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Sample records for rt higher risk

  1. Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT): study protocol for a predictive algorithm assessing dementia risk in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Stacey; Hsu, Amy; Mojaverian, Nassim; Taljaard, Monica; Huyer, Gregory; Manuel, Douglas G; Tanuseputro, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The burden of disease from dementia is a growing global concern as incidence increases dramatically with age, and average life expectancy has been increasing around the world. Planning for an ageing population requires reliable projections of dementia prevalence; however, existing population projections are simple and have poor predictive accuracy. The Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT) will predict incidence of dementia in the population setting using multivariable modellin...

  2. Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT): study protocol for a predictive algorithm assessing dementia risk in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Stacey; Hsu, Amy; Mojaverian, Nassim; Taljaard, Monica; Huyer, Gregory; Manuel, Douglas G; Tanuseputro, Peter

    2017-10-24

    The burden of disease from dementia is a growing global concern as incidence increases dramatically with age, and average life expectancy has been increasing around the world. Planning for an ageing population requires reliable projections of dementia prevalence; however, existing population projections are simple and have poor predictive accuracy. The Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT) will predict incidence of dementia in the population setting using multivariable modelling techniques and will be used to project dementia prevalence. The derivation cohort will consist of elderly Ontario respondents of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) (2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007; 18 764 males and 25 288 females). Prespecified predictors include sociodemographic, general health, behavioural, functional and health condition variables. Incident dementia will be identified through individual linkage of survey respondents to population-level administrative healthcare databases (1797 and 3281 events, and 117 795 and 166 573 person-years of follow-up, for males and females, respectively, until 31 March 2014). Using time of first dementia capture as the primary outcome and death as a competing risk, sex-specific proportional hazards regression models will be estimated. The 2008/2009 CCHS survey will be used for validation (approximately 4600 males and 6300 females). Overall calibration and discrimination will be assessed as well as calibration within predefined subgroups of importance to clinicians and policy makers. Research ethics approval has been granted by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board. DemPoRT results will be submitted for publication in peer-review journals and presented at scientific meetings. The algorithm will be assessable online for both population and individual uses. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03155815, pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  3. MODERN RISK MEASURES FOR INDIVIDUAL HIGHER EDUCATION INVESTMENT RISK EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vona Mate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons why people get degree and participate in organized education is that they want to raise their human capital or signal their inner abilities to future employers by sorting themselves out. In both cases they can expect return to their investment, because they can expect higher life-time earnings than those who do not have degree. In this paper we will refer this activity as higher education investment or education investment. In this paper the investment of the state into educating their citizens will not be considered. The question of this paper will develop the findings of Vona (2014. I suggested to introduce modern risk measures because individual risk-taking became a serious question. It was considered that modern risk measures can help to solve some issues with the relation of investment and risk. However before applying some measures from a different field of science, namely investment finance and financial mathematics, to another, economics of education, there must be a very careful consideration, because there are debate over these measures applicability even on their field of science. Value at Risk is not coherent and Expected Shortfall is only one of a great deal of possible tail loss measures. For this reason it will be discussed in detail how should we should adopt the measures, what kind of data is necessary for calculating this risk measures and what kind of new insight they can bring. With the aid of a numerical example it will be shown that with expected shortfall measure we can reflect some large losses, and potential high value of diversification. We show the value at risk based measure is not coherent and this means it points out something different in this environment. It is can be an indicator of loss in opportunities for high end returns.

  4. Novel HBV recombinants between genotypes B and C in 3'-terminal reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences are associated with enhanced viral DNA load, higher RT point mutation rates and place of birth among Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoming; Yang, Jing-Xian; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui; Li, Tong

    2018-01-01

    As one of the major global public health concerns, hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be divided into at least eight genotypes, which may be related to disease severity and treatment response. We previously demonstrated that genotypes B and C HBV, with distinct geographical distribution in China, had divergent genotype-dependent amino acid polymorphisms and variations in reverse transcriptase (RT) gene region, a target of antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogues. Recently recombination between HBV genotypes B and C was reported to occur in the RT region. However, their frequency and clinical significance is poorly understood. Here full-length HBV RT sequences from 201 Chinese chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were amplified and sequenced, among which 31.34% (63/201) were genotype B whereas 68.66% (138/201) genotype C. Although no intergenotypic recombination was detected among C-genotype HBV, 38.10% (24/63) of B-genotype HBV had recombination with genotype C in the 3'-terminal RT sequences. The patients with B/C intergenotypic recombinants had significantly (Pdistribution feature in China. Our findings provide novel insight into the virological, clinical and epidemiological features of new HBV B/C intergenotypic recombinants at the 3' end of RT sequences among Chinese CHB patients. The highly complex genetic background of the novel recombinant HBV carrying new mutations affecting RT protein may contribute to an enhanced heterogeneity in treatment response or prognosis among CHB patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Enzymatic and viability RT-qPCR assays for evaluation of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus and norovirus inactivation: Implications for public health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, S; Santos, R

    2018-04-01

    To assess the potential of a viability dye and an enzymatic reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) pretreatment to discriminate between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses. Enterovirus (EntV), norovirus (NoV) GII.4 and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were inactivated at 95°C for 10 min, and four methods were used to compare the efficiency of inactivation: (i) cell culture plaque assay for HAV and EntV, (ii) RT-qPCR alone, (iii) RT-qPCR assay preceded by RNase treatment, and (iv) pretreatment with a viability dye (reagent D (RD)) followed by RT-qPCR. In addition, heat-inactivated NoV was treated with RD coupled with surfactants to increase the efficiency of the viability dye. No treatment was able to completely discriminate infectious from noninfectious viruses. RD-RT-qPCR reduced more efficiently the detection of noninfectious viruses with little to no removal observed with RNase. RD-RT-qPCR method was the closest to cell culture assay. The combination of surfactants and RD did not show relevant improvements on the removal of inactivated viruses signal compared with viability RT-qPCR, with the exception of Triton X-100. The use of surfactant/RD-RT-qPCR, although not being able to completely remove the signal from noninfectious viral particles, yielded a better estimation of viral infectivity. Surfactant/RD-RT-qPCR may be an advantageous tool for a better detection of infectious viruses with potential significant impact in the risk assessment of the presence of enteric viruses. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Mainstreaming disaster risk management in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIA VILLASANA

    Full Text Available Universities should actively participate in disseminating and fostering a culture for disaster risk management (DRM among students and the community. Particularly in countries with high levels of risk, education plays a key role in raising awareness on the importance of preventing and implementing conscious risk management. Though the incorporation of DRM into the curricula, education programs become a mechanism to prepare students from a perspective of strengthening of values, citizenship, and social sensibility towards how disaster represents a disruption of the functioning of a community and impairs business activity. This paper presents the proposal for the integration of DRM of a private university in Mexico, one of the countries particularly susceptible to extreme hydrometereological and geological events. The proposal includes a concentration area for undergraduate business students, a mandatory introductory course for all business majors, and for the business community an executive education program for SMEs

  7. Stroke acute management with urgent risk-factor assessment and improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA registry. General results and subanalyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Koga, Masatoshi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement [SAMURAI] rt-PA Registry is a multicenter retrospective observational study from 10 Japanese stroke centers. A total of 600 patients (223 women, 72±12 years old) treated with intravenous alteplase (0.6 mg/kg) were studied. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours with ≥4 point-increase from the baseline National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale score developed in 8 patients (1.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.6%). At 3 months, 199 patients (33.2%, 29.5-37.0%) had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤1. Analysis of 399 patients with a premorbid mRS score ≤1 who met the criteria of the European license (≤80 years old, an initial NIHSS score ≤24, etc.) showed that 40.6% (35.9-45.5%) had a 3-month mRS ≤1. In the subanalyses from this registry, early ischemic change on diffusion-weighted imaging assessed by the Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score, as well as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, was associated with early intracerebral hemorrhage and 3-month outcomes of patients. (author)

  8. Stroke acute management with urgent risk-factor assessment and improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA registry. General results and subanalyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Koga, Masatoshi [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshiaki [Kyorin Univ., School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement [SAMURAI] rt-PA Registry is a multicenter retrospective observational study from 10 Japanese stroke centers. A total of 600 patients (223 women, 72{+-}12 years old) treated with intravenous alteplase (0.6 mg/kg) were studied. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours with {>=}4 point-increase from the baseline National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale score developed in 8 patients (1.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.6%). At 3 months, 199 patients (33.2%, 29.5-37.0%) had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score {<=}1. Analysis of 399 patients with a premorbid mRS score {<=}1 who met the criteria of the European license ({<=}80 years old, an initial NIHSS score {<=}24, etc.) showed that 40.6% (35.9-45.5%) had a 3-month mRS {<=}1. In the subanalyses from this registry, early ischemic change on diffusion-weighted imaging assessed by the Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score, as well as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, was associated with early intracerebral hemorrhage and 3-month outcomes of patients. (author)

  9. Development of an In-House Multiplex Nested RT-PCR Method for Detecting Acute HIV-1 Infection in High Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiying; Li, Wei; Xu, Meng; Sheng, Bo; Yang, Zixuan; Jiao, Yanmei; Zhang, Tong; Mou, Danlei; Chen, Dexi; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The detection of acute HIV infection (AHI) among high risk populations can help reduce secondary transmission of HIV. The nucleic acid testing (NAT) can shorten the test window period by up to 7-12 days. In this study, we describe an in-house NAT based on the multiplex nested RT-PCR method to detect the HIV RNA. We also evaluated it in a high risk cohort in Beijing. Four primer pairs were designed and evaluated for the detection of different HIV-1 subtypes in group M. Multiplex RT-PCR and nested PCR were performed. The sensitivity, specialty, primers compatibility among HIV subtypes were evaluated simultaneously. In an MSM cohort in Beijing during a 3-year period, a total of 11,808 blood samples that were negative by ELISA or indeterminate by Western blot were analyzed by this multiplex nested RT-PCR with pooling strategy. The multiplex nested RT-PCR was successfully applied for the detection of at least six HIV-1 subtypes. The sensitivity was 40 copies/ml and the specificity was 100%. A total of 29 people were tested HIV-1 positive with acute infection in a MSM cohort of Beijing during a 3 years period. This multiplex nested RT-PCR provides a useful tool for the rapid detection of acute HIV-1 infection. When used in combination with the 3(rd) generation ELISA, it can improve the detection rate of HIV infection, especially in the source limited regions.

  10. Risk management in higher education and research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsloot, I.; Jong, W

    2006-01-01

    This study examines risk in higher education and research on the basis of a classification into three domains. The practical utility of this division into three domains is that it makes it easier to see what risks are unique to higher education (custodianship of knowledge), what risks are dependent

  11. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  12. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... in the amendment to the directive. This report suggests a structured way to identify the type of data needed to perform a sound ecological risk assessment for genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). The identified data types are intended to support the evaluation of the following risks: risk of invasion...

  13. Psychosocial risks evaluation factors: study with higher education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes Borges

    2018-02-01

    Method: The study consisted of the administration of two instruments, one for the characterization of the sample and the other for assessing psychosocial risk factors — the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire — consisting of 76 items (5-point Likert scale, distributed in five dimensions, which measure indicators of exposure to psychosocial risks and their effects. Results: The study included 59 teachers, mostly men (50.8%, aged between 41 - 50 years (45.8%, with master's degree (59%, assistant professors (47.5%; with a stable employment relationship (68%, years of service between 14-17 years (18.7% and teaching between 11 - 17 hours a week (64.4%. The analysis of the various subscales revealed a psychosocial risk, showing that teachers are in a situation of vulnerability. There were significant differences between the risks experienced in public higher education and those experienced in private higher education. Gender, age, academic background, and professional category influenced the type of psychosocial risk. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors in the exercise of the teaching profession in higher education. It is recognized that it is necessary to assess and manage psychosocial risks in order to promote healthy working conditions, ensure respect and fair treatment, and encourage the promotion of work / family life balance, in order to minimize psychosocial risks and situations of vulnerability in higher education teachers.

  14. Higher Heart Failure Risk Seen in Some Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some people treated for breast cancer or lymphoma have a higher risk of developing congestive heart failure than people who haven’t had cancer, a new study shows. As this Cancer Currents blog post reports, the risk persisted for at least 20 years.

  15. Higher Education IT Compliance through the Prism of Risk Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, compliance issues march, unceasingly, through every aspect of higher education. Yet the intricacies of privacy, information security, data governance, and IT policy as compliance and risk areas within the IT organization can reverberate and impact every other department within the higher education institution. The primary focus is always…

  16. Higher-order risk preferences in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Timo; Mayrhofer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We study prudence and temperance (next to risk aversion) in social settings. Previous experimental studies have shown that these higher-order risk preferences affect the choices of individuals deciding privately on lotteries that only affect their own payoff. Yet, many risky and financially relevant decisions are made in the social settings of households or organizations. We elicit higher-order risk preferences of individuals and systematically vary how an individual's decision is made (alone or while communicating with a partner) and who is affected by the decision (only the individual or the partner as well). In doing so, we can isolate the effects of other-regarding concerns and communication on choices. Our results reveal that the majority of choices are risk averse, prudent, and temperate across social settings. We also observe that individuals are influenced significantly by the preferences of a partner when they are able to communicate and choices are payoff-relevant for both of them.

  17. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Omidvari; J. Nouri; M. Mapar

    2015-01-01

    Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management). Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster ma...

  18. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar ...

  19. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013). Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's ...

  20. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali.

  1. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidvari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management. Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster management rules and responses in emergency conditions. Creating appropriate tools for disaster management assessment makes it correct and precise in higher education systems using the presented conceptual model. The present model was planned so as to cover three phases which exist before, during, and after disaster. Studies were performed in one of the largest higher education centers in Tehran: Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University Campus. Results showed high-risk disasters in these centers which must be taken into consideration continuously. The objective of this study was to create appropriate patterns of disaster risk management in these centers.

  2. Association between low education and higher global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of educational status on global cardiovascular risk in a southern Italian urban population. The study population consisted of 488 consecutive outpatients aged 18 years and older. Educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education group (education group (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities (obesity, visceral obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy) and global cardiovascular risk, according to international guidelines, were analyzed. Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction by echocardiography and E/A ratio, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. The low education group was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with visceral obesity (P=.021), hypertension (P=.010), metabolic syndrome (P=.000), and microalbuminuria (P=.000) and greater global cardiovascular risk (P=.000). Significantly increased levels of microalbuminuria (P=.000) and significantly decreased values of E/A ratio (P=.000) were also detected in the low education group. Global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-to-hip ratio (P=.010), microalbuminuria (P=.015), and the metabolic syndrome (P>.012) and inversely with educational status (P=.000). Education was independently (P=.000) associated with global cardiovascular risk. These data indicate a strong association between low education and cardiometabolic comorbidities suitable to influence the evolution of chronic degenerative diseases. Preventive strategies need to be more efficient and more effective in this patient population. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) in patients treated with external beam radiation therapy: Evaluation and optimization in patients at higher risk of relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Schuyler; Schipper, Matthew; Blas, Kevin; Lee, Vivien; Sabolch, Aaron; Olson, Karin; Sandler, Howard M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) was developed to predict freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Its utility following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has not been externally evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study of 612 patients treated with dose-escalated EBRT at University of Michigan Medical Center. Results: Compared to the derivation cohort, EBRT treated patients had higher-risk disease (28% with CAPRA of 6–10 vs. 5%, respectively). A total of 114 patients (19%) had BF with 5-year BF ranging from 7% with CAPRA 0–3 to 35% with CAPRA 7–10. For RT patients the risk of BF at 5-year was similar to 4 surgical cohorts for CAPRA scores 0–2 but lower for all CAPRA scores ⩾ 3. The difference favoring RT increased with increasing CAPRA score reaching a 27–50% absolute improved at 5-years for CAPRA scores of 6–10. On multivariate analysis each CAPRA point increased the risk of BF (p < 0.0001) while Gleason pattern 5 in the biopsy also increased BF (p = 0.01) and long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly reduced the risk of BF (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Compared to surgical series the risk of BF was lower with dose-escalated EBRT with the greatest difference at the highest CAPRA scores.

  4. Are female healthcare workers at higher risk of occupational injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Drebit, Sharla; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Differential risks of occupational injuries by gender have been examined across various industries. With the number of employees in healthcare rising and an overwhelming proportion of this workforce being female, it is important to address this issue in this growing sector. To determine whether compensated work-related injuries among females are higher than their male colleagues in the British Columbia healthcare sector. Incidents of occupational injury resulting in compensated days lost from work over a 1-year period for all healthcare workers were extracted from a standardized operational database and the numbers of productive hours were obtained from payroll data. Injuries were grouped into all injuries and musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modelling. A total of 42 332 employees were included in the study of whom 11% were male and 89% female. When adjusted for age, occupation, sub-sector, employment category, health region and facility, female workers had significantly higher risk of all injuries [rate ratio (95% CI) = 1.58 (1.24-2.01)] and MSIs [1.43 (1.11-1.85)] compared to their male colleagues. Occupational health and safety initiatives should be gender sensitive and developed accordingly.

  5. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas; Scharling, Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2008-01-01

    , non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...... or non-fasting plasma glucose >11.1 mmol/l) were excluded. Some 6154 women and 4733 men were studied and followed up in 1981-1983 or in 1991-1994. The significance of risk factors was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Initially, a higher proportion of men than women had high...

  6. Why does society accept a higher risk for alcohol than for other voluntary or involuntary risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Room, Robin

    2014-10-21

    Societies tend to accept much higher risks for voluntary behaviours, those based on individual decisions (for example, to smoke, to consume alcohol, or to ski), than for involuntary exposure such as exposure to risks in soil, drinking water or air. In high-income societies, an acceptable risk to those voluntarily engaging in a risky behaviour seems to be about one death in 1,000 on a lifetime basis. However, drinking more than 20 g pure alcohol per day over an adult lifetime exceeds a threshold of one in 100 deaths, based on a calculation from World Health Organization data of the odds in six European countries of dying from alcohol-attributable causes at different levels of drinking. The voluntary mortality risk of alcohol consumption exceeds the risks of other lifestyle risk factors. In addition, evidence shows that the involuntary risks resulting from customary alcohol consumption far exceed the acceptable threshold for other involuntary risks (such as those established by the World Health Organization or national environmental agencies), and would be judged as not acceptable. Alcohol's exceptional status reflects vagaries of history, which have so far resulted in alcohol being exempted from key food legislation (no labelling of ingredients and nutritional information) and from international conventions governing all other psychoactive substances (both legal and illegal). This is along with special treatment of alcohol in the public health field, in part reflecting overestimation of its beneficial effect on ischaemic disease when consumed in moderation. A much higher mortality risk from alcohol than from other risk factors is currently accepted by high income countries.

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Population Risk Tool (CVDPoRT): predictive algorithm for assessing CVD risk in the community setting. A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Monica; Tuna, Meltem; Bennett, Carol; Perez, Richard; Rosella, Laura; Tu, Jack V; Sanmartin, Claudia; Hennessy, Deirdre; Tanuseputro, Peter; Lebenbaum, Michael; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-10-23

    Recent publications have called for substantial improvements in the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of prediction models. Publication of study protocols, with prespecification of key aspects of the analysis plan, can help to improve transparency, increase quality and protect against increased type I error. Valid population-based risk algorithms are essential for population health planning and policy decision-making. The purpose of this study is to develop, evaluate and apply cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk algorithms for the population setting. The Ontario sample of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001, 2003, 2005; 77,251 respondents) will be used to assess risk factors focusing on health behaviours (physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol use). Incident CVD outcomes will be assessed through linkage to administrative healthcare databases (619,886 person-years of follow-up until 31 December 2011). Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, immigrant status, education) and mediating factors such as presence of diabetes and hypertension will be included as predictors. Algorithms will be developed using competing risks survival analysis. The analysis plan adheres to published recommendations for the development of valid prediction models to limit the risk of overfitting and improve the quality of predictions. Key considerations are fully prespecifying the predictor variables; appropriate handling of missing data; use of flexible functions for continuous predictors; and avoiding data-driven variable selection procedures. The 2007 and 2009 surveys (approximately 50,000 respondents) will be used for validation. Calibration will be assessed overall and in predefined subgroups of importance to clinicians and policymakers. This study has been approved by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board. The findings will be disseminated through professional and scientific conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals. The algorithm will be accessible

  8. Walls of straw – the cyber risks to higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Wood

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally, in every facet of life, advances in communications technology and our reliance on computers and the internet allow us to live and work more efficiently than ever before. Higher education relies on the development of knowledge and the need to conduct and communicate research activity. Universities are often bound in research activity to business, government and other organizations whose interests need to be protected and managed. But is there a disparity in approach? Is research activity, security and the protection of privileged, proprietary and classified information appropriately implemented and managed in higher education? In this article the author questions: are there gaps open to cyberattack?

  9. Quantification, Risk, and the Rhetoric of Higher Education Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a contribution to the literature of critique of higher education policy and management. It offers a general discussion of problems arising from the proliferation of mechanisms of audit and quality assurance within the context of concerns about dependence on quantitative measures of values. It argues that uncritical dependence on…

  10. The relationship between the presence and extent of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and the risk of local recurrence (LR) in patients with infiltrating cancer of the breast treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abner, A.; Schnitt, S.; Connolly, J.; Recht, A.; Bornstein, B.; Nixon, A.; Hetelekidis, S.; Silver, B.; Harris, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Lobular carcinoma in situ, when found in an otherwise benign breast biopsy, is associated with an increased risk of developing a subsequent invasive breast cancer. Among patients with an infiltrating cancer resected without margin assessment, the extent of ductal carcinoma in situ is an established risk factor for LR after CS and RT. However, the association between the presence and extent of LCIS and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with CS and RT for infiltrating breast cancer remains at issue. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1625 patients with clinical stage T1 and T2 invasive breast cancer were treated at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy with complete gross tumor excision and RT to a total of ≥60 Gy. Of these, 1160 had infiltrating ductal cancer (IDC), infiltrating lobular cancer (ILC), or mixed IDC/ILC (IMC) and sufficient pathologic material for review by the study pathologists (SS and JC) to establish the presence or absence of LCIS and were evaluable at 10 years. LCIS was present adjacent to the invasive cancer in (43(1027)) IDC (4%), and either within or adjacent to the infiltrating tumor in (70(82)) ILC (85%) and (26(51)) IMC (51%). Margins were evaluable in 35% of LCIS-positive patients and 33% of LCIS-negative patients. The median follow-up time was 153 months for surviving patients. Results: The 10-year crude risk of recurrence by first site of failure for all patients was as follows: Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the extent of the LCIS adjacent to the invasive tumor and the LR risk: The 10-year crude risk of contralateral breast cancer was 7% for the patients with LCIS and 7% for those without LCIS. CONCLUSION: We conclude that neither the presence nor the extent of LCIS is related to the risk of LR in patients with invasive breast cancer treated with CS and RT. Thus, LCIS should not be considered a contraindication to breast conservation with CS and RT

  11. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T.; Scharling, H.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigates risk factors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) in both sexes of a northern European population. Methods: A total of 14,223 randomly selected men and women were studied from 1976 to 1978. Patients with diabetes (self-reported type 2 DM......, non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...

  12. Higher Pretransplantation Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Greater Risk of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Im Shin

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Higher pretransplantation HbA1c above 5.4% is independently associated with greater risk of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients. A continuous relationship between pretransplantation HbA1c and risk of PTDM suggests that increased risk starts at HbA1c levels well below current thresholds for prediabetes.

  13. Macroecology of parental care in arthropods: higher mortality risk leads to higher benefits of offspring protection in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo S A; Bueno, Pedro P; Gilbert, James D J; Machado, Glauco

    2017-08-01

    The intensity of biotic interactions varies around the world, in such a way that mortality risk imposed by natural enemies is usually higher in the tropics. A major role of offspring attendance is protection against natural enemies, so the benefits of this behaviour should be higher in tropical regions. We tested this macroecological prediction with a meta-regression of field experiments in which the mortality of guarded and unguarded broods was compared in arthropods. Mortality of unguarded broods was higher, and parental care was more beneficial, in warmer, less seasonal environments. Moreover, in these same environments, additional lines of defence further reduced offspring mortality, implying that offspring attendance alone is not enough to deter natural enemies in tropical regions. These results help to explain the high frequency of parental care among tropical species and how biotic interactions influence the occurrence of parental care over large geographic scales. Finally, our findings reveal that additional lines of defences - an oftentimes neglected component of parental care - have an important effect on the covariation between the benefits of parental care and the climate-mediated mortality risk imposed by natural enemies. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. ASCENDE-RT: An Analysis of Treatment-Related Morbidity for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost with a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodda, Sree; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Keyes, Mira; Halperin, Ross; Pai, Howard; McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme; Morton, Gerard; Hamm, Jeremy; Murray, Nevin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report the genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and erectile dysfunction in a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for high- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: ASCENDE-RT (Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy) enrolled 398 men, median age 68 years, who were then randomized to either a standard arm that included 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy and pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost. At clinic visits, investigators recorded GU and GI morbidity and information on urinary continence, catheter use, and erectile function. Exclusion of 15 who received nonprotocol treatment and correction of 14 crossover events left 195 men who actually received a DE-EBRT boost and 188, an LDR-PB boost. Median follow-up was 6.5 years. Results: The LDR-PB boost increased the risk of needing temporary catheterization and/or requiring incontinence pads. At 5 years the cumulative incidence of grade 3 GU events was 18.4% for LDR-PB, versus 5.2% for DE-EBRT (P<.001). Compared with the cumulative incidence, the 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GU morbidity was substantially lower for both arms (8.6% vs 2.2%, P=.058). The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade 3 GI events was 8.1% for LDR-PB, versus 3.2% for DE-EBRT (P=.124). The 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GI toxicity was lower than the cumulative incidence for both arms (1.0% vs 2.2%, respectively). Among men reporting adequate baseline erections, 45% of LDR-PB patients reported similar erectile function at 5 years, versus 37% after DE-EBRT (P=.30). Conclusions: The incidence of acute and late GU morbidity was higher after LDR-PB boost, and there was a nonsignificant trend for worse GI morbidity. No differences in the frequency of

  15. ASCENDE-RT: An Analysis of Treatment-Related Morbidity for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost with a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodda, Sree [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James, E-mail: jmorris@bccancer.bc.ca [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keyes, Mira [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Halperin, Ross [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Pai, Howard [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morton, Gerard [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Murray, Nevin [British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To report the genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and erectile dysfunction in a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for high- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: ASCENDE-RT (Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy) enrolled 398 men, median age 68 years, who were then randomized to either a standard arm that included 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy and pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost. At clinic visits, investigators recorded GU and GI morbidity and information on urinary continence, catheter use, and erectile function. Exclusion of 15 who received nonprotocol treatment and correction of 14 crossover events left 195 men who actually received a DE-EBRT boost and 188, an LDR-PB boost. Median follow-up was 6.5 years. Results: The LDR-PB boost increased the risk of needing temporary catheterization and/or requiring incontinence pads. At 5 years the cumulative incidence of grade 3 GU events was 18.4% for LDR-PB, versus 5.2% for DE-EBRT (P<.001). Compared with the cumulative incidence, the 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GU morbidity was substantially lower for both arms (8.6% vs 2.2%, P=.058). The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade 3 GI events was 8.1% for LDR-PB, versus 3.2% for DE-EBRT (P=.124). The 5-year prevalence of grade 3 GI toxicity was lower than the cumulative incidence for both arms (1.0% vs 2.2%, respectively). Among men reporting adequate baseline erections, 45% of LDR-PB patients reported similar erectile function at 5 years, versus 37% after DE-EBRT (P=.30). Conclusions: The incidence of acute and late GU morbidity was higher after LDR-PB boost, and there was a nonsignificant trend for worse GI morbidity. No differences in the frequency of

  16. Exploring Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in the Pursuit of Higher Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jason M. S.; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Ariffin, Ahmad Azmi M.

    2017-01-01

    While past studies have merely focused on perceived risks that influence how students select the destination of international education best suited to their needs, research on perceived risk regarding post-purchase behavior remains limited. This study attempts to extend and redefine the perceived risk paradigm by uncovering the underlying elements…

  17. High prevalence of suicide risk in people living with HIV: who is at higher risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Susane Müller Klug; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Spessato, Bárbara Coiro

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was developed to evaluate suicide risk and associated factors in HIV/AIDS patients at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. We assessed 211 patients in regard to suicide risk, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression, and anxiety. Suicide risk was assessed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Module C. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Of the total sample, 34.1% were at risk of suicide. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independently associated with suicide risk: female gender; age up to 47 years; unemployment; indicative of anxiety; indicative of depression; and abuse or addiction on psychoactive substances. Suicide risk is high in this population. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation, given their strong association with suicide risk.

  18. Applying Service Performance Guarantees to Reduce Risk Perception in the Purchase and Consumption of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraini Mohamad Sheriff

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The intangible nature of education is one contributor to consumers’ perception of risk prior to their purchase and consumption. This risk includes: functional risk, financial risk, temporal risk, physical risk, psychological risk and social risk. The presence of these risks often makes consumer evaluation prior to purchase and consumption difficult. Invoking a service guarantee is a platform available to enable higher educational institutions to minimize such risk perception so as to induce purchase. Specifically, service guarantee for higher education entails the application of teaching performance guarantee. This form of guarantee focuses on two important customer groups of higher educational institutions namely, students and faculty members, and focuses only on a specific performance aspect such as instructor’s performance. Thus, if students are dissatisfied with an instructor’s performance they are entitled to receive their money back. The imposition of such a teaching performance guarantee would implicate instructor’s accountability for certain aspects of their performance. It also establishes a mechanism to solicit feedback to better understand why and how instructors fail. Consequently, service performance guarantee creates a high level of customer focus and signals instructors’ care towards students

  19. Why do perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others? The mediational effect of workaholism

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek, Ilona; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others, but the mechanisms accounting for this association have rarely been examined. The present study proposes that workaholism mediates this relation, as previous research revealed that (a) perfectionists are more likely to be workaholics than others, and (b) workaholics have a higher burnout risk than others. Using cross-sectional data from 199 Dutch managers, regression analyses revealed that holding high ...

  20. A Risk and Standards Based Approach to Quality Assurance in Australia's Diverse Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…

  1. Low bone density risk is higher in exercising women with multiple triad risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jenna C; Nattiv, Aurelia; Barrack, Michelle T; Williams, Nancy I; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The cumulative effect of the female athlete triad (Triad) risk factors on the likelihood of low bone mineral density (BMD) in exercising women is unclear. This study aimed to determine the risk of low BMD in exercising women with multiple Triad risk factors. We retrospectively examined cross-sectional data from 437 exercising women (mean ± SD age of 18.0 ± 3.5 yr, weighed 57.5 ± 7.1 kg with 24.5% ± 6.1% body fat) obtained at baseline from 4 prospective cohort studies examining Triad risk factors. Questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographic characteristics, self-reported eating attitudes/behaviors, menstrual function, sport/activity participation, and medication use. Height and body weight were measured. BMD was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as z-scores of exercising women. Further research should be conducted to develop a user-friendly algorithm integrating these indicators of risk for low BMD in exercising women (particularly factors associated with low BMI/body weight, menstrual dysfunction, lean sport/activity participation, and elevated dietary restraint).

  2. Current State of the Art: Management of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-08-01

    The higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) as intermediate-2 or high-risk groups, compromise a third of MDS patients who have an expected survival of less than 1.5 years. Our ability to better define higher risk MDS improved with the proposal of new clinical risk models such as the revised IPSS and by integration of molecular data, including somatic gene mutations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) remains the only curative option. In higher risk MDS patients, proceeding early with AHSCT is associated with maximum survival gain. The decision to pursue AHSCT is individualized according to disease risk, comorbidities, and functional status. The role of therapy before AHSCT remains controversial, and the role of post-AHSCT maintenance is evolving. Hypomethylating agents are the only medications that alter the natural history of the disease. Azacitidine is the only drug reported to improve overall survival in higher risk MDS patients. Appropriate use and assessment of response is key for assuring patients benefit of such limited options. Treatment after failure of hypomethylating agents is an unmet need. The role of detectable somatic gene mutations in prognosis and tailoring therapy continue to emerge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk estimation of distant metastasis in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients using an RT-PCR based prognostic expression signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutt, Andrew; Shu, Henry; Springall, Robert; Cane, Paul; McCallie, Blair; Kam-Morgan, Lauren; Anderson, Steve; Buerger, Horst; Gray, Joe; Bennington, James; Esserman, Laura; Wang, Alice; Hastie, Trevor; Broder, Samuel; Sninsky, John; Brandt, Burkhard; Waldman, Fred; Rowland, Charles; Gillett, Cheryl; Lau, Kit; Chew, Karen; Dai, Hongyue; Kwok, Shirley; Ryder, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative (N-) estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients with extensive follow-up times. 197 genes previously associated with metastasis and ER status were profiled from 142 untreated breast cancer subjects. A 'metastasis score' (MS) representing fourteen differentially expressed genes was developed and evaluated for its association with distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Categorical risk classification was established from the continuous MS and further evaluated on an independent set of 279 untreated subjects. A third set of 45 subjects was tested to determine the prognostic performance of the MS in tamoxifen-treated women. A 14-gene signature was found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with distant metastasis in a training set and subsequently in an independent validation set. In the validation set, the hazard ratios (HR) of the high risk compared to low risk groups were 4.02 (95% CI 1.91–8.44) for the endpoint of DMFS and 1.97 (95% CI 1.28 to 3.04) for overall survival after adjustment for age, tumor size and grade. The low and high MS risk groups had 10-year estimates (95% CI) of 96% (90–99%) and 72% (64–78%) respectively, for DMFS and 91% (84–95%) and 68% (61–75%), respectively for overall survival. Performance characteristics of the signature in the two sets were similar. Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was predictive for recurrent disease in the training set, but lost significance after adjustment for the expression signature. In a study of tamoxifen-treated patients, the HR for DMFS in high compared to low risk groups was 3.61 (95% CI 0.86–15.14). The 14-gene signature is significantly

  4. Splenectomy is associated with a higher risk for venous thromboembolism: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debora H; Barmparas, Galinos; Fierro, Nicole; Sun, Beatrice J; Ashrafian, Sogol; Li, Tong; Ley, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Thrombocytosis following splenectomy is a common occurrence. Whether this thrombocytosis leads to a higher risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains unclear. This investigation aimed to determine if splenectomy increases the risk for VTE. This was a prospective study conducted in the SICU between 1/2011 and 11/2013 investigating the VTE risk in patients undergoing a splenectomy compared with those undergoing any other abdominal procedure. In total 2503 patients were admitted to the SICU: 37 (2%) after a splenectomy and 638 (26%) after any other abdominal surgery. Splenectomy patients had a higher incidence of VTE compared to patients undergoing any other abdominal procedure (29.7% vs. 12.1%, p splenectomy was associated with a higher adjusted risk for VTE compared to the no-splenectomy group (AOR [95% CI]: 2.6 [1.2, 5.9], p = 0.02). Reactive thrombocytosis did not predict the development of VTE. Splenectomy increases the risk for VTE, however reactive thrombocytosis is not associated with this higher incidence. Further investigations are required to characterize the pathophysiologic mechanisms of VTE development following splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Day napping and short night sleeping are associated with higher risk of diabetes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Song, Yiqing; Hollenbeck, Albert; Blair, Aaron; Schatzkin, Arthur; Chen, Honglei

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether day napping or short night sleeping is associated with higher risk of diabetes. This was a prospective study of hours of day napping and night sleeping assessed in 1996-1997 in relation to diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 (n = 10,143) among 174,542 participants in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Longer day napping was associated with a higher risk of diabetes. After adjustment for potential confounders, ORs were 1.23 (95% CI 1.18-1.29) for those reporting or =1 h of napping compared with individuals who did not nap (P(trend) or =9 h. In both analyses, additional adjustment for BMI only modestly attenuated the associations. Further analysis showed a statistically significant interaction between hours of napping and sleeping on diabetes (P(interaction) napping, only short night sleeping was associated with higher occurrence of diabetes, whereas among those with > or =1 h of napping, both long and short sleeping was associated with higher risk. Day napping and short night sleeping are associated with higher risk of diabetes. The association between sleep duration and diabetes may be modified by napping habit.

  6. Higher risk of offspring schizophrenia following antenatal maternal exposure to severe adverse life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; Abel, Kathryn; McNamee, R.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Most societies believe that a mother's psychological state can influence her unborn baby. Severe adverse life events during pregnancy have been consistently associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight and prematurity. Such events during the first trimester have also been...... associated with risk of congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect in offspring of antenatal maternal exposure to an objective measure of stress on risk of adverse neurodevelopment, specifically schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the strongest relationship would be to maternal exposures...... not linked with a higher risk of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that severe stress to a mother during the first trimester may alter the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. This finding is consistent with ecological evidence from whole populations exposed to severe stressors...

  7. Getting Your Ducks in a Row: IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; Feehan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Higher education IT governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) programs are in the development stage. Few institutions have all three programs in place, and many institutions are unclear where they should start when instituting or maturing their IT GRC programs. In addition, they are often uncertain as to whether GRC programs should be developed in…

  8. Risky Business: An Integrated Institutional Theory for Understanding High-Risk Decision Making in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lauren A.; Angulo, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Lauren A. Turner and A. J. Angulo explore how institutional theory can be applied to explain variance in higher education organizational strategies. Given strong regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive pressures to conform, they ask, why do some colleges engage in high-risk decision making? To answer this, they bring together classic and…

  9. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  10. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); F.J. Wolters (Frank J.); A. Hofman (Albert); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains

  11. Factors influencing the use of RT in NSW: a qualitative study exploring consumer and health professional practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, Puma; Milross, Christopher G.; Stockler, Martin R.; Smith, Andrea; Evans, Alison; King, Madeleine T.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an essential and cost-effective cancer treatment. It is underutilised in Australia. Bridging the gap between actual and optimal RT utilisation requires not only provision of adequate RT infrastructure but also an understanding of the factors that influence the extent to which this opportunity for RT is utilised. This study explored factors perceived to affect RT-related decision making by consumers and health professionals (HPs). Six semi-structured focus groups (FGs) and 13 interviews were conducted at three geographical locations in NSW, Australia (n=26 consumers and 30 HPs). Audio recordings of FGs and interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. An exhaustive list of issues perceived to affect consumer and HP RT decisions was identified. There were common themes across participant groups and locations. Perceptions of RT and its benefits, as well as accurate communication of the expected benefits and risks of RT, were highlighted as important to decision making. Perceived factors relating to 'inconvenience' of RT were multifaceted and included travel, relocation, accommodation, time away from work and financial challenges. Perceived potential barriers to RT referral included knowledge of RT and RT services, availability of a local or visiting RT service, referrer bias, and the low profile of RT. Important drivers during RT decisions appear to include the perceived benefit, risks and inconvenience of RT. Underutilisation of RT may also result from multiple barriers at the referrer level. Further research into whether these factors influence actual RT decisions is needed.

  12. Simultaneous Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents Associated with Higher Economic Class in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Santos Leão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design. The social, cultural, and economic context can be an important variable in the perception and adoption of risk behaviors in adolescents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of simultaneous health risk behaviors and associated socioeconomic factors in adolescents living in the metropolitan region of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. The sample consisted of 2,207 high school students aged 13–18 years. The risk behaviors measured were “low levels of physical activity,” “excessive daily TV time,” “high consumption of alcoholic beverages on a single occasion,” “involvement in fights,” “smoking cigarettes,” “carrying firearms,” and “marijuana consumption.” Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Results. Considering the results, it was observed that female adolescents and those aged up to 16 years were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviors compared to males and those aged 17 years or more, respectively. It was also found that both high- and middle-income level adolescents had higher prevalence of having two or more health risk behaviors. Conclusions. It was concluded that male adolescents older than 16 years with better socioeconomic level were more exposed to the simultaneous presence of several health risk behaviors.

  13. Why do perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others? The mediational effect of workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beek, Ilona

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others, but the mechanisms accounting for this association have rarely been examined. The present study proposes that workaholism mediates this relation, as previous research revealed that (a perfectionists are more likely to be workaholics than others, and (b workaholics have a higher burnout risk than others. Using cross-sectional data from 199 Dutch managers, regression analyses revealed that holding high standards towards oneself (a self-directed indicator of perfectionism was unrelated to any of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. However, high concern over making mistakes in the face of others (representing socially prescribed perfectionism was systematically associated with high levels of burnout and workaholism. Moreover, workaholism was positively associated with high levels of exhaustion. Subsequent mediation analysis revealed that the association between (the socially prescribed aspect of perfectionism and burnout (emotional exhaustion was mediated by workaholism.

  14. Pregnant Women in Sport Climbing - Is there a Higher Risk for Preterm Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastig, Jan; Hillebrandt, David; Rath, Werner; Küpper, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Sport climbing is a popular recreational sport with an increasing proportion of female athletes. International recommendations emphasize the physical and mental benefits of regular sport activity during any uncomplicated pregnancy. In this context, sport climbing is associated with a high risk potential.The aim of this study was to examine if there is a higher risk for preterm birth in active climbing athletes.Original manuscript.A retrospective self-report online survey in the German language collected data between September 2012 and November 2013. In addition to anthropometric and demographic data, data on climbing experience, preferred climbing discipline, skill level and changes of climbing habits during pregnancy, known risk factors for preterm birth and information on delivery and the newborn were requested. The rate of preterm birth of the survey was tested with Fisher's exact test with information from the German Federal Statistical Office.Sample size was 32. 72% had a university degree, 81% were primiparous, all were singleton pregnancies. A 33 rd questionnaire was excluded because of described preeclampsia. Age ranged between 21 and 39 years, climbing experience before pregnancy between 2 and 24 years, and skill level before pregnancy between 4 and 7 on the UIAA scale (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation). Half of the women climbed until the 36 th week and 90% adjusted their climbing habits mostly by reducing climbing difficulty and doing more top roping. 2 preterm births in the 36 th week of gestation were found (2 from 15, p=0.36). According to the data from the German Federal Statistical Office, 8.9% births in the year 2013 in Germany were preterm.This is the first study investigating the risk of preterm birth in recreational sport climbing athletes. No significantly higher proportion of preterm birth could be found. Limitations are small sample size and high social status of participants. What is known about the subject: Sport

  15. Kidneys at Higher Risk of Discard: Expanding the Role of Dual Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, B.; Mohan, S.; Cohen, D. J.; Radhakrishnan, J.; Nickolas, T. L.; Stone, P. W.; Tsapepas, D. S.; Crew, R. J.; Dube, G. K.; Sandoval, P. R.; Samstein, B.; Dogan, E.; Gaston, R. S.; Tanriover, J. N.; Ratner, L. E.; Hardy, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the recovered expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are discarded in the United States. A new kidney allocation system offers kidneys at higher risk of discard, Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) >85%, to a wider geographic area to promote broader sharing and expedite utilization. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) based on the KDPI is a potential option to streamline allocation of kidneys which otherwise would have been discarded. To assess the clinical utility of the KDPI in kidneys at higher risk of discard, we analyzed the OPTN/UNOS Registry that included the deceased donor kidneys recovered between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcomes were allograft survival, patient survival and discard rate based on different KDPI categories (90%). Kidneys with KDPI >90% were associated with increased odds of discard (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.74–2.29) compared to ones with KDPI 90% were associated with lower overall allograft failure (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.62–0.89) and better patient survival (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98) compared to single ECD kidneys with KDPI >90%. Kidneys at higher risk of discard may be offered in the up-front allocation system as a DKT. Further modeling and simulation studies are required to determine a reasonable KDPI cutoff percentile. PMID:24472195

  16. No higher risk for colorectal cancer in atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Sbrozzi-Vanni, Andrea; Vannella, Lucy; Corleto, Vito Domenico; Di Giulio, Emilio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Atrophic gastritis of the corporal mucosa is a frequent cause of hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia is implicated in colorectal cancer development. To assess whether hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is associated with a higher risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Among 441 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients, 160 who were aged >40 and underwent colonoscopy for anaemia, diarrhoea or colorectal cancer-screening were retrospectively selected. Each patient was age- and gender-matched with a normogastrinemic control with healthy stomach. Controls had colonoscopy, gastroscopy with biopsies and gastrin assessment. 160 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients and 160 controls were included. 28 atrophic gastritis patients and 36 controls had neoplastic colorectal lesions (p=0.33). Patients and controls did not differ for frequency of colorectal adenomas (10.6% vs. 13.1%, p=0.60) or cancer (6.9% vs. 9.4%, p=0.54). Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis was not associated with a higher probability of developing colorectal cancer (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.34-3.16). Age >50 years (OR 3.86) but not hypergastrinemia (OR 0.61) was associated with colorectal cancer. Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is not associated with higher risk for colorectal cancer. Atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia is not associated with an increased risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Closer surveillance of colonic neoplasia in atrophic gastritis patients seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer risk awareness and screening uptake in individuals at higher risk for colon cancer: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Delavari, Alireza; Barzin, Gilda; Amani, Mohammad; Majidi, Azam; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-12-20

    We aimed to measure cancer knowledge and feasibility of a screening colonoscopy among a cohort of individuals at higher risk of colon cancer. This study was conducted as part of an ongoing screening cohort, in which first degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colon cancer are invited to participate in a free of charge screening colonoscopy. We enrolled 1017 FDRs in the study between 2013 and 2014 measuring their data on demographics, cancer knowledge and colonoscopy uptake. A p value of aware of their increased risk for cancer, near 35.0% had ever heard about colonoscopy with 22% aware of the correct age to start screening. Comparing cancer knowledge of FDRs at high risk versus those at moderate risk, we recorded non-significant differences (p>0.05). Almost two-thirds of FDRs expressed willingness to undergo a colonoscopy and 49.2% completed the procedure, of which 12.8% had advanced neoplasm. Our data indicated that remarkable numbers of FDRs were not still informed of their cancer risk or never received a physician recommendation for screening. The desirable uptake at first invitation, which would be higher over successive invitations, supports the feasibility of a family-based recruitment approach for early screening. This has promising implications to introduce targeted screening colonoscopy into the healthcare system in Iran and other developing nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension predicts higher risk for mortality after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Javed; Stankewicz, Mark A; Wu, Jack; Chomsky, Don B; Howser, Renee L; Khadim, Ghazanfar; Davis, Stacy F; Pierson, Richard N; Wilson, John R

    2005-02-01

    Pre-transplant fixed pulmonary hypertension is associated with higher post-transplant mortality. In this study, we assessed the significance of pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Overall, we studied 182 patients with baseline normal pulmonary pressures or reversible pulmonary hypertension, defined as a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to 50 mm Hg had a higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR] 5.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 to 19.84 as compared with PAS 4.0 WU, but patients with TPG > or =16 had a higher risk of mortality (OR 4.93, 95% CI 1.84 to 13.17). PAS pressure was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06). Recipient body mass index, history of sternotomy; and donor ischemic time were the other independent predictors of mortality. Pre-transplant pulmonary hypertension, even when reversible to a PVR of < or =2.5 WU, is associated with a higher mortality post-transplant.

  19. Potential Explanatory Factors for Higher Incident Hip Fracture Risk in Older Diabetic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa S. Strotmeyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher fracture risk. Diabetes-related conditions may account for this risk. Cardiovascular Health Study participants (N=5641; 42.0% men; 15.5% black; 72.8±5.6 years were followed 10.9 ± 4.6 years. Diabetes was defined as hypoglycemic medication use or fasting glucose (FG ≥126 mg/dL. Peripheral artery disease (PAD was defined as ankle-arm index <0.9. Incident hip fractures were from medical records. Crude hip fracture rates (/1000 person-years were higher for diabetic vs. non-diabetic participants with BMI <25 (13.6, 95% CI: 8.9–20.2 versus 11.4, 95% CI: 10.1–12.9 and BMI ≥25 to <30 (8.3, 95% CI: 5.7–11.9 versus 6.6, 95% CI: 5.6–7.7, but similar for BMI ≥30. Adjusting for BMI, sex, race, and age, diabetes was related to fractures (HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.01–1.78. PAD (HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 0.92–1.57 and longer walk time (HR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04–1.10 modified the fracture risk in diabetes (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87–1.57. Diabetes was associated with higher hip fracture risk after adjusting for BMI though this association was modified by diabetes-related conditions.

  20. Geoinformation monitoring of the educational risk in educational institutions of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Kolesenkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect, received by a person and society from mastering the basic professional educational programs is problematic to quantify, which leads to the emergence of a risk that characterizes the quality of management decision-making procedures for implementing the educational process in higher education institutions in terms of the level of achievement of the set criteria and indicators.The aim of the work is the development of technology for monitoring of the educational risk based on the geoinformation approach and methods of data mining. Assessment of the educational risk can be implemented through monitoring the quality of the implementation of the main professional educational programs of the institution.Monitoring of the educational risk in the implementation of the educational process in institutions of higher education means the collection, cataloging, pre-processing, analysis and visualization of the data, aimed at improving the efficiency and quality of providing educational services. To accomplish this goal, the following methods and approaches are used: geoinformation approach, cluster analysis, probability theory, data classification methods, forecasting methods, forecasting, and data visualization technologies.The scientific and methodological aspects of the development of the methodical, informational and instrumental support of the educational risk management system in educational institutions of higher education are examined. According to the results of the work, it is revealed that the use of geoinformation technologies increases the efficiency of management by the collection automation, processing and analysis of data on the implementation of educational programs.Modern geoinformation technologies provide the opportunity to create and integrate a system that has innovative analytical functionality, and implements new effective technologies, methods and algorithms in the tasks of monitoring the educational programs. The use of

  1. Fire increases the risk of higher soil N2O emissions from Mediterranean Macchia ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Dannenmann, M.; Kitzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    on climate change. However, the potential importance of indirect GHG emissions due to changes in soil biological and chemical properties after fire is less well known. Increased soil mineral nitrogen (N) concentrations after fire pose a risk for increased emissions of gaseous N, but studies on the post......-fire N2O production and soil N turnover rates (mineralization, nitrification, microbial immobilization, denitrification) are still rare. We determined N2O production, rates of N turnover and pathways for N2O production from the soil of burned and unburned plots of a Macchia shrubland in central Spain...... using a 15N labelling approach. Measurements were initiated before the controlled burning and continued for up to half a year after fire. Fire markedly increased the risk of N2O emissions from soil through denitrification (N2O production rate was 3 to ≈30 times higher in burned soils compared to control...

  2. Cardiovascular risk and stress in employees of a higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Barbosa de Melo Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the association between high levels of stress and the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in employees of a higher education institution. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study with 201 employees of a university. A form containing socioeconomic data, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Work Stress Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the probability ratio and One-way analysis of variance tests. Results: worrisome frequencies of cardiovascular risk factors were identified, in which sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and increased abdominal circumference presented the most expressive indexes. Regarding the stressors evaluated, some of the employees had increased stress indexes, distributed between the medium and high levels. Conclusion: sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and increased abdominal circumference presented expressive high indexes, without statistically significant associations with the level of stress.

  3. Pregnant women carrying female fetuses are at higher risk of placental malaria infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishag Adam

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of the placental malaria is not fully understood. If there is a fetal sex-specific susceptibility to malaria infection, this might add to the previous knowledge on the immunology, endocrinology and pathophysiology of placental malaria infections.This study was conducted to assess whether the sex of the fetus was associated with placental malaria infections.A cross-sectional study was performed including a secondary analysis of a cohort of women who were investigated for prevalence and risk factors (including fetal sex for placental malaria in eastern Sudan. Placental histology was used to diagnose placental malaria infections.Among 339 women enrolled, the mean (SD age was 25.8 (6.7 years and parity was 2.7 (2.2. Among the new born babies, 157 (46.3% were male and 182 (53.7% were female. Five (1.5%, 9 (2.7% and 103 (30.4% of the 339 placentas had active, active-chronic, past-chronic malaria infection on histopathology examination respectively, while 222 (65.5% of them showed no malaria infection. Logistic regression analyses showed no associations between maternal age or parity and placental malaria infections. Women who have blood group O (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.19-3.10; P = 0.007 and women who had female new born were at higher risk for placental malaria infections (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.57-4.13; P< 0.001.Fetal gender may be a novel risk factor for placental malaria. In this work the female placentas were at higher risk for malaria infections than the male placentas.

  4. Low External Workloads Are Related to Higher Injury Risk in Professional Male Basketball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Caparrós, Martí Casals, Álvaro Solana, Javier Peña

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for sports injuries in professional basketball. An observational retrospective cohort study involving a male professional basketball team, using game tracking data was conducted during three consecutive seasons. Thirty-three professional basketball players took part in this study. A total of 29 time-loss injuries were recorded during regular season games, accounting for 244 total missed games with a mean of 16.26 ± 15.21 per player and season. The tracking data included the following variables: minutes played, physiological load, physiological intensity, mechanical load, mechanical intensity, distance covered, walking maximal speed, maximal speed, sprinting maximal speed, maximal speed, average offensive speed, average defensive speed, level one acceleration, level two acceleration, level three acceleration, level four acceleration, level one deceleration, level two deceleration, level three deceleration, level four deceleration, player efficiency rating and usage percentage. The influence of demographic characteristics, tracking data and performance factors on the risk of injury was investigated using multivariate analysis with their incidence rate ratios (IRRs. Athletes with less or equal than 3 decelerations per game (IRR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.78-10.6 and those running less or equal than 1.3 miles per game (lower workload (IRR, 6.42 ; 95% CI, 2.52-16.3 had a higher risk of injury during games (p < 0.01 in both cases. Therefore, unloaded players have a higher risk of injury. Adequate management of training loads might be a relevant factor to reduce the likelihood of injury according to individual profiles.

  5. Risk and Threat via Online Social Network among Academia at Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker Hussain, Hanizan; Din, Roshidi; Zulkarnaen Khidzir, Nik; Azhar Mat Daud, Khairul; Ahmad, Suzastri

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of information and communication technologies (ICT) nowadays has changed the life style of human living. The current modern societies have adopted ICT as an important thing that they are really needed in their life, especially as a tool to be used for communications activity. However, unfortunately ICT also exposed its user in circumstances of risk, threats and vulnerability. This paper will discuss the risk and threats to the users who are using social media as a medium to communicate. In this paper, the fraction of user will be divided by two types which are gender and working experience. The data that obtained from the distributed of questionnaires among respondent will be analysed by using SPSS. Data will be analysed by using two-way ANOVA statistic in order to examine the significant level in between gender and working experience as an independent variable in this study with the level of threats in cybersecurity risk towards lecturers who are working in higher education institutions in Malaysia. This article also will provide an empirical data and will be referred to another researcher in the future for their further research perhaps.

  6. Does Smoking History Confer a Higher Risk for Reconstructive Complications in Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jordan D; Alperovich, Michael; Levine, Jamie P; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2017-07-01

    History of smoking has been implicated as a risk factor for reconstructive complications in nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), however there have been no direct analyses of outcomes in smokers and nonsmokers. All patients undergoing NSM at New York University Langone Medical Center from 2006 to 2014 were identified. Outcomes were compared for those with and without a smoking history and stratified by pack-year smoking history and years-to-quitting (YTQ). A total of 543 nipple-sparing mastectomies were performed from 2006 to 2014 with a total of 49 in patients with a history of smoking. Reconstructive outcomes in NSM between those with and without a smoking history were equivalent. Those with a smoking history were not significantly more likely to have mastectomy flap necrosis (p = 0.6251), partial (p = 0.8564), or complete (p = 0.3365) nipple-areola complex (NAC) necrosis. Likewise, active smokers alone did not have a higher risk of complications compared to nonsmokers or those with smoking history. Comparing nonsmokers and those with a less or greater than 10 pack-year smoking history, those with a > 10 pack-year history had significantly more complete NAC necrosis (p = 0.0114, smoking history or >5 YTQ prior to NSM were equivalent to those without a smoking history. We demonstrate that NSM may be safely offered to those with a smoking history although a > 10 pack-year smoking history or <5 YTQ prior to NSM may impart a higher risk of reconstructive complications, including complete NAC necrosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Kyoung Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort, which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES. A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. RESULTS: We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80(th percentile value of cIMT (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009, and especially in elderly men (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021. We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. CONCLUSIONS: Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk.

  8. Gender inequality in the risk of violence: material deprivation is linked to higher risk for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Inas; Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Jones, Sarah; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the association between material deprivation and injury sustained in violence by adolescents aged 11-17 years. Computerised data relating to gender, attendance date and resident postcode of all patients aged 11-17 years who received treatment for violence-related injuries at seven emergency departments (ED) in South Wales over 12 months, 1 October 2005 to 30 September 2006, were studied. The resident populations, by electoral division of three unitary authorities in Wales, Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, were obtained from the NHS administrative register. The relationships between demographic variables and material deprivation as measured by the Townsend deprivation index were analysed. Altogether 699 (475 boys; 224 girls) adolescents aged 11-17 years resident in Cardiff, Swansea and Newport attended ED in South Wales following violence. Boys and girls living in the most deprived areas had higher assault injury rates compared with those living in the most affluent areas. In the context of sustaining violence-related injury, material deprivation affected girls aged 11-17 years to a much greater extent (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 6.31, Swansea 10.11, Newport 2.90) than boys of the same age group (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 2.02, Swansea 7.74, Newport 1.74). Material deprivation was associated with a higher risk of violence-related injury for adolescent girls compared with adolescent boys. Risk-taking behaviour for adolescent boys and girls may be different under different socioeconomic conditions. Violence prevention efforts should focus more on tackling neighbourhood inequalities, particularly those related to material deprivation in adolescent girls.

  9. MZC Gel Inhibits SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in Macaque Vaginal Mucosa and SHIV-RT in Rectal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Giulia; Villegas, Guillermo; Barnable, Patrick; Litterst, Claudia; Levendosky, Keith; Gettie, Agegnehu; Cooney, Michael L; Blanchard, James; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    The Population Council's microbicide gel MZC (also known as PC-1005) containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) has shown promise as a broad-spectrum microbicide against HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human papillomavirus. Previous data show antiviral activity against these viruses in cell-based assays, prevention of vaginal and rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection, and reduction of vaginal HSV shedding in rhesus macaques and also excellent antiviral activity against HSV and human papillomavirus in murine models. Recently, we demonstrated that MZC is safe and effective against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. Here we established models of ex vivo SHIV-RT/HSV-2 coinfection of vaginal mucosa and SHIV-RT infection of rectal mucosa in macaques (challenge of rectal mucosa with HSV-2 did not result in reproducible tissue infection), evaluated antiviral activity of MZC, and compared quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay readouts for monitoring SHIV-RT infection. MZC (at nontoxic dilutions) significantly inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal and rectal mucosas and HSV-2 in vaginal mucosa when present during viral challenge. Analysis of SHIV-RT infection and MZC activity by 1-step simian immunodeficiency virus gag quantitative RT-PCR and p27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated similar virus growth dynamics and MZC activity by both methods and higher sensitivity of quantitative RT-PCR. Our data provide more evidence that MZC is a promising dual compartment multipurpose prevention technology candidate.

  10. Depression with melancholic features is associated with higher long-term risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões do Couto, Frederico; Lunet, Nuno; Ginó, Sandra; Chester, Catarina; Freitas, Vanda; Maruta, Carolina; Figueira, Maria Luísa; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-09-15

    Depression has been reported to increase the risk of subsequently developing dementia, but the nature of this relation remains to be elucidated. Depression can be a prodrome/manifestation of dementia or an early risk factor, and the effect may differ according to depression subtypes. Our aim was to study the association between early-onset depression and different depression subtypes, and the later occurrence of dementia. We conducted a cohort study including 322 subjects with depression, recruited between 1977 and 1984. A comparison cohort (non-exposed) was recruited retrospectively, to include 322 subjects admitted at the same hospital for routine surgery (appendicectomy or cholecystectomy), at the same period as the depressed cohort. Subjects were contacted again between 2009 and 2014, to assess their dementia status. We computed the risk for dementia in subjects with early onset depression and quantified the association between different depression subtypes (namely melancholic, anxious, and psychotic) and dementia. The odds of dementia were increased by 2.90 times (95% C.I. 1.61-5.21; pdepressed cohort when compared to the surgical cohort. When the analysis was restricted to patients younger than 45 years old at baseline, the odds for dementia in the depressed cohort were also significantly higher when compared to the surgical cohort (8.53; 95% C.I. 2.40-30.16). In the multivariate Cox analysis, subjects having depression with melancholic features had an increased risk for developing dementia compared to those without melancholic features (HR=3.64; 95% C.I. 1.78-11.26; p=0.025). About 59% of the participants with depression and 53% of those non-exposed were lost during follow up. The inclusion of biological biomarkers would strengthen the results. The sample included a low number of bipolar patients. These results support depression as an early risk factor for dementia. Depression with melancholic features was found as an important risk factor for dementia

  11. Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Li, Ping; Zhu, Yufeng; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Visceral fat area (VFA), a novel sex-specific index for visceral fat obesity (VFO) might play a major role in the development of vitamin D deficiency. However, the association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Chinese men and women. This cross-sectional study involved 1105 adults aged 20-70 years living in Tianjin who were randomly selected and medically examined. All subjects underwent the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method to estimate the VFA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH) D3) level was assayed by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and defined insufficiency and deficiency following recommended cutoffs. The association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was estimated using binary regression analysis. The total prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH) D3: 20-29 μg/L) and deficiency (25(OH) D3  0.05). Moreover, increased VFA was observed to be associated with higher vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency risk with a positive dose-response trend (P for trend convenience surrogate marker for visceral adipose measurement and could be used in identifying the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in routine health examination.

  12. Hyperthermic Fibrinolysis with rt-PA: In Vitro Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenberg, Helmut; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Brossman, Joachim; Christian Glueer, Claus; Bruhn, Hans Dieter; Heller, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of hyperthermia up to 45 deg. C on fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods: Standardized fibrin clots were incubated in a water bath for 5 hr with either rt-PA (test group) or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group) and blood plasma at temperatures of 30-45 deg. C. Concentrations of D-dimer and time to complete clot lysis were measured.Results: The activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA rose with increasing temperature: time to lysis approximately halved from 30 deg. C to 40 deg. C and the concentration of D-dimer tripled. In the control group clot size did not change.Conclusions: Activity of rt-PA-induced fibrinolysis rises distinctly with higher temperatures. Since even healthy subjects show a physiologic decline in body temperature in the extremities, in patients with occlusive arterial disease decreased activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA can be expected. Controlled hyperthermia may improve fibrinolysis with rt-PA and should be investigated in vivo

  13. Mamma diagnostics for MTRA (medical-radiological personnel)/RT (radiologists); Mammadiagnostik fuer MTRA/RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-07-01

    The text book on mamma diagnostics for MTRA (medical-radiological personnel)/RT (radiologists) covers the following issues: Anatomy, development and physiology of mammary glands; tumor development an breast cancer risk; pathology, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography: physical-technical fundamentals; mammography: analogue technique; mammography: digital technique; mammography: quality assurance; mammography: legal questions and radiation protection; mammography: new developments; mammography: setting technique; mammography: use and appraisal; mamma-sonography: technique and methodology; mamma-sonography: assignment and appraisal, mamma-NMR: technique and methodology; mamma-NMR: assignment and appraisal lymph node diagnostics; mamma interventions; biopsy; mamma interventions: marking examination concepts; therapeutic concepts; hygienic concepts; communication and interaction.

  14. Higher Fluid Balance Increases the Risk of Death From Sepsis: Results From a Large International Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Yasser; Rubatto Birri, Paolo Nahuel; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Nanchal, Rahul; Shah, Bhagyesh; Kluge, Stefan; Schroeder, Mary E; Marshall, John C; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-03-01

    Excessive fluid therapy in patients with sepsis may be associated with risks that outweigh any benefit. We investigated the possible influence of early fluid balance on outcome in a large international database of ICU patients with sepsis. Observational cohort study. Seven hundred and thirty ICUs in 84 countries. All adult patients admitted between May 8 and May 18, 2012, except admissions for routine postoperative surveillance. For this analysis, we included only the 1,808 patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis. Patients were stratified according to quartiles of cumulative fluid balance 24 hours and 3 days after ICU admission. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 27.6% and 37.3%, respectively. The cumulative fluid balance increased from 1,217 mL (-90 to 2,783 mL) in the first 24 hours after ICU admission to 1,794 mL (-951 to 5,108 mL) on day 3 and decreased thereafter. The cumulative fluid intake was similar in survivors and nonsurvivors, but fluid balance was less positive in survivors because of higher fluid output in these patients. Fluid balances became negative after the third ICU day in survivors but remained positive in nonsurvivors. After adjustment for possible confounders in multivariable analysis, the 24-hour cumulative fluid balance was not associated with an increased hazard of 28-day in-hospital death. However, there was a stepwise increase in the hazard of death with higher quartiles of 3-day cumulative fluid balance in the whole population and after stratification according to the presence of septic shock. In this large cohort of patients with sepsis, higher cumulative fluid balance at day 3 but not in the first 24 hours after ICU admission was independently associated with an increase in the hazard of death.

  15. Adult Arabs have higher risk for diabetes mellitus than Jews in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anat; Giveon, Shmuel; Wulffhart, Liat; Oberman, Bernice; Baidousi, Maslama; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an emerging epidemic in the Arab world. Although high diabetes prevalence is documented in Israeli Arabs, information from cohort studies is scant. This is a population study, based on information derived between 2007-2011, from the electronic database of the largest health fund in Israel, among Arabs and Jews. Prevalence, 4-year-incidence and diabetes hazard ratios [HRs], adjusted for sex and the metabolic-syndrome [MetS]-components, were determined in 3 age groups (Arabs (males: 49%, age: 39.4±17.3) and 16,012 Jews (males: 50%, age: 40.5 ±17.6). The overall age and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence rates were much higher among Arabs 18.4% (95%CI: 17.6-19.1); and 10.3% (95%CI: 9.7-10.9) among Jews. Arab females had higher prevalence rates 20.0% (95%CI: 19-21) than Arab males 16.7% (95%CI: 15.7-17.8). Annual incidence rates were also significantly higher among Arabs 2.9% (95%CI: 2.7-3.1) than among Jews 1.7% (95%CI: 1.6-1.8). This held true across all age and sex subgroups. Adjustment for body mass index [BMI] attenuated HR estimates associated with Arab ethnicity across all age subgroups, mainly in the Arabs than Jews. Males, however, did not differ by ethnicity. Arabs, mainly female, have high incidence and prevalence of diabetes. This excess risk is only partially explained by the high prevalence of obesity. Effective culturally-congruent diabetes prevention and treatment and an effective engagement partnership with the Arab community are of paramount need.

  16. Adult Arabs have higher risk for diabetes mellitus than Jews in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Jaffe

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an emerging epidemic in the Arab world. Although high diabetes prevalence is documented in Israeli Arabs, information from cohort studies is scant.This is a population study, based on information derived between 2007-2011, from the electronic database of the largest health fund in Israel, among Arabs and Jews. Prevalence, 4-year-incidence and diabetes hazard ratios [HRs], adjusted for sex and the metabolic-syndrome [MetS]-components, were determined in 3 age groups (<50 years, 50-59 years, and ≥60 years.The study cohort included 17,044 Arabs (males: 49%, age: 39.4±17.3 and 16,012 Jews (males: 50%, age: 40.5 ±17.6. The overall age and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence rates were much higher among Arabs 18.4% (95%CI: 17.6-19.1; and 10.3% (95%CI: 9.7-10.9 among Jews. Arab females had higher prevalence rates 20.0% (95%CI: 19-21 than Arab males 16.7% (95%CI: 15.7-17.8. Annual incidence rates were also significantly higher among Arabs 2.9% (95%CI: 2.7-3.1 than among Jews 1.7% (95%CI: 1.6-1.8. This held true across all age and sex subgroups. Adjustment for body mass index [BMI] attenuated HR estimates associated with Arab ethnicity across all age subgroups, mainly in the <50yrs age group from HR 2.04 (95%CI: 1.74-2.40 to 1.64 (95%CI: 1.40-1.92. BMI at incident diabetes among females was higher in Arabs than Jews. Males, however, did not differ by ethnicity.Arabs, mainly female, have high incidence and prevalence of diabetes. This excess risk is only partially explained by the high prevalence of obesity. Effective culturally-congruent diabetes prevention and treatment and an effective engagement partnership with the Arab community are of paramount need.

  17. Interim data monitoring to enroll higher-risk participants in HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umo-Otong John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-than-expected incidence of HIV undermines sample size calculations and compromises the power of a HIV prevention trial. We evaluated the effectiveness of interim monitoring of HIV infection rates and on-going modification of recruitment strategies to enroll women at higher risk of HIV in the Cellulose Sulfate Phase III study in Nigeria. Methods We analyzed prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, demographic and sexual behavior characteristics aggregated over the treatment groups on a quarterly basis. The site investigators were advised on their recruitment strategies based on the findings of the interim analyses. Results A total of 3619 women were screened and 1644 enrolled at the Ikeja and Apapa clinics in Lagos, and at the Central and Peripheral clinics in Port Harcourt. Twelve months after study initiation, the overall incidence of HIV was less than one-third of the pre-study assumption, with rates of HIV that varied substantially between clinics. Due to the low prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, it was decided to close the Ikeja clinic in Lagos and to find new catchment areas in Port Harcourt. This strategy was associated with an almost two-fold increase in observed HIV incidence during the second year of the study. Conclusion Given the difficulties in estimating HIV incidence, a close monitoring of HIV prevalence and incidence rates during a trial is warranted. The on-going modification of recruitment strategies based on the regular analysis of HIV rates appeared to be an efficient method for targeting populations at greatest risk of HIV infection and increasing study power in the Nigeria trial. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov registry under #NCT00120770 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00120770

  18. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date). We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group (p-value <0.001). Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03) than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79) and stroke (OR=1.56). Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:28496397

  19. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob, Louis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date. We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03 than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79 and stroke (OR=1.56. Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders.

  20. Higher tier field research in ecological risk assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    A newly developed basic procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment in The Netherlands was followed in practice for the first time. In line with conventional Triade approaches, the procedure includes multidisciplinary parameters from environmental chemistry, toxicology and ecology to provide multiple weight of evidence. However, land use at the contaminated site and its vicinity is given more importance, and research parameters are selected in accordance to specific objectives for land use in order to test for harmful effects to underlying ecosystem services. Moreover, the approach is characterized by repetitive interactions between stakeholders and researching consultants, in particular with respect to the choice of parameters and criteria to assess the results. The approach was followed in an ecological risk assessment to test the assumptions underlying a soil management plant for a rural area in The Netherlands, called 'Krimpenerwaard'. Throughout this region some 5000 polder ditches have been filled with waste materials originating from local households, waterway sludge, industrial wastes, car shredders, and more. Several sites are severely polluted by heavy metals, cyanide, PAH or chlorinated hydrocarbons and require remediation or clean up. However, the exact distribution of these wastes over the entire region is scarcely known, and the Krimpenerwaard as a whole is treated as one case of serious soil pollution. A soil management plan was constructed by 13 stakeholding parties, aiming for a 'functional clean up' in view of land use, by means of covering 'suspected' categories of wastes with a 30-cm layer of local type soil. The ecological risk assessment aims to verify the assumptions in the soil management plan regarding the prevention of possible undesirable effects induced by the various waste materials. A tiered approach is followed, including a screening for bioavailable contaminants, a testing for general effects

  1. ON THE EMPIRICAL FINDING OF A HIGHER RISK OF POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS: IS RURAL RESIDENCE ENDOGENOUS TO POVERTY?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica G.

    2004-01-01

    Includes: On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?:COMMENT, by Thomas A. Hirschl; On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?: REPLY, by Monica Fisher. Research shows people are more likely to be poor in rural versus urban America. Does this phenomenon partly reflect that people who choose rural residence have unmeasured attributes related to human impoveris...

  2. High nutrition risk is associated with higher risk of dysphagia in advanced age adults newly admitted to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popman, Amy; Richter, Marilize; Allen, Jacqueline; Wham, Carol

    2018-02-01

    To establish the prevalence of nutrition risk and associated risk factors among adults of advanced age newly admitted to hospital. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in adults aged over 85 years admitted to one of two hospital wards in Auckland within the previous 5 days. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to establish participant's socio-demographic and health characteristics. Markers of body composition and muscle strength were collected. Nutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), dysphagia risk using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and level of cognition using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A total of 88 participants with a mean age of 90.0 ± 3.7 years completed the assessments. A third (28.4%) of the participants were categorised by the MNA-SF as malnourished and 43.2% were classified at risk of malnutrition. A third (29.5%) were at risk of dysphagia as assessed by EAT-10. Malnourished participants were more likely to be at risk of dysphagia (P = 0.015). The MNA-SF score was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.484, P strength (r = 0.250, P = 0.026) and negatively correlated with risk of dysphagia (r = -0.383, P strength and negatively correlated with dysphagia risk. Findings highlight the importance of screening for dysphagia risk, especially in those identified to be malnourished or at nutrition risk. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  3. Higher relative, but lower absolute risks of myocardial infarction in women than in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J; Ahlbom, A

    1999-01-01

    Middle-aged men have often been the subjects of multifactorial studies of myocardial infarction (MI) risk factors. One major objective of the SHEEP study was to compare the effects of different MI risk factors in women and men.......Middle-aged men have often been the subjects of multifactorial studies of myocardial infarction (MI) risk factors. One major objective of the SHEEP study was to compare the effects of different MI risk factors in women and men....

  4. Soft-Rt: software for IMRT simulations based on MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira F, T. C.; Campos, T.

    2015-10-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment technique, widely used in external radiotherapy. This paper presents the Soft-Rt which allows the simulation of an entire IMRT treatment protocol. The Soft-Rt performs a full three-dimensional rendering of a set of patient images, including the definitions of region of interest with organs in risk, and the target tumor volume and margins (PTV). Thus, a more accurate analysis and planning can be performed, taking into account the features and orientation of the radiation beams. The exposed tissues as well as the amount of absorbed dose is depicted in healthy and/or cancerous tissues. As conclusion, Soft-Rt can predict dose on the PTV accurately, preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Soft-Rt is coupled with SISCODES code. The SISCODES code is firstly applied to segment the set of CT or MRI patient images in distinct tissues pointing out its respective density and chemical compositions. Later, the voxel model is export to the Soft-Rt IMRT planning module in which a full treatment planning is created. All geometrical parameters are sent to the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code - MCNP - to simulate the interaction of each incident beam towards to the PTV avoiding organs in risk. The normalized dose results are exported to the Soft-Rt out-module, in which the three-dimensional model visualization is shown in a transparent glass procedure adopting gray scale for the dependence on the mass density of the correlated tissue; while, a color scale to depict dose values in a superimpose protocol. (Author)

  5. Soft-Rt: software for IMRT simulations based on MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira F, T. C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Campos, T., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment technique, widely used in external radiotherapy. This paper presents the Soft-Rt which allows the simulation of an entire IMRT treatment protocol. The Soft-Rt performs a full three-dimensional rendering of a set of patient images, including the definitions of region of interest with organs in risk, and the target tumor volume and margins (PTV). Thus, a more accurate analysis and planning can be performed, taking into account the features and orientation of the radiation beams. The exposed tissues as well as the amount of absorbed dose is depicted in healthy and/or cancerous tissues. As conclusion, Soft-Rt can predict dose on the PTV accurately, preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Soft-Rt is coupled with SISCODES code. The SISCODES code is firstly applied to segment the set of CT or MRI patient images in distinct tissues pointing out its respective density and chemical compositions. Later, the voxel model is export to the Soft-Rt IMRT planning module in which a full treatment planning is created. All geometrical parameters are sent to the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code - MCNP - to simulate the interaction of each incident beam towards to the PTV avoiding organs in risk. The normalized dose results are exported to the Soft-Rt out-module, in which the three-dimensional model visualization is shown in a transparent glass procedure adopting gray scale for the dependence on the mass density of the correlated tissue; while, a color scale to depict dose values in a superimpose protocol. (Author)

  6. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-01-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m"2) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m"2) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m"2", p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

  8. Longitudinal AddiQoL scores may identify higher risk for adrenal crises in Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gesine; Koch, Maike; Herrmann, Eva; Bojunga, Jörg; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced quality of life (QoL) in patients with Addison's disease (AD), but investigations of QoL over a long-term course are lacking. Adrenal crises (AC) are life-threatening complications in AD. The purpose of this prospective study was to test whether the repeated use of QoL-questionnaires can detect prodromal periods of an AC. 110 patients with AD were asked to complete the disease specific-QoL questionnaire AddiQoL and a short questionnaire about adverse events once monthly over a period of ten months. AC was defined if at least two of the following symptoms were reported: (a) hypotension, (b) nausea or vomiting, (c) severe fatigue, (d) documented hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, or hypoglycemia, and subsequent parenteral glucocorticoid administration was carried out. Prevalence of AC was 10.9/100 patient years. AddiQoL scores in patients with AC showed a trend (p = 0,08) to a wider fluctuation over time. Subjective precrises not meeting the criteria for AC were reported by 31 patients who had significantly lower AddiQoL scores (p = 0,018). These are the first data showing the course of QoL during a period of ten months in patients with AD. Incidence of AC exceeds previous data. Our data show, that subjective precrises in AD associate with lower QoL. AC, as well as precrises affect intraindividual AddiQol-scores over time with a trend to a stronger fluctuation. Longitudinal AddiQol scores and self-reporting of precrises via patient diaries are additional clinical tools to identify higher risk for critical events.

  9. Managing Reputation Risk and Situational Crisis in Higher Institutions of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem Ita Effiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on crisis and corporate reputation management has presented the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT model as a valid and reliable framework for managing crisis and predicting stakeholders’perceptions of organizations’ reputation in times of crisis. In order to verifythe applicability of the model in higher institutions of learning in adeveloping country context, a study was conducted in September, 2011 in twopublic universities in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed thatalthough the institutions did not fully implement the core tenets of SCCT, thestrategies adopted in each of the two crisis situations were similar to some ofthe recommendations of the SCCT in different ways. While one institutionfocused on a strategy similar to what the SCCT model describes as “rebuildcrisis response strategy” with informing and adjusting tactics, the secondinstitution utilized a victimization or “Victimage” strategy with strongattribution of blames; and frequent reminder of the stakeholders of the extentof losses that the institution would incur from the crisis. The outcome wasthat the institution with high emphasis on rebuilding and informationadjustment strategy recorded very little damage to its reputation capital, duringand after the crises. Conversely, the second institution which believed invictimization and high attribution recorded significant losses in reputation assets,which included withdrawal of key stakeholders and loss of recognition ofprograms by some professional agencies. The implication for crisis managers in thetwo institutions includes the need to always approach situational crises in aholistic manner. Such holistic approach would involve a refocus, critical analysis,planning and implementation of crisis response strategies based on the relevantsituations, events, and the people concerned. The research was designed as acase study with focus group discussions as the data collection method

  10. Transracial Mothering and Maltreatment: Are Black/White Biracial Children at Higher Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Rachel A.; Rautkis, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of people identifying as biracial is rapidly growing, though little is known about the experiences of interracial families. Previous work indicates that biracial children may be at elevated risk of entering the child welfare system. This could underscore additional risks faced by these families. This document includes data from the…

  11. Large Critical Shoulder Angle Has Higher Risk of Tendon Retear After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Yuzhou; Chen, Jiwu; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Shiyi

    2018-05-01

    Los Angeles, Constant, and visual analog scale scores. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the large CSA group had 9 cases of retear, with a significantly higher retear rate than the control group (15% vs 0%, P = .03). Furthermore, the tendon SNQ of the large CSA group was significantly greater than that of the control group. CSA did not appear to influence postoperative functional outcomes, while those in the large CSA group had poor tendon integrity after rotator cuff repair. These findings indicate that a large CSA is associated with an increased risk of rotator cuff tendon retear after repair.

  12. Superior sulcus non-small cell lung carcinoma: A comparison of IMRT and 3D-RT dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Pierre; Antoni, Delphine; Santelmo, Nicola; Schumacher, Catherine; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quoix, Elisabeth; Massard, Gilbert; Noël, Georges

    2016-01-01

    A dosimetric study comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by TomoTherapy to conformational 3D radiotherapy (3D-RT) in patients with superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). IMRT became the main technique in modern radiotherapy. However it was not currently used for lung cancers. Because of the need to increase the dose to control lung cancers but because of the critical organs surrounding the tumors, the gains obtainable with IMRT is not still demonstrated. A dosimetric comparison of the planned target and organs at risk parameters between IMRT and 3D-RT in eight patients who received preoperative or curative intent irradiation. In the patients who received at least 66 Gy, the mean V95% was significantly better with IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043). IMRT delivered a lower D2% compared to 3D-RT (p = 0.043). The IH was significantly better with IMRT (p = 0.043). The lung V 5 Gy and V 13 Gy were significantly higher in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043), while the maximal dose (D max) to the spinal cord was significantly lower in IMRT (p = 0.043). The brachial plexus D max was significantly lower in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.048). For patients treated with 46 Gy, no significant differences were found. Our study showed that IMRT is relevant for SS-NSCLC. In patients treated with a curative dose, it led to a reduction of the exposure of critical organs, allowing a better dose distribution in the tumor. For the patients treated with a preoperative schedule, our results provide a basis for future controlled trials to improve the histological complete response by increasing the radiation dose.

  13. Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black MSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.

  14. Higher Education Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Dementia after a Stroke or TIA. The Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Portegies, Marileen L P; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, 12,561 participants free of stroke, TIA and dementia were followed for occurrence of stroke, TIA and dementia. Across the levels of education, associations of incident stroke or TIA with subsequent development of dementia and differences in cognitive decline following stroke or TIA were investigated. During 124,862 person-years, 1,463 persons suffered a stroke or TIA, 1,158 persons developed dementia, of whom 186 developed dementia after stroke or TIA. Risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA, compared to no stroke or TIA, was highest in the low education category (hazards ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.81) followed by intermediate education category (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81). No significant association was observed in the high education category (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.25-1.54). In gender stratified analyses, decrease in risk of dementia with increasing education was significant only in men. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after stroke or TIA, particularly in men, which might be explained by a higher cognitive reserve. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Study on the Image Quality Comparison between in Digital RT and Film RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Ki; Ahn, Yean Shik; Gil, Doo Song

    2011-01-01

    Conventional film radiographic test has been generally and widely used in the inspection on the weldment for quality assurance. On the other hand, since the analog RT is well known for typical time and cost consuming method with complex process of inspection, the industry has researched various ways how to improve radiographic test technology. In this study, we verified the fact that digital RT provides a lot more benefit in effectively detecting defects, ever film details, through digital processing of image enhancement, compared to film RT. As a result, we reached conclusion that digital RT is positively able to replace the film RT in industry in part or in whole

  16. Higher Risk of Abdominal Obesity, Elevated LDL Cholesterol and Hypertriglyceridemia, but not of Hypertension, in People Living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Afzal, Shoaib; Lundgren, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL...... and underwent blood pressure, waist-, hip-, weight-, and height-measurements. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants. We assessed whether HIV was independently associated with abdominal obesity, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension using logistic regression models...... adjusted for known risk factors. Results: HIV infection was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.92[1.60-2.30]) for a given BMI, elevated LDL-C (aOR: 1.32[1.09-1.59]), hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 1.76[1.49-2.08]), and lower risk of hypertension (aOR: 0.63[0.54 - 0...

  17. Node Ranking Tool - NoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    NoRT) that was developed as part of the Applied Network Science 6.2 base program work unit at NRL, Code 5580. We explain the theory of NoRT and how...to use it. 23-03-2018 Memorandum Report TOPSIS, Social Network, Sensor Network, Centrality, Diffusion, Disease, Virus, Expectation , Pandemic...base program work unit at NRL. We explain the theory of NoRT and how to use it. Index Terms TOPSIS, Social Network, Sensor Network, Centrality, Diffusion

  18. Optimal dietary calcium intake in HIV treated patients: no femoral osteoporosis but higher cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Laura; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Deborah; Salpietro, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gianotti, Nicola; Bigoloni, Alba; Vinci, Concetta; Mignogna, Giovanna; Sirtori, Marcella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2014-04-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk score. 200 HIV-infected patients evaluated: 171 (86%) males with a median age of 48.1 (42.3-53.8) years and 10.6 (4.3-13.6) years of HAART exposure. DCI was 889 (589-1308) mg/day and 79 (40%) patients had an optimal DCI. Framingham risk>20% was found in 13 (6.7%) patients and femoral OP was diagnosed in 12 (6%) pts. By multivariate analysis, optimal DCI was more likely in patients with a Framingham risk>20% [OR = 5.547, 95% CI:1.337, p = 0.025] and less likely in patients with femoral osteoporosis [OR = 0.159, 95% CI: 0.018-0.790, p = 0.047]. We found that an optimal dietary calcium intake was more likely in patients with high cardiovascular risk and no femoral osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. [Association of T174M polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene with the higher risk of cerebral stroke in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetskaia, T A; Bushueva, O Iu; Bulgakova, I V; Vialykh, E K; Shuteeva, T V; Biriukov, A E; Ivanov, V P; Polonikov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To study the association of M235T (rs699) and T174M (rs4762) polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene with the risk of cerebral stroke (CS) in the Russians of the Central Chernozem Region. A total of 638 DNA samples obtained from 353 patients with CS and 285 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals were examined. The polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (T174M) and TaqMan allelic discrimination (M235T) assays. Heterozygous AGT 174TM genotype carriers were found to be at a higher risk for CS (odd ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-2.15; p = 0.02). A gender-stratified analysis showed that the mutant 174M allele (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.14-3.03, p = 0.01) and variant 174TM and 174MM genotypes (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.09-3.20; p = 0.02) were associated with the higher risk of cerebral stroke in women. The association of AGT T174M polymorphism with the risk of CS was first found; but the higher risk of the disease in the carriers of variant alleles and genotypes was observed in the women only.

  20. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  1. rt: Berliner Messe / Rob Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Berliner Messe. The Beatitudes. Annum per Annum. Magnificat. Seven Magnificat Antiphons. De profundis. Polyphony / Steven Layton with Andrew Lucas" Hyperion CDA66960 (74 minutes:DDD)

  2. Arvo Pärt. Litany / Peter Korfmacher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korfmacher, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo. Litany; Psalom; Trisagion. Hilliard Ensemble, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Tõnu Kaljuste"; Lithuanian Chamber Orchestra, Saulius Sondeckis. ECM 1592/449 810-2

  3. rt: Fratres / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Fratres (seven versions). Festina Lente. Cantus in Memory of Benjamin Britten. Summa. Peter Manning (vn.), France Springuel (vc.), Mireille Gleizes (pf.), I Fiamminghi. Telare CD CD80387 (79 minutes)

  4. Heavy Smoking Is Associated With Lower Age at First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis and a Higher Risk of Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munigala, Satish; Conwell, Darwin L; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

    2015-08-01

    There is limited data on cigarette smoking and the risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). We evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking on AP risk and clinical presentation in a large cohort of Veteran's Administration (VA) patients. Retrospective study of VA patients from 1998 to 2007. Exclusion criteria included (1) history of chronic pancreatitis (n = 3222) or gallstones (n = 14,574) and (2) age younger than 15 years (n = 270). A 2-year washout period was used to exclude patients with pre-existing recurrent AP. The study included 484,624 patients. From 2001 to 2007, a total of 6799 (1.4%) patients had AP. Alcohol (risk ratio, 4.20) and smoking (risk ratio, 1.78) were independent significant risk factors of AP on multiple regression analysis. Smoking increased the risk of AP in both nonalcoholics (0.57% vs 1.1%) and alcoholics (2.6% vs 4.1%). Smoking was associated with younger mean age at first episode of AP and higher likelihood of recurrent AP (≥4 episodes) in both nonalcoholics and alcoholics. The interval between recurrent episodes was not altered by alcohol or smoking. In a large cohort of VA patients, smoking is an independent risk factor for AP and augmented the effect of alcohol on the risk, age of onset, and recurrence of AP.

  5. Do adolescents who are night owls have a higher risk of dental caries? - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, A-M; Öhrn, K; Jönsson, B

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the association between circadian rhythm and the risk of caries in adolescents, as well as their dietary and toothbrushing habits. A group of 196 adolescents (15 and 16 years old) were divided into two equal groups based on caries risk (case = high risk; and control = low risk). Before their dental examinations, they were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on circadian rhythm, dietary and oral self-care habits, and demographic variables. The participants were divided into three circadian types: evening types who are alert in the evening and tired in the morning; morning types who are the opposite; and neutral types who are neither particularly alert in the evening nor extremely tired in the morning. The most common sleep-cycle group type was neutral (50%). After this came evening types (37%) and finally morning types (13%). Morning and neutral types reported more frequently than evening types that they had breakfast every morning and brushed their teeth twice a day. More evening types were categorized as at high risk of caries. Circadian rhythm, breakfast habits and toothbrushing frequency were associated with a high risk of caries. The predicted probability of being at high risk of caries was almost four times higher for evening types than for morning types (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-10.9). Adolescents who belonged to the evening circadian rhythm group brushed their teeth more seldom, ate breakfast less regularly and had a higher risk of caries than morning types. A patient's circadian rhythm should be considered when planning oral health education for adolescents with a high risk of caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, Jens; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the general population, older age is associated with short leukocyte telomere length and with high risk of infections. In a recent study of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia, long donor leukocyte telomere length was associated with improved survival...

  7. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Liu

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM risk.Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model.Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI = 0.68-0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912-0.999 for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326. Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake.This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  8. Evaluation of a single-tube fluorogenic RT-PCR assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Hägglund, Sara; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    understanding of the virus. In this study, a BRSV fluorogenic reverse transcription PCR (fRT-PCR) assay, based on TaqMan principle, was developed and evaluated on a large number of clinical samples, representing various cases of natural and experimental BRSV infections. By using a single-step closed-tube format......, the turn-around time was shortened drastically and results were obtained with minimal risk for cross-contamination. According to comparative analyses, the detection limit of the fRT-PCR was on the same level as that of a nested PCR and the sensitivity relatively higher than that of a conventional PCR......, antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and virus isolation (VI). Interspersed negative control samples, samples from healthy animals and eight symptomatically or genetically related viruses were all negative, confirming a high specificity of the assay. Taken together, the data indicated that the fRT-PCR assay can...

  9. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessm...

  10. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessment...

  11. Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2018-02-03

    Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.

  12. Obese with higher FNDC5/Irisin levels have a better metabolic profile, lower lipopolysaccharide levels and type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Ivan Luiz Padilha; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Duft, Renata Garbellini; Oliveira, Alexandre Gabarra; Araujo, Tiago Gomes; Saad, Mario Jose Abdalla; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2017-12-01

    Thus, the aim of this study was to compare if higher or smaller fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin levels are associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers, caloric/macronutrient intake, physical fitness and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in obese middle-aged men, and also to correlate all variables analyzed with FNDC5/irisin. On the basis of a cluster study, middle-aged obese men (IMC: 31.01 ± 1.64 kg/m2) were divided into groups of higher and smaller levels of FNDC5/irisin. The levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 and 10 (IL6, IL10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance and sensibility, lipid profile, risk of T2DM development, body composition, rest energy expenditure, caloric/macronutrient intake and physical fitness were measured. The higher FNDC5/ irisin group presented improved insulin sensibility (homeostasis model assessment - sensibility (HOMA-S) (p = 0.01) and QUICKI index (p risk of T2DM development (p = 0.02), tendency to decrease serum resistin (p = 0.08) and significant lower LPS levels (p = 0.02). Inverse correlations between FNDC5/irisin and body weight (r -0.46, p = 0.04), neck circumference (r -0.51, p = 0.02), free fat mass (r -0.49, p = 0.02), triglycerides (r -0.43, p = 0.05) and risk of developing T2DM (r -0.61, p = 0.04) were observed. These results suggest that higher FNDC5/irisin levels in obese middle-aged men are related to a better metabolic profile and lower risk of T2DM development and serum LPS, a potential inducer of insulin resistance.

  13. Higher risk of complications in odynophagia-associated dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This investigation aimed to identify associated factors with dysphagia severity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Method We performed a cross-sectional study of 49 patients with ALS. All patients underwent fiberoptic endoscopy evaluation of swallowing and answered a verbal questionnaire about swallowing complaints. The patients were divided into groups according to dysphagia severity. Results Among the factors analyzed, only odynophagia was associated with moderate or severe dysphagia. Conclusion Odynophagia was associated with moderate and severe dysphagia in ALS and suggests a high risk of pulmonary and nutritional complications.

  14. Managing Reputation Risk and Situational Crisis in Higher Institutions of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Effiong, Andem Ita

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature on crisis and corporate reputation management has presented the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) model as a valid and reliable framework for managing crisis and predicting stakeholders’perceptions of organizations’ reputation in times of crisis. In order to verifythe applicability of the model in higher institutions of learning in adeveloping country context, a study was conducted in September, 2011 in twopublic universities in Nigeria. The findings of the stud...

  15. Toddlers with Early Behavioral Problems at Higher Family Demographic Risk Benefit the Most from Maternal Emotion Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.

  16. Should elderly patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Amer M; Gore, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a group of hematopoietic malignancies characterized by dysplastic changes, ineffective hematopoiesis and variable risk of leukemic progression. At diagnosis, 86% of MDS patients are ≥60 years. Azacitidine, the only drug that prolongs life in high-risk (HR)-MDS patients, adds a median of only 9.5 months to life. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) remains the only potentially curative approach. Despite recent improvements including use of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) that decrease transplant-related mortality, alloSCT continues to be used rarely in elderly MDS. There is paucity of data regarding outcomes of RIC alloSCT in elderly MDS patients, especially in direct comparison with azanucleosides. In this paper, the authors discuss the recent Markov decision analysis by Koreth et al. in which investigators demonstrated superior survival of patients with HR-MDS aged 60-70 years who underwent RIC alloSCT in comparison with those who were treated with azanucleosides.

  17. Investigating approaches to improving appropriate antibiotic use among higher risk ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Tice, Alan D; Berthiaume, John T

    2010-11-01

    A field study with follow up investigations sought to: 1. determine whether cold packs (over-the-counter symptomtic treatments), coupled with in-office education, improve antibiotic-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors more than in-office education alone in patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders; 2. identify possible reasons for intervention outcomes as described by physicians who participated in the field study; and 3. explore potential future directions based on a large sample survey of physicians in the field study's highly ethnic county. The intervention resulted in a pre- to post-consultation decrease in perceived need for and an increase in knowledge about antibiotic risks but had no impact on frequency of reported receipt of an antibiotic prescription. Unexpectedly, in-office education alone was more effective in increasing knowledge than in-office education plus the cold pack. In-depth interviews of field study physicians and a large scale physician survey suggest that cold pack interventions targeting patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders may be more likely to succeed if accompanied by mass public education regarding risks and physician training regarding effective ways to talk to patients. Use of in-office education with cold packs alone may not achieve desired results. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  18. Higher risk of probable mental emotional disorder in low or severe vision subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfah Rif’ati

    2012-07-01

    health problem priority in Indonesia. This paper presents an assessment of severe visual impairments related to the risk of MED. Methods: This paper assessed a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. For this assessment, subjects 15 years old or more had their visual acuity measured using the Snellen chart and their mental health status determined using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ 20. A subject was considered to have probable MED if the subject had a total score of 6 or more on the SRQ. Based on the measure of visual acuity, visual acuity was divided into 3 categories: normal/mild (20/20 to 20/60; low vision (less than 20/60 to 3/60; and blind (less than 3/60 to 0/0. Results: Among 972,989 subjects, 554,886 were aged 15 years or older. 11.4% of the subjects had probable MED. The prevalence of low vision and blindness was 5.1% and 0.9%, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal or mild visual impairments, subjects with low vision had a 74% increased risk for probable MED [adjusted relative risk (RRa=1,75; 95% confidence interval (CI=1,71-1,79].  Blind subjects had a 2.7-fold risk to be probable MED (RRa=2.69; 95% CI=2.60-2.78] compared to subjects with normal or mild visual impairments. Conclusion: Visual impairment severity increased probable MED risk. Therefore, visual impairment subjects need more attention on probable MED. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:9-13

  19. Agrochemicals increase risk of human schistosomiasis by supporting higher densities of intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Neal T; Hoover, Christopher M; Arakala, Arathi; Civitello, David J; De Leo, Giulio A; Gambhir, Manoj; Johnson, Steve A; Jouanard, Nicolas; Loerns, Kristin A; McMahon, Taegan A; Ndione, Raphael A; Nguyen, Karena; Raffel, Thomas R; Remais, Justin V; Riveau, Gilles; Sokolow, Susanne H; Rohr, Jason R

    2018-02-26

    Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease that ranks among the most important water-based diseases of humans in developing countries. Increased prevalence and spread of human schistosomiasis to non-endemic areas has been consistently linked with water resource management related to agricultural expansion. However, the role of agrochemical pollution in human schistosome transmission remains unexplored, despite strong evidence of agrochemicals increasing snail-borne diseases of wildlife and a projected 2- to 5-fold increase in global agrochemical use by 2050. Using a field mesocosm experiment, we show that environmentally relevant concentrations of fertilizer, a herbicide, and an insecticide, individually and as mixtures, increase densities of schistosome-infected snails by increasing the algae snails eat and decreasing densities of snail predators. Epidemiological models indicate that these agrochemical effects can increase transmission of schistosomes. Identifying agricultural practices or agrochemicals that minimize disease risk will be critical to meeting growing food demands while improving human wellbeing.

  20. Development of single step RT-PCR for detection of Kyasanur forest disease virus from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Chaubal

    2018-02-01

    Discussion and conclusion: The previously published sensitive real time RT-PCR assay requires higher cost in terms of reagents and machine setup and technical expertise has been the primary reason for development of this assay. A single step RT-PCR is relatively easy to perform and more cost effective than real time RT-PCR in smaller setups in the absence of Biosafety Level-3 facility. This study reports the development and optimization of single step RT-PCR assay which is more sensitive and less time-consuming than nested RT-PCR and cost effective for rapid diagnosis of KFD viral RNA.

  1. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Qiao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040. Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017. We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability.

  2. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer......% participated (51% women, mean age = 58 years). We estimated that one in four cancer patients (24%) is depressed (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). The odds of being depressed among cancer patients were more than five times higher than in the general population (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.6-6.2). Patients with pancreatic (M = 8.0, SD = 5...

  3. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-10-03

    Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (pcutting angles with no differences in the amount of knee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (pcutting towards sharper angles (pcutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (pcutting to sharper angles (pcutting angles demand different knee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MINIX4RT: Real-Time Semaphores

    OpenAIRE

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés

    2007-01-01

    MINIX4RT es una extensión del conocido Sistema Operativo MINIX que incorpora servicios de Tiempo Real Estricto en un nuevo microkernel pero manteniendo compatibilidad con las versiones anteriores del MINIX estándar. Los semáforos son el mecanismo primitivo para la sincronización y exclusion mutua en varios sistemas operativos, pero MINIX no brinda esa facilidad. Se adicionaron semáforos a MINIX4RT y, como éste es un Sistema Operativo de Tiempo Real, deben reunir ciertos requisitos de procesam...

  5. Artist - analytical RT inspection simulation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, C.; Jaenisch, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation of radiography is applicable for different purposes in NDT such as for the qualification of NDT systems, the prediction of its reliability, the optimization of system parameters, feasibility analysis, model-based data interpretation, education and training of NDT/NDE personnel, and others. Within the framework of the integrated project FilmFree the radiographic testing (RT) simulation software developed by BAM is being further developed to meet practical requirements for inspection planning in digital industrial radiology. It combines analytical modelling of the RT inspection process with the CAD-orientated object description applicable to various industrial sectors such as power generation, railways and others. (authors)

  6. Knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff in higher learning institutes: The role of trust and perceived risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. This research focuses on the mediation impact of perceived risk on trust and knowledge sharing behaviour. The research also proposes actions that can be taken by higher learning institutions to enhance trust among the staff in order to create a knowledge sharing environment at the workplace. This research applied confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to evaluate the proposed measurement model and proved the research hypotheses. The findings from the research show that perceived risk plays a strong mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing behaviour among the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. The SEM analysis also confirmed that the research model shows a good fit. This research highlights issues concerning knowledge sharing practices among non-academic staff and provides some recommendations to the managers to address these issues. The researchers agreed that more research needs to be done in this area as there are aspects that are yet to be explored. The findings of this research serve to add to the literature on knowledge sharing focussing on non-academic staff of higher learning institutions.

  7. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Jacobs, David R; Park, Kyong

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components. We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption. We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions. Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Higher perceived risk of antimicrobials is related to lower antimicrobial usage among pig farmers in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, V H M; Postma, M; Sjölund, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Siegrist, M; Stärk, K D C

    2016-11-12

    The prudent use of antimicrobials (AMs) should be widened in pig farming to reduce the risk of AM resistance (AMR) in human and veterinary medicine. It is therefore important to understand pig farmers' motivators and the barriers to AM usage (AMU) on their farms. The authors investigated pig farmers' self-estimated levels of AMU, their perceived benefits and risks and the need for AMs in a cross-sectional survey in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. The authors also compared these perceptions between the four countries and related them to pig farmers' actual AMU. The results showed that farmers who used more AMs also estimated their own usage as higher. Farmers perceived many benefits but relatively few risks of AMU in pig farming. Some significant cross-country differences in farmers' perceptions were found, but they were relatively small. After controlling for country differences and farm differences, only perceived risks had a significant association with AMU. The authors therefore conclude that in order to promote prudent AMU, it seems most promising to focus on the structural differences in pig farming and veterinary medicine (e.g. legislation, role of the veterinarian) among countries. In addition, interventions which aim at reducing AMU should increase farmers' awareness of the risks of extensive AMU. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Johan; Näsman, Marina; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Conradsson, Mia; Olofsson, Birgitta; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher morale, i.e. future-oriented optimism, at baseline was associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.Methods The Umeå85+/GErontological Regional Database, a population-based study with a longitudinal design, recruited participants in Sweden and Finland aged 85, 90 and ≥95 years. The sample in the present study included 647 individuals (89.1±4.4 years (Mean±SD), range 85-103). After five years, 216 were alive and agreed to a follow-up (92.6±3.4 years, range 90-104). The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. The depressive disorder diagnosis was determined according to DSM-IV based on medical records and interview data including assessment scales for depressive disorders. A number of sociodemographic, functional and health-related variables were analysed as possible confounders.Results For those with no depressive disorders at baseline, the only baseline variable significantly associated with depressive disorders five years later was the PGCMS score. A logistic regression model showed lower risk of depressive disorders five years later with higher baseline PGCMS scores (odds ratio 0.779 for one point increase in PGCMS, pfive years later).Conclusion Our results indicate that the higher the morale, the lower the risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people. The PGCMS seems to identify those very old individuals at increased risk of depressive disorders five years later. Preventive measures could befocused on this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcomes of three universal eating disorder risk reduction programs by participants with higher and lower baseline shape and weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn; O'Shea, Anne; Wade, Tracey D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if baseline shape and weight concern (SWC) moderated outcomes in Prevention Across the Spectrum, a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of 3 school-based programs aimed at reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors. N = 1,316 Grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (M age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers Initiative (HELPP) or control (usual school class). Moderation was explored by testing interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Life Smart; HELPP; Control) × moderator (SWC: higher-SWC; lower-SWC) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 12-month follow-up), with baseline risk factor scores entered as covariates. Moderation effects were found for shape concern, weight concern, eating concern, regular eating (i.e., meal skipping), physical activity, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and perfectionism. Post-hoc testing found eating concern at post-program was the only variable where higher-SWC Media Smart participants experienced a reduction in risk relative to controls. Both higher-SWC Life Smart and HELPP participants reported an increase in eating concern relative to controls and both groups were skipping more meals than controls at 12-month follow-up. Amongst lower-SWC participants, Media Smart was the only group to experience a benefit relative to controls (physical activity). This study highlights the need for moderator analyses to become more routinely conducted in universal trials, to ensure that participants across baseline risk levels are benefiting and not harmed from program participation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:66-75). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Disease risk in temperate amphibian populations is higher at closed-canopy sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Guilherme Becker

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and chytridiomycosis (a disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis - Bd are major drivers of amphibian declines worldwide. Habitat loss regulates host-pathogen interactions by altering biotic and abiotic factors directly linked to both host and pathogen fitness. Therefore, studies investigating the links between natural vegetation and chytridiomycosis require integrative approaches to control for the multitude of possible interactions of biological and environmental variables in spatial epidemiology. In this study, we quantified Bd infection dynamics across a gradient of natural vegetation and microclimates, looking for causal associations between vegetation cover, multiple microclimatic variables, and pathogen prevalence and infection intensity. To minimize the effects of host diversity in our analyses, we sampled amphibian populations in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a region with relatively high single-host dominance. We sampled permanent ponds for anurans, focusing on populations of the habitat generalist frog Lithobates clamitans, and recorded various biotic and abiotic factors that potentially affect host-pathogen interactions: natural vegetation, canopy density, water temperature, and host population and community attributes. We screened for important explanatory variables of Bd infections and used path analyses to statistically test for the strength of cascading effects linking vegetation cover, microclimate, and Bd parameters. We found that canopy density, natural vegetation, and daily average water temperature were the best predictors of Bd. High canopy density resulted in lower water temperature, which in turn predicted higher Bd prevalence and infection intensity. Our results confirm that microclimatic shifts arising from changes in natural vegetation play an important role in Bd spatial epidemiology, with areas of closed canopy favoring Bd. Given increasing rates of anthropogenic

  12. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  13. Global analysis of threat status reveals higher extinction risk in tropical than in temperate bird sister species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing pressures upon biodiversity, identification of species’ traits related to elevated extinction risk is useful for more efficient allocation of limited resources for nature conservation. Despite its need, such a global analysis was lacking in the case of birds. Therefore, we performed this exercise for avian sister species using information about their global extinction risk from IUCN Red List. We focused on 113 pairs of sister species, each containing a threatened and an unthreatened species to factor out the effects of common evolutionary history on the revealed relationship. We collected data on five traits with expected relationships to species’ extinction risk based on previous studies performed at regional or national levels: breeding habitat (recognizing forest, grassland, wetland and oceanic species, latitudinal range position (temperate and tropics species, migration strategy (migratory and resident species, diet (carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species and body mass. We related the extinction risk using IUCN threat level categories to species’ traits using generalised linear mixed effects models expecting lower risk for forest, temperate, omnivorous and smaller-bodied species. Our expectation was confirmed only in the case of latitudinal range position, as we revealed higher threat level for tropical than for temperate species. This relationship was robust to different methods of threat level expression and cannot be explained by a simple association of high bird species richness with the tropical zone. Instead, it seems that tropical species are more threatened because of their intrinsic characteristics such as slow life histories, adaptations to stable environments and small geographic ranges. These characteristics are obviously disadvantageous in conditions of current human-induced environmental perturbations. Moreover, given the absence of habitat effects, our study indicates that such

  14. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Mustafa I

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb 11 g/dl, n = 303. Logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each of the outcome measures: preeclampsia, eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW and stillbirth. Results There were 9578 deliveries at Kassala hospital, 4012 (41.8% women had anaemia and 303 (3.2% had severe anaemia. The corrected risk for preeclampsia increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-9.1, P = 0.007. Compared with women with no anaemia, the risk of LBW was 2.5 times higher in women with mild/moderate anaemia (95% CI: 1.1-5.7, and 8.0 times higher in women with severe anaemia (95% CI: 3.8-16.0. The risk of preterm delivery increased significantly with the severity of anaemia (OR = 3.2 for women with mild/moderate anaemia and OR = 6.6 for women with severe anaemia, compared with women with no anaemia. The corrected risk for stillbirth increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.1, P Conclusions The greater the severity of the anaemia during pregnancy, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, LBW and stillbirth. Preventive measures should be undertaken to decrease the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy.

  15. Higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in adults with nonapnea sleep disorders: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the effect of nonapnea sleep disorders (NSDs) on the subsequent development of a migraine. We identified 46,777 patients aged 20 years and older who were diagnosed with an NSD (ICD-9-CM: 307.4 or 780.5) and without coding for apnea-sleep disorders (ICD-9-CM: 780.51, 780.53, or 780.57) between 2000 and 2002 as the sleep disorder (SD) cohort. A comparison cohort of 93,552 people was enrolled. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing a migraine (ICD-9-CM: 346) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and drug use. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of a migraine between 2 curves until the end of 2011. The cumulative incidence of a migraine was significantly higher in the SD cohort. The aHR for developing a migraine in the SD cohort was 3.52 (95% CI=3.28-3.79). The risk of developing a migraine with an NSD was higher in men (aHR=4.31) than in women (aHR=3.35). The age-stratified effect of an NSD on developing a migraine was highest among patients aged 55 years and younger. Higher risks of developing a migraine were observed among the participants without any comorbidity and without any drug treatment for their insomnia. The findings of this population-based cohort study indicate a higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in patients with an NSD, which could be considered an independent, predisposing factor for developing subsequent a migraine in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. rt, Arvo. Fratres / Rainer Wagner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wagner, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo. Fratres, Cantus (in Memory of Benjamin Britten), summa, Festina Lente; Peter Manning, France Springuel, Mireille Gleizes, Huub Righarts, I Fiamminghi, Rudolf Werthen" (AD: 1994) Telarc/in-akustik CD 80 387 (WD: 79'00")

  17. rt, Arvo: "Litany" / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Litany". Litany. Psalom. Trisagion. The Hilliard Ensemble, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tõnu Kaljuste. Orchestre de chambre de Lituanie, Saulius Sondeckis". ECM New Series ECM 1592, distribution Polygram 449 810-2 (CD:158F)

  18. Forført af hjernen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Blandingen af offentlig interesse, gode mediehistorier og smarte sælgere har ført til sejlivede neuromyter, der ikke bare distraherer almindelige mennesker, men også fører til udbredte misforståelser blandt professionelle som lærere og plejepersonale. I bedste fald leder neuromyter til spild af t...

  19. rt, Arvo: "Litany" / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Litany". Litany. Psalom. Trisagion. The Hilliard Ensemble, Orchestre de chambre de Tallinn, Choeur de chambre Philharmonique d'Estonie, Tõnu Kaljuste. Orchestre de chambre de Lituanie, Saulius Sondeckis. ECM New Series ECM 1592, distribution Polygram 449 810-2 (CD:158F)

  20. Higher complication risk of totally implantable venous access port systems in patients with advanced cancer - a single institution retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Fang; Lo, An-Chi; Tsai, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Pei-Yi; Sun, Shen; Chang, Te-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Yuan-Shin; Chen, Jen-Ruei

    2013-02-01

    Totally implantable port systems are generally recommended for prolonged central venous access in diverse settings, but their risk of complications remains unclear for patients with advanced cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of port system failure in patients with advanced cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a comprehensive cancer centre. A detailed chart review was conducted among 566 patients with 573 ports inserted during January-June, 2009 (average 345.3 catheter-days). Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate factors during insertion and early maintenance that could lead to premature removal of the port systems due to infection or occlusion. Port system-related infection was significantly associated with receiving palliative care immediately after implantation (hazard ratio, HR = 7.3, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 1.2-46.0), after adjusting for probable confounders. Primary cancer site also impacted the occurrence of device-related infection. Receiving oncologic/palliative care (HR = 3.0, P = 0.064), advanced cancer stage (HR = 6.5, P = 0.077) and body surface area above 1.71 m(2) (HR = 3.4, P = 0.029) increased the risk of port system occlusion. Our study indicates that totally implantable port systems yield a higher risk of complications in terminally ill patients. Further investigation should be carefully conducted to compare outcomes of various central venous access devices in patients with advanced cancer and to develop preventive strategies against catheter failure.

  1. Does vacuum delivery carry a higher risk of shoulder dystocia? Review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Andrea; Ghi, Tullio; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Frusca, Tiziana

    2016-09-01

    Vacuum extractor has been increasingly used over the last decades and is acknowledged as a risk factor for shoulder dystocia (SD). In this meta-analysis we assess the actual risk of SD following a vacuum delivery compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) and forceps. Systematic literature search (English literature only) on MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane library and ClinicalTrials.gov conducted up to May 2015. Key search terms included: Operative/Vacuum/Forceps delivery [Mesh] and shoulder dystocia and subheadings. 2 stage-process study selection. We included only studies where data concerning the occurrence of SD following operative vaginal delivery were reported as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and no significant difference in confounding factors for SD was recorded. Included trials clustered according to the delivery mode (1) vacuum vs. SVD, (2) forceps vs. vacuum. Methodological quality of each study evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa System (NOS). 87 potentially relevant papers. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria only 7 were selected for the meta-analysis. Vacuum delivery appeared associated with a higher risk of SD than SVD in both fixed and random model (OR 2.87 and 2.98 respectively). No difference in the rate of SD was found between vacuum and forceps (p>0.05). Vacuum extractor carries an increased risk of SD compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery whereas the occurrence of SD does not seem to vary following vacuum or forceps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder in later life among adolescents with asthma: a nationwide prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested an immunological dysfunction in mood disorders, but rarely have investigated the temporal association between allergic diseases and mood disorders. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we attempted to investigate the association between asthma in early adolescence and the risk of unipolar depression and bipolar disorder in later life. In all, 1453 adolescents with asthma aged between 10 and 15 years and 5812 age-/gender-matched controls were selected in 1998-2000. Subjects with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder that occurred up to the end of follow-up (December 31 2010) were identified. Adolescents with asthma had a higher incidence of major depression (2.8% vs. 1.1%, p bipolar disorder (1.0% vs. 0.3%, p adolescence was associated with an increased risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.89), any depressive disorder (HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.27-2.37), and bipolar disorder (HR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.01-5.07), after adjusting for demographic data and comorbid allergic diseases. Adolescents with asthma had an elevated risk of developing mood disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to investigate the underlying mechanisms for this comorbid association and elucidate whether prompt intervention for asthma would decrease the risk of developing mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attack when exposed to indoor mold? A study based on the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Some studies show an association between asthma and obesity, but it is unknown whether exposure to mold will increase the risk of asthma attacks among obese people. This study examined whether obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attacks than non-obese adults when exposed to indoor mold. We used data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to conduct a cross-sectional analysis among 9,668 respondents who reported exposure to indoor mold. With exposure to indoor mold, weighted prevalence of asthma attacks among obese respondents was 11.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 20.6], which was 2.3 times as high as among the exposed non-obese respondents (5.0%, 95% CI 2.8, 8.8). This ratio was almost the same as the ratio of 2.0:1 between the obese respondents (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6, 7.2) and the non-obese respondents (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3, 3.9) when neither group had exposure to mold. The odds ratio of asthma attack among obese people was 3.10 (95% CI 1.10, 8.67) for those with exposure to mold and 2.21 (95% CI 1.54, 3.17) for those without exposure to mold after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Our study suggests that obese adults who have been exposed to indoor mold may not necessarily have a higher risk of asthma attack than obese adults who have not been exposed, even though obesity and exposure to indoor mold are both major risk factors for asthma attack. Medical professionals should not only incorporate weight-control or weight-reduction measures as the components of asthma treatment plans, but also advise asthma patients to avoid exposure to indoor mold.

  4. Risk-reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Women at Higher Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Prospective Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Enzo; Tomao, Federica; Aletti, Giovanni; Bazzurini, Luca; Bocciolone, Luca; Boveri, Sara; Landoni, Fabio; Lapresa, Maria Teresa; Maruccio, Matteo; Parma, Gabriella; Peccatori, Fedro; Petrella, Maria Cristina; Zanagnolo, Vanna; Colombo, Nicoletta; Maggioni, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    Occult cancers' reported rates vary from 2-12% and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been identified in 3-12% of the prophylactically removed tubes of women carrying a BRCA mutation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tubal minor epithelial atypia (STIL), STIC, and occult invasive cancer and to evaluate the cancer-specific mortality in a prospective series of women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) n a tertiary cancer center. A series of RRSO specimens (including endometrial biopsy) from women carrying a BRCA mutation, BRCA-unknown and BRCA-negative were collected between January 1998 and April 2016 at the Division of Gynecology at the European Institute of Oncology. Inclusion criteria were: asymptomatic women who had a negative gynecologic screening within 3 months prior to RRSO. Exclusion criteria were: women with ovarian/tubal cancer prior to RRSO. A total of 411 women underwent RRSO. Median age at RRSO was 47.0 years (range=32-70 years); 75.2% had a history of breast cancer. Fifteen women were diagnosed with an occult cancer (7 STIC, 4 invasive cancers, 2 breast cancers metastatic to the adnexa, 2 endometrial cancer) (3.6%). Sixteen showed a STIL (3.9%). When excluding cases with preoperative positive markers, the occult invasive cancer rate drops to 1.5%. Our study, covering an 18-year period, shows a substantial low risk of occult cancer among a high-risk population of women undergoing RRSO. Our data still support the indication for RRSO in higher-risk patients. An endometrial biopsy should also be routinely obtained as it raises the chances of detecting occult endometrial cancers that may be otherwise missed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions among Candidate Genes Selected by Meta-Analyses Resulting in Higher Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Luo

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS is a multifactorial disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. The combined effects of multiple susceptibility genes might result in a higher risk for IS than a single gene. Therefore, we investigated whether interactions among multiple susceptibility genes were associated with an increased risk of IS by evaluating gene polymorphisms identified in previous meta-analyses, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, beta fibrinogen (FGB, β-FG A455G and T148C, apolipoprotein E (APOE ε2-4, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE insertion/deletion (I/D, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS G894T. In order to examine these interactions, 712 patients with IS and 774 controls in a Chinese Han population were genotyped using the SNaPshot method, and multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis was used to detect potential interactions among the candidate genes. The results of this study found that ACE I/D and β-FG T148C were significant synergistic contributors to IS. In particular, the ACE DD + β-FG 148CC, ACE DD + β-FG 148CT, and ACE ID + β-FG 148CC genotype combinations resulted in higher risk of IS. After adjusting for potential confounding IS risk factors (age, gender, family history of IS, hypertension history and history of diabetes mellitus using a logistic analysis, a significant correlation between the genotype combinations and IS patients persisted (overall stroke: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.02, P < 0.001, large artery atherosclerosis subtype: adjusted OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.08-2.07, P = 0.016, small-artery occlusion subtype: adjusted OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.43-2.91, P < 0.001. The results of this study indicate that the ACE I/D and β-FG T148C combination may result in significantly higher risk of IS in this Chinese population.

  6. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  7. Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Wu, Jiangyue; Wang, Weiye; Li, Xiating; Ding, Huisi; Guo, Yanfang; Gao, Qin; Hu, Xingwen; Xiong, Guoping; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Xiao, Mei; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. The value of bilirubin was tested and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to screen gestational diabetes mellitus. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and gestational weeks was studied by two-piecewise linear regression. A subsample of 1135 participants with serum bilirubin test during 16-18 weeks gestation was conducted to research the association between serum bilirubin levels and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by logistic regression. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 8.5 % of the participants (223 of 2969). Two-piecewise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the levels of bilirubin decreased with gestational week up to the turning point 23 and after that point, levels of bilirubin were increased slightly. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus was lower in the highest tertile of direct bilirubin than that in the lowest tertile (RR 0.60; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.89). The results suggested that women with higher serum direct bilirubin levels during the second trimester of pregnancy have lower risk for development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  8. Living at a Geographically Higher Elevation Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Prospective Analysis of the SUN Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Lopez-Pascual

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Living in a geographically higher altitude affects oxygen availability. The possible connection between environmental factors and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS feature is not fully understood, being the available epidemiological evidence still very limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longitudinal association between altitude and incidence of MetS and each of its components in a prospective Spanish cohort, The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN project. Our study included 6860 highly educated subjects (university graduates free from any MetS criteria at baseline. The altitude of residence was imputed with the postal code of each individual subject residence according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and participants were categorized into tertiles. MetS was defined according to the harmonized definition. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between the altitude of residence and the risk of MetS during follow-up. After a median follow-up period of 10 years, 462 incident cases of MetS were identified. When adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest category of altitude (>456 m exhibited a significantly lower risk of developing MetS compared to those in the lowest tertile (<122 m of altitude of residence [Model 2: Hazard ratio = 0.75 (95% Confidence interval: 0.58–0.97; p for trend = 0.029]. Living at geographically higher altitude was associated with a lower risk of developing MetS in the SUN project. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to metabolic diseases.

  9. Weight patterns in children with higher risk ALL: A report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withycombe, Janice S; Post-White, Janice E; Meza, Jane L; Hawks, Ria G; Smith, Lynette M; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L

    2009-12-15

    This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 x ln(BMI/median BMI). By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI >or=95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5-9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5-9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Women undergoing aortic surgery are at higher risk for unplanned readmissions compared with men especially when discharged home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Benjamin J; Long, Chandler A; Duwayri, Yazan; Brewster, Luke P; Veeraswamy, Ravi; Gallagher, Katherine; Arya, Shipra

    2016-06-01

    Women undergoing vascular surgery have higher morbidity and mortality. Our study explores gender-based differences in patient-centered outcomes such as readmission, length of stay (LOS), and discharge destination (home vs nonhome facility) in aortic aneurysm surgery. Patients were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database (2011-2013) undergoing abdominal, thoracic, and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (N = 17,763), who were discharged and survived their index hospitalization. The primary outcome was unplanned readmission, and secondary outcomes were discharge to a nonhome facility, LOS, and reasons for unplanned readmission. Univariate, multivariate, and stratified analyses based on gender and discharge destination were used. Overall, 1541 patients (8.7%) experienced an unplanned readmission, with a significantly higher risk in women vs men (10.8% vs 8%; P women compared with men persisted in multivariate analysis after controlling for covariates (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.4). Similarly, the rate of discharge to a nonhome facility was nearly double in women compared with men (20.6% vs 10.7%; P women compared with men occurred in patients who were discharged home (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.02-1.4) but not in those who were discharged to a nonhome facility (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Significant differences in LOS were seen in patients who were discharged home. No gender differences were found in reasons for readmission with the three most common reasons being thromboembolic events, wound infections, and pneumonia. Gender disparity exists in the risk of unplanned readmission among aortic aneurysm surgery patients. Women who were discharged home have a higher likelihood of unplanned readmission despite longer LOS than men. These data suggest that further study into the discharge planning processes, social factors, and use of rehabilitation services is needed for women

  11. Improvement of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruynseels Peggy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe an improvement of an earlier reported real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA, based on the 5' exonuclease digestion of a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe by Taq DNA polymerase. A different extraction method, real-time RT-PCR instrument and primer set were evaluated. Our data show that the optimized assay yields a higher sensitivity and reproducibility and resulted in a significant reduced hands-on time per sample.

  12. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  13. Higher energy efficient homes are associated with increased risk of doctor diagnosed asthma in a UK subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the highest prevalence of asthma in the world, which represents a significant economic and societal burden. Reduced ventilation resulting from increased energy efficiency measures acts as a modifier for mould contamination and risk of allergic diseases. To our knowledge no previous study has combined detailed asset management property and health data together to assess the impact of household energy efficiency (using the UK Government's Standard Assessment Procedure) on asthma outcomes in an adult population residing in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect demographic, health and environmental information on all occupants. Detailed property data, residency periods, indices of multiple deprivation (IMD) and household energy efficiency ratings were also investigated. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same location. Eighteen percent of our target social housing population were recruited into our study. Adults had a mean age of 59 (SD±17.3) years and there was a higher percentage of female (59%) and single occupancy (58%) respondents. Housing demographic characteristics were representative of the target homes. A unit increase in household Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) rating was associated with a 2% increased risk of current asthma, with the greatest risk in homes with SAP >71. We assessed exposure to mould and found that the presence of a mouldy/musty odour was associated with a two-fold increased risk of asthma (OR 2.2 95%; CI 1.3-3.8). A unit increase in SAP led to a 4-5% reduction in the risk of visible mould growth and a mouldy/musty odour. In contrast to previous research, we report that residing in energy efficient homes may increase the risk of adult asthma. We report that mould contamination increased the risk of asthma, which is in agreement with existing

  14. A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Costa, Lara-Jeane C; McBee, Matthew; Anderson, Kathleen L; Yerby, Donna Carlson; Childress, Amy; Knuth, Sean B

    2013-04-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n=138), and then randomized into treatment (n=68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n=70). A typical group also was included (n=67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.

  15. Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy (the ASCENDE-RT Trial): An Analysis of Survival Endpoints for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost to a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W. James, E-mail: jmorris@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rodda, Sree [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Halperin, Ross [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Centre for the Southern Interior, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Pai, Howard [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Island Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morton, Gerard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Murray, Nevin [BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To report the primary endpoint of biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS) and secondary survival endpoints from ASCENDE-RT, a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: ASCENDE-RT enrolled 398 men, with a median age of 68 years; 69% (n=276) had high-risk disease. After stratification by risk group, the subjects were randomized to a standard arm with 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy, pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy, followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost. Of the 398 trial subjects, 200 were assigned to DE-EBRT boost and 198 to LDR-PB boost. The median follow-up was 6.5 years. Results: In an intent-to-treat analysis, men randomized to DE-EBRT were twice as likely to experience biochemical failure (multivariable analysis [MVA] hazard ratio [HR] 2.04; P=.004). The 5-, 7-, and 9-year Kaplan-Meier b-PFS estimates were 89%, 86%, and 83% for the LDR-PB boost versus 84%, 75%, and 62% for the DE-EBRT boost (log-rank P<.001). The LDR-PB boost benefited both intermediate- and high-risk patients. Because the b-PFS curves for the treatment arms diverge sharply after 4 years, the relative advantage of the LDR-PB should increase with longer follow-up. On MVA, the only variables correlated with reduced overall survival were age (MVA HR 1.06/y; P=.004) and biochemical failure (MVA HR 6.30; P<.001). Although biochemical failure was associated with increased mortality and randomization to DE-EBRT doubled the rate of biochemical failure, no significant overall survival difference was observed between the treatment arms (MVA HR 1.13; P=.62). Conclusions: Compared with 78 Gy EBRT, men randomized to the LDR-PB boost were twice as likely to be free of biochemical failure at a median follow-up of 6.5 years.

  16. Poor glycemic control of diabetes mellitus is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhyun Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM on prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,368 men who underwent prostate biopsy at our institution. We divided our biopsy population into three groups according to their history of DM, and their Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level: a no-DM (DM- group; a good glycemic control (DM+GC group (HbA1c <6.5%; and a poor glycemic control (DM+PC group (HbA1c ≥6.5%. For sub-analyses, the DM+PC group was divided into a moderately poor glycemic control (DM+mPC group (6.5≤ HbA1c <7.5% and a severely poor glycemic control (DM+sPC group (HbA1c ≥7.5%.Among 1,368 men, 338 (24.7% had a history of DM, and 393 (28.7% had a positive biopsy. There was a significant difference in prostatic specific antigen density (PSAD (P = 0.037 and the frequency of abnormal DRE findings (P = 0.031 among three groups. The occurrence rate of overall prostate cancer (P<0.001 and high-grade prostate cancer (P = 0.016 also presented with a significantly difference. In the multivariate analysis, the DM+PC group was significantly associated with a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection in biopsy subjects compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.313, P = 0.001 but the DM+PC group was not associated with a higher rate of high-grade (Gleason score ≥7 diseases detected during the biopsy (OR = 1.297, P = 0.376. However, in subgroup analysis, DM+sPC group was significantly related to a higher risk of high-grade diseases compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.446, P = 0.048.Poor glycemic control of DM was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection, including high-grade disease, in the biopsy population.

  17. Cognitive development over 8 years in midlife and its association with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Garde, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe population-level cognitive development in early middle-age and evaluate whether cardiovascular risk factors for late-onset dementia influence cognitive change in midlife. METHOD: The sample from the PATH Through Life (PATH) Project (N = 2,530; 40-44 years of age at baseline...... activity. RESULTS: Decline in processing speed and reaction time (RT) and improvement in memory and verbal ability were observed. Higher PATHrisk score was associated with poorer performance on all cognitive tests, except for RT. Participants with higher PATHrisk scores had greater slowing on choice RT...... over 8 years. Education was associated with cognitive test performance and was weakly protective against slowing of RT. Individual risk factors, primarily diabetes, smoking, and depression, were associated with cognitive function, and smoking was associated with decline in simple RT. CONCLUSION...

  18. Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of dental caries in young Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    The intrauterine environment, including maternal nutrition status, may affect the development, formation, and mineralization of children's teeth. We assessed the relationship between self-reported maternal dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy and the risk of dental caries among young Japanese children. This study is based on a prospective analysis of 1210 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on maternal intake during pregnancy was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on oral examination at 36-46 months of age were obtained from the mothers, who transcribed the information from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with the lowest quartile of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.06 (0.72-1.56), 0.53 (0.34-0.81), and 0.67 (0.44-1.02), respectively (P for trend = .01). When maternal vitamin D intake was treated as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.94 (0.89-0.995). Higher maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with a lower risk of dental caries in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Christian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  20. Semi-Professional Rugby League Players have Higher Concussion Risk than Professional or Amateur Participants: A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-02-01

    A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.

  1. Quantitative weight of evidence assessment of higher tier studies on the toxicity and risks of neonicotinoids in honeybees. 3. Clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Stephenson, Gladys L

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess higher tier studies on the effects of clothianidin (CTD) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed bees and quantity of hive products. A colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg CTD/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse effect-dose (NOAED) of 7.3 ng/bee/d for all responses measured. Based on a NOAEC of 19.7 µg/kg pollen, the NOAED for honeybee larvae was 2.4 ng/bee larva/d. For exposures via dust, a no-observed-adverse effect rate of 4 g CTD/ha was used to assess relevance of exposures via deposition of dust. The overall weight of evidence suggested that there is minimal risk to honeybees from exposure to CTD from its use as a seed treatment. For exposures via dust, dust/seed and dust/foliar applications, there were no exposures greater than the NOAED for CTD in nectar and pollen, indicating a de minimis risk to honeybees when the route of exposure was via uptake in plants. Analysis of effect studies in the field indicated a consistent lack of relevant effects, regardless of the way CTD was applied. For exposures via dust, there were no adverse effects because of these applications and there were no exposures greater than the NOAED for CTD in nectar and pollen. The overall weight of evidence based on many studies indicated no adverse effects on colony viability or survival of the colony. Thus, the overall conclusion is that clothianidin, as currently used in good agricultural practices, does not present a significant risk to honeybees at the level of the colony.

  2. Higher Risk of Homicide Among Pregnant and Postpartum Females Aged 10-29 Years in Illinois, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Abigail R; Rosenberg, Deborah; Geller, Stacie E

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether being pregnant or postpartum was associated with excess risk for homicide among females in Illinois and to describe the association between pregnancy status and homicide by race, ethnicity, and age group. This is a retrospective, multicohort, ecologic study of females of reproductive age in Illinois between 2002 and 2011 using Illinois Department of Public Health maternal mortality data and vital records data. We compared pregnancy-associated homicides with live births using χ tests. Among maternal deaths in the state, we calculated mortality rates per 100,000 live births for homicide and other violent causes and the leading direct obstetric causes. We calculated aggregate, pregnancy-associated, and nonpregnancy associated homicide rates stratified by race or ethnicity and age group. There were 636 pregnancy-associated deaths in Illinois from 2002 to 2011. Of these, 82 (13%) were the result of homicide (5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0-6.2]/100,000 live births). There were 931 homicides among females of reproductive age not associated with pregnancy (2.88 [95% CI 2.70-3.07]/100,000 population). More than half of the homicides were women aged 20-29 years (n=53 [64.6%]), non-Hispanic black women (n=43 [52.4%]), women residing in Cook County (n=47 [57.3%]), and unmarried women (n=57 [69.5%]). Pregnant and postpartum females aged 10-29 years were at twice the risk of homicide compared with their nonpregnant or postpartum counterparts (relative risk 2.20 [95% CI 1.70-2.85]). Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic females experienced higher rates of homicide than non-Hispanic white females irrespective of pregnancy or age. Although all violence against women must be addressed, we recommend that state maternal mortality review committees, in addition to reviewing deaths resulting from obstetric and clinical causes, should conduct in-depth reviews of pregnancy-associated homicides and other violent deaths.

  3. SU-F-J-174: A Series of Computational Human Phantoms in DICOM-RT Format for Normal Tissue Dose Reconstruction in Epidemiological Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyakuryal, A; Moroz, B; Lee, C; Pelletier, C; Jung, J; Lee, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients often require individualized dose estimates of normal tissues. Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D radiological images or not even available. Generic patient CT images are often used in commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) to reconstruct normal tissue doses. The objective of the current work was to develop a series of reference size computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format for direct use in dose reconstruction in TPS. Methods: Contours of 93 organs and tissues were extracted from a series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational human phantoms (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old, and adult males and females) using Rhinoceros software. A MATLAB script was created to convert the contours into the DICOM-RT structure format. The simulated CT images with the resolution of 1×1×3 mm3 were also generated from the binary phantom format and coupled with the DICOM-structure files. Accurate volumes of the organs were drawn in the format using precise delineation of the contours in converted format. Due to complex geometry of organs, higher resolution (1×1×1 mm3) was found to be more efficient in the conversion of newborn and 1-year-old phantoms. Results: Contour sets were efficiently converted into DICOM-RT structures in relatively short time (about 30 minutes for each phantom). A good agreement was observed in the volumes between the original phantoms and the converted contours for large organs (NRMSD<1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD<7.7%). Conclusion: A comprehensive series of computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format was created to support epidemiological studies of second cancer risks in radiotherapy patients. We confirmed the DICOM-RT phantoms were successfully imported into the TPS programs of major vendors.

  4. SU-F-J-174: A Series of Computational Human Phantoms in DICOM-RT Format for Normal Tissue Dose Reconstruction in Epidemiological Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyakuryal, A; Moroz, B [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (United States); Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pelletier, C; Jung, J [East Carolina University Greenville, NC (United States); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients often require individualized dose estimates of normal tissues. Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D radiological images or not even available. Generic patient CT images are often used in commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) to reconstruct normal tissue doses. The objective of the current work was to develop a series of reference size computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format for direct use in dose reconstruction in TPS. Methods: Contours of 93 organs and tissues were extracted from a series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational human phantoms (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old, and adult males and females) using Rhinoceros software. A MATLAB script was created to convert the contours into the DICOM-RT structure format. The simulated CT images with the resolution of 1×1×3 mm3 were also generated from the binary phantom format and coupled with the DICOM-structure files. Accurate volumes of the organs were drawn in the format using precise delineation of the contours in converted format. Due to complex geometry of organs, higher resolution (1×1×1 mm3) was found to be more efficient in the conversion of newborn and 1-year-old phantoms. Results: Contour sets were efficiently converted into DICOM-RT structures in relatively short time (about 30 minutes for each phantom). A good agreement was observed in the volumes between the original phantoms and the converted contours for large organs (NRMSD<1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD<7.7%). Conclusion: A comprehensive series of computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format was created to support epidemiological studies of second cancer risks in radiotherapy patients. We confirmed the DICOM-RT phantoms were successfully imported into the TPS programs of major vendors.

  5. Temperature affects thrombolytic efficacy using rt-PA and eptifibatide, an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Bluett, Brent; Wenker, Evan; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2012-09-01

    The potential for hypothermia as a neuroprotectant during stroke has led to its increase in clinical use. At the same time, combination pharmaceutical therapies for ischemic stroke using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), and GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors, such as Eptifibatide (Epf ), are under study. However, there is little data on how the reactions triggered by these agents are impacted by temperature. Here, clot lysis during exposure to the combination of rt-PA and Epf is measured in an in vitro human clot model at hypothermic temperatures. The hypothesis is that lytic efficacy of rt-PA and Epf decreases with decreasing temperature. Whole blood clots from 31 volunteers were exposed to rt-PA (0.5 μg/mL) and Epf (0.63 μg/mL) in human fresh-frozen plasma (rt-PA+Epf ), rt-PA alone in plasma (rt-PA Alone), or to plasma alone (Control), at temperatures from 30°C to 37°C, for 30 minutes. Clot lysis was measured using a microscopic imaging technique; the mean fractional clot loss (FCL) at 30 minutes was used to determine lytic efficacy. Temperature had a significant impact on FCL in clots exposed to rt-PA+Epf, with the FCL being lower at 30°C to 36°C than at 37°C. The FCL remained significantly higher for rt-PA+Epf–treated clots than Controls regardless of temperature, with the exception of measurements made at 30°C when no significant differences in the FCL were observed between groups. The use of hypothermia as a neuroprotectant may negatively impact the therapeutic benefit of thrombolytic agents.

  6. Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-09-01

    -overexpressed tumor had a significantly higher risk of developing distant metastasis (P<0.0001 and shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. Overexpression of ETV4 protein was an independent predictor of short disease-free survival of TNBC patients (P=0.021. Conclusion: Overexpression of ETV4 protein increases risk of developing distant metastasis and results in a poor prognosis for TNBC patients. Thus, ETV4 might be a novel target for developing an alternative therapeutic strategy for prevention of TNBC distant metastasis. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, ETS translocation variant 4, ETV4, prognosis

  7. Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum. We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.

  8. Asian Adolescents with Excess Weight are at Higher Risk for Insulin Resistance than Non-Asian Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadony, Ahmed; Yates, Kathy F; Sweat, Victoria; Yau, Po Lai; Mangone, Alex; Joseph, Adriana; Fierman, Arthur; Convit, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Asian American adolescents have higher metabolic risk from excess weight than non-Asians. Seven hundred thirty-three students, aged 14 to 19 years old, completed a school-based health screening. The 427 Asian and 306 non-Asian students were overall equivalent on age, sex, and family income. Height, weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin levels were measured. Asian and non-Asians in lean or overweight/obesity groups were contrasted on the five factors that make up the metabolic syndrome. Asian adolescents carrying excess weight had significantly higher insulin resistance (IR), triglyceride levels, and waist-height ratios (W/H), despite a significantly lower overall BMI than corresponding non-Asians. Similarly, Asians had a stronger relationship between W/H and the degree of IR than non-Asian counterparts; 35% and 18% of the variances were explained (R 2  = 0.35, R 2  = 0.18) respectively, resulting in a significant W/H by racial group interaction (F change [1,236] = 11.56, P Asians have higher IR and triglyceride levels from excess weight than their non-Asian counterparts. One-size-fits-all public health policies targeting youth should be reconsidered and attention paid to Asian adolescents, including those with mild degrees of excess weight. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  9. Female medical students are estimated to have a higher risk for developing eating disorders than male medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context....

  10. A rapid assessment scorecard to identify informal settlements at higher maternal and child health risk in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osrin, David; Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; Alcock, Glyn A; Joshi, Wasundhara; More, Neena Shah

    2011-10-01

    The communities who live in urban informal settlements are diverse, as are their environmental conditions. Characteristics include inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, poor quality of housing, overcrowding, and insecure residential status. Interventions to improve health should be equity-driven and target those at higher risk, but it is not clear how to prioritise informal settlements for health action. In implementing a maternal and child health programme in Mumbai, India, we had conducted a detailed vulnerability assessment which, though important, was time-consuming and may have included collection of redundant information. Subsequent data collection allowed us to examine three issues: whether community environmental characteristics were associated with maternal and newborn healthcare and outcomes; whether it was possible to develop a triage scorecard to rank the health vulnerability of informal settlements based on a few rapidly observable characteristics; and whether the scorecard might be useful for future prioritisation. The City Initiative for Newborn Health documented births in 48 urban slum areas over 2 years. Information was collected on maternal and newborn care and mortality, and also on household and community environment. We selected three outcomes-less than three antenatal care visits, home delivery, and neonatal mortality-and used logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis to test their association with rapidly observable environmental characteristics. We developed a simple triage scorecard and tested its utility as a means of assessing maternal and newborn health risk. In analyses on a sample of 10,754 births, we found associations of health vulnerability with inadequate access to water, toilets, and electricity; non-durable housing; hazardous location; and rental tenancy. A simple scorecard based on these had limited sensitivity and positive predictive value, but relatively high specificity and negative

  11. Newborns of mothers with intellectual disability have a higher risk of perinatal death and being small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Berit; Lindgren, Peter; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-12-01

    To study mode of birth, perinatal health and death in children born to mothers with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. Population-based register study. National registers; the National Patient Register linked to the Medical Birth Register. Children of first-time mothers with ID (n = 326; classified in the International Classification of Diseases 8-10) were identified and compared with 340 624 children of first-time mothers without ID or any other psychiatric diagnosis between 1999 and 2007. Population-based data were extracted from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Mode of birth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar score, stillbirth and perinatal death. Children born to mothers with ID were more often stillborn (1.2 vs. 0.3%) or died perinatally (1.8 vs. 0.4%) than children born to mothers without ID. They had a higher proportion of cesarean section birth (24.5 vs. 17.7%) and preterm birth (12.2 vs. 6.1%), were small for gestational age (8.4 vs. 3.1%) and had lower Apgar scores (mothers without ID. Logistic regression adjusted for maternal characteristics confirmed an increased risk of small for gestational age (odds ratio 2.25), stillbirth (odds ratio 4.53) and perinatal death (odds ratio 4.25) in children born to mothers with ID. Unborn and newborn children of mothers with ID should be considered a risk group, and their mothers may need better individual-based care and support. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Power lies in interdisciplinary cooperation / Kärt Summatavet ; interv. Kärt Blumberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Summatavet, Kärt, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Ehtekunstnik Kärt Summatavet oma uudsest meetodist ehete valmistamisel - paberil oleva kujutise ülekandmisest arvuti abil metallile, mille ta töötas väljas oma doktoritöö raames Soomes Helsingi Kunsti- ja Disainiülikoolis ning mis pälvis Soulis toimunud ülemaailmsel naisleiutajate konkursil hõbemedali

  13. Sequencing of chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) following conservative surgery (CS) for patients with early-stage breast cancer: results of a randomized trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recht, A; Come, SE; Silver, B; Gelman, RS; Hayes, DF; Shulman, LN; Henderson, IC; Harris, JR

    1995-07-01

    .03). Overall outcome and patterns of failure were analyzed by intent-to-treat; all enrolled pts were included. Median FU in surviving pts was 58 mo (range, 10-124 mo). Results: 5-yr actuarial failure rates (i.e., failure at any site) and overall survival (OS) rates were not statistically different between the arms, but the 5-yr actuarial total risk of developing distant metastases (DM) (i.e, at any time during observation) was significantly greater in the RT-first arm. The first sites of failure in the RT-first and CT-first arms were: local failure (LF) with or without simultaneous DM or regional nodal failure (RNF) - 9 vs. 14; RNF without other failure - 0 vs. 2; and DM (with or without simultaneous RNF) - 36 vs. 18. Of note, 1 LF in the RT-first arm was among the 2 pts who refused their assigned sequence. Because of differing lengths of potential observation for each pt, the 5-yr crude failure rates were used to assess the difference in patterns of failure. The difference was of borderline significance. The proportions of pts receiving at least 85% of the planned drug doses were lower in the RT-first arm than the CT-first arm for cyclophosphamide (46% v. 64%, p-bar=0.006), doxorubicin (43% vs. 64%, p-bar=0.002), and d.15 methotrexate (22% vs. 46%, p-bar=0.0002). There were no differences between the arms in the d.1 methotrexate or 5FU doses. Conclusions: The overall risk of distant failure was higher in the RT-first arm in this study. This may reflect both the longer interval to initiating CT and the lower drug doses given in pts first receiving RT. The risk of local failure was higher in the CT-first arm, consistent with prior studies suggesting that the SRI has an impact on the effectiveness of RT. Further study is needed of other factors that may affect these results. Alternative ways of combining RT and CT which do not sacrifice their effectiveness while minimizing treatment toxicity should be explored.

  14. Sequencing of chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) following conservative surgery (CS) for patients with early-stage breast cancer: results of a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, A; Come, SE; Silver, B; Gelman, RS; Hayes, DF; Shulman, LN; Henderson, IC; Harris, JR

    1995-01-01

    .03). Overall outcome and patterns of failure were analyzed by intent-to-treat; all enrolled pts were included. Median FU in surviving pts was 58 mo (range, 10-124 mo). Results: 5-yr actuarial failure rates (i.e., failure at any site) and overall survival (OS) rates were not statistically different between the arms, but the 5-yr actuarial total risk of developing distant metastases (DM) (i.e, at any time during observation) was significantly greater in the RT-first arm. The first sites of failure in the RT-first and CT-first arms were: local failure (LF) with or without simultaneous DM or regional nodal failure (RNF) - 9 vs. 14; RNF without other failure - 0 vs. 2; and DM (with or without simultaneous RNF) - 36 vs. 18. Of note, 1 LF in the RT-first arm was among the 2 pts who refused their assigned sequence. Because of differing lengths of potential observation for each pt, the 5-yr crude failure rates were used to assess the difference in patterns of failure. The difference was of borderline significance. The proportions of pts receiving at least 85% of the planned drug doses were lower in the RT-first arm than the CT-first arm for cyclophosphamide (46% v. 64%, p-bar=0.006), doxorubicin (43% vs. 64%, p-bar=0.002), and d.15 methotrexate (22% vs. 46%, p-bar=0.0002). There were no differences between the arms in the d.1 methotrexate or 5FU doses. Conclusions: The overall risk of distant failure was higher in the RT-first arm in this study. This may reflect both the longer interval to initiating CT and the lower drug doses given in pts first receiving RT. The risk of local failure was higher in the CT-first arm, consistent with prior studies suggesting that the SRI has an impact on the effectiveness of RT. Further study is needed of other factors that may affect these results. Alternative ways of combining RT and CT which do not sacrifice their effectiveness while minimizing treatment toxicity should be explored

  15. Increased hsCRP is associated with higher risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyme, Adam; Nielsen, Olav W.; Asferg, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate relations between inflammation and aortic valve stenosis (AS) by measuring high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, at baseline (hsCRP0) and after 1 year (hsCRP1) and exploring associations with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Design We examined 1423 patients from...... the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. Results During first year of treatment, hsCRP was reduced both in patients later receiving AVR (2.3 [0.9–4.9] to 1.8 [0.8–5.4] mg/l, p CRP1...... predicted later AVR (HR = 1.17, p CRP0 (HR = 0.96, p = 0.33), aortic valve area (AVA) and other risk factors. A higher rate of AVR was observed in the group with high hsCRP0 and an increase during the first year (AVRhighCRP0CRP1inc=47.3% versus AVRhighCRP0CRP1dec=27.5%, p

  16. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  17. Red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid as possible inhibitory factor for enterovirus RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of hemoglobin in samples are considered an important inhibitory factor for polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of red blood cells (RBCs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an inhibitory factor to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for enteroviruses (EV. Forty-four CSF samples from patients showing characteristics of viral meningitis were assessed for EV by RT-PCR. Viral RNA extracted with guanidine isothyocianate buffer and virus detection was performed by in-house nested PCR. Positivity for EV RT-PCR was higher in CSF samples without RBCs than in samples with RBCs: 13(26% and 36(9.2%, p = 0.001. In the group with positive EV RT-PCR, the mean + SD CSF RBC was 37 ± 183 cell/mm3; the group with negative results had 580 + 2,890 cell/mm3 (p = 0.007. The acceptable upper limit for CSF RBCs that could not influence RT-PCR was 108 cells/mm3. CSF samples with negative results for EV RT-PCR have more erythrocytes.

  18. A meta-analysis of indicated mental health prevention programs for at-risk higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Colleen S; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Durlak, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    This meta-analysis found empirical support for the effectiveness of indicated prevention programs for higher education students at risk for subsequent mental health difficulties based on their current subclinical levels of various presenting problems, such as depression, anxiety, or interpersonal difficulties. A systematic literature search identified 79 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving 4,470 college, graduate, or professional students. Programs were effective at post-intervention overall (ES = 0.49, CI [0.43, 0.55]), and for both targeted outcomes (ES = 0.58, CI [0.51, 0.64]) as well as additional nontargeted outcomes assessed in the studies (ES = 0.32, CI [0.25, 0.39]). Interventions compared with a no-intervention or a wait-list control (ES = 0.64, CI [0.57, 0.71], k = 68) demonstrated significantly larger effects overall than did interventions compared with an attention-placebo control (ES = 0.27, CI [0.11, 0.43], k = 11), although both were significant. Among the former group, modality and presenting problem emerged as significant moderators of intervention effectiveness, and among the 43 of these that assessed effectiveness at an average follow-up period of 35 weeks, the positive effects from intervention remained strong (ES = 0.59, CI [0.50, 0.68]). Overall, programs were fairly brief, attracted and retained students, were positively rated by students, and effective when administered by paraprofessionals as well as professionals. Current findings are promising and stimulate recommendations for improving future research, such as expanding the range of outcomes assessed, and clarifying moderators and mediators of intervention impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Tumor Volume Changes on 1.5 Tesla Endorectal MRI During Neoadjuvant Androgen Suppression Therapy for Higher-Risk Prostate Cancer and Recurrence in Men Treated Using Radiation Therapy Results of the Phase II CALGB 9682 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Halabi, Susan; Tempany, Clare; Titelbaum, David; Philips, George K.; Loffredo, Marian; McMahon, Elizabeth; Sanford, Ben; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Small, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We prospectively determined whether the change in tumor volume (TV) during 2 months of neoadjuvant androgen suppression therapy (nAST) measured using conventional 1.5 Tesla endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) was associated with the risk of recurrence after radiation (RT) and 6 months of AST. Patients and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 180 men with clinical stage T1c-T3cN0M0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate were registered. Fifteen were found to be ineligible and the institutional MR radiologist could not assess the TV in 32, leaving 133 for analysis. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess whether a significant association existed between eMRI-defined TV progression during nAST and time to recurrence adjusting for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score (8 to 10 or 7 vs. 6 or less) and stage (T3 vs. T1-2). Results: After a median follow up of 6.7 years and adjusting for known prognostic factors, there was a significant increase in the risk of PSA failure (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = 0.025) in men with eMRI-defined TV progression during nAST. Specifically, adjusted estimates of PSA failure were significantly higher (p = 0.032) in men with, compared with men without, eMRI-defined TV progression reaching 38% vs. 19%, respectively, by 5 years. Conclusion: Eradicating intraprostatic hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) by maximizing local control and randomized trials assessing whether survival is improved when agents active against HRPC are combined with maximal local therapy are needed in men who progress based on eMRI during nAST

  20. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  1. Management and Development of the RT Research Facilities and Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Nho, Young Chang; Kim, Jae Sung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project are to operate the core facilities of the research for the Radiation Technology in stable and to assist the research activities efficiently in the industry, academic, and research laboratory. By developing the infrastructure of the national radio technology industry, we can activate the researching area of the RT and the related industry, and obtain the primary and original technology. The key point in the study of the RT and the assistance of the industry, academic, and research laboratory for the RT area smoothly, is managing the various of unique radiation facilities in our country. The gamma Phytotron and Gene Bank are essential in the agribiology because these facilities are used to preserve and utilize the genes and to provide an experimental field for the environment and biotechnology. The Radiation Fusion Technology research supporting facilities are the core support facilities, and are used to develop the high-tech fusion areas. In addition, the most advanced analytical instruments, whose costs are very high, should be managed in stable and be utilized in supporting works, and the experimental animal supporting laboratory and Gamma Cell have to be maintained in high level and managed in stable also. The ARTI have been developed the 30MeV cyclotron during 2005∼2006, aimed to produce radioisotopes and to research the beam applications as a result of the project, 'Establishment of the Infrastructure for the Atomic Energy Research Expansion', collaborated with the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. In addition, the ARTI is in the progress of establishing cyclotron integrated complex as a core research facility, using a proton beam to produce radioisotopes and to support a various research areas. The measurement and evaluation of the irradiation dose, and irradiation supporting technology of the Good Irradiation Practice(GIP) are essential in various researching areas. One thing to remember is that the publicity

  2. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2017-06-10

    This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood ( p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity ( p = 0.046) and an increased HSI ( p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI ( p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  3. Experiment vs simulation RT WFNDEC 2014 benchmark: CIVA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M.; Rattoni, B.; Vienne, C.; Vabre, A.; Cattiaux, G.; Sollier, T.

    2015-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission and Alternative Energies (CEA) has developed for years the CIVA software dedicated to simulation of NDE techniques such as Radiographic Testing (RT). RT modelling is achieved in CIVA using combination of a determinist approach based on ray tracing for transmission beam simulation and a Monte Carlo model for the scattered beam computation. Furthermore, CIVA includes various detectors models, in particular common x-ray films and a photostimulable phosphor plates. This communication presents the results obtained with the configurations proposed in the World Federation of NDEC 2014 RT modelling benchmark with the RT models implemented in the CIVA software

  4. Experiment vs simulation RT WFNDEC 2014 benchmark: CIVA results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisseur, D., E-mail: david.tisseur@cea.fr; Costin, M., E-mail: david.tisseur@cea.fr; Rattoni, B., E-mail: david.tisseur@cea.fr; Vienne, C., E-mail: david.tisseur@cea.fr; Vabre, A., E-mail: david.tisseur@cea.fr; Cattiaux, G., E-mail: david.tisseur@cea.fr [CEA LIST, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Sollier, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P.17 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

    2015-03-31

    The French Atomic Energy Commission and Alternative Energies (CEA) has developed for years the CIVA software dedicated to simulation of NDE techniques such as Radiographic Testing (RT). RT modelling is achieved in CIVA using combination of a determinist approach based on ray tracing for transmission beam simulation and a Monte Carlo model for the scattered beam computation. Furthermore, CIVA includes various detectors models, in particular common x-ray films and a photostimulable phosphor plates. This communication presents the results obtained with the configurations proposed in the World Federation of NDEC 2014 RT modelling benchmark with the RT models implemented in the CIVA software.

  5. Radiotherapy did not increase thyroid cancer risk among women with breast cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an increased risk of thyroid cancer exists among women with breast cancer in Taiwan, particularly among those receiving RT. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan for the investigation. The breast cancer cohort contained 55,318 women (including 28,187 who received RT and 27,131 who received no RT), each of whom was randomly frequency matched according to age and index year with three women without breast cancer from the general population. Cox's proportion hazards regression analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of breast cancer with or without RT treatment on subsequent thyroid cancer risk. We found that women with breast cancer exhibited a significantly higher risk of subsequent thyroid cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60-2.44). The two groups (with or without RT) in the breast cancer cohort exhibited significantly increased risks. However, in the breast cancer cohort, the risk of thyroid cancer among women who received RT was not significantly higher than that of women who received no RT (aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.90-1.83). Stratified analysis according to age revealed that only younger women with breast cancer (20-54 y) had a significantly higher risk of developing thyroid cancer. This study determined that Taiwanese women with breast cancer had a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer; however, RT seems to not play a crucial role in this possible relationship. © 2015 UICC.

  6. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type?2 diabetes: A meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping?Yu; Fang, Jun?Chao; Gao, Zong?Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu?Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta‐analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Meth...

  7. RT-PCR for detection of all seven genotypes of Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Morón, S; Avellón, A; Echevarría, J E

    2006-08-01

    The Lyssavirus genus includes seven species or genotypes named 1-7. Rabies genotypes correlate with geographical distribution and specific hosts. Co-circulation of different lyssaviruses, imported cases, and the presence of unknown viruses, such as Aravan, Khujand, Irkut and West Caucasian Bat Virus, make it necessary to use generic methods able to detect all lyssaviruses. Primer sequences were chosen from conserved regions in all genotypes in order to optimise a generic RT-PCR. Serial dilutions of 12 RNA extracts from all seven Lyssavirus genotypes were examined to compare the sensitivity of the RT-PCR standardised in this study with a published RT-PCR optimised for EBLV1 detection and capable of amplifying RNA from all seven lyssaviruses. All seven genotypes were detected by both RT-PCRs, however, the sensitivity was higher with the new version of the test. Twenty samples submitted for rabies diagnosis were tested by the new RT-PCR. Eight out of 20 samples from six dogs, one horse and one bat were found positive, in agreement with immunofluorescence results. Seven samples from terrestrial mammals were genotype 1 and one from a bat was genotype 5. In conclusion, this method can be used to complement immunofluorescence for the diagnosis of rabies, enabling the detection of unexpected lyssaviruses during rabies surveillance.

  8. Poor nutritional status is associated with a higher risk of falling and fracture in elderly people living at home in France: the Three-City cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Féart, C; Samieri, C; Dorigny, B; Luiking, Y; Berr, C; Barberger-Gateau, P; Letenneur, L

    2015-08-01

    Falling and fractures are a public health problem in elderly people. The aim of our study was to investigate whether nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling or fracture in community-dwelling elderly. Poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures. Nutrition could play a role to prevent falls and fractures. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a poor nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling and of fracture in community dwelling elderly. Baseline nutritional status of participants was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). After a follow-up of 12 years, 6040 individuals with available data for falls and 6839 for fracture were included. People who presented the outcomes at baseline were excluded. Cox models were used to evaluate the associations between nutritional status and the risks of fall or fracture. The frequency of poor nutritional status (MNA ≤ 23.5), at baseline, was respectively 12.0% in the "fall study sample" and 12.8% in the "fracture study sample." Incident fall and fracture over 12 years were reported in 55.8 and 18.5% of the respective samples, respectively. In multivariate models controlled for sociodemographic data and several baseline health indicators, poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of falling (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35-2.04 in men and HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 in women) and with a higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Poor nutritional status was associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures in French elderly community-dwellers. Early screening and management of the nutritional status may be useful to reduce the frequency of these events in older people.

  9. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age - A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors - responsible for age-related differences in decision making - are additionally pointed out.

  10. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Liebherr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.

  11. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out. PMID:29270145

  12. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at 'higher risk' of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J

    2015-04-01

    To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at 'higher risk' of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Prospective cohort study. OUs and planned home births in England. 8180 'higher risk' women in the Birthplace cohort. We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. The risk of 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97-3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. The babies of 'higher risk' women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between the groups. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John

  13. Infections after shoulder arthroplasty are correlated with higher anesthetic risk score: a case-control study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Hideto Nagaya

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence suggesting that patient-related known factors such as higher ASA score predisposes to shoulder arthroplasty-associated infection. Furthermore, unusual pathogens associated with PSI were identified.

  14. Kidney Transplant Recipients With Primary Membranous Glomerulonephritis Have a Higher Risk of Acute Rejection Compared With Other Primary Glomerulonephritides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Singh, MD

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions. Patients with MN have higher incidence of acute rejection after kidney transplant but have similar 10-year allograft survival in comparison to the other glomerular diseases like IgAN, FSGS, and LN.

  15. Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a highly specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that allows one to detect very low transcription levels of functional gene(s) in soil. RT-qPCR helps us to know the active members of the microbial community, and their activities can be ...

  16. Higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in childhood predict adverse cardiovascular risk in early adulthood: the Pune Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Katre, Prachi A; Joshi, Suyog M; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Bhat, Dattatray S; Lubree, Himangi G; Memane, Nilam; Kinare, Arun S; Pandit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A; Bavdekar, Ashish; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-07-01

    The Pune Children's Study aimed to test whether glucose and insulin measurements in childhood predict cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. We followed up 357 participants (75% follow-up) at 21 years of age who had undergone detailed measurements at 8 years of age (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and other indices). Oral glucose tolerance, anthropometry, plasma lipids, BP, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at 21 years. Higher fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR at 8 years predicted higher glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, BP, lipids and IMT at 21 years. A 1 SD change in 8 year variables was associated with a 0.10-0.27 SD change at 21 years independently of obesity/adiposity at 8 years of age. A greater rise in glucose-insulin variables between 8 and 21 years was associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors, including PWV. Participants whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the highest quartile (n = 31) had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile compared with those whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the lowest quartile (n = 28). Prepubertal glucose-insulin metabolism is associated with adult cardiovascular risk and markers of atherosclerosis. Our results support interventions to improve glucose-insulin metabolism in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk in later life.

  17. Is Group Sex a Higher-Risk Setting for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Compared With Dyadic Sex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2016-01-01

    Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex

  18. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  19. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  20. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55 and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55 were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252, hepatic steatosis index (HSI, fatty liver index (FLI (both N = 253, and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249. Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003. A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046 and an increased HSI (p = 0.006, while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009. Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1. Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  1. Balance and gait performance after maximal and submaximal endurance exercise in seniors: is there a higher fall-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Roth, Ralf; Fricker, Livia; Cordes, Mareike; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Faude, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Impaired balance and gait performance increase fall-risk in seniors. Acute effects of different exercise bouts on gait and balance were not yet addressed. Therefore, 19 healthy seniors (10 women, 9 men, age: 64.6 ± 3.2 years) were examined on 3 days. After exhaustive treadmill testing, participants randomly completed a 2-km treadmill walking test (76 ± 8 % VO(2max)) and a resting control condition. Standing balance performance (SBALP) was assessed by single limb-eyes opened (SLEO) and double limb-eyes closed (DLEC) stance. Gait parameters were collected at comfortable walking velocity. A condition × time interaction of center of pressure path length (COP(path)) was observed for both balance tasks (p fall-risk in seniors. Balance changes upon 2-km testing might be of minor relevance. Gait is not affected during single task walking at given velocities.

  2. Female medical students are estimated to have a higher risk for developing eating disorders than male medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissing, Agnete Skovlund; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard; Petersson, Birgit H

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context. All first-year medical students (n = 979) received a questionnaire related to body perception, exercise habits, eating habits, height and weight in the fall of 2006 and 2007. The response rate was 57% (n = 561). The gender distribution of the study population was 71.8% females and 28.2% males and the average age was 21.5 years. More males (89.8%) than females (73.1%) were satisfied with their body and more females (34.8%) than males (10.9%) felt too fat. More females (42.7%) than males (19.9%) felt guilty when eating unhealthy food. 2.3% (all females) claimed to feel anxiety when they were about to eat. More males (48.4%) than females (28.6%) stated that they could not keep themselves from exercising. 13.5% of the underweight females (body mass index eating disorders than male students. Future research in this area should address the causes of such behaviour.

  3. Lower Plasma Fetuin-A Levels Are Associated With a Higher Mortality Risk in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuechen; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Li, Qing; Li, Yanping; Ling, Wenhua

    2017-11-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the association of circulating fetuin-A with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We measured plasma fetuin-A in 1620 patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The patients were members of the Guangdong coronary artery disease cohort and were recruited between October 2008 and December 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma fetuin-A and the risk of mortality. A total of 206 deaths were recorded during a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 146 of whom died from CVD. The hazard ratios for the second and third tertiles of the fetuin-A levels (using the first tertile as a reference) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.96) and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) for CVD mortality ( P =0.005) and 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.91) and 0.48 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.70) for all-cause mortality ( P <0.001), respectively. Lower plasma fetuin-A levels were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in patients with coronary artery disease independently of traditional CVD risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Is Anesthesia Technique Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality or Complications Within 90 Days of Surgery for Geriatric Patients With Hip Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Vimal; Chan, Priscilla H; Prentice, Heather A; Zohman, Gary L; Diekmann, Glenn R; Maletis, Gregory B; Fasig, Brian H; Diaz, Diana; Chung, Elena; Qiu, Chunyuan

    2018-06-01

    Postoperative mortality and complications after geriatric hip fracture surgery remain high despite efforts to improve perioperative care for these patients. One factor of particular interest is anesthetic technique, but prior studies on this are limited by sample selection, competing risks, and incomplete followup. (1) Among older patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture, does 90-day mortality differ depending on the type of anesthesia received? (2) Do 90-day emergency department returns and hospital readmissions differ based on anesthetic technique after geriatric hip fracture repairs? (3) Do 90-day Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) outcomes differ according to anesthetic techniques used during hip fracture surgery? We conducted a retrospective study on geriatric patients (65 years or older) with hip fractures between 2009 and 2014 using the Kaiser Permanente Hip Fracture Registry. A total of 1995 (11%) of the surgically treated patients with hip fracture were excluded as a result of missing anesthesia information. The final study sample consisted of 16,695 patients. Of these, 2027 (12%) died and 98 (< 1%) terminated membership during followup, which were handled as competing events and censoring events, respectively. Ninety-day mortality, emergency department returns, hospital readmission, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarction (MI), and pneumonia were evaluated using multivariable competing risk proportional subdistribution hazard regression according to type of anesthesia technique: general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, or conversion from regional to general. Of the 16,695 patients, 58% (N = 9629) received general anesthesia, 40% (N = 6597) received regional anesthesia, and 2.8% (N = 469) patients were converted from regional to general. Compared with regional anesthesia, patients treated with general anesthesia had a higher likelihood of overall 90-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95

  5. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study, ...

  6. Short repeats in the heme oxygenase 1 gene promoter is associated with increased levels of inflammation, ferritin and higher risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mónica; Leiva, Elba; Arredondo-Olguín, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the HO1 genotype, ferritin levels and the risk of type-2 diabetes and inflammation. Eight hundred thirty-five individuals were evaluated and classified according to their nutritional status and the presence of type-2 diabetes: 153 overweight (OW); 62 obese (OB); 55 type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM); 202 OWDM; 239 OBDM and 124 controls (C). We studied biochemical (glycemia, insulin, lipid profile, liver enzyme, creatinine, hsCRP), hematological (hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin receptor and serum Fe and ferritin) and oxidative stress (SOD, GHS and TBARS) parameters. We determined heme oxygenase activity and the (GT)n polymorphism in its gene promoter. Individuals with diabetes, independent of nutritional status, showed high levels of ferritin and HO activity compared to control subjects. Allelic frequency was not different between the groups (Chi(2), NS) however, genotypes were different (Chi(2), P1). The SS (short-short) genotype was higher in all DM individuals compared to controls and MM was higher in controls. SM (short-medium) genotype was an independent risk factor for DM in logistic regression analysis. We observed high risk for type-2 diabetes mellitus in the presence of SM genotype and high levels of ferritin (OR adjusted: 2.7; 1.9-3.6; p1; compared to control group). It was also significantly related to inflammation. The SM genotype in HO1 gene promoter and ferritin levels were associated with higher risk for type-2 diabetes and for having a higher marker of inflammation, which is the main risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼napping 0 min (all above p napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes.

  8. Polygenic Risk Score Identifies Subgroup With Higher Burden of Atherosclerosis and Greater Relative Benefit From Statin Therapy in the Primary Prevention Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Young, Robin; Stitziel, Nathan O; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sartori, Samantha; Fuster, Valentin; Reilly, Dermot F; Butterworth, Adam; Rader, Daniel J; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-05-30

    Relative risk reduction with statin therapy has been consistent across nearly all subgroups studied to date. However, in analyses of 2 randomized controlled primary prevention trials (ASCOT [Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid-Lowering Arm] and JUPITER [Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin]), statin therapy led to a greater relative risk reduction among a subgroup at high genetic risk. Here, we aimed to confirm this observation in a third primary prevention randomized controlled trial. In addition, we assessed whether those at high genetic risk had a greater burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. We studied participants from a randomized controlled trial of primary prevention with statin therapy (WOSCOPS [West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study]; n=4910) and 2 observational cohort studies (CARDIA [Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults] and BioImage; n=1154 and 4392, respectively). For each participant, we calculated a polygenic risk score derived from up to 57 common DNA sequence variants previously associated with coronary heart disease. We compared the relative efficacy of statin therapy in those at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic risk score) versus all others (WOSCOPS), as well as the association between the polygenic risk score and coronary artery calcification (CARDIA) and carotid artery plaque burden (BioImage). Among WOSCOPS trial participants at high genetic risk, statin therapy was associated with a relative risk reduction of 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-60; P statin therapy was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.0-5.1) among those in the high genetic risk group and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.6-1.9) in all others. Each 1-SD increase in the polygenic risk score was associated with 1.32-fold (95% CI, 1.04-1.68) greater likelihood of having coronary artery calcification and 9.7% higher (95% CI, 2.2-17.8) burden of carotid plaque. Those at high genetic risk have a greater

  9. Initial Steps to inform selection of continuation cognitive therapy or fluoxetine for higher risk responders to cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Anna Clark, Lee; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2017-07-01

    Responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy (A-CT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) often relapse or recur, but continuation-phase cognitive therapy (C-CT) or fluoxetine reduces risks for some patients. We tested composite moderators of C-CT versus fluoxetine's preventive effects to inform continuation treatment selection. Responders to A-CT for MDD judged to be at higher risk for relapse due to unstable or partial remission (N=172) were randomized to 8 months of C-CT or fluoxetine with clinical management and assessed, free from protocol treatment, for 24 additional months. Pre-continuation-treatment characteristics that in survival analyses moderated treatments' effects on relapse over 8 months of continuation-phase treatment (residual symptoms and negative temperament) and on relapse/recurrence over the full observation period's 32 months (residual symptoms and age) were combined to estimate the potential advantage of C-CT versus fluoxetine for individual patients. Assigning patients to optimal continuation treatment (i.e., to C-CT or fluoxetine, depending on patients' pre-continuation-treatment characteristics) resulted in absolute reduction of relapse or recurrence risk by 16-21% compared to the other non-optimal treatment. Although these novel results require replication before clinical application, selecting optimal continuation treatment (i.e., personalizing treatment) for higher risk A-CT responders may decrease risks of MDD relapse and recurrence substantively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors influencing maternal decision-making for the infant sleep environment in families at higher risk of SIDS: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant sleep position, co-sleeping, smoking, dummy use, feeding and disrupted routines. The interviews were transcribed, coded and thematic analysis carried out. Participants were invited based on an algorithm developed in a previous SIDS case control study that identified an increased risk of SIDS from four demographic characteristics: young maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, three or more children, and a measure of deprivation. The presence of three, or more characteristics led to being invited to take part in the qualitative study. Factors influencing mothers' adherence to the safe sleep messages included previous experience and the credibility of the advice given. They described disrupted routines that led to risky scenarios with a belief that occasional risks were acceptable. Where circumstances made following the advice more difficult they found alternative strategies to reduce the risk, including the use of movement monitors, regular checking and a belief that lighter maternal sleep in the presence of a baby was protective. Safer sleep messages should be tailored to fit with the lived realities of mothers, especially those at higher risk. The traditional list of 'do's' and 'don'ts' was not well accepted by this group. Interventions that seek to influence this higher-risk group should acknowledge mothers' own protective instincts and consider their beliefs and understanding behind the safer sleep messages if they are to be effective and encourage this group to change.

  11. Azacitidine in the 'real-world': an evaluation of 1101 higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/low blast count acute myeloid leukaemia patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozessohn, Lee; Cheung, Matthew C; Fallahpour, Saber; Gill, Tripat; Maloul, Asmaa; Zhang, Liying; Lau, Olivia; Buckstein, Rena

    2018-06-01

    The outcome of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with uniformly higher-risk disease treated with azacitidine (AZA) in the 'real-world' remains largely unknown. We evaluated 1101 consecutive higher-risk MDS patients (International Prognostic Scoring System intermediate-2/high) and low-blast count acute myeloid leukaemia (AML; 21-30% blasts) patients treated in Ontario, Canada. By dosing schedule, 24·7% received AZA for seven consecutive days, 12·4% for six consecutive days and 62·9% by 5-2-2. Overall, median number of cycles was 6 (range 1-67) and 8 (range 6-14) when restricted to the 692 (63%) patients who received at least 4 cycles. The actuarial median survival was 11·6 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 10·7-12·4) for the entire cohort and 18·0 months (landmark analysis; 95% CI 16·6-19·1 months) for those receiving at least 4 cycles. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the 3 dosing schedules (P = 0·87). In our large 'real-world' evaluation of AZA in higher-risk MDS/low-blast count AML, we demonstrated a lower than expected OS. Reassuringly, survival did not differ by dosing schedules. The OS was higher in the 2/3 of patients who received at least 4 cycles of treatment, reinforcing the necessity of sustained administration until therapeutic benefits are realised. This represents the largest 'real-world' evaluation of AZA in higher-risk MDS/low-blast count AML. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M

    2017-03-08

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring ( n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference ( p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure ( p = 0.003), and glucose levels ( p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight ( p zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  13. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  14. Loss of breast epithelial marker hCLCA2 promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition and indicates higher risk of metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vijay; Yu, Yang; Cao, Deshou; Sun, Miao; McLean, Janel R.; Hollier, Brett G.; Cheng, Jiming; Mani, Sendurai A.; Rao, Krishna; Premkumar, Louis; Elble, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states is a feature of both normal development and tumor progression. We report that expression of chloride channel accessory protein hCLCA2 is a characteristic of epithelial differentiation in the immortalized MCF10A and HMLE models, while induction of EMT by cell dilution, TGFbeta, or mesenchymal transcription factors sharply reduces hCLCA2 levels. Attenuation of hCLCA2 expression by lentiviral shRNA caused cell overgrowth and focus formation, enhanced migration and invasion, and increased mammosphere formation in methylcellulose. These changes were accompanied by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and fibronectin. Moreover, hCLCA2 expression is greatly downregulated in breast cancer cells with a mesenchymal or claudin-low profile. These observations suggest that loss of hCLCA2 may promote metastasis. We find that higher-than-median expression of hCLCA2 is associated with a one-third lower rate of metastasis over an 18 year period among breast cancer patients compared to lower-than-median (n=344, unfiltered for subtype). Thus, hCLCA2 is required for epithelial differentiation, and its loss during tumor progression contributes to metastasis. Overexpression of hCLCA2 has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and is accompanied by increases in chloride current at the plasma membrane and reduced intracellular pH (pHi). We found that knockdown cells have sharply reduced chloride current and higher pHi, both characteristics of tumor cells. These results suggest a mechanism for the effects on differentiation. Loss of hCLCA2 may allow escape from pHi homeostatic mechanisms, permitting the higher intracellular and lower extracellular pH that are characteristic of aggressive tumor cells. PMID:21909135

  15. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-08-12

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) after adjusting for various confounders. A strong inverse association was found between freshwater fish intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 53% (OR 0.47, 95% CI = 0.36-0.60, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk. These results indicate that higher consumption of freshwater fish, sea fish and fresh fish is associated with a lower risk of colorectal caner.

  16. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  17. Delay of surgery after stent placement for resectable malignant colorectal obstruction is associated with higher risk of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Malene; Kobborg, Martin; Frostberg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-expanding metal stents can be used as bridge to elective surgery for acute malignant colonic obstruction. However, the impact on long-term oncological outcome and the optimal timing of surgery are still unknown. METHOD: This was a retrospective multicenter study performed at four...... colorectal centers. Patients undergoing stent placement as bridge to surgery, between January 2010 and December 2013, were included in the study. Primary outcomes were survival and recurrence rates along with location of the metastases. Additionally, we recorded time from stent placement to elective surgery....... Secondary outcomes were postoperative complication rates. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification score. A logistic regression model was used to describe impact of delayed stent removal on risk of recurrence. RESULTS: This study included 112 patients, with a median follow...

  18. Is the risk of atrial fibrillation higher in athletes than in the general population? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Nielsen, Jens Rokkedal; Abdulla, Jawdat

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine by a systematic literature review and meta-analysis whether the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) is higher in athletes compared with not athletes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A comprehensive systematic search was conducted for case-control studies that examined....... There were 147 (23%) vs. 116 (12.5%) cases of AF among athletes compared with controls. The overall risk of AF was significantly higher in athletes than in controls with odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=5.29 (3.57-7.85), P=0.0001, and Z-score=8.08. For heterogeneity, the calculated chi2=2.92, P=0...

  19. rt, Arvo: "Miserere", "Festina lente" / Volkmar Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Volkmar

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist Pärt, Arvo: "Miserere", "Festina lente", "Sarah Was Ninety Years Old". The Hilliard Ensemble. Orchester der Beethovenhalle Bonn. Dirigent Dennis Russel Davies (ECM Records, distr Amigo)

  20. rt, Arvo: Seven Magnificat Antiphons / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: Seven Magnificat Antiphons. Magnificat. Summa; Tormis, Veljo: The Curse Upon Iron. Karelian Destiny. BBC Singers, Bo Holton". Collins Classics 1472-2 (61 minutes: DDD)

  1. Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zino

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... ecological studies - A review ... The objective of this review is to assess the importance of RT-qPCR in soil related ... phenol extraction step with heat inactivation of the added .... Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  2. rt, Arvo. Litany; Psalom; Trisagion / Andreas Obst

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obst, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    rt, Arvo. Litany; Psalom; Trisagion. Hilliard Ensemble, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Tõnu Kaljuste; Lithuanian Chamber Orchestra, Saulius Sondeckis. ECM 1592/449 810-2

  3. rt, Arvo: Litany. Psalom. Trisagion / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: Litany. Psalom. Trisagion. Hilliard Ensemble, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Tõnu Kaljuste; Lithuanian Chamber Orchestra, Saulius Sondeckis" ECM New Series 449 810-4; 449 810-2 (42 minutes: DDD)

  4. rt, Arvo: "Beatus". Statuit ei Dominus / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Beatus". Statuit ei Dominus. Missa syllabica. Beatus Petronius. 7 Magnificat-Antiphonen. De profundis. Memento. Cantate Domino. Solfeggio. Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, T. Kaljuste". Virgin Classics 545 276-2 (CD:167F)

  5. The value of research : telling the R&T story

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) plays a leadership role in shaping and executing a National Research and Technology (R&T) program. The agency also acts as a convener; collaborations with State, industry, and academic partners provide the fo...

  6. Milan Kundera poeediparukaga faun / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Arvustus: Kundera, Milan. Surematus. Tln. : Monokkel, 1995. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Hellerma, Kärt. Kohanenud kirjandus : valik kirjanduskriitikat 1987-2006. Eesti Keele Sihtasutus : Tallinn, 2006. Lk. 176-179

  7. Factors influencing maternal decision-making for the infant sleep environment in families at higher risk of SIDS:a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Pete; Fleming, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages.Design and setting: Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant ...

  8. Kuidas sünnib pealkiri? / Pärt Lias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lias, Pärt

    2003-01-01

    Eesti kirjanikud vastavad Pärt Liase küsimusele oma teoste pealkirjade saamisloo kohta: Doris Kareva, Ilona Laaman, Eha Lättemäe, Priidu Beier, Oskar Kruus, Jaan Kruusvall, Paul-Eerik Rummo ja Andres Vanapa (1); Triin Soomets, Priit Aimla, Aarne Puu, Einar Sander, Jüri Tuulik ja Ülo Tuulik (2); Nikolai Baturin, Leo Metsar, Toomas Vint, Leonid Stolovitš ja Pärt Lias (3)

  9. Plastic Surgery Overseas: How Much Should a Physician Risk in the Pursuit of Higher-Quality Continuity of Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikart, Scott

    2018-04-01

    In this article I discuss medical tourism, whereby patients go overseas for plastic surgery treatment in order to save money. However, if malpractice occurs abroad, there are several barriers that make it difficult for patients to recover damages. I explain these legal barriers and then discuss the possible causes of action patients can have over their "domestic physician" (their personal physician who might have referred surgery abroad or who gives postoperative follow-up care) and how these causes of action can create avenues of legal recovery not otherwise available. The possible liability of the domestic physician in the context of surgical malpractice abroad creates an ethical tension in the pursuit of higher-quality continuity of care, as the more involved the physician becomes in the process, the more likely he or she will assume liability. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Correlation between therapy and lipid profile of leprosy patients: is there a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases after treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosalba V G; de Araújo, Rafael S; Aarão, Tinara L S; da Silva Costa, Paulo Diovanne; Sousa, Jorge R; Quaresma, Juarez A S

    2017-05-01

    The impact of leprosy reduces health-related quality of life of affected patients, interfering with different factors such as nutrition. This study investigated the lipid profile, nutritional status, and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients who underwent leprosy treatment in Brazil. Eighty-four adult patients of both genders ranging in age from 20 to 60 years and diagnosed with paucibacillary (PB) or multibacillary (MB) leprosy were selected after undergoing multidrug treatment. The following data were collected: sociodemographic and clinical data; food intake; anthropometric measures (weight, height, and waist circumference); and lipid profile components (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], and triglycerides). Among the study population, there was a predominance of males (65.48%) aged 50 to 60 years, patients with an income of 248-496 American dollars (63.10%), patients who completed elementary school (65.48%), inactive patients (76.19%), non-smokers (46.43%), and non-drinking patients (69.05%). The levels (mean ± standard deviation) of total cholesterol were 193.8 ± 29.4 mg/dL in the PB form and 203.5 ± 41.7 mg/dL in the MB form. The mean LDL-c was 116.9 ± 22.7 mg/dL in PB patients and 121 ± 31.3 mg/dL in MB patients. Mean triglyceride levels were 123.4 ± 45.2 mg/dL in the PB form and 147.4 ± 88.9 mg/dL in the MB form. The evaluation of nutritional status showed that 41.67% of the patients were eutrophic, while 55.96% had excess weight. Food intake was significantly associated with HDL-c in male patients (P = 0.0264) and with triglycerides in patients above the ideal weight (P = 0.0049). The risk of acquiring CVDs was observed to be high due to patients' excess weight and increased waist circumference. This study will guide clinicians in the adequate treatment of patients with leprosy in order to avoid adverse cardiovascular

  11. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai; Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M.; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients

  12. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bentzen, Søren M., E-mail: bentzen@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

  13. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  14. Study of rt-PA therapy for acute stroke in older patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yasuhiro; Toyoshima, Atsuhiko; Toyota, Yasunori; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Katsumata, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Yuzo

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) therapy has been widely approved for acute ischemic stroke. We examined symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) and outcomes in older patients treated with rt-PA therapy. We divided 130 consecutive patients treated with rt-PA into two groups: 72 patients younger than 80 years (age <80 group) and 58 patients older than 80 years (age ≥80 group). On CT and MRI scans, SICH was observed in 5 patients (7.1%) in the age <80 group and 4 patients (6.9%) in the age ≥80 group. The SICH rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (odds ratio (OR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-2.39, P=0.6174). The patients in the age ≥80 group had a significantly lower mRS 0-1 rate (8.8 vs. 30.0%; OR 7.20, 95% CI 6.05-8.34, P=0.0009) and significantly higher mRS 6 (mortality) rate (19.3 vs. 9.0%; OR 6.52, 95% CI 5.39-7.65, P=0.0015) compared with those in the age <80 group. These data suggest that the factor of age is not related to SICH but is related to patients' outcomes in rt-PA therapy. (author)

  15. Breath-hold technique in conventional APPA or intensity-modulated radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Comparison of ILROG IS-RT and the GHSG IF-RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, Jan; Spickermann, Max; Lehrich, Philipp; Reinartz, Gabriele; Eich, Hans; Haverkamp, Uwe [University of Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [University Mainz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The present study addresses the role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in contrast to standard RT (APPA) for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) with a focus on deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique and a comparison between the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) Involved Site Radiotherapy (IS-RT) versus the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) Involved Field Radiotherapy (IF-RT). APPA treatment and 2 IMRT plans were compared for 11 patients with HL. Furthermore, treatment with DIBH versus free breathing (FB) and two different treatment volumes, i.e. IF-RT versus IS-RT, were compared. IMRT was planned as a sliding-window technique with 5 and 7 beam angles. For each patient 12 different treatment plans were calculated (132 plans). Following organs at risk (OAR) were analysed: lung, heart, spinal cord, oesophagus, female breast and skin. Comparisons of the different values with regard to dose-volume histograms (DVH), conformity and homogeneity indices were made. IS-RT reduces treatment volumes. With respect to the planning target volume (PTV), IMRT achieves better conformity but the same homogeneity. Regarding the D{sub mean} for the lung, IMRT shows increased doses, while RT in DIBH reduces doses. The IMRT shows improved values for D{sub max} concerning the spinal cord, whereas the APPA shows an improved D{sub mean} of the lung and the female breast. IS-RT reduces treatment volumes. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy shows advantages in the conformity. Treatment in DIBH also reduces the dose applied to the lungs and the heart. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Auswertung ist es, die konventionelle APPA-Feldanordnung mit der Intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie (IMRT) bei Patienten mit Hodgkin-Lymphom (HL) zu vergleichen. Ein besonderer Fokus liegt hierbei auf der Bestrahlung in tiefer Inspiration und Atemanhaltetechnik (DIBH). Des Weiteren wurde die ''Involved-site''-Radiotherapie (IS-RT) der International

  16. Highway proximity and black carbon from cookstoves as a risk factor for higher blood pressure in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James J; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yuqin; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-09-09

    Air pollution in China and other parts of Asia poses large health risks and is an important contributor to global climate change. Almost half of Chinese homes use biomass and coal fuels for cooking and heating. China's economic growth and infrastructure development has led to increased emissions from coal-fired power plants and an expanding fleet of motor vehicles. Black carbon (BC) from incomplete biomass and fossil fuel combustion is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and the second most important climate-forcing human emission. PM composition and sources may also be related to its human health impact. We enrolled 280 women living in a rural area of northwestern Yunnan where biomass fuels are commonly used. We measured their blood pressure, distance from major traffic routes, and daily exposure to BC (pyrolytic biomass combustion), water-soluble organic aerosol (organic aerosol from biomass combustion), and, in a subset, hopane markers (motor vehicle emissions) in winter and summer. BC had the strongest association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.3 mmHg; P water-soluble organic mass. The effect of BC on SBP was almost three times greater in women living near the highway [6.2 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 8.9 vs. 2.6 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.2]. Our findings suggest that BC from combustion emissions is more strongly associated with blood pressure than PM mass, and that BC's health effects may be larger among women living near a highway and with greater exposure to motor vehicle emissions.

  17. No Higher Risk of CRPS After External Fixation of Distal Radial Fractures - Subgroup Analysis Under Randomised Vitamin C Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Paul E; Kreis, Robert W; van der Meulen, Hub G; van der Elst, Maarten; Breederveld, Roelf S; Tuinebreijer, Wim E

    2010-02-17

    Operative and conservative treatment of wrist fractures might lead to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I.In our multicenter dose response study in which patients with distal radial fractures were randomly allocated to placebo or vitamin C in a daily dose of 200mg, 500mg or 1500mg during 50 days, an operated subgroup was analyzed.48 (of 427) fractures) were operated (11.2%). Twenty-nine patients (60%) were treated with external fixation, 14 patients (29%) with K-wiring according to Kapandji and five patients (10%) with internal plate fixation. The 379 remaining patients were treated with a plaster.In the operated group of patients who received vitamin C no CRPS (0/37) was seen in comparison with one case of CRPS (Kapandji technique) in the operated group who received placebo (1/11 = 9%, p=.23). There was no CRPS after external fixation.In the conservatively treated group 17 cases of CRPS (17/379 = 4.5%) occurred in comparison with one in case of CRPS in the operated group (1/48 = 2.1%, p=.71).External fixation doesn't necessarily lead to a higher incidence of CRPS in distal radial fractures. Vitamin C may also play a role in this. This subgroup analysis in operated distal radial fractures showed no CRPS occurrence with vitamin C prophylaxis.

  18. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2013-06-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1.2% energy) (P = 0.001). The GI was 4.0 points lower (95% CI: 2.1, 6.1) in the LGI compared with the HGI groups (P pressure (P children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention.

  20. Higher 5-HT1A autoreceptor binding as an endophenotype for major depressive disorder identified in high risk offspring - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milak, Matthew S; Pantazatos, Spiro; Rashid, Rain; Zanderigo, Francesca; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Oquendo, Maria A; Mulhern, Stephanie T; Miller, Jeffrey M; Burke, Ainsley K; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2018-04-13

    Higher serotonin-1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor binding potential (BP F ) has been found in major depressive disorder (MDD) during and between major depressive episodes. We investigated whether higher 5-HT 1A binding is a biologic trait transmitted to healthy high risk (HR) offspring of MDD probands. Data were collected contemporaneously from: nine HR, 30 depressed not-recently medicated (NRM) MDD, 18 remitted NRM MDD, 51 healthy volunteer (HV) subjects. Subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [ 11 C]WAY100635 to quantify 5-HT 1A BP F , estimated using metabolite, free fraction-corrected arterial input function and cerebellar white matter as reference region. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) of PET data evaluated group status classification of individuals. When tested across 13 regions of interest, an effect of diagnosis is found on BP F which remains significant after correction for sex, age, injected mass and dose: HR have higher BP F than HV (84.3% higher in midbrain raphe, 40.8% higher in hippocampus, mean BP F across all 13 brain regions is 49.9% ± 11.8% higher). Voxel-level BP F maps distinguish HR vs. HV. Elevated 5-HT 1A BP F appears to be a familially transmitted trait abnormality. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in a larger cohort and demonstrate the link to the familial transmission of mood disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  2. Efficacy of adjuvant therapy with 3.7 GBq radioactive iodine in intermediate-risk patients with 'higher risk features' and predictive value of postoperative nonstimulated thyroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Pedro W; Mourão, Gabriela F; Calsolari, Maria Regina

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant therapy with 3.7 GBq radioactive iodine (RAI) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) of intermediate risk with higher risk features and determined the predictive value of postoperative nonstimulated thyroglobulin (Tg). This was a prospective study including 85 patients with PTC of intermediate risk and higher risk features: tumor greater than 1 cm and aggressive histological subtype or vascular invasion; and/or more than three positive lymph node (LN) or LN greater than 1.5 cm or showing macroscopic extracapsular extension; and/or a combination of tumor greater than 4 cm, microscopic extrathyroidal extension, aggressive histology, and LN metastases (cN1). After thyroidectomy, all patients had nonstimulated Tg of at least 0.3 ng/ml and ultrasonography showed no anomalies. When evaluated 12 months after RAI therapy, an excellent response to initial therapy was achieved in 61 patients (71.7%). Structural disease was detected in five patients (5.9%). During follow-up, 6/80 patients (7.5%) without structural disease 1 year after RAI developed relapse. In the last assessment, 80 patients (94.1%) had nonstimulated Tg less than 1 ng/ml and no evidence of structural disease. There was no case of death because of the tumor. Postoperative nonstimulated Tg was a predictive factor of the main outcome (structural disease 1 year after RAI or recurrence) and the best cut-off was 1.8 ng/ml (sensitivity: 72.7%, specificity: 83.4%, negative predictive value: 95.4%). In patients with PTC of intermediate risk with higher risk features treated with 3.7 GBq RAI, postoperative nonstimulated Tg up to 1.8 ng/ml was a predictor of low risk of structural disease 1 year after therapy or recurrence.

  3. Randomized Phase III Noninferiority Study Comparing Two Radiotherapy Fractionation Schedules in Patients With Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, James J.; Amin, Mahul B.; Bruner, Deborah W.; Low, Daniel; Swanson, Gregory P.; Shah, Amit B.; D’Souza, David P.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Dayes, Ian S.; Seaward, Samantha A.; Hall, William A.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Faria, Sergio L.; Chen, Yuhchyau; Koontz, Bridget F.; Paulus, Rebecca; Sandler, Howard M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Conventional radiotherapy (C-RT) treatment schedules for patients with prostate cancer typically require 40 to 45 treatments that take place from > 8 to 9 weeks. Preclinical and clinical research suggest that hypofractionation—fewer treatments but at a higher dose per treatment—may produce similar outcomes. This trial was designed to assess whether the efficacy of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (H-RT) treatment schedule is no worse than a C-RT schedule in men with low-risk prostate cancer. Patients and Methods A total of 1,115 men with low-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned 1:1 to C-RT (73.8 Gy in 41 fractions over 8.2 weeks) or to H-RT (70 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.6 weeks). This trial was designed to establish (with 90% power and an α of .05) that treatment with H-RT results in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) that is not worse than C-RT by more than 7.65% (H-RT/C-RT hazard ratio [HR] < 1.52). Results A total of 1,092 men were protocol eligible and had follow-up information; 542 patients were assigned to C-RT and 550 to H-RT. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Baseline characteristics were not different according to treatment assignment. The estimated 5-year DFS was 85.3% (95% CI, 81.9 to 88.1) in the C-RT arm and 86.3% (95% CI, 83.1 to 89.0) in the H-RT arm. The DFS HR was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.14), and the predefined noninferiority criterion that required that DFS outcomes be consistent with HR < 1.52 was met (P < .001). Late grade 2 and 3 GI and genitourinary adverse events were increased (HR, 1.31 to 1.59) in patients who were treated with H-RT. Conclusion In men with low-risk prostate cancer, the efficacy of 70 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.6 weeks is not inferior to 73.8 Gy in 41 fractions over 8.2 weeks, although an increase in late GI/genitourinary adverse events was observed in patients treated with H-RT. PMID:27044935

  4. Post-ischemic stroke rehabilitation is associated with a higher risk of fractures in older women: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huei Kai; Lin, Shu Man; Yang, Clement Shih Hsien; Liang, Chung Chao; Cheng, Hung Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation can improve physical activity after stroke. However, patients may be more prone to falls and fractures because of balance and gait deficits. Few reports have studied the relationship between rehabilitation and subsequent fractures after ischemic stroke. To investigate whether post-stroke rehabilitation affects fracture risk. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a newly diagnosed ischemic stroke between 2000 and 2012 were included. After propensity score matching, a total of 8,384 patients were enrolled. Half of the patients (4,192) received post-stroke rehabilitation within 1 month; the other half did not receive any post-stroke rehabilitation. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures among patients with and without rehabilitation within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Patients were further stratified by sex and age (20-64 and ≥65 years). Patients receiving post-stroke rehabilitation had a higher incidence of fracture (6.2 per 100 person-years) than those who did not (4.1 per 100 person-years) after adjustment for sociodemographic and coexisting medical conditions [HR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-1.87, p rehabilitation had a significantly higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.21-2.17, p = 0.001). Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke is associated with an increased fracture risk in older women.

  5. Snacking between main meals is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN Project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Zazpe, Itziar; Lopez-Iracheta, Roberto; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association of snacking between main meals with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Snack consumption was evaluated using the question: 'Do you have the habit of snacking between main meals?' Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95 % confidence intervals using Poisson regression models. An exploratory factor analysis was also used to identify patterns of snacking. University of Navarra, Spain. The study included 6851 university graduates, initially free of metabolic syndrome, and followed-up them for a median of 8·3 years. Among our participants, 34·6% reported usual snacking between main meals. The cumulative incidence of metabolic syndrome was 5·1 % (9·5% among men and 2·8% among women). Snacking between main meals was significantly associated with higher risk for developing metabolic syndrome after multivariable adjustment (RR=1·44; 95%CI 1·18, 1·77). Higher adherence to an 'unhealthy snacking pattern' was also independently associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (fourth quartile of adherence compared with non-snacking: RR=1·68; 95% CI 1·23, 2·29; P for trend metabolic syndrome development, especially when snacks contain foods of poor nutritional quality.

  6. Glycemic control paradox: Poor glycemic control associated with higher one-year and eight-year risks of all-cause hospitalization but lower one-year risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsai-Chung; Kardia, Sharon L R; Li, Chia-Ing; Chen, Ching-Chu; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Yang, Sing-Yu; Muo, Chin-Shin; Peyser, Patricia A; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between glycemic control and adverse outcomes found in a population with diabetes has seldom been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes. We explored the association between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and hospitalization risks within one-year and eight-year follow-up periods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 57,061 patients with type 2 diabetes from National Diabetes Case Management Program during 2002-2004 in Taiwan. HbA1c at baseline and in-hospital mortality, all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization over one year and eight years were analyzed. After multivariate adjustment, one-year risk was higher for cases with HbA1c level risk of hypoglycemia hospitalization (0.81, 95% CI: 0.74-0.88). For eight-year risk, subjects with HbA1c level risks of all-cause and diabetes-related hospitalization (1.04, 1.03-1.05, and 1.15, 1.14-1.17, respectively). Higher HbA1c level correlated with lower one-year risk due to hypoglycemia hospitalization but increased one-year and eight-year risks due to all-cause and diabetes-specific hospitalization among Chinese people with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. Future study must ascertain how to meet HbA1c targets and improve outcome without risk to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Reaumuria trigyna transcription factor RtWRKY1 confers tolerance to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Zhao, Pingping; Zhang, Huirong; Li, Ningning; Zheng, Linlin; Wang, Yingchun

    2017-08-01

    Reaumuria trigyna (R. trigyna) is an endangered small shrub endemic to the Eastern Alxa-Western Ordos area in Inner Mongolia, China. Based on R. trigyna transcriptome data, the Group I WRKY transcription factor gene RtWRKY1 was cloned from R. trigyna. The full-length RtWRKY1 gene was 2100bp, including a 1261-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 573 amino acids. RtWRKY1 was mainly expressed in the stem and was induced by salt, cold stress, and ABA treatment. Overexpression of RtWRKY1 in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced the chlorophyll content, root length, and fresh weight of the transgenic lines under salt stress. RtWRKY1 transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited higher proline content, GSH-PX, POD, SOD, and CAT activities, and lower MDA content, Na + content, and Na + /K + ratio than wild-type Arabidopsis under salt stress conditions. Salt stress affected the expression of ion transport, proline biosynthesis, and antioxidant related genes, including AtAPX1, AtCAT1, AtSOD1, AtP5CS1, AtP5CS2, AtPRODH1, AtPRODH2, and AtSOS1 in transgenic lines. RtWRKY1 confers tolerance to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis by regulating plant growth, osmotic balance, Na + /K + homeostasis, and the antioxidant system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Azacitidine improves outcome in higher-risk MDS patients with chromosome 7 abnormalities: a retrospective comparison of GESMD and GFM registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Campelo, María; Lorenzo, Jose I; Itzykson, Raphael; Rojas, Silvia M; Berthon, Céline; Luño, Elisa; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Perez-Oteyza, Jaime; Vey, Norbert; Bargay, Joan; Park, Sophie; Cedena, Teresa; Bordessoule, Dominique; Muñoz, Juan A; Gyan, Emmanuel; Such, Esperanza; Visanica, Sorin; López-Cadenas, Félix; de Botton, Stéphane; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; Ame, Shanti; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Delaunay, Jacques; Salanoubat, Celia; Isnard, Françoise; Guieze, Romain; Pérez Guallar, Joan; Badiella, Llorenc; Sanz, Guillermo; Cañizo, Consuelo; Fenaux, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Treatment with azacitidine (AZA) has been suggested to be of benefit for higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (HR-MDS) patients with chromosome 7 abnormalities (Abn 7). This retrospective study of 235 HR-MDS patients with Abn 7 treated with AZA (n = 115) versus best supportive care (BSC; n = 120), assessed AZA treatment as a time-varying variable in multivariable analysis. A Cox Regression model with time-interaction terms of overall survival (OS) at different time points confirmed that, while chromosome 7 cytogenetic categories (complex karyotype [CK] versus non-CK) and International Prognostic Scoring System risk (high versus intermediate-2) retained poor prognosis over time, AZA treatment had a favourable impact on OS during the first 3 years of treatment compared to BSC (Hazard ratio [HR] 0·5 P MDS and cytogenetic abnormalities involving chromosome 7, especially for those with CK. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thrombolysis with Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) Predicts Favorable Discharge Disposition in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifejika-Jones, Nneka L.; Harun, Nusrat; Mohammed-Rajput, Nareesa A.; Noser, Elizabeth A.; Grotta, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 3 hours of symptom onset are 30% more likely to have minimal disability at three months. During hospitalization, short-term disability is subjectively measured by discharge disposition, whether to home, Inpatient Rehabilitation (IR), Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) or Subacute Care (Sub). There are no studies assessing the role of rt-PA use as a predictor of post-stroke disposition. Methods Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke patients admitted to the University of Texas Houston Medical School (UTHMS) Stroke Service between Jan 2004 and Oct 2009. Baseline demographics and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score were collected. Cerebrovascular disease risk factors were used for risk stratification. Results Home vs. IR, SNF, Sub Of 2225 acute ischemic stroke patients, 1019 were discharged home, 1206 to another level of care. Patients who received rt-PA therapy were 1.9 times more likely to be discharged home (P = stroke patients, 719 patients were discharged to acute IR, 371 were discharged to SNF, 116 to Sub. There were no differences in disposition between patients who received rt-PA therapy. Conclusions Stroke patients who receive IV rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke are more 1.9 times more likely to be discharged directly home after hospitalization. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and the undetermined role of psychosocial factors related to discharge. PMID:21293014

  10. Higher risk of death among MEN1 patients with mutations in the JunD interacting domain: a Groupe d'etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Julien; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Faivre, Laurence; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Calender, Alain; Murat, Arnaud; Giraud, Sophie; Niccoli, Patricia; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Barlier, Anne; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Clauser, Eric; Tabarin, Antoine; Parfait, Béatrice; Chabre, Olivier; Castermans, Emilie; Beckers, Albert; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Le Bras, Morgane; Delemer, Brigitte; Bouchard, Philippe; Guilhem, Isabelle; Rohmer, Vincent; Goichot, Bernard; Caron, Philippe; Baudin, Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Groussin, Lionel; Du Boullay, Hélène; Weryha, Georges; Lecomte, Pierre; Penfornis, Alfred; Bihan, Hélène; Archambeaud, Françoise; Kerlan, Véronique; Duron, Françoise; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Vergès, Bruno; Rodier, Michel; Renard, Michel; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Binquet, Christine; Goudet, Pierre

    2013-05-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Although genotype-phenotype studies have so far failed to identify any statistical correlations, some families harbor recurrent tumor patterns. The function of MENIN is unclear, but has been described through the discovery of its interacting partners. Mutations in the interacting domains of MENIN functional partners have been shown to directly alter its regulation abilities. We report on a cohort of MEN1 patients from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients with a molecular diagnosis and a clinical follow-up, totaling 262 families and 806 patients, were included. Associations between mutation type, location or interacting factors of the MENIN protein and death as well as the occurrence of MEN1-related tumors were tested using a frailty Cox model to adjust for potential heterogeneity across families. Accounting for the heterogeneity across families, the overall risk of death was significantly higher when mutations affected the JunD interacting domain (adjusted HR = 1.88: 95%-CI = 1.15-3.07). Patients had a higher risk of death from cancers of the MEN1 spectrum (HR = 2.34; 95%-CI = 1.23-4.43). This genotype-phenotype correlation study confirmed the lack of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. However, patients with mutations affecting the JunD interacting domain had a higher risk of death secondary to a MEN1 tumor and should thus be considered for surgical indications, genetic counseling and follow-up.

  11. Longitudinal social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-07-15

    Social-interpersonal dysfunction increases disability in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we clarified the durability of improvements in social-interpersonal functioning made during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), whether continuation CT (C-CT) or fluoxetine (FLX) further improved functioning, and relations of functioning with depressive symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Adult outpatients (N=241) with recurrent MDD who responded to acute-phase CT with higher risk of relapse (due to unstable or partial remission) were randomized to 8 months of C-CT, FLX, or pill placebo plus clinical management (PBO) and followed 24 additional months. We analyzed repeated measures of patients' social adjustment, interpersonal problems, dyadic adjustment, depressive symptoms, and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Large improvements in social-interpersonal functioning occurring during acute-phase CT (median d=1.4) were maintained, with many patients (median=66%) scoring in normal ranges for 32 months. Social-interpersonal functioning did not differ significantly among C-CT, FLX, and PBO arms. Beyond concurrently measured residual symptoms, deterioration in social-interpersonal functioning preceded and predicted upticks in depressive symptoms and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Results may not generalize to other patient populations, treatment protocols, or measures of social-interpersonal functioning. Mechanisms of risk connecting poorer social-interpersonal functioning with depression were not studied. Average improvements in social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute phase CT are durable for 32 months. After acute-phase CT, C-CT or FLX may not further improve social-interpersonal functioning. Among acute-phase CT responders, deteriorating social-interpersonal functioning provides a clear, measurable signal of risk for impending major depressive relapse/recurrence and opportunity for preemptive intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  12. One-Hour Postload Hyperglycemia Confers Higher Risk of Hepatic Steatosis to HbA1c-Defined Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Pedace, Elisabetta; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)-defined prediabetes (HbA1c value of 5.7-6.4%) and 1-hour plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the degree to which HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL individually and jointly associate with hepatic steatosis and related biomarkers. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1108 White individuals. Ambulatory care. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics including hepatic steatosis assessed by ultrasonography. Compared with the normal group (HbA1c prediabetic and diabetic individuals exhibit higher values of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; fasting and 2-hour postload insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance; liver insulin resistance index; liver enzymes; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and IGF-1. Prediabetic and diabetic subjects have increased risk of hepatic steatosis (1.5- and 2.46-fold, respectively). Stratifying participants according to HbA1c and 1-hour postload glucose, we found that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL have significantly higher risk of hepatic steatosis as compared with individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes but 1-hour postload glucose prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL exhibit higher values of liver enzymes; fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and IGF-1. These data suggest that a value of 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of individuals within HbA1c-defined glycemic categories at higher risk of hepatic steatosis.

  13. Hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are evolving relentlessly in Metropolitan Mexico City infants, children and young adults. APOE4 carriers have higher suicide risk and higher odds of reaching NFT stage V at ≤ 40 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Mukherjee, Partha S; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Ávila-Ramírez, José; Villarreal-Ríos, Rodolfo

    2018-07-01

    Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) above USEPA standards are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) residents have life time exposures to PM 2.5 and O 3 above USEPA standards. We investigated AD intra and extracellular protein aggregates and ultrastructural neurovascular pathology in 203 MMC residents age 25.36 ± 9.23 y. Immunohistochemical methods were used to identify AT8 hyperphosphorilated tau (Htau) and 4G8 (amyloid β 17-24). Primary outcomes: staging of Htau and amyloid, per decade and cumulative PM 2.5 (CPM 2.5 ) above standard. Apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), age and cause of death were secondary outcomes. Subcortical pretangle stage b was identified in an 11month old baby. Cortical tau pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) Stages I-II, amyloid phases 1-2, Htau in substantia nigrae, auditory, oculomotor, trigeminal and autonomic systems were identified by the 2nd decade. Progression to NFT stages III-V was present in 24.8% of 30-40 y old subjects. APOE4 carriers have 4.92 times higher suicide odds (p = 0.0006), and 23.6 times higher odds of NFT V (p < 0.0001) v APOE4 non-carriers having similar CPM 2.5 exposure and age. Age (p = 0.0062) and CPM 2.5 (p = 0.0178) were significant for developing NFT V. Combustion-derived nanoparticles were associated with early and progressive damage to the neurovascular unit. Alzheimer's disease starting in the brainstem of young children and affecting 99.5% of young urbanites is a serious health crisis. Air pollution control should be prioritised. Childhood relentless Htau makes a fundamental target for neuroprotective interventions and the first two decades are critical. We recommend the concept of preclinical AD be revised and emphasize the need to define paediatric environmental, nutritional, metabolic and genetic risk factor interactions of paramount importance to prevent AD. AD evolving from childhood is threating the

  14. Modelling Dynamic Topologies via Extensions of VDM-RT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Ballegård

    Only a few formal methods include descriptions of the network topology that the modelled system is deployed onto. In VDM Real-Time (VDM-RT) this has been enabled for distributed systems that have a static structure. However, when modelling dynamic systems this fixed topology becomes an issue....... Systems with highly distributed and alternating relationships cannot be expressed correctly in a static model. This document describes how VDM-RT can be extended with new language constructs to enable the description of dynamic reconfiguration of the network topology during the runtime execution...... of a model. The extension is developed on the basis of a case study involving a dynamic system that has a constant changing system topology. With a basis in the case study a model is developed that uses the static version of VDM-RT in order to reveal the limitations of the language. The case study...

  15. Risk of hypothyroidism among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Lin, Chun-Shu; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Huang, Wen-Yen; Su, Yu-Fu; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Tsai, I-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence and risk of hypothyroidism among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiation therapy (RT). We identified 14,893 NPC patients and 16,105 other head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT without thyroidectomy from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. Each NPC patient was randomly frequency-matched with four individuals without NPC by age, sex, and index year. Competing-risk regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of hypothyroidism requiring thyroxin associated with NPC after RT. The risk of developing hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the NPC cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted HR=14.35, 95% CI=11.85-17.37) and the HNC cohort (adjusted HR=2.06, 95% CI=1.69-2.52). Independent risk factors for hypothyroidism among NPC patients included younger age, female sex, higher urbanization level, autoimmune disease, and receipt of chemotherapy. The risk of hypothyroidism requiring thyroxin was significantly higher in NPC patients after RT than in the general Taiwanese population and HNC patients. Regular clinical and serum thyroid function tests are essential among NPC survivors after RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of specific or random c-DNA priming on sensitivity of tyrosinase nested RT-PCR : Potential clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calogero, A; Hospers, GAP; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Mulder, NH; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be of clinical relevance in identifying malignant melanoma cells in blood or tissues of patients at risk for disseminated melanoma. The diagnostic value of this marker however, is still controversial. The objective of this study was to

  17. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true

  18. AWIPS II Application Development, a SPoRT Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason E.; Smith, Matthew; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) is deploying its next-generation decision support system, called AWIPS II (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II). NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several software 'plug-ins' to extend the capabilities of AWIPS II. SPoRT aims to continue its mission of improving short-term forecasts by providing NASA and NOAA products on the decision support system used at NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs). These products are not included in the standard Satellite Broadcast Network feed provided to WFOs. SPoRT has had success in providing support to WFOs as they have transitioned to AWIPS II. Specific examples of transitioning SPoRT plug-ins to WFOs with newly deployed AWIPS II systems will be presented. Proving Ground activities (GOES-R and JPSS) will dominate SPoRT's future AWIPS II activities, including tool development as well as enhancements to existing products. In early 2012 SPoRT initiated the Experimental Product Development Team, a group of AWIPS II developers from several institutions supporting NWS forecasters with innovative products. The results of the team's spring and fall 2013 meeting will be presented. Since AWIPS II developers now include employees at WFOs, as well as many other institutions related to weather forecasting, the NWS has dealt with a multitude of software governance issues related to the difficulties of multiple remotely collaborating software developers. This presentation will provide additional examples of Research-to-Operations plugins, as well as an update on how governance issues are being handled in the AWIPS II developer community.

  19. Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meihua; Cairncross, Gregory; Shaw, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

  20. DMARD use is associated with a higher risk of dementia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A propensity score-matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Jong-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Wei-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit an increased risk of dementia. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are commonly used to slow RA progression, but studies investigating the relationship between DMARDs and dementia in patients with RA are lacking. We investigated the relationship between DMARDs and dementia in patients with RA. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database, patients aged ≥20years, who were newly diagnosed with RA between 2000 and 2011 were identified. Patients with RA who had dementia comprised the dementia group, and patients with RA who did not have dementia comprised the control group. The groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio by the propensity score. DMARDs were categorized into conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) and biological DMARDs (bDMARDs). Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the association between DMARD use and the risk of dementia in patients with RA. A total of 957 patients with RA and dementia, and 957 patients with RA but not dementia, were enrolled. The risk of dementia was determined to be 1.63-fold higher in patients with RA with csDMARD use than in those without csDMARD use (95% CI=1.33-2.00). No significant risk of dementia was observed in patients with RA who used bDMARDs compared with their counterparts. However, patients with RA who used hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine exhibited significant risks of dementia, irrespective of cumulative exposure days. Patients with RA who used csDMARDs exhibit significant association with dementia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. RT-PCR Detection of HIV in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubinka Bosevska

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect HIV RNA in seropositive patients using RT-PCR method and thus, to establish PCR methodology in the routine laboratory works.The total of 33 examined persons were divided in two groups: 1 13 persons seropositive for HIV; and 2 20 healthy persons - randomly selected blood donors that made the case control group. The subjects age was between 25 and 52 years (average 38,5.ELFA test for combined detection of HIV p24 antigen and anti HIV-1 + 2 IgG and ELISA test for detection of antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2, were performed for each examined person. RNA from the whole blood was extracted using a commercial kit based on salt precipitation. Detection of HIV RNA was performed using RT-PCR kit. Following nested PCR, the product was separated by electrophoresis in 1,5 % agarose gel. The result was scored positive if the band of 210bp was visible regardless of intensity Measures of precaution were taken during all the steps of the work and HIV infected materials were disposed of accordingly.In the group of blood donors ELFA, ELISA and RT-PCR were negative. Assuming that prevalence of HIV infection is zero, the clinical specificity of RT-PCR is 100 %. The analytical specificity of RT-PCR method was tested against Hepatitis C and B, Human Papiloma Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Rubella Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis. None of these templates yielded amplicon. In the group of 13 seropositive persons, 33 samples were analyzed. HIV RNA was detected in 15 samples. ELISA and ELFA test were positive in all samples. Different aliquots of the samples were tested independently and showed the same results. After different periods of storing the RNA samples at -70°C, RT-PCR reaction was identical to the one performed initially. The obtained amplicons were maintained frozen at -20°C for a week and the subsequently performed electrophoresis was identical to the previous one. The reaction is

  2. Emulating a crowded intracellular environment in vitro dramatically improves RT-PCR performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareu, Ricky R.; Harve, Karthik S.; Raghunath, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction's (PCR) phenomenal success in advancing fields as diverse as Medicine, Agriculture, Conservation, or Paleontology is based on the ability of using isolated prokaryotic thermostable DNA polymerases in vitro to copy DNA irrespective of origin. This process occurs intracellularly and has evolved to function efficiently under crowded conditions, namely in an environment packed with macromolecules. However, current in vitro practice ignores this important biophysical parameter of life. In order to more closely emulate conditions of intracellular biochemistry in vitro we added inert macromolecules into reverse transcription (RT) and PCR. We show dramatic improvements in all parameters of RT-PCR including 8- to 10-fold greater sensitivity, enhanced polymerase processivity, higher specific amplicon yield, greater primer annealing and specificity, and enhanced DNA polymerase thermal stability. The faster and more efficient reaction kinetics was a consequence of the cumulative molecular and thermodynamic effects of the excluded volume effect created by macromolecular crowding

  3. Breastfeeding woman are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than non-breastfeeding women - insights from the German VitaMinFemin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Sandra; Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased awareness of the adverse health effects of vitamin D deficiency, only a few studies have evaluated the vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD)]) of breastfeeding women and up to now, no information exits for German breastfeeding women. Therefore, the aim of study was to determine the vitamin D status of breastfeeding women compared to non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding (NPNB) women. This cross-sectional study investigated 124 breastfeeding women and 124 age and season matched NPNB women from the German "Vitamin and mineral status among German women" study. The study participants were recruited from April 2013 to March 2015 and did not take vitamin D supplements. Serum 25(OH)D was analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency (risk of vitamin D deficiency was higher in the winter and spring months (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.1, 6.3) and increased with lower longitude per one unit (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6, 0.9). Breastfeeding women in Germany had a higher risk of deficient vitamin D levels than NPNB women. In further studies, the optimal vitamin D status for breastfeeding women should be investigated and also the required vitamin D doses to ensure this vitamin D status. German Clinical Trial Register (identification number: DRKS00004789).

  4. Higher risk sexual behaviour is associated with unawareness of HIV-positivity and lack of viral suppression - implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Venables, Emilie; Ben-Farhat, Jihane; van Cutsem, Gilles; Ellman, Tom; Kenyon, Chris

    2017-11-23

    Efficacy of Treatment as Prevention Strategy depends on a variety of factors including individuals' likelihood to test and initiate treatment, viral load and sexual behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that people with higher risk sexual behaviour are less likely to know their HIV-positive status and be virologically suppressed. A cross-sectional population-based survey of individuals aged 15-59 years old was conducted in 2013 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A two-stage cluster probability sampling was used. After adjustment for age and sex, lack of awareness of HIV-positivity was strongly associated with having more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (aOR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-3.1). Inconsistent condom use was more common in individuals with more than one sexual partner (aOR: 16.6, 95%CI: 7.6-36.7) and those unaware (aOR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.6-5.4). Among people aware of their HIV-positivity, higher risk sexual behaviour was associated with lack of viral suppression (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.5). Risky sexual behaviour seems associated with factors linked to poor health-seeking behaviour which may have negative implications for HIV testing and Treatment as Prevention. Innovative strategies, driven by improved epidemiological and anthropological understanding, are needed to enable comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention.

  5. Longer Sleep Duration and Midday Napping Are Associated with a Higher Risk of CHD Incidence in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Yang, Handong; He, Meian; Pan, An; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Jing; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the independent and combined relations of sleep duration and midday napping with coronary heart diseases (CHD) incidence along with the underlying changes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese adults. We included 19,370 individuals aged 62.8 years at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and they were followed until October 2013. Cox proportional hazards models and general linear models were used for multivariate longitudinal analyses. Compared with sleeping 7- napping > 90 min compared with 1-30 min. When sleep duration and midday napping were combined, individuals having sleep duration ≥ 10 h and midday napping > 90 min were at a greater risk of CHD than those with sleeping 7- napping 1-30 min: the HR was 1.67 (95% CI = 1.04 to 2.66; P for trend = 0.017). In addition, longer sleep duration ≥ 10 h was significantly associated with increases in triglycerides and waist circumference, and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol; while longer midday napping > 90 min was related to increased waist circumference. Both longer sleep duration and midday napping were independently and jointly associated with a higher risk of CHD incidence, and altered lipid profile and waist circumference may partially explain the relationships. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  7. Higher levels of physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of suffering sarcopenic obesity and better perceived health among the elderly: the EXERNET multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Chamizo, R; Gómez-Cabello, A; Meléndez, A; Vila-Maldonado, S; Espino, L; Gusi, N; Villa, G; Casajús, J A; González-Gross, M; Ara, I

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the associations between physical fitness levels, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) and to analyze the usefulness of several physical fitness tests as a screening tool for detecting elderly people with an increased risk of suffering SO. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample. Non-institutionalized Spanish elderly participating in the EXERNET multi-centre study. 2747 elderly subjects aged 65 and older. Body weight, height and body mass index were evaluated in each subject. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Four SO groups were created based on percentage of body fat and relative muscle mass; 1) normal group, 2) sarcopenic group, 3) obesity group and 4) SO group. Physical fitness was evaluated using 8 tests (balance, lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, agility, walking speed and aerobic capacity). Three tertiles were created for each test based on the calculated scores. HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol visual analogue scale. Participants with SO showed lower physical fitness levels compared with normal subjects. Better balance, agility, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest men (odds ratio health was associated with better physical fitness performance. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with a reduced risk of suffering SO and better perceived health among elderly. SO elderly people have lower physical functional levels than healthy counterparts.

  8. A higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RC(high T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients' CD8 T cells.

  9. The Expected Cardiovascular Benefit of Plasma Cholesterol Lowering with or Without LDL-C Targets in Healthy Individuals at Higher Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henpin Yue Cesena

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is controversy whether management of blood cholesterol should be based or not on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c target concentrations. Objectives: To compare the estimated impact of different lipid-lowering strategies, based or not on LDL-c targets, on the risk of major cardiovascular events in a population with higher cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included consecutive individuals undergoing a routine health screening in a single center who had a 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD ≥ 7.5% (pooled cohort equations, ACC/AHA, 2013. For each individual, we simulated two strategies based on LDL-c target (≤ 100 mg/dL [Starget-100] or ≤ 70 mg/dL [Starget-70] and two strategies based on percent LDL-c reduction (30% [S30%] or 50% [S50%]. Results: In 1,897 subjects (57 ± 7 years, 96% men, 10-year ASCVD risk 13.7 ± 7.1%, LDL-c would be lowered from 141 ± 33 mg/dL to 99 ± 23 mg/dL in S30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL in S50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL in Starget-100, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL in Starget-70. Ten-year ASCVD risk would be reduced to 8.8 ± 4.8% in S50% and 8.9 ± 5.2 in Starget-70. The number of major cardiovascular events prevented in 10 years per 1,000 individuals would be 32 in S30%, 31 in Starget-100, 49 in S50%, and 48 in Starget-70. Compared with Starget-70, S50% would prevent more events in the lower LDL-c tertile and fewer events in the higher LDL-c tertile. Conclusions: The more aggressive lipid-lowering approaches simulated in this study, based on LDL-c target or percent reduction, may potentially prevent approximately 50% more hard cardiovascular events in the population compared with the less intensive treatments. Baseline LDL-c determines which strategy (based or not on LDL-c target is more appropriate at the individual level.

  10. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting patients at higher risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YanHong; Lee, Wah Yean; Basri, Nur Adilah; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Merchant, Reshma A; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2012-11-01

    To examine the discriminant validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for dementia at a memory clinic setting. Memory clinic patients were administered the MoCA, MMSE, and a comprehensive formal neuropsychological battery. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes were dichotomized into two groups: single domain-MCI (sd-MCI) and multiple domain-MCI (md-MCI). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of the MoCA and the MMSE. Two hundred thirty patients were recruited, of which 136 (59.1%) were diagnosed with dementia, 61 (26.5%) with MCI, and 33 (14.3%) with no cognitive impairment (NCI). The majority of MCI patients had md-MCI (n = 36, 59%). The MoCA had significantly larger AUCs than the MMSE in discriminating md-MCI from the lower risk group for incident dementia (NCI and sd-MCI) [MoCA 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) vs. MMSE 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.92), p = 0.02). At their optimal cut-off points, the MoCA (19/20) remained superior to the MMSE (23/24) in detecting md-MCI [sensitivity: 0.83 vs. 0.72; specificity: 0.86 vs. 0.83; PPV: 0.79 vs. 0.72; NPV: 0.89 vs. 0.83; correctly classified: 85.1% vs. 78.7%]. The MoCA is superior to the MMSE in the detection of patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for incident dementia at a memory clinic setting.

  11. Helical Tomotherapy-Based STAT RT: Dosimetric Evaluation for Clinical Implementation of a Rapid Radiation Palliation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, Alyson; Dunlap, Neal; Sheng, Ke; Geezey, Constance; Turner, Benton; Blackhall, Leslie; Weiss, Geoffrey; Lappinen, Eric; Larner, James M.; Read, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy-based STAT radiation therapy (RT) uses an efficient software algorithm for rapid intensity-modulated treatment planning, enabling conformal radiation treatment plans to be generated on megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) scans for CT simulation, treatment planning, and treatment delivery in one session. We compared helical tomotherapy-based STAT RT dosimetry with standard linac-based 3D conformal plans and standard helical tomotherapy-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry for palliative treatments of whole brain, a central obstructive lung mass, multilevel spine disease, and a hip metastasis. Specifically, we compared the conformality, homogeneity, and dose with regional organs at risk (OARs) for each plan as an initial step in the clinical implementation of a STAT RT rapid radiation palliation program. Hypothetical planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured on an anthropomorphic phantom in the lung, spine, brain, and hip. Treatment plans were created using three planning techniques: 3D conformal on Pinnacle 3 , helical tomotherapy, and helical tomotherapy-based STAT RT. Plan homogeneity, conformality, and dose to OARs were analyzed and compared. STAT RT and tomotherapy improved conformality indices for spine and lung plans (CI spine = 1.21, 1.17; CI lung = 1.20, 1.07, respectively) in comparison with standard palliative anteroposterior/posteroanterior (AP/PA) treatment plans (CI spine = 7.01, CI lung = 7.30), with better sparing of heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. For palliative whole-brain radiotherapy, STAT RT and tomotherapy reduced maximum and mean doses to the orbits and lens (maximum/mean lens dose: STAT RT = 2.94/2.65 Gy, tomotherapy = 3.13/2.80 Gy, Lateral opposed fields = 7.02/3.65 Gy), with an increased dose to the scalp (mean scalp dose: STAT RT = 16.19 Gy, tomotherapy = 15.61 Gy, lateral opposed fields = 14.01 Gy). For bony metastatic hip lesions, conformality with both tomotherapy techniques (CI = 1

  12. Contextual factors associated with treatment-seeking and higher-risk sexual behaviour in Botswana among men with symptoms of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeni, Tabitha

    2007-11-01

    This study investigates contextual factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour and higher-risk sexual conduct of men symptomatic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Botswana. Data were drawn from a randomly selected, nationally representative sample of 8 222 men, aged 15-64 years, who had reported having symptoms suggestive of an STI during the previous twelve months. Higher-risk behaviour continues to sustain the HIV epidemic in Botswana. At the heart of Botswana's epidemic lies men's reluctance to seek medical treatment, engaging in unprotected sex, and having sex with multiple partners while symptomatic of an STI. The odds of engaging in unprotected sex while symptomatic of an STI were significantly higher among teenage males and males in urban households. For every year's increase in the age difference between partners there was a 28% increase in the odds of the male having had unprotected sex. Being married and having had more than one sexual partner in the last year multiplied the odds of having unprotected sex while symptomatic of an STI by three times. The longer an infected man remained with symptoms before seeking help, the more likely it was to have unprotected sex while infected and the more likely to seek treatment from a traditional healer. Notably, having sought medical treatment from hospitals, clinics and health workers, as opposed to consulting traditional healers, significantly reduced the odds of having had unprotected sex while infected with an STI by 48%. The results indicate the need to encourage men to utilise public healthcare services. The public health sector in Botswana needs to provide healthcare services that are user-friendly for men. Increasing the number of treatment sites may also contribute to preventing onward transmission of STIs. Special attention needs to be paid to boys' socialisation towards gender norms, and men are to be encouraged to play a responsible role in HIV prevention.

  13. Kirjanduskriitikute suvemängud / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Lodge, David. Ühest kohast teise / tlk. Aet Varik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2005 ; Lodge, David. Väike maailm / tlk. Kersti Unt. Tallinn : Varrak, 1996 ; Lodge, David. Väärt töö / tlk. Kersti Unt. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006

  14. Future of the reprocessing business at the RT-1 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-01-01

    Economic viability of reprocessing operations at the RT-1 plant is provided by the contracts with nuclear utilities from Finland and Hungary. Finland will stop sending fuel to Mayak for reprocessing after 1996. Hungary will be capable to resolve the problem of spent fuel domestically some time in the future. This increases vulnerability of the reprocessing business at Mayak to future political uncertainties. (author)

  15. RT-PCR Protocols - Methods in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “The first record I have of it, is when I made a computer file which I usually did whenever I had an idea, that would have been on the Monday when I got back, and I called it Chain Reaction.POL, meaning polymerase. That was the identifier for it and later I called the thing the Polymerase Chain Reaction, which a lot of people thought was a dumb name for it, but it stuck, and it became PCR”. With these words the Nobel prize winner, Kary Mullis, explains how he named the PCR: one of the most important techniques ever invented and currently used in molecular biology. This book “RT-PCR Protocols” covers a wide range of aspects important for the setting of a PCR experiment for both beginners and advanced users. In my opinion the book is very well structured in three different sections. The first one describes the different technologies now available, like competitive RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR or RT-PCR for cloning. An important part regards the usage of PCR in single cell mouse embryos, stressing how important...........

  16. rt, Arvo: De profundis. Missa Sillabica / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: De profundis. Missa Sillabica. Solfeggio. And one of the Pharisees. Cantate Domino. Summa. 7 Antiennes du Magnificat. The Beautitudes. Magnificat. Christopher Bowers-Broadbent (org.), Daniel Kennedy (perc.). Theatre of Voices / Paul Hillier (bass)" Harmonia Mundi HMU907 182 F (CD:165F). 1996. TT:1h 16'06"

  17. Narr kui ajastu metafoor / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    William Shakespeare'i "Kuningas Lear" (lav. Priit Pedajas) ja Pedro Calder̤n de la Barca "Elu on unenägu" (lav. Ingo Normet) Eesti Draamateatris. Ilmunud ka kogumikus : Hellerma, Kärt. Avanenud ruum. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006, lk. 213-216. Pealk. Narr kui meie aja kangelane

  18. rt: Chamber and Orchestral Works / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Chamber and Orchestral Works. Bournemouth Sinfonietta, Richard Studt. EMI Eminence CD CD-EMX 2221; Fratres; Cantus in memory of Benjamin Britten; Summa; Spiegel im Spiegel; Festina lente; Tabula Rasa; Fratres - selected comparison: Bachmann, Kibonoff (12/94)(CATA) 09026 61824-2. Kremer, Jarrett (ECM) 817 764-2

  19. 25 kaadrit sekundis / Liis Auväärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Auväärt, Liis

    2009-01-01

    Nukufilmis käib töö filmiga "Lisa Limone & Maroc Orange", režissöör Mait Laas, animaatorid Triin Sarapik-Kivi, Märt Kivi, operaator Ragnar Neljandi, nukumeistrid Heigo Eeriksoo, Taivo Müürsep, Ene Mellow ja Kreeta Käeri. Dekoratsioonimeistrid Mait Erik ja Roman Kuznetsov

  20. rt, Arvo: De profundis / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: De profundis. Missa Sillabica. Solfeggio. And one of the Pharisees. Cantate Domino. Summa. Seven Magnificat Antiphons. The Beautitudes. Magnificat. Christopher Bowers-Broadbent (org.), Daniel Kennedy (perc.). Theatre of Voices / Paul Hillier (bass)". Harmonia Mundi HMU40 7182; HMU90 7182 (76 minutes:DDD)

  1. Torm Balti merel / Märt Treier ; interv. Inge Pitsner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Märt, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    TV3 näitab saksa poliitilist põnevusfilmi "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Filmi eel on teles Märt Treieri saade "Tormist sündinud tormid"

  2. Karje kunstniku südamest / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    1997-01-01

    Arvustus: Dinesen, Isak [Blixen, Karen]. Babette'i pidusöök / tlk. Piret Peiker. Tallinn : Varrak, 1996. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Hellerma, Kärt. Kohanenud kirjandus : valik kirjanduskriitikat 1987-2006. Eesti Keele Sihtasutus : Tallinn, 2006. Lk. 167-169

  3. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yu; Fang, Jun-Chao; Gao, Zong-Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of prospective cohort studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014 were carried out, checking reference lists, hand-searching journals and contacting experts. The primary analysis included a total of 23 (11 + 12) articles. The pooled maximum-adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake vs the lowest intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96) for total fruits, 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for blueberries, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) for green leafy vegetables, 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.90) for yellow vegetables, 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cruciferous vegetables and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.99) for fruit fiber in these high-quality studies in which scores were seven or greater, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.94) for vegetable fiber in studies with a follow-up period of 10 years or more. A higher intake of fruit, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increases the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean population: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jisuk; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Park, Pil Sook; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2014-04-01

    The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. A total of 9400 subjects were enrolled in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, and a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Five quintiles (Q1-Q5) according to consumption of soft drinks and other fruit/fruit juices were classified and then categorized into three groups (Q1-Q3, Q4, and Q5) to assess the risk of hyperuricemia. Information on dietary intake was collected by well-trained interviewers using validated food frequency questionnaires. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (Q5) increased the risk of hyperuricemia in males (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) with a linear trend (p for trend = 0.01) and in females (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) with no linear trend (p for trend = 0.09), compared to lower consumption (Q1-Q3). However, there were no significant differences of serum uric acid level according to the three categories of soft drink consumption, Q1-Q3, Q3, and Q5, in males (p = 0.21) or in females (p = 0.16), whereas all subjects showed statistical significance of serum uric acid level within the categories (p Korean population, showing a differential linear trend for hyperuricemia according to gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Protocol for the melatools skin self-monitoring trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention for primary care patients at higher risk of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katie; Emery, Jon; Lantaff, Rebecca; Radford, Michael; Pannebakker, Merel; Hall, Per; Burrows, Nigel; Williams, Kate; Saunders, Catherine L; Murchie, Peter; Walter, Fiona M

    2017-11-28

    Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK. Incidence rates have quadrupled over the last 30 years and continue to rise, especially among younger people. As routine screening of the general population is not currently recommended in the UK, a focus on secondary prevention through early detection and prompt treatment in individuals at increased risk of melanoma could make an important contribution to improve melanoma outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, in the primary care setting, for patients at increased risk of melanoma. A skin self-monitoring (SSM) smartphone 'App' was used to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help seeking in primary care, thereby promoting early presentation with skin changes suspicious of melanoma. We aim to recruit 200 participants from general practice waiting rooms in the East of England. Eligible patients are those identified at higher melanoma risk (using a real-time risk assessment tool), without a personal history of melanoma, aged 18 to 75 years. Participants will be invited to a primary care nurse consultation, and randomised to the intervention group (standard written advice on skin cancer detection and sun protection, loading of an SSM 'App' onto the participant's smartphone and instructions on use including self-monitoring reminders) or control group (standard written advice alone). The primary outcomes are consultation rates for changes to a pigmented skin lesion, and the patient interval (time from first noticing a skin change to consultation). Secondary outcomes include patient sun protection behaviours, psychosocial outcomes, and measures of trial feasibility and acceptability. NHS ethical approval has been obtained from Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire research ethics committee (REC reference 16/EE/0248). The findings from the MelaTools SSM Trial will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. ISCTRN16061621

  6. TMPA Products 3B42RT & 3B42V6: Evaluation and Application in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Sun, L.; Wang, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological researchers in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau tend to be haunted by deficiency of station gauged precipitation data for the sparse and uneven distribution of local meteorological stations. Fortunately, alternative data can be obtained from TRMM (Tropic Rainfall Measurement Mission) satellite. Preliminary evaluation and necessary correction of TRMM satellite rainfall products is required for the sake of reliability and suitability considering that TRMM precipitation is unconventional and natural condition in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is unusually complicated. 3B42RT and 3B42V6 products from TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis(TMPA) are evaluated in northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with 50 stations quality-controlled gauged daily precipitation as the benchmark precipitation set. It is found that the RT data overestimates the actual precipitation greatly while V6 only overestimates it slightly. RT data shows different seasonal and inter-annual accuracies. Summer and autumn see better accuracies than winter and spring and wet years see higher accuracies than dry years. Latitude is believed to be an important factor that influences the accuracy of satellite precipitation. Both RT and V6 can reflect the general pattern of the spatial distribution of precipitation even though RT overestimates the quantity greatly. A new parameter, accumulated precipitation weight point (APWP), was introduced to describe the temporal-spatial pattern evolution of precipitation. The APWP of both RT and V6 were moving from south to north in the past decade, but they are all in the west of station gauged precipitation APWP(s).V6 APWP track fit gauged precipitation perfectly while RT APWP track has over-exaggerated legs, indicating that spatial distribution of RT precipitation experienced unreasonable sharp changes. A practical and operational procedure to correct satellite precipitation data is developed. For RT, there are two steps. Step 1, the downscaling, original daily precipitation

  7. Combination of RT-PCR and proteomics for the identification of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel G. Fernández de Mera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV. In this study, an experimental approach combining RT-PCR and proteomics was used for the identification and characterization of CCHFV in 106 ticks from 7 species that were collected from small ruminants in Greece. The methodological approach included an initial screening for CCHFV by RT-PCR followed by proteomics analysis of positive and control negative tick samples. This novel approach allowed the identification of CCHFV-positive ticks and provided additional information to corroborate the RT-PCR findings using a different approach. Two ticks, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis parva collected from a goat and a sheep, respectively were positive for CCHFV. The sequences for CCHFV RNA segments S and L were characterized by RT-PCR and proteomics analysis of tick samples, respectively. These results showed the possibility of combining analyses at the RNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and proteomics for the characterization of CCHFV in ticks. The results supported that the CCHFV identified in ticks are genetic variants of the AP92 strain. Although the AP92-like strains probably do not represent a high risk of CCHF to the population, the circulation of genetically diverse CCHFV strains could potentially result in the appearance of novel viral genotypes with increased pathogenicity and fitness.

  8. SU-E-J-42: Customized Deformable Image Registration Using Open-Source Software SlicerRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaitan, J Cifuentes; Chin, L; Pignol, J [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kirby, N; Pouliot, J [UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lasso, A; Pinter, C; Fichtinger, G [Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: SlicerRT is a flexible platform that allows the user to incorporate the necessary images registration and processing tools to improve clinical workflow. This work validates the accuracy and the versatility of the deformable image registration algorithm of the free open-source software SlicerRT using a deformable physical pelvic phantom versus available commercial image fusion algorithms. Methods: Optical camera images of nonradiopaque markers implanted in an anatomical pelvic phantom were used to measure the ground-truth deformation and evaluate the theoretical deformations for several DIR algorithms. To perform the registration, full and empty bladder computed tomography (CT) images of the phantom were obtained and used as fixed and moving images, respectively. The DIR module, found in SlicerRT, used a B-spline deformable image registration with multiple optimization parameters that allowed customization of the registration including a regularization term that controlled the amount of local voxel displacement. The virtual deformation field at the center of the phantom was obtained and compared to the experimental ground-truth values. The parameters of SlicerRT were then varied to improve spatial accuracy. To quantify image similarity, the mean absolute difference (MAD) parameter using Hounsfield units was calculated. In addition, the Dice coefficient of the contoured rectum was evaluated to validate the strength of the algorithm to transfer anatomical contours. Results: Overall, SlicerRT achieved one of the lowest MAD values across the algorithm spectrum, but slightly smaller mean spatial errors in comparison to MIM software (MIM). On the other hand, SlicerRT created higher mean spatial errors than Velocity Medical Solutions (VEL), although obtaining an improvement on the DICE to 0.91. The large spatial errors were attributed to the poor contrast in the prostate bladder interface of the phantom. Conclusion: Based phantom validation, SlicerRT is capable of

  9. Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection of Lyssavirus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deubelbeiss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The causative agents of rabies are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae, consisting of twelve classified and three as yet unclassified species including classical rabies virus (RABV. Highly neurotropic RABV causes rapidly progressive encephalomyelitis with nearly invariable fatal outcome. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of rabies is highly relevant for public and veterinary health. Due to growing variety of the genus Lyssavirus observed, the development of suitable molecular assays for diagnosis and differentiation is challenging. This work focused on the establishment of a suitable real-time RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis as a complement to fluorescent antibody test and rabies tissue culture infection test as gold standard for diagnosis and confirmation. The real-time RT-PCR was adapted with the goal to detect the whole spectrum of lyssavirus species, for nine of which synthesized DNA fragments were used. For the detection of species, seven probes were developed. Serial dilutions of the rabies virus strain CVS-11 showed a 100-fold higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to heminested RT-PCR. Using a panel of thirty-one lyssaviruses representing four species, the suitability of the protocol could be shown. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained by heminested PCR allowed correct classification of all viruses used.

  10. Arvo Pärt jagab preemia koolidele / Rebekka Lotman, Eva Kübar ; kommenteerinud Arvo Pärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Rebekka, 1978-

    2009-01-01

    Kultuuriministeerium tegi ettepaneku anda Arvo Pärdile elutööpreemia, millega kaasneva rahasumma lubas Pärt kinkida Rakvere ja Paide muusikakoolile. Elutööpreemiad saavad veel Ellen Niit ja Aarne Üksküla

  11. rt Haamer: Tsahknal pole Overalliga mingisugust seost / Märt Haamer ; intervjueerinud Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haamer, Märt, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Overall Eesti juhi Märt Haameri väitel pole Anders Tsahkna ühtegi riigihanget Overalli ettevõtetele suunanud. Overalli omandusse kuuluv firma Gennet Lab on olnud alltöövõtja paaris E-tervise Sihtasutuse korraldatud hankes

  12. STAT3 polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori CagA strains with higher number of EPIYA-C segments independently increase the risk of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Gifone A; Rocha, Andreia MC; Gomes, Adriana D; Faria, César LL Jr; Melo, Fabrício F; Batista, Sérgio A; Fernandes, Viviane C; Almeida, Nathálie BF; Teixeira, Kádima N; Brito, Kátia S; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Because to date there is no available study on STAT3 polymorphism and gastric cancer in Western populations and taking into account that Helicobacter pylori CagA EPIYA-C segment deregulates SHP-2/ERK-JAK/STAT3 pathways, we evaluated whether the two variables are independently associated with gastric cancer. We included 1048 subjects: H. pylori-positive patients with gastric carcinoma (n = 232) and with gastritis (n = 275) and 541 blood donors. Data were analyzed using logistic regression model. The rs744166 polymorphic G allele (p = 0.01; OR = 1.76; 95 % CI = 1.44-2.70), and CagA-positive (OR = 12.80; 95 % CI = 5.58-19.86) status were independently associated with gastric cancer in comparison with blood donors. The rs744166 polymorphism (p = 0.001; OR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.16-2.31) and infection with H. pylori CagA-positive strains possessing higher number of EPIYA-C segments (p = 0.001; OR = 2.28; 95 % CI = 1.41-3.68) were independently associated with gastric cancer in comparison with gastritis. The association was stronger when host and bacterium genotypes were combined (p < 0.001; OR = 3.01; 95 % CI = 2.29-3.98). When stimulated with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or Pam3Cys, peripheral mononuclear cells of healthy carriers of the rs744166 GG and AG genotypes expressed higher levels of STAT3 mRNA than those carrying AA genotype (p = 0.04 for both). The nuclear expression of phosphorylated p-STAT3 protein was significantly higher in the antral gastric tissue of carriers of rs744166 GG genotype than in carriers of AG and AA genotypes. Our study provides evidence that STAT3 rs744166 G allele and infection with CagA-positive H. pylori with higher number of EPIYA-C segments are independent risk factors for gastric cancer. The odds ratio of having gastric cancer was greater when bacterium and host high risk genotypes were combined

  13. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Sow, Mamadou Saidou; Diack, Aminata; Dia, Khadidiatou; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Fall, Moussa Daouda

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not. A total of 299 medical records of patients over a three-year period admitted to the cardiology and internal medicine department of military hospital of Ouakam in Senegal were reviewed. We studied data on age, gender, past history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, sedentarism, obesity, hyperlipidemia, use of estrogen-progestin contraceptives and blood group distribution.In each blood group type, we evaluated the prevalence of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular disease. The medical records were then stratified into two categories to evaluate incidence of ischemic disease: Group 1: Patients carrying blood-group A and Group 2: Patients carrying blood group non-A (O, AB and B). Of the 299 patients whose medical records were reviewed, 92 (30.8%) were carrying blood group A, 175 (58.5%) had blood group O, 13 (4.3%) had blood group B, and 19 (6.4%) had blood group AB.The diagnosis of ischemic disease (ID) was higher in patients with blood group A (61.2%) than in other blood groups, and the diagnosis of non-ischemic disease (NID) was higher in patients with blood group O (73.6%) compared to other groups. In patients with blood group B or AB compared to non-B or non-AB, respectively there was no statistically significant difference in ID incidence.Main risk factor for ID was smoking (56.5%), hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes (14.3%).In our study

  14. Lower adiponectin levels at first trimester of pregnancy are associated with increased insulin resistance and higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the associations between adiponectin levels and 1) the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, β-cell function, and compensation indices in a prospective cohort representative of the general population of pregnant women. We performed anthropometric measurements and collected blood samples at 1st (6-13 weeks) and 2nd (24-28 weeks) trimesters. Diagnosis of GDM was made at 2nd trimester based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). Insulin was measured (ELISA; Luminex) to estimate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUC(insulin/glucose)), and β-cell compensation (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2). Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Among the 445 participants included in this study, 38 women developed GDM. Women who developed GDM had lower 1st-trimester adiponectin levels (9.67 ± 3.84 vs. 11.92 ± 4.59 µg/mL in women with normal glucose tolerance). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (OR, 1.12 per 1 µg/mL decrease of adiponectin levels; P = 0.02, adjusted for BMI and HbA1c at 1st trimester). Adiponectin levels at 1st and 2nd trimesters were associated with HOMA-IR (both: r = -0.22, P insulin/glucose). Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements.

  15. Does antimicrobial usage before meningitis lead to a higher risk of adult postsurgical Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis than that of Enterobacteriaceae meningitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiraslan, Hayati; Ulutabanca, Halil; Ercal, Baris Derya; Metan, Gokhan; Alp, Emine

    2016-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae are two pathogens responsible for postneurosurgical meningitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the factors that influenced the outcomes in patients with postneurosurgical meningitis caused by A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with post-surgical meningitis were identified from infection control committee charts between 2007 and 2015. Subjects over 16 years old who had positive cerebral spinal fluid cultures for A. baumannii or Enterobacteriaceae were enrolled in the study. Clinical and laboratory data for 30 patients with A. baumannii meningitis were compared with those of 12 patients with Enterobacteriaceae meningitis. The mean age of patients was 51.9 years and 57.1% were male. Eleven patients had comorbidities, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Most patients were due to intracranial haemorrhage (78.6%). The rate of the patients who received an appropriate antimicrobial therapy was 35.7%, and the crude mortality rate was 64.3%. In univariate analysis, previous antibiotic use, an infection before meningitis and mechanical ventilation had an increased risk of A. baumannii meningitis. Moreover, intrathecal antimicrobial use, inappropriate empirical antimicrobial use, antimicrobial resistance and alanine aminotransferase elevation were significantly higher in patients with A. baumannii meningitis than in those with Enterobacteriaceae meningitis. Antimicrobial use before meningitis (8.84 times) and mechanical ventilation (7.28 times) resulted in an increased risk of A. baumannii meningitis. None of the results affected 30-day mortality. Avoidance of unnecessarily prolonged antimicrobial usage may help to prevent a selection of A. baumannii.

  16. Increase of EEG spectral theta power indicates higher risk of the development of severe cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease after 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii V Cozac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and clinical parameters as potential risk factors of severe cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease.Methods: We prospectively investigated 37 patients with Parkinson’s disease at baseline and follow-up (after 3 years. Patients had no severe cognitive impairment at baseline. We used a summary score of cognitive tests as the outcome at follow-up. At baseline we assessed motor, cognitive, and psychiatric factors; qEEG variables (global relative median power spectra were obtained by a fully automated processing of high-resolution EEG (256-channels. We used linear regression models with calculation of the explained variance to evaluate the relation of baseline parameters with cognitive deterioration.Results: The following baseline parameters significantly predicted severe cognitive decline: global relative median power theta (4-8 Hz, cognitive task performance in executive functions and working memory.Conclusions: Combination of neurocognitive tests and qEEG improves identification of patients with higher risk of cognitive decline in PD.

  17. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  18. Detection of high-sensitivity troponin in outpatients with stable pulmonary hypertension identifies a subgroup at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; McCullagh, Brian N; Segurado, Ricardo; McGorrian, Catherine; Keane, Elizabeth; Keaney, John; Fitzgibbon, Maria N; Mahon, Niall G; Murray, Patrick T; Gaine, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The detection of elevations in cardiorenal biomarkers, such as troponins, B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalins, are associated with poor outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. Less is known about the association of these markers with adverse events in chronic right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary hypertension, or whether their measurement may improve risk assessment in the outpatient setting. We performed a cohort study of 108 patients attending the National Pulmonary Hypertension Unit in Dublin, Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. Cox proportional hazards analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine predictors of mortality and hospitalization. Death or hospitalization occurred in 50 patients (46.3%) during the median study period of 4.1 years. Independent predictors of mortality were: 1) decreasing 6-minute walk test (6MWT; hazard ratio [HR] 12.8; P < .001); 2) BNP (HR 6.68; P < .001); and 3) highly sensitive troponin (hsTnT; HR 5.48; P < .001). Adjusted hazard analyses remained significant when hsTnT was added to a model with BNP and 6MWT (HR 9.26, 95% CI 3.61-23.79), as did the predictive ability of the model for death and rehospitalization (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.90). Detection of troponin using a highly sensitive assay identifies a pulmonary hypertension subgroup with a poorer prognosis. hsTnT may also be used in a risk prediction model to identify patients at higher risk who may require escalation of targeted pulmonary vasodilator therapies and closer clinical surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-Lan; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years) were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: water fish (p = 0.553). The ORs (95%CI) of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31) for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52) for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88) for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79) for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052). Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  20. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years, were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. RESULTS: Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016. After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017 except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553. The ORs (95%CI of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31 for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52 for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88 for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79 for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  1. Household food insecurity is associated with a higher burden of obesity and risk of dietary inadequacies among mothers in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Naja, Farah; Cheaib, Ruba; Hwalla, Nahla

    2017-06-12

    Mixed evidence exists with respect to the association between household food insecurity (HFIS) and obesity in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs), particularly among women. This study aimed to measure socioeconomic correlates of HFIS and explores its association with dietary intake and odds of obesity among mothers in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of households (n = 378) in Beirut, Lebanon. Surveys were completed with mothers of children Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Dietary intake was assessed using the multiple pass 24-h recall method. Associations between HFIS (food vs food insecure) and socio-demographic characteristics were reported using crude and adjusted odds ratios. The odds of consuming food secure and food insecure households were explored. In addition, logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the association of HFIS with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and at-risk waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm) among mothers. HFIS was found among 50% of study sample and was inversely associated with household income and mother's educational level, even after adjusting for other socioeconomic variables (p food insecure households reported consuming significantly less dairy products, fruits, and nuts yet more breads and sweets; and they had higher odds of consuming food insecure mothers had 1.73 odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.02-2.92) compared to food secure mothers. High HFIS prevalence was reported among urban Lebanese households. Mothers from food insecure households had a high risk of dietary inadequacy and obesity. Adequate evidence-based public health strategies are needed to reduce the vulnerability of mothers to food insecurity in LMIC settings and alleviate their risk of a high burden of nutrient insecurity and obesity.

  2. Patients with neuromyelitis optica have a more severe disease than patients with relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis, including higher risk of dying of a demyelinating disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bernardi Bichuetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although neuromyelitis optica (NMO is known to be a more severe disease than relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, few studies comparing both conditions in a single center have been done. Methods: Comparison of our previously published cohort of 41 NMO patients with 177 RRMS patients followed in the same center, from 1994 to 2007. Results: Mean age of onset was 32.6 for NMO and 30.2 for RRMS (p=0.2062 with mean disease duration of 7.4 years for NMO and 10.3 years for RRMS. Patients with NMO had a higher annualized relapse rate (1.0 versus 0.8, p=0.0013 and progression index (0.9 versus 0.6, p≪0.0001, with more patients reaching expanded disability status scale (EDSS 6.0 (39 versus 17%, p=0.0036. The odds ratio for reaching EDSS 6.0 and being deceased due to NMO in comparison to RRMS were, respectively, 3.14 and 12.15. Conclusion: Patients with NMO have a more severe disease than patients with RRMS, including higher risk of dying of a demyelinating disease.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Irbene RT-16 Radio Telescope Receiving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleiders M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, recent measurement results of refurbished Irbene RT-16 radio telescope receiving system performance are presented. The aim of the research is to evaluate characteristics of RT-16, which will allow carrying out necessary amplitude calibration in both single dish and VLBI observations, to improve the performance of existing system as well as to monitor, control and compare performance if possible changes in the receiving system will occur in future. The evaluated receiving system is 16 m Cassegrain antenna equipped with a cryogenic receiver with frequency range from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz, which is divided into four sub-bands. Multiple calibration sessions have been carried out by observing stable astronomical sources with known flux density by using in-house made total power registration backend. First, pointing offset calibration has been carried out and pointing model coefficients calculated and applied. Then, amplitude calibration, namely antenna sensitivity, calibration diode equivalent flux density and gain curve measurements have been carried out by observing calibration sources at different antenna elevations at each of the receiver sub-bands. Beam patterns have also been evaluated at different frequency bands. As a whole, acquired data will serve as a reference point for comparison in future performance evaluation of RT-16.

  4. NASA SPoRT JPSS PG Activities in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Molthan, Andrew; Fuell, Kevin; McGrath, Kevin; Smith, Matt; LaFontaine, Frank; Leroy, Anita; White, Kris

    2018-01-01

    SPoRT (NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center) has collaboratively worked with Alaska WFOs (Weather Forecast Offices) to introduce RGB (Red/Green/Blue false color image) imagery to prepare for NOAA-20 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) series-20 satellite) VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) and improve forecasting aviation-related hazards. Last R2O/O2R (Research-to-Operations/Operations-to-Research) steps include incorporating NOAA-20 VIIRS in RGB suite and fully transitioning client-side RGB processing to GINA (Geographic Information Network of Alaska) and Alaska Region. Alaska Region WFOs have been part of the successful R2O/O2R story to assess the use of NESDIS (National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service) Snowfall Rate product in operations. SPoRT introduced passive microwave rain rate and IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)) (IMERG) to Alaska WFOs for use in radar-void areas and assessing flooding potential. SPoRT has been part of the multi-organization collaborative effort to introduce Gridded NUCAPS (NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS (Crosstrack Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder) Processing System) to the Anchorage CWSU (Center Weather Service Unit) to assess Cold Air Aloft events, [and as part of NOAA's PG (Product Generation) effort].

  5. WE-H-207B-04: Strategies for Adaptive RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, O. [Washington University School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, steady progress has been made towards the implementation of MRI in external beam radiation therapy for processes ranging from treatment simulation to in-room guidance. Novel procedures relying mostly on MR data are currently implemented in the clinic. This session will cover topics such as (a) commissioning and quality control of the MR in-room imagers and simulators specific to RT, (b) treatment planning requirements, constraints and challenges when dealing with various MR data, (c) quantification of organ motion with an emphasis on treatment delivery guidance, and (d) MR-driven strategies for adaptive RT workflows. The content of the session was chosen to address both educational and practical key aspects of MR guidance. Learning Objectives: Good understanding of MR testing recommended for in-room MR imaging as well as image data validation for RT chain (e.g. image transfer, filtering for consistency, spatial accuracy, manipulation for task specific); Familiarity with MR-based planning procedures: motivation, core workflow requirements, current status, challenges; Overview of the current methods for the quantification of organ motion; Discussion on approaches for adaptive treatment planning and delivery. T. Stanescu - License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image system-related distortions.; T. Stanescu, N/A.

  6. WE-H-207B-00: MRgRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, steady progress has been made towards the implementation of MRI in external beam radiation therapy for processes ranging from treatment simulation to in-room guidance. Novel procedures relying mostly on MR data are currently implemented in the clinic. This session will cover topics such as (a) commissioning and quality control of the MR in-room imagers and simulators specific to RT, (b) treatment planning requirements, constraints and challenges when dealing with various MR data, (c) quantification of organ motion with an emphasis on treatment delivery guidance, and (d) MR-driven strategies for adaptive RT workflows. The content of the session was chosen to address both educational and practical key aspects of MR guidance. Learning Objectives: Good understanding of MR testing recommended for in-room MR imaging as well as image data validation for RT chain (e.g. image transfer, filtering for consistency, spatial accuracy, manipulation for task specific); Familiarity with MR-based planning procedures: motivation, core workflow requirements, current status, challenges; Overview of the current methods for the quantification of organ motion; Discussion on approaches for adaptive treatment planning and delivery. T. Stanescu - License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image system-related distortions.; T. Stanescu, N/A.

  7. GOKaRT: Graphical Online Search Tool for Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild Schüler

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The map department of the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen together with the Berlin State Library propose a project to develop a web-based graphic cataloguing and search system for maps, to be funded by the German Research Foundation. This tool shall be made available to all map holdings in archives, libraries, university departments and museums in Germany as a comfortable means for the administration of map holdings and as a search tool. Sheets belonging to map series as well as single maps (old and new will be registered cooperatively by the participants with simple tools. This cooperation in data maintenance will facilitate the work especially for understaffed map holdings. Depending on the type of map there are four different mechanisms for map reference. For map series electronic index sheets are used which will show information regarding the various issues of the map sheets. Due to the intuitive graphic search entry GOKaRT-users will easily find the required maps of a certain region available in a chosen holding. User administration modules ensure comfortable handling. GOKaRT is being developed on the basis of licence-free open source programmes. In case financing is provided by the German Research Foundation, GOKaRT can be used free of charge internationally. This would require a contract stipulating data exchange between the partners as well as permanent storage and usability of the data.

  8. WE-H-207B-00: MRgRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, steady progress has been made towards the implementation of MRI in external beam radiation therapy for processes ranging from treatment simulation to in-room guidance. Novel procedures relying mostly on MR data are currently implemented in the clinic. This session will cover topics such as (a) commissioning and quality control of the MR in-room imagers and simulators specific to RT, (b) treatment planning requirements, constraints and challenges when dealing with various MR data, (c) quantification of organ motion with an emphasis on treatment delivery guidance, and (d) MR-driven strategies for adaptive RT workflows. The content of the session was chosen to address both educational and practical key aspects of MR guidance. Learning Objectives: Good understanding of MR testing recommended for in-room MR imaging as well as image data validation for RT chain (e.g. image transfer, filtering for consistency, spatial accuracy, manipulation for task specific); Familiarity with MR-based planning procedures: motivation, core workflow requirements, current status, challenges; Overview of the current methods for the quantification of organ motion; Discussion on approaches for adaptive treatment planning and delivery. T. Stanescu - License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image system-related distortions.; T. Stanescu, N/A

  9. WE-H-207B-04: Strategies for Adaptive RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, O.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, steady progress has been made towards the implementation of MRI in external beam radiation therapy for processes ranging from treatment simulation to in-room guidance. Novel procedures relying mostly on MR data are currently implemented in the clinic. This session will cover topics such as (a) commissioning and quality control of the MR in-room imagers and simulators specific to RT, (b) treatment planning requirements, constraints and challenges when dealing with various MR data, (c) quantification of organ motion with an emphasis on treatment delivery guidance, and (d) MR-driven strategies for adaptive RT workflows. The content of the session was chosen to address both educational and practical key aspects of MR guidance. Learning Objectives: Good understanding of MR testing recommended for in-room MR imaging as well as image data validation for RT chain (e.g. image transfer, filtering for consistency, spatial accuracy, manipulation for task specific); Familiarity with MR-based planning procedures: motivation, core workflow requirements, current status, challenges; Overview of the current methods for the quantification of organ motion; Discussion on approaches for adaptive treatment planning and delivery. T. Stanescu - License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image system-related distortions.; T. Stanescu, N/A

  10. System of programming units for the K556RT4 and K556RT5 fixed programmed memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, S.G.; Ermolin, Yu.V.; Kantserov, V.A.; Strigin, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    The programming system of constant programmable memory devices K556RT4 and K556RT5 that consist of two units (a programming device and an electrothermotraining unit) is described. The modules are made in the KAMAK standard. The programming device takes up 2 normal places, while the electrothermotraining block takes up 1 place. As information recording is done using a computer the time for programming is reduced and the possibility of errors is limited as compared with the manual method. The computer introduces the whole word to be recorded, not the separate parts, in the programming device. The transition to a new digit of a given word in the programming device is done automatically. This reduces the expense of computer time and accelerates the programming of microdiagrams

  11. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  12. High infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3* Rong-Zhen Luo,1,2,4,* Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Cong Xue1–3 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 3Departments of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 4Departments of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is associated with poor prognosis and high probability of distant metastases. Tumor microenvironments play a pivotal role in tumor metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are one of the main cell components, and they are correlated with increasing metastatic risk. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic significance of the infiltration of TAMs in patients with TNBC. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation (CD68 (a marker for macrophages was performed on tissue microarrays of operable breast cancer among 287 patients with TNBC, and the number of infiltrating TAMs was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Results: We found that TNBC with a large number of infiltrating TAMs had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis, as well as lower rates of disease-free survival and overall survival than those with a smaller number of infiltrating TAMs. Multivariate analysis indicated that the number of infiltrating TAMs was a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (P=0.001 in all patients. Conclusion: Our results suggested that high infiltrating TAMs are a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with TNBC, and they could become a potentially useful prognostic marker for TNBC. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, tumor-associated macrophages, prognosis

  13. Food insecurity is associated with high risk glycemic control and higher health care utilization among youth and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Martini, Lauren; Pihoker, Catherine; Frongillo, Edward A; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liu, Lenna L; Dabelea, Dana; Lawrence, Jean M; Liese, Angela D

    2018-04-01

    Household food insecurity (FI), i.e., limited availability of nutritionally adequate foods, is associated with poor glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the association of FI among youth and young adults (YYA) with type 1 diabetes to inform recent clinical recommendations from the American Diabetes Association for providers to screen all patients with diabetes for FI. Using data from the Washington and South Carolina SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study sites, we conducted an observational, cross-sectional evaluation of associations between FI and glycemic control, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits among YYA with type 1 diabetes. FI was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module, which queries conditions and behaviors typical of households unable to meet basic food needs. Participants' HbA 1c were measured from blood drawn at the research visit; socio-demographics and medical history were collected by survey. The prevalence of FI was 19.5%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, YYAs from food-insecure households had 2.37 higher odds (95% CI: 1.10, 5.09) of high risk glycemic control, i.e., HbA 1c >9.0%, vs. peers from food-secure households. In adjusted binomial regression analysis for ED visits, YYAs from food-insecure households had an adjusted prevalence rate that was 2.95 times (95% CI [1.17, 7.45]) as great as those from food secure households. FI was associated with high risk glycemic control and more ED visits. Targeted efforts should be developed and tested to alleviate FI among YYA with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Those with a Recent Diagnosis of Cancer Are at Higher Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broeke, C; De Burghgraeve, T; Ummels, M; Gescher, N; Deckx, L; Tjan-Heijnen, V; Buntinx, F; van den Akker, M

    2018-01-01

    In older adults, nutritional health is essential for good quality of life and living independently at home. Especially in cancer patients, malnutrition is common and known to complicate treatment. This study aims to evaluate the nutritional status and its associated factors in community-dwelling older adults with and without cancer. This is an observational study. This study focuses on older community-dwelling people. This study included older people with and without cancer (≥70 years). Cancer patients included patients with a new diagnosis of breast, lung, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Data collection included measures of nutritional status, quality of life, depression, fatigue, distress and functional status. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the association between personal characteristics and malnutrition. Data were available for 657 people; 383 people without cancer and 274 with a cancer diagnosis. Overall, malnutrition was detected in 245 (37.5%) people; in cancer patients this was 66.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that having cancer (OR 14.4, 95% CI: 8.01 - 23.3), being male (OR 2.38, 95% CI: 1.49 - 3.70), having depression (OR 13.5, 95% CI: 6.02-30.0), distress (OR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.55 - 4.37) and impaired instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (OR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.63 - 4.24) were associated with a higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in community-dwelling older people is high, particularly in patients with cancer. Benchmarking and routine screening of older patients may be helpful strategies to increase awareness of (risk of) malnutrition among professionals.

  15. Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikian, George L; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Taylor, Jonathan; Fessel, W Jeffrey; Kaufman, David; Towner, William; Troia-Cancio, Paolo V; Zolopa, Andrew; Robbins, Gregory K; Kagan, Ron; Israelski, Dennis; Shafer, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Determining the phenotypic impacts of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on individual nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) has remained a statistical challenge because clinical NRTI-resistant HIV-1 isolates usually contain multiple mutations, often in complex patterns, complicating the task of determining the relative contribution of each mutation to HIV drug resistance. Furthermore, the NRTIs have highly variable dynamic susceptibility ranges, making it difficult to determine the relative effect of an RT mutation on susceptibility to different NRTIs. In this study, we analyzed 1,273 genotyped HIV-1 isolates for which phenotypic results were obtained using the PhenoSense assay (Monogram, South San Francisco, CA). We used a parsimonious feature selection algorithm, LASSO, to assess the possible contributions of 177 mutations that occurred in 10 or more isolates in our data set. We then used least-squares regression to quantify the impact of each LASSO-selected mutation on each NRTI. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the most common NRTI resistance mutations. Because our results were standardized, the study provides the first analysis that quantifies the relative phenotypic effects of NRTI resistance mutations on each of the NRTIs. In addition, the study contains new findings on the relative impacts of thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) on susceptibility to abacavir and tenofovir; the impacts of several known but incompletely characterized mutations, including E40F, V75T, Y115F, and K219R; and a tentative role in reduced NRTI susceptibility for K64H, a novel NRTI resistance mutation.

  16. Using the SPoRT POES/GOES Hybrid Product in OCONUS Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matt; Fuell, Kevin; Nelson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The SPoRT (Short-term Prediction and Research Transition) Program at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center has been providing unique NASA and NOAA data and techniques to partner Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) for ten years. Data are provided in the Decision Support System used by WFO forecasters: AWIPS. For the last couple of years, SPoRT has been producing the POES/GOES Hybrid. This suite of products combines the strength ofl5- minute animations of GOES imagery - providing temporal continuity, with the higher resolution, relatively random availability, of polar orbiting (POES) imagery data. The product was first introduced with only MODIS data from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, but recently the VIIRS instrument onboard the Suomi-NPP satellite was added, providing better high-resolution coverage. These products represent SPoRT's efforts to prepare for higher resolution, higher frequency GOES-R imagery - as well as helping to move VIIRS (JPSS) data into the mainstream of weather forecasting. SPoRT generates 5 products for this dataset: Visible, Longwave Infrared (11 micrometers), Shortwave IR (3.7 micrometers), Water Vapor (6.7 micrometers), and Fog (Difference of 11 micrometer and 3.7 micrometer channels). The Water Vapor hybrid product has a Red-Blue-Green image from MODIS inlaid, since it provides even more qualitative information than water vapor alone. Animated examples of the products will be shown in this presentation. While the resolution at nadir of GOES imagery is nominally Han (4km for IR channels), the inlaid polar orbiter imagery has a resolution of 250m (lkm for IR channels). This has tremendous application in the continental US. However, in high latitudes, since the usefulness of GOES degrades poleward rapidly, the contrast of GOES and POES data is stark. The consistent temporal nature of GOES, even though at a reduced resolution at high latitudes, provides basic situational awareness, but the introduction of polar data is very helpful in seeing

  17. Household food insecurity is associated with a higher burden of obesity and risk of dietary inadequacies among mothers in Beirut, Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamis Jomaa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed evidence exists with respect to the association between household food insecurity (HFIS and obesity in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs, particularly among women. This study aimed to measure socioeconomic correlates of HFIS and explores its association with dietary intake and odds of obesity among mothers in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of households (n = 378 in Beirut, Lebanon. Surveys were completed with mothers of children <18 years. HFIS was measured using a locally-validated, Arabic-translated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Dietary intake was assessed using the multiple pass 24-h recall method. Associations between HFIS (food vs food insecure and socio-demographic characteristics were reported using crude and adjusted odds ratios. The odds of consuming <2/3rd Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for nutrients among mothers from food secure and food insecure households were explored. In addition, logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the association of HFIS with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and at-risk waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm among mothers. Results HFIS was found among 50% of study sample and was inversely associated with household income and mother’s educational level, even after adjusting for other socioeconomic variables (p < 0.01. Mothers in food insecure households reported consuming significantly less dairy products, fruits, and nuts yet more breads and sweets; and they had higher odds of consuming <2/3rd the DRI’s for key micronutrients (potassium, folate, and vitamin C compared to secure ones. Adjusting for socioeconomic correlates, food insecure mothers had 1.73 odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.02–2.92 compared to food secure mothers. Conclusions High HFIS prevalence was reported among urban Lebanese households. Mothers from food insecure

  18. One-step cross-genogroup multiplex RT-qPCR with an internal control system for the detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferer, Marc; Braun, Anne; Skrypski, Julia; Bock, Sabine; Thalheim, Sabine; Sting, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes great losses in fish hatcheries world-wide. The detection of IPNV can be challenging in certain circumstances, particularly due to low viral load and the genetic variability of this RNA virus. For the first time, this project created a quantitative triplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), including an endogenous control system, for specific, sensitive and rapid detection of IPNV in routine diagnostics. Multiple sequence alignment of 46 nucleotide sequences of the segment A genome obtained from the NCBI database allowed the design of two RT-qPCR systems covering the IPNV genogroup 1 and genogroups 2-5, respectively. The completed triplex RT-qPCR including a salmonid-specific endogenous control showed high specificity and an analytical sensitivity of 20-40 oligonucleotide copies. Testing of dilution series of virus-loaded cell culture suspensions proved equality of the triplex RT-qPCR with virus detection in cell culture and a higher sensitivity than conventional RT-PCR in field samples. In comparative studies of a total of 77 field samples tested, 51 showed identical positive and 19 identical negative results in cell culture and the triplex RT-qPCR. However, seven other samples yielded positive results in the triplex RT-qPCR, but negative results in cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  20. Children with ADHD symptoms have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Czamara

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20-60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.80, p = 6.59×10⁻¹³ as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10⁻⁰⁴. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based.

  1. Do telomeres have a higher plasticity than thought? Results from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study as a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Titze, Stephanie; Köttgen, Anna; Bärthlein, Barbara; Ekici, Arif B; Forer, Lukas; Schönherr, Sebastian; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Haun, Margot; Wanner, Christoph; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Telomere length is considered as a biological marker for aging. It is expected that telomeres shorten with age and with conditions associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Both are present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a very high cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether CKD duration is associated with relative telomere length (RTL) in 4802 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. We measured RTL in each sample in quadruplicates using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We observed a U-shaped association of RTL with CKD duration: the longest RTL was found in those 339 patients who reported the shortest disease duration (study these surprising results have to be considered with caution and as hypothesis-generating. Whether the longer RTL in patients with long-lasting disease is caused by an activation of telomerase to counteract the shortening of RTL due to oxidative stress and inflammation or whether they are caused by a survival bias needs to be investigated in longitudinal studies. Our data are in support of a higher plasticity of shortening and elongations of RTL as until recently anticipated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A dose-volume comparison of prostate cancer (PC) radiotherapy (RT) techniques for penile-structures (PNS) - a neglected critical organ in PC RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Jolanta; Myrianthopoulos, Leon; Nguyen, Ai; Chen, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1996-01-01

    rectum and bladder but 4FC delivered higher doses, especially at <60% prescribed dose levels. Conclusions: 1. PNS should be included as a CS in PC 3DCRT planning, at least as a research tool. 2. In our modest sample size, the 6-field coplanar technique treated the least PNS volumes at all dose levels while delivering optimal doses to the bladder and rectum in the majority of patients. 3. Even if only conventional, standard doses, such as 66-70 Gy, are going to be delivered, 6FO may be preferable for PNS and possibly for rectum and bladder as well; whether the dosimetric advantages of optimizing techniques for PNS can decrease RT-induced impotence is not known at this time, but can be expected due to the vascular anatomy of PNS

  3. Detection and Analysis of Circular RNAs by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Amaresh C; Gorospe, Myriam

    2018-03-20

    Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Posttranscriptional processes, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, mRNA turnover, and mRNA translation, are controlled by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding (nc)RNAs. The vast family of ncRNAs comprises diverse regulatory RNAs, such as microRNAs and long noncoding (lnc)RNAs, but also the poorly explored class of circular (circ)RNAs. Although first discovered more than three decades ago by electron microscopy, only the advent of high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and the development of innovative bioinformatic pipelines have begun to allow the systematic identification of circRNAs (Szabo and Salzman, 2016; Panda et al ., 2017b; Panda et al ., 2017c). However, the validation of true circRNAs identified by RNA sequencing requires other molecular biology techniques including reverse transcription (RT) followed by conventional or quantitative (q) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Northern blot analysis (Jeck and Sharpless, 2014). RT-qPCR analysis of circular RNAs using divergent primers has been widely used for the detection, validation, and sometimes quantification of circRNAs (Abdelmohsen et al ., 2015 and 2017; Panda et al ., 2017b). As detailed here, divergent primers designed to span the circRNA backsplice junction sequence can specifically amplify the circRNAs and not the counterpart linear RNA. In sum, RT-PCR analysis using divergent primers allows direct detection and quantification of circRNAs.

  4. MINIX4RT: real-time interprocess communications facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés

    2006-01-01

    MINIX4RT es una extensión del conocido Sistema Operativo MINIX que incorpora servicios de Tiempo Real Estricto en un nuevo microkernel pero manteniendo compatibilidad con las versiones anteriores del MINIX estándar. La Comunicación entre Procesos es un mecanismo que permite hacer extensible a un Sistema Operativo, pero debe estar libre de Inversión de Prioridades para ser utilizado en aplicaciones de Tiempo Real. Como las primitivas de MINIX no disponen de esta funcionalidad, se incorporar...

  5. Applications of LANCE Data at SPoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Short term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Mission: Apply NASA and NOAA measurement systems and unique Earth science research to improve the accuracy of short term weather prediction at the regional/local scale. Goals: Evaluate and assess the utility of NASA and NOAA Earth science data and products and unique research capabilities to address operational weather forecast problems; Provide an environment which enables the development and testing of new capabilities to improve short term weather forecasts on a regional scale; Help ensure successful transition of new capabilities to operational weather entities for the benefit of society

  6. SMAP Data Assimilation at NASA SPoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center maintains a near-real- time run of the Noah Land Surface Model within the Land Information System (LIS) at 3-km resolution. Soil moisture products from this model are used by several NOAA/National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices for flood and drought situational awareness. We have implemented assimilation of soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active/ Passive (SMAP) satellites, and are now evaluating the SMAP assimilation. The SMAP-enhanced LIS product is planned for public release by October 2016.

  7. Simple, specific molecular typing of dengue virus isolates using one-step RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alma; Capitan, Zeuz; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Cisneros, Julio; Moreno, Brechla; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Garcia, Mariana; Smith, Rebecca E; Motta, Jorge; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-10-01

    A one-step RT-PCR and one-enzyme RFLP was used to detect and distinguish among flaviviruses, including the four serotypes of dengue and the St. Louis Encephalitis, West Nile and Yellow Fever viruses in cultured virus samples or acute-phase human serum. Using a previously described RT-PCR, but novel RFLP procedure, results are obtained in 24 h with basic PCR and electrophoresis equipment. There is 95% agreement between RT-PCR/RFLP results and those achieved by indirect immunofluorescence assays, and 100% agreement between RT-PCR/RFLP results and gene sequencing. This method is more rapid than tests of cytopathic effect based on virus isolation in tissue culture, and simpler than real-time PCR. It does not require specialized equipment, radioisotopes or computer analysis and is a method that can be applied widely in the developing world. It allows for prompt determination of whether a flavivirus is the cause of illness in a febrile patient, rapid identification of dengue serotypes in circulation, and improved patient management in cases where prior dengue exposure make dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome a risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The rs3957357C>T SNP in GSTA1 Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Occurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in European Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Akhdar

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs detoxify toxic molecules by conjugation with reduced glutathione and regulate cell signaling. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of GST genes have been suggested to affect GST functions and thus to increase the risk of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. As GSTA1 is expressed in hepatocytes and the rs3957357C>T (TT SNP is known to downregulate GSTA1 mRNA expression, the aims of this study were: (i to explore the relationship between the TT SNP in GSTA1 and the occurrence of HCC; (ii to measure GSTA1 mRNA expression in HCCs. For that purpose, we genotyped non-tumor-tissue-derived DNA from 48 HCC patients and white-blood-cell-derived DNA from 37 healthy individuals by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. In addition, expression of GSTA1 mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR in 18 matching pairs of HCCs and non-tumor livers. Survival analysis was performed on an annotated microarray dataset containing 247 HCC patients (GSE14520. The GSTA1 TT genotype was more frequent in HCC than in non-HCC patients (27% versus 5%, respectively, suggesting that individuals carrying this genotype could be associated with 2-fold higher risk of developing HCCs (odds ratio = 2.1; p = 0.02. Also, we found that GSTA1 mRNA expression was lower in HCCs than in non-tumor livers. HCCs expressing the highest GSTA1 mRNA levels were the smallest in size (R = -0.67; p = 0.007, expressed the highest levels of liver-enriched genes such as ALB (albumin, R = -0.67; p = 0.007 and COL18A1 (procollagen type XVIII, R = -0.50; p = 0.03 and showed the most favorable disease-free (OR = 0.54; p<0.001 and overall (OR = 0.56; p = 0.006 outcomes. Moreover, GSTA1 was found within a 263-gene network involved in well-differentiated hepatocyte functions. In conclusion, HCCs are characterized by two GSTA1 features: the TT SNP and reduced GSTA1 gene expression in a context of hepatocyte de-differentiation.

  9. The SPoRT concept of bracing for idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Fusco, Claudia; Atanasio, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The SPoRT (acronym: Symmetrical, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) concept of bracing is a new way to build braces based on our 20 years of experience and the biomechanical principles of scoliosis correction, inclusive of the Sibilla and Sforzesco braces. The concept always requires a custom brace, which is made according to the patient's individual requirements. New technologies such as CAD-CAM can be applied, and often for better results, without the customary use of prebuilt forms whose measurements are stored in databases. Once the initial draft brace is completed, a final test must be made on the patient to modify and adapt it, depending on his or her real interaction between the body and the brace. The results that are today available on the SPoRT concept relate to the Sforzesco brace and are necessarily short-term, because the first treated patients are now reaching the fourth-year follow-up examination and haven't yet completed their treatments. On the basis of the initial evaluations, we can state that the Sforzesco brace is more effective than the Lyon brace after 6 months of treatment and that the Sforzesco brace is equally effective as the Risser Plast brace.

  10. Used mixed oxide fuel reprocessing at RT-1 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolupaev, D.; Logunov, M.; Mashkin, A.; Bugrov, K.; Korchenkin, K. [FSUE PA ' Mayak' , 30, Lenins str, Ozersk, 460065 (Russian Federation); Shadrin, A.; Dvoeglazov, K. [ITCP ' PRORYV' , 2/8 Malaya Krasmoselskay str, Moscow, 107140 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    Reprocessing of the mixed uranium-plutonium spent nuclear fuel of the BN-600 reactor was performed at the RT-1 plant twice, in 2012 and 2014. In total, 8 fuel assemblies with a burn-up from 73 to 89 GW day/t and the cooling time from 17 to 21 years were reprocessed. The reprocessing included the stages of dissolution, clarification, extraction separation of U and Pu with purification from the fission products, refining of uranium and plutonium at the relevant refining cycles. Dissolution of the fuel composition of MOX used nuclear fuel (UNF) in nitric acid solutions in the presence of fluoride ion has occurred with the full transfer of actinides into solution. Due to the high content of Pu extraction separation of U and Pu was carried out on a nuclear-safe equipment designed for the reprocessing of highly enriched U spent nuclear fuel and Pu refining. Technological processes of extraction, separation and refining of actinides proceeded without deviations from the normal mode. The output flow of the extraction outlets in their compositions corresponded to the regulatory norms and remained at the level of the compositions of the streams resulting from the reprocessing of fuel types typical for the RT-1 plant. No increased losses of Pu into waste have been registered during the reprocessing of BN-600 MOX UNF an compare with VVER-440 uranium UNF reprocessing. (authors)

  11. Request for regular monitoring of the symbiotic variable RT Cru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-08-01

    Dr. Margarita Karovska (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and colleagues have requested AAVSO observer assistance in their campaign on the symbiotic variable RT Cru (member of a new class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic binaries). Weekly or more frequent monitoring (B, V, and visual) beginning now is requested in support of upcoming Chandra observations still to be scheduled. "We plan Chandra observations of RT Cru in the near future that will help us understand the characteristics of the accretion onto the white dwarf in this sub-class of symbiotics. This is an important step for determining the precursor conditions for formation of a fraction of asymmetric Planetary Nebulae, and the potential of symbiotic systems as progenitors of at least a fraction of Type Ia supernovae." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  12. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  13. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  14. Arvo Pärt: Kui kannatab üks inimene, siis kannatab kogu maailm! / Arvo Pärt, Nora Pärt ; intervjueerinud Yana Toom, Maarja-Liis Arujärv, Aleksandr Zukerman ; kommenteerinud Edgar Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärt, Arvo, 1935-

    2010-01-01

    Arvo Pärt ja tema abikaasa Nora Pärt andsid Türgis enne Pärdi uudisteose "Aadama itk" esiettekannet intervjuu, kus rääkisid nii nende raskustest Läände elama asumisel kui uudisteose sügavamast mõttest

  15. Length of Residence in the United States is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Immigrants: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S

    2016-11-04

    Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with income ratio, age, and sex, immigrants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.10-1.29), diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for <10 years. In an ethnically diverse sample of US immigrants, acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Higher risk of renal impairment associated with tenofovir use amongst people living with HIV in India: a comparative cohort analysis between Western India and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Sanjay N; Smith, Colette; Makane, Abhimanyu; Youle, Mike; Johnson, Margaret; Bele, Vivek; Joshi, Kedar; Dabhade, Digamber; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2014-03-29

    Data on the renal safety of Tenofovir (TDF) in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is scarce. We compared development of various forms of renal impairment with use of TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) between a cohort from the Institute of Infectious Diseases (IID) Pune, Western India and the Royal Free Hospital (RFH) London, UK. This is a retrospective analysis of change in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) at 6, 12 and 24 months post TDF initiation using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. In people living with Human Immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with pre-TDF eGFR > 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 time to development of and factors associated with progression to eGFR  90 ml/min/1.73 m2 PLHIV at IID were more likely to develop an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (aHR = 7.6 [95% CI 3.4, 17.4] p < 0.0001) and had a faster rate of progression estimated using Kaplan Meier methods. Risk factors included age (per 10 years older: aHR = 2.21 [1.6, 3.0] p < 0.0001) and receiving concomitant ritonavir boosted Protease Inhibitor (PI/r) (aHR = 2.4 [1.2, 4.8] p = 0.01). There is higher frequency of treatment limiting renal impairment events amongst PLHIV receiving TDF in Western India. As TDF scale up progresses, programs need to develop capacity for monitoring and treatment of renal impairment associated with TDF.

  17. Global Dynamics and International Cooperation Needs of RT Development and Utilization for the Establishment of the Northeast Asia RT Hub in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Oh, G. B.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Choi, S. J.; Choi, S. G

    2005-11-15

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following scopes were categorized for in-depth study. First, analysis framework was developed for RT capacity development and international technology cooperation strategy. RT survey checklist and international technology cooperation was analyzed with interviewing and reports of domestic participants recently. Second, RT strategic environment was analyze for East-Asia hub competition/cooperation and developing nations using analysis framework. Korean RT was analyzed using SWOT analysis for establishment of RT hub in Korea. Third, East-Asian nations were classified analyzed by RT categories in standpoint of our country. Technology status and future cooperation plan were discussed about RT application for bio-medicine. Products/technology seminar related to an export was hold about support plan of admission/sales for functional food HemoHIM. This study can be utilized in the establishment of RT hub and development strategy. And it can be also utilized in promotion devising of domestic RT and planning setup for obtaing the international competitive power.

  18. Global Dynamics and International Cooperation Needs of RT Development and Utilization for the Establishment of the Northeast Asia RT Hub in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Oh, G. B.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Choi, S. J.; Choi, S. G.

    2005-11-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following scopes were categorized for in-depth study. First, analysis framework was developed for RT capacity development and international technology cooperation strategy. RT survey checklist and international technology cooperation was analyzed with interviewing and reports of domestic participants recently. Second, RT strategic environment was analyze for East-Asia hub competition/cooperation and developing nations using analysis framework. Korean RT was analyzed using SWOT analysis for establishment of RT hub in Korea. Third, East-Asian nations were classified analyzed by RT categories in standpoint of our country. Technology status and future cooperation plan were discussed about RT application for bio-medicine. Products/technology seminar related to an export was hold about support plan of admission/sales for functional food HemoHIM. This study can be utilized in the establishment of RT hub and development strategy. And it can be also utilized in promotion devising of domestic RT and planning setup for obtaing the international competitive power

  19. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Manmohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and alphavirus (Chikungunya. The feasibility of M-RT-PCR assay for clinical diagnosis was validated with 620 acute phase dengue patient sera samples of recent epidemics in India. The comparative evaluation vis a vis conventional virus isolation revealed higher sensitivity. None of the forty healthy serum samples screened in the present study revealed any amplification, thereby establishing specificity of the reported assay for dengue virus only. Conclusion These findings clearly suggested that M-RT-PCR assay reported in the present study is the rapid and cost-effective method for simultaneous detection as well as typing of the dengue virus in acute phase patient serum samples. Thus, the M-RT-PCR assay developed in this study will serve as a very useful tool for rapid diagnosis and typing of dengue infections in endemic areas.

  20. Higher intake of carotenoid is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Luo, Wei-Ping; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-06-01

    The associations between specific carotenoid intake and colorectal cancer risk remain inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association between specific dietary carotenoid intake with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults. From July 2010 to October 2013, 845 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 845 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders. A strong inverse association was found between β-cryptoxanthin intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 77% (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.17-0.33, P trend colorectal cancer risk. These findings were consistent across cancer site, sources of controls, and smoking status. The inverse associations between dietary α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene intake and colorectal cancer risk were found in both males and females, while inverse associations between β-carotene intake and colorectal cancer risk were only observed in males. Consumption of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. No significant association was found between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and colorectal cancer risk.

  1. Simultaneous VENTANA IHC and RT-PCR testing of ALK status in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients and response to crizotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Wei; Wang, Wen-Xian; Chen, Yan-Ping; Chen, Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Li-Hua; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhuang, Wu; Song, Zheng-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Yun-Jian; Guan, Yan-Fang; Yi, Xin; Lv, Tang-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Lu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Jiang; Shi, Yi; Lin, Xian-Dong; Chen, Gang; Song, Yong

    2018-04-11

    ALK-targeted therapy. VENTANA IHC has moderate sensitivity and a slightly higher association with response to therapy with ALK inhibitors, and some VENTANA IHC-positive, but RT-PCR-negative cases may benefit from crizotinib.

  2. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Neil B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Stein, Nicholas F. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves

  3. Laguna Verde simulator: A new TRAC-RT based application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Cases, J.J.; Tanarro Onrubia, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a partnership with GSE Systems, TECNATOM is developing a full scope training simulator for Laguna Verde Unit 2 (LV2). The simulator design is based upon the current 'state-of-the art technology' regarding the simulation platform, instructor station, visualization tools, advanced thermalhydraulics and neutronics models, I/O systems and automated model building technology. When completed, LV2 simulator will achieve a remarkable level of modeling fidelity by using TECNATOM's TRAC-RT advanced thermalhydraulic code for the reactor coolant and main steam systems, and NEMO neutronic model for the reactor core calculations. These models have been utilized up to date for the development or upgrading of nine NPP simulators in Spain and abroad, with more than 8000 hours of training sessions, and have developed an excellent reputation for its robustness and high fidelity. (author)

  4. Additive benefit of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both testosterone and vitamin D levels affect muscle and thus may also affect risk of falling. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sex hormone levels and the risk of falling in older men and women. 199 men and 246 women age 65 or older living at home followed for 3 years...

  5. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  6. Clinical utility of RT-PCR in assessing HER 2 gene expression versus traditional IHC and FISH in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Moushumi; Mehta, Anurag; Jaipuria, Jiten; Kumar, Dushyant; Vishwakarma, Gayatri; Panigrahi, Manoj Kumar; Verma, Haristuti; Saifi, Mumtaz; Sharma, Sanjeev; Tandon, Simran; Doval, D C; Das, Bhudev C

    2018-02-09

    would have benefited from RT-PCR testing if it was used as a first-line test. If RT-PCR would have been used as a second-line test among those with IHC score 2 (n = 43), then only 6 patients would have been assigned a conclusive RT-PCR category (category 1 or 3) translating to a clinical benefit of 14% (6/43) as a second-line test. As a second-line test it had 51% probability to prove more cost-effective than the conventional pathway, provided the cost of RT-PCR was 0.4 times the cost of IHC. Also in a three-step pathway, RT-PCR upfront would have 56% probability of higher cost-benefit provided the cost of RT-PCR was 0.1 times the cost of IHC. RT-PCR results were found to be suboptimal to IHC in terms of discriminative ability and clinical benefit; thus, it is unlikely to replace IHC as a first-line test in the near future.

  7. Tantsuime: märjaks nutetud Märt Agu saab 8000 uut sõpra / Märt Agu ; intervjueerinud Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Agu, Märt, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    11. Noorte tantsupeo "Maa ja ilm" üldjuht ja Tallinna Tantsuakadeemia kunstiline juht Märt Agu Tallinna lauluväljakul toimuvast tantsupeost, ülevaatustest, eesti meeste rahvatantsust, oma isast Mait Agust, tema tantsust "Põhjamaa", tantsuõpetaja elukutsest, eesti tantsust, Tallinna Tantsuakadeemiast. Andmeid Märt Agu loomingu kohta

  8. Clinical Outcomes Among Children With Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma Treated With Proton and Photon Radiation Therapy: A Comparison of Disease Control and Overall Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Bree R; Esiashvili, Natia; Kim, Sungjin; Weyman, Elizabeth A; Thornton, Lauren T; Mazewski, Claire; MacDonald, Tobey; Ebb, David; MacDonald, Shannon M; Tarbell, Nancy J; Yock, Torunn I

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare long-term disease control and overall survival between children treated with proton and photon radiation therapy (RT) for standard-risk medulloblastoma. This multi-institution cohort study includes 88 children treated with chemotherapy and proton (n=45) or photon (n=43) RT between 2000 and 2009. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and patterns of failure were compared between the 2 cohorts. Median (range) age was 6 years old at diagnosis (3-21 years) for proton patients versus 8 years (3-19 years) for photon patients (P=.011). Cohorts were similar with respect to sex, histology, extent of surgical resection, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) RT dose, total RT dose, whether the RT boost was delivered to the posterior fossa (PF) or tumor bed (TB), time from surgery to RT start, or total duration of RT. RT consisted of a median (range) CSI dose of 23.4 Gy (18-27 Gy) and a boost of 30.6 Gy (27-37.8 Gy). Median follow-up time is 6.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1-6.6 years) for proton patients versus 7.0 years (95% CI: 5.8-8.9 years) for photon patients. There was no significant difference in RFS or OS between patients treated with proton versus photon RT; 6-year RFS was 78.8% versus 76.5% (P=.948) and 6-year OS was 82.0% versus 87.6%, respectively (P=.285). On multivariate analysis, there was a trend for longer RFS with females (P=.058) and higher CSI dose (P=.096) and for longer OS with females (P=.093). Patterns of failure were similar between the 2 cohorts (P=.908). Disease control with proton and photon radiation therapy appears equivalent for standard risk medulloblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  10. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization: precise methods to detect HER-2 status in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Fernando A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2 gene testing has become an integral part of breast cancer patient diagnosis. The most commonly used assay in the clinical setting for evaluating HER-2 status is immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. These procedures permit correlation between HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas. Methods To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. Results The concordance rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1+ immunostaining cases, which showed high-level amplification (15.4% and HER-2 transcript overexpression (20%. Moreover, 2+ immunostaining cases presented nonamplified status (50% by CISH and HER-2 downexpression (38.5% by qRT-PCR. In general, concordance occurred between qRT-PCR and CISH results. A high concordance was observed between CISH/qRT-PCR and FISH. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed a significant association between HER-2 downexpression and the involvement of less than four lymph nodes (P = 0.0350. Conclusion Based on these findings, qRT-PCR was more precise and reproducible than IHC. Furthermore, CISH was revealed as an alternative and useful procedure for investigating amplifications involving the HER-2 gene.

  11. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization: precise methods to detect HER-2 status in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Silveira, Sara M; Silveira, Cássia GT; Bérgamo, Nádia A; Neto, Francisco A Moraes; Domingues, Maria AC; Soares, Fernando A; Caldeira, José RF; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2009-01-01

    HER-2 gene testing has become an integral part of breast cancer patient diagnosis. The most commonly used assay in the clinical setting for evaluating HER-2 status is immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These procedures permit correlation between HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas. To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. The concordance rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1+ immunostaining cases, which showed high-level amplification (15.4%) and HER-2 transcript overexpression (20%). Moreover, 2+ immunostaining cases presented nonamplified status (50%) by CISH and HER-2 downexpression (38.5%) by qRT-PCR. In general, concordance occurred between qRT-PCR and CISH results. A high concordance was observed between CISH/qRT-PCR and FISH. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed a significant association between HER-2 downexpression and the involvement of less than four lymph nodes (P = 0.0350). Based on these findings, qRT-PCR was more precise and reproducible than IHC. Furthermore, CISH was revealed as an alternative and useful procedure for investigating amplifications involving the HER-2 gene

  12. To determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Vimplis, S; Sharma, A; Eid, N; Atiomo, W

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (type II DM). In a cross-sectional study, 60 women with PCOS and 112 controls were given a questionnaire. The prevalence of heart disease, stroke, diabetes and associated risk factors among fathers and brothers of women with PCOS and controls, were measured. The percentage of women with PCOS with at least one brother with a risk factor for CVD was 47.5%, around twice that seen in control women (24.71%). The prevalence of heart disease, stroke and diabetes were similar in brothers of women with PCOS and controls. In conclusion, brothers of women with PCOS may be at increased risk of CVD. They form an easily identified group, which can be targeted for primary prevention.

  13. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  14. Comparison of a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm and comprehensive lymphadenectomy in the detection of stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma at higher risk for nodal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducie, Jennifer A; Eriksson, Ane Gerda Zahl; Ali, Narisha; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Bogani, Giorgio; Cliby, William A; Dowdy, Sean C; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Soslow, Robert A; Keeney, Gary L; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Mariani, Andrea; Leitao, Mario M

    2017-12-01

    To determine if a sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping algorithm will detect metastatic nodal disease in patients with intermediate-/high-risk endometrial carcinoma. Patients were identified and surgically staged at two collaborating institutions. The historical cohort (2004-2008) at one institution included patients undergoing complete pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins (LND cohort). At the second institution an SLN mapping algorithm, including pathologic ultra-staging, was performed (2006-2013) (SLN cohort). Intermediate-risk was defined as endometrioid histology (any grade), ≥50% myometrial invasion; high-risk as serous or clear cell histology (any myometrial invasion). Patients with gross peritoneal disease were excluded. Isolated tumor cells, micro-metastases, and macro-metastases were considered node-positive. We identified 210 patients in the LND cohort, 202 in the SLN cohort. Nodal assessment was performed for most patients. In the intermediate-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 30/107 (28.0%) (LND), 29/82 (35.4%) (SLN) (P=0.28). In the high-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 20/103 (19.4%) (LND), 26 (21.7%) (SLN) (P=0.68). Paraaortic lymph node (LN) assessment was performed significantly more often in intermediate-/high-risk groups in the LND cohort (P<0.001). In the intermediate-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 20/96 (20.8%) (LND) vs. 3/28 (10.7%) (SLN) (P=0.23). In the high-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 13/82 (15.9%) (LND) and 10/56 (17.9%) (SLN) (%, P=0.76). SLN mapping algorithm provides similar detection rates of stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The SLN algorithm does not compromise overall detection compared to standard LND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Snacking between main meals is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN Project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Lopez-Iracheta, R. (Roberto); Zazpe, I. (Itziar); Sayon-Orea, C. (Carmen); Gea, A. (Alfredo); Bes-Rastrollo, M. (Maira); Pimenta, A.M. (Adriano Marçal)

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of snacking between main meals with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Snack consumption was evaluated using the question: 'Do you have the habit of snacking between main meals?' Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of metabolic syndrome and th...

  16. Intra-arterial thrombolysis using rt-PA in patients with acute stroke due to vessel occlusion of anterior and/or posterior cerebral circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tountopoulou, Argyro; Ahl, Bjoern; Weissenborn, Karin [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Hannover (Germany); Becker, Hartmut; Goetz, Friedrich [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with acute stroke due to occlusion in the anterior or posterior circulation. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiological data of 88 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent emergency cerebral angiography for the purpose of subsequent IA thrombolysis. The neurological deficit on admission and discharge was graded using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Baseline computer tomography (CT) scans were examined for any signs indicative of cerebral ischemia. The angiographic findings were classified according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score for myocardial infarction. Follow-up CT scans were examined for hemorrhagic complication. Of the 88 patients who underwent IA thrombolysis, 63 presented with complete or partial arterial occlusion in the suspected perfusion area. In these 63 patients, the median NIHSS score dropped from 15 points on admission to 10 points at discharge. The recanalization rate was 52.6% for partial and complete reperfusion. In-hospital mortality was 20.6% (9.1% for carotid, 44.4% for basilar territory occlusion). Intracerebral bleeding (ICB) occurred in 38.6% of the patients with occlusion in the anterior circulation, resulting in these patients presenting a worse clinical outcome than those without ICB. Only minor extracranial bleedings occurred in 20.6% of patients. Patients with ICB had a significantly higher frequency of ischemic signs on the baseline CT scan. Occlusion of a cerebral artery is present in about 75% of the patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Intra-arterial thrombolysis using rt-PA in patients with acute ischemic stroke can achieve re-vascularization, although ICB remains the major risk factor affecting its efficacy. (orig.)

  17. Intra-arterial thrombolysis using rt-PA in patients with acute stroke due to vessel occlusion of anterior and/or posterior cerebral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tountopoulou, Argyro; Ahl, Bjoern; Weissenborn, Karin; Becker, Hartmut; Goetz, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with acute stroke due to occlusion in the anterior or posterior circulation. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiological data of 88 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent emergency cerebral angiography for the purpose of subsequent IA thrombolysis. The neurological deficit on admission and discharge was graded using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Baseline computer tomography (CT) scans were examined for any signs indicative of cerebral ischemia. The angiographic findings were classified according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score for myocardial infarction. Follow-up CT scans were examined for hemorrhagic complication. Of the 88 patients who underwent IA thrombolysis, 63 presented with complete or partial arterial occlusion in the suspected perfusion area. In these 63 patients, the median NIHSS score dropped from 15 points on admission to 10 points at discharge. The recanalization rate was 52.6% for partial and complete reperfusion. In-hospital mortality was 20.6% (9.1% for carotid, 44.4% for basilar territory occlusion). Intracerebral bleeding (ICB) occurred in 38.6% of the patients with occlusion in the anterior circulation, resulting in these patients presenting a worse clinical outcome than those without ICB. Only minor extracranial bleedings occurred in 20.6% of patients. Patients with ICB had a significantly higher frequency of ischemic signs on the baseline CT scan. Occlusion of a cerebral artery is present in about 75% of the patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Intra-arterial thrombolysis using rt-PA in patients with acute ischemic stroke can achieve re-vascularization, although ICB remains the major risk factor affecting its efficacy. (orig.)

  18. Real-time onestep RT-PCR for the detection and differentiation of European and North American types of PRRSV in boar semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    and safe diagnostic procedure, since cDNA synthesis and PCR is performed sequentially without inbetween opening of the PCR-tubes, thus eliminating a substantial contamination risk. The aim of the present study was to validate a real-time OneStep RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection...

  19. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths ≥10mm, and margin distances ≤4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  20. Experimental study on the thermostable property of aramid fiber reinforced PE-RT pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Qi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flexible composite pipes are advantageous in ultra high strength, high modulus, pH and corrosion resistance and light weight, but there are still some hidden safety troubles because they are poorer in thermostable capacity. Therefore, test samples of flexible composite pipes were prepared with high-temperature polythene (PE-RT as the neck bush and aramid fiber as the reinforcement layer. Experimental study was conducted by using HPHT vessel and differential thermal scanner for different working conditions, different temperatures, whole-pipe pressure-bearing capacity and 1000 h viability. It is shown by the environmental compatibility test that high temperature has little effect on the weight, Vicat softening temperature, mechanical properties and structures of neck bush PE-RT, but exerts an obvious effect on the tensility and whole-pipe water pressure blasting of the reinforcement aramid fiber. Besides, the drop of whole-pipe pressure-bearing capacity is caused by deformation and breaking of aramid fibers when the reinforcement layer is under the force of internal pressure. Finally, disorientation and crystallization of molecular thermal motion occur with the rise of temperature, so amorphous orientation reduces, crystallinity factor and crystalline orientation factor increase gradually, thus, disorientation of macromolecular chains increases and tensile strength decreases. It is concluded that this type of flexible composite pipe can smoothly pass 1000 h viability test. And it is recommended that it be used in the situations with temperature not higher than 95 °C and internal pressure not higher than 4 MPa.

  1. A Special Pre-Service-Inspection Using Radiographic Testing(RT) for Brazing Fitting used in Aircraft Hydraulic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Ho

    2010-01-01

    Brazing fitting which is one of the aircraft hydraulic power system components is widely used for saving weight and achieving higher reliability. Any inherent defects or damage of fitting can cause system failure and/or physical damage of human body due to highly pressurized fluid. Radiographic testing(RT) technique and additional micro-structure investigation on cut-away surfaces have been accomplished to find out some defect-like-inhomogeneity in the fittings. The radiography results showed that some defect-like-inhomogeneity existed inside body. Additional micro-structure investigation on cut-away surface reveals that the inhomogeneity is due to internal voids. In this study, it can be is said that RT technique can be a useful tool for field acceptance test of hydraulic brazing fitting in short time

  2. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  3. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S-H; Tsai, M-H; Lin, C-W; Yang, T-C; Chuang, P-H; Tsai, I-S; Lu, H-C; Wan Lei; Lin, Y-J; Lai, C-H

    2008-01-01

    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples

  4. Kuidas sünnib pealkiri? / Pärt Lias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lias, Pärt

    2002-01-01

    Pealkiri, pühendus, moto, joonealune märge, ees- ja järelsõna on teose teksti manused, mis ei kuulu otse teksti, kuid selgitavad, täiendavad ja täpsustavad seda. Gerard Genette on need teksti lisandid koondanud üldnimetuse paratekstid alla. Eesti kirjanikud vastavad Pärt Liase küsimusele oma teoste pealkirjade saamisloo kohta: Aimee Beekman, Henn-Kaarel Hellat, Joel Sang ja Arvo Mägi (4); Lennart Meri, Heino Kiik ja Fanny de Sivers (5); Helga Nõu, Ülle Kauksi, Maie Kalda ja Cornelius Hasselblatt (6); Debora Vaarandi, Vaino Vahing, Arved Viirlaid ja Wimberg (7); Vahur Afanasjev, Matt Barker, Andrus Kivirähk, Jürgen Rooste ja Contra (8); Elin Toona, Jaak Rähesoo, Enn Soosaar, Juhan Peegel ja Toomas Kall (9); Kerttu Rakke, Aare Pilv, Aarne Ruben, Indrek Hargla, Jan Kaus ja Karen Orlau (10); Ene Mihkelson, Mats Traat ja Boriss Baljasnõi (11); Maimu Berg, Ain Kaalep, Enn Nõu ja Madis Kõiv (12)

  5. Higher risks when working unusual times? A cross-validation of the effects on safety, health, and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greubel, Jana; Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Lombardi, David A

    2016-11-01

    Replication and cross-validation of results on health and safety risks of work at unusual times. Data from two independent surveys (European Working Conditions Surveys 2005 and 2010; EU 2005: n = 23,934 and EU 2010: n = 35,187) were used to examine the relative risks of working at unusual times (evenings, Saturdays, and Sundays) on work-life balance, work-related health complaints, and occupational accidents using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders such as demographics, work load, and shift work. For the EU 2005 survey, evening work was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor work-life balance (OR 1.69) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.14), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.49) and occupational accidents (OR 1.34), and Sunday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.15) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.17). For EU 2010, evening work was associated with poor work-life balance (OR 1.51) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.12), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.60) and occupational accidents (OR 1.19) but a decrease in risk for work-related health complaints (OR 0.86) and Sunday work with work-related health complaints (OR 1.13). Risk estimates in both samples yielded largely similar results with comparable ORs and overlapping confidence intervals. Work at unusual times constitutes a considerable risk to social participation and health and showed structurally consistent effects over time and across samples.

  6. Exchanging Catheters Over a Single Transseptal Sheath During Left Atrial Ablation is Associated with a Higher Risk for Silent Cerebral Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Deneke, MD

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Exchanging catheters over a single transseptal access to perform left atrial ablation is associated with a significantly higher incidence of SCE compared to an ablation technique using different transseptal accesses for therapeutic and diagnostic catheters.

  7. Employment status at time of first hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a higher risk of death and rehospitalization for heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization in a nation......AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization...

  8. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  9. Comparative evaluation of conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) for detection of avian metapneumovirus subtype A

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, HL; Spilki, FR; dos Santos, MMAB; de Almeida, RS; Arns, CW

    2009-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...

  10. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Marie BA

    2017-12-01

    In African countries, where most of health facilities are understaffed, more rigorous studies with a larger population are needed to give a high level of evidence to confirm this association in order to establish the need to be more aggressive in risk factor control in these individuals.

  11. Higher burden of supraventricular ectopic complexes early after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation is associated with increased risk of recurrent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Christina; Johannessen, Arne; Dixen, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Early identification of patients who could benefit from early re-intervention after catheter ablation is highly warranted. Our aim was to investigate the association between post-procedural burden of supraventricular ectopic complexes (SVEC) and the risk of long-term atrial fibrillation (AF...

  12. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative

  13. Higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a decreased risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination: Results from the Ausimmune Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Samuel; Lithander, Fiona; van der Mei, Ingrid; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lucas, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    There is contradictory evidence for a role of dietary fat in risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). To examine the association between usual fat intake (total, saturated, monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), omega-3 and omega-6) and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of CNS demyelination (FCD). Multi-centre incident case-control study in four regions of Australia during 2003-2006. Cases were aged 18-59 years and had a FCD; controls were matched to a case on age, sex and location. Dietary data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In 267 cases and 517 controls with dietary data, higher intake (per g/day) of omega-3 PUFA (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=0.61 (95% CI 0.40-0.93)), and particularly that derived from fish (AOR=0.54 (95% CI 0.31-0.93)) rather than from plants (AOR=0.75 (95% CI 0.39-1.43)) was associated with a decreased risk of FCD. Total fat intake and intake of other types of fat were not associated with FCD risk. There was a significant decrease in FCD risk with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA, particularly that originating from fish. There was no evidence to indicate that the intake of other types of dietary fat or fat quantity in the previous 12 months was associated with an altered risk of FCD. © The Author(s), 2015.

  14. Effect of low frequency ultrasound on combined rt-PA and eptifibatide thrombolysis in human clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Holland, Christy K; Pancioli, Arthur M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are used to treat thrombotic disease such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. Interest in increasing efficacy and reducing side effects has led to the study of adjuncts such as GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and ultrasound (US) enhanced thrombolysis. Currently, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor and fibrinolytic treatment are often used in AMI, and are under investigation for stroke treatment. However, little is known of the efficacy of combined GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor, fibrinolytic and ultrasound treatment. We measure the lytic efficacy of rt-PA, eptifibatide (Epf) and 120 kHz ultrasound treatment in an in-vitro human clot model. Blood was drawn from 15 subjects after IRB approval. Clots were made in 20 microL pipettes, and placed in a water tank for microscopic visualization during lytic treatment. Clots were exposed to control, rt-PA (rt-PA), eptifibatide (Epf), or rt-PA+eptifibatide (rt-PA + Epf), with (+US) or without (-US) ultrasound for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C in human plasma. Clot lysis was measured over time, using a microscopic imaging technique. The fractional clot loss (FCL) and initial lytic rate (LR) were used to quantify lytic efficacy. LR values for (- US) treated clots were 0.8+/-0.1(control), 1.8+/-0.3 (Epf), 1.5+/-0.2 (rt-PA), and 1.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA + Epf) (% clot width/minute) respectively. In comparison, the (+ US) group exhibited LR values of 1.6+/-0.2 (control), 4.3+/-0.4 (Epf), 6.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA), and 4.6+/-0.6 (rt-PA + Epf). For (- US) treated clots, FCL was 6.0+/-0.8 (control), 9.2+/-2.5 (Epf), 15.6+/-1.7 (rt-PA), and 28.0+/-2.2% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. FCL for (+ US) clots was 13.5+/-2.4 (control), 20.7+/-6.4 (Epf), 44.4+/-3.6 (rt-PA) and 30.3+/-3.6% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. Although the addition of eptifibatide enhances the in-vitro lytic efficacy of rt-PA in the absence of ultrasound, the efficacy of ultrasound and rt-PA is greater than that of combined

  15. Does the risk of plexus brachialis lesion following therapeutic irradiation of the supraclavicular lymph vessels in breast cancer patients persist life-long?; Besteht das Risiko einer radiogenen Plexus brachialis-Laesion nach Strahlentherapie (RT) der supraklavikulaeren Lymphabflusswege bei Brustkrebs-Patientinnen lebeslang?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, D; Bajrovic, A; Fehlauer, F; Tribius, S; Jung, H; Alberti, W [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The present analysis shows that the risk of radiogenic plexus brachialis lesion does not decrease but rather remains constant over time. Our series revealed a 2.9% annual rate of newly appearing plexus lesions (p{sub {alpha}}), which is in good agreement with literature data. No significant influence of chemotherapy or tamoxifen treatment on the rate of radiogenic plexus lesions was observed in our series. Within the first five years of radiotherapy (EQD2 59.8 Gy) 3.9% of our patients suffered a lesion of the plexus brachialis. This value is in good keeping with a TD5/5 (5% plexus lesions within 5 years) tolerance dose of 60 - 62 Gy. [German] Die vorliegende Analyse zeigt, dass das Risiko einer radiogenen Plexus-Laesion im Laufe der Zeit nicht abnimmt, sondern konstant bleibt. Die Rate neu aufgetretener Plexus-Laesionen pro Jahr (p{sub a}) von 2,9% in unserer Serie ist mit Daten aus der Literatur vereinbar. Ein signifikanter Einfluss einer Chemotherapie oder einer Tamoxifenbehandlung auf die Rate radiogener Plexus-Laesionen wurde in unserer Serie nicht beobachtet. In den ersten 5 Jahren nach Strahlentherapie (EQD2 59,8 Gy) kam es bei 3,9% unserer Patientinnen zu einer Laesion des Plexus brachialis. Dieser Wert ist gut mit der Toleranzdosis TD5/5 (5% Plexus-Laesionen binnen 5 Jahren) von 60-62 Gy vereinbar. (orig.)

  16. The prognostic value of monosomal karyotype (MK) in higher-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with 5-Azacitidine. A retrospective analysis of the Hellenic (Greek) MDS Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Sotirios G; Vasilatou, Diamantina; Kontos, Christos K; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Symeonidis, Argiris; Galanopoulos, Athanasios G; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Megalakaki, Aekaterini; Poulakidas, Elias; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Zikos, Panagiotis; Papadaki, Helen; Mparmparousi, Despoina; Bouronikou, Eleni; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Pappa, Vassiliki

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we investigated the incidence and prognostic impact of monosomal karyotype (MK) in 405 higher-risk MDS patients treated with 5-AZA. The MK was present in 66 out of 405 (16.3%) patients, most of whom had complex karyotype (CK). MK was strongly associated with CK and the cytogenetic risk defined according to IPSS-R, as well as with high-risk disease, according to IPSS (P=0.029), IPSS-R (PMDS treated with 5-AZA. Furthermore, we showed that in MDS with high or very-high IPSS-R risk score, MK can further distinguish patients with worse outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. DeepRT: deep learning for peptide retention time prediction in proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chunwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Ye, Jun; Yang, Jiarui; Pei, Jianguo; Xu, Shaohang; Zhou, Ruo; Yu, Chang; Mo, Fan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Siqi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of peptide retention times (RT) in liquid chromatography have many applications in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Herein, we present DeepRT, a deep learning based software for peptide retention time prediction. DeepRT automatically learns features directly from the peptide sequences using the deep convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) model, which eliminates the need to use hand-crafted features or rules. After the feature learning, pr...

  18. Higher adherence to Mediterranean diet prior to pregnancy is associated with decreased risk for deviation from the maternal recommended gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Alexatou, Olga; Kousaiti, Savvina; Gkretsi, Elisavet; Vasios, George; Sampani, Anastasia; Tolia, Maria; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N; Giaginis, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    The present retrospective study was conducted on 1482 women in order to evaluate whether their pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet may affect maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). For this purpose, the study population was classified according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations concerning GWG. Pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with 11 food patterns groups based on their contribution in the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Women with high adherence to the Mediterranean diet were more frequently characterised by GWG inside the IOM recommendations. In multivariate analysis, women with low Mediterranean diet adherence were almost twice at risk in presenting deflection from recommended GWG regardless of various confounding factors. These findings suggested that high pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet may be associated with reduced risk for GWG outside the IOM recommendations. However, larger prospective studies are strongly recommended in order for more precise conclusions to be drawn.

  19. An Evidence-Based Approach to Detection by DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR in Dormant Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olmos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An evidence-based approach, such as those developed in clinical and veterinary medicine, was applied to the detection of Plum pox virus (PPV during the dormant period. A standardized methodology was used for the calculation of parameters of the operational capacity of DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR in wintertime. These methods are routinely handled to test the sanitary status of plants in national or international trading and in those cases concerning export-import of plant materials. Diagnosis often has to be performed during the dormant period, when plant material is commercialized. Some guidelines to interpret diagnostic results of wintertime are provided in an attempt to minimize risks associated with the methods and over-reliance on the binary outcome of a single assay. In order to evaluate if a complementary test increased the confidence of PPV diagnosis when discordant results between DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR are obtained, NASBA-FH also was included. Likelihood ratios of each method were estimated based on the sensitivity and specificity obtained in wintertime. Subsequently, a Bayesian approach was performed to calculate post-test probability of PPV infection in spring. Results of evidence-based approach show that different PPV prevalences require different screening tests. Thus, at very low PPV prevalence levels DASI-ELISA should be used as the election method, whilst at the highest PPV prevalence levels RT-PCR should be performed. NASBA-FH could be used at medium prevalences to clarify discordances between DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR.

  20. Higher Fish Intake Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Hip Fractures in Chinese Men and Women: A Matched Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-lan; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. ...

  1. Endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and Chromatin remodeling in normal and transformed cells and early embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadafora, C.; Sciamanna, I.; Misteli, T.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme encoded by two classes of genomic retro-elements: retro-transposons and endogenous retroviruses. Basal levels of RT are expressed in all non pathological, differentiated tissues while high RT expression levels characterize tumorigenic cells, germ cells and embryonic tissues. Preliminary studies carried out in our laboratory have shown that RT inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors (nevirapine and efavirenz, two drugs currently used in AIDS therapy) drastically reduces cell proliferation, promotes differentiation of tumorigenic cells in vitro, induces a reprogrammed gene expression and antagonizes tumor progression in nude mice inoculated with tumorigenic human cell lines, including melanoma, prostate and colon carcinoma and microcitoma

  2. No control genes required: Bayesian analysis of qRT-PCR data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V Matz

    Full Text Available Model-based analysis of data from quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is potentially more powerful and versatile than traditional methods. Yet existing model-based approaches cannot properly deal with the higher sampling variances associated with low-abundant targets, nor do they provide a natural way to incorporate assumptions about the stability of control genes directly into the model-fitting process.In our method, raw qPCR data are represented as molecule counts, and described using generalized linear mixed models under Poisson-lognormal error. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to sample from the joint posterior distribution over all model parameters, thereby estimating the effects of all experimental factors on the expression of every gene. The Poisson-based model allows for the correct specification of the mean-variance relationship of the PCR amplification process, and can also glean information from instances of no amplification (zero counts. Our method is very flexible with respect to control genes: any prior knowledge about the expected degree of their stability can be directly incorporated into the model. Yet the method provides sensible answers without such assumptions, or even in the complete absence of control genes. We also present a natural Bayesian analogue of the "classic" analysis, which uses standard data pre-processing steps (logarithmic transformation and multi-gene normalization but estimates all gene expression changes jointly within a single model. The new methods are considerably more flexible and powerful than the standard delta-delta Ct analysis based on pairwise t-tests.Our methodology expands the applicability of the relative-quantification analysis protocol all the way to the lowest-abundance targets, and provides a novel opportunity to analyze qRT-PCR data without making any assumptions concerning target stability. These procedures have been implemented as the MCMC.qpcr package in R.

  3. No control genes required: Bayesian analysis of qRT-PCR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Mikhail V; Wright, Rachel M; Scott, James G

    2013-01-01

    Model-based analysis of data from quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is potentially more powerful and versatile than traditional methods. Yet existing model-based approaches cannot properly deal with the higher sampling variances associated with low-abundant targets, nor do they provide a natural way to incorporate assumptions about the stability of control genes directly into the model-fitting process. In our method, raw qPCR data are represented as molecule counts, and described using generalized linear mixed models under Poisson-lognormal error. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to sample from the joint posterior distribution over all model parameters, thereby estimating the effects of all experimental factors on the expression of every gene. The Poisson-based model allows for the correct specification of the mean-variance relationship of the PCR amplification process, and can also glean information from instances of no amplification (zero counts). Our method is very flexible with respect to control genes: any prior knowledge about the expected degree of their stability can be directly incorporated into the model. Yet the method provides sensible answers without such assumptions, or even in the complete absence of control genes. We also present a natural Bayesian analogue of the "classic" analysis, which uses standard data pre-processing steps (logarithmic transformation and multi-gene normalization) but estimates all gene expression changes jointly within a single model. The new methods are considerably more flexible and powerful than the standard delta-delta Ct analysis based on pairwise t-tests. Our methodology expands the applicability of the relative-quantification analysis protocol all the way to the lowest-abundance targets, and provides a novel opportunity to analyze qRT-PCR data without making any assumptions concerning target stability. These procedures have been implemented as the MCMC.qpcr package in R.

  4. Optimization of endoglucanase production from thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis RT-17 and its application for saccharification of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, R.; Qadir, F.; Ahmed, A.; Shariq, M.; Zafar, U.; Khan, S.A.

    2018-01-01

    Thermostable cellulases are required for a variety of commercial processes. Bacillus is a house of thermostable proteins. Screening of indigenously isolated strains of bacteria revealed the promising production of cellulase by a strain, RT-17, at 50 degree C. The strain was identified on the basis of biochemical and molecular characteristics as B. licheniformis. The factors affecting cellulase production from B. licheniformis RT-17 were evaluated for their significant effect using Plackett Burman Design and were optimized by employing Box-Behnken Design. The model predicted 9.808 IU/ml of endoglucanase (EG) under optimum conditions of 50 degree C; 10% inoculum size; pH 5; and 1% peptone in fermentation medium. Practically, a titer of 9.128 IU/ml was obtained, showed the validity of the model. The enzyme preparation from B. licheniformis RT-17 was applied in combination with xylanase and pectinase preparations from indigenous yeasts for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). A higher degree of synergy (7.1 folds) was observed when yeast pectinase was used with bacterial cellulase for the hydrolysis of alkali treated SCB. Whereas, the degree of synergy was lower when bacterial cellulase was mixed with yeast xylanase. The study revealed the possibility of utilization of combination of yeast and bacterial enzymes for biomass saccharification. (author)

  5. Comparison of RT-PCR-Dot blot hybridization based on radioisotope 32P with conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Assays for blood screening of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Andi Yasmon

    2011-01-01

    There are many commercial ELISA and rapid test kits that have been used for blood screening; however, the kits can give false positive and negative results. Therefore, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) - Dot Blot Hybridization based on radioisotope 32 P (RDBR) method was developed in this research, to compare the method with the conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Enzyme-Linked lmmunosorbent Assay) kit. This method is efficient for screening of large blood specimens and surveillance study. Eighty seven samples were used and serum of the samples were tested by ELISA to detect HIV-1. The HIV-l RNA genome was extracted from plasma samples and tested using the RT-PCR and RDBR methods. Of 87 samples that were tested, the rates of positive testing of the RT-PCR, the RDBR, and the ELISA were 71.26%, 74.71%, and 80.46%, respectively. The RDBR (a combination of RTPCR and dot blot hybridization) was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR by showing 3.45% in increase number of positive specimens. The results showed that of 9 samples (10.34%) were negative RDBR and positive ELISA, while 4 samples (4.60%) were negative ELISA and positive RDBR. The two methods showed slightly difference in the results but further validation is still needed. However, RDBR has high potential as an alternative method for screening of blood in large quantities when compared to method of conventional RT-PCR and ELISA. (author)

  6. Homocysteinemia is Associated with a Lower Degree of PBMC LINE-1 Methylation and a Higher Risk of CIN 2C in the U.S. Post-Folic Acid Fortification Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiga, Suguna; Siddiqui, Nuzhat R; Macaluso, Maurizio; Johanning, Gary L; Piyathilake, Chandrika J

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine whether plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), a functional indicator of methyl donor nutrients, are associated with altered risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+) and the degree of methylation in long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1s) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a potential biomarker of CIN 2+ in a population of women exposed to the United States folic acid fortification program. The secondary aim was to assess the determinants of plasma Hcy in the same population. The study included 457 women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases, n = 132) or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases, n = 325). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors of cervical cancer. Women with higher Hcy concentrations were at a greater risk of being diagnosed with CIN 2+ [odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, P = 0.005]. Higher plasma folate concentrations were a significant determinant of lower Hcy (OR = 0.40, P = 0.0002). Women with higher Hcy concentrations were more likely to have a lower degree of LINE-1 methylation (OR = 2.30, P = 0.0007). These results suggested that further improvement in folate status in this population may be beneficial for lowering Hcy and improving the degree of LINE-1 methylation.

  7. Simultaneous Expression of GUS and Actin Genes by Using the Multiplex RT-PCR and Multiplex Gold Nanoparticle Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Yaser; Vaseghi, Akbar; Ahmadi, Sepideh; Haddadi, Fatemeh

    2018-04-23

    Gene expression analysis is considered to be extremely important in many different biological researches. DNA-based diagnostic test, which contributes to DNA identification, has higher specificity, cost, and speed than some biochemical and molecular methods. In this study, we try to use the novel nano technology approach with Multiplex RT-PCR and Gold nano particular probes (GNPs-probes) in order to get gene expression in Curcumas melons. We used Agrobacterium tumefactions for gene transfer and GUS reporter gene as a reporter. After cDNA synthesis, Multiplex PCR and Multiplex RT-PCR techniques were used. Finally, probes were designed for RNA of GUS and Actin genes, and then the analysis of the gene expression using the probes attached to GNPs was carried out and the color changes in the GNPs were applied. In the following, probes hybridization was checked with DNA between 400 to 700 nm wavelengths and the highest rate was observed in the 550 to 650 nm. The results show that the simultaneous use of GNP-attached detectors and Multiplex RT-PCRcan reduce time and costmore considerably than somelaboratory methods for gene expiration investigation. Additionally, it can be seen thatthere is an increase in sensitivity and specificity of our investigation. Based on our findings, this can bea novel study doneusingMultiplex RT-PCRand unmodified AuNPs for gene transfer and expression detection to plants. We can claim that this assay has a remarkable advantage including rapid, cost-effectiveness, specificity and accuracy to detect transfer and expression genes in plants. Also,we can use this technique from other gene expressionsin many different biology samples.

  8. A lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation in women with lower folate status may explain the MTHFR C677T polymorphism associated higher risk of CIN in the US post folic acid fortification era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguna Badiga

    Full Text Available Studies in populations unexposed to folic acid (FA fortification have demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+. However, it is unknown whether exposure to higher folate as a result of the FA fortification program has altered the association between MTHFR C677T and risk of CIN, or the mechanisms involved with such alterations. The current study investigated the following in a FA fortified population: 1 The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of CIN 2+; 2 The modifying effects of plasma folate concentrations on this association; and 3 The modifying effects of plasma folate on the association between the polymorphism and degree of methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC DNA, a documented biomarker of CIN risk.The study included 457 US women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors for CIN.The 677CT/TT MTHFR genotypes were not associated with the risk of CIN 2+. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate, however, were more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 2.41, P = 0.030. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate were less likely to have a higher degree of PBMC L1 methylation compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 0.28, P = 0.017.This study provides the first evidence that the MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation increases the risk of CIN 2+ in women in the US post-FA fortification era. Thus, even in the post-FA fortification era, not all women have adequate folate status to overcome MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of L1 methylation.

  9. Detection of bacterial species involved in perimplantitis concerned with cultural and RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants offer new treatment options for edentulous either partially or completely, now represent a viable alternative to conventional fixed protheses. Dental implants are colonized by a flora dominated by Gram-positive facultative aerobic, while in patients with bone loss and formation of pockets peri-implant diseases was found a significant difference in the composition of microflora, bacteria, Gram-negative anaerobes in particular Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola (Spirochetes, Tannerella forsythensis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia as interim black-pigmented bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, often in high concentrations. Aims. The purpose of this study was to identify those at risk of perimplantitis using 2 techniques: RT-PCR examination of trade and culture. The results were compared taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of both methods. Materials and methods.We studied 24 patients (14 women and 10 men, aged, women between 43 and 76 years, with an average of 63.8 + / - 10.9 years, men between 45 and 88 years with a average of 64.3 years + / - 12.5 years. Was performed a double levy of sub-gingival plaque at multiple sites that had an implant CAL (clinical attachment level> 4mm in order to assess the microbiological identification with the two techniques: Examining culture and Real-Time PCR of Commerce ( Gum-Sunstar that identifies 4 bacterial species: A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a., P.gingivalis (P.g., T.forsythensis (T.f., and T.denticola (T.d.. Results. All patients studied were positive to both tests with charger high: the consideration of tenure, with CFU / ml > 105, was positive in 66.6% of samples by:T.f., and P.g., in 12.5% for A.a., while T.d. not been sought by examining culture, the RT-PCR was positive, with high loads, in 95.8% of samples for T.f., in 79.1% for P.g., in 12.5% for A.a. and 20.8% for T.d.The test crop showed the presence of even P.intermedia in 91

  10. Oral methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine may be superior to a multidrug LSA2L2 Maintenance therapy for higher risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Heyman, Mats; Kristinsson, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The importance of maintenance therapy for higher risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is uncertain. Between 1992 and 2001 the Nordic Society for Pediatric Haematology/Oncology compared in a nonrandomized study conventional oral methotrexate (MTX)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) maintenance...... therapy (P=0.04) were both related to an increased risk of an event (overall P value of the Cox model: 0.003), whereas neither sex, age at diagnosis, administration of central nervous system irradiation, nor presence of a day 15 bone marrow with > or =25% versus

  11. DaRT: A CALL System to Help Students Practice and Develop Reasoning Skills in Choosing English Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Rika; Milne, Alastair

    1998-01-01

    Describes DaRT, a computer assisted language-learning system for helping English-as-a-Second-Language students master English articles. DaRT uses a diagrammatic reasoning tool to present communicative contexts for exercises in choosing appropriate articles. This paper describes the development of DaRT and DaRT's system components and concludes…

  12. The incidence and functional consequences of RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Yu Xiaoli; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Zhou Sumin; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Blazing, Michael; Hollis, Donna; Lind, Pehr; Tisch, Andrea; Wong, Terence Z.; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with cardiac dysfunction. We herein assess the temporal nature and volume dependence of RT-induced left ventricular perfusion defects and whether these perfusion defects are related to changes in cardiac wall motion or alterations in ejection fraction. Methods: From 1998 to 2001, 114 patients were enrolled onto an IRB-approved prospective clinical study to assess changes in regional and global cardiac function after RT for left-sided breast cancer. Patients were imaged 30 to 60 minutes after injection of technetium 99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin. Post-RT perfusion scans were compared with the pre-RT studies to assess for RT-induced perfusion defects as well as functional changes in wall motion and ejection fraction. Two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage test for linear trends were used for statistical analysis. Results: The incidence of new perfusion defects 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after RT was 27%, 29%, 38%, and 42%, respectively. New defects occurred in approximately 10% to 20% and 50% to 60% of patients with less than 5%, and greater than 5%, of their left ventricle included within the RT fields, respectively (p = 0.33 to 0.00008). The rates of wall motion abnormalities in patients with and without perfusion defects were 12% to 40% versus 0% to 9%, respectively; p values were 0.007 to 0.16, depending on the post-RT interval. Conclusions: Radiation therapy causes volume-dependent perfusion defects in approximately 40% of patients within 2 years of RT. These perfusion defects are associated with corresponding wall-motion abnormalities. Additional study is necessary to better define the long-term functional consequences of RT-induced perfusion defects

  13. Loss of breast epithelial marker hCLCA2 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and indicates higher risk of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, V; Yu, Y; Cao, D; Sun, M; McLean, J R; Hollier, B G; Cheng, J; Mani, S A; Rao, K; Premkumar, L; Elble, R C

    2012-04-26

    Transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states is a feature of both normal development and tumor progression. We report that expression of chloride channel accessory protein hCLCA2 is a characteristic of epithelial differentiation in the immortalized MCF10A and HMLE models, while induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by cell dilution, TGFβ or mesenchymal transcription factors sharply reduces hCLCA2 levels. Attenuation of hCLCA2 expression by lentiviral small hairpin RNA caused cell overgrowth and focus formation, enhanced migration and invasion, and increased mammosphere formation in methylcellulose. These changes were accompanied by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and fibronectin. Moreover, hCLCA2 expression is greatly downregulated in breast cancer cells with a mesenchymal or claudin-low profile. These observations suggest that loss of hCLCA2 may promote metastasis. We find that higher-than-median expression of hCLCA2 is associated with a one-third lower rate of metastasis over an 18-year period among breast cancer patients compared with lower-than-median (n=344, unfiltered for subtype). Thus, hCLCA2 is required for epithelial differentiation, and its loss during tumor progression contributes to metastasis. Overexpression of hCLCA2 has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and is accompanied by increases in chloride current at the plasma membrane and reduced intracellular pH (pHi). We found that knockdown cells have sharply reduced chloride current and higher pHi, both characteristics of tumor cells. These results suggest a mechanism for the effects on differentiation. Loss of hCLCA2 may allow escape from pHi homeostatic mechanisms, permitting the higher intracellular and lower extracellular pH that are characteristic of aggressive tumor cells.

  14. Papillært thyroideakarcinom med kraftig farvning for tyroperoxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Frisch, T.; Kiss, K.

    2008-01-01

    Immunostaining for TPO (MoAb47) has been used to predict the risk of thyroid cancer in thyroid adenomas without uptake in thyroid 99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. This case describes a 16-year-old girl with thyroid papillary cancer staining 95% positive using TPO staining. The case indicates that ...

  15. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodusek, Ana Lina; Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita; Jazbec, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model. Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer. We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and the lifelong follow up of these patients is of utmost

  16. The Active Management of Risk in Multiparous Pregnancy at Term: association between a higher preventive labor induction rate and improved birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584

  17. Healthy Exercise Habits Are Associated With Lower Risk of Burnout and Higher Quality of Life Among U.S. Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Satele, Daniel; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2017-07-01

    Although burnout and low quality of life (QOL) are common among medical students, little remains known about personal fitness habits of medical students that may promote well-being. In 2012 the authors conducted a cross-sectional study of U.S. medical students to explore relationships between burnout, QOL, and compliance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exercise recommendations. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, Fisher exact tests, and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Among approximately 12,500 medical students invited to participate, 4,402 (35.2%) completed surveys. Most (2,738/4,367; 62.7%) engaged in aerobic exercise in accordance with CDC recommendations, while fewer (1,685/4,376; 38.5%) adhered to muscle strengthening recommendations. Burnout prevalence was lower among students who exercised aerobically consistent with CDC recommendations compared with those who exercised less (53.1% vs. 60.8%, P burnout were also lower among students who strength trained consistent with CDC recommendations (51.8% vs. 58.6%, P students adhering to CDC recommendations for aerobic exercise (7.2 vs. 6.6, P burnout and higher QOL on multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, relationship status, children, and year in school. Students whose aerobic exercise and/or strength training habits are consistent with CDC guidelines appear less likely to experience burnout and to have higher QOL.

  18. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  19. Table 1. Primer sequences used for real-time qRT-PCR analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    TGTCCCAGTAAACCGCTC. GAATCCAGCACGATACCAGT. Figure 1. Expression analysis of candidate CsActin and CsFbox genes by qRT-PCR in response to 4°C treatment. The y-axis indicates Cq values, and error bars represent standard deviations of the mean values of four replicates. Rt, roots; St, stems; Le, leaves; Fl ...

  20. School Psychologists' Willingness to Implement RtI: The Role of Philosophical and Practical Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chung-Hau; Denner, Peter R.; Bocanegra, Joel O.; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    After the change in IDEIA, different models of response to intervention (RtI) have been practiced widely in American school systems. School psychologists are in an important position to facilitate RtI practice and provide professional development in order to help their school systems successfully undergo this transformation. However, there is a…

  1. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-11-01

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Silveira, Sara M; Silveira, Cássia G T

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS: To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. RESULTS: The concordance...

  3. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  4. L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe. Oregon Repertory Singers / Gilbert Seeley. Koch International Classics CD 37 177-2; Pärt - comparative version: Estonian Phil. Chbr. Ch., Tallinn CO / Kaljuste" (11/93)(ECM) 439 162-2

  5. Teekond Kirjasõna Vabariigis / Märt Väljataga ; intervjueerinud Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljataga, Märt, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    rt Väljataga tõlgitud R. Rorty artiklist "Pragmatism ja filosoofia", mis ilmus Akadeemia 1992, nr. 2, lk. 281-282, 285, tema filosoofiast ja Märt Väljataga tööst ajakirja "Vikerkaar" toimetajana ning tõlkijana

  6. Postoperative low-pelvic irradiation for stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients with risk factors other than pelvic lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J.-H.; Tsai, C.-S.; Lai, C.-H.; Chang, T.-C.; Wang, C.-C.; Lee, Steve P.; Tseng, C.-J.; Hsueh, Swei

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively investigate whether postoperative low-pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is an appropriate treatment for node-negative, high-risk Stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 228 Stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative RT were included in this study. All patients had histopathologically negative pelvic node metastasis, but at least one of the following risk factors: parametrial involvement, positive or close resection margins, invasion depth two-thirds or greater cervical stromal thickness. Seventy-nine patients (35%) received 30-50 Gy (median 44) to whole pelvis and a boost dose to the low pelvis (whole-pelvic RT group); the other 149 patients (65%) received low-pelvic RT only (low-pelvic RT group). For both groups, the total external RT dose to the low pelvis ranged from 40 to 60 Gy (median 50). The potential factors associated with survival, small bowel (gastrointestinal) complications, and leg lymphedema were analyzed, and patients who had a relapse in the upper pelvis were identified. Results: The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rate was 84% and 86%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, only bulky tumor (≥4 cm) and non-squamous cell carcinoma were significantly associated with survival. Parametrial involvement, lymph-vascular invasion, ≤50.4 Gy to the low pelvis, positive or close margins, and low-pelvic RT alone did not significantly affect survival. Grade I-V small bowel complications occurred in 33 patients (15%). Whole pelvic RT and >50.4 Gy to the low pelvis, but not old age and treatment technique (AP-PA vs. box), were significantly associated with gastrointestinal complications. Three patients (2%) in the low-pelvic RT group and 6 patients (8%) in the whole-pelvic RT group were found to have Grade III or higher small bowel complications (p=0.023). Thirty-one percent of patients developed lymphedema of the leg. A dose to the low pelvis >50.4 Gy

  7. Socially disadvantaged city districts show a higher incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions with elevated cardiovascular risk factors and worse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Seide, S; Wienbergen, H; Fiehn, E; Stehmeier, J; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R; Pohlabeln, H; Fach, A

    2017-09-22

    The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-morbidity is subject of ongoing scientific investigations. This study was to explore the association between SES in different city-districts of Bremen/Germany and incidence, severity, treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Since 2006 all STEMI-patients from the metropolitan area of Bremen are documented in the Bremen STEMI-registry. Utilizing postal codes of their home address they were assigned to four groups in accordance to the Bremen social deprivation-index (G1: high, G2: intermediate high, G3: intermediate low, G4: low socioeconomic status). Three thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with STEMI admitted between 2006 and 2015 entered analysis. City areas with low SES showed higher adjusted STEMI-incidence-rates (IR-ratio 1.56, G4 vs. G1). This elevation could be observed in both sexes (women IRR 1.63, men IRR 1.54) and was most prominent in inhabitants  3000 U/l, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and severe impairment of LV-function post-STEMI (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Long term follow-up revealed that lower SES was associated with higher major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE)-rates after 5 years: G1 30.8%, G2 35.7%, G3 36.0%, G4 41.1%, p (for trend) = 0.02. This worse prognosis could especially be shown for young STEMI-patients (<50 yrs. of age) 5-yr. mortality-rates(G4 vs. G1) 18.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.03 and 5-year-MACCE-rates (G4 vs. G1) 32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02. This registry-data confirms the negative association of low socioeconomic status and STEMI-incidence, with higher rates of smoking and obesity, more extensive infarctions and worse prognosis for the socio-economically deprived.

  8. Longer habitual afternoon napping is associated with a higher risk for impaired fasting plasma glucose and diabetes mellitus in older adults: results from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort of retired workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weimin; Li, Zhongliang; Wu, Li; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liang, Yuan; Yang, Handong; Wang, Youjie; Wu, Tangchun

    2013-10-01

    Afternoon napping is a common habit in China. We used data obtained from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort to examine if duration of habitual afternoon napping was associated with risks for impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Chinese elderly population. A total of 27,009 participants underwent a physical examination, laboratory tests, and face-to-face interview. They were categorized into four groups according to nap duration (no napping, or =90 min). Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of napping duration with IFG and DM. Of the participants, 18,515 (68.6%) reported regularly taking afternoon naps. Those with longer nap duration had considerably higher prevalence of IFG and DM. Napping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with IFG and DM (Pnap duration (>60 min; all Pnap duration (>30 min) was associated with increased risk for DM; however, this finding was not significant in the group with a nap duration of 60-90 min. Longer habitual afternoon napping was associated with a moderate increase for DM risk, independent of several covariates. This finding suggests that longer nap duration may represent a novel risk factor for DM and higher blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Randomized Phase II Study of Azacitidine Alone or in Combination With Lenalidomide or With Vorinostat in Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia: North American Intergroup Study SWOG S1117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Mikkael A; Othus, Megan; List, Alan F; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Stone, Richard M; Gore, Steven D; Litzow, Mark R; Buckstein, Rena; Fang, Min; Roulston, Diane; Bloomfield, Clara D; Moseley, Anna; Nazha, Aziz; Zhang, Yanming; Velasco, Mario R; Gaur, Rakesh; Atallah, Ehab; Attar, Eyal C; Cook, Elina K; Cull, Alyssa H; Rauh, Michael J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Erba, Harry P

    2017-08-20

    Purpose Azacitidine is standard, first-line therapy in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Whether azacitidine-based combinations with lenalidomide or vorinostat produce superior overall response rates (ORRs) to azacitidine is not known. Patients and Methods North American Intergroup Study S1117 is a phase II/III trial that randomly assigned patients with higher-risk MDS and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) 1:1:1 to azacitidine (75 mg/m 2 /day on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle); azacitidine plus lenalidomide (10 mg/day on days 1 to 21); or azacitidine plus vorinostat (300 mg twice daily on days 3 to 9). The primary phase II end point was improved ORR. Results Of 277 patients from 90 centers, 92 received azacitidine, 93 received azacitidine plus lenalidomide, and 92 received azacitidine plus vorinostat. Median age was 70 years (range, 28 to 93 years), 85 patients (31%) were female, and 53 patients (19%) had CMML. Serious adverse events were similar across arms, although combination-arm patients were more likely to undergo nonprotocol-defined dose modifications ( P vorinostat ( P = .16 v azacitidine). For patients with CMML, ORR was higher for azacitidine plus lenalidomide versus azacitidine (68% v 28%, P = .02) but similar for all arms across cytogenetic subgroups, as was remission duration and overall survival. ORR was higher with mutations in DNMT3A and lower for SRSF2, whereas ORR duration improved with fewer mutations. Lenalidomide dose reduction was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.30; P = .05). Conclusion Patients with higher-risk MDS treated with azacitidine-based combinations had similar ORR to azacitidine monotherapy, although patients with CMML benefitted from azacitidine plus lenalidomide. The efficacy of combination regimens may have been affected by dose modifications.

  10. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Vertebral Compression Fracture after Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy for Primary Spinal and Paraspinal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Matsumoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT was effective therapy for inoperable spinal and paraspinal sarcomas. However, a significant adverse event following radiotherapies is vertebral compression fractures (VCFs. In this study, we investigated the incidence of and risk factors for post-C-ion RT VCFs in patients with spinal or paraspinal sarcomas. Material and Methods. Thirty consecutive patients with spinal or paraspinal sarcomas treated with C-ion RT were retrospectively reviewed. Various clinical parameters and the Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS were used to evaluate the risk factors for post-C-ion RT VCFs. Results. The overall incidence of VCFs was 23% (median time: 7 months. Patients with VCFs showed a markedly higher SINS score (median value, 9 points than those without VCF (5 points. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the SINS score was 0.88, and the optimum SINS cut-off score was 8 points. The cumulative incidence of VCFs at 1 year was 9% for patients with a SINS score under 8 points, versus 80% for those with a SINS score of 8 points or higher (p<0.0001. Conclusions. In patients with a SINS score of 8 points or higher, referral to a spine surgeon for stabilization and multidisciplinary discussion is appropriate.

  11. GSK-3β inhibitor TWS119 attenuates rtPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Qian; Deng, Gang; Wan, Jieru; Yang, Qingwu; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a devastating complication for patients with acute ischemic stroke who are treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but no effective treatments are currently available to reduce HT risk. Therefore, methods to prevent HT are urgently needed. In this study, we used TWS119, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), to evaluate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced HT. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke and then were administered rtPA, rtPA combined with TWS119, or vehicle at 4 h. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after infarct induction. Rats treated with rtPA showed evident HT, had more severe neurologic deficit, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier breakdown, and had larger infarction volume than did the vehicle group. Rats treated with TWS119 had significantly improved outcomes compared with those of rats treated with rtPA alone. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that TWS119 increased the protein expression of β-catenin, claudin-3, and ZO-1 while suppressing the expression of GSK-3β. These results suggest that TWS119 reduces rtPA-induced HT and attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption, possibly through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent tPA-induced HT after acute ischemic stroke.

  12. Basal Subtype of Invasive Breast Cancer Is Associated With a Higher Risk of True Recurrence After Conventional Breast-Conserving Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sreedhara, Meera [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Freer, Phoebe E. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Georgian-Smith, Dianne [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R.; Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether breast cancer subtype is associated with patterns of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), either true recurrence (TR) or elsewhere local recurrence (ELR), among women with pT1-T2 invasive breast cancer (IBC) who receive breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From Jan 1998 to Dec 2003, 1,223 women with pT1-T2N0-3 IBC were treated with BCT (lumpectomy plus whole-breast radiation). Ninety percent of patients received adjuvant systemic therapy, but none received trastuzumab. Biologic cancer subtypes were approximated by determining estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (HER-2+) expression, classified as luminal A (ER+ or PR+ and HER-2 negative [HER-2-]), luminal B (ER+ or PR+ and HER-2+), HER-2 (ER- and PR- and HER-2+), and basal (ER- and PR- and HER-2- ) subtypes. Imaging, pathology, and operative reports were reviewed by two physicians independently, including an attending breast radiologist. Readers were blinded to subtype and outcome. TR was defined as IBTR within the same quadrant and within 3 cm of the primary tumor. All others were defined as ELR. Results: At a median follow-up of 70 months, 24 patients developed IBTR (5-year cumulative incidence of 1.6%), including 15 TR and 9 ELR patients. At 5 years, basal (4.4%) and HER-2 (9%) subtypes had a significantly higher incidence of TR than luminal B (1.2%) and luminal A (0.2%) subtypes (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, basal subtype (hazard ratio [HR], 4.8, p = 0.01), younger age at diagnosis (HR, 0.97; p = 0.05), and increasing tumor size (HR, 2.1; p = 0.04) were independent predictors of TR. Only younger age (HR, 0.95; p = 0.01) significantly predicted for ELR. Conclusions: Basal and HER-2 subtypes are significantly associated with higher rates of TR among women with pT1-T2 IBC after BCT. Younger age predicts for both TR and ELR. Strategies to reduce TR in basal

  13. Are women positive for the One Step but negative for the Two Step screening tests for gestational diabetes at higher risk for adverse outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissutti, Claudia; Khalifeh, Adeeb; Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if women meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the One Step test as per International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not by other less strict criteria have adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with GDM-negative controls. The primary outcome was the incidence of macrosomia, defined as birthweight > 4000 g. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until May 2017. All studies identifying pregnant women negative at the Two Step test, but positive at the One Step test for IADPSG criteria were included. We excluded studies that randomized women to the One Step vs. the Two Step tests; studies that compared different criteria within the same screening method; randomized studies comparing treatments for GDM; and studies comparing incidence of GDM in women doing the One Step test vs. the Two Step test. Eight retrospective cohort studies, including 29 983 women, were included. Five study groups and four control groups were identified. The heterogeneity between the studies was high. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, as well as in some analyses cesarean delivery, macrosomia and preterm birth, were significantly more frequent, and small for gestational age in some analyses significantly less frequent, in women GDM-positive by the One Step, but not the Two Step. Women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, compared with GDM-negative controls. Based on these findings, and evidence from other studies that treatment decreases these adverse outcomes, we suggest screening for GDM using the One Step IADPSG criteria. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Differentiated analysis of an everolimus-eluting stent and a paclitaxel-eluting stent among higher risk subgroups for restenosis: results from the SPIRIT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed A; Richardt, Gert; Verin, Vitali; Kelbaek, Henning; Macaya, Carlos; Berland, Jacques; Miquel-Hebert, Karine; Dorange, Cécile; Serruys, Patrick W

    2008-03-01

    Restenosis is higher among certain subpopulations when subjected to percutaneous coronary interventions even when using drug-eluting stents. The randomised SPIRIT II trial demonstrated the superiority of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System over the TAXUS Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent System in terms of in-stent late loss at six months among 300 patients treated for de novo native coronary artery lesions. In this post-hoc analysis of SPIRIT II we focused on six-month angiographic outcomes of diabetic patients (n=69), left anterior descending arteries (n=149), long lesions >20 mm (n=43), small vessels B2 and C lesions (n=233). In-stent late loss was consistently less among all subgroups when treated by everolimus-eluting stents compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents: diabetics 0.15+/-0.26 mm versus 0.39+/-0.34 mm, p=0.006; LAD 0.12+/-0.23 mm versus 0.44+/-0.37 mm, pB2/C lesions 0.12+/-0.31 mm versus 0.36+/-0.36 mm, pSPIRIT II trial population.

  15. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the

  16. Ring trial 2016 for Bluetongue virus detection by real-time RT-PCR in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Breard, Emmanuel; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Since the unexpected emergence of BTV-8 in Northern Europe and the incursion of BTV-8 and 1 in France in 2006-2007, molecular diagnosis has considerably evolved. Several real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) methods have been developed and published, and are currently being used in many countries across Europe for BTV detection and typing. In France, the national reference laboratory (NRL) for orbiviruses develops and validates 'ready-to-use' kits with private companies for viral RNA detection. The regional laboratories network that was set up to deal with a heavy demand for analyses has used these available kits. From 2007, ring tests were organized to monitor the performance of the French laboratories. This study presents the results of 63 regional laboratories in the ring trial organized in 2016. Blood samples were sent to the laboratories. Participants were asked to use the rtRT-PCR methods in place in their laboratory, for detection of all BTV serotypes and specifically BTV-8. The French regional laboratories are able to detect and genotype BTV in affected animals. Despite the use of several methods (i.e. RNA extraction and different commercial rtRT-PCRs), the network is homogeneous. The ring trial demonstrated that the French regional veterinary laboratories have reliable and robust BTV diagnostic tools for BTV genome detection.

  17. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Letting, Heidi; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In biological research the analysis of gene expression levels in cells and tissues can be a powerful tool to gain insights into biological processes. For this, quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a popular method that often involve the use of constitutively expressed endogenous reference (or...... ‘housekeeping’) gene for normalization of data. Thus, it is essential to use reference genes that have been verified to be stably expressed within the specific experimental setting. Here, we have analysed the expression stability of 12 commonly used reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt, Pgk1, Rn18s, Rpl13a...

  18. The impact of flattening-filter-free beam technology on 3D conformal RT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The removal of the flattening filter (FF) leads to non-uniform fluence distribution with a considerable increase in dose rate. It is possible to adapt FFF beams (flattening-filter-free) in 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) by using field in field techniques (FiF). The aim of this retrospective study is to clarify whether the quality of 3D CRT plans is influenced by the use of FFF beams. Method This study includes a total of 52 CT studies of RT locations that occur frequently in clinical practice. Dose volume targets were provided for the PTV of breast (n=13), neurocranium (n=11), lung (n=7), bone metastasis (n=10) and prostate (n=11) in line with ICRU report 50/62. 3D CRT planning was carried out using FiF methods. Two clinically utilized photon energies are used for a Siemens ARTISTE linear accelerator in FFF mode at 7MVFFF and 11MVFFF as well as in FF mode at 6MVFF and 10MVFF. The plan quality in relation to the PTV coverage, OAR (organs at risk) and low dose burden as well as the 2D dosimetric verification is compared with FF plans. Results No significant differences were found between FFF and FF plans in the mean dose for the PTV of breast, lung, spine metastasis and prostate. The low dose parameters V5Gy and V10Gy display significant differences for FFF and FF plans in some subgroups. The DVH analysis of the OAR revealed some significant differences. Significantly more fields (1.9 – 4.5) were necessary in the use of FFF beams for each location (p<0.0001) in order to achieve PTV coverage. All the tested groups displayed significant increases (1.3 – 2.2 times) in the average number of necessary MU with the use of FFF beams (p<0.001). Conclusions This study has shown that the exclusive use of a linear accelerator in FFF mode is feasible in 3D CRT. It was possible to realize RT plans in comparable quality in typical cases of clinical radiotherapy. The 2D dosimetric validation of the modulated fields verified the dose calculation and thus the

  19. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksson, Mia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2009-08-20

    Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. In connection with a clinical trial of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4.5 months of age girls were less likely to have protective maternal antibody levels, the male-female ratio for protective antibody level being 1.23 (1.00-1.51). Among children sampled at 9 months of age, girls were more likely to have protective levels, the female-male ratio for having protective antibody levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination.

  20. RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt Jensen

    2003-01-01

    A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected wit...... of the twenty-three VI-positive specimens were negative when tested by RT-PCR-ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR-ELISA was 91% and 97%, respectively, using VI in SPF eggs as the gold reference standard....

  1. Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Rt-pcr And Real-time Rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) For Detection Of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A [comparação Entre As Técnicas De Rt-pcr Convencional E Rt-pcr Em Tempo Real Para A Detecção Do Metapneumovírus Aviários Subtipo A

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira H.L.; Spilki F.R.; dos Santos M.M.A.B.; de Almeida R.S.; Arns C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...

  2. DRAGON: a new 18 GHz RT ECRIS with a large plasma chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Xie, D.Z.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhao, H.W.; Ruan, L.; Song, F.C.; Xiong, B.; Yu, S.; Yuan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Building a strong radial magnetic field with a permanent sextupole magnet for an ECRIS is extremely challenging so that the conventional wisdom recommends a small but not optimal plasma chamber that is typically of ID less or equal to 80 mm. A new 18 GHz RT ECRIS, DRAGON, with a large bore permanent sextupole has been designed and is under construction at IMP (Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou, China). Its plasma chamber is of ID 126 mm, the same as that of the superconducting ion source SECRAL, with maximum radial field strength reaching 1.5 T at the plasma chamber wall. The overall magnetic strengths of DRAGON, with maximum axial fields of 2.7 T at the injection and 1.3 T at the extraction, are very similar to those of SECRAL operating at 18 GHz and hopefully its performance. The source solenoid magnets are cooled by medium evaporation at about 50 C. In addition, the source is thickly insulated for beam extraction at 50 kV and higher voltage up to 100 kV can be explored. This article will present the design details and discussions of this new ion source. It is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  3. Higher risk of incident hepatitis C virus among young women who inject drugs compared with young men in association with sexual relationships: a prospective analysis from the UFO Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Daniel; Hahn, Judith A; Fuller Lewis, Crystal; Evans, Jennifer; Briceño, Alya; Morris, Meghan D; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2014-05-29

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) may report differences in injection behaviours that put them at greater risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Few studies have examined these in association with HCV incidence. Longitudinal data from a cohort of 417 HCV-uninfected IDU aged 30 or younger were analysed. Cox proportional hazards was used to model female sex as a predictor of new HCV infection. General estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used to model female sex as a predictor of HCV-associated risk behaviour prospectively. Women were significantly more likely than men to become infected with HCV during study follow-up (HR 1.4, p<0.05), and were also more likely than men to report high-risk injecting behaviours, especially in the context of sexual and injecting relationships. Sex differences in injecting behaviours appeared to explain the relationship between sex and HCV infection. Young women's riskier injection practices lead to their higher rates of HCV infection. Further study on the impact of intimate partnership on women's risk behaviour is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. The viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates is extracted and tested for enterovirus and norovirus RNA using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). V...

  5. rt Agu: "Isa vari käib mul kogu aeg kannul" / Märt Agu ; interv. Aigi Viira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Agu, Märt

    2006-01-01

    1. okt. tähistas oma 30-aastast sünnipäeva ja oma ellukutsuja Mait Agu 55-sünniaastapäeva Tallinna Ülikooli koreograafiaosakond. Sel puhul esitati Estonias Mait Agu tantsulavastus "Kodalased ja kaasaegsed", mille seadis uuesti lavale Märt Agu oma isa loodud koreograafia põhjal

  6. Evaluation of FTA cards as a laboratory and field sampling device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotyping by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Madhanmohan; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Ralla, Kumar; Villuppanoor, Srinivasan A

    2008-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for serodiagnosis pose a major problem in a tropical country like India, where there is maximum temperature fluctuation. Inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of FMDV samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. Such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valuable epidemiological data. The present study evaluated the usefulness of FTA Classic Cards for the collection, shipment, storage and identification of the FMDV genome by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. The stability of the viral RNA, the absence of infectivity and ease of processing the sample for molecular methods make the FTA cards a useful option for transport of FMDV genome for identification and serotyping. The method can be used routinely for FMDV research as it is economical and the cards can be transported easily in envelopes by regular document transport methods. Live virus cannot be isolated from samples collected in FTA cards, which is a limitation. This property can be viewed as an advantage as it limits the risk of transmission of live virus.

  7. Propensity-Weighted Comparison of Long-Term Risk of Urinary Adverse Events in Elderly Women Treated For Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Sean P.; Fan, Yunhua; Jarosek, Stephanie; Chu, Haitao; Downs, Levi; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Geller, Melissa A.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cervical cancer treatment is associated with a risk of urinary adverse events (UAEs) such as ureteral stricture and vesicovaginal fistula. We sought to measure the long-term UAE risk after surgery and radiation therapy (RT), with confounding controlled through propensity-weighted models. Methods and Materials: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified women ≥66 years old with nonmetastatic cervical cancer treated with simple surgery (SS), radical hysterectomy (RH), external beam RT plus brachytherapy (EBRT+BT), or RT+surgery. We matched them to noncancer controls 1:3. Differences in demographic and cancer characteristics were balanced by propensity weighting. Grade 3 to 4 UAEs were identified by diagnosis codes plus treatment codes. Cumulative incidence was measured using Kaplan-Meier methods. The hazard associated with different cancer treatments was compared using Cox models. Results: UAEs occurred in 272 of 1808 cases (17%) and 222 of 5424 (4%) controls; most (62%) were ureteral strictures. The raw cumulative incidence of UAEs was highest in advanced cancers. UAEs occurred in 31% of patients after EBRT+BT, 25% of patients after RT+surgery, and 15% of patients after RH; however, after propensity weighting, the incidence was similar. In adjusted Cox models (reference = controls), the UAE risk was highest after RT+surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 5.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-11.07), followed by EBRT+BT (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.45-7.65), RH (HR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.41-9.46) and SS (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32-3.01). The higher risk after RT+surgery versus EBRT+BT was statistically significant, whereas, EBRT+BT and RH were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions: UAEs are common after cervical cancer treatment, particularly in patients with advanced cancers. UAEs are more common after RT, but these women tend to have the advanced cancers. After propensity weighting, the risk after RT was similar

  8. rt Sultsi kavandatud kasiinosaar vajab 300 miljonit krooni laenu / Kertu Kalmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalmus, Kertu

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu liige Märt Sults palub linnavalitsused toetada ja aktsepteerida SA Kasiinosaar laenu taotlemist Saksamaalt 300 mln. krooni ulatuses. Tema ideekavandi järgi kerkiksid Tallinnas Paljassaare lahte tehissaared: lastesaar, kultuurisaar ja kasiinosaar

  9. Detecting Newcastle disease virus in combination of RT-PCR with red blood cell absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengqian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has limited sensitivity when treating complicated samples, such as feces, waste-water in farms, and nucleic acids, protein rich tissue samples, all the factors may interfere with the sensitivity of PCR test or generate false results. In this study, we developed a sensitive RT-PCR, combination of red blood cell adsorption, for detecting Newcastle disease virus (NDV. One pair of primers which was highly homologous to three NDV pathotypes was designed according to the consensus nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. To eliminate the interfere of microbes and toxic substances, we concentrated and purified NDV from varied samples utilizing the ability of NDV binding red blood cells (RBCs. The RT-PCR coupled with red blood cell adsorption was much more sensitive in comparison with regular RT-PCR. The approach could also be used to detect other viruses with the property of hemagglutination, such as influenza viruses.

  10. Arvo Pärt ajas ja ajatuses / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    Mõtteid Arvo Pärdi muusikast ajendatuna ETVs 2. septembril kavas olnud saadetest: "Arvo Pärt Istanbulis " ja "Arvo Pärdi autorikontsert Istanbulis", mis kajastasid 7. juunil Hagia Irene kirikus esiettekandel tulnud helilooja uusimat teost "Aadama itk"

  11. Uss uuristab inimese südame kallal / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: [Õnnepalu, Tõnu] Tode, Emil. Raadio. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Hellerma, Kärt. Kohanenud kirjandus : valik kirjanduskriitikat 1987-2006. Eesti Keele Sihtasutus : Tallinn, 2006. Lk. 47-53

  12. Kuu plaat : Märt Sults "Kõigest koolipapa...". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest : Märt Sults "Kõigest koolipapa...", Madonna "Confessions on a Dance Floor", Tõnis Mägi "Vestlus Hermanniga", Rammstein "Rosenrot", a-ha "Analogue", Darkness "One Way Ticket to Hell...And Back"

  13. Rooma põleb, kirjanik mängib viiulit / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Arvustus: Orwell, George. Valaskala kõhus. Tln.: Vagabund, 1995. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Hellerma, Kärt. Kohanenud kirjandus : valik kirjanduskriitikat 1987-2006. Eesti Keele Sihtasutus : Tallinn, 2006. Lk. 173-175

  14. rt, Arvo. Cantus in memory of Benjamin Britten / Andrew Achenbach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Achenbach, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo. Cantus in memory of Benjamin Britten. BBC Northern Symphony Orchestra / Norman del Mar; BBC Symphony Orchestra / Gennady Rozhdestvensky". BBC Radio Classics CD BBCRD 9129 (71 minutes)

  15. rt: kultuurilis-diplomaatiline missioon Vatikanis täidetud / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    23. augustil Katariina kirikus toimunud uue singli "Vater Unser" esitlusest. Selle pala kinkis A. Pärt paavstile 4. juulil Vatikanis. Esitlusel viibis ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Pärdi päevade raames toimuvatest üritustest

  16. rt: Fratres in sechs Versionen. Festina lente. Summa / C. S.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Fratres in sechs Versionen. Festina lente. Summa. Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten. Orchester der Ungarischen Staatsoper, Tamas Benedek". Naxos CD 8 553 750 (WD:79'06") DDD

  17. A Formal Approach for RT-DVS Algorithms Evaluation Based on Statistical Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxin Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is a crucial concern in embedded real time systems. Many RT-DVS algorithms have been proposed to save energy while preserving deadline guarantees. This paper presents a novel approach to evaluate RT-DVS algorithms using statistical model checking. A scalable framework is proposed for RT-DVS algorithms evaluation, in which the relevant components are modeled as stochastic timed automata, and the evaluation metrics including utilization bound, energy efficiency, battery awareness, and temperature awareness are expressed as statistical queries. Evaluation of these metrics is performed by verifying the corresponding queries using UPPAAL-SMC and analyzing the statistical information provided by the tool. We demonstrate the applicability of our framework via a case study of five classical RT-DVS algorithms.

  18. rt, Arvo: "Summa". Collage sur BACH. Fratres / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Summa". Collage sur BACH. Fratres. Cantus in Memoriam Benjamin Britten. Summa. Festina Lente. Tabula rasa. Tapiola Sinfonietta / Jean-Jacques Kantorow". BIS-CD-834. 62:30 DDD

  19. Transition and Evaluation of RGB Imagery to WFOs and National Centers by NASA SPoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin K.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    MODIS Snow/Cloud and True Color RGB imagery has been used by SPoRT partners since 2004 to examine changes in surface features such as snow cover, vegetation, ocean color, fires, smoke plumes, and oil spills.

  20. NASA/SPoRt: GOES-R Activities in Support of Product Development, Management, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin; Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew; Stano, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    SPoRT is using current capabilities of MODIS and VIIRS, combined with current GOES (i.e. Hybrid Imagery) to demonstrate mesoscale capabilities of future ABI instrument. SPoRT is transitioning RGBs from EUMETSAT standard "recipes" to demonstrate a method to more efficiently handle the increase channels/frequency of ABI. Challenges for RGB production exist. Internal vs. external production, Bit depth needed, Adding quantitative information, etc. SPoRT forming group to address these issues. SPoRT is leading efforts on the application of total lightning in operations and to educate users of this new capability. Training in many forms is used to support testbed activities and is a key part to the transition process.

  1. CYCLIC VARIATIONS OF ORBITAL PERIOD AND LONG-TERM LUMINOSITY IN CLOSE BINARY RT ANDROMEDAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoori, Davood

    2009-01-01

    Solutions of standard VR light curves for the eclipsing binary RT And were obtained using the PHOEBE program (ver. 0.3a). Absolute parameters of the stellar components were then determined, enabling them to be positioned on the mass-luminosity diagram. Times of minima data ( O - C curve ) were analyzed using the method of Kalimeris et al. A cyclic variation in the orbital period and brightness, with timescales of about 11.89 and 12.50 yr were found, respectively. This is associated with a magnetic activity cycle modulating the orbital period of RT And via the Applegate mechanism. To check the consistency of the Applegate model, we have estimated some related parameters of the RT And system. The calculated parameters were in accordance with those estimated by Applegate for other similar systems, except B, the subsurface magnetic field of which shows a rather high value for RT And.

  2. Kaks vaadet Ameerikast Jacques Derridale / Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljataga, Märt, 1965-

    1998-01-01

    Kommentaariks Vikerkaares 1998, nr. 7-8 ilmunud artiklitele: Mark Lilla 'Jacques Derrida poliitika' ja Richard Rorty 'Ironistlikust teooriast privaatsete allusioonideni' (mõlemad tõlkinud Märt Väljataga)

  3. Preparation of rT3 in human serum ria kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peixuan; Han Shiquan; Zhang Liling

    1991-02-01

    A method for the measurement of rT 3 in serum by radioimmunoassay is presented. The double antibody plus polyethylene glycol was used as separating reagent. The method is simple, precise and sensitive. Serum rT 3 values of normal (n = 61) were 47.7 ± 11.34 x 10 -8 g/L (X-bar ± SD). Patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 8) serum rT 3 values were 272.2 ± 91.1 x 10 -8 g/L (X-bar ± SD) and patients with hypothyroidism (n = 2) serum rT 3 values were 11.4 ± 8.3 x 10 -8 g/L (X-bar ± SD). It appears to be a useful diagnostic procedure for thyroid diseases

  4. Analysis of competing risk parameters in irradiated prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Mayer, E.; Langsenlehner, U.; Hackl, A.; Pummer, K.; Quehenberger, F.; Feigl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective competing risk analysis of prognostic factors in definitive-irradiated prostate cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Data of 652 patients were analyzed according to three age subgroups ( 75 years; Table 1). Pre-RT PSA values (median 13.4 ng/ml) were available for 340 patients. Adjuvant hormone therapy (n = 261) consisted either of orchiectomy (n = 151) or LHRH agonist with/without antiandrogen therapy or, in the early years, diethystilbestrol. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy (n = 31) using LHRH agonists was given 6 months before and during radiotherapy. Results: Biochemical failure was observed in 69/.340 patients, 5 years after biochemical failure, 64.9% of them also had failed clinically. The cumulative incidence of local failure (LF) and distant metastases (DM) was 9.4% and 37.2%, respectively; LF and DM at the same time were seen in 18.2%. On multivariate analysis (Tables 2 and 3), advanced stage (relative risk [RR] 4.54), pre-RT PSA > 20 ng/ml (RR 2.79) and poorly differentiated tumors (RR 2.96) were significant predictors of biochemical failure. Advanced stage increased the risk of LF (RR 2.18), DM (RR 3.66), and prostate cancer death (PCD; RR 4.30). Hormone therapy decreased the risk of biochemical failure (RR 0.67), DM (RR 0.59), and PCD (RR 0.60) without reaching statistical significance. Median follow-up was 7.6 years. Conclusion: Risk of biochemical failure was predicted by pre-RT PSA, stage, and grade; in patients with biochemical failure, the cumulative incidence of death from intercurrent diseases and PCD was 25.0% and 29.2% after 5 years, respectively. The risk of DM and PCD was predicted by stage and grade. Higher age (> 75 years) decreased the relative risk of LF, DM, and PCD significantly. (orig.)

  5. Optimisation of the RT-PCR detection of immunomagnetically enriched carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, Michael; Stephenson, Sally-Anne; Walsh, David CA; Pittman, Kenneth B; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Immunomagnetic enrichment followed by RT-PCR (immunobead RT-PCR) is an efficient methodology to identify disseminated carcinoma cells in the blood and bone marrow. The RT-PCR assays must be both specific for the tumor cells and sufficiently sensitive to enable detection of single tumor cells. We have developed a method to test RT-PCR assays for any cancer. This has been investigated using a panel of RT-PCR markers suitable for the detection of breast cancer cells. In the assay, a single cell line-derived tumor cell is added to 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) after which mRNA is isolated and reverse transcribed for RT-PCR analysis. PBMNCs without added tumor cells are used as specificity controls. The previously studied markers epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mammaglobin 1 (MGB1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM/TACSTD1), mucin 1 (MUC1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were tested. Two new epithelial-specific markers ELF3 and EphB4 were also tested. MUC1 was unsuitable as strong amplification was detected in 100 cell PBMNC controls. Expression of ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 was found to be both specific for the tumor cell, as demonstrated by the absence of a signal in most 100 cell PBMNC controls, and sensitive enough to detect a single tumor cell in 100 PBMNCs using a single round of RT-PCR. ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 are appropriate RT-PCR markers for use in a marker panel to detect disseminated breast cancer cells after immunomagnetic enrichment

  6. Canine distemper virus detection by different methods of One-Step RT-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Camargo Tozato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Three commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR were evaluated for the molecular diagnosis of Canine Distemper Virus. Using the kit that showed better performance, two systems of Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR assays were tested and compared for analytical sensitivity to Canine Distemper Virus RNA detection: a One-Step RT-qPCR (system A and a One-Step RT-qPCR combined with NESTED-qPCR (system B. Limits of detection for both systems were determined using a serial dilution of Canine Distemper Virus synthetic RNA or a positive urine sample. In addition, the same urine sample was tested using samples with prior centrifugation or ultracentrifugation. Commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR assays detected canine distemper virus RNA in 10 (100% urine samples from symptomatic animals tested. The One-Step RT-qPCR kit that showed better results was used to evaluate the analytical sensitivity of the A and B systems. Limit of detection using synthetic RNA for the system A was 11 RNA copies µL-1 and 110 RNA copies µl-1 for first round System B. The second round of the NESTED-qPCR for System B had a limit of detection of 11 copies µl-1. Relationship between Ct values and RNA concentration was linear. The RNA extracted from the urine dilutions was detected in dilutions of 10-3 and10-2 by System A and B respectively. Urine centrifugation increased the analytical sensitivity of the test and proved to be useful for routine diagnostics. The One-Step RT-qPCR is a fast, sensitive and specific method for canine distemper routine diagnosis and research projects that require sensitive and quantitative methodology.

  7. Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Transitioning Satellite Data to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.

  8. Thermal regulation 2000: one year later; RT 2000: un an apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This meeting, organized by the research center of Gaz de France (Cegibat), aims at drawing up a progress status of the French thermal regulation (RT 2000), one year after its enforcement on June 1, 2000: status, experience feedback and recommendations; Gaz de France assistance and solutions; tools at the disposition of designers (labelling of equipments, simulation softwares..); practical examples of implementation of the RT 2000 in office buildings, residential buildings and sport complexes. (J.S.)

  9. Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, R.; Schopohl, B.; Boettcher, H.D.; Kirchner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary results of a prospective study which investigates the efficacy of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip arthroplasty are summarized. A total number of 20 hip joints (18 patients) were irradiated with a single dose of 6.0 Gy Brooker grade II). The functional outcome quantified with the Harris score was improved by an average of 37.9 points. The authors conclude that preoperative RT is an effective alternative for postoperative irradiation. (orig.) [de

  10. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  11. Simultaneous detection of enteropathogenic viruses in buffalos faeces using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pagnini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiplex reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR assay that detects Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Group A Rotaviruses in infected cell-culture fluids and clinical faecal samples is described. One hundred twenty faecal samples from buffalo calves with acute gastroenteritis were tested. The mRT-PCR was validated against simplex RT-PCR with published primers for Pestivirus, Coronavirus and Rotavirus. The multiplex RT-PCR was equally sensitive and specific in detecting viral infections compared with simplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR readily identified viruses by discriminating the size of their amplified gene products. This mRT-PCR may be a sensitive and rapid assay for surveillance of buffalo enteric viruses in field specimens. This novel multiplex RT-PCR is an attractive technique for the rapid, specific, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis.

  12. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  13. Detection of Tomato black ring virus by real-time one-step RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Scott J; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I; Clover, Gerard R G

    2011-01-01

    A TaqMan-based real-time one-step RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid detection of Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), a significant plant pathogen which infects a wide range of economically important crops. Primers and a probe were designed against existing genomic sequences to amplify a 72 bp fragment from RNA-2. The assay amplified all isolates of TBRV tested, but no amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepovirus species or healthy host plants. The detection limit of the assay was estimated to be around nine copies of the TBRV target region in total RNA. A comparison with conventional RT-PCR and ELISA, indicated that ELISA, the current standard test method, lacked specificity and reacted to all nepovirus species tested, while conventional RT-PCR was approximately ten-fold less sensitive than the real-time RT-PCR assay. Finally, the real-time RT-PCR assay was tested using five different RT-PCR reagent kits and was found to be robust and reliable, with no significant differences in sensitivity being found. The development of this rapid assay should aid in quarantine and post-border surveys for regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The SPoRT-WRF: Evaluating the Impact of NASA Datasets on Convective Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Kozlowski, Danielle; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) seeks to improve short-term, regional weather forecasts using unique NASA products and capabilities SPoRT has developed a unique, real-time configuration of the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)WRF (ARW) that integrates all SPoRT modeling research data: (1) 2-km SPoRT Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Composite, (2) 3-km LIS with 1-km Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVFs) (3) 45-km AIRS retrieved profiles. Transitioned this real-time forecast to NOAA's Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) as deterministic model at Experimental Forecast Program (EFP). Feedback from forecasters/participants and internal evaluation of SPoRT-WRF shows a cool, dry bias that appears to suppress convection likely related to methodology for assimilation of AIRS profiles Version 2 of the SPoRT-WRF will premier at the 2012 EFP and include NASA physics, cycling data assimilation methodology, better coverage of precipitation forcing, and new GVFs

  15. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents Using RT3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian D.; Truex, Michael J.; Clement, T P.

    2006-07-25

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a reactive transport code that can be applied to model solute fate and transport for many different purposes. This document specifically addresses application of RT3D for modeling related to evaluation and implementation of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). Selection of MNA as a remedy requires an evaluation process to demonstrate that MNA will meet the remediation goals. The U.S. EPA, through the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Directive 9200.4?17P, provides the regulatory context for the evaluation and implementation of MNA. In a complementary fashion, the context for using fate and transport modeling as part of MNA evaluation is described in the EPA?s technical protocol for chlorinated solvent MNA, the Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA, and in this document. The intent of this document is to describe (1) the context for applying RT3D for chlorinated solvent MNA and (2) the attenuation processes represented in RT3D, (3) dechlorination reactions that may occur, and (4) the general approach for using RT3D reaction modules (including a summary of the RT3D reaction modules that are available) to model fate and transport of chlorinated solvents as part of MNA or for combinations of MNA and selected types of active remediation.

  16. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Objective: Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. Methods: We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women’s Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. Results: During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. PMID:25934663

  17. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-05-01

    Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women's Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m²). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Treatment options for high-risk T1 bladder cancer. Status quo and future perspectives of radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Roedel, C.; Ott, O.J.; Wittlinger, M.; Fietkau, R.; Sauer, R.; Krause, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to review the standards and new developments in diagnosis and management of high-risk T1 bladder cancer with emphasis on the role of radiotherapy (RT) and radiochemotherapy (RCT). Material and methods: a systematic review of the literature on developments in diagnosis and management of high-risk T1 bladder cancer was performed. Results: first transurethral resection (TUR), as radical as safely possible, supported by fluorescence cystoscopy, shows higher detection and decreased recurrence rates. An immediate single postoperative instillation with a chemotherapeutic drug reduces the relative risk of recurrence by 40%. A second TUR is recommended to assess residual tumor. For adjuvant intravesical therapy, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) demonstrated the highest efficacy. Early cystectomy should be reserved for selected patients. A recent phase III trial comparing RT versus conservative treatment in T1 G3 tumors could not show any advantage for RT. Data from Erlangen, Germany, using combined RCT in 80% of the patients, compare favorably with most of the contemporary BCG series. Conclusion: results of intravesical therapy are still unsatisfying and early cystectomy is associated with morbidity and mortality. RT alone proved not superior to other conservative treatment strategies. However, data on RCT are promising and demonstrate an alternative to intravesical therapy and radical cystectomy. (orig.)

  19. A comparison of the sensitivities of detection of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes by magnetic fractionation, thick blood film microscopy, and RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Pierre Tim G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnetic properties of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes have been exploited for different clinical and research purposes. A recent study in a rural clinical setting in Papua New Guinea has demonstrated that Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte detection is facilitated by magnetic deposition microscopy but no study has yet determined the relative sensitivity and limit of detection of a magnetic fractionation technique. The present study compares the detection limit and sensitivity of a technique based on the use of commercially available magnetic fractionation columns with those for thick blood film microscopy and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR methods. Methods Gametocyte detection in six series of dilutions of cultured P. falciparum parasites with known gametocytaemia was conducted using magnetic fractionation, thick blood film, and RT-PCR techniques. Results The preparations obtained by the magnetic fractionation method were of thin film quality allowing easy gametocyte identification by light microscopy. Magnetic fractionation had a higher sensitivity and approximately two orders of magnitude better limit of detection than thick blood film microscopy. Gametocytes were also more readily detectable on the magnetically fractionated preparations. Magnetic fractionation had a similar limit of detection to that of RT-PCR. Conclusion Magnetic fractionation is a highly sensitive and convenient method for gametocyte detection in comparison with the standard thick blood film and RT-PCR methods, and could readily be adapted to field application.

  20. Cell-type-specific responses of RT4 neural cell lines to dibutyryl-cAMP: branch determination versus maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droms, K.; Sueoka, N.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the induction of cell-type-specific maturation, by dibutyryl-cAMP and testololactone, of neuronal and glial properties in a family of cell lines derived from a rat peripheral neurotumor, RT4. This maturation allows further understanding of the process of determination because of the close lineage relationship between the cell types of the RT4 family. The RT4 family is characterized by the spontaneous conversion of one of the cell types, RT4-AC (stem-cell type), to any of three derivative cell types, RT4-B, RT4-D, or RT4-E, with a frequency of about 10(-5). The RT4-AC cells express some properties characteristic of both neuronal and glial cells. Of these neural properties expressed by RT4-AC cells, only the neuronal properties are expressed by the RT4-B and RT4-E cells, and only the glial properties are expressed by the RT4-D cells. This in vitro cell-type conversion of RT4-AC to three derivative cell types is a branch point for the coordinate regulation of several properties and seems to resemble determination in vivo. In our standard culture conditions, several other neuronal and glial properties are not expressed by these cell types. However, addition of dibutyryl-cAMP induces expression of additional properties, in a cell-type-specific manner: formation of long cellular processes in the RT4-B8 and RT4-E5 cell lines and expression of high-affinity uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid, by a glial-cell-specific mechanism, in the RT4-D6-2 cell line. These new properties are maximally expressed 2-3 days after addition of dibutyryl-cAMP

  1. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank JA; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049–ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063–ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic

  2. Investigating the Decision-Making of Response to Intervention (RtI) Teams within the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thur, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure decision-making influences within RtI teams. The study examined the factors that influence school personnel involved in three areas of RtI: determining which RtI measures and tools teams select and implement (i.e. Measures and Tools), evaluating the data-driven decisions that are made based on the…

  3. A study on the establishment of practical program for the RT promotion plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Yen; Jin, J. H.; Beyn, M. W.; Han, H. S.; Park, C.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Jeong, I. H.; Nho, Y. C

    2003-03-01

    The present state of RT utilizations in Korea is categorized into radioisotope applications to treat incurable diseases, food irradiation, and nondestructive test, and radiation applications by radiation generators such as cyclotrons to produce short half-life radioisotopes for medical uses and electron accelerators to make better products of cables and radial tiers. In order to activate more utilizations of RT, the followings should be carried out: 1. Establishment of RT Research Institute and RT Industrial Complex - Establishment of the tentatively named [Radiation Science and Technology Research Center] and 'Cyclotron Center' in four provinces should be effectively carried out as scheduled. - Successful pursuing design and construction of the proton accelerator for research and technology development, and CNS research facility. - Radiation area workers training participating the RT projects; Participation and training of university graduates to the on-going and planned RT projects, Classes for special skills and experts to radiation could be designed at the Consociated Graduate School, being established by joining national research organizations, if necessary. - Secure minimum number of R and D man power for RT development 2. Review design and construction of RI production reactor and construct distribution and transportation of RIs - Constructions of distribution lines and a central depository site with the establishment of Cyclotron Centers and RI production reactor - Designation, as early as possible, of the organization to handle the constructions of the distribution lines and the central depository site. 3. Establishment of an organization to appeal RT industries' concerns - An organization composed of governmental officials, researchers from national research institutes and/or private research institutes, representatives from associations and RT industries should be formed to define the issues to promote radiation uses. 4. Establishment of

  4. A study on the establishment of practical program for the RT promotion plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Yen; Jin, J. H.; Beyn, M. W.; Han, H. S.; Park, C.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Jeong, I. H.; Nho, Y. C.

    2003-03-01

    The present state of RT utilizations in Korea is categorized into radioisotope applications to treat incurable diseases, food irradiation, and nondestructive test, and radiation applications by radiation generators such as cyclotrons to produce short half-life radioisotopes for medical uses and electron accelerators to make better products of cables and radial tiers. In order to activate more utilizations of RT, the followings should be carried out: 1. Establishment of RT Research Institute and RT Industrial Complex - Establishment of the tentatively named [Radiation Science and Technology Research Center] and 'Cyclotron Center' in four provinces should be effectively carried out as scheduled. - Successful pursuing design and construction of the proton accelerator for research and technology development, and CNS research facility. - Radiation area workers training participating the RT projects; Participation and training of university graduates to the on-going and planned RT projects, Classes for special skills and experts to radiation could be designed at the Consociated Graduate School, being established by joining national research organizations, if necessary. - Secure minimum number of R and D man power for RT development 2. Review design and construction of RI production reactor and construct distribution and transportation of RIs - Constructions of distribution lines and a central depository site with the establishment of Cyclotron Centers and RI production reactor - Designation, as early as possible, of the organization to handle the constructions of the distribution lines and the central depository site. 3. Establishment of an organization to appeal RT industries' concerns - An organization composed of governmental officials, researchers from national research institutes and/or private research institutes, representatives from associations and RT industries should be formed to define the issues to promote radiation uses. 4. Establishment of Pan-ministry PR

  5. Early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy: a predictive factor of parenchymal hematomas in cerebral rt-PA thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuhong; Berthiller, Julien; Trouillas, Paul; Derex, Laurent; Diallo, Laho; Hanss, Michel

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the correlations between the post-thrombolytic changes of hemostasis parameters and the occurrence of early intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In 72 consecutive patients with cerebral infarcts treated with rt-PA, plasma levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-antiplasmin, factor XIII, fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs) and d-Dimers were measured at baseline, 2 and 24h after thrombolysis. Correlations were studied between the hemostasis events and early (less than 24h) hemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) or parenchymatous hematomas (PH). Of 72 patients, 6 patients (8.3%) had early PHs, 11 (15.3%) had early HIs, and 55 (76.4%) had no bleeding. Early HIs were not linked to any hemostasis parameter at any time. Univariate comparison of patients having early PHs with non-bleeding patients showed hemostasis abnormalities at 2h: high FDP (p=0.01), high Log FDP (p=0.01), low fibrinogen (p=0.01), and low Log fibrinogen (p=0.01). Logistic regression adjusted for age, NIHSS and diabetes confirmed these 2hour predictors: Log FDP (OR: 7.50; CI: 1.26 to 44.61, p=0.03), and Log fibrinogen (OR: 19.32; CI: 1.81 to 205.98, p=0.01). The decrease in fibrinogen less than 2g/L multiplies the odds of early PH by a factor 12.82. An early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy involving an increase of FDP and a massive consumption of circulating fibrinogen is predictive of early parenchymal hematomas, indicating the occurrence of a particularly intense lysis of circulating fibrinogen. These results, if confirmed by future studies, suggest that early assays of fibrinogen and FDP may be useful in predicting the risk of post-thrombolytic intracerebral hematoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia by multiplex Lightmix® RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karoline; Springer, Burkard; Imkamp, Frank; Opota, Onya; Greub, Gilbert; Keller, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides. Moreover, these fastidious bacteria are difficult to identify by culture or serology, and therefore often remain undetected. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia is crucial. We performed a retrospective method evaluation study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the new, commercially available Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay that detects these fastidious bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia. In this retrospective study, 368 clinical respiratory specimens, obtained from patients suffering from atypical pneumonia that have been tested negative for the presence of common agents of pneumonia by culture and viral PCR, were investigated. These clinical specimens have been previously characterized by singleplex RT-PCR assays in our diagnostic laboratory and were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the respiratory multiplex Lightmix ® RT-PCR. The multiplex RT-PCR displayed a limit of detection between 5 and 10 DNA copies for different in-panel organisms and showed identical performance characteristics with respect to specificity and sensitivity as in-house singleplex RT-PCRs for pathogen detection. The Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay represents a low-cost, time-saving and accurate diagnostic tool with high throughput potential. The time-to-result using an automated DNA extraction device for respiratory specimens followed by multiplex RT-PCR detection was

  7. Variance to mean ratio, R(t), for poisson processes on phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N

    1994-09-01

    The ratio of expected variance to mean, R(t), of numbers of DNA base substitutions for contemporary sequences related by a "star" phylogeny is widely seen as a measure of the adherence of the sequences' evolution to a Poisson process with a molecular clock, as predicted by the "neutral theory" of molecular evolution under certain conditions. A number of estimators of R(t) have been proposed, all predicted to have mean 1 and distributions based on the chi 2. Various genes have previously been analyzed and found to have values of R(t) far in excess of 1, calling into question important aspects of the neutral theory. In this paper, I use Monte Carlo simulation to show that the previously suggested means and distributions of estimators of R(t) are highly inaccurate. The analysis is applied to star phylogenies and to general phylogenetic trees, and well-known gene sequences are reanalyzed. For star phylogenies the results show that Kimura's estimators ("The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution," Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1983) are unsatisfactory for statistical testing of R(t), but confirm the accuracy of Bulmer's correction factor (Genetics 123: 615-619, 1989). For all three nonstar phylogenies studied, attained values of all three estimators of R(t), although larger than 1, are within their true confidence limits under simple Poisson process models. This shows that lineage effects can be responsible for high estimates of R(t), restoring some limited confidence in the molecular clock and showing that the distinction between lineage and molecular clock effects is vital.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Enrollment of a population-based cohort of newborns at higher risk of developing a chronic condition: the EDEN study. Etude du Developpement des Nouveau-nés Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, V; Santos-Eggimann, B; Fawer, C L; Paccaud, F; Calame, A

    1997-04-01

    To describe the methods used at birth to recruit a population-based cohort of newborns of all birthweights at higher risk of having a chronic condition, and to present baseline results. Screening of all newborns at hospital discharge for five non-exclusive criteria: (1) low birthweight (LBW), (2) congenital anomalies or genetic disease, (3) specified conditions associated with a high probability of chronicity, (4) referral to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), (5) or defined social problems. Calculation of Hobel risk scores for children satisfying > or = 1 criterion. All 6477 live births delivered in the 19 maternity hospitals of a geographically defined region (Vaud, Switzerland) to resident mothers in 1993-1994. Twelve per cent (n = 760) of newborns met > or = 1 criterion: 6.3% of all newborns had an LBW (criterion 1), 2.4% had a birth defect, 0.9% met criterion (3), 4.4% stayed in an NICU and 1.6% had serious social problems. Hobel prenatal score was high (> or = 10 points) for 41% of children with > or = 1 criterion, the intrapartum score for 87% and the neonatal score for 68%. Most newborns identified by the above simple criteria also had elevated perinatal risks. The validity of the criteria will later be tested against the results of the examinations of children with > or = 1 criterion at 18 months and 4 years of age, but the assessment at birth already shows that normal birthweight (NBW) children, in agreement with previous studies, contribute half the children at high risk perinatally.

  9. Pre-treatment ASPECTS-DWI score has a relation with functional outcome at 3 months following intravenous rt-PA therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezu, Tomohisa; Koga, Masatoshi; Naganuma, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The clinical importance of early ischemic changes (EIC) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis has not been elucidated well. The present study aimed evaluating whether Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS)-DWI before rt-PA therapy could predict chronic independent outcome. Consecutive stroke patients treated with rt-PA from October 2005 through July 2008 were registered from 10 major stroke centers located without regional imbalance in Japan. Before rt-PA IV infusion, we assessed EIC on DWI by using ASPECTS-DWI (11 points). Independent outcome was defined by modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) 0-2 at 3 months after stroke onset. A total of 420 patients (280 men, 71±11 years in age) were studied, and 221 (52.6%) of them were independent (mRS 0-2) at 3 months. The independent patients were younger, had less hypertension and atrial fibrillation, lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, higher ASPECTS-DWI, less internal carotid artery occlusion than dependent patients (mRS 3-6, P<0.05 for all). The optimal cutoff score of ASPECTS-DWI to predict independent outcome was ≥7 with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 31%, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.622. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, ASPECTS-DWI ≥7 was independently predictive of an independent outcome at 3 months (odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-5.49). ASPECTS-DWI before rt-PA therapy is useful to predict patients' chronic functional outcome. (author)

  10. Evaluation of NGS and RT-PCR Methods for ALK Rearrangement in European NSCLC Patients: Results from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letovanec, Igor; Finn, Stephen; Zygoura, Panagiota; Smyth, Paul; Soltermann, Alex; Bubendorf, Lukas; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Marchetti, Antonio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Monkhorst, Kim; Hager, Henrik; Martorell, Miguel; Sejda, Aleksandra; Cheney, Richard; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Verbeken, Eric; Weder, Walter; Savic, Spasenija; Di Lorito, Alessia; Navarro, Atilio; Felip, Enriqueta; Warth, Arne; Baas, Paul; Meldgaard, Peter; Blackhall, Fiona; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Dienemann, Hendrik; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Vansteenkiste, Johan; O'Brien, Cathal; Geiger, Thomas; Sherlock, Jon; Schageman, Jeoffrey; Dafni, Urania; Kammler, Roswitha; Kerr, Keith; Thunnissen, Erik; Stahel, Rolf; Peters, Solange

    2018-03-01

    The reported prevalence of ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement in NSCLC ranges from 2% to 7%. The primary standard diagnostic method is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has also proved to be a reproducible and sensitive technique. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has also been advocated, and most recently, the advent of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for ALK and other fusions has become possible. This study compares anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) evaluation with all four techniques in resected NSCLC from the large European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape cohort. A total of 96 cases from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape iBiobank, with any ALK immunoreactivity were examined by FISH, central RT-PCR, and NGS. An H-score higher than 120 defines IHC positivity. RNA was extracted from the same formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. For RT-PCR, primers covered the most frequent ALK translocations. For NGS, the Oncomine Solid Tumour Fusion Transcript Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was used. The concordance was assessed using the Cohen κ coefficient (two-sided α ≤ 5%). NGS provided results for 77 of the 95 cases tested (81.1%), whereas RT-PCR provided results for 77 of 96 (80.2%). Concordance occurred in 55 cases of the 60 cases tested with all four methods (43 ALK negative and 12 ALK positive). Using ALK copositivity for IHC and FISH as the criterion standard, we derived a sensitivity for RT-PCR/NGS of 70.0%/85.0%, with a specificity of 87.1%/79.0%. When either RT-PCR or NGS was combined with IHC, the sensitivity remained the same, whereas the specificity increased to 88.7% and 83.9% respectively. NGS evaluation with the Oncomine Solid Tumour Fusion transcript kit and RT-PCR proved to have high sensitivity and specificity, advocating their use in routine practice. For maximal sensitivity and specificity, ALK status should be

  11. Archaeogenetics of Late Iron Age Çemialo Sırtı, Batman: Investigating maternal genetic continuity in north Mesopotamia since the Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaka, Reyhan; Birand, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Yasemin; Caner, Ceren; Açan, Sinan Can; Gündüzalp, Sidar; Parvizi, Poorya; Erim Özdoğan, Aslı; Togan, İnci; Somel, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    North Mesopotamia has witnessed dramatic social change during the Holocene, but the impact of these events on its demographic history is poorly understood. Here, we study this question by analysing genetic data from the recently excavated Late Iron Age settlement of Çemialo Sırtı in Batman, southeast Turkey. Archaeological and radiocarbon evidence indicate that the site was inhabited during the second and first millennia BCE. Çemialo Sırtı reveals nomadic items of the Early Iron Age, as well as items associated with the Late Achaemenid and subsequent Hellenistic Periods. We compare Çemialo Sırtı mitochondrial DNA profiles with earlier and later populations from west Eurasia to describe genetic continuity patterns in the region. A total of 16 Çemialo Sırtı individuals' remains were studied. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to obtain mitochondrial DNA HVRI-HVRII sequences. We studied haplotype diversity and pairwise genetic distances using F ST , comparing the Çemialo Sırtı population with ancient and modern-day populations from west Eurasia. Coalescent simulations were carried out to test continuity for specific population comparisons. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 12 Çemialo Sırtı individuals reveal high haplotype diversity in this population, conspicuously higher than early Holocene west Eurasian populations, which supports the notion of increasing population admixture in west Eurasia through the Holocene. In its mtDNA composition, Çemialo Sırtı shows highest affinity to Neolithic north Syria and Neolithic Anatolia among ancient populations studied, and to modern-day southwest Asian populations. Based on population genetic simulations we cannot reject continuity between Neolithic and Iron Age, or between Iron Age and present-day populations of the region. Despite the region's complex sociopolitical history and indication for increased genetic diversity over time, we find no evidence for sharp shifts in north Mesopotamian

  12. SASqPCR: robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijun Ling

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a key method for measurement of relative gene expression. Analysis of RT-qPCR data requires many iterative computations for data normalization and analytical optimization. Currently no computer program for RT-qPCR data analysis is suitable for analytical optimization and user-controllable customization based on data quality, experimental design as well as specific research aims. Here I introduce an all-in-one computer program, SASqPCR, for robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS. This program has multiple macros for assessment of PCR efficiencies, validation of reference genes, optimization of data normalizers, normalization of confounding variations across samples, and statistical comparison of target gene expression in parallel samples. Users can simply change the macro variables to test various analytical strategies, optimize results and customize the analytical p