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Sample records for rubella mmr immunity

  1. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpsvax® Mumps Vaccine ... Biavax® II (as a combination product containing Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  2. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... Why get vaccinated? Measles, mumps, and rubella are viral diseases that can ... Before vaccines, these diseases were very common in ...

  3. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccination: What Everyone Should Know

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    ... information, see State Vaccination Requirements . How Can Parents Pay For MMR Vaccine? Most health insurance plans cover ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive ...

  4. The two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation schedule: factors affecting maternal intention to vaccinate.

    OpenAIRE

    Pareek, M; Pattison, H M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the light of sub-optimal uptake of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination, we investigated the factors that influence the intentions of mothers to vaccinate. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of 300 mothers in Birmingham with children approaching a routine MMR vaccination was conducted using a postal questionnaire to measure: intention to vaccinate, psychological variables, knowledge of the vaccine, and socioeconomic status. The vaccination status of the children was ...

  5. Intralesional tuberculin (PPD) versus measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in treatment of multiple warts: a comparative clinical and immunological study.

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    Shaheen, Maha Adel; Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Fouad, Dina Adel; El-Fatah, Abeer Aly Abd

    2015-01-01

    Intralesional purified protein derivative (PPD) or mumps, measles, rubella (MMR) were not previously compared regarding their efficacy or mechanism of action in treatment of warts. We aimed to compare their efficacy in treatment of multiple warts and investigate their effect on serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12. Thirty patients with multiple warts were included (10 treated with PPD, 10 with MMR, and 10 with normal saline (control)). Injection was done every 3 weeks until clearance or maximum of three treatments. Clinical response of target and distant warts was evaluated. Serum ILs-4 and -12 were assessed before and after treatment. A significantly higher rate of complete response was found in target and distant warts with PPD (60% each) and MMR (80%, 40%, respectively) compared with controls (0%), with no significant difference between both treatments. After treatment, the control group showed the lowest serum IL-12 and IL-4 levels compared with the MMR- and PPD-treated groups with statistically significant difference in between. MMR resulted in a significantly higher serum IL-12 than PPD. With PPD, IL-4 was increased with statistically significant change compared with pretreat-ment level. Intralesional PPD and MMR show comparable efficacy and safety in treatment of multiple warts. Serum ILs-4 and-12 increase following antigen injection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

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    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  7. Are healthcare workers immune to rubella?

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    Borràs, Eva; Campins, Magda; Esteve, María; Urbiztondo, Luis; Broner, Sonia; Bayas, José María; Costa, Josep; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) have high exposure to infectious diseases, some of which, such as rubella, are vaccine-preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against rubella. We performed a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples to determine rubella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in HCW during preventive examinations by five Primary Care Basic Prevention Units and six tertiary hospitals in Catalonia. Informed consent was obtained. IgG was determined using an antibody capture microparticle direct chemiluminometric technique. The odss ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Logistic regression was made to calculate adjusted OR. Of 642 HCW who participated (29.9% physician, 38.8% nurses, 13.3% other health workers and 18% non-health workers), 46.6% were primary care workers and 53.4% hospital workers. Of total, 97.2% had rubella antibodies. HCW aged 30-44 years had a higher prevalence of antibodies (98.4%) compared with HCW aged<30 years (adjusted OR 3.92; 95% CI 1.04-14.85). The prevalence was higher in nurses than in other HCW (adjusted OR: 5.57, 95% CI 1.21-25.59). Antibody prevalence did not differ between females and males (97.4% vs. 97.1%, P 0.89), type of center (97.7% vs. 96.8%, P 0.51) or according to history of vaccination (97.3% vs. 96.8%, P 0.82). Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies is high in HCW, but workers aged<30 years have a higher susceptibility (5.5%). Vaccination should be reinforced in HCW in this age group, due to the risk of nosocomial transmission and congenital rubella.

  8. Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.

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    Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

    2011-08-26

    A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel measles outbreak control strategy in the Netherlands in 2013-2014 using a national electronic immunization register: A study of early MMR uptake and its determinants.

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    Nic Lochlainn, Laura M; Woudenberg, Tom; van Lier, Alies; Zonnenberg, Irmgard; Philippi, Marvin; de Melker, Hester E; Hahné, Susan J M

    2017-10-13

    During a large measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014, infants aged 6-14months living in municipalities with low (<90%) measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) coverage were individually invited for an early MMR using the national electronic immunization register, Præventis. We estimated uptake of early MMR prior to and during the 2013-2014 outbreak and assessed determinants for early MMR vaccination. We obtained vaccination records from Præventis, and defined early MMR as vaccination before 415days (13months) of age. A multi-level multivariable logistic regression model, restricted to infants with three diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-polio (DPTP) vaccinations was used to examine the association between early MMR uptake and sex, parents' country of birth, socioeconomic status (SES; at postcode level) and voting proportions for the Reformed Political Party (SGP; at municipal level), used as a proxy for religious objections towards vaccination. In the 29 municipalities with low MMR coverage, uptake of early MMR was 0.5-2.2% prior to the outbreak. Between July 2013 and March 2014, 5,800 (57%) invited infants received an early MMR. Among infants with three DPTP, 70% received an early MMR. Only 1% of infants without prior DPTP received an early MMR. Lower early MMR uptake was associated with a higher SGP voter-ship (OR 0.89 per 5% increase, 95%CI 0.83-0.96), parents' with unknown country of birth (OR 0.66 95%CI 0.47-0.93) and compared with very high SES, high SES had significantly lower early MMR uptake (OR 0.66 95%CI 0.50-0.87). This is the first study describing use of Præventis during an outbreak and to assess determinants of early MMR uptake. More than half of invited infants obtained an early MMR. SES, parents' with unknown country of birth and religious objections towards vaccination were found to be associated with lower early MMR uptake. In future outbreaks, these determinants could be used to tailor intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  10. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

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    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  11. The effectiveness of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination in the prevention of pediatric hospitalizations for targeted and untargeted infections: A retrospective cohort study.

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    La Torre, Giuseppe; Saulle, Rosella; Unim, Brigid; Meggiolaro, Angela; Barbato, Angelo; Mannocci, Alice; Spadea, Antonietta

    2017-08-03

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in reducing hospitalizations for infectious disease, targeted and not targeted, as well as from respiratory diseases in children in Rome. The cohort was recomposed through record linkage of 2 archives (vaccination register and hospital discharge records. The analysis included 11,004 children. 20.9% did not receive the MMR vaccination, 49% and 30.1% received one and 2 doses. There were no hospitalizations for rubella, 2 for mumps, and 12 for measles. The vaccine was highly protective against measles and mumps hospitalizations (HR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.03.0.34). Regarding all infectious diseases there were 414 hospitalizations, and the vaccine was protective (HR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.34). Concerning respiratory diseases, there were 809 admissions (7.4%), and the vaccine was highly protective (HR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.48). MMR vaccination is effective for the primary prevention of target and not targeted infectious diseases and may also limit hospitalizations for respiratory diseases.

  12. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

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    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  13. Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Regions » Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific WHO in countries » Overview Statistics ... introduced the vaccine and two regions (African and Eastern Mediterranean) that have not yet set rubella elimination ...

  14. Evaluation of Rubella Immunity in Women before Marriage and Pregnancy in Isfahan During 1997-2000

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    T Allameh

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital Rubella syndrome is a public health problem in many developing countries which has not yet been sufficiently put into account. There is an urgent need for collecting appropriate data to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential global Rubella control program. This study was conducted to determine susceptibility to Rubella in women who are going to marry or consult for pregnancy. Methods: This study began in 1997 and ended in 2000. The study was analytic descriptive and prospective. Eight hundred and thirty eight women who referred for premarriage tests or counselling for conception were included. According to antibody levels, test results were reported as immune and non-immune (susceptible for every individual. Results: Among 838 cases, 253 women (30.1% were non-immune (susceptible and 585 women (69.9% were immune. The educational status of the two groups were recorded. Analysis of data showed that the higher the educational level (62.2% for University degree holder, the lower the immunity against Rubella would be (75.2% for unfinished high school individuals. Furthermore, immunity in the younger group was higher (73.9% in <20 years than in the older group(61% in >30 years. Conclusion: More than one third of pre marriage and pre conceptional women were non-immune (susceptible to Rubella, so health providers should be aware of Rubella prevention and control in childbearing age via screening and vaccination. Immunity against Rubella can vary over time and the socioeconomic status is believed to play an important role in the level of immunity. Keywords: Congenital Rubella Syndrome, Rubella immunity, Rubella non-immunity.

  15. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

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    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P Israel and in other countries.

  16. Sero-Surveillance to assess immunity to rubella and assessment of immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of rubella vaccine in school girls

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    Sharma Hitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubella vaccination is not yet included in National Immunization Schedule in India. Serosurvey is frequently used to assess epidemiologic pattern of Rubella in a community. Serosurveys in different parts of India have found that 6-47% of women are susceptible for Rubella infection. The present serosurveillance was conducted in Jammu, India, in two public schools. Objective: To determine serological status of Rubella antibodies of school girls and assessment of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Rubella immunization in seronegative girls. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted to determine Rubella serostatus in peripubertal schoolgirls aged 11-18 years and also to assess immunogenicity and safety of Rubella vaccine (R-Vac of Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune, in seronegative girls. For screening, pre-vaccination serum Rubella IgG antibodies were determined and to assess immunogenicity of the vaccine, post-vaccination IgG antibodies were compared with pre-vaccination levels. Safety assessment was done for a period of 8 weeks, post-vaccination. Results: A total of 90 (32.7% seronegative girls were vaccinated. All girls (100% became seropositive, post-vaccination. Clinically relevant and statistically significant increase in anti-Rubella IgG titres was observed. The adverse events were mild and self-limiting. Conclusions: R-Vac vaccine used in the study demonstrated an excellent safety and immunogenicity profile.

  17. Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls in Tanzania: the need to vaccinate child bearing aged women.

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    Mirambo, Mariam M; Majigo, Mtebe; Scana, Seth D; Mushi, Martha F; Aboud, Said; Groß, Uwe; Kidenya, Benson R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2018-01-03

    Rubella primary infection during early stages of pregnancy is associated with high risk of congenital Rubella syndrome (CRS). Prevention of CRS in the resource-limited countries requires multiple strategies. Here, we document the data on the magnitude of Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls which is a crucial group in devising effective control strategies to prevent CRS. A cross sectional study involving 397 adolescent girls was conducted in the city of Mwanza involving five secondary schools. Socio-demographic and other relevant information were collected using pre-tested data collection tool. Rubella IgG antibodies were determined using enzyme immunoassay. The presence of Rubella IgG titers of >10 IU/ml indicated natural immunity. The mean age of the study participants was 15.18 ± 1.48 years. Of 397 girls, 340 (85.6%) and 57 (14.4%) were from secondary schools representing peri-urban and rural areas, respectively. Out of 397 girls, 90.4% (95% CI: 87-93) were found to be naturally immune with median Rubella IgG antibodies titers of 56.7 IU/ml interquartile range (IQR): 40.8-137. The median Rubella IgG antibodies titers were significantly high in adolescent girls from families with high socio-economic status (63.96 vs. 47.13 IU/ml, P girls from peri-urban areas of the city (63.33 vs. 39.9 IU/ml, P girls in the city of Mwanza are naturally immune to Rubella virus. There is a need to compare the effectiveness of screening and vaccinating susceptible adolescent girls with the effectiveness of vaccinating all women of childbearing in controlling CRS in low-income countries.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) containing the Edmonston-Zagreb measles strain, the Hoshino mumps strain, and the RA 27/3 rubella strain: Results of a randomized, comparative, active controlled phase III clinical trial.

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    Sood, Ashwani; Mitra, Monjori; Joshi, Himanshu Arvind; Nayak, Uma Siddhartha; Siddaiah, Prashanth; Babu, T Ramesh; Mahapatro, Samarendra; Sanmukhani, Jayesh; Gupta, Gaurav; Mittal, Ravindra; Glueck, Reinhard

    2017-07-03

    This phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the single-dose and multi-dose formulations of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited, India (Cadila MMR vaccine), containing the Hoshino mumps strain, compared to that of an existing MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Serum Institute of India Limited, India (Serum MMR vaccine). These two vaccines have similar measles and rubella strains, but different mumps strains (Hoshino in Cadila MMR vaccine, and L-Zagreb in Serum MMR vaccine). Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects of either sex, aged 15-18 months, were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either the Cadila or Serum MMR vaccine. Immunogenicity assessments (IgG antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella viruses) were done at baseline and 42 d after vaccination. Solicited (local and systemic) and unsolicited adverse events were recorded for up to 42 d following vaccination. The Cadila MMR vaccine was found to be non-inferior to the Serum MMR vaccine in terms of end-of-study proportion of subjects seropositive for anti-measles antibodies (100.0% in both groups), anti-mumps antibodies (94.5% vs. 94.0%), and anti-rubella antibodies (95.5% vs. 91.0%). Both vaccines were well tolerated by all study participants; the most common adverse event reported in both groups was fever, followed by rash. The results of this phase III clinical trial show that the novel Cadila MMR vaccine is non-inferior to the Serum MMR vaccine.

  19. Toward rubella elimination in Poland: need for supplemental immunization activities, enhanced surveillance, and further integration with measles elimination efforts.

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    Zimmerman, Laura; Rogalska, Justyna; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Haponiuk, Marzena; Kosek, Adam; Pauch, Ewa; Plonska, Elzbieta; Veltze, Daniel; Czarkowski, Miroslaw P; Buddh, Nilesh; Reef, Susan; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2011-07-01

    All Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region have endorsed rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention. However, Poland has continued high levels of reported rubella. We reviewed rubella incidence in Poland since 1966 and analyzed national aggregated surveillance data from the period 2003-2008 and case-based data from 4 provinces from the period 2006-2008. We described CRS cases since 1997 and assessed maternal receipt of vaccine. We reviewed national vaccination coverage from 1992 through 2008. Since 1966, rubella outbreaks have occurred every 4-6 years in Poland. Aggregate and case-based data from the period 2003-2008 indicate that rubella virus transmission has occurred across wide age ranges (from continues. To achieve rubella elimination, supplemental immunization activities among adolescent boys are needed, as is integration with measles elimination efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  20. Do HIV-positive adult immigrants need to be screened for measles-mumps-rubella and varicella zoster virus immunization?

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    Llenas-García, Jara; Rubio, Rafael; Hernando, Asunción; Arrazola, Pilar; Pulido, Federico

    2013-08-01

    A systematic screening for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in HIV-positive adult immigrants in Spain was evaluated, and factors associated with MMR and VZV vaccines' indication were studied. Every HIV-positive immigrant was tested for VZV and MMR-IgG. MMR vaccine was indicated to patients with lymphocytes CD4+ >200 cells/mm³ and a negative measles-IgG, a negative mumps-IgG and/or a negative rubella-IgG. VZV vaccine was indicated to every VZV-IgG negative patient with CD4+ >400 cells/mm³. In total, 289 patients were screened; seroprevalence was 95.2%, 92.2%, 70.3% and 89.3% for VZV, measles, mumps and rubella IgG, respectively. Having a negative VZV-IgG was statistically associated with coming from sub-Saharan Africa (prevalence ratio [PR]: 6.52; 95% CI: 1.71-24.84; p=0.006), while having secondary education was a protective factor (PR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.97; p=0.045). Fourteen patients (4.8%) had indication of VZV vaccine; vaccination was feasible in 21.4% of them at first visit. Eighty-one patients (29.7%) had indication of MMR vaccine, most of them due to mumps-IgG negative (53.1%) or rubella-IgG negative (24.7%). Age Especial attention should be given to immigrant women of childbearing age.

  1. Randomised cluster trial to support informed parental decision-making for the MMR vaccine

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    Bekker Hilary

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK public concern about the safety of the combined measles, mumps and rubella [MMR] vaccine continues to impact on MMR coverage. Whilst the sharp decline in uptake has begun to level out, first and second dose uptake rates remain short of that required for population immunity. Furthermore, international research consistently shows that some parents lack confidence in making a decision about MMR vaccination for their children. Together, this work suggests that effective interventions are required to support parents to make informed decisions about MMR. This trial assessed the impact of a parent-centred, multi-component intervention (balanced information, group discussion, coaching exercise on informed parental decision-making for MMR. Methods This was a two arm, cluster randomised trial. One hundred and forty two UK parents of children eligible for MMR vaccination were recruited from six primary healthcare centres and six childcare organisations. The intervention arm received an MMR information leaflet and participated in the intervention (parent meeting. The control arm received the leaflet only. The primary outcome was decisional conflict. Secondary outcomes were actual and intended MMR choice, knowledge, attitude, concern and necessity beliefs about MMR and anxiety. Results Decisional conflict decreased for both arms to a level where an 'effective' MMR decision could be made one-week (effect estimate = -0.54, p Conclusions Whilst both the leaflet and the parent meeting reduced parents' decisional conflict, the parent meeting appeared to enable parents to act upon their decision leading to vaccination uptake.

  2. Evaluation of MMR Vaccination and Autism Link

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective cohort study of autism in all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998 and those receiving measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccination is reported from the Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Aarhus, Denmark.

  3. [The active offering of measles, rubella and mumps vaccine in new mothers: the experience of health facilities in one of the Local Health Unit of Rome, Lazio, Italy].

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    Santoro, Viviana; Pettinicchio, Valentina; Lancia, Andreina; Vazzoler, Cristiana; De Luca, Francesca; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Rubella is a contagious disease that can be very serious, especially in unvaccinated pregnant women. The best way to be protected is getting vaccinated: MMR vaccine is very effective at protecting people against measles, mumps, and rubella, and preventing the complications caused by these diseases. According to PASSI 2012-2015 (the Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system) in the territory of ex ASL Roma C only 56% of women between 18 and 49 years were immunized against rubella, thanks to vaccination (34%) or past infection detected by rubeotest (22%); 2% was susceptible and 42% of respondents did not know their immune status against rubella. The Italian National Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Congenital Rubella (PNEMoRc) 2010-15 had the aim to reduce the prevalence of rubella susceptibility in young women (<5%), to reduce the prevalence of congenital rubella and to increase MMR vaccination coverage. This plan suggested to promote actions to spread correct information about MMR vaccine in the general population and healthcare workers and to offer this vaccine to susceptible women during every appropriate contact with the Family planning clinics. In order to ensure and monitor these recommendations, a recovery procedure for MMR vaccine was activated in 2015 for women who contacted the health facilities for their first child vaccination. A form was developed in order to collect information about women's immune status against rubella and measles. According to this tool all women who stated they had never been vaccinated for rubella or MMR and/or did not remember vaccination and/or had never had a rubeotest were considered susceptible to rubella. Women susceptible to rubella were invited to undergo vaccination. Data collected during one year activity were recorded and analyzed with Epinfo 7.0 software. We collected 1801 correctly filled forms; 88.6% (1595) of women were evaluated immune to rubella and 11.4% susceptible. The prevalence of

  4. Immune response to the mumps component of the MMR vaccine in the routine of immunisation services in the Brazilian National Immunisation Program

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    Eliane Matos dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-controlled longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR immunogenicity in 150 children vaccinated in the routine of three health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009, without other vaccines administered during the period from 30 days before to 30 days after vaccination. A previous study conducted in Brazil in 2007, in 1,769 children ranging from 12-15 months of age vaccinated against yellow fever and MMR simultaneously or at intervals of 30 days or more between doses, had shown low seroconversion for mumps regardless of the interval between administration of the two vaccines. The current study showed 89.5% (95% confidence interval: 83.3; 94.0 seroconversion rate for mumps. All children seroconverted for measles and rubella. After revaccination, high antibody titres and seroconversion rates were achieved against mumps. The results of this study and others suggest that two MMR doses confer optimal immunoresponses for all three antigens and the possible need for additional doses should be studied taking into account not only serological, but also epidemiological data, as there is no serological correlate of protection for mumps.

  5. Prevalence of Inadequate Immunity to Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella in MLB and NBA Athletes.

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    Conway, Justin J; Toresdahl, Brett G; Ling, Daphne I; Boniquit, Nicole T; Callahan, Lisa R; Kinderknecht, James J

    2018-05-01

    Multiple outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have occurred in professional sports in recent years. Currently, there is no established protocol for vaccination or immunity screening for professional athletes. There are significant differences in the prevalence of inadequate immunity dependent on age, sport, country of birth, and participation in collegiate sports. Cross-sectional cohort study. Level 4. A sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and National Basketball Association (NBA) players were screened for serologic evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella prior to the 2015 and 2016 seasons. The results were designated as adequate (immune) or inadequate (equivocal or nonimmune) based on laboratory criteria. Comparison with an age-matched control group was performed using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 98 athletes (62 MLB, 36 NBA) were screened. The prevalence of inadequate immunity for any virus was 35.5% in MLB players and 33.3% in NBA players. There was a significantly greater risk of inadequate immunity to rubella (risk ratio, 6.38; P < 0.01) and varicella (risk ratio, 4.21; P < 0.01) in athletes compared with the age-matched NHANES population. Our analysis did not reveal differences in rates of immunity based on sport, country of birth (US born vs international), or participation in college athletics. There was a lower rate of inadequate immunity to varicella with increasing age (odds ratio, 0.72; P = 0.05). One-third of athletes studied had inadequate immunity to 1 of the 4 viruses tested. Younger players had a significantly greater risk of inadequate immunity to varicella. Birth outside the US and lack of participation in college athletics were not found to influence immunity rates. These results can inform the development of future screening programs to prevent outbreaks of viral infections in professional athletes.

  6. Systemic Comorbidity in Children with Cataracts in Nigeria: Advocacy for Rubella Immunization

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    Roseline Duke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital and developmental cataracts are leading causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment. They may be associated with systemic diseases including congenital heart diseases which are among the major causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood. The pattern of systemic comorbidities seen in children diagnosed with cataract in Calabar, Nigeria, was studied. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on the children who had cataract surgery between 2011 and 2012. Diagnosis of the systemic condition was documented. Results. A total of 66 children were recruited for the study. Cardiac disease was seen in 26 children (39.9%, followed by delayed milestone in 16 (24.2%, intellectual disability in 14 (21.2%, deafness in 11 (16.7%, epilepsy in 4 (6.1%, and physical handicap in 3 (4.5% of them. Clinically confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome was seen in 30 (45% of the children. The pattern of CHD seen was as follows: patent ductus arteriosus in 16 (24.2% followed by ventricular-septal defect in 5 (7.6%, atrial-septal defect in 3 (4.5%, and pulmonary stenosis in 2 (3%. Conclusion. Systemic comorbidities, especially cardiac anomalies, are common among children with cataract in Nigeria. Congenital Rubella Syndrome may be a prominent cause of childhood cataract in our environment. Routine immunization of school girls against rubella is advocated as a measure to mitigate this trend.

  7. Evaluation of Rubella Immunity in Women before Marriage and Pregnancy in Isfahan During 1997-2000

    OpenAIRE

    T Allameh; M Kianpoor

    2004-01-01

    Background: Congenital Rubella syndrome is a public health problem in many developing countries which has not yet been sufficiently put into account. There is an urgent need for collecting appropriate data to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential global Rubella control program. This study was conducted to determine susceptibility to Rubella in women who are going to marry or consult for pregnancy. Methods: This study began in 1997 and ended in 2000. The study was analytic descriptive...

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  9. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  10. Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jensen, Tina Kold; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Nielsen, Flemming; Poulsen, Lars K; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined. A total of 559 children were included in the analyses. Interactions with MMR vaccination were evaluated. Among 22 MMR-unvaccinated children, higher levels of the five PFASs at age 5 years were associated with increased odds of asthma at ages 5 and 13. The associations were reversed among MMR-vaccinated children. Prenatal PFAS exposure was not associated with childhood asthma or allergic diseases regardless of MMR vaccination status. In conclusion, PFAS exposure at age 5 was associated with increased risk of asthma among a small subgroup of MMR-unvaccinated children but not among MMR-vaccinated children. While PFAS exposure may impact immune system functions, this study suggests that MMR vaccination might be a potential effect-modifier.

  11. Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine and the risk of febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nicola P; Fireman, Bruce; Yih, W Katherine; Lewis, Edwin; Kulldorff, Martin; Ray, Paula; Baxter, Roger; Hambidge, Simon; Nordin, James; Naleway, Allison; Belongia, Edward A; Lieu, Tracy; Baggs, James; Weintraub, Eric

    2010-07-01

    In February 2008, we alerted the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to preliminary evidence of a twofold increased risk of febrile seizures after the combination measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine when compared with separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines. Now with data on twice as many vaccine recipients, our goal was to reexamine seizure risk after MMRV vaccine. Using 2000-2008 Vaccine Safety Datalink data, we assessed seizures and fever visits among children aged 12 to 23 months after MMRV and separate MMR + varicella vaccines. We compared seizure risk after MMRV vaccine to that after MMR + varicella vaccines by using Poisson regression as well as with supplementary regressions that incorporated chart-review results and self-controlled analyses. MMRV vaccine recipients (83,107) were compared with recipients of MMR + varicella vaccines (376,354). Seizure and fever significantly clustered 7 to 10 days after vaccination with all measles-containing vaccines but not after varicella vaccination alone. Seizure risk during days 7 to 10 was higher after MMRV than after MMR + varicella vaccination (relative risk: 1.98 [95% confidence interval: 1.43-2.73]). Supplementary analyses yielded similar results. The excess risk for febrile seizures 7 to 10 days after MMRV compared with separate MMR + varicella vaccination was 4.3 per 10,000 doses (95% confidence interval: 2.6-5.6). Among 12- to 23-month-olds who received their first dose of measles-containing vaccine, fever and seizure were elevated 7 to 10 days after vaccination. Vaccination with MMRV results in 1 additional febrile seizure for every 2300 doses given instead of separate MMR + varicella vaccines. Providers who recommend MMRV should communicate to parents that it increases the risk of fever and seizure over that already associated with measles-containing vaccines.

  12. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  13. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred...... to vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....

  14. Information, education, and health behaviors: Evidence from the MMR vaccine autism controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lenisa V

    2018-05-02

    In the wake of strong, although later refuted, claims of a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, I examine whether fewer parents immunized or delayed vaccinations for their children and if there was a differential response by mother's education level. Using various controls and a differencing strategy that compares in MMR take-up with other vaccines, I find that the MMR-autism controversy led to a decline in the immediate years and that there were negative spillovers onto other vaccines. I also find evidence that more highly educated mothers responded more strongly to the controversy either by not immunizing their children altogether or, to a lesser degree, delaying vaccination. Moreover, the educational gap was greater in states where there was greater media attention devoted to the controversy. This is consistent with the health allocative efficiency hypothesis whereby part of the education gradient in health outcomes is due to more-educated individuals absorbing and responding to health information more quickly. However, unlike in the United Kingdom, where previous studies find that the gap was eliminated after the link was refuted, the evidence for the United States suggests that the educational gap persisted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Vaccination against rubella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossolini, A; Barberi, A

    1984-01-01

    The infection caused by the rubella virus is a mild disease usually with no or rare complications in children and adults. On the contrary, intrauterine fetal infection may result in defects of the child, which may either be present at birth or become apparent later in life. Such a risk led to the preparation and use of active immunoprophylaxis against rubella in females of child-bearing age, in order to prevent congenital rubella. Three rubella viruses are employed to prepare the vaccine, all derived from the same viral strain. Doubts however, exist about vaccination, in particular about (1) its teratogenic potential in pregnancy; (2) the duration of protection. As a matter of fact, congenital malformations in the fetus exposed to vaccine virus through the mother have been reported in 3% of cases. As to the second point, the data on the protective immunity in time of the vaccine are very controversial. It is clear, anyhow, that protection against infection is associated not only with persistence of adequate serum levels of antibody, but also with other immunological parameters which are still unknown. These considerations, together with the observation that a relative high percentage of vaccine recipients do not respond, lead us to suggest modifications in the present scheduling of immunization against rubella.

  16. Validation of the French national health insurance information system as a tool in vaccine safety assessment: application to febrile convulsions after pediatric measles/mumps/rubella immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Quantin, Catherine; Farrington, Paddy; Benzenine, Eric; Hocine, N Mounia; Velten, Michel; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Escolano, Sylvie

    2013-12-02

    In the French national health insurance information system (SNIIR-AM), routine records of health claimed reimbursements are linked to hospital admissions for the whole French population. The main focus of this work is the usability of this system for vaccine safety assessment programme. Self-controlled case series analyses were performed using an exhaustive SNIIR-AM extraction of French children aged less than 3 years, to investigate the relationship between MMR immunization and children hospitalizations for febrile convulsions, a well-documented rare adverse event, over 2009-2010. The results suggest a significant increase of febrile convulsions during the 6-11 days period following any MMR immunization (IRR=1.49, 95% CI=1.22, 1.83; p=0.0001) and no increase 15-35 days post any MMR immunization (IRR=1.03, 95% CI=0.89, 1.18; p=0.72). These results are in accordance with other results obtained from large epidemiologic studies, which suggest the usability of the SNIIR-AM as a relevant database to study the occurrence of adverse events associated with immunization. For future use, results associated with risk of convulsion during the day of vaccination should nevertheless be considered with particular caution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti

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    Golden Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

  18. Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Golden

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. Methods. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Results. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. Conclusions. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

  19. Congenital rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that usually closes shortly after birth remains open ( patent ductus arteriosus ) Narrowing of the large artery that ... prior to pregnancy can prevent congenital rubella. Pregnant women who have not had the vaccine should avoid ...

  20. Seroprevalence of rubella in school girls and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Kilinc, Banu; Karabay, Aysun; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been assigned to investigate the surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome, acquired rubella and seroprevalence in different countries to determine the new vaccination program and national vaccination schedules. Seroprevalence of rubella in Turkey is still insufficient and national immunization schedules do not include routine rubella vaccination. In this study we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of rubella at child bearing age in an unvaccinated population in Adana, southern Turkey, to help determine whether routine rubella vaccination is necessary, if so when it should be administered. Ninety-four school girls aged 12-18 years living in Adana were selected for the study and stratified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and evaluated for rubella antibodies. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-25 years and 100 pregnant women aged 26-35 years were sampled rubella antibodies. Rubella specific IgG antibody was measured qualitatively and quantitatively by using microparticule enzyme immune assay technology. Rubella specific IgG antibody was positive in 87-94 school girls (92.5%). The geometric mean rubella specific IgG antibody value was found be 148.14 IU/ml. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and rubella seropositivity (p = 0.6521). In all pregnant women rubella specific IgG antibody was found to be positive. In conclusion rubella vaccination should be considered carefully in developing countries. Because of the high seropositivity to rubella in our region we do not recommend rubella vaccination in early childhood. Yet this is a preliminary study and further studies with larger population size are needed to determine the national immunization policy for rubella.

  1. Rubella epidemic caused by genotype 1E rubella viruses in Beijing, China, in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Donglei; Huang, Guohong; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Tiegang; Xu, Wenbo; Pang, Xinghuo

    2013-04-18

    A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented to control rubella and prevent congenital rubella virus infection in Beijing, China. The rubella vaccine was available in 1995 in Beijing, and was introduced into the Beijing immunization program (vaccine recipients at their own expense vaccination) in 2000, and was introduced into the National Expanded Program on Immunization (vaccine recipients free vaccination) in 2006. Rubella virological surveillance started in Beijing in 2007. The reported rubella incidence rate has decreased dramatically due to the introduction of the vaccine in Beijing since 1995. However, rubella epidemics occurred regardless in 2001 and 2007. The incidence rate among the floating population has gradually increased since 2002, reaching 2 or more times that in the permanent resident population. The peak age of rubella cases gradually changed from tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All Beijing rubella virus isolates belong to genotype 1E/cluster1 and were clustered interspersed with viruses from other provinces in China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2007 to 2011. The proportion of rubella cases among the floating population has increased significantly in Beijing since 2002, and the disease burden gradually shifted to the older age group (15- to 39-year olds), which has become a major group with rubella infection since 2006. Genotype 1E rubella virus continuously caused a rubella epidemic in Beijing in 2007-2011 and was the predominant virus, and all Beijing genotype 1E viruses belong to cluster 1, which is also widely circulated throughout the country.

  2. Congenital rubella syndrome: a matter of concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrén Martínez-Quintana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, an important cause of severe birth defects, remains a public health problem in a significant number of countries. Therefore, global health experts encourage use of rubella vaccination, with the primary aim of preventing CRS. While large-scale rubella vaccination during the last decade has drastically reduced or eliminated both the virus and CRS in Europe and the Americas, many countries in Africa, South-East Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Western Pacific have not yet incorporated any type of rubella-containing vaccine into their immunization schedule. As a result, through travel and migration, rubella has been imported into countries that had successfully eliminated the virus, leading to outbreaks and the reestablishment of endemic transmission. The objective of this study was to identify the key factors required for CRS elimination (prevalence reduction, vaccination strategies, and surveillance methods by reviewing publications in PubMed on rubella and CRS (systematic reviews, country experiences, and position papers from the World Health Organization (WHO and other intergovernmental organizations. Based on the results of the review, to eliminate rubella and CRS in endemic areas and reduce re-emergence in previously disease-free areas, all countries should carry out two types of mass rubella vaccination campaigns: 1 one single mass national immunization campaign targeting all men and women 5-39+ years old (with the upper age limit depending on the year in which the rubella-containing vaccine was introduced and the epidemiology of rubella in the country and 2 incorporation of an rubella-containing vaccine in routine childhood immunization programs, including regular vaccination campaigns for 12-month-olds and measles follow-up campaigns. In addition to mass rubella immunization campaigns and routine childhood vaccination programs, the following measures should be taken to help fight rubella and CRS: 1

  3. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-04

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Ppre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females.

  4. Congenital rubella syndrome and autism spectrum disorder prevented by rubella vaccination - United States, 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Saad B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS is associated with several negative outcomes, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. The objective of this study was to estimate the numbers of CRS and ASD cases prevented by rubella vaccination in the United States from 2001 through 2010. Methods Prevention estimates were calculated through simple mathematical modeling, with values of model parameters determined from published literature. Model parameters included pre-vaccine era CRS incidence, vaccine era CRS incidence, the number of live births per year, and the percentage of CRS cases presenting with an ASD. Results Based on our estimates, 16,600 CRS cases (range: 8300-62,250 were prevented by rubella vaccination from 2001 through 2010 in the United States. An estimated 1228 ASD cases were prevented by rubella vaccination in the United States during this time period. Simulating a slight expansion in ASD diagnostic criteria in recent decades, we estimate that a minimum of 830 ASD cases and a maximum of 6225 ASD cases were prevented. Conclusions We estimate that rubella vaccination prevented substantial numbers of CRS and ASD cases in the United States from 2001 through 2010. These findings provide additional incentive to maintain high measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccination coverage.

  5. Congenital rubella syndrome in Haiti (Short communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Nancy; Kempker, Russell; Khator, Parul; Summerlee, Robert; Fournier, Arthur

    2002-10-01

    To determine if there is an unrecognized problem of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Haiti, a country without a national rubella immunization program. During March 2001 and June 2001, screening physicals were conducted on approximately 80 orphans at three orphanages in Haiti that accept disabled children. Children were classified as probable CRS cases based on established clinical criteria. Photo documentation of findings was obtained whenever possible. Six children met the criteria for probable CRS. Using data from surrounding Caribbean countries and from the United States of America prior to rubella immunization, we estimated that there are between 163 and 440 new cases of CRS per year in Haiti. CRS exists in Haiti, but its presence is generally unrecognized. A national rubella immunization policy should be considered.

  6. Vaccination in secondary school students expedites rubella control and prevents congenital rubella syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanqing; Yan, Rui; Tang, Xuewen; Zhou, Yang; Deng, Xuan; Xie, Shuyun

    2016-11-30

    In order to control the spread of rubella and reduce the risk for congenital rubella syndrome, an additional rubella vaccination program was set up for all secondary school students since 2008 in Zhejiang, China. We conducted a descriptive analysis of rubella incidence among different age groups from 2005 to 2015 and a serosurvey of female subjects aged 15-39 years to understand the possible effects of this immunization program. The average annual rubella incidence rate had decreased from 15.86 per 100,000 population (2005-2007) to 0.75 per 100,000 population (2013-2015) in Zhejiang. The decrease in the rate of rubella incidence in girls aged 15-19 years was more accelerated (from 138.30 to 0.34 per 100,000) than in the total population during 2008-2015 (from 32.20 to 0.46 per 100,000). Of 1225 female subjects in the serosurvey, 256 (20.9%) were not immune to rubella. The proportion of subjects immune to rubella was significantly different among different age groups (Wald χ2 = 22.19, p = 0.000), and subjects aged 15-19 years old had the highest immunity (88.0%). Rubella antibody levels were significantly lower in women aged 25-30 years with 26.7% of them not immune, followed by the group aged 20-24 years (25.0%) and 30-35 years (24.5%). Rubella vaccine included in the Expanded Program on Immunization together with vaccination activities for secondary school students can help in rubella control, particularly in targeted age groups in the program. Seroprevalence of antibodies to the rubella virus amongst the female population within childbearing age in Zhejiang, China, is still too low to provide immunity. In addition to vaccination programs in the secondary schools, rubella vaccination should also be encouraged in women of childbearing age, which can be done effectively combined with pre-marital examination in China.

  7. The role of message framing in promoting MMR vaccination: evidence of a loss-frame advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Purva; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of message framing on intentions to obtain the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine for one's child and investigated whether Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and perceived outcome efficacy variables mediate and/or moderate message framing effects. One hundred and forty women read either a loss-framed or gain-framed message and then completed measures assessing their intentions to obtain the MMR vaccine for their child, and TPB and outcome efficacy variables. Exposure to the loss frame increased intentions to obtain the MMR vaccine and influenced perceptions of outcome efficacy. This suggests that outcome efficacy, but not other TPB variables may mediate framing effects within the context of MMR vaccination. Message frame, in addition to TPB variables, significantly predicted unique variance in behavioural intentions. These findings are discussed within the context of Prospect Theory, perceived risk and prevention/detection behaviours.

  8. Impact of an Intervention to Use a Measles, Rubella, and Polio Mass Vaccination Campaign to Strengthen Routine Immunization Services in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Aaron S; Bohara, Rajendra; Stewart, Steven; Subedi, Giri; Anand, Abhijeet; Burnett, Eleanor; Giri, Jagat; Shrestha, Jagat; Gurau, Suraj; Dixit, Sameer; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Schluter, W William

    2017-07-01

    The potential to strengthen routine immunization (RI) services through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is an important benefit of global measles and rubella elimination and polio eradication strategies. However, little evidence exists on how best to use SIAs to strengthen RI. As part the 2012 Nepal measles-rubella and polio SIA, we developed an intervention package designed to improve RI processes and evaluated its effect on specific RI process measures. The intervention package was incorporated into existing SIA activities and materials to improve healthcare providers' RI knowledge and practices throughout Nepal. In 1 region (Central Region) we surveyed the same 100 randomly selected health facilities before and after the SIA and evaluated the following RI process measures: vaccine safety, RI planning, RI service delivery, vaccine supply chain, and RI data recording practices. Data collection included observations of vaccination sessions, interviews with the primary healthcare provider who administered vaccines at each facility, and administrative record reviews. Pair-matched analytical methods were used to determine whether statistically significant changes in the selected RI process measures occurred over time. After the SIA, significant positive changes were measured in healthcare provider knowledge of adverse events following immunization (11% increase), availability of RI microplans (+17%) and maps (+12%), and awareness of how long a reconstituted measles vial can be used before it must be discarded (+14%). For the SIA, 42% of providers created an SIA high-risk villages list, and >50% incorporated this information into RI outreach session site planning. Significant negative changes occurred in correct knowledge of measles vaccination contraindications (-11%), correct definition for a measles outbreak (-21%), and how to treat a child with a severe adverse event following immunization (-10%). Twenty percent of providers reported cancelling ≥1 RI

  9. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eHutton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiologic findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism.Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  10. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today's world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  11. Reporting of MMR evidence in professional publications: 1988–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S; Hunt, K; Langan, M; Hamilton, V; Petticrew, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine how journals and magazines disseminate research evidence and guidance on best practice to health professionals by aligning commentaries on measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) evidence in journals with key events in the MMR controversy. Design: Content analysis. Data sources: Comment articles in six commonly read UK publications. Main outcome measures: Number of comment pieces by publication, year and article type; trends in the focus, tone and inclusion of recommendations on MMR. Results: 860 articles met the inclusion criteria (BMJ n = 104, Community Practitioner n = 45, Health Visitor n = 24, Practice Nurse n = 61, Nursing Standard n = 61 and Pulse n = 565). Of these 860 comment pieces, 264 made some reference to evidence endorsing the safety of MMR. Around one in 10 were rated as negative (10.9%, n = 29) or neutral (11.3%, n = 30) in relation to MMR safety, and nearly a quarter (22.7%, n = 60) were rated as mixed. Following the publication of Wakefield et al’s 1998 paper there was a period of neutrality. In 2000, despite growing public concerns and widespread media coverage, fewer than 20 comment pieces were published. Less than a quarter of comment pieces (n = 196, 22.7%) included recommendations. Conclusion: While a period of neutrality may reflect a professional response to uncertainty by holding back until consensus emerges, it may also represent a missed opportunity to promote evidence-based practice. PMID:19414434

  12. The epidemiology of rubella in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    1993-07-16

    The trend in notified cases of rubella in the Republic of Ireland from 1950 to 1990 has been downward, with a mean interval of four years between peak periods. Vaccine uptake and antenatal immunity levelled out in the 1980s at 85% and 87%, respectively. One hundred and six cases of congenital rubella were recorded between 1975 and 1990, 66 being reported by paediatricians. The fact that cases of congenital rubella still occur highlights the need for a continued and aggressive immunisation policy, up-to-date and cohort-based data on vaccine uptake, and the introduction of a congenital rubella register.

  13. Global Progress Toward Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Control and Elimination - 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gavin B; Reef, Susan E; Dabbagh, Alya; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M

    2015-09-25

    Rubella virus usually causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults. However, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or a constellation of congenital malformations known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the preferred strategy for introduction of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into national routine immunization schedules, including an initial vaccination campaign usually targeting children aged 9 months-15 years . The Global Vaccine Action Plan endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012 and the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan (2012-2020) published by Measles and Rubella Initiative partners in 2012 both include goals to eliminate rubella and CRS in at least two WHO regions by 2015, and at least five WHO regions by 2020 (2,3). This report updates a previous report and summarizes global progress toward rubella and CRS control and elimination during 2000-2014. As of December 2014, RCV had been introduced in 140 (72%) countries, an increase from 99 (51%) countries in 2000 (for this report, WHO member states are referred to as countries). Reported rubella cases declined 95%, from 670,894 cases in 102 countries in 2000 to 33,068 cases in 162 countries in 2014, although reporting is inconsistent. To achieve the 2020 Global Vaccine Action Plan rubella and CRS elimination goals, RCV introduction needs to continue as country criteria indicating readiness are met, and rubella and CRS surveillance need to be strengthened to ensure that progress toward elimination can be measured.

  14. [Review of the 2016 Swiss immunization schedule and technology update for improving vaccine management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Alessandro

    2016-05-11

    The 2016 immunization schedule published by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health includes three new clauses: reimbursement of the additional Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young males (11-26 years) as recommended by local canton programs, the end of franchise exemption for the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination, and the creation of a new system of indemnities and moral compensation in the event of personal injury resulting from vaccinations. This article presents the main features of the 2016 immunization schedule with details of the technology available to physicians to improve vaccine management.

  15. Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2017-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps......, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs...... with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined. A total of 559 children were included in the analyses. Interactions with MMR vaccination were evaluated. Among 22 MMR...

  16. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata

    2009-01-01

    The matched case-control study has been undertook to investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may be casually associated with autism in children. Cases were children to 14-year old with diagnosis of core autism or atypical autism. Controls were matched on age, sex and general practice. The 96 cases and 192 controls were included. The study provides strong evidence against association of autism with both MMR and a single measles individual vaccine. Additionally children vaccinated with MMR, regardless of age of vaccination (to 18th, 24th and 36th month of life), had risk equal half of that of single measles vaccinated (for vaccinated to 18th month OR=0.41 95%PU: 0.20-0.85). Our findings confirm that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of autism in children.

  17. Safety of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Pileggi, Gecilmara C S; Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Evelien; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A H; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Kuis, Wietse; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: A retrospective observational multicentre cohort study was performed in 314 patients with JIA, born between 1989 and 1996. Disease

  18. Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella seroprevalence in refugees in Germany in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Alexandra; Happle, Christine; Grote, Ulrike; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin Thomas; Hampel, Annika; Dopfer, Christian; Hansen, Gesine; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Behrens, Georg M N

    2016-12-01

    The current extent of migration poses emerging socio-economic and humanitarian challenges. Little is known on vaccination rates in migrants entering Europe, and the implementation of guidelines for serological testing and vaccination of refugees are pending. We conducted seroprevalence analyses for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) in 678 refugees coming to Germany during the current crisis. The mean age of refugees was 28.8±11.4 years, and 76.1 % of subjects were male. Overall, IgG seronegativity was 7.4 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.6) for measles, 10.2 % (95 % CI 8.0-12.5) for mumps, 2.2 % (95 % CI 1.2-3.4) for rubella, and 3.3 % (95 % CI 1.9-4.9) for varicella. Seropositivity rates were age-dependent with considerably low values in children. For example, overall MMR immunity was 90.9 % (95 % CI 88.8-93.1), but only 73.1 % of minor aged refugees displayed complete seroprevalence against all three diseases, and only 68.9 % of children and adolescents were completely MMRV immune. Our initial data set suggests overall satisfactory MMRV immunity in adult migrants coming to Europe, but the observed low MMRV seroprevalences in refugee children support thorough and prompt vaccination of young migrants entering Europe. Taken together, our data set underlines the urgent need to implement and validate vaccination guidelines for refugee care in the current crisis.

  19. The Measels-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination from a health political and economical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habl, Claudia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measels, Mumps and Rubella (MMR are highly contagious infectious diseases which may lead to severe complications. These diseases are vaccine-preventable. The present Health Technology Assessment report (report on technological consequences, HTA report was commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI and addresses various aspects of the MMR vaccination, the key question being how the MMR immunisation coverage rate can be increased in Germany. Objectives: The objectives of this report were to describe the benefits of the MMR vaccination for Germany and to analyse how the desired MMR immunisation coverage of >95% can be achieved. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 29 literature data bases. Particularly for epidemiological data and information on vaccination programs, this systematic search was supplemented by an extensive hand search, written and oral enquiries, as well as interviews with experts. A total of 200 texts were used to prepare this report. Results: At 92.5% (as of 2004 based on the whole of Germany, the current immunisation coverage for measles in children is above the weighted EC-15-average of 90.67%. Statements can only be made regarding the probability of illness for measles, as no data is available for mumps and rubella. With 2.8 infections (per 100,000 residents in 2006, Germany has not achieved the WHO target. Of cases submitted to the laboratory, only 32% were validated by diagnostic laboratory findings and 45% confirmed clinical-epidemiologically. There are only few economic analyses of vaccination programs in Germany. In international publications, mainly measels are validated economically. An analysis of the cost of measles for Germany shows potential cost savings. Unfortunately, no complete economic evaluation (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, or cost-utility analyses for MMR vaccination has been performed for Germany. Analyses conducted in the US

  20. Insights from epidemiological game theory into gender-specific vaccination against rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Kochin, Beth; Galvani, Alison

    2009-10-01

    Rubella is a highly contagious childhood disease that causes relatively mild symptoms. However, rubella can result in severe congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), if transmitted from a mother to a fetus. Consequently, women have higher incentive to vaccinate against rubella than men do. Within the population vaccination reduces transmission but also increases the average age of infection and possibly the risk of CRS among unvaccinated females. To evaluate how the balance among these factors results in optimal coverage of vaccination, we developed a game theoretic age-structured epidemiological model of rubella transmission and vaccination. We found that high levels of vaccination for both genders are most effective in maximizing average utility across the population by decreasing the risk of CRS and reducing transmission of rubella. By contrast, the demands for vaccines driven by self-interest among males and females are 0% and 100% acceptance, respectively, if the cost of vaccination is relatively low. Our results suggest that the rubella vaccination by males that is likely to be achieved on voluntary basis without additional incentives would have been far lower than the population optimum, if rubella vaccine were offered separately instead of combined with measles and mumps vaccination as the MMR vaccine.

  1. 77 FR 5026 - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... will include discussions on: meningococcal vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, tetanus, diphtheria, and... appropriate dose, administration interval, age groups and contraindications applicable to the vaccines..., and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. A VFC vote is scheduled for meningococcal vaccines...

  2. Trend of measles, mumps, and rubella incidence following the measles-rubella catch up vaccination in the Republic of Korea, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-09-01

    Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population-based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. The age distribution of mumps cases has shifted to the older age group, whereas rubella became more frequent in younger age group. The incidence of mumps showed an increase in every birth cohorts, except for the decrease in incidence for catch-up vaccination cohort from 131 cases in 2007-2011 to 64 cases per 100 000 in 2012-2015. Continuing in monitoring of mumps and strengthening of the high two-dose MMR vaccination coverage should be taken place in Korea. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of coadministering a combined meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2011-03-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all three vaccines concomitantly. Immunogenicity endpoints were MCC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers of ≥8, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG antibody concentrations of ≥0.15 μg/ml, PCV serotype-specific IgG concentrations of ≥0.35 μg/ml, measles and mumps IgG concentrations of >120 arbitrary units (AU)/ml, and rubella IgG concentrations of ≥11 AU/ml. For safety assessment, the proportions of children with erythema, swelling, or tenderness at site of injection or fever or other systemic symptoms for 7 days after immunization were compared between regimens. No adverse consequences for either safety or immunogenicity were demonstrated when MCC/Hib vaccine was given concomitantly with PCV and MMR vaccine at 12 months of age or separately at 12 and 13 months of age. Any small differences in immunogenicity were largely in the direction of a higher response when all three vaccines were given concomitantly. For systemic symptoms, there was no evidence of an additive effect; rather, any differences between schedules showed benefit from the concomitant administration of all three vaccines, such as lower overall proportions with postvaccination fevers. The United Kingdom infant immunization schedule now recommends that these three vaccines may be offered at one visit at between 12 and 13 months of age.

  4. Topical issues of vaccination and epidemiological surveillance over measles and rubella in Ukraine.

    OpenAIRE

    Daragan, G. M.; Krushinska, T. Yu.; Stepanskiy, D. O.; Demchyshyna, I. V.; Kolesnikova, I. P.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of measles and rubella morbidity, the state of their vaccination in Ukraine was carried out. Despite decades of preventive vaccination, there is a 5-6 years’ cyclicity of measles epidemic process at present time. Measles morbidity increased 46.8 times in 2017 in comparison with 2016. Elevated rates of rubella epidemic morbidity were registered in 2004 and 2011. There was decrease of routine measles and rubella immunization coverage in the period from 2009 to 2016. Critically low ...

  5. Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhu

    Full Text Available A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

  6. Rational use of rubella vaccine for prevention of congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Hinman

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubella is a viral disease with minor morbidity and few complications unless it is contracted by a pregnant woman. Rubella infection during the first trimester of pregnancy often leads to fetal death or severe congenital defects (congenital rubella syndrome, CRS. Rubella remains endemic in many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. It has been estimated that 20000 or more infants are perhaps born with CRS each year in Latin American and Caribbean countries. While the inclusion of rubella vaccination into routine childhood immunization will decrease rubella virus circulation among young children, it will not have immediate impact on the transmission of rubella among adults or the occurrence of CRS. A one-time mass campaign targeting both males and females 5 to 39 years of age with measles-mumps-rubella or measles-rubella vaccine followed by the use of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in routine early childhood vaccination will prevent and control both rubella and CRS promptly. In April 1988, the Ministers of Health of the English-speaking Caribbean targeted rubella for elimination by the end of the year 2000 using the vaccination strategy outlined above. The rubella elimination experience of these countries will provide useful information for the eventual elimination of rubella virus from the Americas.La rubéola es una enfermedad vírica que produce poca morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, a no ser que la contraiga una mujer embarazada. La infección con rubéola durante el primer trimestre del embarazo a menudo termina en muerte fetal o en deformidades congénitas graves (síndrome de anomalías congénitas por rubéola, o SCR. La rubéola sigue siendo endémica en muchos países de América Latina y el Caribe. Se estima que quizá 20 000 niños o más nacen cada año con SCR en países latinoamericanos y caribeños. Si bien la adición de la vacuna contra la rubéola a los programas de inmunización infantil de rutina disminuirá la

  7. Prevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies in unimmunized young female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rubella is a mild self-limiting disease all over the world; nevertheless, it is of significant public health importance due to its teratogenic effect of congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella vaccine is currently not included in the national immunization program in India. Rubella-specific IgG in the unvaccinated population is a marker of previous rubella infection. Rubella IgG estimation in children will provide data for initiation and necessary modification to the immunization strategy. Aims: In this background, this study was conducted with an aim to know the age-specific susceptibility of acquiring rubella infections and future risk of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS among girls. Settings and Design: This was a community-based, observational study. Participants and Methods: The study was conducted at a randomly selected rural area Mavoor Panchayath of Kozhikode District, Kerala, among adolescent girls. The estimation of rubella-specific IgG antibody was done by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. IgG titer value of >15 IU was taken positive, 8-15 IU as equivocal, and <8 IU as negative. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical program for Social science version 16 for Windows. Chi-square test was applied to find out significant difference and Fisher′s exact test wherever applicable. Results: The data and blood sample collection was done from 250 girls. The mean IgG titer was 151.93 ± 128.78 IU, and as per the criteria, 68.3% were positive, 28.5% were negative, and 3.2% were equivocal. At this age, majority (68.3% of the girls get protection by natural infection without any vaccine. Some girls (32% may remain susceptible to infection during adulthood and pregnancy. Conclusions: Natural rubella infection was widely prevalent among child population and at this age. An immunization policy recommending rubella-containing vaccine is highly desirable to prevent rubella and CRS.

  8. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  9. Congenital rubella syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar Hasan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not clear. The prevalence of CRS in the pre-vaccine period can be estimated by evaluating the proportion of children in the population with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. Methods This was a case-control study to estimate prevalence of CRS in Tehran (Iran by evaluating the proportion of children with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. The study used rubella antibody titer as an indicator, and compared the prevalence of rubella antibody between children with and without sensorineural hearing loss. Using these findings, the proportion of cases of sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella was estimated. Results A total of 225 children aged 1 to 4 years were entered into the study (113 cases and 112 controls. There was a significant difference between cases and controls with regard to rubella antibody seropositivity (19.5% vs. 8.9%, respectively, odds ratio = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.04–5.97. The proportion of sensorineural hearing loss cases attributable to rubella was found to be 12%, corresponding to a CRS prevalence of 0.2/1000. Conclusion The prevalence of CRS was approximately 0.2/1000 before rubella vaccination in Iran, Moreover; the results suggest that implementation of appropriate rubella vaccination programs could potentially prevent about 12% of cases of sensorineural hearing loss in Iranian children. This data could potentially be used as baseline data, which in conjunction with an appropriate method, to establish a surveillance system for rubella vaccination in Iran. An appropriate surveillance system is needed, because the introduction of a rubella vaccine without epidemiological data and an adequate monitoring program could result in the shifting of rubella cases to higher

  10. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies and determinants of susceptibility to rubella in a cohort of pregnant women in Canada, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Rotondo, Jenny; Shapiro, Janna; Sherrard, Lindsey; Fraser, William D; Ward, Brian J

    2017-05-25

    Long term control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome relies on high population-level immunity against rubella, particularly among women of childbearing age. In Canada, all pregnant women should be screened so that susceptible new mothers can be offered vaccination for rubella before discharge. This study was undertaken to estimate rubella susceptibility in a cohort of pregnant women in Canada and to identify associated socio-economic and demographic factors. Biobanked plasma samples were obtained from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study, in which pregnant women were recruited between 2008 and 2011. Socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric histories were collected. Second trimester plasma samples (n=1,752) were tested for rubella-specific IgG using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of women with IgG titers Canada (aOR 2.60, 95% CI 1.07-6.31). In conclusion, a large majority of pregnant women were found to be immune to rubella. Further research is needed to understand inequalities in vaccine uptake or access, and more effort is needed to promote catch-up measles-mumps-rubella vaccination among socioeconomically disadvantaged and immigrant women of childbearing age. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Drug clinics. Drug of the month. A new measles-rubella-mumps vaccine (Priorix)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, J

    1999-02-01

    A novel measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (Priorix) has been marketed by SmithKline Beecham. It contains live attenuated virus with measles and mumps strains slightly different from those present in MMR VAX (Pasteur Merieux MSD). The indications and contraindications are similar for both vaccines. Immunogenicity is also equivalent as well as general reactogenicity. By contrast local symptoms were reported significantly less frequently after Priorix.

  12. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.

  13. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

  14. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...... Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children’s autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central...... the age at the time of vaccination, the time since vaccination, or the date of vaccination and the development of autistic disorder. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism....

  15. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...... the age at the time of vaccination, the time since vaccination, or the date of vaccination and the development of autistic disorder. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism....... Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children’s autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central...

  16. Student pharmacists' perceptions of immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Kara; McBane, Sarah; Hirsch, Jan D; Lorentz, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore changes in knowledge level, perceived importance and apprehension of immunizations by first year pharmacy students pre- vs. post-immunization education and training. First year pharmacy students at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UC San Diego SSPPS) completed a pre- and post-immunization training course questionnaire. Knowledge base and perceived importance level of immunizations including hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal and human papilloma virus (HPV) were assessed. In addition, apprehension of needle administration and fears regarding safety and efficacy were evaluated. Of 120 students, 85 (71%) completed pre- and post-course questionnaires for this study. Mean knowledge test scores increased from 56% pre-course to 83% post-course. Pre-course, 73% of participants considered immunizations as very important in preventing future disease outbreaks. Post-course, this percentage climbed to 94%. Prior to taking the course, 52% of students were apprehensive about administering injections; however, after completing the course this percentage declined to 33%. The majority of students who had been fearful prior to the course retained their fears of receiving needle injections. The proportion of students believing immunizations should be a personal choice, not mandatory, did not significantly change from pre-course (49%) to post-course (44%). The UC San Diego SSPPS immunization course increased student knowledge of immunization facts and the perceived importance of immunizations. However, a substantial portion of students retained apprehension about administering and receiving needle injections and the proportion believing immunizations should be a personal choice, almost half, did not change appreciably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Rubella in South Africa: An impending Greek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-02

    Jul 2, 2009 ... concern is infection of susceptible women in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. ... To assess the extent of the immunity gap to rubella by testing for ... greater in the private sector specimens compared with the public sector ...

  18. Safety and Immunogenicity of Coadministering a Combined Meningococcal Serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine at 12 Months of Age ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all thr...

  19. Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidl, Gudrun S; Tostmann, Alma; Curvers, Moud; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Smits, Gaby; Schepp, Rutger; Duizer, Erwin; Boland, Greet; de Melker, Hester; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Veldhuijzen, Irene K

    2018-01-01

    Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable

  20. [Effectiveness, population-level effects, and heath economics of measles and rubella vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, O; Ultsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against measles and rubella has been included in national immunization programs worldwide for several decades. In this article, we present the evidence related to the effectiveness of measles and rubella vaccination based on published systematic reviews, and we describe the epidemiological and health economic effects of vaccination at a population level. Several observational studies demonstrate the high effectiveness (> 90 %) of both measles and rubella vaccination. The global measles mortality reduction and the dramatic decrease in rubella and measles incidences after introduction of routine immunization contribute to the very high quality of evidence. The countries of the Americas have proved that it is feasible to eliminate measles and rubella by strengthening infant immunization through routine vaccination services and by conducting supplemental immunization activities in other childhood age groups so as to close immunity gaps. An economic evaluation of measles and rubella vaccination specifically for the healthcare system in Germany does not exist. However, we conducted a systematic review and identified 11 health-economic studies from other industrialized countries and one for a hypothetical industrialized country. Results indicate that vaccination against measles and rubella had either a cost-effective or even a cost-saving potential, which could be assumed with some limitations also for the German setting. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that the available vaccines are very effective and that measles and rubella elimination is feasible if adequate vaccination strategies are implemented. In Germany, catch-up vaccination programs are urgently needed for children, adolescents, and young adults specifically in the western federal states.

  1. Transitioning Lessons Learned and Assets of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to Global and Regional Measles and Rubella Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L

    2017-07-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  3. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-term seizures, coma, or lowered consciousness ‚ ‚Brain damage Other things that could happen after this vaccine: ‚ ‚People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. ...

  4. Prevalence of Rubella Antibodies Among Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Vivian H; Doshi, Reena H; Mukadi, Patrick; Higgins, Stephen G; Hoff, Nicole A; Bwaka, Ado; Mwamba, Guillaume Ngoie; Okitolonda, Emile; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2018-01-01

    While generally mild in children, rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella vaccination is not yet available as a part of routine immunization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and the burden of infection is unknown. In collaboration with the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey, a serosurvey was carried out to assess population immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases. Dry blood spot samples collected from children 6-59 months of age were processed using the Dynex Technologies Multiplier FLEX chemiluminescent immunoassay platform (Dynex Technologies, Chantilly, VA). Among the 7195 6- to 59-month-old children, 33% were positive and <1% indeterminate for rubella antibodies in weighted analyses. Seroprevalence was positively associated with age of the child and province, with seropositivity highest in Bandundu (53%) and lowest in Kasai-Oriental (20%). In multivariate analyses, serologic evidence of infection was associated with age of the mother and child, socioeconomic status and geographic location. Rubella infection is prevalent among children in the DRC, and while most seroconversion occurs in young children, a significant proportion of children remain at risk and may enter reproductive age susceptible to rubella infection. While not currently in place, implementation of a surveillance program will provide improved estimates of both rubella virus circulation and the burden of congenital rubella syndrome. Such information will play an important role in future policy decisions, vaccine delivery strategies and may provide a basis upon which the effectiveness of rubella antigen introduction may be assessed.

  5. A imunização contra a rubéola no primeiro trimestre de gestação pode levar à perda auditiva? Can the immunization against rubella take to the hearing loss in the first pregnancy quarter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L��cia Pereira de Andrade Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: embora o risco da Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita após a imunização seja pequeno, é necessário assegurar a imunidade das mulheres em idade fértil, especialmente daquelas com risco mais alto de exposição, visando a prevenção. OBJETIVO: esclarecer o risco que a imunização da rubéola apresenta para a audição do recém nascido, no primeiro trimestre de gestação. CONCLUSÃO: os levantamentos realizados por este estudo permitiram concluir que ainda há um grande caminho a ser percorrido em prol da erradicação da rubéola no Brasil, bem como a diminuição dos riscos de surdez neurossensorial causados pela Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita.BACKGROUND: although congenital rubella syndrome risk after immunization is low, it is required to assert immunity of women in fertile age, especially those in higher risk of exposure aiming at prevention. PURPOSE: to elucidate the risk that rubella immunization in the first three months of gestation presents for the newborn hearing. CONCLUSION: investigations carried out by this study allow us to conclude that there is still a lot to be done in order to eradicate rubella in Brazil, as well as to reduce/decrease risks of neurosensorial deafness caused by CRS.

  6. Rubella in Sub-Saharan Africa and sensorineural hearing loss: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Caroça

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rubella infection can affect several organs and cause birth defects that are responsible for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS. Congenital hearing loss is the most common symptom of this syndrome, occurring in approximately 60% of CRS cases. Worldwide, over 100 000 babies are born with CRS every year. There is no specific treatment for rubella, but the disease is preventable by vaccination. Since 1969, the rubella vaccine has been implemented in many countries, but in Africa, only a few countries routinely immunize against rubella. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of infection from the wild-type rubella virus in São Tomé and Príncipe by determining rubella seroprevalence with a DBS method. The goal of this study was to reinforce the need for implementation of the rubella vaccine in this country. As secondary objectives, the validation of a DBS method was first attempted and an association between seroprevalence and hearing loss was assessed. Methods We collected samples from individuals observed during humanitarian missions in São Tomé and Príncipe. All individuals underwent an audiometric evaluation, and a drop of blood was collected for the dried blood spot (DBS. We define two groups: the case group (individuals with unilateral or bilateral hearing loss (HL and the control group (individuals with two normal ears. Patients were excluded if they suffered from conductive HL, if they showed evidence of possible causes of HL, if they had developmental delay or if they refused to participate in the study. Results Among the 315 subjects, we found 64.1% individuals with IgG for the rubella virus, 32.1% without immunity for the rubella virus and 3.8% who were borderline. In the control group, 62.6% were positive for the rubella IgG, whereas in the case group, 72% were positive. Analyzing both groups, with ages ranging from 2 to 14 years of age and from 15 to 35 years of age, we found a seroprevalence of 50.3% to

  7. Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI in Children under 7- year of Age during 2014 in Hamedan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI is essential to improve high standard of vaccine safety, and maintain public trust in immunization programs. This study aimed to determine the AEFI and their related factors in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study including all children under 7- year of age, in Hamadan Province, the West of Iran, in 2014. All of the AEFI related with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus (DPT, Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR vaccines were obtained from the documented record-based by Health Centers, in Hamadan province. Results: From a total of 239,204 doses administered, 284 AEFI were notified (11.8 per 10,000 doses. The proportion of AEFI was more frequently reported from Health Houses than Health Centers (60.2 vs. 37.0, P

  8. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Ai Theng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. Results A majority of the women (66.6% had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4% of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4% and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5% respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5% and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%. Conclusions A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  9. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ai Theng; Tong, Seng Fah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2013-01-31

    Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women's risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. A majority of the women (66.6%) had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4%) of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4%) and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5%) respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5%) and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%). A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test) is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  10. Autism Narratives in Media Coverage of the MMR Vaccine-Autism Controversy under a Crip Futurism Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Benjamin W

    2018-03-09

    While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U.S. from September 2015 through July 2017. It draws from Kafer's (2013) work in Feminist, Crip, Queer, using a lens of crip futurism to interpret three major narrative themes: a death and survival narrative that purports autism as a worst-case scenario, a societal problem narrative, and a preventative narrative that seeks to eliminate the condition. These themes suggest that online news media narratives about autism surrounding the autism-MMR controversy play into stereotypes about autism, including stigmatization and prioritization of preventive behaviors and cures over supporting the lived experiences of autistic individuals. Continued research on the impact of online media portrayals of autism specifically, and disability in health contexts generally, is called for.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro®) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX®) by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Stéphane; Habermehl Pirmin; Gillet Yves; Eymin Cécile; Fiquet Anne

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro®) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX®) compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label random...

  12. Introduction of rubella-containing-vaccine to Madagascar: implications for roll-out and local elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Mensah, Keitly; Brook, Cara E; Andrianjafimasy, Miora; Winter, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Tatem, Andrew J; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2016-04-01

    Few countries in Africa currently include rubella-containing vaccination (RCV) in their immunization schedule. The Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI) recently opened a funding window that has motivated more widespread roll-out of RCV. As countries plan RCV introductions, an understanding of the existing burden, spatial patterns of vaccine coverage, and the impact of patterns of local extinction and reintroduction for rubella will be critical to developing effective programmes. As one of the first countries proposing RCV introduction in part with GAVI funding, Madagascar provides a powerful and timely case study. We analyse serological data from measles surveillance systems to characterize the epidemiology of rubella in Madagascar. Combining these results with data on measles vaccination delivery, we develop an age-structured model to simulate rubella vaccination scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of rubella and the burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) across Madagascar. We additionally evaluate the drivers of spatial heterogeneity in age of infection to identify focal locations where vaccine surveillance should be strengthened and where challenges to successful vaccination introduction are expected. Our analyses indicate that characteristics of rubella in Madagascar are in line with global observations, with an average age of infection near 7 years, and an impact of frequent local extinction with reintroductions causing localized epidemics. Modelling results indicate that introduction of RCV into the routine programme alone may initially decrease rubella incidence but then result in cumulative increases in the burden of CRS in some regions (and transient increases in this burden in many regions). Deployment of RCV with regular supplementary campaigns will mitigate these outcomes. Results suggest that introduction of RCV offers a potential for elimination of rubella in Madagascar, but also emphasize both that targeted vaccination is likely to be

  13. A large rubella outbreak with spread from the workplace to the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro-Holliday, M C; LeBaron, C W; Allensworth, C; Raymond, R; Borden, T G; Murray, A B; Icenogle, J P; Reef, S E

    2000-12-06

    Childhood vaccination has reduced rubella disease to low levels in the United States, but outbreaks continue to occur. The largest outbreak in the past 5 years occurred in Nebraska in 1999. To examine risk factors for disease, susceptibility of the risk population, role of vaccine failure, and the need for new vaccination strategies in response to the Nebraska rubella outbreak. Investigation of 83 confirmed rubella cases occurring in Douglas County, Nebraska, between March 23 and August 24, 1999; serosurvey of 413 pregnant women in the outbreak locale between October 1998 and March 1999 (prior to outbreak) and April and November 1999 (during and after outbreak). Case characteristics, compared with that of the general county population; area childhood rubella vaccination rates; and susceptibility among pregnant women before vs during and after the outbreak. All 83 rubella cases were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status and fell into 3 groups: (1) 52 (63%) were young adults (median age, 26 years), 83% of whom were born in Latin American countries where rubella vaccination was not routine. They were either employed in meatpacking plants or were their household contacts. Attack rates in the plants were high (14.4 per 1000 vs 0. 19 per 1000 for general county population); (2) 16 (19%), including 14 children (9 of whom were aged pregnant women, susceptibility rates were 13% before the outbreak and 11% during and after the outbreak. Six (25%) of 24 susceptible women tested were seropositive for rubella IgM. Rubella vaccination rates were 90.2% for preschool children and 99.8% for school-aged children. A large rubella outbreak occurred among unvaccinated persons in a community with high immunity levels. Crowded working and living conditions facilitated transmission, but vaccine failure did not. Workplace vaccination could be considered to prevent similar outbreaks. JAMA. 2000;284:2733-2739.

  14. Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among US children with older siblings with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Marshall, Jaclyn; Buikema, Ami; Bancroft, Tim; Kelly, Jonathan P; Newschaffer, Craig J

    2015-04-21

    Despite research showing no link between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), beliefs that the vaccine causes autism persist, leading to lower vaccination levels. Parents who already have a child with ASD may be especially wary of vaccinations. To report ASD occurrence by MMR vaccine status in a large sample of US children who have older siblings with and without ASD. A retrospective cohort study using an administrative claims database associated with a large commercial health plan. Participants included children continuously enrolled in the health plan from birth to at least 5 years of age during 2001-2012 who also had an older sibling continuously enrolled for at least 6 months between 1997 and 2012. MMR vaccine receipt (0, 1, 2 doses) between birth and 5 years of age. ASD status defined as 2 claims with a diagnosis code in any position for autistic disorder or other specified pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) including Asperger syndrome, or unspecified PDD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 299.0x, 299.8x, 299.9x). Of 95,727 children with older siblings, 994 (1.04%) were diagnosed with ASD and 1929 (2.01%) had an older sibling with ASD. Of those with older siblings with ASD, 134 (6.9%) had ASD, vs 860 (0.9%) children with unaffected siblings (P siblings, vs 73% (n = 1409) at age 2 years and 86% (n = 1660) at age 5 years for children with affected siblings. MMR vaccine receipt was not associated with an increased risk of ASD at any age. For children with older siblings with ASD, at age 2, the adjusted relative risk (RR) of ASD for 1 dose of MMR vaccine vs no vaccine was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.49-1.18; P = .22), and at age 5, the RR of ASD for 2 doses compared with no vaccine was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.31-1.01; P = .052). For children whose older siblings did not have ASD, at age 2, the adjusted RR of ASD for 1 dose was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.67-1.20; P = .50) and at age 5

  15. Sociodemographic and economic characteristics of susceptibility to rubella among women preparing for pregnancy in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Zhang, Shikun; Liu, Jue; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-09-01

    Infection with rubella virus during pregnancy can result in congenital defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The risk of rubella infection is greatly determined by the level of rubella antibodies in the serum. A survey of rubella antibody seronegativity rates was conducted in 780 000 women in rural China who were planning a pregnancy, in order to evaluate the herd susceptibility in different age groups and by high, middle, and low GDP per capita regions. In order to evaluate the herd susceptibility to rubella, a nationwide population-based study of rural Chinese women who were planning to have a baby and who were aged 21-49 years was instigated. As a part of the National Free Pre-conception Health Examination Project covering 29 provinces in 2012, a physical check-up program was provided to women who planned to become pregnant within the next 6 months. All medical data were from serological samples tested by ELISA, and the participants' immunity status was categorized based on levels of rubella antibodies. Economic data were also collected to explore the association between herd susceptibility and socioeconomic characteristics in the women of childbearing age. A total 264 306 of 782 293 recruited women preparing for pregnancy tested susceptible to rubella (33.79%). The seronegativity rate in women with a history of vaccination was significantly lower than that in women who had not received the vaccination or did not know their vaccination history (23.76%, 33.70%, and 35.68%, respectively). The seronegativity rates were 26.89%, 37.86%, and 32.61% in high, middle, and low GDP per capita areas, respectively. After stratified analysis and adjusting for other factors by multiple logistic regression, the lower seronegativity rates in women in high GDP per capita regions compared to women in middle and low GDP per capita regions remained in the different age groups and subgroups of immunization history. There is a clear difference in rubella-specific susceptibility

  16. Radiotherapy Results of Midline Malignant Reticulosis (MMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sang Mo; Kim, Jae Cheol

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : This study was performed to evaluate survival, failure patterns, and prognositc factors of MMR patients after radiation therapy. We also discussed the need for chemotherapy. Materials and Methods : A retrospective analysis was done for 23 patients with MMR who were treated with radiation therapy form June 1985 to November 1992. There were 19 male and 4 female patients. The patients age ranged from 17 to 71 years(median 39 years). Systemic symptoms including fever, weight loss, or malaise were found in 30% of the patients. He nasal cavity was most frequently involved. No patients had nodal involvement at diagnosis. There were 2 patients with distant metastasis at presentation. Radiation therapy was delivered five times a week, 1.8 Gy daily, total 45∼54 Gy(median 50.4 Gy) using 6 MV X-ray. No patients received chemotherapy as initial treatment. Results : Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 52.4% and 44.1%, respectively. Seventy percent(12/17) of the patients achieved complete response to radiotherapy., and 29.4%(5/17) achieved partial response. The patients with complete response showed a better 5-year survival rate than those with partial response (66.9% vs. 20%, p-0.004). Symptom duration before diagnosis, the presence of systemic symptom, ad the number of primary sites had no influence on survival. The patterns of failure were as flows: local failure(1), failure in adjacent site(1), local and distant failure(1), distant metastasis(2), and conversion to malignant lymphoma(1). W could not find factors associated with the patterns of failure. Conclusion : The most important factor associated with survival was the response to radiotherapy. Seventeen percent of the patients had distant metastasis, and the salvage after distant metastasis was not successful. However, about 50% of the patients could achieve long-term survival with local radiation therapy alone. Therefore, chemotherapy of MMR should be done after a prospective randomized study for

  17. Antibody class capture assay (ACCA) for rubella-specific IgM antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, M; Payne, R A

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for IgM antirubella were carried out on 1,546 sera, using an IgM capture method with a F (ab')2 conjugate (ACCA). Under the conditions described, sera containing IgM antirubella bound up to 15 times as much enzyme activity as negative specimens. Paired serum specimens from 27 patients, serial serum specimens from 6 patients, and single serum specimens from 15 patients who had had recent rubella were examined by the haemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) in the presence and absence of 2-mercaptoethanol following sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC). ACCA confirmed all the results found with HAI following SDGC. Specimens were examined from ten patients with congenital rubella; ACCA confirmed the results found with both immunofluorescence following SDGC and radioimmunoassay. Pre- and post-vaccination specimens from 123 patients who had been vaccinated against rubella were examined. An IgM response could only be demonstrated in the 57 cases when IgG was absent in the first specimen. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by testing 31 serum specimens from rubella immune patients that also contained rheumatoid factor, 163 serum specimens from patients with acute infections other than rubella, and 12 serum specimens from infants with miscellaneous neonatal abnormalities other than congenital rubella. The ACCA proved a simple, sensitive, and specific test for IgM antirubella and the results compared favourably with those obtained by the SDGC technique.

  18. [Simulating measles and rubella elimination levels according to social stratification and interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina-Giraldo, Juan; Gómez-Arias, Rubén D; Uyi-Afuwape, Anthony; Chowell-Puente, Gerardo

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed at comparing measles and rubella disease elimination levels in a homogeneous and heterogeneous population according to socioeconomic status with interactions amongst low- and high-income individuals and diversity in the average number of contacts amongst them. Effective reproductive rate simulations were deduced from a susceptibleinfected- recovered (SIR) mathematical model according to different immunisation rates using measles (1980 and 2005) and rubella (1998 and 2005) incidence data from Latin-America and the Caribbean. Low- and high-income individuals' social interaction and their average number of contacts were analysed by bipartite random network analysis. MAPLE 12 (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada) software was used for making the simulations. The progress made in eliminating both diseases between both periods of time was reproduced in the socially-homogeneous population. Measles (2005) would be eliminated in high- and low-income groups; however, it would only be achieved in rubella (2005) if there were a high immunity rate amongst the low-income group. If the average number of contacts were varied, then rubella would not be eliminated, even with a 95 % immunity rate. Monitoring the elimination level in diseases like measles and rubella requires that socio-economic status be considered as well as the population's interaction pattern. Special attention should be paid to communities having diversity in their average number of contacts occurring in confined spaces such as displaced communities, prisons, educational establishments, or hospitals.

  19. Rubella serology by solid-phase radioimmunoassay: its potential for screening programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugishita, C.; O'Shea, S.; Best, J.M.; Banatvala, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Sera from 269 adult females who had experienced naturally acquired or vaccine-induced infection by rubella virus, including immune persons challenged intranasally with rubella vaccine (RA27/3) as well as sera from 100 patients attending antenatal clinics, were tested for rubella antibodies by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition tests (HAI), as well as a newly developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for rubella immunoglobulin G(IgG) antibodies. Following both naturally acquired and vaccine-induced infection, titres by RIA were approximately ten-fold higher than by HAI. The RIA test was particularly useful in assessing the true immune status of those with apparently low levels of HAI antibody and has the added advantage that pretreatment of sera to remove inhibitors of haemagglutination and red cell agglutinins is unnecessary. The RIA test has potential for the large-scale screening programmes which need to be carried out if the Department of Health and Social Security recommendation, that women attending antenatal and family planning clinics be screened for rubella antibodies, is to be effectively met. (author)

  20. Mumps vaccine effectiveness in highly immunized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Angela; Torner, Núria; Castilla, Jesús; Batalla, Joan; Godoy, Pere; Guevara, Marcela; Carnicer, Dolors; Caylà, Joan; Rius, Cristina; Jansà, Josep Maria

    2010-04-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate effectiveness of mumps MMR component in communities with high MMR coverage. Outbreak-related cases of mumps born between 1995 and 2005 notified to Navarre and Catalonia public health services during the period 2005-2007 were studied. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) and their 95%CI were calculated using the screening method. Of 47 confirmed, 85.1% immunized with at least one dose (1MMR) and 44.9% with two (2MMR). Estimated VE was 85.4% (95%CI: 67.3-93.4) for 1MMR and 88.5% (95%CI: 78.1-93.9) for 2MMR. High 2MMR coverage, improved confirmation techniques and further VE studies with all confirmed cases are needed to prevent further outbreaks. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  2. seroprevalence survey of rubella antibodies among pregnant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This result highlights the consequence of rubella infection and confirms continuous circulation of rubella virus in the study area. There is need ... fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy. In most cases, the disease is self-limiting and rarely causes complications (3). Complications of CRS may include miscarriage and severe ...

  3. Rubella Vaccination During Pregnancy Trabzon Turkey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Osmanağaoğlu

    2010-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Although the rubella vaccination does not seem to be risky in early pregnancy, the pregnancy test should be taken to all women who wants to rubella vaccination or all women should be counseled to avoid becoming pregnant for 1 month after vaccination.

  4. Symptomatic rubella re-infection in early pregnancy and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-10-20

    Oct 20, 1990 ... blood, but had no stigmata of congenital rubella at birth. Growth retardation was apparent at 6 months and hearing loss, not necessarily due to rubella, was detected at 8 months. Rubella re-infection, which may ... exhibited low levels of rubella IgM but infants were found to ... Birth weight was. 2090 g, length ...

  5. Measles and rubella elimination in the WHO Region for Europe: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, P; Jankovic, D; Muscat, M; Ben-Mamou, M; Reef, S; Papania, M; Singh, S; Kaloumenos, T; Butler, R; Datta, S

    2017-08-01

    Globally measles remains one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has seen a decline in measles and rubella cases in recent years. The recent outbreaks have primarily affected adolescents and young adults with no vaccination or an incomplete vaccination history. Eliminating measles and rubella is one of the top immunization priorities of the European Region as outlined in the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020. Following the 2010 decision by the Member States in the Region to initiate the process of verifying elimination, the European Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) was established in 2011. The RVC meets every year to evaluate the status of measles and rubella elimination in the Region based on documentation submitted by each country's National Verification Committees. The verification process was however modified in late 2014 to assess the elimination status at the individual country level instead of at regional level. The WHO European Region has made substantial progress towards measles and rubella elimination over the past 5 years. The RVC's conclusion in 2016 that 70% and 66% of the 53 Member States in the Region had interrupted the endemic transmission of measles and rubella, respectively, by 2015 is a testament to this progress. Nevertheless, where measles and rubella remain endemic, challenges in vaccination service delivery and disease surveillance will need to be addressed through focused technical assistance from WHO and development partners. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Surveillance Plan on Recent Outbreak of Measles and Rubella in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Torner, Nuria; Vidal, Ma José

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are two immuno-preventive illnesses. In Catalonia, since 1988 all children are given two doses of measles and rubella vaccine with high levels of vaccination coverage. The measles elimination programme has been carried out since 1990 in Catalonia. This programme includes achieving and keeping high immunization levels among population with high vaccination coverage, intense epidemiological surveillance and an immediate response to the appearance of a case or outbreak. In 2014, the measles incidence rate was 1.9 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. There were 4 recent outbreaks in 2006, 2011, 2013 and 2014 that affected 381, 289, 31 and 124 people respectively. All outbreaks were triggered by an imported case. In 2011 and 2014 measles outbreaks, 6% and 5.5% of affected people were health care workers. All outbreaks presented a great variety of measles genotypes. Concerning rubella elimination programme, since 2002, 68 cases of postnatal rubella and 5 cases of congenital rubella were confirmed. Regarding measles and rubella surveillance and control, in addition to strengthen vaccination coverage, it is essential immediate notification, within the first 24 hours since suspicion and laboratory confirmation. In addition there is a need to enforce vaccination among health care workers as well as in other susceptible and unvaccinated people. It is recommended to vaccinate all people who were born after 1966 and who have not been vaccinated with two doses of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Furthermore, we have to emphasize that the progress concerning genotypes study allows identifying various imported cases from other European countries with active outbreaks, aspect that makes easier the surveillance of these illnesses.

  7. Inmunidad colectiva contra la rubéola según una encuesta poblacional en Medellín, Colombia Herd immunity against rubella according to a survey of the population in Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracelly Hincapié Palacio

    2012-08-01

    . The basic reproduction number was estimated using a quadratic regression of the average IgG titers for rubella by age in unvaccinated individuals with titers greater than or equal to 15 IU/ml. The effective reproduction number (Re was calculated with the data on the weighted proportion of protection by age, sex, location, and socioeconomic stratum. RESULTS: Overall, the Pc was 90.0% (95% CI, 88.6-95.2% and the Re was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.8-1.8, for a weighted proportion of protection of 89.4% (95% CI, 86.8- 91.6%. Protection was lower than the expected Pc in both sexes, in high and low socioeconomic strata, and in the rural area. In the urban area, protection was greater than the Pc (89.4%, with a 95% CI, 86.6-91.7%, compared to 87.4% and a 95% CI, 85.2-87.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The urban area has made progress toward herd immunity, but the overall proportion of protection in women, the rural area, and the high socioeconomic strata must be increased. The effective number may be greater than one, indicating the potential for the spread of the disease.

  8. Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the Philippines: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lena Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As part of regional elimination efforts, rubella-containing vaccines (RCV have recently been introduced in the Philippines, yet the true burden of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in the country is largely unknown. Objective. To provide baseline information on rubella and CRS prior to routine vaccine introduction in the Philippines. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature review on rubella and CRS in the Philippines, including a cross-sectional study conducted in 2002 among 383 pregnant women attending the obstetric outpatient clinic of the Philippine General Hospital to assess rubella susceptibility of women of childbearing age. Results. 15 locally published and unpublished studies were reviewed. Susceptibility to rubella among women of childbearing age was higher in rural communities. Retrospective reviews revealed congenital heart diseases, cataracts, and hearing impairments to be most common presentations in children of CRS. In the cross-sectional study, 59 (15.4% of the 383 pregnant women enrolled were seronegative for rubella IgG. Conclusion. Similar to other countries introducing RCV, it was only recently that surveillance for rubella has been established. Previous studies show substantial disabilities due to CRS and a substantial proportion of susceptible women who are at risk for having babies affected with CRS. Establishment of CRS surveillance and enhanced awareness on rubella case detection should be prioritized.

  9. Modeling and Managing the Risks of Measles and Rubella: A Global Perspective, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Cochi, Stephen L

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, the use of vaccines led to significant decreases in the global burdens of measles and rubella, motivated at least in part by the successive development of global control and elimination targets. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) includes specific targets for regional elimination of measles and rubella in five of six regions of the World Health Organization by 2020. Achieving the GVAP measles and rubella goals will require significant immunization efforts and associated financial investments and political commitments. Planning and budgeting for these efforts can benefit from learning some important lessons from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Following an overview of the global context of measles and rubella risks and discussion of lessons learned from the GPEI, we introduce the contents of the special issue on modeling and managing the risks of measles and rubella. This introduction describes the synthesis of the literature available to support evidence-based model inputs to support the development of an integrated economic and dynamic disease transmission model to support global efforts to optimally manage these diseases globally using vaccines. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. An evaluation of the adverse reaction potential of three measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Boaventura Antônio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the incidence of adverse events following the administration of three commercially available measles-mumps-rubella (MMR combination vaccines. Methods. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed in 1996 that involved a total of 10 142 students 6-12 years of age in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. An MMR vaccine containing the Edmonston-Zagreb, Leningrad-Zagreb, and RA 27/3 strains ("vaccine A" was administered to 2 226 students (21.9% of the total; an MMR vaccine with the Moraten, Jeryl Lynn, and Wistar 27/3 strains ("vaccine B" was administered to 2 216 children (21.8%; and an MMR vaccine containing the Schwartz, Urabe AM-9, and Wistar 27/3 strains ("vaccine C" was given to 2 179 students (21.5%. A control group of 3 521 students (34.7% was not vaccinated. Both the vaccinated subjects and the control subjects were followed daily for 30 days to detect any clinical manifestations. Results. Adverse events were more frequent in the vaccinated children than in the control group (P < 0.01. In terms of causing parotitis, vaccine A had a relative risk (RR of 5.72 (95% confidence interval (CI = 3.11-10.54 when compared with vaccine B, and an RR of 2.33 (95% CI = 1.52-3.58 when compared with vaccine C. Vaccine A was also associated with an increased risk of lymphadenopathy when compared with vaccine B (RR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.78-5.45 and with vaccine C (RR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.35-3.66. Vaccine C was associated with an increased risk of parotitis when compared with vaccine B (RR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.26-4.80. Three cases of aseptic meningitis were detected among the children in the study group, but only one case of vaccine-related aseptic meningitis was identified, among the children receiving vaccine A. Conclusions. The three MMR vaccines that we studied are associated with different risks of adverse events. We found vaccine A to cause more reactions than the two other vaccines, especially vaccine B. In addition

  11. Successful administration of measles-rubella-mumps vaccine by graded challenge in a case with anaphylaxis after prior vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Tuba; Sancakli, Ozlem; Ozdogru, Ece

    2017-04-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Although it is reported that the MMR vaccine is safe for that patients, there are some patients who developed anaphylaxis. Generally, the development of anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination is reported as a contraindication. We present a successful administration of MMR vaccine by gradually increased doses for a patient who developed anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  12. Modified measles versus rubella versus atypical measles: One and same thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In outbreak settings, more than one virus may be infecting the given population. In twin or triple outbreak of measles, German measles (rubella, and varicella in highly immunized hilly areas, maximal number of the case patients in all the hilly villages belonged to the older age group. It suggested an obvious shift to the higher age group, warranting second dose opportunity in such case scenario. The clinical presentations of viral diseases are too similar to differentiate. The aim is to clearly categorize the case patients of modified measles, rubella, and atypical measles in outbreak settings. Results: Four outbreaks are listed. In the first one, sixty case patients were identified from 1026 people in 5 villages. Of these, 41 were diagnosed by clinically, 8 were laboratory confirmed as measles and 11 were epidemiologically linked German measles case patients. Seventy percent of the cases were vaccinated for measles. In second case, we identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. In third one, we identified 116 cases in eight villages (112/116 clinically and 04/116 laboratory confirmed. Majority of cases were immunized against measles, but only minor cases for rubella. In fourth case, we identified 505 case patients from mixed outbreaks of varicella, measles and rubella (30/505 clinically, 467/505 epidemiologically linked and 8/505 laboratory confirmed case patients from a study population of 3280. In all the four outbreaks, prima facie, the clinical presentations of both rubella and modified measles were difficult to differentiate. Discussion: On the basis of outbreak investigation and analytical inference, it has been observed that the symtomatology of modified measles and laboratory confirmed rubella case patients/epidemiologically linked cases are so similar placed that many a time, it becomes much difficult to line list the cases in one section of modified

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  15. Lack of association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata

    2010-05-01

    The first objective of the study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and autism in children. The second objective was to examine whether the risk of autism differs between use of MMR and the single measles vaccine. Case-control study. The 96 cases with childhood or atypical autism, aged 2 to 15, were included into the study group. Controls consisted of 192 children individually matched to cases by year of birth, sex, and general practitioners. Data on autism diagnosis and vaccination history were from physicians. Data on the other probable autism risk factors were collected from mothers. Logistic conditional regression was used to assess the risk of autism resulting from vaccination. Assessment was made for children vaccinated (1) Before diagnosis of autism, and (2) Before first symptoms of autism onset. Odds ratios were adjusted to mother's age, medication during pregnancy, gestation time, perinatal injury and Apgar score. For children vaccinated before diagnosis, autism risk was lower in children vaccinated with MMR than in the nonvaccinated (OR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.52) as well as to vaccinated with single measles vaccine (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.91). The risk for vaccinated versus nonvaccinated (independent of vaccine type) was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.10-0.76). The risk connected with being vaccinated before onset of first symptoms was significantly lower only for MMR versus single vaccine (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.22-0.99). The study provides evidence against the association of autism with either MMR or a single measles vaccine.

  16. Inequity in Timeliness of MMR Vaccination in Children Living in the Suburbs of Iranian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ansari, Hossein; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2015-06-01

    High coverage of immunization is one of the indicators of good performance of health system but timely vaccination is another indicator which is associated with protective effect of vaccines. The present study aimed at evaluating the inequity in timely vaccination with a focus on inequities in timeliness by gender, birth order, parents' education and place of residence (rural or urban). A historical cohort study was conducted on children of 24-47 months of age who were living in the suburbs of big cities in Iran and were selected through stratified proportional sampling method. Only children who had vaccine cards -i.e. 3610 children -were included in data analysis. The primary outcome was age-appropriate vaccination of MMR1. Inequity was measured by Concentration Index (C) and Relative Index of Inequity (RII). Inequity indexes were calculated according to the mother and father's education, child birth order, child's sex and the family's place of residence at the time of vaccination. The overall on-time MMR1 vaccination was 70% and 54.4% for Iranians and Non-Iranians, respectively. The C index of mother and father's education for timely MMR vaccination was 0.023 and was 0.029 in Iranian children as well as 0.044 and 0.019 for non-Iranians, respectively. The C index according to child order in Iranians and Non-Iranians was 0.025 and C=0.078. With regard to children who lived in cities, the on-time vaccination was 0.36% and 0.29% higher than that in rural areas . In male children it was 0.12% and 0.14% higher than that in female children for Iranians and Non-Iranians, respectively. Timeliness MMR vaccination in Iranian children is higher than that in non-Iranian children. Regarding the existence of differences in timely vaccination rate in all Iranian and Non-Iranian children, no evidence was observed for inequity by focusing on parents' education, birth order, gender or place of residence. So, increasing timeliness of vaccination for enhancing the protective effect

  17. Effect of jet injection on infectivity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in a bench model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Collins, Marcus; Saxon, Gene; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zehrung, Darin; Cappello, Chris; Dhere, Rajeev; Royals, Michael; Papania, Mark; Rota, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) with single-use, auto disable, needle-free syringes offer the opportunity to avoid hazards associated with injection using a needle and syringe. Clinical studies have evaluated DSJIs for vaccine delivery, but most studies have focused on inactivated, subunit, or DNA vaccines. Questions have been raised about possible damage to live attenuated viral vaccines by forces generated during the jet injection process. This study examines the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), measured by viral RNA content and infectivity. Three models of DSJIs were evaluated, each generating a different ejection force. Following jet injection, the RNA content for each of the vaccine components was measured using RT-qPCR immediately after injection and following passage in Vero cells. Jet injection was performed with and without pig skin as a simulation of human skin. There was little to no reduction of RNA content immediately following jet injection with any of the three DSJIs. Samples passaged in Vero cells showed no loss in infectivity of the measles vaccine following jet injection. Mumps vaccine consistently showed increased replication following jet injection. Rubella vaccine showed no loss after jet injection alone but some infectivity loss following injection through pig skin with two of the devices. Overall, these data demonstrated that forces exerted on a live attenuated MMR vaccine did not compromise vaccine infectivity. The bench model and protocol used in this study can be applied to evaluate the impact of jet injection on other live virus vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Health economics of rubella: a systematic review to assess the value of rubella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Morgan, Ian; Levin, Ann

    2013-04-29

    Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the planned global expansion of rubella vaccination and efforts towards potential rubella elimination and eradication. We performed a systematic search of on-line databases and identified articles published between 1970 and 2012 on costs of rubella and CRS treatment and the costs, cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit of rubella vaccination. We reviewed the studies and categorized them by the income level of the countries in which they were performed, study design, and research question answered. We analyzed their methodology, data sources, and other details. We used these data to identify gaps in the evidence and to suggest possible future areas of scientific study. We identified 27 studies: 11 cost analyses, 11 cost-benefit analyses, 4 cost-effectiveness analyses, and 1 cost-utility analysis. Of these, 20 studies were conducted in high-income countries, 5 in upper-middle income countries and two in lower-middle income countries. We did not find any studies conducted in low-income countries. CRS was estimated to cost (in 2012 US$) between $4,200 and $57,000 per case annually in middle-income countries and up to $140,000 over a lifetime in high-income countries. Rubella vaccination programs, including the vaccination of health workers, children, and women had favorable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries. Treatment of CRS is costly and rubella vaccination programs are highly cost-effective. However, in order for research to support the

  19. Cross-calibration of the Siemens mMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Jakoby, Björn; Svalling, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a quick and easy method to perform quantitatively accurate PET scans of typical water-filled PET plastic shell phantoms on the Siemens Biograph mMR PET/MR system. We perform regular cross-calibrations (Xcal) of our PET systems, including the PET/MR, using a Siemens mCT water...

  20. Complex pattern of immune evasion in MSI colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mine; Janikovits, Jonas; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Kloor, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cancers accumulate multiple insertion/deletion mutations at coding microsatellites (cMS), which give rise to frameshift peptide neoantigens. The high mutational neoantigen load of MMR-deficient cancers is reflected by pronounced anti-tumoral immune responses of the host and high responsiveness towards immune checkpoint blockade. However, immune evasion mechanisms can interfere with the immune response against MMR-deficient tumors. We here performed a comprehensive analysis of immune evasion in MMR-deficient colorectal cancers, focusing on HLA class I-mediated antigen presentation. 72% of MMR-deficient colorectal cancers of the DFCI database harbored alterations affecting genes involved in HLA class I-mediated antigen presentation, and 54% of these mutations were predicted to abrogate function. Mutations affecting the HLA class I transactivator NLRC5 were observed as a potential new immune evasion mechanism in 26% (6% abrogating) of the analyzed tumors. NLRC5 mutations in MMR-deficient cancers were associated with decreased levels of HLA class I antigen expression. In summary, the majority of MMR-deficient cancers display mutations interfering with HLA class I antigen presentation that reflect active immune surveillance and immunoselection during tumor development. Clinical studies focusing on immune checkpoint blockade in MSI cancer should account for the broad variety of immune evasion mechanisms as potential biomarkers of therapy success.

  1. 134 original article prevalence of rubella virus-specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. Background: Rubella is a self-limiting disease that causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when rubella virus (RV) infects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: To assess a population of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two tertiary hospitals in southwestern. Nigeria for anti-RV ...

  2. Adverse Events Following Immunization in Brazil: Age of Child and Vaccine-Associated Risk Analysis Using Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia R.C. Lopes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccines are effective in controlling and eradicating infectious diseases. However, adverse events following immunization (AEFI can occur in susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian AEFI database and compare eight vaccines in order to profile risks of AEFIs related to the mandated pediatric schedule of immunization, considering the age and sex of the child, type of vaccine, and reported adverse events. Methods: We analyzed the Brazilian AEFI database integrating reports between 2005 and 2010 for children less than 10-years old immunized with eight mandated vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (TETRA; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP; Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG; oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV; measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR; oral rotavirus vaccine (ORV; hepatitis B (HB; and yellow fever (YF. We compared the children’s age regarding types of AEFI, evaluated AEFI factors associated with the chance of hospitalization of the child, and estimated the chance of notification of an AEFI as a function of the type of vaccine. In total, 47,105 AEFIs were observed for the mandated vaccines. Results: The highest AEFI rate was for the TETRA vaccine and the lowest was for the OPV vaccine, with 60.1 and 2.3 events per 100,000 inoculations, respectively. The TETRA vaccine showed the highest rate of hypotonic hyporesponsive episode, followed by convulsion and fever. The MMR and YF vaccines were associated with generalized rash. BCG was associated with enlarged lymph glands but showed the largest negative (protective association with hyporesponsive events and seizures. Compared with children aged 5–9-years old, young children (<1 year showed significantly higher odds of hospitalization. Conclusions: The Brazilian AEFI registry is useful to compare the magnitude and certain characteristics of adverse events associated with mandated pediatric vaccines.

  3. 'Just that little bit of doubt': Scottish parents', teenage girls' and health professionals' views of the MMR, H1N1 and HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona; Gray Brunton, Carol; Hogg, Rhona

    2014-02-01

    Parental decision making about childhood vaccinations is complex and the vaccination schedule ever-changing. Vaccination may be controversial even in countries with historically high vaccination rates such as Scotland. Health behaviour models have aided understanding of individual vaccine intentions for specific vaccines. These are limited in explaining actual behaviours and are divorced from the impact of socio-cultural contexts on vaccination decision making. To explore vaccination views in Scotland amongst parents, teenage girls and health professionals across three controversial vaccines: the Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR), the Human Papilloma virus (HPV) and the Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. We used qualitative interviews and focus group discussions in a purposive sample of health professionals (n = 51), parents (n = 15) and teenage girls aged 12-15 years (n = 8) about their views of these vaccines. Discussions were analysed using thematic analysis. Two main themes are highlighted: 'vaccine risks revisited' in which we explored how the MMR legacy resurfaced and how worries about vaccine safety permeated the data. 'Vaccine responsibilities' indicated tensions regarding roles and responsibilities for vaccines. An overarching notion of 'just that little bit of doubt' referred to lingering doubts and uncertainties interwoven across the vaccines. Public health authorities should remain alert towards pervasive vaccine concerns. It is important for authorities to clarify vaccine roles and responsibilities in the face of new and existing vaccines and to acknowledge public concerns regarding vaccine safety.

  4. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  5. Information is in the eye of the beholder: Seeking information on the MMR vaccine through an Internet search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination campaigns are one of the most important and successful public health programs ever undertaken. People who want to learn about vaccines in order to make an informed decision on whether to vaccinate are faced with a wealth of information on the Internet, both for and against vaccinations. In this paper we develop an automated way to score Internet search queries and web pages as to the likelihood that a person making these queries or reading those pages would decide to vaccinate. We apply this method to data from a major Internet search engine, while people seek information about the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. We show that our method is accurate, and use it to learn about the information acquisition process of people. Our results show that people who are pro-vaccination as well as people who are anti-vaccination seek similar information, but browsing this information has differing effect on their future browsing. These findings demonstrate the need for health authorities to tailor their information according to the current stance of users.

  6. Nueva meta de los programas de vacunación en la Región de las Américas: eliminar la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita New goal for vaccination programs in the Region of the Americas: to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The vaccination programs of the countries in the Region of the Americas have produced notable results over the last several decades. In recognition of those accomplishments, in June 2003 the 132nd session of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO called on the Member States of PAHO to prepare, within one year, national action plans for the elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS by the year 2010. During the Executive Committee discussions, praise was given for the sustained efforts of the countries of the Region in the struggle to eradicate measles. The Executive Committee discussions also reiterated the recommendation that the countries establish specific line items for immunization within their national budgets, in order to protect the investments in immunization that the Region's countries have made. The analysis of results of mass vaccination against rubella indicates that the benefits coming from accelerated control greatly exceed the costs associated with the treatment and rehabilitation of children with CRS. Various factors have created an environment that supports the goal of eliminating rubella and CRS from the Americas by the year 2010. These factors include the rapid reduction in morbidity that has come from the accelerated rubella control strategy; the availability of a safe, affordable, efficacious vaccine; the evidence of the cost benefit of vaccinating against rubella; and the broad support provided by the public and by health authorities in the Member States of PAHO.

  7. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R.; Kamble, Madhukar B.; Chowdhury, Deepika T.; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Methods: Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Results: Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Interpretation & conclusions: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State. PMID:27121521

  8. Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization of U.S. children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Margaret A; Das, Lopamudra; Raaen, Laura; Smith, Alexandria; Chari, Ramya; Newberry, Sydne; Shanman, Roberta; Perry, Tanja; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gidengil, Courtney

    2014-08-01

    Concerns about vaccine safety have led some parents to decline recommended vaccination of their children, leading to the resurgence of diseases. Reassurance of vaccine safety remains critical for population health. This study systematically reviewed the literature on the safety of routine vaccines recommended for children in the United States. Data sources included PubMed, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices statements, package inserts, existing reviews, manufacturer information packets, and the 2011 Institute of Medicine consensus report on vaccine safety. We augmented the Institute of Medicine report with more recent studies and increased the scope to include more vaccines. Only studies that used active surveillance and had a control mechanism were included. Formulations not used in the United States were excluded. Adverse events and patient and vaccine characteristics were abstracted. Adverse event collection and reporting was evaluated by using the McHarm scale. We were unable to pool results. Strength of evidence was rated as high, moderate, low, or insufficient. Of 20 478 titles identified, 67 were included. Strength of evidence was high for measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine and febrile seizures; the varicella vaccine was associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals. There is strong evidence that MMR vaccine is not associated with autism. There is moderate evidence that rotavirus vaccines are associated with intussusception. Limitations of the study include that the majority of studies did not investigate or identify risk factors for AEs; and the severity of AEs was inconsistently reported. We found evidence that some vaccines are associated with serious AEs; however, these events are extremely rare and must be weighed against the protective benefits that vaccines provide. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. C. Maple

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended.

  10. Evaluation of a commercial rubella IgM assay for use on oral fluid samples for diagnosis and surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome and postnatal rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaylakshmi, P; Muthukkaruppan, V R; Rajasundari, A; Korukluoglu, G; Nigatu, W; L A Warrener; Samuel, D; Brown, D W G

    2006-12-01

    Clinical diagnosis (surveillance) of rubella is unreliable and laboratory confirmation is essential. Detection of virus specific IgM in serum is the most commonly used method. However, the use of serum necessitates the drawing of blood, either through venipuncture or finger/heel prick, which can be difficult in young babies. Oral fluid samples have proved useful as an alternative, less invasive sample for virus specific IgM detection however until recently no commercial rubella IgM tests were available, restricting the usefulness of this approach. To evaluate the performance of the Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA using oral fluid samples from outbreaks as well as in cases of suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Paired serum and oral fluids were collected from cases during a rubella outbreak in three provinces in Turkey. Matched serum and oral fluid samples were collected from children with suspected CRS in an active surveillance programme at the Aravind Eye Hospital in South India. Serum samples were collected as part of the measles surveillance programme in Ethiopia. On serum samples the sensitivity and specificity of the Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA compared to Behring Enzygnost rubella IgM test was 96.9% (62/64; 95% CI 94.2-100%) and 100% (53/53; 95% CI 93.2-100%). On oral fluids compared to matched Behring results on serum the sensitivity was 95.5% (42/44; 95% CI 84.5-99.4%). The sensitivity and specificity of Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA on oral fluids from suspected CRS cases compared to serum results using Behring Enzygnost IgM assay was 100% (95% CI 84.5-100%) and 100% (95% CI 95.8-100.0%) respectively. Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA has adequate performance for diagnosis and surveillance of rubella in outbreak using either serum or oral fluid specimens.

  11. Rubella virus detection by ELISA method in exposed radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianmei; Zhu Bo; Zhu Youming; Shao Jinhui; Wu Weiping; Han Jinxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A rapid diagnosis method was developed to detect Rubella virus infection in radiation workers. Methods: Modified ELISA method was used to detect the level of lgG and lgM antibodies in 514 in Jinan district. Results: 90.47% of 514 cases was shown to be resistant against Rubella virus; 6.42% were sensitive type; 0.78% belonged to be reinfected. Conclusion: Detection of Rubella virus in exposed radiation workers was imperative, and vaccine against Rubella virus was also needed to eliminate the infection risk. (authors)

  12. Cost-effectiveness of routine varicella vaccination using the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine in France: an economic analysis based on a dynamic transmission model for varicella and herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Kavi J; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Sauboin, Christophe; Tehard, Bertrand; Alain, Sophie; Denis, François

    2015-04-01

    Each year in France, varicella and zoster affect large numbers of children and adults, resulting in medical visits, hospitalizations for varicella- and zoster-related complications, and societal costs. Disease prevention by varicella vaccination is feasible, wherein a plausible option involves replacing the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine with the combined MMR and varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This study aimed to: (1) assess the cost-effectiveness of adding routine varicella vaccination through MMRV, using different vaccination strategies in France; and (2) address key uncertainties, such as the economic consequences of breakthrough varicella cases, the waning of vaccine-conferred protection, vaccination coverage, and indirect costs. Based on the outputs of a dynamic transmission model that used data on epidemiology and costs from France, a cost-effectiveness model was built. A conservative approach was taken regarding the impact of varicella vaccination on zoster incidence by assuming the validity of the hypothesis of an age-specific boosting of immunity against varicella. The model determined that routine MMRV vaccination is expected to be a cost-effective option, considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of €20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year saved; routine vaccination was cost-saving from the societal perspective. Results were driven by a large decrease in varicella incidence despite a temporary initial increase in the number of zoster cases due to the assumption of exogenous boosting. In the scenario analyses, despite moderate changes in assumptions about incidence and costs, varicella vaccination remained a cost-effective option for France. Routine vaccination with MMRV was associated with high gains in quality-adjusted life-years, substantial reduction in the occurrences of varicella- and zoster-related complications, and few deaths due to varicella. Routine MMRV vaccination is also expected to provide reductions in costs related to

  13. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus... Clinical Laboratory Standards': (i) 1/LA6 “Detection and Quantitation of Rubella IgG Antibody: Evaluation... Products in the Clinical Laboratory, October 1997,” (ii) 1/LA18 “Specifications for Immunological Testing...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE RUBELLA IgG ANTIBODY AMONG NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    capable of causing a spectrum of birth defects described as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Despite the availability of safe and effective ... designed to determine the prevalence of anti- rubella IgG among pregnant women in order to ..... Vyse A.J., Gay N.J., White J.M., Ramsay. M.E., Brown D.W., Cohen B.J. Evolution.

  15. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka,. Zambia-Case Reports. 1,2. 3. 3. 4 ... microcephaly. Rubella Immunoglobulin M (IgM) results were positive. The third case, a girl, was seen at twelve weeks and brought in for slow growth rate. On.

  16. MMR vaccine in 14 months old children, intramuscular versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AF; Klis FRM van der; Marzec AHJO; Labadie J; Ommen R van; Strieder TG; Berbers GAM; Utrecht Stichting Thuiszorg; Amersfoort Stichting Thuiszorg Eemland (STE),; LVO

    2001-01-01

    In this study we compared the recommended subcutaneous administration of the RIVM MMR vaccine with the intramuscular administration for both safety and immunogenicity. Study subjects were 14 months old children, living in Amersfoort or Utrecht, who were eligible for their first MMR vaccination.

  17. Congenital Rubella Syndrome - A Major Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nure Ishrat Nazme

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubella is a major public health problem which is usually a mild rash illness in children and adults. However, it has devastating systemic consequences when rubella virus crosses the placental barrier and infects fetal tissue resulting in congenital rubella syndrome (CRS. Congenital rubella syndrome is an under-recognized public health problem in Bangladesh and the burden of the disease weighs heavily on patients and society; therefore, routine vaccination and other preventative strategies are strongly encouraged. Extensive surveillance studies should be conducted to eliminate CRS from our country. In this review, we will characterize the epidemiology of CRS; describe the patho-phyisiology, clinical features and laboratory testing for the disease, and discuss measures needed for prevention of rubella and CRS.

  18. Updating Standard Procedures for Diagnosis and Treatment of Congenital Rubella Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Buffolano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Rubella is the dramatic consequence of rubella during gestation. A combined strategy of Measles and Rubella universal vaccination on children and selective vaccination of susceptible women has been shown effective in the elimination of congenital rubella requiring an incidence of <1 case of CRS per 100,000 live births. Verification processes of rubella elimination require that physicians early and appropriately diagnose all cases of congenital rubella, including those unpatent at birth. The paper highlights clinical and laboratory aspects channeling diagnosis of congenital rubella infection or syndrome even after the first year of life, and the short- and long-term management criteria.

  19. Balancing evidence and uncertainty when considering rubella vaccine introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    Full Text Available Despite a safe and effective vaccine, rubella vaccination programs with inadequate coverage can raise the average age of rubella infection; thereby increasing rubella cases among pregnant women and the resulting congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in their newborns. The vaccination coverage necessary to reduce CRS depends on the birthrate in a country and the reproductive number, R0, a measure of how efficiently a disease transmits. While the birthrate within a country can be known with some accuracy, R0 varies between settings and can be difficult to measure. Here we aim to provide guidance on the safe introduction of rubella vaccine into countries in the face of substantial uncertainty in R0.We estimated the distribution of R0 in African countries based on the age distribution of rubella infection using Bayesian hierarchical models. We developed an age specific model of rubella transmission to predict the level of R0 that would result in an increase in CRS burden for specific birth rates and coverage levels. Combining these results, we summarize the safety of introducing rubella vaccine across demographic and coverage contexts.The median R0 of rubella in the African region is 5.2, with 90% of countries expected to have an R0 between 4.0 and 6.7. Overall, we predict that countries maintaining routine vaccination coverage of 80% or higher are can be confident in seeing a reduction in CRS over a 30 year time horizon.Under realistic assumptions about human contact, our results suggest that even in low birth rate settings high vaccine coverage must be maintained to avoid an increase in CRS. These results lend further support to the WHO recommendation that countries reach 80% coverage for measles vaccine before introducing rubella vaccination, and highlight the importance of maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage once the vaccine is introduced.

  20. Balancing evidence and uncertainty when considering rubella vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    Despite a safe and effective vaccine, rubella vaccination programs with inadequate coverage can raise the average age of rubella infection; thereby increasing rubella cases among pregnant women and the resulting congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in their newborns. The vaccination coverage necessary to reduce CRS depends on the birthrate in a country and the reproductive number, R0, a measure of how efficiently a disease transmits. While the birthrate within a country can be known with some accuracy, R0 varies between settings and can be difficult to measure. Here we aim to provide guidance on the safe introduction of rubella vaccine into countries in the face of substantial uncertainty in R0. We estimated the distribution of R0 in African countries based on the age distribution of rubella infection using Bayesian hierarchical models. We developed an age specific model of rubella transmission to predict the level of R0 that would result in an increase in CRS burden for specific birth rates and coverage levels. Combining these results, we summarize the safety of introducing rubella vaccine across demographic and coverage contexts. The median R0 of rubella in the African region is 5.2, with 90% of countries expected to have an R0 between 4.0 and 6.7. Overall, we predict that countries maintaining routine vaccination coverage of 80% or higher are can be confident in seeing a reduction in CRS over a 30 year time horizon. Under realistic assumptions about human contact, our results suggest that even in low birth rate settings high vaccine coverage must be maintained to avoid an increase in CRS. These results lend further support to the WHO recommendation that countries reach 80% coverage for measles vaccine before introducing rubella vaccination, and highlight the importance of maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage once the vaccine is introduced.

  1. Congenital rubella syndrome and delayed manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Several hypotheses of different medical and psychological delayed manifestations among people who have congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) have been discussed. This study tests some of these hypotheses of delayed manifestations. Methods: Gathering information about 35 individuals who hav...... which people with CRS face must primarily be understood in relation to congenital deafblindness and dual sensory and communicative deprivation....... CRS and who are congenitally deafblind. Results: None of the hypotheses could be confirmed when individuals with CRS were compared to a control group of individuals who were congenital deafblind with different aetiology than CRS. Conclusions: This study concludes that those health related problems...

  2. Image reconstruction of mMR PET data using the open source software STIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, Pawel [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Burgos, Ninon [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Manber, Richard [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Jiao, Jieqing [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Barnes, Anna [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Atkinson, David [Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Hutton, Brian F [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ourselin, Sébastien [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Dementia Research Centre, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-29

    Simultaneous PET and MR acquisitions have now become possible with the new hybrid Biograph Molecular MR (mMR) scanner from Siemens. The purpose of this work is to create a platform for mMR 3D and 4D PET image reconstruction which would be freely accessible to the community as well as fully adjustable in order to obtain optimal images for a given research task in PET imaging. The proposed platform is envisaged to prove useful in developing novel and robust image bio-markers which could then be adapted for use on the mMR scanner.

  3. Image reconstruction of mMR PET data using the open source software STIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, Pawel; Thielemans, Kris; Burgos, Ninon; Manber, Richard; Jiao, Jieqing; Barnes, Anna; Atkinson, David; Arridge, Simon R; Hutton, Brian F; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous PET and MR acquisitions have now become possible with the new hybrid Biograph Molecular MR (mMR) scanner from Siemens. The purpose of this work is to create a platform for mMR 3D and 4D PET image reconstruction which would be freely accessible to the community as well as fully adjustable in order to obtain optimal images for a given research task in PET imaging. The proposed platform is envisaged to prove useful in developing novel and robust image bio-markers which could then be adapted for use on the mMR scanner.

  4. Australian rubella serosurvey 2012-2013: On track for elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisuriya, Chathura; Beard, Frank H; Hendry, Alexandra J; Dey, Aditi; Gidding, Heather F; Hueston, Linda; Dwyer, Dominic E; Wood, James G; Macartney, Kristine K; McIntyre, Peter B

    2018-04-13

    The World Health Organization has targeted rubella virus for elimination regionally. Australia was one of the first countries to implement a nationally funded rubella immunisation program, in 1971, and conducts regular national rubella serosurveillance studies. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the Australian population by age and sex in 2012-2013, to compare the results with three previous serosurveys conducted in 1996-1999, 2002 and 2007 and to estimate the effective reproduction numbers (R n ). This study used 2729 serum and plasma specimens, randomly selected from a specimen bank collected in 2012-2013 across Australia. Age groups included in the sample ranged from 1 to 49 years. Sera were tested for rubella-specific IgG-antibody using the Enzygnost anti-rubella IgG enzyme immunoassay and classified as positive, negative or equivocal according to rubella-specific IgG concentrations of >7 IU/ml, <3 IU/ml and 3-7 IU/ml, respectively. The overall proportions seropositive, seronegative and equivocal for rubella-specific IgG were 92.1% (95% CI, 91.0-93.2), 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7-7.7) and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.8-1.6), respectively. The proportion of males seropositive was significantly lower than females in the 30-34 (83.1% vs. 96.8%, p = 0.003), 35-39 (86.1% vs. 96.3%, p = 0.02) and 40-44 (86.1% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.03) year age groups. R n for rubella in 2012-2013 was estimated to be 0.33 (95% CI 0.28-0.39). The 2012-2013 national serosurvey showed levels of rubella-specific IgG seropositivity in the Australian population are relatively high with no evidence of decrease compared to previous serosurveys conducted in 1996-1999, 2002 and 2007. The lower proportion of seropositive males aged 30-44 years likely reflects the initial immunisation program targeting females only. To our knowledge this study represents the longest period of serosurveillance following introduction of a nationally funded rubella immunisation

  5. Is hospital based MMR vaccination for children with egg allergy here to stay?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C P

    2010-01-01

    Egg allergy is incorrectly considered to constitute a contraindication to MMR in the community, despite a long history of its safe administration to egg allergic children. The product insert perpetuates this misinformation but the Irish guidelines from the RCPI are unequivocal. We reviewed all paediatric cases vaccinated in our hospital in 2007-2008. Forty seven of 91 children receiving vaccinations in hospital, had been referred for MMR due to concerns regarding egg allergy. In 32% (n=15), GP referral for vaccination was made despite correspondence from the clinic advising routine vaccination in the community. Nineteen were second MMR immunisations, which should all have occurred in the community. Unnecessary hospital referral for MMR vaccination is an extra burden on hospital resources, and causes unwarranted anxiety amongst parents of children with egg allergy. A change in practice seems difficult to achieve, as many referrals happen despite individualised correspondence to GPs and other referring clinicians outlining the current guidelines.

  6. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... child's back. Distribution is similar to that of measles, but the lesions are less intensely red. This ...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  9. Radioimmunoassay for antibodies to rubella virus and its ribonucleoprotein component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho-Terry, L.; Cohen, A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a radioimmune precipitation technique, the antibody response to intact rubella virus and its ribonucleoprotein component was measured. The method was very sensitive and reproducible, and did not require preliminary serum fractionation for the identification of antibodies of different immunoglobulin classes. The results showed that the IgA and IgG antibodies against the intact virus persisted in the sera of patients long after the initial infection. In contrast, IgA and IgG antibodies against the ribonucleoprotein component of rubella virus were detected only in sera of patients after recent rubella infection. This observation suggested that a test for antibodies to the ribonucleoprotein component may provide additional evidence in the diagnosis of recent rubella infection. This could be potentially a useful test particularly in the management of pregnant patients. (U.K.)

  10. Prevalence of rubella antibodies in a non-immunized urban population, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de anticorpos anti-vírus da rubéola em população urbana não imunizada, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda A.U.F. Souza

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of rubella antibodies was evaluated through a ramdom Seroepidemiological survey in 1400 blood samples of 2-14 year old children and in 329 samples of umbilical cord serum. Rubella IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA, and the sera were collected in 1987, five years before the mass vaccination campaign with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine carried out in the city of São Paulo in 1992. A significant increase in prevalence of rubella infection was observed after 6 years of age, and 77% of the individuals aged from 15 to 19 years had detectable rubella antibodies. However, the seroprevalence rose to 90.5% (171/189 in cord serum samples from children whose mothers were 20 to 29 years old, and reached 95.6% in newborns of mothers who were 30 to 34 years old, indicating that a large number of women are infected during childbearing years. This study confirms that rubella infection represents an important Public Health problem in São Paulo city. The data on the seroprevalence of rubella antibodies before the mass vaccination campaign reflects the baseline immunological status of this population before any intervention and should be used to design an adequate vaccination strategy and to assess the Seroepidemiological impact of this intervention.A prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da rubéola foi avaliada através de inquérito soroepidemiológico, em 1400 amostras de sangue de crianças com idade entre 2 e 14 anos e 329 amostras de soro de cordão umbilical. Anticorpos para o vírus da rubéola foram detectados pela técnica de ELISA e as amostras foram colhidas em 1987, 5 anos antes da campanha de vacinação em massa com a vacina tríplice viral realizada na cidade de São Paulo em 1992. Um aumento significativo na prevalência foi observado após 6 anos de idade, e 77% dos indivíduos entre 15 e 19 anos apresentaram anticorpos anti-rubéola. Entretanto, a soroprevalência elevou-se para 90,5% (171/189 em soros de cordão de

  11. [The relationship between MMR vaccination level and the number of new cases of autism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The MMR vaccination coverage in Malopolskie voivodeship improved rapidly and finally reached a high level during last years. The number of new cases of autism spectrum disorders in children during that time revealed a slightly rising but not significant trend, while the number of childhood autism were stable. Ecological study showed no correlation between MMR vaccination and an increased risk of childhood autism and autism spectrum disorders in children.

  12. The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case-control study in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Uchiyama, Tokio; Kurosawa, Michiko; Aleksic, Branko; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and general vaccinations, including measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, in Japanese subjects, a population with high genetic homogeneity. A case-control study was performed. Cases (n=189) were diagnosed with ASD, while controls (n=224) were volunteers from general schools, matched by sex and birth year to cases. Vaccination history and prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors from the Maternal and Child Health handbook, which was part of each subject's file, were examined. To determine the relationship between potential risk factors and ASD, crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated, and the differences in mean values of the quantitative variables between cases and controls were analyzed using an unpaired t-test. Moreover, MMR vaccination and the effect of the number of vaccine injections were investigated using a conditional multiple regression model. For MMR vaccination, the OR was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.65-1.68), and no significant differences were found for the other vaccines. For all of the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal factors, there were no significant differences between cases and controls. Furthermore, regarding the presence of ASD, MMR vaccination and the number of vaccine injections had ORs of 1.10 (95% CI, 0.64-1.90) and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.95-1.26), respectively, in the conditional multiple regression model; no significant differences were found. In this study, there were not any convincing evidences that MMR vaccination and increasing the number of vaccine injections were associated with an increased risk of ASD in a genetically homogeneous population. Therefore, these findings indicate that there is no basis for avoiding vaccination out of concern for ASD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome: global update La rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita: resumen de la situación actual en el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Robertson

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, it is estimated that there are more than 100 000 infants born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS each year. In 1998, standard case definitions for surveillance of CRS and rubella were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO. In 2001, 123 countries/territories reported a total of 836 356 rubella cases. In the future more countries are expected to report on rubella as a global measles/rubella laboratory network is further developed under the coordination of the WHO. Operational research is being conducted to improve rubella surveillance. This includes projects on initiating CRS surveillance, comparative studies on diagnostic laboratory methods, and molecular epidemiology research to expand the global understanding of patterns of rubella virus circulation. In 1996 a WHO survey found that 78 of 214 reporting countries/territories (36% were using rubella vaccine in their routine immunization services. By the end of 2002 a total of 124 of the 214 counties/territories (58% were using rubella vaccine. Rubella vaccine use varies by stage of economic development: 100% for industrialized countries, 71% for countries with economies in transition, and 48% for developing countries. A safe and effective rubella vaccine is available, and there are proven vaccination strategies for preventing rubella and CRS. A WHO position paper provides guidance on programmatic aspects of rubella vaccine introduction. The introduction of rubella vaccine is cost-effective and cost-beneficial but requires ongoing strengthening of routine immunization services and surveillance systems.Se calcula que cada año nacen en el mundo más de 100 000 niños con síndrome de rubéola congénita (SRC. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS estandarizó en 1998 las definiciones de casos para la vigilancia del SRC y de la rubéola. En 2001, 123 países o territorios notificaron 836 356 casos de rubéola y se espera que el número de países se incremente a medida que

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Yves; Habermehl, Pirmin; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile; Fiquet, Anne

    2009-04-14

    When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) compared with the subcutaneous route. An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to 18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374) or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378). Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of >or= 1.25 gpELISA units/ml). Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (vaccines was comparable regardless of administration route. Integration of both administration routes in the current European indications for the two vaccines will now allow physicians in Europe to choose their preferred administration route

  15. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  16. Znaczenie mechanizmu naprawy DNA błędnie sparowanych zasad azotowych (MMR w raku piersi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Romanowicz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microsatellite instability (MSI is due to defective DNA mismatch repair. Defects in DNA mismatch-repair (MMR genes lead to replication errors revealed as instability in microsatellite markers. Studieshave shown that breast cancer may be associated with mutations in mismatch repair genes, such as MSH2,MSH3, MSH4, MSH6, MLH1, MLH3, PMS1 and MUTYH. Aim: Results from studies that assayed MMR in sporadic breast cancer are reviewed. Conclusion: Several data suggest that microsatellite instability seems to be a risk factor for breast cancerin subjects belonging to HNPCC (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families with high incidence of thiscancer and sporadic breast cancer.

  17. Incorporating immunizations into routine obstetric care to facilitate Health Care Practitioners in implementing maternal immunization recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather; Street, Jackie; Marshall, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against pertussis, influenza, and rubella reduces morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their offspring. Health care professionals (HCPs) caring for women perinatally are uniquely placed to reduce maternal vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Despite guidelines recommending immunization during the perinatal period, maternal vaccine uptake remains low. This qualitative study explored the role of obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives in maternal vaccine uptake. Semi-structured interviews (n = 15) were conducted with perinatal HCPs at a tertiary maternity hospital in South Australia. HCPs were asked to reflect on their knowledge, beliefs, and practice relating to immunization advice and vaccine provision. Interviews were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis. Data collection and analysis was an iterative process, with collection ceasing with theoretical saturation. Participants unanimously supported maternal vaccination as an effective way of reducing risk of disease in this vulnerable population, however only rubella immunity detection and immunization is embedded in routine care. Among these professionals, delegation of responsibility for maternal immunization was unclear and knowledge about maternal immunization was variable. Influenza and pertussis vaccine prevention measures were not included in standard pregnancy record documentation, information provision to patients was "ad hoc" and vaccinations not offered on-site. The key finding was that the incorporation of maternal vaccinations into standard care through a structured process is an important facilitator for immunization uptake. Incorporating vaccine preventable disease management measures into routine obstetric care including incorporation into the Pregnancy Record would facilitate HCPs in implementing recommendations. Rubella prevention provides a useful 'template' for other vaccines.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies directed to E1 glycoprotein of rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umino, Y.; Sato, A.; Katow, S.; Matsuno, T.; Sugiura, A.

    1985-01-01

    We have prepared four monoclonal antibodies to rubella virus E1 glycoprotein. Three nonoverlapping antigenic sites were delineated on E1 protein by competitive binding assays. Antibodies binding to one site were characterized by high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer but poor neutralizing activity. The addition of antiglobulin conferred neutralizing activity. Antibodies directed to two other antigenic sites had modest hemolysis inhibition but little or no HI and neutralizing activities. The addition of antiglobulin markedly augmented HI activity but had little effect on neutralizing activity. Epitopes defined by three antibodies were conserved among four rubella virus strains examined. (Author)

  19. Nitric Oxide-Sensitive Pulmonary Hypertension in Congenital Rubella Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Raimondi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a very rare presentation of congenital virus infection. We discuss the case of complete congenital rubella syndrome presenting at echocardiography with pulmonary hypertension that worsened after ductus ligation. Cardiac catheterization showed a normal pulmonary valve and vascular tree but a PAP=40 mmHg. The infant promptly responded to inhaled nitric oxide while on mechanical ventilation and was later shifted to oral sildenafil. It is not clear whether our observation may be due to direct viral damage to the endothelium or to the rubella virus increasing the vascular tone via a metabolic derangement.

  20. A mixed outbreak of rubeola-rubella in district Kangra of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender N Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 14 th September 2006, a local community leader informed us about the sudden increase in number of cases of fever and rash in five villages of district Kangra. We investigated the suspected outbreak to confirm the diagnosis and recommend for prevention and control. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of rubeola as the occurrence of fever with rash in children from 3 rd September to 13 th January, 2007. We collected information on age, sex, date of onset, residence, signs, symptoms, vaccination and cold chain status. We described the outbreak by place, time and person characteristics. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate vaccine efficacy (VE. We ascertained the measles immunization status by interviewing the mothers and reviewing immunization cards. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, epidemiologically and serologically. Results: We identified 60 case patients in five villages (41/60 rubeola and 11/60 confirmed epidemiologically linked unvaccinated rubella. The overall attack rate (AR was 9%. Sex specific AR was 11% for male. Majorities of cases were >5 years of age. No death/minimal complications have occurred. Of 60 case-patients, 42 (70% were vaccinated for rubeola. The AR of rubeola among unvaccinated children was 25.8% as compared to AR among vaccinated of 4.5% (relative risk: 5.75%; 95% confidence interval: 3.48-9.51 P < 0.001. We estimated general VE to be 83% while gender based VE for male was 84%. Eight case-patients were confirmed serologically for measles immunoglobin M antibodies, two nasopharyngeal swabs positive by polymerase chain reaction. Rubeola virus was genotyped D4. Only 30% (18/60 of the cases took the treatment from modern system of medicine. Conclusion: A mixed outbreak of rubeola/rubella was confirmed clinically, epidemiologically and serologically. We recommend measles and rubella (MR vaccination at the age of 18-24 months and aggressive Information, Education and Communication (IEC

  1. A comparison study between RIA and HI procedures for Rubella in a small laboratory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardos, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Two different kits of Rubella Antibody determinations were compared; one, the HI, or Hemoagglutination Inhibition, and the other, an RIA or Radioimmunoassay. Both procedures were quite accurate, adequate, and reproducible, but the RIA procedure was found to be slightly more sensitive than the HI procedure. Two hundred and fifty pregnant women were tested and classified as to origin, background, and race. There was no difference in determination results on those bases. The American Black women had a higher percentage of immunity than the American Anglo-Saxon and European background women. The Latin American patients ranged with the American Black women along with the SE Asian women as far as the percent of immunity was concerned. RIA appears to be more sensitive than HI, especially where a finer delineation is required between immune and non-immune patient results. As far as performance is concerned, the RIA procedure is less complicated and, therefore, less vulnerable to human error. The HI procedure, though quite reproducible and an excellent diagnostic tool, is more time consuming and more involved so the chance for human error in that procedure might be increased

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and opinions towards measles and the MMR vaccine across two NSW cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Daniel; Edwards, Matthew; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-12-01

    Although the number of national measles cases has greatly decreased since 1980s, there has been resurgence in disease incidence in recent years. While parental knowledge and attitudes toward both disease and vaccinations are known to influence vaccine uptake, the contribution of these factors toward vaccination rates in NSW populations has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and opinions on measles and MMR vaccine in NSW Central and North Coast regions. Parents (n=201) of children <12 years were surveyed with a purpose design survey at public beaches at the Central Coast and community markets at the North Coast. Eight per cent of respondents reported not immunising their child with MMR vaccine. Most respondents recognised that measles is a highly contagious disease. Non-immunisers were found to be older, had a lower perceived severity of measles, were less likely to agree with the efficacy and safety of the vaccine, and were more likely to have encountered someone who had suffered side-effects of the vaccine. There is considerable concern over safety of MMR vaccine among non-immunisers. Implications for public health: Improving confidence in MMR vaccine should be a target of future public health interventions. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Alkylation damage causes MMR-dependent chromosomal instability in vertebrate embryos.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feitsma, H.; Akay, A.; Cuppen, E.

    2008-01-01

    S(N)1-type alkylating agents, like N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), are potent mutagens. Exposure to alkylating agents gives rise to O(6)-alkylguanine, a modified base that is recognized by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins but is not repairable, resulting in

  4. Parental decision-making in uptake of the MMR vaccination: a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, N; Harden, J

    2015-12-01

    Controversy has surrounded MMR vaccination in the aftermath of Wakefield's 1998 paper suggesting links between MMR and the development of pervasive developmental disorder in children. The paper sparked off media debate and contributed to a lack of parental trust in health-care providers and reduction in MMR uptake. This review aims to identify and evaluate research on the subject, with a view to present the reasons behind, and influences on parental decision-making in relation to MMR. Systematic search strategy identified 14 relevant papers on which thematic analysis was performed. Themes identified were categorized as follows: perceptions of risk; roles and responsibility; experience and knowledge. There were limited changes in parental decision-making factors over the time period despite an increase in uptake. Many studies fail to differentiate between accepters and rejecters, making it difficult to draw out clear conclusions. Policymakers need to adapt information provided to address these concerns. Future research should focus more on distinguishing between accepters and rejecters to determine which factors can alter outcome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Quantitative comparison of PET performance—Siemens Biograph mCT and mMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlberg, Anna M.; Sæther, Oddbjørn [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Olav Kyrres gt 17, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Eikenes, Live [Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Postbox 8905, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Goa, Pål Erik [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Olav Kyrres gt 17, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-02-25

    Integrated clinical whole-body PET/MR systems were introduced in 2010. In order to bring this technology into clinical usage, it is of great importance to compare the performance with the well-established PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate PET performance, with focus on image quality, on Siemens Biograph mMR (PET/MR) and Siemens Biograph mCT (PET/CT). A direct quantitative comparison of the performance characteristics between the mMR and mCT system was performed according to National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 protocol. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, count rate and image quality were evaluated. The evaluation was supplemented with additional standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements. The spatial resolution was similar for the two systems. Average sensitivity was higher for the mMR (13.3 kcps/MBq) compared to the mCT system (10.0 kcps/MBq). Peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was slightly higher for the mMR (196 kcps @ 24.4 kBq/mL) compared to the mCT (186 kcps @ 30.1 kBq/mL). Scatter fractions in the clinical activity concentration range yielded lower values for the mCT (34.9 %) compared to those for the mMR (37.0 %). Best image quality of the systems resulted in approximately the same mean hot sphere contrast and a difference of 19 percentage points (pp) in mean cold contrast, in favour of the mCT. In general, point spread function (PSF) increased hot contrast and time of flight (TOF) increased both hot and cold contrast. Highest hot contrast for the smallest sphere (10 mm) was achieved with the combination of TOF and PSF on the mCT. Lung residual error was higher for the mMR (22 %) than that for the mCT (17 %), with no effect of PSF. With TOF, lung residual error was reduced to 8 % (mCT). SUV was accurate for both systems, but PSF caused overestimations for the 13-, 17- and 22-mm spheres. Both systems proved good performance characteristics, and the PET image quality of the mMR was close to that of the m

  6. Mumps vaccine associated orchitis: Evidence supporting a potential immune-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Vanessa; Wadsley, Jane; Jenner, Bernard; Buttery, Jim P

    2010-03-19

    We report 3 cases of orchitis following vaccination with mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine, two with an onset within 3 days following vaccination. Orchitis is a common complication of mumps infection, particularly in post-pubertal males, and is also recognized as a very rare complication of mumps vaccination. These cases, discussed together with a comprehensive review of the existing literature regarding post-vaccine orchitis, highlight uncertainty regarding the pathogenesis of post-vaccine orchitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How do physicians immunize their own children? Differences among pediatricians and nonpediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Heininger, Ulrich; Aebi, Christoph; Desgrandchamps, Daniel; Vaudaux, Bernard; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2005-11-01

    to be women and to work in private practice than nonpediatricians but less likely to belong to a self-reported alternative medicine association. Among the nonpediatricians, 317 were general practitioners, 144 were internists, and 95 were other specialists. Ninety-two percent of pediatricians followed the official immunization recommendations for their own children. In contrast, after controlling for gender, workplace, type of practice, and year of diploma, nonpediatricians were more likely not to have immunized their children against measles, mumps, hepatitis B, or Haemophilus influenzae type b. They more frequently postponed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.0-10.19) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. Although projected immunization rates were higher than effective rates, 10% of nonpediatricians would still not follow the official immunization recommendations in 2004. They would more frequently refrain from using combination vaccines and postpone DTP and MMR immunization to later in life. Several comparisons confirmed the weaker use of the more recently licensed vaccines by nonpediatricians. In addition to vaccines currently recommended in Switzerland, both groups of physicians added hepatitis A, influenza, and varicella vaccines to the vaccination schedule of their own children. Pediatricians were more likely to give pneumococcal (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.004-4.68) and meningococcal C (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.62-3.17) vaccines to their own children. In contrast, they were less likely to give tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccine (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.44-0.95). Ninety-three percent of the surveyed physicians agree with the current official vaccination recommendations and would apply them to their own children. However, the observation that 5% of nonpediatricians would not use Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine if they had a child born in 2004 is unexpected and concerning. In contrast, both groups gave additional vaccines than those

  8. Dynamic and Control Analysis of Modular Multi-Parallel Rectifiers (MMR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Firuz; Ghosh, Arindam; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents dynamic analysis of a Modular Multi-Parallel Rectifier (MMR) based on state-space modelling and analysis. The proposed topology is suitable for high power application which can reduce line current harmonics emissions significantly. However, a proper controller is required...... to share and control current through each rectifier. Mathematical analysis and preliminary simulations have been carried out to verify the proposed controller under different operating conditions....

  9. Curcumin Chemosensitizes 5-Fluorouracil Resistant MMR-Deficient Human Colon Cancer Cells in High Density Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Buhrmann, Constanze; Kraehe, Patricia; Shayan, Parviz; Lueders, Cora; Goel, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50-60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin) in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status and CSC ac...

  10. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50-60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR status and CSC activity in 3D cultures of CRC cells. METHODS: High density 3D cultures of CRC cell lines HCT116, HCT116+ch3 (complemented with chromosome 3 and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemo-resistant derivative clones (HCT116R, HCT116+ch3R were treated with 5-FU either without or with curcumin in time- and dose-dependent assays. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of 5-FU on HCT116R and HCR116+ch3R cells, in contrast to 5-FU alone as evidenced by increased disintegration of colonospheres, enhanced apoptosis and by inhibiting their growth. Curcumin and/or 5-FU strongly affected MMR-deficient CRC cells in high density cultures, however MMR-proficient CRC cells were more sensitive. These effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU were further supported by its ability to effectively suppress CSC pools as evidenced by decreased number of CSC marker positive cells, highlighting the suitability of this 3D culture model for evaluating CSC marker expression in a close to vivo setting. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate novel and previously unrecognized effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitization to 5-FU-based chemotherapy on DNA MMR-deficient and their chemo-resistant counterparts by targeting the CSC sub-population. (246 words in abstract.

  11. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Buhrmann, Constanze; Kraehe, Patricia; Shayan, Parviz; Lueders, Cora; Goel, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50-60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin) in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status and CSC activity in 3D cultures of CRC cells. High density 3D cultures of CRC cell lines HCT116, HCT116+ch3 (complemented with chromosome 3) and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemo-resistant derivative clones (HCT116R, HCT116+ch3R) were treated with 5-FU either without or with curcumin in time- and dose-dependent assays. Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of 5-FU on HCT116R and HCR116+ch3R cells, in contrast to 5-FU alone as evidenced by increased disintegration of colonospheres, enhanced apoptosis and by inhibiting their growth. Curcumin and/or 5-FU strongly affected MMR-deficient CRC cells in high density cultures, however MMR-proficient CRC cells were more sensitive. These effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU were further supported by its ability to effectively suppress CSC pools as evidenced by decreased number of CSC marker positive cells, highlighting the suitability of this 3D culture model for evaluating CSC marker expression in a close to vivo setting. Our results illustrate novel and previously unrecognized effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitization to 5-FU-based chemotherapy on DNA MMR-deficient and their chemo-resistant counterparts by targeting the CSC sub-population. (246 words in abstract).

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT ASSESSMENT OF A MELT-DOWN PROOF MODULAR MICRO REACTOR (MDP-MMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Venneri, Francesco

    2018-04-02

    The objective of this project is to perform feasibility assessment and technology gap analysis and establish a development roadmap for an innovative and highly compact Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) concept that integrates power production, power conversion and electricity generation in a single unit. The MMR is envisioned to use fully ceramic micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a particularly robust form of TRISO fuel, and to be gas-cooled (e.g., He or CO2) and capable of generating power in the range of 10 to 40 MW-thermal. It is designed to be absolutely melt-down proof (MDP) under all circumstances including complete loss of coolant scenarios with no possible release of radioactive material, to be factory produced, to have a cycle length of greater than 20 years, and to be highly proliferation resistant. In addition, it will be transportable, retrievable and suitable for use in remote areas. As such, the MDP-MMR will represent a versatile reactor concept that is suitable for use in various applications including electricity generation, process heat utilization and propulsion.

  13. Intentions to use a novel Zika vaccine: the effects of misbeliefs about the MMR vaccine and perceptions about Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Yotam; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2018-03-15

    People's intentions to use vaccines are influenced by their beliefs about both the specific vaccine and the disease it prevents. In the absence of firm beliefs about Zika virus (ZIKV), individuals may base their intentions to vaccinate against it on beliefs about other vaccines, and specifically the misbelief that MMR causes autism. A survey of 3337 Americans, using a random-digit-dialing sample of landline telephone households and cell-phones. Intentions to use a Zika vaccine were influenced by beliefs about Zika, science in general, and MMR. Intentions were positively influenced by perceived severity of and vulnerability to Zika, as well as belief in science's efficacy. However, intentions were negatively influenced by the belief that MMR causes autism in children. The misbelief about MMR and autism may reduce people's intentions to use a new Zika vaccine. However, perceptions of severity of and vulnerability to Zika may increase intentions. Implications for science educators and public health officials are discussed.

  14. Benefits and challenges in using sero-prevalence data to inform models for measles and rubella elimination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, A K; Martinez, M E; Cutts, F T; Moss, W J; Ferrari, M; McKee, A; Lessler, J; Hayford, K; Wallinga, J; Metcalf, C J E

    2018-01-01

    Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use

  15. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA, RUBELLA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS -2 IN WOMEN WITH BAD OBSTETRIC HISTORY. PART I: TOXOPLASMA AND RUBELLA INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bad obstetric history (BOH is associated with social and psychological impacts on society worldwide. The causes of BOH may be genetic, hormonal, abnormal maternal immune response, and maternal infection. In women with bad obstetric history (BOH, Toxoplasma (T IgG high rate has been reported for Nepal (55.2%, while high (42.5% and lowest (6.97% active toxoplasma infections has been reported for India. In Arab countries, IgG and IgM higher and lowest seroprevalence rates were for Iraq. The higher susceptibility rates for Rubella in Arab countries excluding Iraq were reported in Morocco (83.4%, Sudan (34.7%, Qatar (25.1%, and Tunisia (20.3%. The lowest susceptibility was reported for Saudi Arabia (6.7%. In Iraq, studies indicate a high susceptibility rates in Thi Qar (98.05%, Kirkuk (91%, Baghdad (79%, and Waset (45.7%. The lowest susceptibility rates were reported for Diyala (0% in women with previous abortion, and 3.9% in pregnant women without history of BOH.

  16. Early Onset Optic Neuritis Following Measles-Rubella Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moradian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of optic neuritis with onset less than 24 hours following measles-rubella (MR vaccination. CASE REPORT: Two teenage patients developed acute optic neuritis 6 to 7 hours after MR booster vaccination. The first patient demonstrated bilateral papillitis and severe visual loss but improved significantly with pulse intravenous steroid therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/day. The second patient had unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and demonstrated excellent visual recovery without intervention. CONCLUSION: Acute optic neuritis is a rare complication of MR vaccination and may occur early after immunization.

  1. Cross calibration of the Siemens mMR: easily acquired accurate PET phantom measurements, long term stability and reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Sune H [Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jakoby, Bjorn [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Hansen, Adam Espe; Svalling, Susanne; Klausen, Thomas L [Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-18

    We present a quick and easy method to perform quantitatively accurate PET scans of typical water-filled PET plastic shell phantoms on the Siemens mMR PET/MR scanner. We perform regular cross calibrations (Xcals) of our PET scanners, including the Siemens mMR PET/MR, with a Siemens mCT water phantom. We evaluate the mMR cross calibration stability over a 3-year period. Recently, the mMR software (VB20P) offered the option of using predefined μ-maps. We evaluated this option by using either the predefined μ-map of the long mMR water phantom or a system-integrated user defined CT-based μ-map of the mCT water phantom used for Xcal. On 54 cross calibrations that were acquired over 3 years, the mMR on average underestimated the concentration by 16% due to the use of MR-based μ-maps. The mMR produced the narrowest range and lowest standard deviation of the Xcal ratios, implying it and is the most stable of the 6 scanners included in this study over a 3 year period. With correctly segmented μ-maps, the mMR produced Xcal ratios of 1.00-1.02, well within the acceptance range [0.95-1.05]. Measuring the concentration in a centrally placed cylindrical VOI allows for some robustness against misregistration of the μ-maps but it should be no more than a few millimeters in the x-y plane, while the tolerance is larger on the z-axis (when, as always with PET, keeping clear of the axial edges of the FOV). The mMR is the most stable scanner in this study and the mean underestimation is no longer an issue with the easily accessible μ-map, which in all 7 tests resulted in correct Xcal ratios. We will share the user defined μ-map of the mCT phantom and the protocol with interested mMR users.

  2. Cross calibration of the Siemens mMR: easily acquired accurate PET phantom measurements, long term stability and reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Sune H; Jakoby, Bjorn; Hansen, Adam Espe; Svalling, Susanne; Klausen, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    We present a quick and easy method to perform quantitatively accurate PET scans of typical water-filled PET plastic shell phantoms on the Siemens mMR PET/MR scanner. We perform regular cross calibrations (Xcals) of our PET scanners, including the Siemens mMR PET/MR, with a Siemens mCT water phantom. We evaluate the mMR cross calibration stability over a 3-year period. Recently, the mMR software (VB20P) offered the option of using predefined μ-maps. We evaluated this option by using either the predefined μ-map of the long mMR water phantom or a system-integrated user defined CT-based μ-map of the mCT water phantom used for Xcal. On 54 cross calibrations that were acquired over 3 years, the mMR on average underestimated the concentration by 16% due to the use of MR-based μ-maps. The mMR produced the narrowest range and lowest standard deviation of the Xcal ratios, implying it and is the most stable of the 6 scanners included in this study over a 3 year period. With correctly segmented μ-maps, the mMR produced Xcal ratios of 1.00-1.02, well within the acceptance range [0.95-1.05]. Measuring the concentration in a centrally placed cylindrical VOI allows for some robustness against misregistration of the μ-maps but it should be no more than a few millimeters in the x-y plane, while the tolerance is larger on the z-axis (when, as always with PET, keeping clear of the axial edges of the FOV). The mMR is the most stable scanner in this study and the mean underestimation is no longer an issue with the easily accessible μ-map, which in all 7 tests resulted in correct Xcal ratios. We will share the user defined μ-map of the mCT phantom and the protocol with interested mMR users.

  3. Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Israel: High Proportion of Founder Mutations in MMR Genes and Consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Barnes-Kedar, Inbal; Toledano, Helen; Halpern, Marisa; Hershkovitz, Dov; Lossos, Alexander; Lerer, Israela; Peretz, Tamar; Kariv, Revital; Cohen, Shlomi; Half, Elizabeth E; Magal, Nurit; Drasinover, Valerie; Wimmer, Katharina; Goldberg, Yael; Bercovich, Dani; Levi, Zohar

    2016-03-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in any of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, cause Lynch syndrome (LS), an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome conferring a high risk of colorectal, endometrial, and other cancers in adulthood. Offspring of couples where both spouses have LS have a 1:4 risk of inheriting biallelic MMR gene mutations. These cause constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, a severe recessively inherited cancer syndrome with a broad tumor spectrum including mainly hematological malignancies, brain tumors, and colon cancer in childhood and adolescence. Many CMMRD children also present with café au lait spots and axillary freckling mimicking neurofibromatosis type 1. We describe our experience in seven CMMRD families demonstrating the role and importance of founder mutations and consanguinity on its prevalence. Clinical presentations included brain tumors, colon cancer, lymphoma, and small bowel cancer. In children from two nonconsanguineous Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) families, the common Ashkenazi founder mutations were detected; these were homozygous in one family and compound heterozygous in the other. In four consanguineous families of various ancestries, different homozygous mutations were identified. In a nonconsanguineous Caucasus/AJ family, lack of PMS2 was demonstrated in tumor and normal tissues; however, mutations were not identified. CMMRD is rare, but, especially in areas where founder mutations for LS and consanguinity are common, pediatricians should be aware of it since they are the first to encounter these children. Early diagnosis will enable tailored cancer surveillance in the entire family and a discussion regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Essential oils from Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida and C. rubella (Myrtaceae Óleos essenciais de Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida and C. rubella (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira Limberger

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida and C. rubella, collected in Southern Brazil, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing about 98% of the oil contents. All samples were rich in cyclic sesquiterpenes (more than 90 %, mainly those from cadinane, bisabolane and germacrane cyclization pathway. The mainly components characterized were bicyclogermacrene (22.1% in C. concinna;11.7% in C. rubella, cis-calamenene (10.3% in C. concinna, beta-caryophyllene (16.5% in C. rubella; 9.4% in C. lucida, beta-bisabolene (25.5% in C. lucida, spathulenol (15.4% in C. rubella and caryophyllene oxide (7.6% in C. concinna.Os óleos essenciais de Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida e C. rubella, coletadas no sul do Brasil, foram analisados por GC/FID e GC/MS. Sessenta e dois constituintes foram identificados representando cerca de 98% do óleo. Todas as amostras mostraram-se ricas em sesquiterpenos cíclicos (mais de 90%, principalmente aquelas da via de ciclização dos cadinanos, bisabolanos e germacranos. Os principais constituintes caracterizados foram biciclogermacreno (22,1% em C. concinna; 11,7% em C. rubella, cis-calameneno (10,3% em C. concinna, betacariofileno (16,5% em C. rubella; 9,4% em C. lucida, beta-bisaboleno (25,5% em C. lucida, espatulenol (15,4% em C. rubella e óxido de cariofileno (7,6% em C. concinna.

  5. Performance Estimation of Supercritical Co2 Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) for Varying Cooling Air Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2015-01-01

    A Small Modular Reactor (SMR) receives interests for the various application such as electricity co-generation, small-scale power generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. As a part of SMR development, supercritical CO2 Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) of 36.2MWth in power is under development by the KAIST research team. To enhance the mobility, the entire system including the power conversion system is designed for the full modularization. Based on the preliminary design, the thermal efficiency is 31.5% when CO2 is sufficiently cooled to the design temperature. A supercritical CO2 MMR is designed to supply electricity to the remote regions. The ambient temperature of the area can influence the compressor inlet temperature as the reactor is cooled with the atmospheric air. To estimate the S-CO2 cycle performance for various environmental conditions, A quasi-static analysis code is developed. For the off design performance of S-CO2 turbomachineries, the experimental result of Sandia National Lab (SNL) is utilized

  6. Measles and rubella elimination: learning from polio eradication and moving forward with a diagonal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Alexander, James P; Linkins, Robert W; Orenstein, Walter A

    2017-12-01

    In 1988, an estimated 350,000 children were paralyzed by polio and 125 countries reported polio cases, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution to achieve polio eradication by 2000, and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established as a partnership focused on eradication. Today, following eradication efforts, polio cases have decreased >99% and eradication of all three types of wild polioviruses is approaching. However, since polio resources substantially support disease surveillance and other health programs, losing polio assets could reverse progress toward achieving Global Vaccine Action Plan goals. Areas covered: As the end of polio approaches and GPEI funds and capacity decrease, we document knowledge, experience, and lessons learned from 30 years of polio eradication. Expert commentary: Transitioning polio assets to measles and rubella (MR) elimination efforts would accelerate progress toward global vaccination coverage and equity. MR elimination feasibility and benefits have long been established. Focusing efforts on MR elimination after achieving polio eradication would make a permanent impact on reducing child mortality but should be done through a 'diagonal approach' of using measles disease transmission to identify areas possibly susceptible to other vaccine-preventable diseases and to strengthen the overall immunization and health systems to achieve disease-specific goals.

  7. Analysis of gene expression in fetal and adult cells infected with rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Maria Pilar; Zapata, Marta; Frey, Teryl K.

    2008-01-01

    Congenital infection with rubella virus (RUB) leads to persistent infection and congenital defects and we showed previously that primary human fetal fibroblasts did not undergo apoptosis when infected with RUB, which could promote fetal virus persistence [Adamo, P., Asis, L., Silveyra, P., Cuffini, C., Pedranti, M., Zapata, M., 2004. Rubella virus does not induce apoptosis in primary human embryo fibroblasts cultures: a possible way of viral persistence in congenital infection. Viral Immunol. 17, 87-100]. To extend this observation, gene chip analysis was performed on a line of primary human fetal fibroblasts (10 weeks gestation) and a line of human adult lung fibroblasts (which underwent apoptosis in response to RUB infection) to compare gene expression in infected and uninfected cells. A total of 632 and 516 genes were upregulated or downregulated in the infected fetal and adult cells respectively in comparison to uninfected cells, however only 52 genes were regulated in both cell types. Although the regulated genes were different, across functional gene categories the patterns of gene regulation were similar. In general, regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes following infection appeared to favor apoptosis in the adult cells and lack of apoptosis in the fetal cells, however there was a greater relative expression of anti-apoptotic genes and reduced expression of pro-apoptotic genes in uninfected fetal cells versus uninfected adult cells and thus the lack of apoptosis in fetal cells following RUB infection was also due to the prevailing background of gene expression that is antagonistic to apoptosis. In support of this hypothesis, it was found that of a battery of five chemicals known to induce apoptosis, two induced apoptosis in the adult cells, but not in fetal cells, and two induced apoptosis more rapidly in the adult cells than in fetal cells (the fifth did not induce apoptosis in either). A robust interferon-stimulated gene response was induced

  8. Cancer risk and survival in path_MMR carriers by gene and gender up to 75 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN......%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment...

  9. Fetal and neonatal abnormalities due to congenital rubella syndrome: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazigi, Alexandre; De Pecoulas, Aurelia Eldin; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Picone, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Rubella virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). We aimed to describe the abnormalities in order to define the ultrasound features to look for when performing prenatal scans. The goal of this review is to focus specifically on the signs of CRS accessible to prenatal diagnosis. We analyzed every case of CRS described before and/or after birth that we identified in the Pubmed database and classified them as accessible or not to prenatal diagnosis. The most frequently reported malformations accessible to prenatal diagnosis were: cardiac septal defects, pulmonary artery stenosis, microcephaly, cataract, microphtalmia, and hepatosplenomegaly. This extensive literature review shows that the ultrasound features of CRS are not well known, even though rubella was the first teratogenic virus described. This review will help clinicians in the management of rubella during pregnancy by clarifying the findings to be sought.

  10. Sero-prevalence of IgM antibody to Rubella Virus in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2014-09-05

    Sep 5, 2014 ... Rubella is a contagious viral infection, which in pregnant women leads to infection of a developing fetus .... health care administrators and providers in. Nigeria to initiate a ... oral consent was obtained from both pregnant and ...

  11. Epstein–Barr Virus, but Not Cytomegalovirus, Latency Accelerates the Decay of Childhood Measles and Rubella Vaccine Responses—A 10-Year Follow-up of a Swedish Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintare Lasaviciute

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEpstein–Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are ubiquitous and persistent herpesviruses commonly acquired during childhood. Both viruses have a significant impact on the immune system, especially through mediating the establishment of cellular immunity, which keeps these viruses under control for life. Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of latent EBV and CMV infection on rubella- and measles-specific antibody responses as well as on the B-cell compartment in a prospective birth cohort followed during the first 10 years of life.MethodsIgG titers against rubella and measles vaccines were measured in plasma obtained from the same donors at 2, 5, and 10 years of age. Peripheral B-cell subsets were evaluated ex vivo at 2 and 5 years of age. Factors related to optimal B-cell responses including IL-21 and CXCL13 levels in plasma were measured at all-time points.ResultsEBV carriage in the absence of CMV associated with an accelerated decline of rubella and measles-specific IgG levels (p = 0.003 and p = 0.019, respectively, linear mixed model analysis, while CMV carriage in the absence of EBV associated with delayed IgG decay over time for rubella (p = 0.034. At 5 years of age, EBV but not CMV latency associated with a lower percentage of plasmablasts, but higher IL-21 levels in the circulation.ConclusionOur findings suggest that EBV carriage in the absence of CMV influences the B-cell compartment and the dynamics of antibody responses over time during steady state in the otherwise healthy host.

  12. Genomic identification of founding haplotypes reveals the history of the selfing species Capsella rubella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Brandvain

    Full Text Available The shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. Until recently, however, a genome-wide view of this transition has been obscured by both a dearth of appropriate data and the lack of appropriate population genomic methods to interpret such data. Here, we present a novel population genomic analysis detailing the origin of the selfing species, Capsella rubella, which recently split from its outcrossing sister, Capsella grandiflora. Due to the recency of the split, much of the variation within C. rubella is also found within C. grandiflora. We can therefore identify genomic regions where two C. rubella individuals have inherited the same or different segments of ancestral diversity (i.e. founding haplotypes present in C. rubella's founder(s. Based on this analysis, we show that C. rubella was founded by multiple individuals drawn from a diverse ancestral population closely related to extant C. grandiflora, that drift and selection have rapidly homogenized most of this ancestral variation since C. rubella's founding, and that little novel variation has accumulated within this time. Despite the extensive loss of ancestral variation, the approximately 25% of the genome for which two C. rubella individuals have inherited different founding haplotypes makes up roughly 90% of the genetic variation between them. To extend these findings, we develop a coalescent model that utilizes the inferred frequency of founding haplotypes and variation within founding haplotypes to estimate that C. rubella was founded by a potentially large number of individuals between 50 and 100 kya, and has subsequently experienced a twenty-fold reduction in its effective population size. As population genomic data from an increasing number of outcrossing/selfing pairs are generated, analyses like the one developed here will facilitate a fine-scaled view of the evolutionary and demographic impact of the

  13. Radioimmunoprecipitation and immunoblot studies of antibodies to rubella virus in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvenes, M.B.; Kalland, K.H.; Haukenes, G.

    1994-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (AICAH) and some other chronic liver disorders often have very high titres of rubella HI antibodies. In the present study sera from 46 patients with chronic liver disease and controls were examined for rubella antibodies using radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and Western blot. RIPA appeared to be more suitable than Western blot for the study of the individual antibody specificities provided that proteins (possibly actin) interfering with the resolution of the E2 glycoprotein band are identified. It was shown that patients with high rubella HI titres reacted strongly against the E1 glycoprotein and in general also against the core protein (C). Reactivity to the E2 glycoprotein was detected with all sera from patients with chronic liver disease but varied more in strength. Three patients with post-acute rubella showed very faint E2 reactivity, but strong E1 and C reactivities. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis had normal HI titres and showed no increase in reactivity in RIPA. The present findings show that patients with chronic liver disease and high rubella HI antibody titres exhibit an enhanced specific antibody response to rubella virus structural proteins. (authors)

  14. Congenital rubella syndrome: a review of laboratory data from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, T S; Rozainanee, M Z; Asshikin, R Nurul; Zainah, S

    2013-05-01

    Rubella infection in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to fetal anomalies, commonly known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The objective of our study was to analyze the serological test results among infants suspected of having CRS aged Malaysia were examined for rubella specific IgM and IgG antibodies using a Axsym, automated analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). Forty-eight samples were positive for rubella specific IgM antibodies and 494 samples were positive for rubella specific IgG antibodies. These were then age stratified and their clinical history reviewed for any CRS symptoms. Fifteen of 38 rubella IgM positive infants (39.5%) aged < 3 months, had a clinical appearance compatible with CRS. However, only 1 IgM positive infant aged 3 to 6 months and one infant aged 7 to 11 months had clinical appearance compatible with CRS. The most common abnormal findings in these cases were congenital heart defects and cataracts. Forty-eight point eight percent of IgM positive cases and 53.1% of IgG positive cases, had inadequate information in the chart to determine the presence of CRS. Clinical findings and timely laboratory diagnosis to determine the presence of CRS are important in infants born with congenital defects. Physicians should also be aware of the appropriate interpretation of these findings.

  15. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Juan; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Tzeng, Wen-Ping; Frey, Teryl K.; Fernandez, Jose J.; Risco, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Viral factories are complex structures in the infected cell where viruses compartmentalize their life cycle. Rubella virus (RUBV) assembles factories by recruitment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), mitochondria and Golgi around modified lysosomes known as cytopathic vacuoles or CPVs. These organelles contain active replication complexes that transfer replicated RNA to assembly sites in Golgi membranes. We have studied the structure of RUBV factory in three dimensions by electron tomography and freeze-fracture. CPVs contain stacked membranes, rigid sheets, small vesicles and large vacuoles. These membranes are interconnected and in communication with the endocytic pathway since they incorporate endocytosed BSA-gold. RER and CPVs are coupled through protein bridges and closely apposed membranes. Golgi vesicles attach to the CPVs but no tight contacts with mitochondria were detected. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the mitochondrial protein p32 is an abundant component around and inside CPVs where it could play important roles in factory activities.

  16. Updated data on effective and safe immunizations with live-attenuated vaccines for children after living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Hoshino, Ken; Takahashi, Takao; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2015-01-29

    Although immunizations using live-attenuated vaccines are not recommended for children post-liver transplant due to their theoretical risks, they will inevitably encounter vaccine-preventable viral diseases upon returning to real-life situations. The window of opportunity for vaccination is usually limited prior to transplantation because these children often have unstable disease courses. Also, vaccine immunity does not always persist after transplantation. Beginning in 2002, subcutaneous immunizations with four individual live-attenuated vaccines (measles, rubella, varicella, and mumps) to pediatric patients following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were performed for those who fulfilled the clinical criteria, including humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Written informed consent was collected. We included the study on 70 immunizations for 18 cases that we reported in 2008 (Shinjoh et al., 2008). A total of 196 immunizations were administered to 48 pediatric post-LDLT recipients. Of these, 144 were first immunizations and 52 were repeated immunizations following LDLT. The seroconversion rates at the first dose for measles (AIK-C), rubella (TO-336), varicella (Oka), and mumps (Hoshino) were 100% (36/36), 100% (35/35), 70% (23/33), and 75% (24/32), respectively. Antibody levels did not fall over time in patients immunized with rubella vaccine. Three mild cases of breakthrough varicella were observed. Two cases with transient parotid gland swelling were observed after mumps immunization. Two admissions because of fever at 2-3 weeks after the measles vaccine were reported but the patients had no symptoms of measles. Immunizations using selected live-attenuated vaccines were safe and effective for post-LDLT children who were not severely immunosuppressed. However, with the exception of rubella, repeated immunization may be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Congenital rubella still a public health problem in Italy: analysis of national surveillance data from 2005 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, C; Filia, A; Rota, M C; Del Manso, M; Declich, S; Nacca, G; Rizzuto, E; Bella, A

    2015-04-23

    In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian national measles and rubella elimination plan aims to reduce the incidence of congenital rubella cases to less than one case per 100,000 live births by the end of 2015. We report national surveillance data for congenital rubella and rubella in pregnancy from 2005 to 2013. A total of 75 congenital rubella infections were reported; the national annual mean incidence was 1.5/100,000 live births, including probable and confirmed cases according to European Union case definition. Two peaks occurred in 2008 and 2012 (5.0 and 3.6/100,000 respectively). Overall, 160 rubella infections in pregnancy were reported; 69/148 women were multiparous and 38/126 had had a rubella antibody test before pregnancy. Among reported cases, there were 62 infected newborns, 31 voluntary abortions, one stillbirth and one spontaneous abortion. A total of 24 newborns were unclassified and 14 women were lost to follow-up, so underestimation is likely. To improve follow-up of cases, systematic procedures for monitoring infected mothers and children were introduced in 2013. To prevent congenital rubella, antibody screening before pregnancy and vaccination of susceptible women, including post-partum and post-abortum vaccination, should be promoted. Population coverage of two doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of ≥ 95% should be maintained and knowledge of health professionals improved.

  18. Measles, Rubella and Varicella IgG Seroprevalence in a Large Refugee Cohort in Germany in 2015: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Alexandra; Happle, Christine; Wetzke, Martin; Dopfer, Christian; Merkesdal, Sonja; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Behrens, Georg M N; Solbach, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    The current extent of migration to the European continent is associated with exceptional humanitarian challenges. In 2015, Western Europe faced an enormous immigration of refugees with largely unknown protection status against communicable diseases. To adapt vaccination strategies, we aimed at assessing seroprevalences against three of the most relevant vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) in a large representative cohort. IgG seroprevalences for rubella, varicella (n = 554) and measles (n = 552) were analyzed in inhabitants of a Northern German refugee camp in the summer of 2015. Of the refugees, 77.9% were male (mean age 27.4 years for male and 26.8 years for female migrants). Most refugees came from the Eastern Mediterranean region (83.4%), followed by immigrants from Eastern Europe (7.4%), Africa (4.6%), or other regions (4.5%). The vast majority of migrants were protected against the three VPD: overall IgG seropositivity was 88.5% for measles, 77.9% for rubella and 95.9% for varicella. However, seroprevalences showed age- and origin-dependent differences. Varicella immunity, for example, was lowest in the youngest age group of both genders (10.1% of male/4.5% of female seronegative refugees 49 years of age), and Sudanese migrants displayed particularly low rates of protection against varicella. In accordance with previous studies, our analyses show an overall satisfactory seropositivity against measles, rubella, and varicella in refugees entering Europe during the current exodus. However, this rate is not sufficient for preventing transmission. For example, the rate of 12.9-17.9% female refugees at reproductive age unprotected against measles and the low protection levels against varicella in minors observed in our cohort emphasizes the need for stringent vaccination strategies in refugees coming to Europe during the current crisis.

  19. Role for cER and Mmr1p in anchorage of mitochondria at sites of polarized surface growth in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, Theresa C; Zhou, Chun; Boldogh, Istvan R; Charalel, Joseph K; McFaline-Figueroa, José Ricardo; Thoms, Sven; Yang, Christine; Leung, Galen; McInnes, Joseph; Erdmann, Ralf; Pon, Liza A

    2011-12-06

    Mitochondria accumulate at neuronal and immunological synapses and yeast bud tips and associate with the ER during phospholipid biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial fission. Here we show that mitochondria are associated with cortical ER (cER) sheets underlying the plasma membrane in the bud tip and confirm that a deletion in YPT11, which inhibits cER accumulation in the bud tip, also inhibits bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. Time-lapse imaging reveals that mitochondria are anchored at specific sites in the bud tip. Mmr1p, a member of the DSL1 family of tethering proteins, localizes to punctate structures on opposing surfaces of mitochondria and cER sheets underlying the bud tip and is recovered with isolated mitochondria and ER. Deletion of MMR1 impairs bud tip anchorage of mitochondria without affecting mitochondrial velocity or cER distribution. Deletion of the phosphatase PTC1 results in increased Mmr1p phosphorylation, mislocalization of Mmr1p, defects in association of Mmr1p with mitochondria and ER, and defects in bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. These findings indicate that Mmr1p contributes to mitochondrial inheritance as a mediator of anchorage of mitochondria to cER sheets in the yeast bud tip and that Ptc1p regulates Mmr1p phosphorylation, localization, and function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The risk of aseptic meningitis associated with the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain following mass vaccination with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Claudio Marcos; Kmetzsch, Claudete Iris; Mohrdieck, Renate; Sperb, Alethea Fagundes; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2002-10-01

    Few data are available on the risk of aseptic meningitis following vaccination with the Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z) strain of mumps vaccine. In 1997 the mumps vaccine was introduced into the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil through mass vaccination with mumps-measles-rubella (MMR), targeting children aged 1-11 years. Five municipalities used exclusively MMR vaccine containing the L-Z strain of mumps. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis was observed shortly after the mass campaign. To estimate the risk of aseptic meningitis associated with this strain, we analysed vaccination and meningitis case surveillance data from the selected municipalities. A case of vaccine-associated aseptic meningitis was defined as one with a pleocytosis of 10-1,500 leukocytes/ml and occurring within 15-35 days after vaccine receipt. We estimated a risk of 2.9 cases per 10,000 doses of L-Z administered, equivalent to 1 case per 3,390 doses administered. The overall risk of aseptic meningitis following the campaign was increased 12.2-fold (95% CI: 6.0-24.7) compared with the same period in 1995-1996. Following the mass campaign, the incidence of mumps declined 93% during 1998-2000. Vaccination with the L-Z strain of mumps vaccine as part of a mass campaign was associated with a significantly increased risk of aseptic meningitis. Decisions about type of mumps vaccine and mumps vaccination strategies must consider vaccine safety issues in addition to other criteria.

  1. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    vaccine protects 70 to 90% of immunized children against any form of varicella zoster infection, but the efficacy against severe forms is higher (95 to 98%. This is a well-tolerated vaccine that causes few reactions. Since the vaccine was licensed, there have been three confirmed cases of transmission of the vaccine virus by domestic contacts to previously healthy people, who went on to develop mild disease. Despite evidence that the protection offered by this vaccine can wane over a number of years, it is not yet possible to state that a second dose is warranted, bearing in mind exposure to wild virus. After universal vaccination the chances of natural stimulation should drop and it is very probable that booster doses will become necessary. A measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine has recently been licensed that combines vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in a single product with high rates of seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Society of Pediatrics recommends the varicella vaccine for children from 1 year on. We hope that the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine will soon be available in Brazil, since combined vaccines facilitate wider vaccination coverage.

  2. Using electronic mail to improve MMR uptake amongst third level students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, F; Ryan, A; Schinaia, N; Breslin, A

    2010-03-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of email in informing third level students about special MMR clinics being provided on campus during a mumps outbreak in the North West of Ireland. Email messages were sent directly to students, informing them of the clinics, inviting them to make a clinic appointment by email and providing details of walk-in clinics. At the clinics, all 177 attendees were asked to fill out a questionnaire and the response rate was 89% (n=158). Regarding the main sources of information about the vaccination clinics, email was selected by 117 (74%) students, word-of-mouth by 27 (17%), posters/leaflets by 8 (5%), and other sources by 6 (4%). Use of email as a source of information was rated as very good/excellent by 115 (73%), as good by 35 (22%) and poor/fair by 8 (5%). This study demonstrates that email is a useful and acceptable way of informing third level students about immunisation clinics in an outbreak situation.

  3. Using electronic mail to improve MMR uptake amongst third level students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, F

    2010-03-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of email in informing third level students about special MMR clinics being provided on campus during a mumps outbreak in the North West of Ireland. Email messages were sent directly to students, informing them of the clinics, inviting them to make a clinic appointment by email and providing details of walk-in clinics. At the clinics, all 177 attendees were asked to fill out a questionnaire and the response rate was 89% (n=158). Regarding the main sources of information about the vaccination clinics, email was selected by 117 (74%) students, word-of-mouth by 27 (17%), posters\\/leaflets by 8 (5%), and other sources by 6 (4%). Use of email as a source of information was rated as very good\\/excellent by 115 (73%), as good by 35 (22%) and poor\\/fair by 8 (5%). This study demonstrates that email is a useful and acceptable way of informing third level students about immunisation clinics in an outbreak situation.

  4. Analysis of CO2 draining in the supercritical subchannel of an MMR reactor using CFD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Carolina S.B.; Ribeiro, Felipe P.; Su, Jian

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to analyze the steady state thermal hydraulic behavior of the supercritical CO 2 by means of the computational modeling of the triangular arrangement subchannel of the KAIST MMR (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology). The mathematical model is composed of Navier-Stokes equations of Reynolds average (RANS), with the model of turbulence k-omega SST (Shear Stress Transport) for the fluid refrigerant in the subchannel and the heat conduction equation for the fuel and coating. The thermodynamic properties of CO 2 are implemented from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) data. The transport equations were solved using a commercial CFD (Fluid Dynamics) tool, ANSYS FLUENT. Initially, a geometric model was constructed, using the ICEM software, composed of fuel, interstice, coating, refrigerant and two adiabatic regions of the fuel rod. The numerical solution used was validated by simulation of a simpler vertical circular tube and by comparisons with numerical and experimental results available in the literature. Using these results, we performed the mesh convergence study and initialized the simulations in the subchannel

  5. A rubella serosurvey in postpartum women in the three regions of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Adrianzén, Ana; Ortiz, Ana; Martínez, Carlos; Whittembury, Alvaro; Cabezudo, Edwin; de Oliveira, Lucia; Siqueira, Marilda M; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    To determine the proportion of postpartum women aged 15-49 in Peru who are susceptible to rubella, in order to help address strategies to eliminate rubella and to prevent congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during March and April 2003 in six main regional hospitals, in the three geographic regions (coast, mountain, and jungle) of Peru. For the postpartum women who provided written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered and a blood specimen was collected. Sera were tested for rubella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA) kit. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess risk factors for susceptibility. In total, 1 236 postpartum women were enrolled. The overall proportion of IgG-antibody negative women was 12.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.9%-14.6%). Bivariate analysis found the following variables associated with susceptibility: living in the jungle region (odds ratio (OR) = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.13-2.42); age jungle region (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.13-2.46); age Peru among the countries facing a moderate level of risk for the occurrence of CRS cases. The findings suggest the need to also provide the rubella vaccine to other population groups, especially women of childbearing age.

  6. Outbreak of rubella after mass vaccination of children and adult women: challenges for rubella elimination strategies Brote epidémico de rubéola tras la vacunación masiva de niños y mujeres adultas: un reto para las estrategias de eliminación de la rubéola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Andreatta Menegolla

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe rubella outbreaks and control strategies in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul before rubella elimination. METHODS: We analyzed rubella and congenital rubella syndrome surveillance data for the state of Rio Grande do Sul and calculated age- and gender-specific incidence of confirmed rubella cases in 2007. We obtained data on measles-rubella doses administered during the outbreak from the state immunization program and reviewed the timing of suspect case notification and implementation of control measures. RESULTS: Of 2 842 confirmed rubella cases reported to the state health department in 2007, 2 145 (75.5% were in males (39.5 cases per 100 000 population and 697 (24.5% were in females (12.3 per 100 000 population. Incidence among 15- to 39-year-olds was 1.8 to 5.5 times higher in males than in females. Rubella genotype 2B was detected in nasopharyngeal specimens from 13 patients from multiple chains of transmission. Eight children were born with congenital rubella syndrome (5.9 cases per 100 000 births in 2008. Delayed notification of initial cases hampered early control efforts, resulting in outbreak spread throughout the state. Rubella transmission was interrupted after mass vaccination of adult men and women as part of a national vaccination campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination strategies and mass vaccination of adolescents and adults for accelerated rubella control and elimination should target men and women.OBJETIVO: Describir los brotes de rubéola y las estrategias para el control de la enfermedad anteriores a la eliminación de la rubéola en el estado brasileño de Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita del estado de Rio Grande do Sul y se calculó la incidencia específica por edad y sexo de los casos confirmados de rubéola en el 2007. A partir del programa de vacunación estatal se obtuvieron datos

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: rubella virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term rubella virus 名詞 一般 * * * * 風疹ウイル...ス フウシンウイルス フーシンウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906068435750800 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 rubella virus

  8. Separation of hemagglutination-inhibiting immunoglobulin M antibody to rubella virus in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, N; Suzuki, M; Nakagawa, T; Matumoto, M

    1986-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography was successfully used to separate hemagglutination-inhibiting immunoglobulin M (IgM) rubella virus antibody from IgG rubella virus antibody in human serum. The fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography was as effective as sucrose density gradient centrifugation in separating IgM antibody from IgG antibody.

  9. Premorbid Anomalies and Risk of Schizophrenia and Depressive Disorders in a Birth Cohort Exposed to Prenatal Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Justin D.; Brown, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    In a birth cohort prenatally exposed to rubella, we assessed whether prospectively documented premorbid neuromotor dysfunction, mannerisms, deviant behaviors, and temperament during childhood and adolescence were impaired in cases who developed depressive disorder (DD) relative to rubella-exposed controls and cases who developed schizophrenia…

  10. Higher occurrence of childhood cancer in families with germline mutations in BRCA2, MMR and CDKN2A genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S.; Borg, A.; Kristoffersson, U.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of hereditary factors for development of childhood tumors is limited to some few known syndromes associated with predominance of tumors in childhood. Occurrence of childhood tumors in hereditary cancer syndromes such as BRCA1/2 associated breast and ovarian cancer, DNA-mismatch r......-mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer and CDKN2A associated familial malignant melanoma are very little studied. Herein we report the prevalence of childhood tumors (diagnosed...

  11. Distinct effects of the recurrent Mlh1G67R mutation on MMR functions, cancer, and meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Avdievich, Elena; Reiss, Cora; Scherer, Stefan J.; Zhang, Yongwei; Maier, Sandra M.; Jin, Bo; Hou, Harry; Rosenwald, Andreas; Riedmiller, Hubertus; Kucherlapati, Raju; Cohen, Paula E.; Edelmann, Winfried; Kneitz, Burkhard

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome, HNPCC) and a significant proportion of sporadic colorectal cancer. The inactivation of MLH1 results in the accumulation of somatic mutations in the genome of tumor cells and resistance to the genotoxic effects of a variety of DNA damaging agents. To study the effect of MLH1 missense mutations on cancer susceptibility, we generated a mouse line carrying the ...

  12. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Intervention to Increase Parents' Knowledge About the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination and Their Psychological Empowerment: Mixed-Method Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Marta; Galimberti, Elisa; Fiordelli, Maddalena; Schulz, Peter Johannes

    2018-03-07

    There is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of vaccination-related interventions. A major limitation of most intervention studies is that they do not apply randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the method that, over the last 2 decades, has increasingly been considered as the only method to provide proof of the effectiveness of an intervention and, consequently, as the most important instrument in deciding whether to adopt an intervention or not. This study, however, holds that methods other than RCTs also can produce meaningful results. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 mobile phone-based interventions aimed at increasing parents' knowledge of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination (through elements of gamification) and their psychological empowerment (through the use of narratives), respectively. The 2 interventions were part of an RCT. We conducted 2 studies with the RCT participants: a Web-based survey aimed at assessing their rating of the tool regarding a number of qualities such as usability and usefulness (N=140), and qualitative telephonic interviews to explore participants' experiences with the app (N=60). The results of the survey showed that participants receiving the knowledge intervention (alone or together with the empowerment intervention) liked the app significantly better compared with the group that only received the empowerment intervention (F 2,137 =15.335; Pbenefits of the vaccination at the same time. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number 30768813; http://www.isrctn.com/ ISRCTN30768813 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6xOQSJ3w8). ©Marta Fadda, Elisa Galimberti, Maddalena Fiordelli, Peter Johannes Schulz. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 07.03.2018.

  13. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie; Frey, Teryl K.

    2012-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was ∼9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  14. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  15. Rubella associated with hemophagocytic syndrome. First report in a male and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram Koubaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever, skin rash and epistaxis. Physical examination revealed fever (39.5°C, generalized purpura, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Blood tests showed pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hemophagocytosis with no evidence of malignant cells. Anti rubella IgM antibody were positif and the IgG titers increased from 16 to 50 UI/mL in 3 days. Therefore, he was diagnosed to have rubella-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. We report herein the first case in a man and the sixth case of rubella-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature by search in Pub Med till March 2012.

  16. Vaccine-preventable diseases in pediatric patients: a review of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A; Pade, Kathryn H

    2016-12-22

    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis. Treatment for these vaccine-preventable diseases usually consists of supportive care, but, in some cases, severe complications and death may occur. This issue provides a review of the clinical features, differential diagnoses, potential complications, and treatment options for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  17. Rubella vaccination in India: identifying broad consequences of vaccine introduction and key knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A K; Pramanik, S; Lessler, J; Ferrari, M; Grenfell, B T; Metcalf, C J E

    2018-01-01

    Rubella virus infection typically presents as a mild illness in children; however, infection during pregnancy may cause the birth of an infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). As of February 2017, India began introducing rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into the public-sector childhood vaccination programme. Low-level RCV coverage among children over several years can result in an increase in CRS incidence by increasing the average age of infection without sufficiently reducing rubella incidence. We evaluated the impact of RCV introduction on CRS incidence across India's heterogeneous demographic and epidemiological contexts. We used a deterministic age-structured model that reflects Indian states' rural and urban area-specific demography and vaccination coverage levels to simulate rubella dynamics and estimate CRS incidence with and without RCV introduction to the public sector. Our analysis suggests that current low-level private-sector vaccination has already slightly increased the burden of CRS in India. We additionally found that the effect of public-sector RCV introduction depends on the basic reproductive number, R 0, of rubella. If R 0 is five, a value empirically estimated from an array of settings, CRS incidence post-RCV introduction will likely decrease. However, if R 0 is seven or nine, some states may experience short-term or annual increases in CRS, even if a long-term total reduction in cases (30 years) is expected. Investment in population-based serological surveys and India's fever/rash surveillance system will be key to monitoring the success of the vaccination programme.

  18. Results of the rubella elimination program in Catalonia (Spain), 2002–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabeig, Irene; Torner, Nuria; Martínez, Ana; Carmona, Gloria; Ciruela, Pilar; Batalla, Joan; Costa, Josep; Hernández, Sergi; Salleras, Luis; Domínguez, Angela; Group of Catalonia, the Rubella Surveillance

    2013-01-01

    Rubella is usually a mild disease with nonspecific symptoms, but can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when infection occurs during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and positive predictive value of different data sources used for surveillance purposes in the Rubella Elimination Program of Catalonia between 2002 and 2011. The Urgent Notification to the Statutory Disease Reporting System, the Individualized Disease Reporting System, screening for other viruses included in the Measles Elimination Program, the Microbiological Reporting System and the Minimum Hospital Discharge Data were evaluated. 100 suspected cases of postnatal rubella and 6 suspected cases of CRS were detected. For postnatal rubella, Urgent Notification had the highest sensitivity (32.5%; 95%CI 18.6–49.1), followed by the Virus screening in Measles Elimination Program (25%; 95%CI 12.7-41.2). Virus screening in the Measles Elimination Program had the highest PPV (76.9%; 95%CI 46.1–94.9), followed by the Individualized Disease Reporting System (57.1%; 95%CI 28.9–82.3). For CRS cases, the Individualized Disease Reporting System had the highest sensitivity (100%, 95%CI 29.2–100) and the highest PPV (60%; 95%CI 14.7–100). Most confirmed postnatal cases (25 cases, 48.1%) were in the 25–44 y age group followed by the 15–24 y age group (11 cases, 21.2%). The highest values of sensitivity and PPV for the detection of confirmed cases corresponded to activities that were specifically introduced in the measles and rubella elimination programs. PMID:23299566

  19. Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Toward Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Marianne; Schaedelin, Sabine; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Diana, Alessandro; Niederer-Loher, Anita; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Vaudaux, Bernard; Heininger, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers toward the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. In March 2015, a Web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The following information was obtained: (1) current immunization status of own children; (2) which immunizations would currently be accepted for a hypothetical own child and (3) attitudes toward potential modifications of the Swiss immunization schedule. Descriptive methods and multivariate models to correct for covariables were used for data analysis. Nine hundred and fifty-five valid questionnaires were received: 886/3704 (23.9%) from physicians and 69/556 (12.4%) from pharmacists. Current (>95%) and hypothetical (>99%) immunization rates were high for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Most pediatricians (61%) would support more vaccines for their children than currently recommended by the Swiss immunization advisory committee, whereas about 50% of other physicians and pharmacists would decline at least one of the recommended immunizations, most frequently varicella, pneumococcal or meningococcal C conjugate vaccines. Strong general support was expressed for the expansion of human papillomavirus immunization to males, acceleration of the measles-mumps-rubella schedule and a 2 + 1 instead of 3 + 1 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, acellular-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (DTPa-IPV)/Haemophilus influenzae type b ± hepatitis B virus (HBV) schedule. Survey participants generally demonstrated a positive attitude toward immunization, with pediatricians being the most progressive subgroup with the largest percentage of participants (63.1%) neither declining nor postponing any

  20. VISUAL OUTCOME IN CONGENITAL RUBELLA CATARACT MANAGED IN A TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to analyse the visual outcome in congenital rubella cataract. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is an analytical prospective study. RESULTS Defective vision and white reflex were the most common presenting complaint. Most of the patients were positive for IgG only in high titres. Comparing the visual acuity preoperatively and postoperatively, there was statistically significant improvement in vision. CONCLUSION Children with congenital rubella cataract should be operated as early as possible under topical antibiotics coverage. Postoperative should be properly treated with intensive cycloplegics and topical steroids. Proper follow up and visual rehabilitation should be done.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine when given with measles-rubella combined vaccine and yellow fever vaccine and when given via different administration routes: a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ed; Saidu, Yauba; Adetifa, Jane U; Adigweme, Ikechukwu; Hydara, Mariama Badjie; Bashorun, Adedapo O; Moneke-Anyanwoke, Ngozi; Umesi, Ama; Roberts, Elishia; Cham, Pa Modou; Okoye, Michael E; Brown, Kevin E; Niedrig, Matthias; Chowdhury, Panchali Roy; Clemens, Ralf; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Mueller, Jenny; Jeffries, David J; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-08-01

    ]; serotype 2, 0·0% [-2·1 to 2·1]; serotype 3, 0·0% [-3·8 to 3·9]). Poliovirus seroprevalence was universally high (>97%) after vaccination, but the antibody titres generated by fractional intradermal doses of IPV did not achieve non-inferiority compared with full dose. The number of infants who seroconverted or had a four-fold rise in titres was also lower by the intradermal route. There were no safety concerns. The data support the future co-administration of IPV, measles-rubella, and yellow fever vaccines within the Expanded Programme on Immunization schedule at 9 months. The administration of single fractional intradermal doses of IPV by needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector compromises the immunity generated, although it results in a high post-vaccination poliovirus seroprevalence. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2016 Clarke et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination by rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Sandra D.; Tzeng, W.-P.; Chen, M.-H.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether rubella virus (RUB) undergoes intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination, cells were cotransfected with pairs of in vitro transcripts from genomic cDNA plasmid vectors engineered to contain nonoverlapping deletions: the replicative transcript maintained the 5'-proximal nonstructural (NS) ORF (which contained the replicase, making it RNA replication competent), had a deletion in the 3'-proximal structural protein (SP) ORF, and maintained the 3' end of the genome, including the putative 3' cis-acting elements (CSE), while the nonreplicative transcript consisted of the 3' half of the genome including the SP-ORF and 3' CSE. Cotransfection yielded plaque-forming virus that synthesized the standard genomic and subgenomic RNAs and thus was generated by RNA-RNA recombination. Using transcripts tagged with a 3'-terminal deletion, it was found that recombinants contained the 3' end derived from the replicative strand, indicating a cis-preference for initiation of negative-strand synthesis. In cotransfections in which the replicative transcript lacked the 3' CSE, recombination occurred, albeit at lower efficiency, indicating that initiation in trans from the NS-ORF can occur. The 3' CSE was sufficient as a nonreplicative transcript, showing that it can serve as a promoter for negative-strand RNA synthesis. While deletion mutagenesis showed that the presence of the junction untranslated region (J-UTR) between the ORFs appeared to be necessary on both transcripts for recombination in this region of the genome, analysis with transcripts tagged with restriction sites showed that the J-UTR was not a hot spot for recombination compared to neighboring regions in both ORFs. Sequence analysis of recombinants revealed that both precise (homologous) and imprecise recombination (aberrant, homologous resulting in duplications) occurred; however, imprecise recombination only involved the J-UTR or the 3' end of the NS-ORF and the J-UTR (maintaining the NS-ORF), indicating

  3. THE PRELIMINARY DATA ON NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE VACCINES COMBINED APPLICATION IN CHILDREN OF 6–7 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Konovalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, safety for influenza vaccine in combination with diphtheria vaccine, tetanus and measles vaccine, rubella vaccine, and epidemic parotitis in children of 6–7 years old was assessed. All vaccines showed good tolerability and low reactogenicity for combined immunization. Influenza «Grippol plus» vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic, and does not cause cross antibody suppression being applied in combination with mentioned National Immunization Schedule vaccines.

  4. Photodynamic inactivation of rubella virus enhances recombination with a latent virus of a baby hamster kidney cell line BHK21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    1989-01-01

    Rubella virus is very sensitive to photodynamic action. When tested with 1.2 x 10 -5 M toluidine blue and 8 W fluorescent lamp at a fluence of 11 W/m 2 , inactivation kinetics showed a linear single hit curve with a k value of 1.48 min -1 . Photodynamic inactivation of rubella virus greatly enhanced recombination with a latent virus (R-virus) of baby hamster kidney BHK21 cells. In contrast, no hybrids were detected in lysates of the cells infected with either UV-treated or untreated rubella virus. Therefore, hybrid viruses were readily detected only in lysates of BHK21 cells infected with photodynamically treated rubella virus. Photodynamic damage of rubella virus genomes generated a new hybrid type (hybrid type 3) in addition to a previously described type 2 hybrid (formerly designated as HPV-RV variant). Although both of these hybrid types carry the CF antigens of rubella virus, plaque forming ability of type 3 hybrid is neutralized neither by anti-rubella serum nor by anti-latent virus serum while type 2 hybrid is neutralized by anti-latent virus serum. (author)

  5. Population growth changes targets for immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, S; John, A M

    1995-01-01

    The faster the rate of population growth in developing countries, the less likely it is that current protocols for immunization against measles, rubella, and mumps will eradicate these childhood diseases. Standard protocols (timing, percentage of children to be immunized) do not take into account the rapid rates of population growth in developing countries (3.0% per year on average in sub-Saharan Africa and 2.0% in the rest of Africa, in Latin America, and in Asia, excluding China). Most public health planning models in this area were created based on static infant populations. The World Health Organization advises vaccinating at least 85% of children aged 6 to 9 months, a 3-month immunization window during which maternal antibodies are low (so the vaccination takes) and herd immunity is high (the probability that a child will encounter the disease is low because most children have been immunized). In practice, the immunization window in developing countries is 1 year or more. More susceptible children are present than assumed by the models. A larger number of susceptible babies are added each year during rapid population growth. As the age range for immunization widens, a higher percentage of children must be vaccinated to eradicate disease (chart). The proportion of each birth cohort that must be immunized rises as the population growth rate increases. At zero population growth, 94% must be vaccinated; at population growth rates greater than 3%, 98% must be vaccinated.

  6. Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV, CMV, HBV and rubella virus infections in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Aubaneide Batista; Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão; Laurentino, Rogério Valois; Feitosa, Rosimar Neris Martins; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Ishak, Ricardo; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida

    2018-05-16

    Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010. After the interview and blood collection, the patients were screened for antibodies and/or antigens against HIV-1/2, HTLV-1/2, CMV, rubella virus and HBV. The epidemiological variables were demonstrated using descriptive statistics with the G, χ 2 and Fisher exact tests. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years, and the majority (65.4%) had less than 6 years of education. The mean age at first intercourse was 14.4 years, and 60.8% reported having a partner aged between 12 and 14 years. The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.3%, and of HTLV infection was 0.6%. Regarding HBV, 0.6% of the participants had acute infection, 9.9% had a previous infection, 16.7% had vaccine immunity and 72.8% were susceptible to infection. The presence of anti-HBs was greater in adolescent between 12 and 14 years old (28.8%) while the anti-HBc was greater in adolescent between 15 and 18 years old (10.3%). Most of the adolescents presented the IgG antibody to CMV (96.3%) and rubella (92.3%). None of the participants had acute rubella infection, and 2.2% had anti-CMV IgM. This study is the first report of the seroepidemiology of infectious agents in a population of pregnant adolescents in the Northern region of Brazil. Most of the adolescents had low levels of education, were susceptible to HBV infection and had IgG antibodies to CMV and rubella virus. The prevalence of HBV, HIV and HTLV was similar to that reported in other regions of Brazil. However, the presence of these agents in this

  7. [Monitoring of implementation of international programs of poliomyelitis eradication and measles and rubella elimination in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of implementation of international programs of poliomyelitis eradication, and measles and rubella elimination in the Republic of Belarus based on results of molecular-epidemiologic studies of 2009 - 2010. 271 viral agents isolated from children with acute flaccid paralysis syndrome, other diseases, healthy children and from sewage water within the framework of poliomyelitis control implementation were identified by serological and molecular methods. Blood sera of 528 patients with fever and rash were examined for the presence of IgM to measles and rubella virus, 418 - for the presence of IgM to parvovirus B19 and parvovirus DNA. Blood sera of 33 pregnant women and 64 children with signs of intrauterine infection were studied for IgM and IgG antibodies to rubella virus. Measles virus was isolated, N-gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis carried out. The studies performed confirmed that indigenous wild polioviruses in the country do not circulate, imported wild or vaccine-related polioviruses were also not detected. Measles and rubella morbidity in the Republic of Belarus was less than 1 in 1 000 000. 2 cases of rubella (2009) and 1 case of measles (2010) was detected during adequate control level: the rate of detection of patients with fever and rash, in whom measles and rubella diagnosis was excluded by the results of laboratory examination, was more than 2 in 100 000 of the population. The etiologic agent in more than 20% of diseases with fever and rash was parvovirus B19. A single case of measles was caused by genotype D8 virus imported from India. The data obtained give evidence to conformance of the poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, innate rubella syndrome control implemented in the Republic of Belarus to WHO recommendations; maintenance of status of country as free from poliomyelitis and achievement of main criteria of elimination of both measles and rubella by 2010.

  8. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... consciousness, --Permanent brain damage. Note: The first dose of MMRV vaccine has been associated with rash and... Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines AGENCY: Centers for... comment period. SUMMARY: Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the...

  9. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN RUBELLA RETINOPATHY: Correlation With Photoreceptor Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Danuta M; Wan, Sue Ling; Chew, Avenell L; Chelva, Enid; Tang, Ivy; Mackey, David A; Chen, Fred K

    2017-01-01

    To illustrate altered fundus autofluorescence in rubella retinopathy and to investigate their relationships with photoreceptor structure and function using multimodal imaging. The authors report four cases of rubella retinopathy aged 8, 33, 42, and 50 years. All patients had dilated clinical fundus examination; wide-field color photography; blue, green, and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Two patients also underwent microperimetry and adaptive optics imaging. En face optical coherence tomography, cone mosaic, and microperimetry were coregistered with autofluorescence images. The authors explored the structure-function correlation. All four patients had a "salt-and-pepper" appearance on dilated fundus examination and wide-field color photography. There were variable-sized patches of hypoautofluorescence on both blue and near-infrared excitation in all four patients. Wave-guiding cones were visible and retinal sensitivity was intact over these regions. There was no correlation between hypoautofluorescence and regions of attenuated ellipsoid and interdigitation zones. Hyperautofluorescent lesions were also noted and some of these were pseudo-vitelliform lesions. Patchy hypoautofluorescence on near-infrared excitation can be a feature of rubella retinopathy. This may be due to abnormal melanin production or loss of melanin within retinal pigment epithelium cells harboring persistent rubella virus infection. Preservation of the ellipsoid zone, wave-guiding cones, and retinal sensitivity within hypoautofluorescent lesions suggest that these retinal pigment epithelium changes have only mild impact on photoreceptor cell function.

  10. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

    1988-01-01

    The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

  11. Dilemma Program MDGS in Maternal Mortality (MMR and Infant Mortality (IMR Reduction through Jampersal in the District Tuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amir. HT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is an implementation program designed Jampersal Mixing Methods approach which is a qualitative study, guided by quantitative figures, to examine in depth a phenomenon that exists in society by not manipulate variables (ex post facto, concerning the events that have been occurred, associated with the present condition of the Jampersal users who switch to JKN implementation managed by BPJS since the beginning of 2014. The goal is to examine the implementation Jampersal program, whether the program is to reach the target with existing funds, as expected Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, in reducing the MMR and IMR in the district Tuban, which will expire in 2015.

  12. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  14. Immune Profiling of Premalignant Lesions in Patients With Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyle; Taggart, Melissa W; Reyes-Uribe, Laura; Borras, Ester; Riquelme, Erick; Barnett, Reagan M; Leoni, Guido; San Lucas, F Anthony; Catanese, Maria T; Mori, Federica; Diodoro, Maria G; You, Y Nancy; Hawk, Ernest T; Roszik, Jason; Scheet, Paul; Kopetz, Scott; Nicosia, Alfredo; Scarselli, Elisa; Lynch, Patrick M; McAllister, Florencia; Vilar, Eduardo

    2018-04-16

    Colorectal carcinomas in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) arise in a background of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, display a unique immune profile with upregulation of immune checkpoints, and response to immunotherapy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the pathogenesis of MMR-deficient colorectal premalignant lesions, which is essential for the development of novel preventive strategies for LS. To characterize the immune profile of premalignant lesions from a cohort of patients with LS. Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis using next-generation sequencing was performed in colorectal polyps and carcinomas of patients with LS. As comparator and model of MMR-proficient colorectal carcinogenesis, we used samples from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In addition, a total of 47 colorectal carcinomas (6 hypermutants and 41 nonhypermutants) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for comparisons. Samples were obtained from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy. All diagnoses were confirmed by genetic testing. Polyps were collected at the time of endoscopic surveillance and tumors were collected at the time of surgical resection. The data were analyzed from October 2016 to November 2017. Assessment of the immune profile, mutational signature, mutational and neoantigen rate, and pathway enrichment analysis of neoantigens in LS premalignant lesions and their comparison with FAP premalignant lesions, LS carcinoma, and sporadic colorectal cancers from TCGA. The analysis was performed in a total of 28 polyps (26 tubular adenomas and 2 hyperplastic polyps) and 3 early-stage LS colorectal tumors from 24 patients (15 [62%] female; mean [SD] age, 48.12 [15.38] years) diagnosed with FAP (n = 10) and LS (n = 14). Overall, LS polyps presented with low mutational and neoantigen rates but displayed a striking immune activation profile characterized by CD4 T cells

  15. Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Poulsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    ). Nationwide Danish registers provided data on vaccinations and hospital admissions. The recommended vaccination schedule was inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) administered at ages 3, 5, and 12 months and MMR at age 15 months...

  16. MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age Second dose: 4 through 6 years of age A third dose of MMRV might be recommended in certain mumps outbreak situations. There are no known risks to getting ... 12 years of age might get 2 separate shots: MMR (measles, mumps ...

  17. Congenital rubella syndrome surveillance as a platform for surveillance of other congenital infections, Peru, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Galdos, Jorge; Lugo, María; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Ortiz, Ana; Cabezudo, Edwin; Martínez, Mario; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2011-09-01

    Rubella during pregnancy can cause serious fetal abnormalities and death. Peru has had integrated measles/rubella surveillance since 2000 but did not implement congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) surveillance until 2004, in accordance with the Pan American Health Organization recommendations for rubella elimination. The article describes the experience from the CRS sentinel surveillance system in Peru. Peru has maintained a national sentinel surveillance system for reporting confirmed and suspected CRS cases since 2004. A surveillance protocol was implemented with standardized case definitions and instruments in the selected sentinel sites. Each sentinel site completes their case investigations and report forms and sends the reports to the Health Region Epidemiology Department, which forwards the data to the national Epidemiology Department. CRS surveillance data were analyzed for the period 2004-2007. During the period 2004-2007, 16 health facilities, which are located in 9 of the 33 health regions, representing the 3 main geographical areas (coast, mountain, and jungle), were included as sentinel sites for the CRS surveillance. A total of 2061 suspected CRS cases were reported to the system. Of these, 11 were classified as CRS and 23 as congenital rubella infection. Factors significantly associated with rubella vertical transmission were: (1) in the mother, maternal history of rash during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR], 12.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8-37.8); (2) and in the infant, pigmentary retinopathy (OR, 18.4; 95% CI, 3.2-104.6), purpura (OR, 14.7; 95% CI, 2.8-78.3), and developmental delay (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.75-11.1). The surveillance system has been able to identify rubella vertical transmission, reinforcing the evidence that rubella was a public health problem in Peru. This system may serve as a platform to implement surveillance for other congenital infections in Peru.

  18. Optimization and Validation of a Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction with RNA Internal Control to Detect Rubella RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to a report from WHO, cases of rubella infection in Indonesia has increased up to 10-fold from 2007 to 2011. Despite no data of congenital rubella syndrome in the report, there are approximately 45,000 cases of babies born with heart failure and 0.1-0.3% live births with congenital deafness in Indonesia. Allegedly, rubella infection during pregnancy may play a role in this condition. This study aimed to optimize and validate a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR method to detect rubella virus RNA as an aid for the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection. METHODS: Method optimization was conducted using nucleic acids extracted from Trimovax Merieux vaccine with the High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit. One step RT-qPCR was performed with Quantifast Multiplex RTPCR+R Kit. Target synthetic DNA was designed and used to determine the sensitivity of the method. RNA internal control was synthesized to control the process of extraction and amplification. RESULTS: The analytical sensitivity of this method was as low as 5 copies target synthetic DNA/μl. The mean Coefficient of Variation (CV % of the critical threshold (Ct obtained were 2.71%, 1.20%, 1.62%, and 1.59% for within run, between run, between kit lots, and between operators, respectively. Recovery of the target synthetic DNA from amniotic fluid was 100.51% (by the log copies/μl at the concentration of 1,000,000 copies/μl. CONCLUSIONS: RT-qPCR is successfully used for the detection of rubella virus RNA in vaccine and synthetic nucleic acid. With its high sensitivity, good precision and recovery, this method offers a means to improve the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in developing countries like Indonesia. KEYWORDS: congenital rubella, RT-qPCR, prenatal diagnosis, amniotic fluid.

  19. Incidencia y patrones de transmisión de rubeola en México Incidence and transmission patterns of rubella in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Díaz-Ortega

    2007-10-01

    seven years of age and the implementation of combined strategy (children and adults for rubella immunization, with incidence decrease in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reinforcement of surveillance and routine-supplemental immunization activities would favor the interruption of endemic rubella and contribute to the continent-wide elimination proposal for 2010.

  20. [What EIA assay levels correspond to rubella antibody HI assay titer?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kihei; Inoue, Mika; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Ogita, Satoko; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a Japanese-government-supported research group recommended that women without rubella antibody or with low titers or = 15 IU/mL), 98.1% (positive > or = 10 IU/mL), and 93.4%, using the kit from Dade Behring Co. Between HI titers and EIA-IgG measured with the Denka kit, the coefficient index was 0.715 (p or = 4.0) from Denka, and to 30 IU/mL with the kit from Dade. EIA-IgG levels > or = 10 IU/mL are considered globally as protective antibody titers, meaning that the Japanese recommendation of < or = 1:16 for vaccination is too loose. Japanese EIA kit values for the rubella antibody should also be expressed in IU/mL using the global standard.

  1. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  2. Sentinel phenotype for rubella embryopathy: time-space distribution in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iêda Maria Orioli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The dyad comprising eye anomalies and congenital heart defects in the same newborn has been proposed as the best sentinel phenotype for the early detection of rubella embryopathy. Time-space birth prevalence distributions of the eye-heart dyad were described in 36 Brazilian hospitals from the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies - ECLAMC network, for the period 1994-2008. Seventy dyad cases observed among 554,531 births showed seasonal variation (Χ2 = 5.84; p < 0.05, suggesting an environmental etiology, with an increase in cases in October-March and acrophase in December. The secular distribution of dyad prevalence rates was consistent with the distribution of rubella cases in Brazil, showing a decrease from 1994 to 2004, followed by an increase until 2008. Two geographic clusters were identified, one with high and the other with low dyad prevalence. In the high prevalence cluster, a secular increase was observed, starting in 1999, matching the rubella epidemic waves observed in Brazil in 1998-2000 and 2006.

  3. An outbreak investigation of congenital rubella syndrome in Solomon Islands, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara N Durski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During May 2012, a rubella outbreak was declared in Solomon Islands. A suspected case of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS was reported from one hospital 11 months later in 2013. This report describes the subsequent CRS investigation, findings and measures implemented. Methods: Prospective CRS surveillance was conducted at the newborn nursery, paediatric and post-natal wards, and the paediatric cardiology and ophthalmology clinics of the study hospital from April to July 2013. Retrospective case finding by reviewing medical records was also undertaken to identify additional cases born between January and March 2013 for the same wards and clinics. Cases were identified using established World Health Organization case definitions for CRS. Results: A total of 13 CRS cases were identified, including two laboratory-confirmed, four clinically confirmed and seven suspected cases. Five CRS cases were retrospectively identified, including four suspected and one clinically confirmed case. There was no geospatial clustering of residences. The mothers of the cases were aged between 20 and 36 years. Three of the six mothers available for interview recalled an acute illness with rash during the first trimester of pregnancy. Discussion: Additional CRS cases not captured in this investigation are likely. Caring for CRS cases is a challenge in resource-poor settings. Rubella vaccination is safe and effective and can prevent the serious consequences of CRS. Well-planned and funded vaccination activities can prevent future CRS cases.

  4. ICAM (Conceptual Design for Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. Volume 2. Part 6. Task B - Establishment of the Factory of the Future Conceptual Framework Conceptual Framework Document, (MMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-29

    to an area where the chips may be accumulated for recycle or destroyed. This subsystem also involves cleaning and recycling of fluids. o Tool...information and trivia . 5-28 MMR110512000 10 February 1984 Thus, managers interacting with an elementary data processinq system often become

  5. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella - Vaccine Use and Strategies for Elimination of Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome and Control of Mumps: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Vol. 47/No. RR-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-22

    onset an average of 16-18 days after exposure. Parotitis may be preceded by fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, and anorexia . Only 30%-40% of mumps...six- " teen -year follow-up in the Hawaiian Islands. JAMA 1988;259:3133-6 98 Hillary IB, Griffith AH. Persistence of antibody 10 years after

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF ELISA TESTING FOR THE LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF MEASLES AND RUBELLA INFECTIONS AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES/ RUBELLA ELIMINATION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mamaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate ELISA serological studies results of IgM and IgG specific Measles and Rubella Viruses (MRV antibodies detection the “in-house” laboratory controls (ILC including the specific markers of MRV infections were for the first time commercially prepared by the Vector Best PLC (Russia: “Measles-IgM, ser.1”, “Measles-IgM, ser.2”, “Rubella-IgM”, Measles-IgG” and “Rubella-IgG”. This task was realized under the special Executive Order of the Government of Russia N 523-r, 2014, April, 4. According to passport characteristics ILC samples are the lyophilized human sera, inactivated by heating (1 hour at 56°C and stabilized by the mixture of sucrose (5% and ProClin-3000 as the conservation agent. Samples are free of HBs Ag, anti-HVC, T.Pallidum, HIV-1/2, HIV-1Ag р24.The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using the ILC for detection of the MRV IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA with commercial ELISA kits used in Russia and CIS countries. In the process of detecting the specific activity of “Measles-IgM, ser.1”, “Measles-IgM, ser.2” and “Rubella-IgM” by ELISA kits of different formats (Vector Best, EcoLab and Siemens Companies the statistically different results were received (p < 0.05. The optical density (OD values of IgM in the “Measles-IgM, ser.1” and “Measles-IgM, ser.2” ILC, obtained by ELISA “VectoMeasles IgM” (Vector Best were significantly higher than those obtained by ELISA IgEnzygnost®Anti-MeaslesVirus/IgМ. These values consisted for the ser. 1–1.33±0.02 о.u. vs. 0.18±0.01 о.u. (р < 0.05 and for the ser. 2–2.83±0.03 о.u. vs. 0.7±0.02 о.е. (р < 0.05 in the Vector Best and Siemens ELISA kits correspondently. In the “Rubella-IgM” ILC the OD values of the specific IgM by the “ELISA-Rubella IgM” EcoLab were also higher than those obtained by IgEnzygnost®Anti-RubellaVirus/IgМ ELISA kit. These values consisted 2.92±0.04 о.u. vs. 0.88±0.03

  7. Is it Right Time to Introduce Mumps Vaccine in Indias Universal Immunization Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S R; Hamde, V S

    2016-06-08

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine preventable diseases. However, morbidity and mortality due to these diseases remain largely unnoticed in India. Measles has received much attention; mumps and rubella still need to garner attention. According to the World Health Organization, near-elimination of mumps could be achieved by maintaining high vaccine coverage using a two-dose strategy. However, Government of India has not yet decided on mumps vaccine. In this review, we have reviewed sero-prevalence studies, vaccine studies, outbreak investigations, virus isolation and virus genotyping studies on mumps. Overall, mumps seems to be a significant public health problem in India, but does not garner attention due to the absence of a surveillance and documentation system. Thus, inclusion of mumps antigen in the Universal immunization program would have added advantages, the economic burden imposed by the cost of the vaccine offset by a reduction in disease burden.

  8. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Indicators of Immune Function in Children Aged 12 – 19 years: NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R.; McGovern, Kathleen J.; Pajak, Ashley M.; Maglione, Paul J.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are immunotoxic in laboratory studies. Humans studies of immune effects are inconsistent. Using the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) we examined PFAS serum concentration and indicators of prevalent immune function among 12 to 19 year old children. Methods In this cross-sectional study we examined PFAS serum concentration in relation to measles, mumps, and rubella antibody concentrations in NHANES 1999 – 2000 and 2003 – 2004 (n=1,191) and to allergic conditions and allergic sensitization in NHANES 2005 – 2006 (n=640). Results In adjusted, survey-weighted models, a doubling of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration among seropositive children was associated with a 13.3% (95% CI −19.9, −6.2) decrease in rubella antibody concentration and a 5.9% decrease in mumps antibody concentration (95% CI −9.9, −1.6). We observed no adverse association between exposure and current allergic conditions, including asthma. Children with higher PFOS concentration were less likely to be sensitized to any allergen (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95). Conclusion Increased exposure to several PFAS was associated with lower levels to mumps and rubella antibody concentrations, especially among seropositive individuals. These lower antibody concentrations may indicate a less robust response to vaccination or greater waning of vaccine-derived immunity over time. PMID:26492286

  9. Comparison of Rubazyme-M and MACRIA for the detection of rubella-specific IgM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.M.; Palmer, S.J.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Hodgson, J. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK))

    1984-02-01

    One hundred and eighty-six carefully selected sera were tested for rubella-specific IgM by Rubazyme-M (Abbott Diagnostics) and an M-antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Eleven of these sera were from cases of infectious mononucleosis, six of which gave positive results in MACRIA, while one gave a positive result in Rubazyme-M. Of the remaining 175 sera, 158 gave concordant results whilst 17 sera gave discordant results; these 17 were also tested by serum fractionation. Problems were encountered with all assay systems used. It is therefore recommended that the results of all tests for rubella-specific IgM should be interpreted with caution.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in congenital rubella virus and cytomegalovirus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, K.; Ando, M.; Makino, M.; Takanashi, J.; Fujimoto, N.; Niimi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Two children with congenital rubella virus and six with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, were examined by magnetic resonance (MR) and CT. Cranial MR imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and inversion recovery (IR) sequences demonstrated the following: Periventricular hyperintensity (4), subcortical hyperintensity (5), delayed myelination (4), oligo/pachygyria (2), cerebellar hypoplasia (2). This study showed that the more-disabled children had more marked abnormal MRI findings. MRI was more effective in the detection of parenchymal lesion than was CT, although intraventricular calcification was better visualized with CT. (orig.)

  11. Vaccination policies among health professional schools: evidence of immunity and allowance of vaccination exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Samantha B; Libby, Tanya E; Lindley, Megan C; Ahmed, Faruque; Stevenson, John; Strikas, Raymond A

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize health professional schools by their vaccination policies for acceptable forms of evidence of immunity and exemptions permitted. METHODS Data were collected between September 2011 and April 2012 using an Internet-based survey e-mailed to selected types of accredited health professional programs. Schools were identified through accrediting associations for each type of health professional program. Analysis was limited to schools requiring ≥1 vaccine recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, varicella, pertussis, and influenza. Weighted bivariate frequencies were generated using SAS 9.3. RESULTS Of 2,775 schools surveyed, 75% (n=2,077) responded; of responding schools, 93% (1947) required ≥1 ACIP-recommended vaccination. The proportion of schools accepting ≥1 non-ACIP-recommended form of evidence of immunity varied by vaccine: 42% for pertussis, 37% for influenza, 30% for rubella, 22% for hepatitis B, 18% for varicella, and 9% for measles and mumps. Among schools with ≥1 vaccination requirement, medical exemptions were permitted for ≥1 vaccine by 75% of schools; 54% permitted religious exemptions; 35% permitted personal belief exemptions; 58% permitted any nonmedical exemption. CONCLUSIONS Many schools accept non-ACIP-recommended forms of evidence of immunity which could lead some students to believe they are protected from vaccine preventable diseases when they may be susceptible. Additional efforts are needed to better educate school officials about current ACIP recommendations for acceptable forms of evidence of immunity so school policies can be revised as needed.

  12. The evaluation of a standardized call/recall system for childhood immunizations in Wandsworth, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Christina; Zvoc, Miro; Balakrishnan, Ravikumar

    2013-06-01

    To improve uptake of childhood immunizations in Wandsworth we developed a standardized call/recall system based on parents being sent three reminders and defaulters being referred to a Health Visitor. Thirty-two out of 44 primary care practices in the area implemented the intervention in September 2011. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation, delivery and impact on immunization uptake of the new call/recall system. To assess implementation and delivery, a mixed method approach was used including qualitative (structured interviews) and quantitative (data collected at three months post-implementation) assessment. To assess the impact, we used Student's t test to compare the difference in immunization uptake rates between intervention and non-intervention practices before and after implementation. The call/recall system was viewed positively by both parents and staff. Most children due or overdue immunizations were successfully captured by the 1st invitation reminder. After three invitations, between 87.3 % (MMR1) and 92.2 % (pre-school booster) of children identified as due or overdue immunizations successfully responded. Prior to implementation there was no difference in uptake rates between intervention and non-intervention practices. Post-implementation uptake rates for DTaP/IPV/Hib, MMR1, MMR2 and the pre-school booster were significantly greater in the intervention practices. Similar findings were seen for PCV and Hib/MenC boosters, although the differences were not statistically significant at the 5 % level. Following the successful implementation of a standardized call/recall system in Wandsworth, other regions or primary care practices may wish to consider introducing a similar system to help improve their immunization coverage levels.

  13. A Conceptual Study of Using an Isothermal Compressor on an S-CO{sub 2} Cooled KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (KAIST-MMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin Young; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Although the isothermal compressor technology is not fully matured for commercialization, its potential to reduce the compressor work and the cycle physical size due to the merging of the compressor and the precooler into one turbomachine can be utilized well especially in a concept such as the KAIST-MMR. Future works include optimization of the cycle layout and parameters to enhance performance, calculation of the heat exchanger sizes, and turbomachinery design of components. The development of small modular reactors (SMR) has been gathering attention due to factory manufacturing, but the power system required for a steam cycle in a water-cooled SMR is significantly large. A new concept called the KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) has been designed previously to make use of the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) cycle to significantly decrease the size and to improve its cycle efficiency. To further enhance the advantages of the KAIST-MMR concept, the conventional compressor is replaced with an isothermal compressor in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle.

  14. A multifactorial likelihood model for MMR gene variant classification incorporating probabilities based on sequence bioinformatics and tumor characteristics: a report from the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bryony A; Goldgar, David E; Paterson, Carol; Clendenning, Mark; Walters, Rhiannon; Arnold, Sven; Parsons, Michael T; Michael D, Walsh; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Lemarchand, Loic; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Young, Joanne P; Buchanan, Daniel D; Tavtigian, Sean V; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) gene sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance are often identified in suspected Lynch syndrome families, and this constitutes a challenge for both researchers and clinicians. Multifactorial likelihood model approaches provide a quantitative measure of MMR variant pathogenicity, but first require input of likelihood ratios (LRs) for different MMR variation-associated characteristics from appropriate, well-characterized reference datasets. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic BRAF tumor data for unselected colorectal cancer probands of known pathogenic variant status were used to derive LRs for tumor characteristics using the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CFR) resource. These tumor LRs were combined with variant segregation within families, and estimates of prior probability of pathogenicity based on sequence conservation and position, to analyze 44 unclassified variants identified initially in Australasian Colon CFR families. In addition, in vitro splicing analyses were conducted on the subset of variants based on bioinformatic splicing predictions. The LR in favor of pathogenicity was estimated to be ~12-fold for a colorectal tumor with a BRAF mutation-negative MSI-H phenotype. For 31 of the 44 variants, the posterior probabilities of pathogenicity were such that altered clinical management would be indicated. Our findings provide a working multifactorial likelihood model for classification that carefully considers mode of ascertainment for gene testing. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  16. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  17. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  18. [Evaluation of the seroprotection against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children under 5 years of age in Peru, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiestas Solórzano, Víctor; Gonzáles Noriega, Marco; Fiestas, Fabián; Cabezudo, Edwin; Suárez, Magna; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children aged between 1 and 4 years in Peru. A national survey was conducted based on a questionnaire and capillary blood sample taken on filter paper in order to study antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children from 1 to 4 years of age. A stratified, multistage, probability sampling design was used to be representative at the national level and at level of seven ambits, including the Metropolitan Lima Area, the rest of the urban coast, the rural coast, the urban highlands, the rural highlands, the urban jungle and the rural jungle. The capillary blood samples were processed according to the standardized protocols for detection of antibodies using the ELISA technique and commercial reagents. The survey showed a national prevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B of 91.6% (CI 95%: 90.6%; 92.7%), 91.3% (CI 95%: 90.3%; 92.4%) and 95.9% (CI 95%: 95.0%; 96.8%) respectively. There was no evidence of significant differences in the prevalence among the ambits of study or among the socioeconomic strata of the conglomerates for any of the three types of antibodies. In children from 1 to 4 years of age, the national prevalence of antibodies against measles and Rubella was between 90-93%, while the prevalence of antibodies against Hepatitis B (anti-HBsAg) was between 95-97%.

  19. Rubella seromarkers and determinants of infection among tanzanian children and adolescents in prevaccination Era: Are we in the right track?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam M Mirambo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of specific rubella IgG antibodies in Tanzania is high and is associated with increase in age, absence of rash, and low SES. Results suggest a need to reconsider upper age limit for vaccination campaigns in developing countries. Screening and vaccinating women may be cost-effective campaign to prevent CRS in developing countries.

  20. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  1. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  2. Prevalence and genotypic characterization of Human Parvovirus B19 in children with measles- and rubella-like illness in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farhad; Sarshari, Behrang; Ghavami, Nastaran; Meysami, Parisa; Shadab, Azadeh; Salimi, Hamid; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-06-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a prototype of the Erythroparvovirus genus in Parvoviridae family. B19V infections are often associated with fever and rash, and can be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella. Differential diagnosis of B19V illness is necessary for case management and also for public health control activities, particularly in outbreak situations in which measles or rubella is suspected. To investigate the causative role of B19V infection in children with measles- and rubella-like illness, a total of 583 sera from children with exanthema were tested for presence of B19V by determining anti-B19V IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA as well as B19V DNA detection by nested PCR. DNA positive samples were assessed further for determination of viral load and sequence analysis by Real-Time PCR and Sanger sequencing method, respectively. Out of 583 patients, 112 (19.21%) patients were positive for B19V-IgM antibody, 110 (18.87%) were positive for B19V-IgG antibody, and 63 (10.81%) were positive for B19V viral DNA. The frequency of B19V-IgG antibodies were increased with age; that is children under 6 year old showed 7.11% seroprevalence for B19V-IgG as compared to 18.39% and 28.91% for age groups 6 to >11 and 11-14 years old, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS1-VPu1 overlapping region revealed that all sequenced B19V-DNA belonged to genotype 1. The results of this study may aid the surveillance programs aiming at eradicating measles/rubella virus in Iran, as infections with B19V can be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not conducted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  4. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  5. Anticorpos para os vírus da rubéola, do sarampo e da caxumba em crianças de São Paulo, Brasil Rubella, measles and mumps serum antibodies in children of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Piza de Souza Carvalho

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram dosados anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação para o vírus da rubéola, do sarampo e da caxumba, em amostras de soro de 166 crianças de elevado nível sócio-econômico, com idade de 6 a 12 anos, que freqüentavam, em 1969, uma escola primária na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A per-centagem de soros positivos foi de 49,3% para a rubéola, 88,2% para o sarampo e 79,4% para a caxumba. Através de interrogatório junto aos pais, observou-se significativa correspondência entre antecedentes clínicos positivos para sarampo e caxumba e presença de anticorpos circulantes (95,3% e 91,7%, respectivamente. Houve grande discordância quando os antecedentes clínicos ou vacinais para sarampo e caxumba eram negativos: 51,8% e 61,4% destas crianças possuíam anticorpos circulantes. Quanto à rubéola, não foi possível fazer-se tal correlação, pois a maioria das mães não sabia dar informações sobre esta doença, no passado.One hundred and sixty high socio-economic level, 6-12 year old children, attending a primary school, were tested in 1969 for rubella, measles and mumps HI antibodies. A 49.3% positivity for rubella antibodies, 88.2% for measles and 79.4% for mumps were found. A good correlation was observed between a positive history of clinical disease in the past and detectable serum antibodies for measles and mumps (95.3% and 91.7%, respectively. Quite on the contrary was observed when the history of measles and mumps disease or immunization in the past were negative, as 51.8% and 61.4% of these children, respectively, presented antibodies. As regards rubella, no correlation was obtained as the great majority of the parents was unable to give information on this disease in the past.

  6. [Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, André

    2010-01-01

    monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Guérin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.0 ± 13.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826 children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (±2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the

  7. [Immunization against varicella and zoster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floret, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Two vaccines against varicella-zoster virus are available in France. These live attenuated vaccines are derived from the Oka strain used in Japan since 1974. They are indicated for healthy subjects from 12 months of age, at a dose of one injection until 12 years of age, and two injections 4-8 weeks apart for older children and adults. Seroconversion occurs in 95% of cases and the antibodies persist beyond 5 years. Clinical efficacy is about 85% against all forms of varicella and nearly 100% against severe forms. Post-exposure vaccination within 3 days may also prevent the disease. A universal immunization program against varicella was implemented in the USA in 1995. Now, with vaccine coverage at about 80%, the incidence of the disease has been reduced by 85%, with the largest decrease in 1- to 4-year-olds. Tolerability is generally good, with only mild reactions at the injection site and moderate fever The length of protection is not yet known. A two-dose schedule seems advisable to avoid breakthrough varicella, which occurs in 4% of vaccinees each year. Insufficient coverage is expected to lead to later disease onset, with more severe cases in adolescents and adults. Universal immunization could also increase the incidence of zoster. These problems indeed seem to be emerging in the United States. France has adopted restrictive guidelines on VZV vaccination, but they are expected to be revised when the combined MMR-V vaccine becomes available. Zoster vaccine, prepared with the same strain but at a higher concentration, has moderate efficacy on zoster and on post-zoster neuralgia in patients over 70. This vaccine is not yet recommended in France, because the length of protection is not known and there is a potential risk of delaying the occurrence of zoster and, thus, of increasing the risk of post zoster neuralgia.

  8. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  9. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  10. The knowledge, attitudes and behaviors on immunization of healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Karacaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of healthcare workers (HCWs working in our center about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, seasonal flu (SF and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccinations and reasons not to be vaccinated. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey conducted among HCWs of our hospital between 1 to 31 May 2014. The data were collected by a face-to-face questionnaire form consisting of 41 questions. Collected data were analyzed via SPSS 22,0, p <0.05 was considered significant Results: 219 HCWs participated in the study. The study group included 113 men. A median age of 39 years (minmax: 24-66. The median service duration of HCWs was 17 years (min-max: 1-35. Education levels of personnels were primary (primary -secondary-high school, colleges-university, master's degree-PhD ( respectively 45, 136, 38 people. The median score of correct information, the right attitude and the correct behavior were 7 (min-max: 1-10, 35 (min-max: 27-47, 5 (min-max: 0- 9, respectively. People who never got vaccinated against SF and who got vaccinated every year were calculated 46.6% and 20.1%. H1N1, HBV and measles vaccination rate were 46.6%, 82.6% and 18.3%, respectively. Not believing vaccine's protectiveness for SF (34,9%, concerned about safety for H1N1(44,4%, neglected for HBV (36,8%, got sick before for measles (36,3% were the factors most influential in refusal to get vaccinated. Conclusions: It is important that correct and sufficient information is accessed on issues such as effectiveness, side effects of vaccines in order to increase the rate of vaccination of HCWs [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 353-363

  11. A comparison of Rubazyme-M and MACRIA for the detection of rubella-specific IgM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, J.M.; Palmer, S.J.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Hodgson, J.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-six carefully selected sera were tested for rubella-specific IgM by Rubazyme-M (Abbott Diagnostics) and an M-antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Eleven of these sera were from cases of infectious mononucleosis, six of which gave positive results in MACRIA, while one gave a positive result in Rubazyme-M. Of the remaining 175 sera, 158 gave concordant results whilst 17 sera gave discordant results; these 17 were also tested by serum fractionation. Problems were encountered with all assay systems used. It is therefore recommended that the results of all tests for rubella-specific IgM should be interpreted with caution. (Auth.)

  12. Molecular surveillance of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region: new challenges in the elimination phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibanez, S; Hübschen, J M; Ben Mamou, M C; Muscat, M; Brown, K E; Myers, R; Donoso Mantke, O; Zeichhardt, H; Brockmann, D; Shulga, S V; Muller, C P; O'Connor, P M; Mulders, M N; Mankertz, A

    2017-08-01

    The WHO European Region (EUR) has adopted the goal of eliminating measles and rubella but individual countries perform differently in achieving this goal. Measles virus spread across the EUR by mobile groups has recently led to large outbreaks in the insufficiently vaccinated resident population. As an instrument for monitoring the elimination process and verifying the interruption of endemic virus transmission, molecular surveillance has to provide valid and representative data. Irrespective of the country's specific situation, it is required to ensure the functionality of the laboratory surveillance that is supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. To investigate whether the molecular surveillance in the EUR is adequate for the challenges in the elimination phase, we addressed the quality assurance of molecular data, the continuity and intensity of molecular monitoring, and the analysis of transmission chains. Published articles, the molecular External Quality Assessment Programme of the WHO, the Centralized Information System for Infectious Diseases of the WHO EUR and the WHO Measles and Rubella Nucleotide Surveillance databases served as information sources. Molecular proficiency testing conducted by the WHO in 2016 has shown that the expertise for measles and rubella virus genotyping exists in all parts of the EUR. The analysis of surveillance data reported nationally to the WHO in 2013-2016 has revealed some countries with outbreaks but not sufficiently representative molecular data. Long-lasting supranational MV transmission chains were identified. A more systematic molecular monitoring and recording of the transmission pattern for the whole EUR could help to create a meaningful picture of the elimination process. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as

  14. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ronnie Anderson is Director of the Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity. ... field have included macrophage, T cell, cytokine and cytokine activated killer cell interactions .... monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, eccrine.

  15. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances.

  16. SAFETY AND IMMUNOLOGIC EFFICACY OF COMBINED IMMUNIZATION IN CHILDREN AGED 6—7 YEARS WITH VACCINES FROM THE NATIONAL CALENDAR OF PROPHYLACTICS VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Konovalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the safety of the vaccination for prevention of influenza with Grippol® plus vaccine alongside with vaccination with combined preparations for the prevention of diphtheria and tetanus (Td and measles, rubella, mumps in children aged 6—7 years. We determined that combined immunization with the indicated vaccines proves good tolerability and low reactogenicity. Vaccine Grippol® Plus shows low reactogenicity , high immunologenicity and does not cause cross-suppression of antibodies in co-administration with other vaccines on vaccination calendar. Also concomitant vaccination with Grippol® plus and other vaccines does not inhibit the development of a specific immune response against influenza.

  17. Prevalence of malaria, typhoid, toxoplasmosis and rubella among febrile children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achonduh-Atijegbe, Olivia A; Mfuh, Kenji O; Mbange, Aristid H E; Chedjou, Jean P; Taylor, Diane W; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Mbacham, Wilfred F; Leke, Rose

    2016-11-08

    The current roll-out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in many endemic countries has resulted in the reporting of fewer cases of malaria-attributed illnesses. However, lack of knowledge of the prevalence of other febrile illnesses and affordable diagnostic tests means that febrile patients are not managed optimally. This study assessed the prevalence of commonly treatable or preventable febrile illnesses in children between 6 months and 15 years using rapid diagnostic tests at the point-of-care. Febrile children were enrolled between February-April 2014 at a health facility after obtaining informed consent from parent. Eligible participants were aged 6 months-15 years with a history of fever in the last 24 h or axillary temperature ≥38 °C at consultation. All participants were tested using RDTs for malaria, typhoid, toxoplasmosis and rubella. Malaria parasites were further identified by microscopy and PCR. Clinical and household characteristics were recorded and association with pathogens determined. Of the 315 children enrolled, the mean age was 5.8 ± 3.8 years. Stomach pain (41.2 %) was the most reported symptom. Prior to attending the health facility, 70.8 % had taken antipyretics, 27.9 % antimalarials, 11.4 % antibiotics and 13.3 % antifungal drugs. Among 315 children with fever, based on RDTs, 56.8 % were infected with malaria, 4.4 % with typhoid, 3.2 % with acute toxoplasmosis, and 1.3 % with rubella (all positive for rubella were in the same family and not vaccinated). All non-malarial infections were co-infections and approximately 30 % of the fever cases went un-diagnosed. Malaria prevalence by microscopy and PCR was 43.4 and 70.2 % respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria were 75.98 and 100 % respectively, with 0.73 measurement agreement between RDTs and microscopy while that of RDT and PCR were 81 and 100 % respectively with a K value of 0.72. The use of Insecticide Treated Bednets was

  18. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  19. Perceptions of childhood immunization in a minority community: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Millett, Christopher; Thorogood, Nicki

    2008-05-01

    To assess reasons for low uptake of immunization amongst orthodox Jewish families. Qualitative interviews with 25 orthodox Jewish mothers and 10 local health care workers. The orthodox Jewish community in North East London. Identification of views on immunization in the orthodox Jewish community. In a community assumed to be relatively insulated from direct media influence, word of mouth is nevertheless a potent source of rumours about vaccination dangers. The origins of these may lie in media scares that contribute to anxieties about MMR. At the same time, close community cohesion leads to a sense of relative safety in relation to tuberculosis, with consequent low rates of BCG uptake. Thus low uptake of different immunizations arises from enhanced feelings of both safety and danger. Low uptake was not found to be due to the practical difficulties associated with large families, or to perceived insensitive cultural practices of health care providers. The views and practices of members of this community are not homogeneous and may change over time. It is important that assumptions concerning the role of religious beliefs do not act as an obstacle for providing clear messages concerning immunization, and community norms may be challenged by explicitly using its social networks to communicate more positive messages about immunization. The study provides a useful example of how social networks may reinforce or challenge misinformation about health and risk and the complex nature of decision making about children's health.

  20. Inquérito de cobertura vacinal: avaliação empírica da técnica de amostragem por conglomerados proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde Immunization coverage survey: empirical assessment of the cluster sampling method proposed by the World Health Organization

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    Rita Barradas Barata

    2005-03-01

    íplice viral (12,9% e para o esquema completo (11,2%. CONCLUSÃO: O método de inquérito de cobertura vacinal proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde é capaz de fornecer dados representativos da população, desde que os procedimentos metodológicos de seleção da amostra sejam rigorosamente seguidos no campo.OBJECTIVE: To assess sample representativeness and the precision of estimates of immunization coverage obtained with the 30 by 7 cluster sampling method proposed by the World Health Organization, by applying the method to determine immunization coverage in two municipalities (Diadema and São Caetano do Sul in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000. METHOD: The representativeness of the samples was determined by comparing the census sectors picked by lot for the surveyed sectors and for the nonsurveyed sectors in both municipalities, in terms of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (age distribution of the population, schooling, proportion of households headed by a women, monthly income of household head, and sanitary conditions of the home (piped-in water, connected to the sewer system. The precision of the coverage estimates for the vaccines in the basic immunization schedule-BCG; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT; poliomyelitis; hepatitis B; measles; and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-was determined by calculating the design effect and the width of the confidence intervals. Precision was considered to be satisfactory if the design effect was below 2.0 and the confidence interval width was below 10%. RESULTS: In both municipalities the comparison between the surveyed and nonsurveyed sectors showed a similar distribution in terms of socioeconomic and demographic variables. Concerning the precision of the estimates, the design effect was below 2.0 for all the vaccines, both in São Caetano do Sul and Diadema. In Diadema, the confidence interval width was below 10% for all the vaccines, except for MMR (10.1%. In São Caetano do Sul, only 89% of

  1. Capsella rubella TGA4, a bZIP transcription factor, causes delayed flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Li Maofu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is usually regulated by many environmental factors and endogenous signals. TGA family members are bZIP transcription factors that bind to the octopine synthase element, which has been closely linked to defense/stress responses. Most TGA factors interact with non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1 and plant defense responses are strengthened by this interaction. TGA1and TGA4factors bind to NPR1 only in salicylic acid (SA-induced leaves, suggesting that TGA4 has another function during plant development. Here, we isolated a bZIP transcription factor gene, TGA4, from Capsella rubella. TGA4transcripts were detected in most tissues, with high expression in leaves, low expression in stems and flowering buds, and undetectable in siliques. CruTGA4was over expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana wild typeCol-0 plants. Flowering time and total leaf number in the transgenic plants showed that overexpression of CruTGA4could delay flowering in A. thaliana. Our findings suggest that TGA4 may act as flowering regulator that controls plant flowering.

  2. Analysis of the association opportunistic infections with c-reactive protein focus toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, rubella,and hepatitis in human immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadijah, K. H.; Ferica, K.; Katu, S.; Halim, R.; Mubin, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    Opportunistic infections occur more often severe in people with HIV. C-reactive protein is known to have a prognostic value in HIV and those with HIV-related opportunistic infections. High level of CRP will increase therisk of infection toxoplasma, CMV, rubella,and hepatitis in HIV.Analyzing association of opportunistic infections toxoplasma, CMV, rubella,and hepatitis with the level of CRP in HIV, a cross-sectional analytic study wasduring January-July 2017 on both outpatientand inpatient HIV subjects at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar. Each HIV patient is categorized into agroup of opportunistic infections: toxoplasma, CMV, rubella, hepatitis. CRP levels will be assessed in each group, defined by normal values 0.05).

  3. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  4. Immunizing Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.

  5. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  6. Prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella before and after vaccination of school-age children with three different triple combined viral vaccines, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1996 Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra sarampión, paperas y rubéola en niños en edad escolar antes y después de la vacunación con tres vacunas triples antivirales combinadas diferentes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1996

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    Boaventura Antônio dos Santos

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the seroprevalence for measles, mumps, and rubella in school-age children (6-12 years old before and after the administration of three triple combined viral vaccines. METHODS: In two municipal schools of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 692 blood samples were collected before vaccination and 636 samples 21 to 30 days after vaccination during 1996. IgG antibody seropositivity was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (measles and mumps with Enzygnost [Behring, Marburg, Germany]; rubella with Rubenostika [Organon Teknica, Boxtel, the Netherlands]. The vaccines compared were: A: E-Zagreb, L-Zagreb, and Wistar RA 27/3 (Tresivac; B: Moraten, J-Lynn, and Wistar RA 27/3 (M-M-R II; and C: Schwarz, Urabe AM-9, and Wistar RA 27/3 (Trimovax. RESULTS: Before vaccination, 79.2% [95% confidence interval (CI = 76.0%-82.2%] of the samples were positive for measles, 69.4% (95% CI = 65.8%-72.8% for mumps, and 55.4% (95% CI = 51.6%-59.2% for rubella. After vaccination with the A, B, and C vaccines, seropositivity was 100.0%, 99.5%, and 100.0%, respectively for measles; 99.5%, 94.5%, and 92.0% for mumps; and 92.6%, 91.3%, and 88.6% for rubella. CONCLUSIONS: About one-fifth (20.8% of the schoolchildren who could have been vaccinated against measles at age 9 months had levels of antibodies insufficient for protection. In the sample of schoolchildren without previous vaccination against mumps and rubella, high proportions of susceptible levels were found. All vaccines were immunogenic, but vaccine A yielded a seroconversion rate of 99.5% for the mumps component, which was significantly higher than the other two vaccines (P OBJETIVO: Se evaluó la seroprevalencia para sarampión, paperas y rubéola en niños en edad escolar (6-12 años antes y después de la administración de tres vacunas triples antivirales combinadas. MÉTODOS: Se colectaron 692 muestras de sangre antes de la vacunación y 636 muestras entre 21 y 30 días después de la

  7. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2006-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles

  8. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA

  9. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  10. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  11. Weakened Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention ...

  12. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  13. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. RESULTS OF THE IMMUNIZATION ACCORDING TO THE NATIONAL CALENDAR ASSOCIATED WITH VACCINATION AGAINST INFLUENZA IN CHILDREN WITH SOMATIC DISORDERS AND IMMUNODEFICIENCY

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    S. M. Kharit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study safety and immunological efficacy of vaccination against influenza in separate and associated immunization according to the National Calendar. Patients and methods: 100 children with various disorders as well as children with HIV subjected to revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, measles, parotiditis and rubella, were included into the study. Children were divided into 5 groups of 20 persons each: groups of separate or associated vaccination. In order to assess safety of vaccination children were observed for 30 days after vaccination. In order to analyze immunologic efficacy participants were taken serum tests before and on the 30th day after vaccination. Results: the study demonstrated high safety of the vaccine against influenza. Mild and moderate topical and general reactions were observed in isolated instances and did not differ in comparison groups. Simultaneous vaccination against influenza with immunization against diphtheria, parotiditis and rubella did not influence synthesis of antibodies, while synthesis of antibodies against measles was decreased; immunization against diphtheria and measles when associated with vaccination against influenza depressed synthesis of antibodies against A/H3N2 influenza. Conclusions: vaccine against influenza has low reactivity, high safety and can be used in association with immunization according to the National calendar in independence to somatic disorders of patients. 

  15. The Role of Childhood Infections and Immunizations on Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Hari; Danysh, Heather E; Scheurer, Michael E; Okcu, M Fatih; Skapek, Stephen X; Hawkins, Douglas S; Spector, Logan G; Erhardt, Erik B; Grufferman, Seymour; Lupo, Philip J

    2016-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare, highly malignant tumor arising from primitive mesenchymal cells that differentiate into skeletal muscle. Relatively little is known about RMS susceptibility. Based on growing evidence regarding the role of early immunologic challenges on RMS development, we evaluated the role of infections and immunizations on this clinically significant pediatric malignancy. RMS cases (n = 322) were enrolled from the third trial coordinated by the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. Population-based controls (n = 322) were pair matched to cases on race, sex, and age. The following immunizations were assessed: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT); measles, mumps, and rubella; and oral polio vaccine. We also evaluated if immunizations were complete versus incomplete. We examined selected infections including chickenpox, mumps, pneumonia, scarlet fever, rubella, rubeola, pertussis, mononucleosis, and lung infections. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each exposure, adjusted for maternal education and total annual income. Incomplete immunization schedules (OR = 5.30, 95% CI: 2.47-11.33) and incomplete DPT immunization (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.06-2.29) were positively associated with childhood RMS. However, infections did not appear to be associated with childhood RMS. This is the largest study of RMS to date demonstrating a possible protective effect of immunizations against the development of childhood RMS. Further studies are needed to validate our findings. Our findings add to the growing body of literature, suggesting a protective role of routine vaccinations in childhood cancer and specifically in childhood RMS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Application of high-field n.m.r. spectroscopy to the structural elucidation of natural products. The structure of rubellin, a noval bufadienolide glycoside from Urginea rubella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, P.S.; Van Heerden, F.R.; Vleggaar, R.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and absolute configuration of rubellin, the major toxic principle of Urginea rubella, was determined by application of high-field 1 H n.m.r. spectroscopy. Rubellin proved to be a bufadienolide glycoside with the carbohydrate moiety doubly linked to the aglycone at the 2α- and 3β- positions

  17. Seroepidemiological profile of pregnant women after inadvertent rubella vaccination in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2001-2002 Perfil seroepidemiológico de embarazadas después de recibir inadvertidamente la vacuna antirrubeólica, estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2001-2002

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    Gloria Regina da Silva e Sá

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze postvaccination serological status in pregnant women inadvertently vaccinated against rubella in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of pregnant women 15 to 29 years old, vaccinated against rubella and measles from November 2001 to March 2002, who were unaware of their pregnancy at the time of vaccination or who became pregnant within 30 days thereafter. They were tested for rubella-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM and G (IgG and classified as immune (IgM-negative, IgG-positive, tested within 30 days after vaccination, susceptible (IgM-positive after vaccination or indeterminate (IgM-negative, IgG-positive, vaccination- serological testing interval greater than 30 days. RESULTS: Of 2 292 women, 288 (12.6% were susceptible, 316 (13.8% immune, 1 576 (68.8% indeterminate, 8 (0.3% ineligible, and 104 (4.5% lost to follow-up. IgM seropositivity by vaccination-serological testing interval was 16.1% (d" 30 days, 15.4% (30-60 days, and 14.2% (61-90 days. Considering the campaign's target age, the 20-to-24-year age group had the largest proportion of individuals susceptible to rubella (14.8% and represented 42.4% (122/288 of all susceptible women. In 75% of susceptible pregnant women, gestational age was 5 weeks or less at the time of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Mass immunization of childbearing-age women was justified on the basis of epidemiological and serological data. Follow-up of vaccinated pregnant women revealed no cases of congenital rubella syndrome due to rubella vaccination. However, the observed rate of congenital infection supports the recommendation to avoid vaccinating pregnant women, and to avoid conception for up to 1 month following rubella vaccination.OBJETIVOS: Analizar el estado serológico de mujeres embarazadas tras haber recibido inadvertidamente la vacuna antirrubeólica, en el estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal de mujeres

  18. The immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine when co-administered with conjugated meningococcal C vaccine to healthy children: A phase IIIb, randomized, multi-center study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, Paolo; Esposito, Susanna; Bona, Gianni; Cuccia, Mario; Desole, Maria Giuseppina; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Gabutti, Giovanni; Pellegrino, Angelo; Salvini, Filippo; Henry, Ouzama; Povey, Michael; Marchetti, Federico

    2016-08-05

    Multiple vaccination visits and administrations can be stressful for infants, parents and healthcare providers. Multivalent combination vaccines can deliver the required number of antigens in fewer injections and clinic visits, while vaccine co-administration can also reduce the number of visits. This non-inferiority study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of co-administering a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine with conjugated meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine in a large cohort of healthy Italian toddlers. Healthy subjects aged 13-15months were randomized (2:1:1) to receive single doses of either: co-administered MMRV+MenC at the same visit (MMRV+MenC group); or MMRV followed 42days later by MenC (MMRV group); or MenC followed 42days later by MMRV (MenC group). Blood samples were collected before and 43days after vaccination. Antibody titers against MMRV were measured using ELISA. Functional-anti-meningococcal-serogroup activity (rSBAMenC) was assessed using a serum bactericidal test. Solicited local and general reactions were recorded for up to 4 and 42days post-vaccination, respectively. Non-inferiority of MMRV+MenC to MMRV (post-dose-1 seroconversion rates) and MMRV+MenC to MenC (post-dose-1 seroprotection rates) was achieved if the lower limit (LL) of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the group difference was ⩾-10% for each antigen. 716 subjects were enrolled in the study. At 42days post-vaccination, the MMRV seroconversion rates were 99.3% (measles), 94.5% (mumps), 100% (rubella) and 99.7% (varicella) in the MMRV+MenC group, and 99.4%, 93.2%, 100% and 100%, respectively, in the MMRV group. The seroprotection rates against rSBA-MenC were 98.3% in the MMRV+MenC group and 99.3% in the MenC group. Non-inferiority was reached for all the vaccine antigens. The safety profiles were as expected for these vaccines. The immune responses elicited by co-administered MMRV+MenC were non-inferior to those elicited by MMRV or MenC alone and

  19. Immunization status of residents in pediatrics at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mariana Bernardi Viviani Silveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of health care workers is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. We assessed the immunization status of Residents in Pediatrics at the Federal University of São Paulo from June to December 2008. Their immunization records were checked and evaluated according to the Brazilian Immunization Schedule for health care workers. Considering all required vaccines, only 3.1% of the 64 Residents were up-to-date with their immunizations. Influenza was the vaccine with the lowest uptake (3.1% and measles and rubella were diseases with the highest evidence of immunity (62.5% each. Only 37.5% of Residents had received three hepatitis B vaccine doses with a subsequent serology confirming seroconversion. Moreover, the vast majority of Residents in Pediatrics who were not up-to-date were unaware of the fact. Both medical schools and Pediatric Residence programs should not only offer information but also check vaccination records in an effort to keep their healthcare workers´ vaccinations up-to-date.

  20. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  1. TumorNext-Lynch-MMR: a comprehensive next generation sequencing assay for the detection of germline and somatic mutations in genes associated with mismatch repair deficiency and Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Phillip N; Tsai, Pei; Chen, Daniel; Wu, Sitao; Hoo, Jayne; Mu, Wenbo; Li, Bing; Vuong, Huy; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Batth, Navanjot; Willett, Sara; Uyeda, Lisa; Shah, Swati; Gau, Chia-Ling; Umali, Monalyn; Espenschied, Carin; Janicek, Mike; Brown, Sandra; Margileth, David; Dobrea, Lavinia; Wagman, Lawrence; Rana, Huma; Hall, Michael J; Ross, Theodora; Terdiman, Jonathan; Cullinane, Carey; Ries, Savita; Totten, Ellen; Elliott, Aaron M

    2018-04-17

    The current algorithm for Lynch syndrome diagnosis is highly complex with multiple steps which can result in an extended time to diagnosis while depleting precious tumor specimens. Here we describe the analytical validation of a custom probe-based NGS tumor panel, TumorNext-Lynch-MMR, which generates a comprehensive genetic profile of both germline and somatic mutations that can accelerate and streamline the time to diagnosis and preserve specimen. TumorNext-Lynch-MMR can detect single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions in 39 genes that are frequently mutated in Lynch syndrome and colorectal cancer. Moreover, the panel provides microsatellite instability status and detects loss of heterozygosity in the five Lynch genes; MSH2 , MSH6 , MLH1 , PMS2 and EPCAM . Clinical cases are described that highlight the assays ability to differentiate between somatic and germline mutations, precisely classify variants and resolve discordant cases.

  2. Global importation and population risk factors for measles in New Zealand: a case study for highly immunized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, D T S; Marshall, J C; French, N P; Carpenter, T E; Roberts, M G; Kiedrzynski, T

    2017-07-01

    As endemic measles is eliminated through immunization, countries must determine the risk factors for the importation of measles into highly immunized populations to target control measures. Despite eliminating endemic measles, New Zealand suffers from outbreaks after introductions from abroad, enabling us to use it as a model for measles introduction risk. We used a generalized linear model to analyze risk factors for 1137 measles cases from 2007 to June 2014, provide estimates of national immunity levels, and model measles importation risk. People of European ethnicity made up the majority of measles cases. Age is a positive risk factor, particularly 0-2-year-olds and 5-17-year-old Europeans, along with increased wealth. Pacific islanders were also at greater risk, but due to 0-2-year-old cases. Despite recent high measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine immunization coverage, overall population immunity against measles remains ~90% and is lower in people born between 1982 and 2005. Greatest measles importation risk is during December, and countries predicted to be sources have historical connections and highest travel rates (Australia and UK), followed by Asian countries with high travel rates and higher measles incidences. Our results suggest measles importation due to travel is seeding measles outbreaks, and immunization levels are insufficient to continue to prevent outbreaks because of heterogeneous immunity in the population, leaving particular age groups at risk.

  3. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  4. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  5. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  6. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  7. T cell immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2013-01-01

    Since birth, our immune system is constantly bombarded with self-antigens and foreign pathogens. To stay healthy, complex immune strategies have evolved in our immune system to maintain self-tolerance and to defend against foreign pathogens. Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells...

  8. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  9. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  10. Altered growth, differentiation, and responsiveness to epidermal growth factor of human embryonic mesenchymal cells of palate by persistent rubella virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, T.; Urade, M.; Sakuda, M.; Miyazaki, T.

    1986-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that human embryonic mesenchymal cells derived from the palate (HEMP cells) retain alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content and capacity for collagen synthesis after long-term culture, and their growth is markedly stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). There was a dramatic decrease in ALP content and capacity to synthesize collagen in HEMP cells (HEMP-RV cells) persistently infected with rubella virus (RV). EGF increased ALP activity and decreased collagen synthesis in HEMP cells, whereas EGF showed no effect on these activities in HEMP-RV cells. Growth of HEMP-RV cells was slightly reduced compared with that of HEMP cells. EGF stimulated growth of HEMP cells and to a lesser extent of HEMP-RV cells. Binding of 125 I-EGF to cell-surface receptors in HEMP-RV cells was, to our surprise, twice as much as that in HEMP cells. However, internalization of bound 125 I-EGF in HEMP-RV cells was profoundly diminished. Thus, persistent RV infection causes not only changes in HEMP cell growth and differentiation but a decrease in or loss of HEMP cell responsiveness to EGF. The effects of persistent RV infection on palatal cell differentiation as well as growth may be responsible for the pathogenesis of congenital rubella. Furthermore, since HEMP cells appear to be closely related to osteoblasts, these results suggest a mechanism for RV-induced osseous abnormalities manifested in congenital rubella patients

  11. Analysis of CO{sub 2} draining in the supercritical subchannel of an MMR reactor using CFD techniques; Análise do escoamento de CO{sub 2} supercrítico no subcanal de um reator MMR usando técnicas de CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Carolina S.B.; Ribeiro, Felipe P., E-mail: cdutra@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: felipeportor@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Su, Jian, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This work aims to analyze the steady state thermal hydraulic behavior of the supercritical CO{sub 2} by means of the computational modeling of the triangular arrangement subchannel of the KAIST MMR (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology). The mathematical model is composed of Navier-Stokes equations of Reynolds average (RANS), with the model of turbulence k-omega SST (Shear Stress Transport) for the fluid refrigerant in the subchannel and the heat conduction equation for the fuel and coating. The thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} are implemented from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) data. The transport equations were solved using a commercial CFD (Fluid Dynamics) tool, ANSYS FLUENT. Initially, a geometric model was constructed, using the ICEM software, composed of fuel, interstice, coating, refrigerant and two adiabatic regions of the fuel rod. The numerical solution used was validated by simulation of a simpler vertical circular tube and by comparisons with numerical and experimental results available in the literature. Using these results, we performed the mesh convergence study and initialized the simulations in the subchannel.

  12. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  13. Imbalanced immune homeostasis in immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Karina

    2016-04-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder resulting from low platelet counts caused by inadequate production as well as increased destruction by autoimmune mechanisms. As with other autoimmune disorders, chronic ITP is characterized by perturbations of immune homeostasis with hyperactivated effector cells as well as defective regulatory arm of the adaptive immune system, which will be reviewed here. Interestingly, some ITP treatments are associated with restoring the regulatory imbalance, although it remains unclear whether the immune system is redirected to a state of tolerance once treatment is discontinued. Understanding the mechanisms that result in breakdown of immune homeostasis in ITP will help to identify novel pathways for restoring tolerance and inhibiting effector cell responses. This information can then be translated into developing therapies for averting autoimmunity not only in ITP but also many autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Participação em dias nacionais de vacinação contra poliomielite: resultados de inquérito de cobertura vacinal em crianças nas 27 capitais brasileiras Participation in national polio immunization days: results of a vaccine coverage survey among children in 27 Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Rocha Mello

    2010-06-01

    Immunization Days (NIDs are held twice a year to maintain the elimination of poliomyelitis and to provide routine immunization for children younger than five years of age. Few studies have examined factors associated with participation in National Immunization Days among Brazilian children, or the contribution of immunization days to the coverage of recommended vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a household cluster survey in 26 state capitals and the Federal District among children aged 19 to 35 months. Vaccination histories, including dates of vaccination, participation in the most recent NID or reasons for non-participation were obtained. Survey estimates were compared with official estimates based on doses administered. RESULTS: Among the 17,749 children surveyed, 16,213 (91% participated in the most recent NID. Children who received vaccination in the private sector had the lowest participation (84% in NIDs. In 13 capitals, official coverage estimates were higher than those from the survey. The main reasons given for non-participation the most recent NID included parent's decision not to participate, doctor's advice, child's illness, and factors associated with the organization of the NID. Overall, 15% of the children surveyed had received at least one immunization in addition to oral polio vaccine in the most recent NID, including yellow fever, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR and combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian capitals, National Immunization Days continue to enjoy high levels of acceptance by the population and offer opportunities to complete recommended immunization schedules. Reasons for non-participation suggest the need for different communication strategies to reach parents who do not bring their children for vaccination on NIDs.

  15. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario The immune system, which is made up ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  16. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  17. Immunity's ancient arms

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Cannon, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse receptors on two types of cell mediate adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. In the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, immunity is likewise compartmentalized but the molecular mechanics are very different.

  18. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  20. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  1. Immunizations for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Larkin, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Immunizations protect individual persons and contribute to public health by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases. In this Practice Pearl, we review guidelines for adult immunizations and recent and potential changes in vaccines.

  2. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...

  3. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  4. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  5. Induction of antitumor immunity through xenoplacental immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadjanyan Michael G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically cancer vaccines have yielded suboptimal clinical results. We have developed a novel strategy for eliciting antitumor immunity based upon homology between neoplastic tissue and the developing placenta. Placenta formation shares several key processes with neoplasia, namely: angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteases, and active suppression of immune function. Immune responses against xenoantigens are well known to break self-tolerance. Utilizing xenogeneic placental protein extracts as a vaccine, we have successfully induced anti-tumor immunity against B16 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, whereas control xenogeneic extracts and B16 tumor extracts where ineffective, or actually promoted tumor growth, respectively. Furthermore, dendritic cells were able to prime tumor immunity when pulsed with the placental xenoantigens. While vaccination-induced tumor regression was abolished in mice depleted of CD4 T cells, both CD4 and CD8 cells were needed to adoptively transfer immunity to naïve mice. Supporting the role of CD8 cells in controlling tumor growth are findings that only freshly isolated CD8 cells from immunized mice were capable of inducing tumor cell caspases-3 activation ex vivo. These data suggest feasibility of using xenogeneic placental preparations as a multivalent vaccine potently targeting not just tumor antigens, but processes that are essential for tumor maintenance of malignant potential.

  6. Survey of rubella knowledge and acceptability of rubella vaccination among Brazilian adults prior to mass vaccination Encuesta sobre el conocimiento de la rubéola y la aceptabilidad de la vacunación antirrubeólica en los adultos brasileños antes de una campaña de vacunación masiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Vieira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate knowledge of rubella and acceptability of vaccination and identify sources of health information among brazilian adults to inform communication strategies for a national vaccination campaign to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS. METHODS: From 5-8 July 2008 a qualitative telephone survey was conducted among a nonprobabilistic sample of brazilian adults 18 to 65 years of age (n = 1 023 from all five geographic regions of Brazil to measure knowledge of rubella and willingness to receive the vaccine and to identify sources of health information. Frequencies of responses were stratified by respondents' sex, age, education, and income. RESULTS: Although 69.9% of respondents said they knew what rubella was, actual knowledge of the disease was limited, with only 29.9% answering affirmatively when asked if they would recognize symptoms of rubella infection. Self-reported knowledge increased with increasing age, education, and income, and was higher among women than men. A total of 94.5% of the respondents expressed willingness to be vaccinated for rubella elimination. The most frequently mentioned sources of health information were television and doctors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited knowledge of rubella, brazilian adults expressed willingness to be vaccinated for disease elimination.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento de la rubéola y la aceptabilidad de la vacunación antirrubeólica, y determinar las fuentes de información sanitaria en los adultos brasileños, con objeto de fundamentar las estrategias de comunicación de una campaña nacional de vacunación dirigida a eliminar la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita (SRC. MÉTODOS: Del 5 al 8 de julio del 2008 se llevó a cabo una encuesta telefónica cualitativa en una muestra no probabilística de adultos brasileños de 18 a 65 años de edad (n = 1 023 de las cinco regiones geográficas del Brasil, con objeto de evaluar el conocimiento de la rub

  7. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: a mathematical model to inform optimal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-03-03

    The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of measles transmission. We explore the frequency of SIAs in order to achieve measles control in selected countries and two Indian states with high measles burden. Specifically, we compute the maximum allowable time period between two consecutive SIAs to achieve measles control. Our analysis indicates that a single SIA will not control measles transmission in any of the countries with high measles burden. However, regular SIAs at high coverage levels are a viable strategy to prevent measles outbreaks. The periodicity of SIAs differs between countries and even within a single country, and is determined by population demographics and existing routine immunization coverage. Our analysis can guide country policymakers deciding on the optimal scheduling of SIA campaigns and the best combination of routine and SIA vaccination to control measles. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytokine regulation of immune tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...

  9. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  11. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  12. Measuring polio immunity to plan immunization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-11-21

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Micro-planning in a wide age range measles rubella (MR) campaign using mobile phone app, a case of Kenya, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Amina; Tabu, Collins; Onuekwusi, Iheoma; Otieno, Samuel Kevin; Ademba, Peter; Kamau, Peter; Koki, Beatrice; Ngatia, Anthony; Wainaina, Anthony; Davis, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A Measles rubella campaign that targeted 9 months to 14 year old children was conducted in all the 47 counties in Kenya between 16th and 24th of May 2016. Micro-planning using an android phone-based app was undertaken to map out the target population and logistics in all the counties 4 weeks to the campaign implementation instead of 6 months as per the WHO recommendation. The outcomes of the micro-planning exercise were a detailed micro-plan that served as a guide in ensuring tha...

  14. Analysis of the selective advantage conferred by a C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, Claudia; Tzeng, W.-P.; Liebert, Uwe Gerd; Frey, Teryl K.

    2007-01-01

    During serial passaging of rubella virus (RUB) in cell culture, the dominant species of defective-interfering RNA (DI) generated contains an in-frame deletion between the capsid protein (C) gene and E1 glycoprotein gene resulting in production of a C-E1 fusion protein that is necessary for the maintenance of the DI [Tzeng, W.P., Frey, T.K. (2006). C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage. Virology 356 198-207.]. A BHK cell line stably expressing the RUB structural proteins was established which was used to package DIs into virus particles following transfection with in vitro transcripts from DI infectious cDNA constructs. Packaging of a DI encoding an in-frame C-GFP-E1 reporter fusion protein corresponding to the C-E1 fusion protein expressed in a native DI was only marginally more efficient than packaging of a DI encoding GFP, indicating that the C-E1 fusion protein did not function by enhancing packaging. However, infection with the DI encoding the C-GFP-E1 fusion protein (in the absence of wt RUB helper virus) resulted in formation of clusters of GFP-positive cells and the percentage of GFP-positive cells in the culture following infection remained relatively constant. In contrast, a DI encoding GFP did not form GFP-positive clusters and the percentage of GFP-positive cells declined by roughly half from 2 to 4 days post-infection. Cluster formation and sustaining the percentage of infected (GFP-positive) cells required the C part of the fusion protein, including the downstream but not the upstream of two arginine clusters (both of which are associated with RNA binding and association with mitochondrial p32 protein) and the E1 part through the transmembrane sequence, but not the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Among a collection of mutant DI constructs, cluster formation and sustaining infected cell percentage correlated with maintenance during serial passage with wt RUB. We hypothesize that cluster formation and

  15. Use of electronic immunization registry in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Sayuri Sato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe adverse events following vaccination (AEFV of children under two years old and analyze trend of this events from 2000 to 2013, in the city of Araraquara (SP, Brazil. METHODS This is a descriptive study conducted with data of the passive surveillance system of AEFV that is available in the electronic immunization registry (EIR of the computerized medical record of the municipal health service (Juarez System. The study variables were: age, gender, vaccine, dose, clinical manifestations and hospitalization. We estimated rates using AEFV as numerator and administered doses of vaccines as denominator. The surveillance sensitivity was estimated by applying the method proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We used Prais-Winsten regression with a significance level of 5.0%. RESULTS The average annual rate of AEFV was 11.3/10,000 administered doses, however without a trend in the study period (p=0.491. Most cases occurred after the first dose (41.7% and among children under one year of age (72.6%. Vaccines with pertussis component, yellow fever and measles-mumps-rubella were the most reactogenic. We highlighted the rates of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion that were 4.1/10,000 and 1.5/10,000 doses of vaccines with pertussis component, respectively, most frequently in the first dose; 60,0% of cases presented symptoms in the first 24 hours after vaccination, however, 18.6% showed after 96 hours. The sensitivity of surveillance was 71.9% and 78.9% for hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The EIR-based AEFV surveillance system proved to be useful and highly sensitive to describe the safety profile of vaccines in a medium-sized city. It was also shown that the significant increase of the vaccines included in the basic vaccination schedule in childhood in the last decade did not alter the high safety standard of the National Immunization Program.

  16. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  17. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  18. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  19. Ethics of Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Quah, S.R.; Cockerham, W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into

  20. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  1. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  2. Disparity in childhood immunizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Opondo, Johnmark; Toye, Jennifer; Kurji, Ayisha; Kunst, Anton; Tournier, Ceal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunization coverage is common in low-income families and Aboriginal children in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether child immunization coverage rates at two years of age were lower in low-income neighbourhoods of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. METHODS: Parents who were and

  3. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  4. On Modelling an Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy, Raúl; Saab, Rosa; Godínez, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Immune systems of live forms have been an abundant source of inspiration to contemporary computer scientists. Problem solving strategies, stemming from known immune system phenomena, have been successfully applied to challenging problems of modern computing. However, research in artificial immune systems has overlooked establishing a coherent model of known immune system behaviour. This paper aims reports on an preliminary computer model of an immune system, where each immune system component...

  5. Rebuilding immunity with Remune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1998-01-01

    Remune, an immune response therapy composed of inactivated HIV, is designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and kill HIV proteins. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, researchers hope Remune's actions can alter the course of HIV infection and slow disease progression. Remune has gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to enter the critical Phase III trial stage. Two clinical trials are tracking Remune's immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response), its immunogenicity relative to dose level, and its effect on viral load. An ongoing trial, approved in February of 1996, enrolled 2,500 patients at 74 sites. The manufacturer, Immune Response Corporation (IRC), announced earlier this year that treatment with Remune induces an immune response to HIV that cross-reacts with different strains of the virus. This immune response is crucial for developing an effective worldwide treatment. Remune decreases levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). IRC recently began a Phase I clinical trial in Great Britain that combines Remune with a protease inhibitor, two antiviral nucleoside analogues, and Interleukin-2. The trial is designed to determine the role that the drug may play in restoring immune response.

  6. Micro-planning in a wide age range measles rubella (MR) campaign using mobile phone app, a case of Kenya, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amina; Tabu, Collins; Onuekwusi, Iheoma; Otieno, Samuel Kevin; Ademba, Peter; Kamau, Peter; Koki, Beatrice; Ngatia, Anthony; Wainaina, Anthony; Davis, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A Measles rubella campaign that targeted 9 months to 14 year old children was conducted in all the 47 counties in Kenya between 16th and 24th of May 2016. Micro-planning using an android phone-based app was undertaken to map out the target population and logistics in all the counties 4 weeks to the campaign implementation instead of 6 months as per the WHO recommendation. The outcomes of the micro-planning exercise were a detailed micro-plan that served as a guide in ensuring that every eligible individual in the population was vaccinated with potent vaccine. A national Trainer of Trainers training was done to equip key officers with new knowledge and skills in developing micro-plans at all levels. The micro planning was done using a mobile phone app, the doforms that enabled data to be transmitted real time to the national level. The objective of the study was to establish whether use of mobile phone app would contribute to quality of sub national micro plans that can be used for national level planning and implementation of the campaign. There were 9 data collection forms but only forms 1-7 were to be uploaded onto the app. Forms 8A and 9A were to be filled but were to remain at the implementation level for use intra campaign. The forms were coded; Form 1A&B, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A and 9A The Village form (form 1A&B) captured information by household which included village names, name of head of household, cell phone contact of head of household, number of children aged 9 months to 14years in the household, possible barriers to reaching the children, appropriate vaccination strategy based on barriers identified and estimated or proposed number of teams and type. This was the main form and from this every other form picked the population figures to estimate other supplies and logistics. On advocacy, communication and social mobilization the information collected included mobile network coverage, public amenities such as churches, mosques and key partners at

  7. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  8. Profile of Immunization Practice by General Practitioners and Pediatricians in Private Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic immunization coverage in Indonesia in 2013 was still low (59.2% (IBHS, 2013. Physicians’ attitude and practice were among the determinant factors of a successful immunization program. This survey aimed to describe general practitioner’s (GP and pediatrician’s attitude towards immunization and its coverage  in private practices. This cross-sectional study was performed by distributing questionnaires consisting of 5 items on opinion and 10 items on immunization practices to 100 respondents in November 2014. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 29 GPs and 65 pediatricians. Most respondents considered that the Expanded Program in Immunization vaccine should be given. First dose of hepatitis B vaccine was mostly given in the first 12 hours after birth (90% GPs and 74% pediatricians. Oral polio vaccine was mostly given shortly before hospital discharge (65% of GPs and 81% pediatricians while the DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine were given by 27% of GPs and 21% of pediatricians to >75% patients. Pneumococcal, rotavirus, hepatitis A, typhoid, and influenza vaccines were provided by less than 25% GPs and pediatricians, except for the influenza vaccine which was provided by 31% pediatricians. MMR vaccine was given to >75% patients by 16% of GPs and 29% of pediatricians. This pilot survey of immunization practice in private setting might be the first study in Indonesia that this can be considered as a preliminary report of immunization in private setting. Further studies need to be done, especially regarding problems in immunization in private practices.  Key words: Attitude, general practitioners, immunization practice, private setting, pediatricians Gambaran Praktek Imunisasi Dokter Umum dan Dokter Spesialis Anak di Praktek Swasta Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 melaporkan bahwa cakupan imunisasi Indonesia masih rendah (59,2%. Sikap dan praktik imunisasi dokter merupakan salah satu faktor penentu keberhasilan. Tujuan penelitian ini mengetahui sikap

  9. Immune Abnormalities in Fontan Protein-Losing Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdo, H Sonali; Stillwell, Terri L; Greenhawt, Matthew J; Stringer, Kathleen A; Yu, Sunkyung; Fifer, Carlen G; Russell, Mark W; Schumacher, Kurt R

    2015-08-01

    To comprehensively characterize the immunologic characteristics of patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) post-Fontan and compare them with patients without PLE post-Fontan. Patients with PLE post-Fontan and age-matched controls post-Fontan were prospectively studied with laboratory markers of immune function. Infectious history was obtained by interview and chart review. The groups' demographics, cardiac history, immune characteristics, and infection history were compared using appropriate 2-group statistics. A total of 16 patients enrolled (8 patients with PLE and 8 controls). All patients with PLE had lymphopenia compared with 25% of controls (P = .01). All patients with PLE had markedly depressed CD4 T cell counts (median 58 cells/μL) compared with controls (median 450 cells/μL, P = .0002); CD4% was also low in the PLE group (12.3%) and normal in control (36.9%, P = .004). Both groups had mildly depressed CD8 T cells and normal to slightly elevated natural killer and B-cell subsets. A majority of patients with PLE (62.5%) had negative titers to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination, compared with no control Fontan with a negative titer (P = .03). Despite profoundly low CD4 counts, the frequency of infection was not different between groups with no reported opportunistic infections. Patients with Fontan-associated PLE have extensive quantitative immune abnormalities, particularly CD4 deficiency. These immune abnormalities are similar to those found in non-Fontan patients with PLE caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Immunizations Last Reviewed: February 6, 2018 Key ...

  12. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  13. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  14. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.

  15. [Exosomes and Immune Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Naohiro

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation. Thus, immune cells produce functional exosomes in the activation state- and/or differentiation stage-dependent manner. In this review, the role of immune cell-derived exosomes will be introduced, focusing mainly on immune reaction against tumor.

  16. Immune responses to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors

  17. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  18. Vaccines and immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    vaccines for malaria and HIV infection. Despite the ... decades, effective vaccines against the major causes of ... challenge antibodies, specific helper and effector T lymphocytes ... materials to produced immunity to a disease. It was originally ...

  19. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  20. Immunization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruslin, Andrée; Steben, Marc; Halperin, Scott; Money, Deborah M; Yudin, Mark H

    2009-11-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on immunization in pregnancy. Outcomes evaluated include effectiveness of immunization, risks and benefits for mother and fetus. The Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published up to June 2008 on the topic of immunization in pregnancy. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should result in more appropriate immunization of pregnant and breastfeeding women, decreased risk of contraindicated immunization, and better disease prevention. The quality of evidence reported in this document has been assessed using the evaluation of evidence criteria in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). (1) All women of childbearing age should be evaluated for the possibility of pregnancy before immunization. (III-A). (2) Health care providers should obtain a relevant immunization history from all women accessing prenatal care. (III-A). (3) In general, live and/or live-attenuated virus vaccines should not be administered during pregnancy, as there is a, largely theoretical, risk to the fetus. (II-3B). (4) Women who have inadvertently received immunization with live or live-attenuated vaccines during pregnancy should not be counselled to terminate the pregnancy because of a teratogenic risk. (II-2A). (5) Non-pregnant women immunized with a live or live-attenuated vaccine should be counselled to delay pregnancy for at least four weeks. (III-B). (6) Inactivated viral vaccines, bacterial vaccines, and toxoids can be used safely in pregnancy. (II-1A). (7) Women who are breastfeeding can still be immunized (passive-active immunization, live or killed

  1. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.  Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/19/2012.

  3. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  4. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  5. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  6. Mammalian Gut Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Kumar, Manish; Baker, Mark T.; Singh, Vishal; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a “love–hate relationship.” Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases. PMID:25163502

  7. U.S. Immunization program adult immunization activities and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, LaDora O.; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Graitcer, Samuel B.; Lamont, Brock

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adults are recommended to receive vaccines based on their age, medical conditions, prior vaccinations, occupation and lifestyle. However, adult immunization coverage is low in the United States and lags substantially below Healthy People 2020 goals. To assess activities and resources designated for adult immunization programs by state and local health department immunization programs in the United States, we analyzed 2012 and 2013 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Program Annual Reports and Progress Assessments (PAPA) survey of CDC-funded immunization programs. Fifty-six of 64 funded US immunization programs' responses were included in the analysis. Eighty-two percent of (n = 46) programs reported having a designated adult immunization coordinator in 2012 and 73% (n = 41) in 2013. Of the 46 coordinators reported in 2012, 30% (n = 14) spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities, and only 24% (n = 10) of the 41 adult coordinators in 2013 spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities. In 2012, 23% (n = 13) of the 56 programs had a separate immunization coalition for adults and 68% (n = 38) included adult issues in their overall immunization program coalition. In 2013, 25% (n = 14) had a separate adult immunization coalition while 57% (n = 32) incorporated adult immunizations into their overall immunization program coalition. The results indicate substantial variation across the US in public health infrastructure to support adult immunizations. Continued assessment of adult immunization resources and activities will be important in improving adult immunization coverage levels though program support. With many programs having limited resources dedicated to improving adult immunization rates in the in US, efforts by the health departments to collaborate with providers and other partners in their jurisdictions to increase awareness, increase the use of proven strategies to improve

  8. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus vaccine that was licensed in 1968. The mumps vaccine first became available in 1967, fol- lowed by ... vaccine. • people vaccinated before 1979 with either killed mumps vaccine or mumps vaccine of unknown type who are ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Evite ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...

  10. Filoviral Immune Evasion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F. Basler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Filoviridae family of viruses, which includes the genera Ebolavirus (EBOV and Marburgvirus (MARV, causes severe and often times lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filoviral infections are associated with ineffective innate antiviral responses as a result of virally encoded immune antagonists, which render the host incapable of mounting effective innate or adaptive immune responses. The Type I interferon (IFN response is critical for establishing an antiviral state in the host cell and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune responses. Several filoviral encoded components target Type I IFN responses, and this innate immune suppression is important for viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, EBOV VP35 inhibits the phosphorylation of IRF-3/7 by the TBK-1/IKKε kinases in addition to sequestering viral RNA from detection by RIG-I like receptors. MARV VP40 inhibits STAT1/2 phosphorylation by inhibiting the JAK family kinases. EBOV VP24 inhibits nuclear translocation of activated STAT1 by karyopherin-α. The examples also represent distinct mechanisms utilized by filoviral proteins in order to counter immune responses, which results in limited IFN-α/β production and downstream signaling.

  11. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  13. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  14. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  15. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.

  16. Pentraxins and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Nagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is a multifactorial protein involved in immunity and inflammation, which is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to inflammatory signals. It may be suggested that PTX3 is related to periodontal tissue inflammation. Its salivary concentrations may have a diagnostic potential. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is an ancient family of multifactorial proteins involved in immunity and inflammation. They are rapidly produced and released by various types of cells when there are indications of inflammation. PTX3 is related to inflammation in the periodontal tissue and it can be suggested that salivary concentrations may be used for diagnosing the same.

  17. Mucosal immunity to poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Pearay L; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Sutter, Roland W

    2011-10-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently based on use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has identified suboptimal immunogenicity of this vaccine as a major impediment to eradication, with a failure to induce protection against paralytic poliomyelitis in certain population segments in some parts of the world. The Mucosal Immunity and Poliovirus Vaccines: Impact on Wild Poliovirus Infection, Transmission and Vaccine Failure conference was organized to obtain a better understanding of the current status of global control of poliomyelitis and identify approaches to improve the immune responsiveness and effectiveness of the orally administered poliovirus vaccines in order to accelerate the global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

  18. Training and natural immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik

    2000-01-01

    these subjects were used to eliminate day-to-day variation in the immunological tests. Independently of diet, training increased the percentage of CD3-CD16+ CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from [mean (SEM)] 14 (1) % to 20 (3) % (P = 0.05), whereas the NK-cell activity, either unstimulated or stimulated...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....

  19. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is covered in the vaccine. Similarly, the MMR vaccine protects against measles, mumps, and rubella, viral infections that cause serious symptoms. Measles and mumps often can lead to chronic conditions, such as deafness, brain damage, and reproductive problems. Rubella is also known as ...

  1. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  2. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  3. Amyloid and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2018-03-01

    Extracellular amyloid deposition defines a range of amyloidosis and amyloid-related disease. Addition to primary and secondary amyloidosis, amyloid-related disease can be observed in different tissue/organ that sharing the common pathogenesis based on the formation of amyloid deposition. Currently, both Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with certainly only based on the autopsy results, by which amyloidosis of the associative tissue/organ is observed. Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity. Furthermore, attempts for preventing amyloid formation and/or removing amyloid deposits from the brain have caused meningoencephalitis and consequent deaths among the subjects. Hence, it is important to note that amyloid positively participates in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributes to irreversible inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the interactive relationship between amyloid and the immune system, discussing the potential functional roles of amyloid in immune tolerance and homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Brody, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care

  5. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  6. Fully immunized child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Ngomi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration, and it ...

  7. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  8. Mumps and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as measles and rubella. Prevents your child from getting a fever and swollen glands under the ears or jaw from mumps. Keeps your child from missing school or child care (and keeps you from missing work to care for your sick child). Is the MMR shot safe? Yes. The MMR shot is very safe, and it ...

  9. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as mumps and rubella. • Prevents your child from getting an uncomfortable rash and high fever from measles. • Keeps your child from missing school or childcare (and keeps you from missing work to care for your sick child). Is the MMR shot safe? Yes. The MMR shot is very safe, and it ...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be too late for the vaccine to work. The best time to immunize kids is when they're healthy. Can immunizations cause a bad reaction in my child? The most common reactions to vaccines are minor ...

  11. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  12. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  13. Prevalencia de anticuerpos antirrubéola y antiparvovirus B19 en embarazadas de la ciudad de Córdoba y en mujeres en edad fértil de la ciudad de Villa Mercedes, San Luis Prevalence of anti-rubella and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies in pregnant women in the city of Córdoba, and in women of fertile age in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Pedranti

    2007-03-01

    world, and establish an interest in continuing similar studies in order to monitor the immunization plan, which in Argentina has been going on since 1997. They also suggest the importance of the determination of IgM anti-parvovirus B19 in pregnant women who are symptomatic but with a negative result for rubella.

  14. Vitamin E, immunity, and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A normally functioning immune system is critical for the body to fight and eliminate invading pathogens from the environment. On the other hand, the immune system also protects the body from internal risks such as neoplasia growing within and autoimmune responses that attack self. The immune system ...

  15. Ecotypic and allozyme variation of Capsella bursa-pastoris and C. rubella (Brassicaceae along latitude and altitude gradients on the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffrogge, Raimund

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Life-history traits (onset of flowering, leaf number, rosette diameter, plant height, branching number, fruit dimensions, seed number of Capsella species from the Iberian Península associated with colotúzing ability were compared in a random block field experiment. Data were evaluated by a principal component analysis. Allozymes (AAT, LAP, GDH and leaf types were recorded. C. bursa-pastoris plants originating from low and high elevations of the summer dry Mediterranean climatic zone (Sierra Nevada were early flowering, whereas those originating from the Pyrenees with an alpine climate were late. In C. bursa-pastoris the "rhomboidea" leaf type was very frequent, whereas in C. rubella it was the "heteris" leaf type. There was a change of leaf type frequencies along geographical clines which is explained by adaptive components of the leaf shape. The allozymes displayed a geographical distribuüon pattem and in C. bursa-pastoris a certain multilocus genotype appeared to be a molecular marker for an early flowering ecotype(inicio de la floración, número de hojas, diámetro de la roseta, altura de la planta, número de ramas, dimensiones del fruto y número de semillas de plantas de Capsella procedentes de la Península Ibérica mediante un experimento de bloques aleatorios en el campo. Los datos se evaluaron con un análisis de componentes principales. También se registraron el tipo de hojas y el perfil aloenzimático de las plantas. Las plantas de Capsella bursa-pastoris procedentes de altitudes altas y bajas de la zona climática Mediterránea de verano seco (Sierra Nevada mostraron ser de floración temprana, mientras que las plantas de los Pirineos, con un clima alpino, presentaron una floración tardía. En C. bursa-pastoris el tipo de hoja "rhomboidea" resultó ser el más frecuente, en tanto que en C. rubella lo fue el tipo "heteris". Se observó un cambio en las frecuencias de los tipos de hojas a lo largo de una clina geográfica, lo

  16. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  17. Agency privileges and immunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Switzerland has become the thirty-fifth Member State to be a party to the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Its Resident Representative, Ambassador Alfred Eschler, deposited his Government's instrument of acceptance on 16 September. This is the fourth such instrument to be deposited with the Agency since the beginning of this year, the others being Ecuador on 16 April, Niger on 17 June and Vietnam on 31 July. (author)

  18. Immune disorders in anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    SŁOTWIŃSKA, SYLWIA MAŁGORZATA; SŁOTWIŃSKI, ROBERT

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters pla...

  19. Ebola and Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    KOMENAN, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a formidable disease whose surges always result in a high number of victims in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no official treatment against the virus, which makes the task of containment extremely delicate. However, the existence of survivors to the virus demonstrates curable nature of the disease and suggests the existence of favorable factors of immunity. The author examines these factors and their challenges and perspectives in the cure of the disease.

  20. Immune disorders in anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  1. Immune disorders in anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  2. Hyperthermia, immunity and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatin, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of literature data concerning local hyperthermia effects shows that temperatures over 41-42 deg C (in the whole tumor volume), causing tumor growth inhibition and cell injury, can change antigenic nature of a malignant tissue. The tumor injured by thermal effect is able probably the full length of time of injured tissue resorption to maintain at a sufficiently high level antitumoral immunity and lay obstacles to emergence of metastases or even cause regression of those tumoral foci which have not been exposed to direct effect of the injuring agent. The facts of tumoral foci regression take place also upon radiation effect which is associated as well with participation of immune mechanisms. In.experiments with animals an essential increase of immunogenic character of malignant cells exposed to ionizing radiation effect has been observed. It follows that radiation injury of tumoral tissue as well as thermal one is able to stimulate antitumoral immunity and reduce the probability of emergence of metastases. But in case of radiotherapy immunosuppression effect of ionizing radiation (at the expense of inhibition of proliferation and death of immunocompetent cells) can essentially overlap immunostimulating effect related to the changes in antigenic character of tumoral cells

  3. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Routine Immunization of Adults in Canada: Review of the Epidemiology of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and Current Recommendations for Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the greatest achievements in public health of the 20th century. However, the success of vaccine uptake and adherence to immunization guidelines seen in pediatric populations has not been observed among adult Canadians. As a result of the disparity in susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease, there has been an increasing shift of vaccine-preventable childhood diseases into adult populations. Accordingly, morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable illnesses now occur disproportionately in adults. All Canadians, irrespective of age, should have immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and varicella. All adult Canadians with significant medical comorbidities or those older than 65 years of age should receive the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and yearly trivalent inactivate influenza vaccines. The present review summarizes the burden of illness of these vaccine-preventable diseases in the Canadian adult population and reviews the current immunization recommendations. Vaccination of all Canadians to these common agents remains a vital tool to decrease individual morbidity and mortality and reduce the overall burden of preventable disease in Canada.

  5. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  6. Impact of pharmacists providing immunizations on adolescent influenza immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the Oregon law change in 2011 to allow pharmacists to immunize adolescents 11 to 17 years of age increased influenza immunizations or changed existing immunization venues. With the use of Oregon's ALERT Immunization Information System (IIS), 2 measures of impact were developed. First, the change in adolescent age 11-17 influenza immunizations before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2014) the pharmacy law change was evaluated against a reference cohort (aged 7-10) not affected by the law. Community pharmacies were also compared with other types of influenza immunization sites within one of the study influenza seasons (2013-2014). From 2007 to 2014, adolescent influenza immunizations at community pharmacies increased from 36 to 6372 per year. After the 2011 pharmacy law change, adolescents aged 11 to 17 were more likely to receive an influenza immunization compared with the reference population (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.19-1.22). Analysis of the 2013-2014 influenza season suggests that community pharmacies immunized a different population of adolescents than other providers. The 2011 change in Oregon law allowed pharmacists to increase the total of influenza immunizations given to adolescents. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subclinical immune reactions to viral infections may correlate with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... 1. Department of Pediatrics, Bolu,Turkey. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bolu,Turkey. 3.Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology,. Bolu,Turkey. 4. ... HSV-1, CMV, Measles, Mumps, Rubella and EBV were evaluated. Results: ..... MHC-Class I proteins are also produced ...

  8. Pseudoachondroplasia with immune deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultursay, N.; Taneli, B.; Cavusoglu, A.

    1988-01-01

    A 5-year old boy was admitted to the hospital with failure to thrive since he was 2 years old, with weakness in his legs and a waddling gait. He has normal mental development. His parents are normal phenotypically and are unrelated. In analysing his pedigree only a grandfather is described to have waddling gait. He has a normal craniofacial appearance but a disproportionate body with normal trunk and short extremities with height below the 3rd percentile. The diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia was made on clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. He also had immune deficiency characterised by low T-lymphocyte populations and a low level of serum immunoglobulin A. (orig.)

  9. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulat...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  10. La supuesta asociación entre la vacuna triple vírica y el autismo y el rechazo a la vacunación The putative link between the MMR vaccine and autism and refusal to vaccinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Segura Benedicto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La publicación del artículo de Wakefield et al. en The Lancet desencadenó una reacción de rechazo a la vacuna triple vírica, a pesar de que se trataba solo de una serie de casos y la asociación entre la vacunación y el autismo hubiera podido muy bien ser anecdótica. Sin embargo, más tarde se comprobó que tal asociación era espuria, debido no solo a sesgos ocultados sino también a alteraciones interesadas de los datos y a otros comportamientos impropios de dos de los autores que por ello fueron expulsados del colegio de médicos. Finalmente el artículo fue retirado de la revista. Este episodio invita a reflexionar sobre la credibilidad y la confianza que merecen las autoridades y los profesionales a la población, así como sobre los recelos que pueden plantearse cuando se producen potenciales conflictos de intereses entre los profesionales, la industria, las revistas y la población. Un aspecto de particular interés es el de las expectativas distorsionadas sobre las posibilidades de las intervenciones sanitarias, incluida la vacunación, especialmente respecto de la dimensión individual y la colectiva de la prevención.The paper of Wakefield et al. in The Lancet, triggered a negative reaction to the MMR vaccine, even though it was just a series of cases and the association between vaccination and autism could well be anecdotal. However, it was found that this association was spurious, not only because of hidden biases but also to alterations of the data and other improper behavior of the two authors that they were expelled from medical council. Finally, the article was removed from the magazine. This episode invites to think about the credibility and trust in the authorities and professionals to the population, as well as the suspicions that may arise when there are potential conflicts of interest among professionals, industry magazines and the population. A special area of interest is on the distorted expectations of health

  11. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  12. Immune interactions in endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jennifer L; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Lucas, John A; Osteen, Kevin G

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progesterone action at both eutopic and ectopic sites of endometrial growth which may contribute to the excessive inflammation associated with progression of endometriosis; however, it remains unclear whether these anomalies induce the condition or are simply a consequence of the disease process. In this article, we summarize current knowledge of alterations within the immune system of endometriosis patients and discuss how endometrial cells from women with this disease not only have the capacity to escape immunosurveillance, but also use inflammatory mechanisms to promote their growth within the peritoneal cavity. Finally, we discuss evidence that exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, can mediate the development of an endometrial phenotype that exhibits both reduced progesterone responsiveness and hypersensitivity to proinflammatory stimuli mimicking the endometriosis phenotype. Future studies in women with endometriosis should consider whether a heightened inflammatory response within the peritoneal microenvironment contributes to the development and persistence of this disease. PMID:21895474

  13. Mumps vaccine effectiveness and risk factors for disease in households during an outbreak in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kara A; Rosen, Jennifer B; Zucker, Jane R; Zimmerman, Christopher M

    2014-01-09

    Mumps outbreaks have been reported among vaccinated populations, and declining mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE) has been suggested as one possible cause. During a large mumps outbreak in New York City, we assessed: (1) VE of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) against mumps and (2) risk factors for acquiring mumps in households. Cases of mumps were investigated using standard methods. Additional information on disease and vaccination status of household contacts was collected. Case households completed follow-up phone interviews 78-198 days after initial investigation to ascertain additional cases. Mumps cases meeting the study case definition were included in the analysis. Risk factors for mumps were assessed, and VE was calculated using secondary household attack rates. Three hundred and eleven households with 2176 residents were included in the analysis. The median age of residents was 13 years (range <1-85), and 462 (21.2%) residents met the study mumps case definition. Among 7-17 year olds, 89.7% received one or more doses of MMR vaccine, with 76.7% receiving two doses. Young adults aged 10-14 years (OR=2.4, CI=1.3-4.7) and 15-19 years (OR=2.5, CI=1.3-5.0) were at highest risk of mumps. The overall 2-dose VE for secondary contacts aged five and older was 86.3% (CI 63.3-94.9). The two-dose effectiveness of MMR vaccine against mumps was 86.3%, consistent with other published mumps VE estimates. Many factors likely contributed to this outbreak. Suboptimal MMR coverage in the affected population combined with VE may not have conferred adequate immunity to prevent transmission and may have contributed to this outbreak. Achieving high MMR coverage remains the best available strategy for prevention of mumps outbreaks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Skin Immunization Obviates Alcohol-Related Immune Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda M. Brand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM, directly to liver (hydrodynamic, or cutaneously (biolistic, ID. We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg, and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL, and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects.

  15. Immune Evasion, Immunopathology and the Regulation of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Faivre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response.

  16. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  17. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  18. Immunization Information System and Informatics to Promote Immunizations: Perspective From Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscoplat, Miriam Halstead; Rajamani, Sripriya

    2017-01-01

    The vision for management of immunization information is availability of real-time consolidated data and services for all ages, to clinical, public health, and other stakeholders. This is being executed through Immunization Information Systems (IISs), which are population-based and confidential computerized systems present in most US states and territories. Immunization Information Systems offer many functionalities, such as immunization assessment reports, client follow-up, reminder/recall feature, vaccine management tools, state-supplied vaccine ordering, comprehensive immunization history, clinical decision support/vaccine forecasting and recommendations, data processing, and data exchange. This perspective article will present various informatics tools in an IIS, in the context of the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

  19. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity-Cell-mediated Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Cell-mediated Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivaprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 610-621 ...

  20. Partial immunity in murine by immunization with a toxoplasmic DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arsenal

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... vaccine can be effective in partial protection against this parasite. In this study ... that mice immunized by pcROP1 with or without alum produced high Th1 immune response compared .... antigen-specific antibodies, 96-well costar plates were coated .... vaccines against some protozoa, for example, malaria,.

  1. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  2. The immunization status of children with chronic neurological disease and serological assessment of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, Meltem; Carman, Kursat Bora; Kilic, Omer; Laciner Gurlevik, Sibel; Yarar, Coskun; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the age-appropriate immunization coverage in 366 children with chronic neurological disease (CND), to evaluate the use of vaccines not included in routine program, to evaluate serological tests for vaccine-preventable diseases and to describe the related factors in unvaccinated children. 95.6% of all children with had received age-appropriate vaccinations according to the actual National Immunization Program (NIP) during childhood. 12 children (3.6%) had not received vaccines; only two had true contraindications. Because most of the vaccines have been implemented through the NIP for 10 years in Turkey, 88% of children required these new vaccines or booster doses. Moreover, 86.6% of the children and 92.6% of household contacts had no prior history of influenza vaccine. Furthermore, 88% of the patients had not received the varicella vaccine, and the anti-varicella IgG levels were only negative in 27.9%. In addition, 18.6% of the children were negative for anti-mumps IgG, 23.7% for anti-measles IgG, and 6.3% for anti-rubella IgG. Anti-HBs IgG level was 0-10 IU/L in 45.6% of the patients (most of them previously vaccinated) and 79.8% were negative for hepatitis A IgG antibodies. For pertussis infection, the antibody titers of 54.1% of patients were below the protective level, and 10% of patients had a prior acute pertussis infection. Therefore, it is suggested that children with CND should be evaluated for their vaccination status during their first and follow-up visits at certain intervals, and their primary immunization should be completed; moreover, many will need revaccination or booster doses.

  3. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  4. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  5. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  6. Modeling rejection immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Andrea De

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of

  7. Social capital, trust in health information, and acceptance of Measles-Rubella vaccination campaign in Tamil Nadu: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, B; Gopichandran, V; Kosalram, K

    2018-06-18

    Parents' decision about vaccination of children is influenced by social relationships and sources of information. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of social capital and trust in health information on the status of Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination campaign in Tamil Nadu. This was a case-control study carried out in Kancheepuram district in Tamil Nadu where the MR vaccination campaign offered by Government of Tamil Nadu had poor acceptance. Cases were parents of children who had refused the MR vaccine and controls were parents having children in the same age group who had accepted the vaccine. Data on social capital and trust in health information were collected by using social capital scale developed by the researchers and trust in the source of information was measured by using simple questions on the level of trust in the information source. Nonadministration of MR vaccine was high among young parents and parents of younger children. Vaccine acceptance was higher when it was offered at school (P social media and WhatsApp information. Greater levels of health-related physical social capital led to greater vaccine hesitancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that greater the age of the child, better parental attitudes toward vaccination, poorer health-related physical social capital, and greater trust in health information provided by school teachers led to overall greater acceptance of the MR vaccine. Strong homogeneous bonding social capital had a negative influence on MR vaccine acceptance. Schools and school teachers played a vital role in influencing parental decision to vaccinate.

  8. Implication of health care personnel in measles transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Solano, Ruben; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Surveillance Network of Catalonia, Spain, the Measles Elimination Program

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) play an important role in transmission of highly contagious diseases such as measles. Current immunization guidelines in Catalonia include Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) immunization for HCP born after 1967 without evidence of immunity. Despite high vaccination coverage (90%) a high burden of measles cases related to outbreaks have occurred. The aim of this study was to assess the implication of HCP in measles transmission related to healthcare setting. A review of surveillance case data from 2001 to 2013 gathered through the Measles Elimination Program in Catalonia was performed. Twenty six outbreaks involving 797 cases were reported, 52 (6.5%) were HCP aged 21–41 years, 72,5% (38) patient were care personnel (doctors and nurses) and 22,5% (14) other health care related personnel. Forty six 87%) were unvaccinated, 4(10%) had only one dose and 2 had two doses of MMR. In community outbreaks 30 clusters with HCP involved were observed, yet none were identified as index cases. Non-vaccinated HCPs against measles were all under 45 years of age. Vaccination is the only reliable protection against nosocomial spread of measles from HCPs. Assessing vaccination status of HCPs and implementing a 2 dose vaccination in those lacking evidence of immunity is needed in order to set to zero the risk of acquiring and spreading measles in healthcare (HC) settings. PMID:25483548

  9. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  10. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. 76 FR 29755 - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...: The agenda will include discussions on: human papillomavirus vaccines, pertussis, meningococcal... pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), new MMR Vaccine Work Group, two dose varicella vaccination and hepatitis B vaccine. Agenda items are subject to change as priorities dictate. Contact Person for More...

  12. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  13. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glenthøj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients—especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type—demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS.

  14. [Stress and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delévaux, I; Chamoux, A; Aumaître, O

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of auto-immune disorders is multifactorial. Stress is probably a participating factor. Indeed, a high proportion of patients with auto-immune diseases report uncommon stress before disease onset or disease flare. The biological consequences of stress are increasingly well understood. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines released by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress will alter the balance Th1/Th2 and the balance Th17/Treg. Stress impairs cellular immunity, decreases immune tolerance and stimulates humoral immunity exposing individuals to autoimmune disease among others. The treatment for autoimmune disease should include stress management. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Ørskov, Andreas Due; Hansen, Jakob Werner

    2016-01-01

    diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients......-especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type-demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune...... mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS....

  16. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  17. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  18. Candidate immune biomarkers for radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonin; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Newly available immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs), capable to revert tumor immune tolerance, are revolutionizing the anticancer armamentarium. Recent evidence also established that ionizing radiation (IR) could produce antitumor immune responses, and may as well synergize with ICBs. Multiple radioimmunotherapy combinations are thenceforth currently assessed in early clinical trials. Past examples have highlighted the need for treatment personalization, and there is an unmet need to decipher immunological biomarkers that could allow selecting patients who could benefit from these promising but expensive associations. Recent studies have identified potential predictive and prognostic immune assays at the cellular (tumor microenvironment composition), genomic (mutational/neoantigen load), and peripheral blood levels. Within this review, we collected the available evidence regarding potential personalized immune biomarker-directed radiation therapy strategies that might be used for patient selection in the era of radioimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Brazilian experience with rapid monitoring of vaccination coverage during a national rubella elimination campaign Monitoreo rápido de la cobertura de vacunación durante una campaña nacional de eliminación de la rubéola en el Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Maria da Silva Teixeira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe an adapted version of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO methodology for rapid monitoring of vaccination coverage and its use as a supervisory tool to guide decision-making and strategies for end-stage vaccination activities ("mopup" operations following a six-week national rubella elimination campaign in Brazil. METHODS: Vaccination coverage assessments modeled on a variation of PAHO's rapid house-to-house coverage monitoring methodology were conducted by Brazilian municipalities following mass immunization of adults and adolescents from August to December 2008. Results of monitoring assessments conducted in 3 658 (65.7% of 5 564 municipalities were reported to Brazil's National Immunization Program. RESULTS: Information on vaccination against rubella was obtained from more than 1.5 million Brazilians (2.1% of the 70.1 million people targeted for immunization during vaccination coverage monitoring. According to the assessment data, vaccination targets of 95% coverage were reached in 2 175 (59.5% of the 3 658 municipalities that reported results. The percentage of municipalities that reached coverage targets was lower than administrative coverage estimates (number of vaccine doses administered divided by the immunization target population. These results informed targeted "mop-up" campaigns to reach unvaccinated populations. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid coverage monitoring implemented at the local level proved useful for deciding when to conclude vaccination activities and where to focus additional efforts to achieve desired coverage.Describir una versión adaptada de la metodología de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS para el monitoreo rápido de la cobertura de vacunación. Exponer su uso como herramienta de supervisión para guiar la toma de decisiones y las estrategias para las actividades de vacunación finales (campañas "de barrido" después de una campaña nacional de eliminación de la rubéola de 6

  20. Immune oncology, immune responsiveness and the theory of everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Tolga; Kannan, Deepti; Patel, Maulik; Matthew Barnes, J; Tanlimco, Sonia G; Lu, Rongze; Halliwill, Kyle; Kongpachith, Sarah; Kline, Douglas E; Hendrickx, Wouter; Cesano, Alessandra; Butterfield, Lisa H; Kaufman, Howard L; Hudson, Thomas J; Bedognetti, Davide; Marincola, Francesco; Samayoa, Josue

    2018-06-05

    Anti-cancer immunotherapy is encountering its own checkpoint. Responses are dramatic and long lasting but occur in a subset of tumors and are largely dependent upon the pre-existing immune contexture of individual cancers. Available data suggest that three landscapes best define the cancer microenvironment: immune-active, immune-deserted and immune-excluded. This trichotomy is observable across most solid tumors (although the frequency of each landscape varies depending on tumor tissue of origin) and is associated with cancer prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). Various gene signatures (e.g. Immunological Constant of Rejection - ICR and Tumor Inflammation Signature - TIS) that delineate these landscapes have been described by different groups. In an effort to explain the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness or resistance to CIT, several models have been proposed that are loosely associated with the three landscapes. Here, we propose a strategy to integrate compelling data from various paradigms into a "Theory of Everything". Founded upon this unified theory, we also propose the creation of a task force led by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) aimed at systematically addressing salient questions relevant to cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion. This multidisciplinary effort will encompass aspects of genetics, tumor cell biology, and immunology that are pertinent to the understanding of this multifaceted problem.

  1. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  2. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  3. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  4. Immune regulation by microbiome metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H

    2018-03-22

    Commensal microbes and the host immune system have been co-evolved for mutual regulation. Microbes regulate the host immune system, in part, by producing metabolites. A mounting body of evidence indicates that diverse microbial metabolites profoundly regulate the immune system via host receptors and other target molecules. Immune cells express metabolite-specific receptors such as P2X 7 , GPR41, GPR43, GPR109A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor precursor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), TGR5 and other molecular targets. Microbial metabolites and their receptors form an extensive array of signals to respond to changes in nutrition, health and immunological status. As a consequence, microbial metabolite signals contribute to nutrient harvest from diet, and regulate host metabolism and the immune system. Importantly, microbial metabolites bidirectionally function to promote both tolerance and immunity to effectively fight infection without developing inflammatory diseases. In pathogenic conditions, adverse effects of microbial metabolites have been observed as well. Key immune-regulatory functions of the metabolites, generated from carbohydrates, proteins and bile acids, are reviewed in this article. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pregnancy: an immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate the importance of immunological aspects of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the embryo is implanted in the womb, where it will develop until the end of pregnancy. Amongst the immune aspects, the importance of the modulation of T lymphocytes, natural killers (NK cells and many cytokines in maternal organism can be mentioned. The maternal tolerance to the fetus appears to be mediated by specific maternal hormones and by the expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G - characteristic in pregnancy. Other studies suggest that fetal rejection and complications during pregnancy may occur because of the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg, acquired by blood sharing of the mother with the fetus, and because of the presence of maternal antibodies against the sperm and against the fetus. The purpose of this review is to describe the immunological aspects that allow maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, as well as possible causes for rejection of the embryo and complications during pregnancy.

  6. Immunity's fourth dimension: approaching the circadian-immune connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Silver, Adam C; Walker, Wendy E; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-12-01

    The circadian system ensures the generation and maintenance of self-sustained ~24-h rhythms in physiology that are linked to internal and environmental changes. In mammals, daily variations in light intensity and other cues are integrated by a hypothalamic master clock that conveys circadian information to peripheral molecular clocks that orchestrate physiology. Multiple immune parameters also vary throughout the day and disruption of circadian homeostasis is associated with immune-related disease. Here, we discuss the molecular links between the circadian and immune systems and examine their outputs and disease implications. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie circadian-immune crosstalk may prove valuable for devising novel prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leptin as immune mediator: Interaction between neuroendocrine and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Initially described as an anti-obesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, being also able to influence haematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, by inducing a pro-inflammatory response and thus playing a key role in the regulation of the pathogenesis of several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances on the role of leptin as immune-modulator in mammals and we also provide an overview on its main functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. immune response can measuring immunity to hiv during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-11-01

    Nov 1, 2005 ... inhibitors (PIs), have resulted in significant suppression of viral replication. ... thymus, with the potential for immune reconstitution when ..... HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women [published erratum appears in. Nat Med ...

  9. Curating the innate immunity interactome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynn, David J

    2010-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http:\\/\\/www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity.

  10. Spirochetal Lipoproteins and Immune Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, Alexei; Boyadjian, Ani; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment. PMID:28424696

  11. Incomplete childhood immunization with new and old vaccines and associated factors: BRISA birth cohort, São Luís, Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francelena de Sousa; Barbosa, Yonna Costa; Batalha, Mônica Araújo; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Branco, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Thomaz, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Araújo, Waleska Regina Machado; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2018-03-12

    This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella). The study used hierarchical modeling and Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Incomplete immunization was higher with new vaccines (51.1%) than with old vaccines (33.2%). Children 25 to 35 months of age (PR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.14-1.41) and those in economic classes D/E (PR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.06-1.35) were only significantly associated with new vaccines; low maternal schooling (PR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.21-2.06), unavailability of outpatient and/or hospital care for the child (PR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.04-1.38), and unavailability of the vaccine in health services (PR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.12-1.46) were only associated with old vaccines. Immunization strategies should consider the vulnerability of older preschool-age children and those belonging to classes D and E, especially when new vaccines are introduced, as well as children of mothers with low schooling. Strategies should also address problems with the availability of health services and vaccines.

  12. Immunizations challenge healthcare personnel and affects immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohfus, Pamela K; Kim, Susan C; Palma, Sara; Duke, Russell A; Remington, Richard; Roberts, Caleb

    2017-02-01

    This study measured 1. medical office immunization rates and 2. health care personnel competency in managing vaccine practices before and after evidence-based immunization education was provided. This descriptive study compared 32 family medicine and pediatric offices and 178 medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians in knowledge-based testing pre-education, post-education, and 12-months post-education. Immunization rates were assessed before and 18-months post-education. Immunization rates increased 10.3% - 18months post-education; knowledge increased 7.8% - 12months post-education. Family medicine offices, licensed practical nurses, and medical assistants showed significant knowledge deficits before and 12-months post-education. All demographic groups scored less in storage/handling 12-months post-education. This study is one of the first studies to identify competency challenges in effective immunization delivery among medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, and family medicine offices. Formal and continuous education in immunization administration and storage/handling is recommended among these select groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in 3 and 4-year-old healthy children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Robin; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Mesaros, Narcisa; Han, Htay Htay; Tomlinson, Richard; Faust, Saul N; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPV B ) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPV R (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV). This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPV B or dTap-IPV R ) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus and polio antigens were compared between the study vaccines (inferential comparison). In the absence of an accepted pertussis correlate of protection, the immunogenicity of dTap-IPV B vaccine against pertussis was compared with historical pertussis efficacy data (inferential comparison). Safety and reactogenicity of both study vaccines were evaluated. 387 children were randomised and 385 vaccinated: 255 in the dTap-IPV B group and 130 in the dTap-IPV R group. Prior to vaccination, ≥76.8% of children had anti-diphtheria and ≥65.5% had anti-tetanus titres above the protection threshold; for pertussis, the pre-vaccination seropositivity rate ranged between 18.1 and 70.6%. Both vaccines were immunogenic with 99.2-100% of children achieving titres above the pre-specified seroprotection/seropositivity thresholds. One serious adverse event not considered as causally related to the study vaccination by the study investigator was reported in the dTap-IPV B group. Non-inferiority of dTap-IPV B to dTap-IPV R was demonstrated. Both vaccines had a clinically acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile when co-administered with MMRV to children 3-4 years old. NCT01245049 (ClinicalTrials.gov). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  14. 2012 National Immunization Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir This website is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or ... 12, 2013: Content on this page kept for historical reasons. National Immunization Survey (NIS) – Children (19-35 ...

  15. Pregnancy immunology: decidual immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip

    2008-01-01

    Human pregnancy is a complex process. Placental development depends on the function of secretory molecules produced by placental trophoblast cells as well as by maternal uterine immune cells within the decidua. These decidual immune cells are T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The interactions between the trophoblast cells and the maternal immune cells have an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Knowledge about the phenotypes and functions of the maternal immune cells in normal and pathological pregnancies including recurrent spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia and hydatidiform moles may improve our understanding of the immunobiology of the normal pregnancy as a whole and may provide approaches for improving the treatment of pathological pregnancies.

  16. Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Sanders, Jan S F; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis is the most frequent cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and, in most cases, is associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). It is either the renal manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis of

  17. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  18. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  19. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  20. [Incidence of biological accidents at work and immune status for vaccine-preventable diseases among resident physicians in specialist training at Ferrara University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanati, Armando; Brosio, Federica; Kuhdari, Parvanè; Baccello, Valeria; De Paris, Paola; Nardini, Marco; Boschetto, Piera; Lupi, Silvia; Gabutti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The hospital as a work environment is particularly characterized by various risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). The main risk is represented by biological accidents, associated with the parenteral transmission of pathogens. Biological injuries can occur during the care service and the manipulation of biological fluids. Hepatitis B (and hepatitis D), hepatitis C and HIV are the most common infections transmitted by biological injuries. Physicians should acquire awareness of the risks associated with their professional activity during their training as medical residents (MRs). Some infectious diseases are preventable by vaccination and the "National Immunization Plan 2017-2019" (PNPV) recommends HCWs vaccination against hepatitis B, influenza, measles -mumps -rubella, chicken pox, and pertussis. Besides, not only HCWs' vaccination can prevent the disease in healthcare professionals, but it also may reduce the transmission to patients. Therefore, active immunization of HCWs by recommended vaccinations plays an important role to prevent disease cases, complications and death in patients. An increased awareness of risk behaviors is the first important point to address in order to reduce biological accidents and infectious diseases transmission, so as to reduce their frequency. Besides, HCWs' vaccination is useful to reinforce protection and to prevent the transmission of some infectious diseases in case of exposure. The aim of this five-year incidence study is to investigate the MRs' biological accidents characteristics and to analyze the MRs' immune status at the University of Ferrara in the period 2011-2015. Data on MRs' biological accidents and immune status at Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Ferrara in 2011-2015 were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007 Software. In this study, the percentage of MRs' biological injuries compared to the total number of MRs showed an annual variability, with a peak in 2011 (11.9%). During the analyzed period, there were 190

  1. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Hepatitis C Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Human parvovirus Mumps Rubella Alphaviruses Cytomegalovirus It may also occur after immunization with the rubella vaccine, which is typically given to children. While many ...

  3. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  4. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  5. Artificial Immune Networks: Models and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Immune Systems (AIS, which is inspired by the nature immune system, has been applied for solving complex computational problems in classification, pattern rec- ognition, and optimization. In this paper, the theory of the natural immune system is first briefly introduced. Next, we compare some well-known AIS and their applications. Several representative artificial immune networks models are also dis- cussed. Moreover, we demonstrate the applications of artificial immune networks in various engineering fields.

  6. SOME ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS IN IMMUNE PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tousankina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present lecture contains an author's opinion concerning diagnostic issues in immunopathology, including primary and secondary immune deficiencies, immune-dependent states that are based on immunopathological syndromes. Original formulations are suggested for some key categories of clinical immunology, physical, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics of immune deficiencies and immune-dependent diseases. The results of original long-term observations, as well as data on Sverdlovsk Regional Register of primary immune deficiencies are presented in the work.

  7. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  8. Immunization delivery in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, John; Buxton, Jane; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Catterson, Jason; Li, Jane; Derban, Andrea; Hasselback, Paul; Machin, Shelagh; Linekin, Michelle; Morgana, Tamsin; O’Briain, Barra; Scheifele, David; Dawar, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences of family physicians and pediatricians delivering immunizations, including perceived barriers and supports. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Setting Ten cities throughout British Columbia. Participants A total of 46 family physicians or general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, and 2 residents. Methods A semistructured dialogue guide was used by a trained facilitator to explore participants’ experiences and views related to immunization delivery in British Columbia. Verbatim transcriptions were independently coded by 2 researchers. Key themes were analyzed and identified in an iterative manner using interpretive description. Main findings Physicians highly valued vaccine delivery. Factors facilitating physician-delivered immunizations included strong beliefs in the value of vaccines and having adequate information. Identified barriers included the large time commitment and insufficient communication about program changes, new vaccines, and the adult immunization program in general. Some physicians reported good relationships with local public health, while others reported the opposite experience, and this varied by geographic location. Conclusion These findings suggest that physicians are supportive of delivering vaccines. However, there are opportunities to improve the sustainability of physician-delivered immunizations. While compensation schemes remain under the purview of the provincial governments, local public health authorities can address the information needs of physicians. PMID:24627403

  9. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative-Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Maya M V X; Swift, Rachel D; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L

    2017-07-01

    immunization programs and the control of measles and rubella. In certain countries with very weak immunization systems, GPEI-funded personnel provide critical support for the immunization programs, and sudden discontinuation of their employment would potentially disrupt the immunization programs in their countries and create a setback in capacity and effectiveness that would put children at higher risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative–Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Rachel D.; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine immunization programs and the control of measles and rubella. In certain countries with very weak immunization systems, GPEI-funded personnel provide critical support for the immunization programs, and sudden discontinuation of their employment would potentially disrupt the immunization programs in their countries and create a setback in capacity and effectiveness that would put children at higher risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:28838165

  11. Inmunidad colectiva contra la rubéola según una encuesta poblacional en Medellín, Colombia Herd immunity against rubella according to a survey of the population in Medellin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Doracelly Hincapié Palacio; Juan Ospina Giraldo; Viviana Lenis Ballesteros; Marta C. Ospina Ospina; Marta Arroyave Cadavid; Nora Hoyos Muñoz; Rita Almanza Payares

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Calcular la proporción crítica (P) para el logro de la inmunidad colectiva a partir de un estudio poblacional realizado en el 2009 en Medellín, Colombia, por edad, en forma global y desagregada por sexo, zona de procedencia y estrato socioeconómico. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta de seroprevalencia poblacional, con una muestra aleatoria de 2 124 individuos de 6 a 64 años, representativa por edad, sexo y zona. Se estimó el número básico de reproducción utilizando una regresión cuad...

  12. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  13. Immune function in arctic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Jasperse, Lindsay; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital part of the rapid and non-specific immune defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. This study evaluated NK cell-like activity by flow cytometry for the first time in three ecologically and culturally important Arctic mammal species: polar bear (Ursus...... the effector:target cell ratio increased. Comparing NK activity between fresh and cryopreserved mouse lymphocytes revealed little to no difference in function, highlighting the applicability of cryopreserving cells in field studies. The evaluation of this important innate immune function in Arctic mammals can...... contribute to future population health assessments, especially as pollution-induced suppression of immune function may increase infectious disease susceptibility....

  14. Immune response to H pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Giovanni; Reyes, Victor E; Beswick, Ellen J

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer, attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium. PMID:17007009

  15. Innate Immune Responses in Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Schmitz, Veronica; Silva, Bruno Jorge de Andrade; Dias, André Alves; de Souza, Beatriz Junqueira; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; de Almeida Esquenazi, Danuza; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease that may present different clinical forms depending on host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Several studies have clarified the role of various T cell populations in leprosy; however, recent evidences suggest that local innate immune mechanisms are key determinants in driving the disease to its different clinical manifestations. Leprosy is an ideal model to study the immunoregulatory role of innate immune molecules and its interaction with nervous system, which can affect homeostasis and contribute to the development of inflammatory episodes during the course of the disease. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and keratinocytes are the major cell populations studied and the comprehension of the complex networking created by cytokine release, lipid and iron metabolism, as well as antimicrobial effector pathways might provide data that will help in the development of new strategies for leprosy management. PMID:29643852

  16. Immune tolerance in radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awaya, Kazuhiko; Kuniki, Hiromichi; Neki, Miyuki

    1978-01-01

    Establishment of immune tolerance in radiation chimeras and the mechanism of maintaining it were discussed from certain points. Semiallogeneic radiation chimeras are mostly of long-living, and the hematopoietic organ of this individual consists mainly of the cells derived from the marrow donor, i. e., F 1 -type cells. F 1 -type lymphocytes can distinguish parental strain cells from themselves. In these chimeras, a F 1 -skin graft maintains to be fresh as long as the host is alive, showing immune tolerance effective through its life. In establishment and maintenance of this immune tolerance, the suppressing mechanism of host-type or F 1 -type seems to be involved. The allogeneic radiation chimera has very poor long-survival rate compared with that of the semiallogeneic radiation chimera. To raise this survival rate, efforts are now being made from the immunological point of view. (Ueda, J.)

  17. Chromatin Remodeling and Plant Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y; Zhang, Q

    Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense. So what are the links between Snf2-mediated ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling and plant immunity, and what mechanisms might support its involvement in disease resistance? © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Innate Immunity against Leishmania Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects more than 300 million people throughout the world. The morbidity associated with the disease causes serious economic burden in Leishmania endemic regions. Despite the morbidity and economic burden associated with Leishmaniasis, this disease rarely gets noticed and is still categorized under neglected tropical diseases. The lack of research combined with the ability of Leishmania to evade immune recognition has rendered our efforts to design therapeutic treatments or vaccines challenging. Herein, we review the literature on Leishmania from innate immune perspective and discuss potential problems as well as solutions and future directions that could aid in identifying novel therapeutic targets to eliminate this parasite. PMID:26249747

  19. Immune epitope database analysis resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yohan; Ponomarenko, Julia; Zhu, Zhanyang

    2012-01-01

    The immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR: http://tools.iedb.org) is a collection of tools for prediction and analysis of molecular targets of T- and B-cell immune responses (i.e. epitopes). Since its last publication in the NAR webserver issue in 2008, a new generation of peptide......, and the homology mapping tool was updated to enable mapping of discontinuous epitopes onto 3D structures. Furthermore, to serve a wider range of users, the number of ways in which IEDB-AR can be accessed has been expanded. Specifically, the predictive tools can be programmatically accessed using a web interface...

  20. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Cheryl M

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder. T helper(h)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and sustained inflammation. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against infection and plays a crucial role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The presence of innate immune cells and their products in psoriatic skin plaques suggests a role for innate immunity in this disease. In addition, the innate immune system can direct the development of pathogenic Th cells in psoriasis. In this article, we will summarise the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis with particular emphasis on the role of cytokines, signalling pathways and cells of the innate immune system.

  1. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...

  2. Immune regulation by pericytes: modulating innate and adaptive immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Rocio; Compte, Marta; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes (PC) are mural cells that surround endothelial cells (EC) in small blood vessels. PC have traditionally been endowed with structural functions, being essential for vessel maturation and stabilization. However, accumulating evidence suggest that PC also display immune properties. They ca...

  3. The Concordance of Parent and Child Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G; Osborn, Andrew W

    2017-05-01

    A substantial body of work has related survey-based parental vaccine hesitancy to noncompliant childhood immunization. However little attention has been paid to the connection between parents' own immunization behavior and the immunizations their children receive. Using the Oregon ALERT Immunization Information System, we identified adult caregiver-child pairs for children between 9 months and 17 years of age. The likelihood of adult-child concordance of influenza immunization per influenza season from 2010-2011 through 2014-2015 was assessed. The utility of adult immunization as a predictor was also assessed for other, noninfluenza recommended immunizations for children and adolescents. A total of 450 687 matched adult caregiver-child pairs were included in the study. The children of immunizing adults were 2.77 times more likely to also be immunized for seasonal influenza across all seasons (95% confidence interval, 2.74-2.79), with similar results applying within each season. Adult immunization status was also significantly associated with the likelihood of children and adolescents getting other noninfluenza immunizations, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). When adults improved their own behavior from nonimmunizing to immunizing across influenza seasons, their children if not immunized in the previous season were 5.44 times (95% confidence interval, 5.35-5.53) more likely to become immunized for influenza. Children's likelihood of following immunization recommendations is associated with the immunization behavior of their parents. Encouraging parental immunization is a potential tool for increasing children's immunization rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  5. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...

  6. The Immune Landscape of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsson, Vésteinn; Gibbs, David L.; Brown, Scott D.; Wolf, Denise; Bortone, Dante S.; Ou Yang, Tai Hsien; Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Gao, Galen F.; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Eddy, James A.; Ziv, Elad; Culhane, Aedin C.; Paull, Evan O.; Sivakumar, I. K.Ashok; Gentles, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Raunaq; Farshidfar, Farshad; Colaprico, Antonio; Parker, Joel S.; Mose, Lisle E.; Vo, Nam Sy; Liu, Jianfang; Liu, Yuexin; Rader, Janet; Dhankani, Varsha; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Bowlby, Reanne; Califano, Andrea; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Anastassiou, Dimitris; Bedognetti, Davide; Rao, Arvind; Chen, Ken; Krasnitz, Alexander; Hu, Hai; Malta, Tathiane M.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Bullman, Susan; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lamb, Andrew; Zhou, Wanding; Shen, Hui; Choueiri, Toni K.; Weinstein, John N.; Guinney, Justin; Saltz, Joel; Holt, Robert; Rabkin, Charles E.; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, onathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Lazar, Alexander J.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Demicco, Elizabeth G.; Disis, Mary L.; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Shmulevich, llya

    2018-01-01

    We performed an extensive immunogenomic analysis of more than 10,000 tumors comprising 33 diverse cancer types by utilizing data compiled by TCGA. Across cancer types, we identified six immune subtypes—wound healing, IFN-γ dominant, inflammatory, lymphocyte depleted, immunologically quiet, and TGF-β

  7. Immune evasion in ebolavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Jonathan; Kobinger, Gary P

    2015-02-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infects humans as well as several animal species. It can lead to a highly lethal disease, with mortality rates approaching 90% in primates. Recent advances have deepened our understanding of how this virus is able to prevent the development of protective immune responses. The EBOV genome encodes eight proteins, four of which were shown to interact with the host in ways that counteract the immune response. The viral protein 35 (VP35) is capable of capping dsRNA and interacts with IRF7 to prevent detection of the virus by immune cells. The main role of the soluble glycoprotein (sGP) is still unclear, but it is capable of subverting the anti-GP1,2 antibody response. The GP1,2 protein has shown anti-tetherin activity and the ability to hide cell-surface proteins. Finally, VP24 interferes with the production of interferons (IFNs) and with IFN signaling in infected cells. Taken together, these data point to extensive adaptation of EBOV to evade the immune system of dead end hosts. While our understanding of the interactions between the human and viral proteins increases, details of those interactions in other hosts remain largely unclear and represent a gap in our knowledge.

  8. The Immune System in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  9. Recommendations for Institutional Prematriculation Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The recommendations presented in this article are provided to colleges and universities to facilitate the implementation of a comprehensive institutional prematriculation immunization policy. Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to occur on American campuses. In response to changing epidemiology and the introduction of new vaccines, the ACHA…

  10. Immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorobetea, D.; Svensson Frej, M.; Grencis, R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous species of nematodes have evolved to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, with over a billion of the world's population infected with at least one species. These large multicellular pathogens present a considerable and complex challenge to the host immune system give...

  11. The most common friend first immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian Fu-Zhong; Hu Cha-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts–Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi–Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. (paper)

  12. National and state vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) monitors vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months using a random-digit-dialed sample of telephone numbers of households to evaluate childhood immunization programs in the United States. This report describes the 2010 NIS coverage estimates for children born during January 2007-July 2009. Nationally, vaccination coverage increased in 2010 compared with 2009 for ≥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), from 90.0% to 91.5%; ≥ 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), from 80.4% to 83.3%; the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), from 60.8% to 64.1%; ≥ 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), from 46.6% to 49.7%; rotavirus vaccine, from 43.9% to 59.2%; and the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, from 54.8% to 66.8%. Coverage for poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), MMR (91.5%), ≥ 3 doses HepB (91.8%), and varicella vaccine (90.4%) continued to be at or above the national health objective targets of 90% for these vaccines.* The percentage of children who had not received any vaccinations remained low (poverty status still exist. Maintaining high vaccination coverage levels is important to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases and prevent a resurgence of these diseases in the United States, particularly in undervaccinated populations.

  13. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  14. Immunization of Epidemics in Multiplex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks. PMID:25401755

  15. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  16. Immune System Dysfunction in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. In this context aging is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity established as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is a new concept that reflects the age-associated restructuring changes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Thus elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment. The immune system is the result of the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, yet the impact of aging on this function is unclear. In this article the function of the immune system during aging is explored.

  17. Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhivaki, Dania; Lo-Man, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

  18. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... people with health conditions such as a weakened immune system. If you have cancer or other immunocompromising conditions, ...

  19. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks.

  20. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhao

    Full Text Available Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted immunization and layer node-based random (targeted immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF networks.