methods (ABGD, Klee, and tree-based methods) resulted in general congruence with morphological identifications. However, GMYC analysis tended to provide more molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Twelve MOTUs derived from five morphospecies (Rhodococcus sariuoni, Pulvinaria vitis, Pulvinaria aurantii, Parasaissetia nigra, and Ceroplastes rubens) were observed using the GMYC approach. In addition, tree-based methods showed that 28S sequences could be used for species-level identification (except for Ceroplastes ceriferus - Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus), even with low genetic variation (<1%). This report demonstrates the robustness of DNA barcoding for species discrimination of soft scales with two molecular markers (COI and 28S) and provides a reliable barcode library and rapid diagnostic tool for common soft scales in China.

  14. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Larval Development and Predation of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Keena, Melody A; Long, David; Ostiguy, Nancy; Hoover, Kelli

    2015-02-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for A. tsugae. This beetle has been approved for removal from quarantine but has not yet been field released. We observed that temperature had significant effects on the predator's life history. The larvae tended to develop faster and consume more eggs of A. tsugae per day as rearing temperature increased. Mean egg consumption per day of A. tsugae was less at 15°C than at 20°C. However, as larvae took longer to develop at the lower temperature, the total number of eggs consumed per instar during larval development did not differ significantly between the two temperatures. The lower temperature threshold for predator larval development was estimated to be 5°C, which closely matches the developmental threshold of A. tsugae progrediens. Accumulated degree-days for 50% of the predator neonates to reach adulthood was estimated to be 424. Although temperature had a significant effect on larval development and predation, it did not impact survival, size, or sex ratio of the predator at 15 and 20°C. Furthermore, no remarkable distinctions were observed among different geographical populations of the predator. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B; Ramalho, Francisco S; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Zanuncio, José C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  16. What is the economic threshold of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in enemy-free space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M T; Kanobe, C; MacIntosh, G C; O'Neal, M

    2011-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a serious pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., in the North Central United States. Current management recommendations rely on the application of insecticides based on an economic threshold (ET) of 250 aphids per plant. Natural enemies are important in slowing the increase of aphid populations and can prevent them from reaching levels that can cause economic losses. However, biological control of A. glycines is inconsistent and can be affected negatively by the intensity of agricultural activity. We measured the impact of a natural-enemy-free environment on the capacity of the current ET to limit yield loss. In 2008 and 2009, caged microplots were assigned to one of three treatments: plants kept aphid-free (referred to as the control), plants that experienced a population of 250 aphids per plant (integrated pest management [IPM]), and plants that experienced unlimited aphid population growth (unlimited). The population growth rate of aphids in the unlimited treatment for the 10 d after the application of insecticides to the IPM treatment was calculated using linear regression. The linear equation was solved to determine the mean number of days between the ET and the EIL for an aphid population in absence of predators. The number of days was determined to be 6.97 +/- 1.11 d. The 2-yr average yield for the IPM treatment was 99.93% of the control treatment. Our study suggests the current soybean aphid ET of 250 aphids per plant can effectively protect yield even if the impact of natural enemies is reduced.

  17. Early-season host switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae of differing host breadth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009-2012, we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species and A. lineolatus (7 species. Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill., whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management.

  18. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B Malaquias

    Full Text Available The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C to 19 (15°C days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb and the thermal constant (K for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0% was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  19. Gut Content Analysis of a Phloem-Feeding Insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Unruh, Thomas R; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-08-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the Solanaceae. A better understanding of landscape-level ecology of B. cockerelli would substantially improve our ability to predict which potato fields are most likely to be colonized by infected psyllids. We developed three PCR-based methods of gut content analysis to identify what plant species B. cockerelli had previously fed upon. These methods included-1) sequencing PCR amplicons of regions of plant-derived internal transcribed spacer (ITS) or the chloroplast trnL gene from psyllids, 2) high-resolution melting analysis of ITS or trnL real-time PCR products, and 3) restriction enzyme digestion of trnL PCR product. Each method was used to test whether we could identify psyllids that had been reared continuously on potato versus psyllids reared continuously on the perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara. All three methods of gut content analysis correctly identified psyllids from potato and psyllids from S. dulcamara Our study is the first to demonstrate that plant DNA can be detected in a phloem-feeding insect. Gut content analysis, in combination with other landscape ecology approaches, could help elucidate patterns in landscape-level movements and host plant associations of B. cockerelli. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  20. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.