WorldWideScience

Sample records for royalties payment impact

  1. Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

  2. 37 CFR 260.6 - Verification of royalty payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... verification of the payment of royalty fees to those parties entitled to receive such fees, according to terms... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verification of royalty... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION...

  3. 37 CFR 382.6 - Verification of royalty payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of royalty fees to those parties entitled to receive such fees, according to terms promulgated by the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verification of royalty payments. 382.6 Section 382.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF...

  4. 37 CFR 382.3 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees. 382.3 Section 382.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF... royalty fees. (a) Payment to the Collective. All royalty payments shall be made to the Collective... month for that month, commencing with the month succeeding the month in which the royalty fees are set...

  5. 37 CFR 261.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 261.4 Section 261.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR... payment of royalty fees and statements of account. (a) A Licensee shall make the royalty payments due...

  6. 37 CFR 260.3 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees. 260.3 Section 260.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... Terms for making payment of royalty fees. (a) All royalty payments shall be made to a designated agent(s... the month succeeding the month in which the royalty fees are set. (c) The agent designated to receive...

  7. 37 CFR 383.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees. 383.4 Section 383.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF... fees. (a) Subject to the provisions of this section, terms governing timing and due dates of royalty payments, late fees, statements of account, audit and verification of royalty payments and distributions...

  8. 37 CFR 384.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 384.4 Section 384.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR THE MAKING... royalty fees and statements of account. (a) Payment to Collective. A Licensee shall make the royalty...

  9. 37 CFR 262.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 262.4 Section 262.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR... REPRODUCTIONS § 262.4 Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account. (a) Payment to...

  10. 37 CFR 380.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 380.4 Section 380.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR CERTAIN... § 380.4 Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account. (a) Payment to the...

  11. 37 CFR 382.13 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 382.13 Section 382.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR... Audio Radio Services § 382.13 Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account. (a...

  12. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty. (a...

  13. 37 CFR 381.8 - Terms and rates of royalty payments for the use of published pictorial, graphic, and sculptural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Payment of royalty rate. PBS or other public broadcasting entity shall pay the required royalty fees to... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms and rates of royalty..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY...

  14. 30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The... information on Form MMS-2014 for the calendar year, the same as if it were a monthly report; and (5) Report... section until the date MMS receives it. (d) If you take relief you are not qualified for, you may be...

  15. 37 CFR 262.7 - Verification of royalty payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Designated Agent have agreed as to proper verification methods. (b) Frequency of verification. A Copyright Owner or a Performer may conduct a single audit of the Designated Agent upon reasonable notice and... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR CERTAIN ELIGIBLE...

  16. Peering into Alberta’s Darkening Future: How Oil Prices Impact Alberta’s Royalty Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The price of oil just keeps collapsing — and the fate of Alberta’s revenues is buckling with it. Going into March 2015, it seemed as if prices might have finally found a bottom, somewhere between US$48 and US$52. By the second week of March, they began falling again, to the low forties. These are prices the Alberta government had not even ventured to fathom when first putting together its forecasts for the impact of falling oil prices on the province’s finances. Come the fourth quarter of the Alberta government’s 2014/15 fiscal year, the province’s finances will begin to really feel the blow from the plunge in oil, as royalty payments dry up significantly. Come the 2015/16 fiscal year, the situation becomes even bleaker. In fact, the current fiscal year will seem pleasant compared to the next one. Due to a stronger than expected first half of the year, actual bitumen and crude oil royalties collected in Alberta from April to September 2014 exceeded estimates by $1.3 billion. That will mitigate some of the damage that the continuing slide in prices will cause by the year’s end, with the government’s third quarter update showing expected year-end crude oil and bitumen royalty revenues falling short of the budget target by $549 million. So severe has the fall in oil prices been that, in March 2015, the number of barrels of conventional oil that the government collects in royalties could plummet by up to 53,000 barrels from the 2014/15 budget forecast, declining to just 4,100 barrels per day. This suggests that prices may be nearing a point where royalty collection from conventional crude oil production is at risk of being virtually eliminated. Bitumen royalties are not faring much better. Relative to July 2014, per barrel royalties in February 2015 have potentially declined by 60 to 90 per cent. All told, the combined effect of the changing exchange rate, lower prices, and the lower royalty rates that take effect in this low

  17. The Impact of Royalty Contract Revision in a Multistage Strategic R&D Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Wenqiang Xiao; Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of royalty revision on incentives and profits in a two-stage (research and development (R&D) stage and marketing stage) alliance with a marketer and an innovator. The marketer offers royalty contracts to the innovator. We find that the potential for royalty revision leads to more severe distortions in the optimal initial royalty contracts offered by the marketer. We show that if the innovator plays a significant role in the marketing stage, the marketer shou...

  18. Royalty rules : Alberta producers are now beholden to formal regulations for reporting royalty payments to government levy collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Regulation was established by the Alberta Department of Energy in July 2005 in order to clarify the rules governing conventional crude oil royalties. The regulation provides an incentive for industry to comply with the long-existing oil royalty reporting requirements through the addition of non-compliance penalties. An initial shadow billing system has been implemented to give industry the opportunity to understand their responsibilities and implement procedures to correct reporting and delivery inaccuracies. Battery operators in Alberta must now submit a royalty report to the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission on a monthly basis. The regulation provides provisions for interest charges on outstanding invoiced amounts, and formalizes existing eligibility requirements for the reimbursement of trucking costs associated with transporting the Crown's share. Penalties will be incurred if royalty reports contain erroneous information, or if the actual deliveries made are less than the prescribed royalty quantity. All penalties levied by the commission will now be sent to the battery operator in a monthly statement. Battery operators who wish to appeal their penalties may do so within 2 months after the date of the monthly statement. It was concluded that industry is not expected to experience any significant problems when the regulation comes into effect, as the 6 month shadow billing period will allow companies to make a smooth transition to the requirements of the new regulation. Details of information sessions for the new regulation were provided, as well as details of various non-compliance penalties. 1 fig

  19. A Primer on Alberta’s Oil sands Royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling its campaign promise, the new NDP government announced a review of Alberta’s royalty framework in June 2015. The province receives royalty revenue from three main sources – natural gas, crude oil, and oil sands. Since the 2009-10 fiscal year the largest contributor to Alberta’s royalty revenues has been the oil sands. If you want a sense of how important oil sands royalties have been for Alberta’s finances, consider this: In the 2014–15 fiscal year, the government collected just over $5 billion from oil sands royalties. These royalties covered over 10 per cent of the province’s operational expenses of $48.6 billion in the same fiscal year. Over the last six fiscal years the oil sands have contributed an average of 10 per cent of revenues to provincial coffers. This makes oil sands royalties the fourth largest contributor behind personal income taxes (23 per cent, federal transfers (13 per cent and corporate income taxes (11 per cent. But how many Albertans really understand how the royalty system works? What do we mean when we say “royalty”? How does the Alberta Government calculate royalties on oil sands producers? If the system is going to change, it’s important that Albertans understand how the current system works. That is what this paper is designed to do. For Albertans to properly judge the impact of new policy, they need a solid understanding of the current policy environment. We all know that oil prices have dropped and oil sands producers are losing profitability. As such, changes to the royalty system could have a deep and profound impact on the sector. Here are some of the issues this primer will study: • Pre-payout projects vs. post-payout projects, in other words, the classification of projects for royalty purposes based on whether the cumulative costs of a project exceed its cumulative revenues • Monthly payment of royalties vs. annual payment • Understanding the unit price of bitumen and how that

  20. The impact of taxes on bilateral royalty flows

    OpenAIRE

    Dudar, Olena; Spengel, Christoph; Voget, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the OECD introduced its Action Plan on base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). One of the major concerns of this Plan is a strategic use of intangible assets as an instrument for profit shifting. The main purpose of this paper is to test whether multinational enterprises use intangibles as an important BEPS channel by empirically analysing the relationship between taxation and bilateral royalty flows. We employ the OECD data on 3,660 country-pairs for the time period o...

  1. 37 CFR 253.8 - Terms and rates of royalty payments for the use of published pictorial, graphic, and sculptural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees to each copyright owner not later than July 31 of each calendar year for uses during the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms and rates of royalty..., Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES...

  2. The case of royalties in utilizations contracts; O caso dos royalties nos contratos de utilizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoel, Cacio Oliveira; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to discuss issues related to royalties payment in cases of oil and natural gas fields unitization. Those case were already registered in Brazil although the generic legislation regulating royalties payment does not contemplating them specifically. The contractual concepts of fields unitization are initially presented, highlighting the difficulties of implementing those contractual models and including the discussion regarding royalties payment. The doctrinal understanding of royalty is considered to demonstrate the possible difficulties that unitizations contracts impose for those royalties payment in the Brazilian legislation. In the end, the authors suggest exploring ideas for solving the issues raised by paper. (author)

  3. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... index zone pricing. We approved the Ute Indian Tribe's request; therefore, you must value production... due date for industry to pay additional royalties based on the major portion prices. This notice... additional royalties based on the major portion prices is May 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John...

  4. 37 CFR 384.3 - Royalty fees for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for ephemeral... BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENT SERVICES § 384.3 Royalty fees for ephemeral recordings. (a) Basic royalty rate. For... minimum fees shall be nonrefundable, but shall be fully creditable to royalty payments due under paragraph...

  5. An empirical analysis of the impacts of taxes and royalties on the supply of conventional crude oil in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoah, B.

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of taxes, royalties and government fiscal policy tools on conventional crude oil supply in Alberta was examined. A dynamic economic model of Alberta's conventional petroleum industry was developed and used to evaluate the quantitative impacts of government fiscal policies on exploration and extraction of conventional crude oil in the province. It was determined that taxes and royalties can shorten the life of the industry, reduce activity level, reduce ultimate recovery of conventional crude oil, render more of the established reserves sub-economic and create social welfare loss. It was also revealed that compared to provincial corporate income tax and crown royalties, federal corporate income tax has a larger adverse effect on the performance of the industry in terms of creating higher dead-weight loss and shortening the life of the industry

  6. 30 CFR 206.361 - How will MMS determine whether my royalty or direct use fee payments are correct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electricity or the sale of a geothermal resource, in conducting reviews and audits MMS will examine whether... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources... royalties or direct use fees that you report are subject to monitoring, review, and audit. The MMS may...

  7. 75 FR 455 - Adjustment of Cable Statutory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Petition to Participate, along with the $150 filing fee, may be delivered to the Copyright Royalty Board by... payments in accordance with the statutory formula described in 17 U.S.C. 111(d). Royalty fees are based... broadcast stations, there is a minimum royalty fee which must be paid. This minimum fee is not applied...

  8. 37 CFR 251.2 - Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier royalty fees and digital audio recording devices and media payments deposited with the Register of... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.2 Section 251.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY...

  9. 78 FR 49079 - Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence, Advance Royalty, Royalty Rates, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Management 43 CFR Parts 3000, 3400, 3430, et al. Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence... Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence, Advance Royalty, Royalty Rates, and Bonds... producing coal and has achieved diligence; (3) the value of any unpaid bonus payments; and (4) 100 percent...

  10. Estimating the impact of royalty relief on oil and gas production on marginal state leases in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dismukes, David E.; Burke, Jeffrey M.; Mesyanzhinov, Dmitry V.

    2006-01-01

    An emerging challenge for several energy-producing states will be the development of policies that encourage the continued economic development of maturing oil and gas properties. Production rates naturally decline as wells age. This is particularly true for properties approaching 'marginal' status in many energy-producing states where continued operation under expected economic conditions becomes questionable. Premature shut-in of these wells may entail loss of production, economic output, employment, and state revenues. This paper examines the potential impact of royalty relief on state leases and economic production using Louisiana as a case study. Two production related measures for state leases are estimated: (1) current production position relative to the age of the property and (2) the current costs of production for the given property at a given or anticipated level of output. Those wells/leases that are estimated as having negative profitability (i.e., losses) or operating at break-even levels are candidates for 'marginal' classification. The number of wells and production associated with these marginal leases will then be estimated. The economic impacts of offering royalty relief at the 25% level are considered. Under the royalty relief scenario, a minimal amount of increased revenues is realized by the state and the discount provides only incremental production from marginal wells relative to total state production

  11. The Impact of Payment System Design on Tiering Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Arculus; Jennifer Hancock; Greg Moran

    2012-01-01

    Tiering occurs when an institution does not participate directly in the central payment system but instead settles its payments through an agent. A high level of tiering can be a significant issue for payment system regulators because of the increased credit and concentration risk. This paper explores the impact of payment system design on institutions' incentives to tier using simulation analysis. Some evidence is found to support the hypothesis that the liquidity-saving mechanisms in Austra...

  12. 30 CFR 218.101 - Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum reserves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum... INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 218.101 Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum reserves). Remittance covering payments of royalty or rental on naval petroleum reserves must be accomplished by...

  13. Regional impacts of abolishing direct payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Priorr, Annette; Zander, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The direct payment system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) provides income transfers to European farmers. Recently, several countries including England and Sweden have advocated the elimination of direct payments after 2013. The extent to which an elimination of direct payments would affect...... with different production orientations and land management types was modeled under the presence and absence of direct payments using a combination of agent-based and bio-economic modeling. We found that the initial characteristics of the regions, such as the historical farm structure and regional site conditions...

  14. Overview of royalty trusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarites, P.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of royalty trusts as a means of financing exploration, development, production, and refining of oil sand and heavy oil to produce competitively marketable petroleum products, was reviewed. Attributes of the two distinct classes of royalty trusts - reflexive class and the fundamental class royalty trusts - and the considerations underlying each one, were summarized. The overall conclusion was that the future performance of conventional oil and gas royalty trusts (reflexive class) will depend heavily on interest rate levels and management's ability to complete acquisitions financed with new trust unit issues. Fundamental class royalty trusts also offer long term pure exposure to the underlying business, in addition to yield

  15. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a running...

  16. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  17. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  18. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin eApte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value-based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty which blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multi-disciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform which can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the

  19. Uranium royalties and Aboriginal economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1978 and 1979 agreements were negotiated under the Land Rights Act for development of the Ranger and Nabarlek uranium deposits, both located in the Alligator River Region. Over the period between March 1979 and June 1986, some $70 million have been paid to Aboriginal communities by these two projects. This paper is concerned with expenditure of uranium revenues by Aboriginal associations which have been established to receive up front and rental payments provided for in these agreements as well as the 30% of statutory royalties payable to Aboriginal communities affected by mining operations

  20. The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective” presents the aspects concerning the impact of the electronic payment system on the development of nowadays society as an economic and a managerial perspective. Our research focuses on issues related to the payments sector, the Smartcard, the Electronic Banking,payment systems based on bank cards, the Cyber cash, and the electronic payment systems (1 Net Cash and (2 E-Cash, Micro-payment systems with (1 Millicent and (2 Cyber Coin, as well as the electronic check payments.

  1. The Copyright Royalty Tribunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylawski, E. Fulton

    1977-01-01

    The regulatory and adjudicative structure of the newly-created Copyright Royalty Tribunal is described and guidelines for its functioning are examined. Problems in data reporting and in the determination of ownership of copyrights of works used by compulsory licensees are among the issues addressed. (LBH)

  2. The impact of the design of payment scales on the willingness to pay for health gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Soeteman (Lotte); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A. Bobinac (Ana)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe questionnaire format applied in a CV study represents the way in which the WTP estimates are obtained. Payment scales are often used in CV studies as the questionnaire format of choice. The study summarized here analyzes the impact of the design of two payment scales (PS) on the

  3. Design and impact of bundled payment for detox and follow-up care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Amity E; Hodgkin, Dominic; Perloff, Jennifer N; Stewart, Maureen T; Brolin, Mary; Lane, Nancy; Horgan, Constance M

    2017-11-01

    Recent payment reforms promote movement from fee-for-service to alternative payment models that shift financial risk from payers to providers, incentivizing providers to manage patients' utilization. Bundled payment, an episode-based fixed payment that includes the prices of a group of services that would typically treat an episode of care, is expanding in the United States. Bundled payment has been recommended as a way to pay for comprehensive SUD treatment and has the potential to improve treatment engagement after detox, which could reduce detox readmissions, improve health outcomes, and reduce medical care costs. However, if moving to bundled payment creates large losses for some providers, it may not be sustainable. The objective of this study was to design the first bundled payment for detox and follow-up care and to estimate its impact on provider revenues. Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries' behavioral health, medical, and pharmacy claims from July 2010-April 2013 were used to build and test a detox bundled payment for continuously enrolled adults (N=5521). A risk adjustment model was developed using general linear modeling to predict beneficiaries' episode costs. The projected payments to each provider from the risk adjustment analysis were compared to the observed baseline costs to determine the potential impact of a detox bundled payment reform on organizational revenues. This was modeled in two ways: first assuming no change in behavior and then assuming a supply-side cost sharing behavioral response of a 10% reduction in detox readmissions and an increase of one individual counseling and one group counseling session. The mean total 90-day detox episode cost was $3743. Nearly 70% of the total mean cost consists of the index detox, psychiatric inpatient care, and short-term residential care. Risk mitigation, including risk adjustment, substantially reduced the variation of the mean episode cost. There are opportunities for organizations to gain revenue

  4. Municipal development indexes and petroleum royalties: a multivariable comparison approach of profiles among municipalities that receive or do not receive royalties for the petroleum they produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Alessandro Lüdke Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian oil industry has achieved high growth rates and in 2006, the country’s self-sufficiency in oil was announced. From 1991 to 2011, Petrobras’ reserves grew by 164%. In the same period, Brazil passed the oil law (Law No. 9478, establishing new criteria for the transfer of oil royalties to Brazilian municipalities. Thus, this study aims to determine whether royalty payments to municipalities have improved their social indicators in perceptible ways. Therefore, a comparison between municipalities of similar population size that receive royalties and municipalities that do not receive them, was carried out. For the comparison, certain variables were used such as: IDHM, IFDM, IDEB and the incidence of poverty. We have used the techniques of Profile Analysis, Cluster Analysis and Factor Analysis in order to verify the difference between the matrices of data, both in the municipalities cities that receive royalties and in the ones that do not receive them.

  5. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Contract Payment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Payment System collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data is collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention.

  6. [Different forms of payment systems for dental services and their impact on care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sória, Marina Lara; Bordin, Ronaldo; da Costa Filho, Luiz Cesar

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian dental care sector is facing a paradoxical crisis characterized by a surplus of dentists and a large contingent of people lacking dental care, thus highlighting the need to improve management strategies. One necessary step is to analyze the various payment schemes for dental services. This paper reviews two important approaches, fee for service and capitation, and considers the impacts and consequences of payment strategies on the dental care system.

  7. Fixing Saskatchewan’s Potash Royalty Mess: A New Approach for Economic Efficiency and Simplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For a government’s fiscal program to best serve the public interest, while also ensuring sufficient public revenue collection, it has to meet three criteria: efficiency, simplicity and fairness. Unfortunately, the royalty and tax system currently in place for Saskatchewan’s robust potash-mining industry is none of these three things; it has actually reached the point of incoherence and absurdity, or a mess. Under the current royalty and tax regime for potash producers, the tangled thicket of royalties, taxes and credits can differ between commencement dates for production, projects of different sizes, or even projects of similar size but with different profitability; it also has potash producers generally enjoying a much lighter tax burden on marginal investments than that borne by the oil and gas industry and most other non-resource industries. The result is distortions and inefficiencies, resulting in subpar investment activity, which can only stand in the way of Saskatchewan reaching its full economic potential. That needs to change. The Saskatchewan government can implement a simpler and properly structured rent-based tax and a revenue-based royalty as minimum payment (where the royalty can be credited against the rent tax, each with a single rate and an identical tax base for all tax and royalty payers. Such a properly structured royalty and tax system can deliver improved productivity, without reducing investment incentives, resulting in a better partnership for both Saskatchewan’s industry and government in the long run.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Estimated Wind-Power Royalties in West Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brannstrom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind-power development in the U.S. occurs primarily on private land, producing royalties for landowners through private contracts with wind-farm operators. Texas, the U.S. leader in wind-power production with well-documented support for wind power, has virtually all of its ~12 GW of wind capacity sited on private lands. Determining the spatial distribution of royalty payments from wind energy is a crucial first step to understanding how renewable power may alter land-based livelihoods of some landowners, and, as a result, possibly encourage land-use changes. We located ~1700 wind turbines (~2.7 GW on 241 landholdings in Nolan and Taylor counties, Texas, a major wind-development region. We estimated total royalties to be ~$11.5 million per year, with mean annual royalty received per landowner per year of $47,879 but with significant differences among quintiles and between two sub-regions. Unequal distribution of royalties results from land-tenure patterns established before wind-power development because of a “property advantage,” defined as the pre-existing land-tenure patterns that benefit the fraction of rural landowners who receive wind turbines. A “royalty paradox” describes the observation that royalties flow to a small fraction of landowners even though support for wind power exceeds 70 percent.

  9. Impact of the Transition to ICD-10 on Medicare Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Although the transition from the ICD-9-CM to the ICD-10 version of MS-DRGs resulted in 1.68 percent of the patients being assigned to a different MS-DRG, payment...

  10. Impact of Exchange Rate on Balance of Payment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exchange rate policies have to be used along with the fiscal and monetary instruments to get meaningful results. This implies that our balance of payments problems can be solved simultaneously from two angles, namely, boosting supply and managing demand. Export diversification and promotion, import substitution and ...

  11. 25 CFR 213.19 - Crediting advance annual payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... been made. No refund of such advance payments made under any lease will be allowed in the event the royalty on production is not sufficient to equal such advance payment; nor will any part of the moneys so... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crediting advance annual payments. 213.19 Section 213.19...

  12. Financial catastrophe and poverty impacts of out-of-pocket health payments in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen Narcı, Hacer; Şahin, İsmet; Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of catastrophic health payments, examine the determinants of catastrophic expenditures, and assess the poverty impact of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Data came from the 2004 to 2010 Household Budget Survey. Catastrophic health spending was defined by health payments as percentage of household consumption expenditures and capacity to pay at a set of thresholds. The poverty impact was evaluated by poverty head counts and poverty gaps before and after OOP health payments. The percentage of households that catastrophically spent their consumption expenditure and capacity to pay increased from 2004 to 2010, regardless of the threshold used. Households with a share of more than 40% health spending in both consumption expenditure and capacity to pay accounted for less than 1% across years. However, when a series of potential confounders were taken into account, the study found statistically significantly increased risk for the lowest threshold and decreased risk for the highest threshold in 2010 relative to the base year. Household income, size, education, senior and under 5-year-old members, health insurance, disabled members, payment for inpatient care and settlement were also statistically significant predictors of catastrophic health spending. Overall, poverty head counts were below 1%. Poverty gaps reached a maximum of 0.098%, with an overall increase in 2010 compared to 2004. Catastrophe and poverty increased from 2004 to 2010. However, given that the realization of some recent policies will affect the financial burden of OOP payments on households, the findings of this study need to be replicated.

  13. Federal and Indian oil and gas royalty valuation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers: Royalty management-an M.M.S. overview; Payor/operator/lessee royalty liability; Royalty issues for OCS lessees; Royalty valuation procedures; Gas marketing royalty issues - industry perspective; Gas marketing royalty issues - M.M.S. perspective; Settlements of gas contract disputes Royalty reporting issues; Production reporting issues; Indian royalty issues; Litigation/regulatory updates; Over/under production on federal leases, units, and communitized areas; Audit program; and M.M.S. Reference Handbook

  14. THE IMPACT OF COMPENSATION PAYMENTS ON EMPLOYMENT, IN REGIONAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta JULA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensation payments are considered active labour market policies designed to increase efficiency, to mitigate unemployment and to sustaining employment. We tested this hypothesis for the period 1993-2013, in territorial structures (42 counties through a dynamic panel model (confirmed by Granger causality tests – Toda-Yamamoto version, and by means of error correction model. We found that the dynamics of regional employment are positively related to expenditure incurred for active policies and there are negatively correlated with the ratio between the unemployment average indemnity (and support allowance and the average net nominal monthly salary earnings. But, the connexion between employment and compensation payments converges extremely slowly for a long-term stable relationship.

  15. 30 CFR 227.102 - What royalty management functions will MMS not delegate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payments shown on royalty reports or other documents, such as bills, to reconcile payor accounts. MMS also... actions other than issuing demands, subpoenas and orders to perform restructured accounting. MMS or the appropriate Federal agency will issue notices of non-compliance and civil penalties, collect debts, write off...

  16. Alberta royalty structure changes seen lacking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian petroleum companies have welcomed a revamp of Alberta's royalty structure but say it falls short of what is needed to revitalize activity in the province. The changes will give producers a cut in royalties of at least $170 million (Canadian)/year, offer incentives for new drilling, and index royalty levels to prices. The new royalty plan also will reward companies that funnel more capital into increased exploration programs. The industry association the new royalty rates tied to prices could increase royalties if prices rise above $26 (Canadian)/bbl for oil and $1.70 (Canadian)/Mcf for natural gas. Royalty take would decline below these prices. Oil prices currently are near the $26/bbl level. CAPP the it is difficult to assess the effects of the royalty changes in reactivating shut-in wells and increasing production from marginal wells

  17. Equality inter generation and petroleum royalties at the debate on climate changes: considerations on a state policy on climate changes at the state or Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Equidade intergeracional e royalties do petroleo no debate sobre mudancas climaticas: consideracoes sobre uma politica estadual sobre mudanca do clima no estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Flavia Cahete Lopes; Araujo, Maria Silvia Muylaert de; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a basis for reflection on the petrol exploitation and the royalty concept for a state policy of facing the climate changes at the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Conceptually, objective of the payment of royalties for exploitation of a exaustable natural resource is to guarantee that thr next human generations be compensated by the absence of the explored natural resource. The paper intends to verify if the present Brazilian model of distribution and application of the resources referring to the payment of royalties coming from the petroleum production provides for the future generations which can not to count with the finite natural resource.

  18. Will Medicare Advantage payment reforms impact plan rebates and enrollment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage (MA) plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act (ACA) payment reforms. First difference regressions of county-level MA payment and enrollment data from CMS from 2006 to 2010. A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to MA plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point (0.9%) decrease in MA penetration (P penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. ACA reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in lower-spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 1.7 to 1.9 percentage points in the lowest-spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. MA enrollment responds to availability of supplemental benefits supported by rebates. ACA provisions designed to lower MA spending will predominantly affect Medicare beneficiaries living in counties where MA plans may be unable to offer a comparable product at a price similar to that of traditional Medicare.

  19. Assessing impacts of payments for watershed services on sustainability in coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Asbjornsen; Alex S. Mayer; Kelly W. Jones; Theresa Selfa; Leonardo Saenz; Randall K. Kolka; Kathleen E. Halvorsen

    2015-01-01

    Payments for watershed services (PWS) as a policy tool for enhancing water quality and supply have gained momentum in recent years, but their ability to lead to sustainable watershed outcomes is uncertain. Consequently, the demand for effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of PWS impacts on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and their implications for...

  20. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  1. Ethical aspects of the oil exploration: the royalties and the intergenerational issue; Aspectos eticos da exploracao do petroleo: os royalties e a questao intergeracional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Flavia Cahete Lopes

    2008-03-15

    This work has as purpose to discuss the ethical aspects of the petroleum exploration mainly that ones which are referred to the intergenerational question. In this context, it is intended to discourse on the payment of royalties in reason of the exploration of oil, as a tool that guarantees the intergenerational fairness. Conceptually, the goal of the payment of royalties for the exploration of an exhaustible is exactly to guarantee that the future generations are compensated by the absence of the explored natural resources. Moreover, the work intends to verify whether the current Brazilian model of distribution and application of the referring resources that derives of the oil production corroborates for the sustainability of the future generations, which will not be able to count on the cited finite natural resources. (author)

  2. Changes in out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Vietnam and its impact on equity in payments, 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Roy, Kakoli

    2008-10-01

    be because the rich could avail of health insurance more than those at lower incomes and as a consequence, were able to use the healthcare system more effectively without paying a high OOP payment. In contrast, the poor either incurred higher OOP payments or were discouraged from seeking treatments until their ailment became serious. This inequality becomes exacerbated in 1998 when insurance take-up rates were not high, but the impact of privatization and deregulation was already occurring. By 2002, insurance take-up rates were much higher, and poverty alleviation policies (e.g., free health insurance and health fund membership targeted for the poor) were instituted, which may have resulted in a less regressive system.

  3. The impact of the directive on payment services in the internal market on Danish and Belgian legislation on fraudulent payment transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before 1...... out in what way the directive had or will have an impact on Danish and Belgian legislation. More specifically, we will examine how the rules incorporated in the European directive, which is based on the principle of maximum harmonisation, are implemented in Belgium and Denmark, whether...... the implementations are in accordance with the directive and, finally, whether the directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promote the creation of a common internal market for payment services....

  4. The comparative analysis of payments for negative environmental impact in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Ospanov, A. T.; Salata, D. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article represents the calculation of the payment for negative environmental impact caused by the development of the uranium ores deposits in the Republic of Kazakhstan. To compare the deposits in Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, the event is simulated as if the object were located in the territory of the Russian Federation. The comparison of the results serves as an evidence to substantiate the experts’ claim that the financial mechanism of land management in Russia should be reformed.

  5. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local ...

  6. Efficacy and efficiency of Agri-environmental payments in impacts of crops' management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Emanuele; Martella, Angelo; Passeri, Nicolo; Ghini, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Since the 90s, in Europe the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) started to activate measures for improving the sustainability of European agriculture, these measures were systematized in 2000 with the tools of rural development, pursuing a synergistic environmental action trough the agri-environmental payments. Since their definition, those payments were designed to ensure the protection, maintenance and enhancement of natural resources (water, soil, forests), biodiversity (species and habitat), and landscape. In particular initiatives as set aside, afforestation, organic agriculture, integrated pest management, low input and precision agriculture have enriched the agricultural management practices. The aim of this work is to check the trend between agro-environmental subsidies and environmental performance (based on Ecological Indicators and CO2 evaluation) at country level in EU, in order to study the regulatory framework impact in addressing the European cropping system towards sustainability. In particular soils and their land use can storage CO2 as pool and so provide environmental services and, on the other hand the agricultural practices can stimulate the emission and the environmental footprint. Impacts (so called emissions/footprints and storage/environmental services) will be compared with the Agri-environmental Payments for calculating performances due to environmental management practices, supported by political initiatives. Such analysis sustains the European policy makers towards more suitable agricultural policies and in particular it can address national sustainability through agricultural practices.

  7. Honoraripoliitikast Eestis stalinismi perioodil. The Politics of Royalties in Estonia During the Stalinist Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Annuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the topic of royalty politics within the field of Estonian literature during the Stalinist era. This is an introductory treatment of the topic with the aim of opening up a discussion and to introduce corresponding sources. The topic of royalties has avoided the attention of researchers; up until now, no studies have been made. Despite this, it is an important topic, since the role of royalties in Soviet cultural politics shouldn’t be underestimated. Even though the cultural politics of the Soviet system are usually treated as repressive pressure, the politics of royalties bring out a different aspect by revealing a bonus system with which authors were incited to create conformist texts. Several different kinds of sources relating to royalties can be found , the most important of them being the laws on author royalties. The first of these was the Author Royalties Act passed by the People’s Commissariat of the Estonian SSR and in force already in 1944. Laws passed in 1948 and 1952 regulated the payment of royalities for both fictional works as well as all other kinds of works, such as scientific and technical publications, popular science, dictionaries, school text books, various kinds of collections, translations, etc. The laws were passed according to the boundaries of the work, such as artistic value or ideological level. Larger royalties were paid for works which were ’better’ in an ideological sense. Fiction and literary studies paid the best, which shows just how important literature as ideological education was to the Soviet system. The laws were in-depth and detailed and saw regular additions, such as in 1960 when several regulations were issued. Archival sources and honorary copies of Estonian newspapers and authorpublisher agreements consitute other important sources in addition to the legislation. From the honorary copies , the size of the royalties paid becomes clear. The source value of these documents is

  8. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum royalty...

  9. 30 CFR 281.28 - Royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty. 281.28 Section 281.28 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.28 Royalty. (a...

  10. 76 FR 55122 - Distribution of the 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... such royalty fees has a reasonable objection to the proposed distribution. Consequently, this Notice... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2011-7 CRB CD 2009] Distribution of the 2009 Cable Royalty Funds AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice...

  11. 48 CFR 52.227-6 - Royalty Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the response relating to each separate item of royalty or license fee: (1) Name and address of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Royalty Information. 52....227-6 Royalty Information. As prescribed in 27.202-5(a)(1), insert the following provision: Royalty...

  12. 76 FR 41075 - Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Royalty and Distribution Reform Act of 2004 was signed into law creating the Copyright Royalty Judges, Public Law 108-419, 118 Stat. 2341. The Act replaced the royalty panels with three Copyright Royalty... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 251 [Docket No. 2011-5] Copyright Arbitration...

  13. The Impact of Alternative Payment in Chronically Ill and Older Patients in the Patient-centered Medical Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Salzberg, Claudia; Bitton, Asaf; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Franz, Cal; Shaykevich, Shimon; Newmark, Lisa P; Kwatra, Japneet; Bates, David W

    2017-05-01

    Patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has gained prominence as a promising model to encourage improved primary care delivery. There is a paucity of studies that evaluate the impact of payment models in the PCMH. We sought to examine whether coupling coordinated, team-based care transformation plan with a novel reimbursement model affects outcomes related to expenditures and utilization. Interrupted time-series model with a difference-in-differences approach to assess differences between intervention and control groups, across time periods attributable to PCMH transformation and/or payment change. Although results were modest and mixed overall, PCMH with payment reform is associated with a reduction of $1.04 (P=0.0347) per member per month (PMPM) in pharmacy expenditures. Patients with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and coronary atherosclerosis enrolled in PCMH without payment reform experienced reductions in emergency department visits of 2.16 (Ppayment reform. Patients 65 and older enrolled in PMCH without payment reform experienced reductions in pharmacy expenditures $2.35 (P=0.0077) PMPM with a parallel reduction in pharmacy standardized cost of $2.81 (P=0.0174) PMPM indicative of a reduction in the intensity of drug utilization. We conclude that PCMH implementation coupled with an innovative payment arrangement generated mixed results with modest improvements with respect to pharmacy expenditures, but no overall financial improvement. However, we did see improvement within specific groups, especially older patients and those with chronic conditions.

  14. Aligning incentives in the management of inguinal hernia: the impact of the payment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Karthik; Rogers, Loni; Smith, Paul; Schwaitzberg, Steven D

    2012-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act has stimulated discussion to find feasible, alternate payment models. Adopting a global payment (GP) mechanism may dampen the high number of procedures incentivized by the fee-for-service (FFS) system. The evolving payment mechanism should reflect collaboration between surgeon and system goals. Our aim was to model and perform simulation of a GP system for hernia care and its impact on cost, revenue, and physician reimbursement in an integrated health care system. The results of the 2006 Watchful Waiting (WW) vs Repair of Inguinal Hernia in Minimally Symptomatic Men trial was used as a clinical model for the natural history and progression of inguinal hernia disease Simulations were built using 2009 financial and clinical data from the Cambridge Health Alliance to model costs and revenues in managing care for a 4-year cohort of inguinal hernia patients; FFS, FFS-WW, and the GP-WW were modeled. To build this GP model, surgeons were paid a constant $500 per patient whether herniorrhaphy was performed or not. Compared with the actual combined physician and hospital revenue under the current FFS model ($308,820), implementing the FFS-WW system for 4 years for 139 hernia patients decreased hospital and physician revenues by $93,846 and $19,308, respectively. This resulted in a total savings of $113,154 for the payors only. In contrast, when using WW methodology within a GP model, system savings of $69,174 were observed after 4 years, with preservation of physician and hospital income. Collaboration to achieve shared savings can be accomplished by pooling physician and hospital revenue in order to meet the goals of all parties. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of payment system change from per-case to per-diem on high severity patient's length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-In; Nam, Chung Mo; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Sohee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    A new payment system, the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system, and Korean diagnosis procedure combination (KDPC, per-diem) payment system were officially introduced in 2002 and in 2012, respectively. We evaluated the impact of payment system change from per-case to per-diem on high severity patient's length of stay (LOS).Claim data was used. A total of 36,240 case admissions and 72,480 control admissions were included in the analysis. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series between cases and controls was conducted. Hospitals that consistently participated in the DRG payment system and changed to the KDPC payment system were defined as case hospitals. Hospitals that consistently participated in the DRG payment system were defined as control hospitals.LOS increased by 0.025 days per month (P = 0.0055) for 3 surgical diagnosis-related admissions due to the bundled payment system change. LOS among emergency admissions also increased and showed an increasing tendency under the KDPC. The LOS increase was observed specifically for complex procedure admissions and high severity cases (CCI 0, 1: 0.022, P = 0.0142; CCI 2, 3: 0.026, P = 0.0288; CCI ≥ 4: 0.055, P = 0.0003).Although both payment systems are optimized to decrease LOS, incentives to reduce LOS are stronger under the DRG system than under the KDPC system. It is worth noting that too strong incentive for reducing LOS is suitable to high severity cases.

  16. Geological uncertainties in the estimates of royalties; As incertezas geologicas na previsao de receitas de 'royalties'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Otavio; Chaves, Hernani A. Fernandes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia. Geologia do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Carvao; Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro de Informacoes de Petroleo e Gas Natural (CIPEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the economic analysis of oil basins, several variables are involved, such as: reserves, exploration risk, technology, production, price, among others. In the present we will focus on the variables reserves, production and prices. The geologic uncertainties in the analysis of petroleum basins start with the quantification of the reserves, which present diverse classifications and varied concepts. Within the geologic uncertainties, the production is one of the variables which influence the payment of royalties, due to the fluctuations that occur in the production cycle during the useful life of a producing field. To arrive at the production phase, the production chain indicates exploration, evaluation and development, stages which must be overcome so the final objective can be reached, which is the extraction of oil. The peculiar characteristics of the industry and the production chain, composed of several phases, besides the political and financial risk inherent to the petroleum activity, mean that high investments are necessary in order to maintain increasing production to meet the consumption requirements. First the reserves, then the development, exploration and, finally, the production are evaluated. The price is one of the components in the calculation of oil royalties, being influenced by diverse internal and external factors, which will be shown during the course of this work. (author)

  17. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  18. Perceived impact of the Medicare policy to adjust payment for health care-associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace M.; Hartmann, Christine W.; Graham, Denise; Kassler, William; Linn, Maya Dutta; Krein, Sarah; Saint, Sanjay; Goldmann, Donald A.; Fridkin, Scott; Horan, Teresa; Jernigan, John; Jha, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) ceased additional payment for hospitalizations resulting in complications deemed preventable, including several health care-associated infections. We sought to understand the impact of the CMS payment policy on infection prevention efforts. Methods A national survey of infection preventionists from a random sample of US hospitals was conducted in December 2010. Results Eighty-one percent reported increased attention to HAIs targeted by the CMS policy, whereas one-third reported spending less time on nontargeted HAIs. Only 15% reported increased funding for infection control as a result of the CMS policy, whereas most reported stable (77%) funding. Respondents reported faster removal of urinary (71%) and central venous (50%) catheters as a result of the CMS policy, whereas routine urine and blood cultures on admission occurred infrequently (27% and 13%, respectively). Resource shifting (ie, less time spent on nontargeted HAIs) occurred more commonly in large hospitals (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.0–5.1; P = .038) but less often in hospitals where front-line staff were receptive to changes in clinical processes (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.8; P = .005). Conclusion Infection preventionists reported greater hospital attention to preventing targeted HAIs as a result of the CMS nonpayment policy. Whether the increased focus and greater engagement in HAI prevention practices has led to better patient outcomes is unclear. PMID:22541855

  19. Royalty Rate Structure in Case of Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2011-01-01

    The present article contains an analysis of differences between licensing and franchising. It is demonstrated that models of royalty rate calculation developed for licensing should not be applied to franchising as benefits received by licensee and franchisee are different. It is proposed to include in the model of royalty calculation the risk reduction generated by franchisor¡¯s effective technologies and managerial support that are given to franchisee. It is demonstrated that franchisee may ...

  20. The Impact of Financial and Economic Crisis on EU-27 Member States’ Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Moagăr-Poladian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present article is to analyze the impact of 2008 financial and economic crisis on the evolution of balance of payment of EU-27 member states. Specifically, the analyzed period is between the years 2006-2011. The article is structured in the following parts: (1 the analysis of the evolution of the current account and capital account balance in the EU27 with non-EU states, (2 the identification of the main factors of disparities and asymmetries between the Euro area member states concerning current account balance and international investment position; (3 the role of TARGET2 system in financing of current account deficits of the peripheral countries of Euro area, and capital flight from these states to other Euro area countries perceived as less risky by investors.

  1. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, D.

    2002-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  2. Annuity payments can increase patient access to innovative cell and gene therapies under England's net budget impact test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jesper; Kefalas, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cell and gene therapies have the potential to provide therapeutic breakthroughs, but the high costs of researching, developing, manufacturing and delivering them translate into prices that may challenge healthcare budgets. Various measures exist that aim to address the affordability challenge, including reducing price, limiting patient numbers and/or linking remuneration to product performance. Objective: To explore how the net budget impact test recently introduced in England can affect patient access to high-value, one-off cell and gene therapies, and how managed entry agreements can improve access. Methods: We use a hypothetical example where a new high-value, one-off therapy launches in an indication where it displaces a relatively low cost chronic treatment. We calculate the number of patients that can be treated without exceeding the £20 million net budget impact threshold, and compare results for scenarios where a full upfront payment is used, and where annuity-based payments are used. Results : Charging a full upfront payment at the time of treatment can lead to suboptimal patient access. Conclusion: Annuity-based payments in combination with an outcomes-based remuneration scheme reduce consequences of decision uncertainty and can increase patient access, without exceeding the net budget impact test.

  3. Reference Pricing with Endogenous or Exogenous Payment Limits: Impacts on Insurer and Consumer Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T; Robinson, James C

    2016-06-01

    Reference pricing (RP) theories predict different outcomes when reference prices are fixed (exogenous) versus being a function of market prices (MPs) (endogenous). Exogenous RP results in MPs at both high-price and low-price firms converging towards the reference price from above and below, respectively. Endogenous RP results in MPs at both high-price and low-price firms decreasing, with low-price firms acting strategically to decrease the reference price in order to gain market share. We extend these models to a hospital context focusing on insurer and consumer payments. Under exogenous RP, insurer and consumer payments to low-price hospitals increase, and insurer payments to high-price hospitals decrease, but predictions regarding consumer payments are ambiguous for high-price hospitals. Under endogenous RP, insurer payments to high-price and low-price hospitals decrease, and consumer payments to low-price hospitals decrease, but predictions regarding consumer payments are ambiguous for high-price hospitals. We test these predictions with difference-in-differences specifications using 2008-2013 data on patients undergoing joint replacement. For 2 years following RP implementation, insurer payments to high-price and low-price hospitals moved downward, consistent with endogenous RP. However, when the reference price was not reset to account for changes in MPs, insurer payments to low-price hospitals reverted to pre-implementation levels, consistent with exogenous RP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 26 CFR 1.61-8 - Rents and royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... royalties. Royalties may be received from books, stories, plays, copyrights, trademarks, formulas, patents... to the lessor in a particular case depends upon the intention of the parties, which may be indicated...

  5. 75 FR 20526 - Section 111 and Interest Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... required to be paid on any royalty underpayment or late payment from a particular accounting period if the... particular accounting period if the interest charge is less than or equal to five dollars.'' after ``then the accrual period shall end on the date of the actual receipt by the Copyright Office.'' Dated: April 14...

  6. Taxing Canada’s Cash Cow: Tax and Royalty Burdens on Oil and Gas Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses in depth the impact of both corporate taxes and royalties on the decision to invest in the oil and gas sector for British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador and in comparison to Texas. Similar to Chen and Mintz (2009, we estimate the marginal effective tax rate on capital for the oil and gas sector, comparable to other sectors in the economy. In our assessment, we include federal and provincial corporate income taxes, sales taxes on capital purchases and other capital-related taxes in our assessment such as severance taxes and royalties. Except for oil and gas investments in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador offshore developments, oil and gas investments bear a higher tax burden compared to other industries in Canada. In other words, oil and gas investments are generally not “subsidized” but bear a higher level of taxes and royalties on investment compared to other industries.

  7. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  8. Royalty Fees Part I: The Copyright Clearance Center and Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiblum, Paula; Ardito, Stephanie C.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of copyrights, royalty fees, and intellectual property focuses on the Copyright Clearance Center and publishers. Topics include results of a survey of library and information science journal publishers; how users verify royalty fees; how publishers determine fees; royalty fee reporting; and terms and conditions imposed on electronic…

  9. 48 CFR 970.5227-7 - Royalty information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... item of royalty or license fee: (1) Name and address of licensor; (2) Date of license agreement; (3... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Royalty information. 970... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5227-7 Royalty information. Insert the following provision...

  10. 30 CFR 202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 202.100 Section 202.100 Mineral... Federal and Indian Oil § 202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production from leases subject...) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or used on, or for the benefit of, the lease, including that oil...

  11. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    that impact payers’ choice of payment instruments. Design/methodology/approach: Through in-depth interviews using the repertory grid technique, the authors explored 15 payers’ perceptions of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and online banking....... The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology...... or checks. Research limitations/implications: The findings suggest that payers view payment instruments in a much broader sense, including context, control, or cultural beliefs. Consequently, the authors suggest that researchers try to understand the essence of an innovation before assuming any economic...

  12. 73 Impact of Exchange Rate on Balance of Payment in Nigeria (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... exchange rate to the economic well-being of every country that opens its doors to ... anchor for price stability. Changes in ... payment) of Nigeria economy. ..... policy inadequacies) as well as the social and political instability. In.

  13. 25 CFR 214.10 - Royalty rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and allied substances, the lessee shall pay quarterly a royalty of 10 cents per ton of 2,000 pounds on crude material, and 60 cents per ton on refined substances. (d) For substances other than gold, silver... in the selling price per ton thereof over and above the following, which shall be the agreed base or...

  14. 30 CFR 281.29 - Royalty valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty valuation. 281.29 Section 281.29 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.29...

  15. 30 CFR 281.31 - Overriding royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overriding royalties. 281.31 Section 281.31 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.31...

  16. 77 FR 58175 - Resale Royalty Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... special instructions. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Okai, Counsel, Office of Policy and... copyright policy justification for enacting resale royalty right or droit de suite legislation in the United... and Montenegro, Tunisia, Turkey, Uruguay and Venezuela.\\8\\ \\6\\ See id. at 8; see also The Artist's...

  17. Impact of a community-based payment for environmental services intervention on forest use in Menabe, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Matthew; Milner-Gulland, E J; Rahajaharison, Michael; Jones, Julia P G

    2010-12-01

    Despite the growing interest in conservation approaches that include payments for environmental services (PES), few evaluations of the influence of such interventions on behaviors of individuals have been conducted. We used self-reported changes in six legal and illegal forest-use behaviors to investigate the way in which a PES for biodiversity conservation intervention in Menabe, Madagascar, influenced behavior. Individuals (n =864) from eight intervention communities and five control communities answered questions on their forest-use behaviors before and after the intervention began, as well as on their reasons for changing and their attitudes to various institutions. The payments had little impact on individuals' reported decisions to change behaviors, but it had a strong impact on individuals' attitudes. Payments appeared to legitimize monitoring of behaviors by the implementing nongovernmental organization (NGO), but did not act as a behavioral driver in their own right. Although there were no clear differences between changes in behaviors in the intervention and control communities, the intervention did influence motivations for change. Fear of local forest associations and the implementing NGO were strong motivators for changing behavior in communities with the PES intervention, whereas fear of the national government was the main reason given for change in control communities. Behavioral changes were most stable where fear of local organizations motivated the change. Our results highlight the interactions between different incentives people face when making behavioral decisions and the importance of considering the full range of incentives when designing community-based PES interventions. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. A new methodology for royalties distribution of the Itaipu hydroelectric plant: The hydrographic basin as the unit of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Silva, Elias; Soares, Vicente Paulo; Menezes, Sady Júnior Martins da Costa de; de Almeida Telles, Lucas Arthur; Mota, Pedro Henrique Santos

    2018-07-01

    Over the past few years, many sectors such as energy generation, industry, domestic supply, and agriculture have encountered serious environmental problems due to the lack of rainfall. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current methodology of royalties distribution from Itaipu hydroelectric plant. In the proposed approach, two criteria were considered to establish the division of Itaipu royalties: (1) the relative percentage of the water flow in the generation of electricity and, (2) the relative percentage of the drop in the height of water. 62 hydroelectric plants were evaluated in this study. In 52 plants the water flow was the factor that most contributed to the generation of electricity. In 2013, 346 municipalities benefited the Itaipu royalties. With the proposed methodology, 1,327 municipalities will receive the resource, what would increase the revenue of each of these municipalities by, on average, US$ 87,436.91 per year. The methodology presented herein proposes a reduction in the environmental disparity that now exists in Brazil, through improvement to Government instruments and environmental policies. The distribution of royalties throughout the watershed can provide additional resources to support payment programs for environmental services at the state and municipality levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of New Payment Models on Quality of Diabetes Care and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Erin L; Gabbay, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Historic changes in healthcare reimbursement and payment models due to the Affordable Care Act in the United States have the potential to transform how providers care for chronic diseases such as diabetes. Payment experimentation has provided insights into how changing incentives for primary care providers can yield improvements in the triple aim: improving patient experience, improving the health of populations, and reducing costs of healthcare. Much of this has involved leveraging widespread adoption of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) with diabetes often the focus. While evidence is mounting that the PCMH can improve diabetes outcomes, some PCMH demonstrations have displayed mixed results. One of the first large-scale PCMH demonstrations developed around diabetes was conducted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Different payment models were employed across a series of staggered regional rollouts that provided a case study for the influence of innovative payment models. These learning laboratories provide insights into the role of reimbursement models and changes in how practice transformation is implemented. Ultimately, evolving payment systems focused on the total cost of care, such as Accountable Care Organizations, hold promise to transform diabetes care and produce significant cost savings through the prevention of complications.

  20. [Impact of DRG payment on the length of stay and the number of outpatient visits after discharge for caesarean section during 2004-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Changwoo; Chung, Seolhee; Yi, Seonju; Kwon, Soonman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG)-based payment on the length of stay and the number of outpatient visits after discharge in for patients who had undergone caesarean section. This study used the health insurance data of the patients in health care facilities that were paid by the Fee-For-Service (FFS) in 2001-2004, but they participated in the DRG payment system in 2005-2007. In order to examine the net effects of DRG payment, the difference-in-differences (DID) method was adopted to observe the difference in health care utilization before and after the participation in the DRG payment system. The dependent variables of the regression model were the length of stay and number of outpatient visits after discharge, and the explanatory variables included the characteristics of the patients and the health care facilities. The length of stay in DRG-paid health care facilities was greater than that in the FFS-paid ones. Yet, DRG payment has no statistically significant effect on the number of outpatient visits after discharge. The results of this study that DRG payment was not effective in reducing the length of stay can be related to the nature of voluntary participation in the DRG system. Only those health care facilities that are already efficient in terms of the length of stay or that can benefit from the DRG payment may decide to participate in the program.

  1. Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage

  2. The Enforcement of the Payment of Lobolo and its Impact On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various communities in South Africa practise the custom of lobolo (payment in kind or cash by a prospective husband or the head of his family to the head of the prospective wife's family in consideration of a customary marriage). These communities may be divided into two groups, those practicing theleka (the withholding of ...

  3. Medicare physician payment systems: impact of 2011 schedule on interventional pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Caraway, David L; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    Physicians in the United States have been affected by significant changes in the patterns of medical practice evolving over the last several decades. The recently passed affordable health care law, termed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (the ACA, for short) affects physicians more than any other law. Physician services are an integral part of health care. Physicians are paid in the United States for their personal services. This payment also includes the overhead expenses for maintaining an office and providing services. The payment system is highly variable in the private insurance market; however, governmental systems have a formula-based payment, mostly based on the Medicare payment system. Physician services are billed under Part B. Since the inception of the Medicare program in 1965, several methods have been used to determine the amounts paid to physicians for each covered service. Initially, the payment systems compensated physicians on the basis of their charges. In 1975, just over 10 years after the inception of the Medicare program, payments changed so as not to exceed the increase in the Medical Economic Index (MEI). Nevertheless, the policy failed to curb increases in costs, leading to the determination of a yearly change in fees by legislation from 1984 to 1991. In 1992, the fee schedule essentially replaced the prior payment system that was based on the physician's charges, which also failed to live up to expectations for operational success. Then, in 1998, the sustainable growth rate (SGR) system was introduced. In 2009, multiple attempts were made by Congress to repeal the formula - rather unsuccessfully. Consequently, the SGR formula continues to hamper physician payments. The mechanism of the SGR includes 3 components that are incorporated into a statutory formula: expenditure targets, growth rate period, and annual adjustments of payment rates for physician services. Further, the relative value of a physician fee schedule

  4. Payment for Care, Impact on the Economic Situation of the Pensioner in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Charlotte; Willumsen, Marie; Hansen, Hans

    .e. disposable income after net housing costs. Two alternative ways of calculating gross housing costs are included, one is 20 percent of former earnings, another is 20 percent of gross pension income. In two of the countries, Denmark and Germany, there is no direct payment for care provided by professionals......’ of the pensioner for each of the two housing cost alternatives is calculated at selected income levels and the ‘impact profiles’ are compared for the four countries with pay schemes for care for the elderly....

  5. Double-sided Moral Hazard and Margin-based Royalty

    OpenAIRE

    NARIU, Tatsuhiko; UEDA, Kaoru; LEE, DongJoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes royalty modes in the franchise arrangements of convenience stores under double-sided moral hazard. In Japan, the majority of franchisors charge margin-based royalties based on net margins rather than sales-based royalties based on sales. We show that the franchisor can attain the first-best outcome by adopting margin-based royalties under double-sided moral hazard. We consider a case where a franchisee sells two kinds of goods; one is shipped from its franchisor and the ot...

  6. License Auctions with Royalty Contracts for (Winners and) Losers

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfstetter, Elmar; Giebe, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the licensing of a non–drastic process innovation by an outside innovator to a Cournot oligopoly. We propose a new mechanism that combines a restrictive license auction with royalty licensing. This mechanism is more profitable than standard license auctions, auctioning royalty contracts, fixed–fee licensing, pure royalty licensing, and two-part tariffs. The key features are that royalty contracts are auctioned and that losers of the auction are granted the option to si...

  7. Tax neutrality and the Saskatchewan Uranium Royalty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.F.; Wrean, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the Saskatchewan Uranium Royalty (SUR) on the extraction plans of uranium mining companies operating in Saskatchewan are discussed. The SUR consists of a basic royalty on the value of production and a graduated rate of return tax. Companies are also subject to federal and provincial income taxes. A model, based on the Key Lake mine in Australia, is used to determine whether the tax regime operating in Saskatchewan has the property of neutrality and effects the optimal extraction rate. Results show that SUR is a relatively low-cost means of collecting an economic rent from uranium mining and results in a lower extraction rate contributing to environmental protection in the province. (U.K.)

  8. The impact of the Directive on Payment Services in the Internal Market on Danish and Belgium Legislation on Fraudulent Payment Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation of liabi......In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation...... and Belgian legislation. More specifically, we will examine how the rules incorporated in the European Directive, which is based on the principle of maximum harmonization, are implemented in Belgium and Denmark, whether the implementations are in accordance with the Directive and finally, whether...... the Directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promotes the creation of a common internal market for payment services...

  9. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Impact of a function-based payment model on the financial performance of acute inpatient medical rehabilitation providers: a simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J P; DeJong, G; Song, H; Wilkerson, D

    1997-12-01

    To operationalize research findings about a medical rehabilitation classification and payment model by building a prototype of a prospective payment system, and to determine whether this prototype model promotes payment equity. This latter objective is accomplished by identifying whether any facility or payment model characteristics are systematically associated with financial performance. This study was conducted in two phases. In Phase 1 the components of a diagnosis-related group (DRG)-like payment system, including a base rate, function-related group (FRG) weights, and adjusters, were identified and estimated using hospital cost functions. Phase 2 consisted of a simulation analysis in which each facility's financial performance was modeled, based on its 1990-1991 case mix. A multivariate regression equation was conducted to assess the extent to which characteristics of 42 rehabilitation facilities contribute toward determining financial performance under the present Medicare payment system as well as under the hypothetical model developed. Phase 1 (model development) included 61 rehabilitation hospitals. Approximately 59% were rehabilitation units within a general hospital and 48% were teaching facilities. The number of rehabilitation beds averaged 52. Phase 2 of the stimulation analysis included 42 rehabilitation facilities, subscribers to UDS in 1990-1991. Of these, 69% were rehabilitation units and 52% were teaching facilities. The number of rehabilitation beds averaged 48. Financial performance, as measured by the ratio of reimbursement to average costs. Case-mix index is the primary determinant of financial performance under the present Medicare payment system. None of the facility characteristics included in this analysis were associated with financial performance under the hypothetical FRG payment model. The most notable impact of an FRG-based payment model would be to create a stronger link between resource intensity and level of reimbursement

  11. Optimal Licensing Strategy: Royalty or Fixed Fee?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Fosfuri; Esther Roca

    2004-01-01

    Licensing a cost-reducing innovation through a royalty has been shown to be superior to licensing by means of a fixed fee for an incumbent licensor. This note shows that this result relies crucially on the assumption that the incumbent licensor can sell its cost-reducing inno-vation to all industry players. If, for any reason, only some competitors could be reached through a licensing contract, then a fixed fee might be optimally chosen.

  12. The royalties application on President Kennedy city, Espirito Santo, Brazil; A aplicacao dos royalties em Presidente Kennedy, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaak, Fabricio Jose Bassetto; Cardia, Tarik Hajab [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to assemble a study of implementation of royalty in the municipality of President Kennedy - the state of Espirito Santo, showing the disparity between the collection of royalties on oil and quality of infrastructure that the city offers. Based on data the prefecture of the municipality, PNUD and competent bodies, we will show how the money is being used comes from royalties on oil, and what policies the city council's adopting this to apply this feature. (author)

  13. Endogenous royalty factor in a licensing contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buratto Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The owner of a well known fashion brand grants a manufacturer the rights to produce and sell a second-line brand against a percentage of the sales called royalty. To this end, the brand owner and the manufacturer sign a licensing contract which assigns the owner, who has already determined his advertising campaign, the right of determining the royalty factor. The manufacturer will plan her advertising campaign for the licenced product in order to maximize her profit. The brand owner’s objective is twofold: on the one hand, he wants to maximize the profit coming from the contract, on the other hand, he wants to improve the value of the brand at the end of a given planning period. We model this interaction between the two agents using a Stackelberg game, where the brand owner is the leader and the manufacturer is the follower. We characterise the royalty percentage and the licensee’s advertising effort which constitute the unique Stackelberg equilibrium of the game.

  14. Impact of changes in Medicare payments on the financial condition of nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments.

  15. Balance of Payments of East Asian Countries: Impact of the Coordinated Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the equilibrium state of balance of payments of East Asian countries by means of the monetary policy instruments. For this purpose the author determines the value of the equilibrium exchange rate of AMU (Asian Monetary Unit against the U.S. dollar. The equilibrium exchange rate is the one that smoothes values of net merchandise exports and net capital exports. The author employs panel data regression analysis (using statistics of trade and capital (foreign direct investment flows between East Asian countries and the United States to obtain quantitative estimation of trade and investment effects of the coordinated monetary policy. The paper shows that transition of East Asian region (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Thailand to the single currency (AMU will have a negative effect on the balance of payments of the studied countries: this will increase the mismatch between commodity and capital flows

  16. THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE PAYMENT OF LOBOLO AND ITS IMPACT ON CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nqobizwe M Ngema

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various communities in South Africa practise the custom of lobolo (payment in kind or cash by a prospective husband or the head of his family to the head of the prospective wife’s family in consideration of a customary marriage. These communities may be divided into two groups, those practicing theleka (the withholding of a wife by her father or guardian from her husband to coerce him to pay the outstanding lobolo and those that do not. In the communities practising theleka the amount of lobolo is not fixed and the father or guardian of the wife may from time to time theleka the wife and demand one to three head of cattle from his son-in-law. The wife and her children, if there are any, may be held by their maternal grandfather until the payment of lobolo has been met. The main issue this article examines is whether the custom of theleka impacts on the custody of children or not. It also examines the concept of the best interests of the child and finds that theleka custom in its current form does impact on the custody of the child and conflicts with the child’s best interests. The article suggests that theleka custom needs to be developed to conform to the Constitution. It also examines whether or not the custom of theleka constitutes abduction and family violence. The writer submits that it does not constitute abduction and family violence and advocates that theleka custom be allowed to continue.

  17. Tax effort and oil royalties in the Brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Slaibe Postali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates a stochastic production frontier, to investigate whether municipalities covered by oil royalties in the last decade have reduced their tax effort in Brazil. The issue is relevant to the prospect of a substantial increase in these revenues and the new rules for distribution of the funds, established by Law No. 12.734/2012. The inputs were provided by personnel and capital expenditures, whereas the product was defined as the municipal tax collection. With the purpose of overcoming the endogeneity problems due to reverse causality of output on inputs, we used the lagged independent variable as instruments in the inefficiency equation. The data set is composed of a panel of Brazilian municipalities from 2002 to 2011. The results indicate that oil revenues have a negative impact on the estimated efficiencies, signaling reduced fiscal effort by the benefiting municipalities.

  18. Petroleum royalties: influence in the municipalities of Espirito Santo, Brazil; Royalties do petroleo: influencia nos municipios capixabas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Carolino, Jaqueline; Zanete, Roberta Rasseli

    2008-07-01

    The article has for objective to demonstrate the positive and negative impacts of the exploration of petroleum in the Municipal districts, giving emphasis to the destination of the resources obtained by the referred royalties in those federal entities. It is known that the economical activities linked directly to the industry of the petroleum are temporary. The announcement of the perspective of current economical activities of the implantation of that industry creates the expectation of generation of offer of abundant labor. The phenomenon raises migratory demographic pressure uncontrollable on the production areas and neighbors. The migration generates overloads of public services and lack of community equipment, already insufficient to assist to the existent demands. Besides, it happens environmental degradation and the consequent reduction of the tourist activities in the municipal districts that stand out for their natural beauties. The Municipal districts assume an obligation the new, urgent and unexpected investments, stopping destining resources to the productive diversification for warranty of the future generations. (author)

  19. 10 CFR 626.7 - Royalty transfer and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Royalty transfer and exchange. 626.7 Section 626.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC... pursuant to an agreement between DOE and DOI for the transfer of royalty oil. (b) Acquisition strategy. (1...

  20. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, N.T.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  1. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  2. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart failure,...

  3. Retail payments and the real economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and the real economy. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995-2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates the overall economy, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macroeconomic impact. Retail payme...

  4. 10 CFR 780.53 - Criteria for decisions for royalties, awards and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Criteria for decisions for royalties, awards and compensation. (a) In deciding a reasonable royalty fee for... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for decisions for royalties, awards and... Application for Royalties and Awards Under Section 157 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Compensation Under...

  5. 76 FR 56483 - Distribution of 2010 DART Sound Recordings Fund Royalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... responses to the motion to ascertain whether any claimant entitled to receive such royalty fees has a... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2011-6 CRB DD 2010] Distribution of 2010 DART Sound Recordings Fund Royalties AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION...

  6. 77 FR 47120 - Distribution of 2011 DART Sound Recordings Fund Royalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... the motion to ascertain whether any claimant entitled to receive such royalty fees has a reasonable... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2012-3 CRB DD 2011] Distribution of 2011 DART Sound Recordings Fund Royalties AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION...

  7. 37 CFR 256.2 - Royalty fee for compulsory license for secondary transmission by cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for compulsory... ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR CABLE COMPULSORY LICENSE § 256.2 Royalty fee for compulsory license for... receipts be reduced to less than $10,400. The royalty fee payable under this paragraph shall be 0.5 of 1...

  8. The Impact of Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment on Provision of Hospital Uncompensated Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between hospital uncompensated care (UC) and reductions in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments resulting from the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Data on California hospitals from 1996 to 2003 were examined using two-stage least squares with a first-differencing model to control for potential feedback effects. Our findings suggest that not-for-profit hospitals did reduce UC provision in response to reductions in Medicaid DSH, but the response was inelastic in value. Policy makers need to continue to monitor how UC changes as sources of support for indigent care change with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). PMID:23230705

  9. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  10. The Impact of Trade Balance in the Current Account of Kosovo’s Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Merovci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The trade deficit and specifically the current account deficit are the main challenges that Kosovo‘s economy is facing. According to the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOP, the trade balance of goods is the largest component, expressed in absolute and relative terms and consequently it determines the behavior of the current account balance. Trade deficit to GDP ratio is very high - more than 50 percent. Regarding this, financing the constant deficit of the current account is becoming a real problem, because in the long run it is impossible for a country to spend more than its income without becoming a debtor to the rest of the world. Given the unchanged structure of the current account of the Balance of Payments, we conclude that, an improvement of the trade balance is a precondition to the improvement of the current account balance. This can be done through longterm and sustainable substitution of imports with domestic production and also with effective export promotion. Increasing foreign direct investment and export promotion can be considered, in the longer term, the main way to improve Kosovo's Trade Balance.

  11. Analysis of the distributional impact of out-of-pocket health payments: evidence from a public health insurance program for the poor in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Rocio; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Sosa-Rub, Sandra G

    2011-07-01

    Many governments have health programs focused on improving health among the poor and these have an impact on out-of-pocket health payments made by individuals. Therefore, one of the objectives of these programs is to reach the poorest and reduce their out-of-pocket expenditure. In this paper we propose the distributional poverty impact approach to measure the poverty impact of out-of-pocket health payments of different health financing policies. This approach is comparable to the impoverishment methodology proposed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer (2003) that compares poverty indices before and after out-of-pocket health payments. In order to escape the specification of a particular poverty index, we use the marginal dominance approach that uses non-intersecting curves and can rank poverty reducing health financing policies. We present an empirical application of the out-of-pocket health payments for an innovative social financing policy implemented in Mexico named Seguro Popular. The paper finds evidence that Seguro Popular program has a better distributional poverty impact when families face illness when compared to other poverty reducing policies. The empirical dominance approach uses data from Mexico in 2006 and considers international poverty standards of $2 per person per day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of introducing patient co-payments in Germany on the use of IVF and ICSI : a price-elasticity of demand assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, M. P.; Griesinger, G.; Ledger, W.; Postma, M. J.

    BACKGROUND: Authorities concerned by rising healthcare costs have a tendency to target reproductive treatments because of the perception that infertility is a low priority. In 2004 German health authorities introduced a 50% co-payment for patients, in an effort to save cost. We explored the impact

  13. The impact of introducing patient co-payments in Germany on the use of IVF and ICSI : a price-elasticity of demand assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, M. P.; Griesinger, G.; Ledger, W.; Postma, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Authorities concerned by rising healthcare costs have a tendency to target reproductive treatments because of the perception that infertility is a low priority. In 2004 German health authorities introduced a 50% co-payment for patients, in an effort to save cost. We explored the impact

  14. The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, C.

    1986-01-01

    What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

  15. Royalty financing for the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, F. M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Key concepts in royalty financing for the oil and gas industry are described. The basic significance of royalty financing for a public company is that financing is 'off balance sheet', and can be used to achieve objectives that neither debt, equity, nor outright sale of assets or farm-outs can accomplish. Royalty financing can provide increased available capital or debt reduction while maintaining the full gross share of reserve and production volumes on the books. This paper provides an overview of the field of royalty financing, with an appreciation of the benefits, reviews each of the financial alternatives (debt, equity, farmout and or sale of assets to reduce capital requirements), and provides examples of specific application of royalty financing. It is claimed that this type of financing, which has been available to the mining sector for some time, is a useful alternative to other financing instruments to acquire new oil and gas assets, to develop new areas, to implement enhanced recovery projects or to carry out mergers and acquisitions. Used judiciously, royalty financing can provide significant benefits to both the working interest owner and his shareholders, as well as the royalty company

  16. The Impact of Alternative Payment Models on Oncology Innovation and Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy M; Omenn, Gilbert S; Kean, Marcia A

    2016-05-15

    Oncology care is in a time of major transformation. Scientific discovery is driving breakthroughs in prevention, diagnostics, and treatment, resulting in tremendous gains for patients as the number of cancer survivors continues to grow on an annual basis. At the same time, there is mounting pressure across the healthcare system to contain costs while improving the quality of cancer care. In response to this pressure, private and government payers are increasingly turning to tools such as alternative payment models (APM) and clinical pathways to improve the efficiency of care, inform coverage decisions, and support shared decision-making. As APMs, clinical pathways and other tools are utilized more broadly, it will be critical that these models support the evidence-based use of innovative biomedical advances, including personalized medicine, and deliver patient-centered, high-value care. Clin Cancer Res; 22(10); 2335-41. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The impacts of DRG-based payments on health care provider behaviors under a universal coverage system: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shou-Hsia; Chen, Chi-Chen; Tsai, Shu-Ling

    2012-10-01

    To examine the impacts of diagnosis-related group (DRG) payments on health care provider's behavior under a universal coverage system in Taiwan. This study employed a population-based natural experiment study design. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, which were incorporated in the Taiwan version of DRG payments in 2010, were defined as the intervention group. The comparison group consisted of patients who underwent cardiovascular procedures which were paid for by fee-for-services schemes and were selected by propensity score matching from patients treated by the same group of surgeons. The generalized estimating equations model and difference-in-difference analysis was used in this study. The introduction of DRG payment resulted in a 10% decrease (pDRG-based payment resulted in reduced intensity of care and shortened length of stay. The findings might be valuable to other countries that are developing or reforming their payment system under a universal coverage system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of introducing patient co-payments in Germany on the use of IVF and ICSI: a price-elasticity of demand assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, M P; Griesinger, G; Ledger, W; Postma, M J

    2009-11-01

    Authorities concerned by rising healthcare costs have a tendency to target reproductive treatments because of the perception that infertility is a low priority. In 2004 German health authorities introduced a 50% co-payment for patients, in an effort to save cost. We explored the impact of this pricing policy on the utilization of reproductive treatments in Germany. Using aggregated annual in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle data in Germany, we evaluated the relationship between changes in the number of cycles in relation to changes in costs faced by consumers following the introduction of a patient co-payment from 'no fees' to 1500-2000 euros by estimating the short-run price-elasticity of demand. The impact of introducing patient co-payments for IVF/ICSI on the likelihood of switching to other low-cost fertility treatments was evaluated using the cross-price elasticity methodology. RESULTS The reduction in demand for IVF and ICSI cycles in the year following the introduction of patient co-payments resulted in elasticities of -0.41 and -0.34, respectively. The price-elasticity for the combined reduction of IVF/ICSI in relation to the co-payment was estimated to be -0.36. The cross-price elasticity for clomifene was close to zero (-0.01) suggesting that demand for these interventions are independent of each other and no substitution occurred. We report price elasticities for IVF and ICSI of -0.41 and -0.34 after introducing a 500-2000 euros co-payment. These findings likely represent short-run elasticities that are likely to vary over time as factors that influence the supply and demand for fertility treatments change.

  19. Transfer of single farm payment entitlements to farm successors: impact on structural change and rental prices in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mack

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of tradable and non-tradable single farm payment (SFP entitlements for farm successors on structural change and the lease market. Using the example of Swiss agriculture, the effects on rental-price trends and farm-exit rates are investigated. An ex-ante normative impact analysis is performed with the agent-based agricultural-sector model SWISSland, which simulates structural change processes and income trends in Swiss agriculture over a period of up to 15 years. A land market implemented at municipality level simulates the plot-by-plot leasing of land to surrounding neighbouring agents that is common in Switzerland. Allocation of plots to tenants as well as lease pricing is modelled taking into account the farm-specific land rents. The results show that personalised SFP entitlements which could not be transferred to a farm successor not only cause an intensification of structural change, but would also thus lead to a substantial reduction in rental prices. SFP entitlements which were successfully transferred to farm successors have only a slight impact on structural change and the rental prices of arable land. Only for grassland in the mountain region does a stronger shift result in a significant reduction in rental prices.

  20. Economic Impact of Net Carbon Payments and Bioenergy Production in Fertilized and Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prativa Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequestering carbon in forest stands and using woody bioenergy are two potential ways to utilize forests in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Such forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by carbon and bioenergy markets. This study investigates the impact of both carbon and woody bioenergy markets on land expectation value (LEV and rotation age of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests in the southeastern United States for two scenarios—one with thinning and no fertilization and the other with thinning and fertilization. Economic analysis was conducted using a modified Hartman model. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted during various activities such as management of stands, harvesting, and product decay was included in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with a range of carbon offset, wood for bioenergy, and forest product prices. The results showed that LEV increased in both management scenarios as the price of carbon and wood for bioenergy increased. However, the results indicated that the management scenario without fertilizer was optimal at low carbon prices and the management scenario with fertilizer was optimal at higher carbon prices for medium and low forest product prices. Carbon payments had a greater impact on LEV than prices for wood utilized for bioenergy. Also, increase in the carbon price increased the optimal rotation age, whereas, wood prices for bioenergy had little impact. The management scenario without fertilizer was found to have longer optimal rotation ages.

  1. The impact of changes in the milk payment system and season on the hygienic quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat PAŠIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to investigate the impact of changes in the milk payment system and the season on the hygienic quality of raw milk. The bulk cow’s milk samples were collected throughout the whole area of Bosnia and Herzegovina over the period of four years (2010-2013, from farms that deliver milk to the dairy industry. The total bacterial count (TBC was analysed in 52,999 milk samples and the somatic cell count (SCC in 53,363 milk samples. The results of the research showed that the proportion of bulk milk with the SCC < 300,000 mL-1 significantly increased in the observed period, as well as the proportion of farms that produce milk of EU quality (P < 0.05. The season had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the SCC; in April the proportion of bulk milk with SCC < 300,000 mL-1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05. A significant increase (P < 0.05 in the proportion of milk with the TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL -1 was perceived, as well as the proportion of farms which deliver that type of milk (P < 0.05. A Significant lower (P < 0.05 proportion of milk in the summer period with TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL-1 was determined. It can be concluded that consistent appliance of regulations which determine the quality of milk, leads to the improvement of the hygienic quality of redeemed milk, as illustrated by the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This kind of milk payment system is important for both, the higher economic benefit of farms and the dairy processing industry.

  2. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment platforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  3. Alberta’s New Royalty Regime is a Step Towards Competitiveness: A 2016 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Crisan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alberta’s new royalty regime has made the province a more rewarding place for anyone looking to invest in conventional non-renewable resources. After Alberta’s NDP government commissioned a review of the royalty regime to ensure the province was receiving its “fair share,” it ended up determining that revenue-neutral changes were warranted to the royalty system for conventional oil, with oilsands largely left untouched. However, the few changes that were made have had a substantial impact on incentives for new investment. Those changes have, in fact, only made it more lucrative for investors in Alberta’s conventional oil and gas. This paper focuses on oil and the fiscal regime (it does not consider other regulatory and carbon policies that affect competitiveness. The changes for conventional oil are significant enough that the new regime entirely overcomes the competitive disadvantages for non-oil sands producers created by the NDP government’s increase in provincial corporate income taxes last year. Under the current regime, Alberta conventional oil bears a marginal effective tax and royalty rate (METRR of 35.0 per cent (the METRR is relevant for new investment decisions. The changes have sharply reduced that to 26.7 per cent. This year, when compared against its peers in the U.S., Europe and Australia, Alberta has one of the highest METRRs for conventional oil. When the new royalty regime takes fully effect in 2017, it will have one of the lowest, bested only by Australia, the United Kingdom, Pennsylvania and, in Canada, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador. Most notably, Alberta is more competitive now than its immediate neighbours, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, for conventional oil investment. It is also less distorting across different types of wells, which is an important quality in a well-designed royalty system. Alberta continues to implement a system of price-sensitive royalty rates with the government’s take

  4. A critique of the Saskatchewan uranium royalty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Saskatchewan uranium royalty system has been in operation since 1976. The objectives of the system are: 1) to ensure a minimum return to the province from extraction of uranium; 2) to capture a fair share of the 'excess' profits; 3) to provide the producers with an adequate rate of return on investment; and 4) to leave marginal production decisions unaffected. The last three objectives are intended to capture pure profits or economic rents without distorting uranium developments. Taxation as an instrument for effecting such an objective is referred to as neutral taxation. This paper evaluates the Saskatchewan system first in the light of neutral taxation, and second in light of the objective of ensuring a minimum return to the province

  5. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinski, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada). Energy and Minerals Div.

    2002-07-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs.

  6. Our fair share : report of the Alberta Royalty Review Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, W.M.; Chrapko, E.; Dwarkin, J.; McKenzie, K.; Plourde, A.; Spanglet, S.

    2007-01-01

    This final report conducted by the Alberta Royalty Review Panel determined that Albertans are not currently receiving their fair share from energy developments within the province. Royalty rates have not kept pace with recent changes in resource development in the province or with changes in world energy markets. It was argued that since Albertans own their resources, the government of Alberta must alter the royalty and tax system in order to ensure that appropriate royalties are paid. An equitable and flexible administrative framework should be developed to maintain the province's competitive edge in the global energy market. It was recommended that total shares for Albertans from oil sands developments be increased from 47 per cent to 64 per cent; conventional oil shares should be increased from 44 per cent to 49 per cent; and shares for natural gas should be increased from 58 per cent to 63 per cent. Target rates were designed to close tax gaps between economic sectors. Simplified royalty frameworks were presented for natural gas and conventional oil categories, as well as for oil sands developments. Increases of $1.9 billion in provincial revenue are anticipated as a result of the increased royalties. 5 tabs., 31 figs

  7. Capacity payment impact on gas-fired generation investments under rising renewable feed-in — A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hach, Daniel; Spinler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We assess the effect of capacity payments on investments in gas-fired power plants in the presence of different degrees of renewable energy technology (RET) penetration. Low variable cost renewables increasingly make investments in gas-fired generation unprofitable. At the same time, growing feed-in from intermittent RETs amplifies fluctuations in power generation, thus entailing the need for flexible buffer capacity—currently mostly gas-fired power plants. A real options approach is applied to evaluate investment decisions and timing of a single investor in gas-fired power generation. We investigate the necessity and effectiveness of capacity payments. Our model incorporates multiple uncertainties and assesses the effect of capacity payments under different degrees of RET penetration. In a numerical study, we implement stochastic processes for peak-load electricity prices and natural gas prices. We find that capacity payments are an effective measure to promote new gas-fired generation projects. Especially in times of high renewable feed-in, capacity payments are required to incentivize peak-load investments. - Highlights: • We assess capacity payments under the specific focus of the influence of different degrees of renewable feed-in. • We use a real options approach to analyze investment decision and timing. • Our model reflects stochastic gas prices and stochastic electricity prices. • The case study shows the value of capacity payments to investors especially under high renewable feed-in.

  8. Payment Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantnerová Liběna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of payment cards in retail in the Czech Republic from the side of clients (buyers and the side of sellers. Questionnaires for clients examine satisfaction with cards and the service connected with them. Sellers’ satisfaction with the profit and function of cards is analyzed. The data indicated that 92% of the 352 respondents in South Bohemia had a payment card and more than 35% had more than one card. In retail, 70% of sellers had a payment terminal.

  9. Petróleo, Royalties e Pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicélia Mendes da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A exploração do petróleo se constitui num elemento significativo para a economia sergipana. A contradição existente entre o subsolo rico e a população pobre levanta indagações a respeito da gestão destes recursos e as condições de vida da população. Tais condições, aliadas à entrada de novos atores na exploração do petróleo em Sergipe e à gestão dos recursos advindos da exploração, vêm incutindo relações peculiares à política neoliberal na região e em Sergipe. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir da análise e cruzamento de informações disponíveis na Agência Nacional do Petróleo (ANP, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU e PETROBRAS, dentre outros setores. A carência de políticas sociais que ofereçam às populações condições de inserção nas questões política, econômica e social da região produtora de petróleo tem impedido o desenvolvimento efetivo e mudança no padrão de vida das populações, evidenciando a incoerência entre os altos valores depositados nos cofres públicos municipais decorrentes dos royalties e os elevados índices de pobreza apresentados na região. Tal constatação reforça a ideia de que as políticas públicas devem primar pela redução da desigualdade a partir da gestão responsável dos recursos públicos. Abstract OIL, ROYALTIES AND POVERTY The exploitation of oil has significant element for the Sergipe´s economy. However, the contradiction between the subsoils rich and poor people raises key questions about the management of these resources and the living conditions of the population. Such conditions, the entry of new actors in the scenery for the exploration of oil in Sergipe and the management of resources of exploration, instilling relations peculiar to neo-liberal policy in the region and in Sergipe. The study was developed from the analysis and crossing of information available in the national agency oil (ANP

  10. Urban politics and the oil and gas royalties; Politica urbana e os 'royalties' do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agata Ariana Correia da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present study aims to outline the connection between the new guidelines of urban politics established by the Statute of the City and the financial aspect of the relationship between local authorities and the Oil and Gas Industry, as well as to reflect upon the fact that the oil and gas royalties are not everlasting resources and the need of the local administrative units to maintain their functions after the decay of the local Oil and Gas Industry irrespectively of federal and state support. (author)

  11. Modeling the Potential Economic Impact of the Medicare Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Episode-Based Payment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniya, Omar Z; Mather, Richard C; Attarian, David E; Mistry, Bipin; Chopra, Aneesh; Strickland, Matt; Schulman, Kevin A

    2017-11-01

    The Medicare program has initiated Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR), a bundled payment mandate for lower extremity joint replacements. We sought to determine the degree to which hospitals will invest in care redesign in response to CJR, and to project its economic impacts. We defined 4 potential hospital management strategies to address CJR: no action, light care management, heavy care management, and heavy care management with contracting. For each of 798 hospitals included in CJR, we used hospital-specific volume, cost, and quality data to determine the hospital's economically dominant strategy. We aggregated data to assess the percentage of hospitals pursuing each strategy; savings to the health care system; and costs and percentages of CJR-derived revenues gained or lost for Medicare, hospitals, and postacute care facilities. In the model, 83.1% of hospitals (range 55.0%-100.0%) were expected to take no action in response to CJR, and 16.1% of hospitals (range 0.0%-45.0%) were expected to pursue heavy care management with contracting. Overall, CJR is projected to reduce health care expenditures by 0.5% (range 0.0%-4.1%) or $14 million (range $0-$119 million). Medicare is expected to save 2.2% (range 2.2%-2.2%), hospitals are projected to lose 3.7% (range 4.7% loss to 3.8% gain), and postacute care facilities are expected to lose 6.5% (range 0.0%-12.8%). Hospital administrative costs are projected to increase by $63 million (range $0-$148 million). CJR is projected to have a negligible impact on total health care expenditures for lower extremity joint replacements. Further research will be required to assess the actual care management strategies adopted by CJR hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of Alternative Implementations of the Single Farm Payment on Organi-cally and Conventionally Producing Farms in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the Common Agricultural Policy underwent a substantial reform. Direct pay-ments that were linked to the production of certain crops and livestock were abolished. Alternatively, the Single Farm Payment was introduced in EU-15 Member States. We investigate the distributional consequences of alternative implementation choices for organic farms in Austria. Results show that net-returns of farms and the distribution of farm revenues depend on the particular implementation of the reform.

  13. Impact of the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination-based Payment System on cardiovascular medicine-related costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Ide, Hiroo; Imamura, Tomoaki; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2005-09-01

    In 2003, a lump-sum payment system based on Diagnosis Procedure Combinations (DPC) was introduced to 82 specific function hospitals in Japan. While the US DRG/PPS system is a "per case payment" system, the DPC based payment system adopts a "per day payment." It is generally believed that the Japanese system provides as much of an incentive as the DRG/PPS system to shorten the average length of stay (LOS). We performed an empirical analysis of the effect of LOS shortening on hospital revenue and expenditure under the DPC-based payment system, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. We also point out fundamentally controversial aspects of the current system. A total 109 cases were selected from patients hospitalized at the University of Tokyo Hospital from May to July, 2003 and classified into one of three categories: (1) cardiac catheter interventions, (2) cardiac catheter examinations, and (3) other conservative treatments. We analyzed the changes in profit per day in cases of a reduction in average LOS and an increase in the number of cases. In category (1) profit increased significantly in conjunction with reduced LOS. In category (2) profit increased only minimally. In category (3), profit increased rarely and sometimes decreased. In cases of conservative treatment, profits sometimes decreased because an increase in material costs exceeded the increase in revenue. It therefore became clear that the DPC-based payment system does not decisively provide an economic incentive to reduce LOS in cardiovascular medicine.

  14. 78 FR 64984 - Distribution of the 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ..., pursuant to Chapter 8 of [title 17], conduct a proceeding to determine the distribution of royalty fees... evidentiary value of directly negotiated licenses in setting rates and terms for royalty fees and in... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2008-2 CRB CD 2000-2003 (Phase II...

  15. 30 CFR 202.353 - Measurement standards for reporting and paying royalties and direct use fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalties and direct use fees. 202.353 Section 202.353 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... standards for reporting and paying royalties and direct use fees. (a) For geothermal resources used to... a royalty or direct use fee is due on Form MMS-2014 in: (1) Millions of Btu to the nearest whole...

  16. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Regulations is amended as follows: PART 386--ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY... (b)(2)(iii) to read as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2011-10 CRB Satellite COLA...

  17. 30 CFR 203.3 - Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES General Provisions § 203.3 Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty relief? When you submit an application or ask for a preview assessment...

  18. 25 CFR 213.44 - Division of royalty to separate fee owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Division of royalty to separate fee owners. 213.44... Division of royalty to separate fee owners. Should the removal of restrictions affect only part of the acreage covered by a lease containing provisions to the effect that the royalties accruing under the lease...

  19. 75 FR 75624 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS 0 1. The authority citation for part 386... revising paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (b)(2)(ii) as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2010-10 CRB Satellite COLA...

  20. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... follows: PART 386--ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS 0 1. The.... Section 386.2 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1)(v) and (b)(2)(v) as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2013-8 CRB Satellite COLA...

  1. 77 FR 70373 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... ROYALTY FEES FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS 0 1. The authority citation for part 386... revising paragraphs (b)(1)(iv) and (b)(2)(iv) as follows: Sec. 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 [Docket No. 2012-8 CRB Satellite COLA...

  2. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 208.4... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.4 Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. (a... and defense. The Secretary will review these items and will determine whether eligible refiners have...

  3. 26 CFR 514.5 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.5 Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. (a) Exemption from tax. Royalties for the right to use copyrights, patents, designs, secret...

  4. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  5. 37 CFR 262.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for public... MAKING OF EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 262.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. (a) Basic royalty rate. Royalty rates and fees for eligible nonsubscription...

  6. Value of ecosystem hydropower service and its impact on the payment for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Wang, Y K; Xu, P; Yan, K; Li, M

    2014-02-15

    Hydropower is an important service provided by ecosystems. We surveyed all the hydropower plants in the Zagunao River Basin, Southwest China. Then, we assessed the hydropower service by using the InVEST (The Integrated Value and Tradeoff of Ecosystem Service Tools) model. Finally, we discussed the impact on ecological compensation. The results showed that: 1) hydropower service value of ecosystems in the Zagunao River Basin is 216.29 Euro/hm(2) on the average, of which the high-value area with more than 475.65 Euro/hm(2) is about 750.37 km(2), accounting for 16.12% of the whole watershed, but it provides 53.47% of the whole watershed service value; 2) ecosystem is an ecological reservoir with a great regulation capacity. Dams cannot completely replace the reservoir water conservation function of ecosystems, and has high economic and environmental costs that must be paid as well. Compensation for water conservation services should become an important basis for ecological compensation of hydropower development. 3) In the current PES cases, the standard of compensation is generally low. Cascade development makes the value of upstream ecosystem services become more prominent, reflecting the differential rent value, and the value of ecosystem services should be based on the distribution of differentiated ecological compensation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  8. Third-party online payment solutions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this paper is third-party online payment solutions in China and the main purpose of this paper is to figure out the research question: What are the impacts of third-party online payment solutions on China? Generally speaking, the third-party online payment solutions, including mobile payments, usually used by customer who purchase online and usually used in transaction platform. However, in China, people can use third-party payment solutions in different platfor...

  9. Selling the family silver : oil and gas royalties, corporate profits, and the disregarded public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, J.W.

    2006-11-01

    This broad study of the oil and gas industry focused on Saskatchewan in particular. It covered the history and geopolitics of the oil industry, rising prices and super profits. It described Canada's unique position as a wealthy country whose oil and gas industry is dominated by US companies. In response to public opinion about foreign control in this sector, Alberta and Saskatchewan governments raised royalties in the 1970s. The proceeds of the royalties were placed in Heritage Funds. Saskatchewan created Sask Oil and Sask Power, while the federal government created Petro-Canada. Recently, governments have undone these reforms and privatized publicly-owned energy companies, thereby re-establishing the era of foreign, private-sector domination. The outcome has been rapid depletion of non-renewable resources and increased greenhouse gas emissions. This study also addressed the issue of peak oil and gas, and the environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. It was cautioned that the increasing exploitation of unconventional replacements such as tar sands and coalbed methane, bears a heavy social, economic and environmental cost. Special attention was given to the integration of the oil and gas industry on a North American basis and the implications for future Canadian needs. The study revealed that royalties and taxes on the oil and gas industry in Canada are among the lowest in the world. As a result, the high profit from the extraction of these non-renewable resources is going almost exclusively to the owners of the oil corporations, most of whom do not even live in Canada. It was noted that peak production of conventional oil and natural gas has come to the Canadian prairies. Saskatchewan is facing a shortage of supply and will face much higher prices within a few years. It was argued that federal and provincial governments have failed to produce a viable energy plan. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Does €1 Per Prescription Make a Difference? Impact of a Capped Low-Intensity Pharmaceutical Co-Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Mora, Toni; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2018-06-01

    Increasing patient contributions and reducing the population exempt from pharmaceutical co-payment and co-insurance rates were one of the most common measures in the reforms adopted in Europe during 2010-2015. We estimated the association between the introduction of a capped co-payment of €1 per prescription and drug consumption of the publicly insured population of Catalonia (Spain). We used administrative data on monthly pharmaceutical consumption (defined daily doses [DDDs]) from January 2012 to December 2014, for a representative sample of 85,000 people. Our results showed that consumption increased in the 2 months previous to the introduction of the measure, and fell with the introduction of the 'Euro per prescription' co-payment. The average net response associated with the reform (including anticipation) was a reduction of 4.1 DDDs per person per month, representing a 6.4% reduction. The decrease in pharmaceutical consumption was larger for those individuals who had free medicines prior to the reform compared with those who already paid a co-insurance rate (9.7 vs. 1.4 DDDs per person per month). The largest reduction in DDDs per person occurred in the following groups: dermatologic drugs, antihypertensives, non-insulin antidiabetic drugs, insulin antidiabetic drugs, and laxatives. A uniform capped low co-payment may give rise to a major reduction in drug consumption to a much greater extent among those who previously had free prescriptions.

  11. The impact of satisfaction and payment equity on cross-buying : A dynamic model for a multi-service provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P C; Franses, P H; Hoekstra, J C

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, marketers have primarily focused on keeping customers. Only recently have they become aware that creating value by cross-selling additional services is also an important aspect of customer relationship management. In this article we investigate how satisfaction and payment

  12. 25 CFR 227.17 - Rates of rents and royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... same gravity, and gas, and/or natural gasoline, and/or all other hydrocarbon substances produced and... be required by the lessor. The lessee shall not be required to hold such royalty oil in storage...

  13. 77 FR 46526 - Distribution of 2010 Satellite Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue SE... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... Claimants'' are Program Suppliers, Joint Sports Claimants, Broadcaster Claimants Group, Music Claimants...

  14. 77 FR 46527 - Distribution of the 2010 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue SE... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... (represented by National Association of Broadcasters), Music Claimants (represented by American Society of...

  15. 78 FR 4169 - Distribution of 2011 Satellite Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue SE... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101..., Music Claimants (represented by American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, Broadcast Music...

  16. 75 FR 66798 - Distribution of the 2008 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... Association of Broadcasters), Music Claimants (represented by American Society of Composers, Authors and...

  17. 76 FR 55123 - Distribution of the 2009 Satellite Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101..., Joint Sports Claimants, Broadcaster Claimants Group, Music Claimants (American Society of Composers...

  18. 75 FR 66799 - Distribution of the 2008 Satellite Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101..., Joint Sports Claimants, Broadcaster Claimants Group, Music Claimants (American Society of Composers...

  19. 78 FR 4169 - Distribution of the 2011 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue SE... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... Claimants (represented by National Association of Broadcasters), Music Claimants (represented by American...

  20. 48 CFR 252.227-7008 - Computation of royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performing under a cost-reimbursement contract. With respect to such articles or materials made by the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of royalties... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text...

  1. 75 FR 16499 - Royalty Policy Committee (RPC) Notice of Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Minerals Management Service; Denver, Colorado 80225-0165; telephone number (303) 231-3392. Certification I... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Royalty Policy Committee (RPC) Notice of Renewal AGENCY: Minerals... Secretary of the Interior on the management of Federal and Indian mineral leases and revenues under the laws...

  2. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  3. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  4. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  5. Selling Albertans short : Alberta's royalty review panel fails the public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.

    2007-10-01

    This document commented on the release of Alberta's 2007 Royalty Review Panel regarding the province's royalty system for petroleum and oil sands development. It argued that the report does not fulfill the spirit of Alberta's royalty system, which is to expect nothing less than 100 per cent of the rent collection. This document provided an analysis of the set of recommendations made by the panel. It began with a general discussion of the problems in which the royalties review was structured and flaws in the base assumptions made by the panel. It also provided an analysis of the specific recommendations within the panel's report. Last, the report proposed a set of recommendations on how a royalties reform should proceed. The authors found specific recommendations Alberta's 2007 Royalty Review Panel report to be problematic. These included the 1 per cent royalty holiday on tar sands oil; higher net royalty rate; windfall profits tax; coal bed methane and cuts in royalties for low producing wells; and value added incentives. It was concluded that the panel's report was a compromise between the public interest and those of the oil and gas sector and that the panel's goal of ensuring that Alberta remained one of the lowest tax and royalty jurisdictions in the world was fundamentally flawed. 32 refs., 4 figs

  6. Industry Financial Relationships in Neurosurgery in 2015: Analysis of the Sunshine Act Open Payments Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lotbiniere-Bassett, Madeleine P; McDonald, Patrick J

    2018-03-23

    The 2013 Physician Payments Sunshine Act mandates that all U.S. drug and device manufacturers disclose payments to physicians. All payments are made available annually in the Open Payments Database (OPD). Our aim was to determine prevalence, magnitude, and nature of these payments to physicians performing neurologic surgery in 2015 and to discuss the role that financial conflicts of interest play in neurosurgery. All records of industry financial relationships with physicians identified by the neurological surgery taxonomy code in 2015 were accessed via the OPD. Data were analyzed in terms of type and amounts of payments, companies making payments, and comparison with previous studies. In 2015, 83,690 payments (totaling $99,048,607) were made to 7613 physicians by 330 companies. Of these, 0.01% were >$1 million, and 73.2% were <$100. The mean payment ($13,010) was substantially greater than the median ($114). Royalties and licensing accounted for the largest monetary value of payments (74.2%) but only 1.7% of the total number. Food and beverage payments were the most commonly reported transaction (75%) but accounted for only 2.5% of total reported monetary value. Neurologic surgery had the second highest average total payment per physician of any specialty. The neurological surgery specialty receives substantial annual payments from industry in the United States. The overall value is driven by a small number of payments of high monetary value. The OPD provides a unique opportunity for increased transparency in industry-physician relationships facilitating disclosure of financial conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of the Korean Diagnosis-Related Groups payment system on the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Min; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Won Shik; Koh, Yoon Woo; Kim, Se-Heon; Choi, Eun Chang

    2018-06-01

    To report outcomes with regard to clinical aspects and medical costs of adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy at a single institution before and after implementation of the Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) payment system in Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients treated with adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy between July 2012 and June 2014. The Korean DRG payment system was applied to seven groups of specific diseases and surgeries including adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy from July 2013 at all hospitals in Korea. We divided patients into four groups according whether the fee-for-service (FFS) or DRG payment system was implemented and operation type (FFS-adenotonsillectomy (AT), DRG-AT, FFS-tonsillectomy (T), and DRG-T). A total of 1402 patients were included (485 FFS-AT, 490 DRG-AT, 203 FFS-T, and 223 DRG-T). The total medical cost of the DRG-AT group was significantly lower than that of the FFS-AT group (1191±404 vs. 1110±279 USD, PDRG system for adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy reduced medical costs and clinical outcomes were not significantly altered by the adoption of the DRG system. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  9. Planning for maturity: Royalty changes for Alberta's conventional oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekelund, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the royalty regime in the Alberta petroleum industry. Current oil and natural gas policy reviews, royalty regime response to fluctuating prices and expectations, maturing of the oil basin, and the economic state of the industry are discussed. With low or negative returns, there is little incentive to invest in the industry. A reduction of royalty on existing pools would provide cash flow for new activity and would raise current return on equity and capital. The province of Alberta has reduced royalties on oil and gas discovered after 1973, with an expected value of reduction of $85 million of gross royalties for each. The net cost to the Crown will be $85 million for oil and ca 25% less for gas due to a drop in processing costs. The royalty collection system will also be simplified. These changes are expected to result in increased levels of oil well drilling and reactivation. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  11. Critique of the Saskatchewan Uranium Royalty in the light of neutral taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Uranium Royalty System, in operation since 1976, is the provincial government's prime policy vehicle towards the uranium industry. The enunciated objectives of the royalty system are (Sask., 1977): (a) to ensure a minimum return to the province from the extraction of uranium; (b) to capture a fair share of the ''excess'' profits; (c) to provide the producers with an adequate rate of return on investment; and (d) to leave marginal production decisions unaffected. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the royalty system in light of these objectives. This article evaluates neutral taxation and how it effects the Saskatchwan Royalty System

  12. Lifting the Hood on Alberta’s Royalty Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Shaffer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After some delay and significant trepidation in the energy sector, the Government of Alberta has released the panel report on the structure of a new royalty regime. While panel members, government officials and energy sector analysts understand the intricacies of the changes that have been made, there is need for an analysis that makes the changes understandable to Albertans. This report attempts to do that. At first glance it would seem that the report calls for very little change to Alberta’s royalty structure. The oil sands framework remains virtually unchanged. Existing crude oil and natural gas wells are grandfathered under the current system for 10 years. And the “modernized royalty framework” (MRF for new wells will initially provide the same industry returns and same government take as the current system would achieve. These similarities, however, fail to reflect important underlying changes that greatly improve the structure of Alberta’s royalty framework. Albertans will be pleased to learn that the new structure better represents the costs and revenues from oil and gas extraction. Why does this matter? Albertans, as owners of the resource, can lay claim to the resource rent: the revenue from the sale of oil and gas less all the costs to develop and produce it. By poorly reflecting costs, the old system led to distorted outcomes. It both discouraged investment in otherwise profitable projects, and overly encouraged bad ones. The new framework better targets the rent while reducing distortions and inefficient behaviour. This leads to greater value for resource owners and industry alike. The most important feature of the MRF is its new drilling and completion cost allowance (DCCA. The DCCA essentially creates a cost formula used for every well in the province. Rather than a plethora of drilling incentive programs, the MRF offers a low royalty rate until cumulative revenues equal the DCCA. In essence, the new framework aligns with

  13. Effect on maternal and child health services in Rwanda of payment to primary health-care providers for performance: an impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinga, Paulin; Gertler, Paul J; Binagwaho, Agnes; Soucat, Agnes L B; Sturdy, Jennifer; Vermeersch, Christel M J

    2011-04-23

    the greatest effect on those services that had the highest payment rates and needed the least effort from the service provider. P4P financial performance incentives can improve both the use and quality of maternal and child health services, and could be a useful intervention to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health. World Bank's Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program and Spanish Impact Evaluation Fund, the British Economic and Social Research Council, Government of Rwanda, and Global Development Network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Formulas for fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory royalty determination

    OpenAIRE

    Salant, David J

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes an axiomatic approach to determining “Fair, Reasonable, and Non-Discriminatory” (“FRAND”) royalties for intellectual property (“IP”) rights. Drawing on the extensive game theory literature on “surplus sharing/cost sharing” problems, I describe specific formulas for determining license fees that can be derived from basic fairness principles. In particular, I describe the Shapley Value, the Proportional Sharing Rule and the Nucleolus. The Proportional Sharing Rule has the ad...

  15. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  16. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  17. Atlantic petroleum royalties : fair deal or raw deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, G.C.; Crowley, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to address the controversy regarding the Newfoundland and Nova Scotia offshore royalty regimes and associated agreements. This study compared the regimes in Atlantic Canada with the best practices elsewhere and laid important groundwork for understanding the Atlantic offshore oil and gas industry. The main concern by the public is whether the distribution of returns from resource exploitation is fair. The report is divided into 6 sections which examine the nature of economic rent in the context of natural resources, and look at various instruments used to lay claim to it. A review of the resource rent royalty (RRR) instrument, dealing with a tax on net cash flow before outlining its approximation by the RRR was included along with a set of examples of such regimes in Australia, Canadian Frontier Lands, and the United Kingdom. An evaluation criteria was developed for the royalty regime and this criteria was applied to the current generic Nova Scotia and Newfoundland offshore petroleum tax regimes. It was concluded that there is room for improvement, but in general, the regimes stand up to rigorous experimentation and they provide a fair return to the provinces and citizens. The present regimes do not discourage further development of the industry. 17 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  18. An Investigation of Digital Payment Platform Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment...... platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters....... By hosting third-party services, payment instruments are evolving from single-purpose to multi-functional ones. Our research extends existing payment literature from the MSP perspective to emphasize certain digital payment platform components, which impact strategies and complementary products....

  19. Security Assessment of Payment Systems under PCI DSS Incompatibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bahtiyar , Şerif; Gür , Gürkan; Altay , Levent

    2014-01-01

    Part 9: Malicious Behavior and Fraud; International audience; With the ubiquitous proliferation of electronic payment systems, data and application security has become more critical for financial operations. The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) has been developed by the payment industry to provide a widely-applicable and definitive security compliance among all components in electronic payment infrastructure. However, the security impact of PCI DSS incompatibilities and ...

  20. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  1. 37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for secondary... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  2. 37 CFR 261.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for public... § 261.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. (a) For the period October 28, 1998, through December 31, 2002, royalty rates and fees for eligible digital...

  3. 37 CFR 383.3 - Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for public... SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES § 383.3 Royalty fees for public performances of sound recordings and the making of... regulations for all years 2007 and earlier. Such fee shall be recoupable and credited against royalties due in...

  4. 37 CFR 382.2 - Royalty fees for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the digital... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.2 Royalty fees for the... monthly royalty fee for the public performance of sound recordings pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 114(d)(2) and the...

  5. 37 CFR 380.3 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the public... EPHEMERAL REPRODUCTIONS § 380.3 Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and for ephemeral recordings. (a) Royalty rates and fees for eligible digital transmissions of sound recordings made...

  6. 37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for secondary... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  7. 37 CFR 260.2 - Royalty fees for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the digital... Licensee's monthly royalty fee for the public performance of sound recordings pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 114(d..., 2007, a Licensee's monthly royalty fee for the public performance of sound recordings pursuant to 17 U...

  8. 37 CFR 382.12 - Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fees for the public... Preexisting Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services § 382.12 Royalty fees for the public performance of sound recordings and the making of ephemeral recordings. (a) In general. The monthly royalty fee to be paid by a...

  9. A Model of Aggressive Tax Optimization with the Use of Royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kutera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Today, international capital flows play a leading role in shaping global economic relations and directly impact the budgets of many states. What is of major importance in this process are the differences and legal loopholes in tax systems of individual states, which allow profits to be taxed at the minimum percentage rate. Tax avoidance is particularly popular among corporations operating in global markets, which use various mechanisms for this purpose. The main aim of this article is to present a model of aggressive tax optimization based on the flow of royalties in supranational groups. Design/methodology/approach - The description of the model was preceded by a detailed analysis of transactions concluded between companies in connection with the current tax regulations effective in particular countries. The key tool was an analysis of case studies of tax optimization mechanisms used by the largest multinational corporations, mainly Google, Apple, Facebook and Microsoft. The main source of data consisted in the reports of OECD on this topic, the annual 10-K financial statements filed with the SEC by Google Inc. (Alphabet Inc. and detailed legal regulations on taxing international transactions. Findings - The popular mechanisms of tax avoidance include the skillful use of transfer pricing, fees for intangible services, royalty transfers, establishing offshore companies, the flow of loans and dividends. The most important of them are royalty transfers, which have been used by every company analyzed. The most effective model in this regard was established by Google. It is based on a network of subsidiaries registered mainly in Ireland and the Netherlands which apply preferential rules to tax such transactions. Research implications/limitations - The exact identification of tax avoidance mechanisms used in practice allows gaps in tax law to be identified and hence charts the directions of the necessary legislation changes. It also

  10. 48 CFR 252.227-7006 - License grant-running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License grant-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7006 License grant—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(a...—Running Royalty (AUG 1984) (a) The Contractor hereby grants to the Government, as represented by the...

  11. 30 CFR 227.101 - What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State? 227.101 Section 227.101 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 227.101 What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State? (a) If there are oil and gas...

  12. 26 CFR 513.4 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. 513.4 Section 513.4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.4 Patent and copyright royalties and film...

  13. Federal Oil Valuation: Efforts to Revise Regulations and an Analysis of Royalties in Kind

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... about $4.1 billion in royalties from oil and gas leases on federal lands. By law, the states in which these leases are located receive a share of the royalties, which are calculated as a percentage of the value of the oil or gas that is produced...

  14. Capturing Economic Rents From Resources Through Royalties and Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil price fluctuations, concerns over the division of resource revenues, and unconventional oil and gas developments are forcing governments to confront the same issue: how to design optimal royalty and corporate tax systems that bring in a publicly acceptable share of revenues without discouraging private investment. This paper surveys tax and royalty systems across six countries, as well as four US states and five Canadian provinces, offering concise analyses of their strengths and shortcomings to describe the best and simplest approaches to both. As in a public-private partnership, government owns the resources and allows private agents to maximize the rents resources generate. An optimal royalty system will thus be rent-based, ensuring that both owner and agent obtain maximally competitive returns so that each has incentives to continue the partnership. Such a system will also be simple, making compliance easy, manipulation difficult, and risks affordable. And it will be stable, instilling in the private sector the confidence needed to invest for the long term. As for corporate income taxes, they should be neutral across business activities, and applied at equal effective rates on economic income, to avoid distorting market forces through subsidies or needless complexity. A clean rent-based tax that allows all costs incurred by producers to be expensed or carried over, along with a corporate income tax system shorn of many of the preferences that negatively affect business activity, should be the way forward for any government looking to update their fiscal regimes for the 21st century.

  15. The impact of the prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities on therapy service provision: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Jacqueline S; Mor, Vincent; Intrator, Orna; Feng, Zhanlian; Angelelli, Joseph; Davis, Jullet A

    2003-12-01

    To examine skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) "make-or-buy" decisions with respect to rehabilitation therapy service provision in the 1990s, both before and after implementation of Medicare's Prospective Payment System (PPS) for SNFs. Longitudinal On-line Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data (1992-2001) on a sample of 10,241 freestanding urban SNFs. We estimated a longitudinal multinomial logistic regression model derived from transaction cost economic theory to predict the probability of the outcome in each of four service provision categories (all employed staff, all contract, mixed, and no services provided). Transaction frequency, uncertainty, and complexity result in greater control over therapy services through employment as opposed to outside contracting. For-profit status and chain affiliation were associated with greater control over therapy services. Following PPS, nursing homes acted to limit transaction costs by either exiting the rehabilitation market or exerting greater control over therapy services by managing rehabilitation services in-house. The financial incentives associated with changes in reimbursement methodology have implications that extend beyond the boundaries of the health care industry segment directly affected. Unintended quality and access consequences need to be carefully monitored by the Medicare program.

  16. Intellectual capital performance and cash-based incentive payments for executive directors: Impact of remuneration committee and corporate governance features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-L. W. Mitchell Van der Zahn

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We use a sample of 964 executive directors representing 354 Singapore publicly listed firms to examine linkage between firm performance and cash-based bonus payments. As a pooled OLS regression model may hide different models that characterize subsets of observations we use latent class analysis to further examine the data and to identify more specifically the influence of corporate governance features. Our latent class analysis results indicate that remuneration committees with members having their interests better aligned with shareholders (such as presence of a significant owner appear more likely to consider the incremental value of tying executive director compensation to intellectual capital performance. Remuneration committees with a lower risk of influence from managerial power were also found to be more likely to support a compensation linkage for executive directors to intellectual capital performance. The influence of the remuneration committee features is evident for both entrepreneurial and traditional firms. Overall, our findings are consistent with both the optimal-contract pricing and managerial power views of executive compensation setting.

  17. Urban politics and the oil and gas royalties; Politica urbana e os 'royalties' do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agata Ariana Correia da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present study aims to outline the connection between the new guidelines of urban politics established by the Statute of the City and the financial aspect of the relationship between local authorities and the Oil and Gas Industry, as well as to reflect upon the fact that the oil and gas royalties are not everlasting resources and the need of the local administrative units to maintain their functions after the decay of the local Oil and Gas Industry irrespectively of federal and state support. (author)

  18. Types and Distribution of Payments From Industry to Physicians in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringale, Kathryn R; Marshall, Deborah; Mackey, Tim K; Connor, Michael; Murphy, James D; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2017-05-02

    Given scrutiny over financial conflicts of interest in health care, it is important to understand the types and distribution of industry-related payments to physicians. To determine the types and distribution of industry-related payments to physicians in 2015 and the association of physician specialty and sex with receipt of payments from industry. Observational, retrospective, population-based study of licensed US physicians (per National Plan & Provider Enumeration System) linked to 2015 Open Payments reports of industry payments. A total of 933 295 allopathic and osteopathic physicians. Outcomes were compared across specialties (surgery, primary care, specialists, interventionalists) and between 620 166 male (66.4%) and 313 129 female (33.6%) physicians using regression models adjusting for geographic Medicare-spending region and sole proprietorship. Physician specialty and sex. Reported physician payment from industry (including nature, number, and value), categorized as general payments (including consulting fees and food and beverage), ownership interests (including stock options, partnership shares), royalty or license payments, and research payments. Associations between physician characteristics and reported receipt of payment. In 2015, 449 864 of 933 295 physicians (133 842 [29.8%] women), representing approximately 48% of all US physicians were reported to have received $2.4 billion in industry payments, including approximately $1.8 billion for general payments, $544 million for ownership interests, and $75 million for research payments. Compared with 47.7% of primary care physicians (205 830 of 431 819), 61.0% of surgeons (110 604 of 181 372) were reported as receiving general payments (absolute difference, 13.3%; 95% CI, 13.1-13.6; odds ratio [OR], 1.72; P sole proprietorship, men within each specialty had a higher odds of receiving general payments than did women: surgery, 62.5% vs 56.5% (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.26-1.31); primary

  19. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  20. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  1. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  2. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  3. Electronic payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mláka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis analysis issue of electronic payment systems. It discusses their use for payments on the internet and sending funds via e-mail. The first part is devoted to the theoretical definition and legislation of the issuance of electronic money and activities of electronic money institutions. The main part of the work clearly focuses on the use of e-wallets, which is an integral part of electronic payment systems. E-wallet of electronic payment system Moneybookers is considered as...

  4. Mining royalties and the implications of the Northern Territory Green Paper for the Australian mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaut, R.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Green Paper on Mining Royalty Policy for the Northern Territory is a significant landmark in the evolution of fiscal policy in relation to mining in Australia. However, as with mining on Aboriginal land, the Green Paper and the new Royalties Bill have not settled fiscal policy in relation to uranium mining. The Commonwealth still, although presumably temporarily, retains the power to set and to collect royalties on uranium mining. The coincidence that places the most valuable known uranium deposits on Aboriginal land further increases uncertainty about fiscal policy

  5. Auctioning payment entitlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Payment entitlements is a new commodity that arises from the new European common agricultural policy. The agricultural subsidies are decoupled from the actual production and replaced by the so-called payment entitlements. A payment entitlement has a farm specific value and may be freely traded. T...

  6. Payment Reform Pilot In Beijing Hospitals Reduced Expenditures And Out-Of-Pocket Payments Per Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Chan, Kit Yee; Poon, Adrienne N; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu; Yip, Winnie

    2015-10-01

    In 2009 China announced plans to reform provider payment methods at public hospitals by moving from fee-for-service (FFS) to prospective and aggregated payment methods that included the use of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to control health expenditures. In October 2011 health policy makers selected six Beijing hospitals to pioneer the first DRG payment system in China. We used hospital discharge data from the six pilot hospitals and eight other hospitals, which continued to use FFS and served as controls, from the period 2010-12 to evaluate the pilot's impact on cost containment through a difference-in-differences methods design. Our study found that DRG payment led to reductions of 6.2 percent and 10.5 percent, respectively, in health expenditures and out-of-pocket payments by patients per hospital admission. We did not find evidence of any increase in hospital readmission rates or cost shifting from cases eligible for DRG payment to ineligible cases. However, hospitals continued to use FFS payments for patients who were older and had more complications than other patients, which reduced the effectiveness of payment reform. Continuous evidence-based monitoring and evaluation linked with adequate management systems are necessary to enable China and other low- and middle-income countries to broadly implement DRGs and refine payment systems. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Medicaid prospective payment: Case-mix increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Samuel L.; Kronenfeld, Jennie J.

    1990-01-01

    South Carolina Medicaid implemented prospective payment by diagnosis-related group (DRG) for inpatient care. The rate of complications among newborns and deliveries doubled immediately. The case-mix index for newborns increased 66.6 percent, which increased the total Medicaid hospital expenditure 5.5 percent. Outlier payments increased total expenditure further. DRG distribution change among newborns has a large impact on spending because newborn complication DRGs have high weights. States adopting a DRG-based payment system for Medicaid should anticipate a greater increase in case mix than Medicare experienced. PMID:10113463

  8. The Impact of Out-of-Pocket Payments on Health Care Inequity: The Case of National Health Insurance in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weon-Young Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis of 2008 has led to the reinforcement of patient cost sharing in health care policy. This study aimed to explore the impact of direct out-of pocket payments (OOPs on health care utilization and the resulting financial burden across income groups under the South Korean National Health Insurance (NHI program with universal population coverage. We used the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES-IV and the Korean Household Income and Expenditure Survey (KHIES of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The Horizontal Inequity Index (HIwv and the average unit OOPs were used to measure income-related inequity in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of health care utilization, respectively. For financial burden, the incidence rates of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE were compared across income groups. For outpatient and hospital visits, there was neither pro-poor or pro-rich inequality. The average unit OOPs of the poorest quintile was approximately 75% and 60% of each counterpart in the richest quintile in the outpatient and inpatient services. For the CHE threshold of 40%, the incidence rates were 5.7%, 1.67%, 0.72%, 0.33% and 0.27% in quintiles I (the poorest quintile, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Substantial OOPs under the NHI are disadvantageous, particularly for the lowest income group in terms of health care quality and financial burden.

  9. Adapting Evaluations of Alternative Payment Models to a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Thomas W; Brown, Randall S

    2018-04-01

    To identify the most robust methods for evaluating alternative payment models (APMs) in the emerging health care delivery system environment. We assess the impact of widespread testing of alternative payment models on the ability to find credible comparison groups. We consider the applicability of factorial research designs for assessing the effects of these models. The widespread adoption of alternative payment models could effectively eliminate the possibility of comparing APM results with a "pure" control or comparison group unaffected by other interventions. In this new environment, factorial experiments have distinct advantages over the single-model experimental or quasi-experimental designs that have been the mainstay of recent tests of Medicare payment and delivery models. The best prospects for producing definitive evidence of the effects of payment incentives for APMs include fractional factorial experiments that systematically vary requirements and payment provisions within a payment model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Use of Payment Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Runnemark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of consumption value, this research-in-progress strives to provide a theoretical explanation of payment technology use by investigating the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of different consumption values associated with a certain payment technology and their choice...... to use the technology. We conducted the study in the context of Denmark, a Northern European country, with three well established payment technologies: cash, payment cards, and Internet banking. Following a focus group of identifying and defining four types of consumption values associated with each...... payment technology, a survey was then conducted by a national statistics agency in the country. Preliminary results have shown that different consumption values matter for the use of different payment technologies. The findings will potentially contribute to a better understanding of consumer payment...

  11. Canada, The Law of the Sea Treaty and International Payments: Where Will The Money Come From?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylie Spicer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Canada is a party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, having ratified it in 2003. This Convention requires parties to it to make payments in respect of oil production on their continental shelves beyond 200 miles, to an international organization which is then tasked with distributing such payments to selected States parties to the Convention, taking into account the interests of the least-developed countries.* Canada has a number of offshore licenses in the area of the continental shelf to which these payments will apply. The amount of the payments is based on the total production at the site. After 12 years of production, the Convention stipulates that the amount of the payment is seven percent of production, and remains at that percentage for the rest of the producing life at the site. It is anticipated that Canada may be the first state to be required to make these payments. The annual cost to Canada of this obligation will be in the millions of dollars. At present Canada has no framework in place to source these funds. There is a well-developed royalty regime in the offshore, but it does not contemplate this substantial requirement. This paper discusses how this requirement developed in international law, the role of Canada in its development, and how it has come to be that there is no contemplation of this requirement in the current framework of Canadian law. The paper also discusses potential solutions.

  12. Bundled payment fails to gain a foothold In California: the experience of the IHA bundled payment demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, M Susan; de Vries, David; Bozic, Kevin J; Hussey, Peter S

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether bundled payment could be an effective payment model for California, the Integrated Healthcare Association convened a group of stakeholders (health plans, hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, physician organizations, and vendors) to develop, through a consensus process, the methods and means of implementing bundled payment. In spite of a high level of enthusiasm and effort, the pilot did not succeed in its goal to implement bundled payment for orthopedic procedures across multiple payers and hospital-physician partners. An evaluation of the pilot documented a number of barriers, such as administrative burden, state regulatory uncertainty, and disagreements about bundle definition and assumption of risk. Ultimately, few contracts were signed, which resulted in insufficient volume to test hypotheses about the impact of bundled payment on quality and costs. Although bundled payment failed to gain a foothold in California, the evaluation provides lessons for future bundled payment initiatives. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Eco-Technology Licensing under Emission Tax: Royalty vs. Fixed-Fee

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Leul Kim; Sang-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the licensing strategies of eco-technology when an innovator provides pollution abatement goods to oligopolistic polluting firms that produce consumption goods and emit environmental pollutants. In the presence of emission tax, two types of licensing contracts, royalty and fixed-fee, are examined to analyze market equilibrium and to compare their welfare consequences. We show that an eco-innovator provides a non-exclusive license under a royalty contract while it might ...

  14. Vertical integration and the licensing of innovation with a fixed fee or a royalty

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarié, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse a situation where a patent holder is considered as an upstream firm that can license its innovation to some downstream companies that compete on a final market with differentiated products. Licensing contract may be based either on a royalty or a fixed fee. The patent holder can either be independant or vertically integrated with one of the downstream companies. We show that a licence based on a royalty works better with vertical integration, and that consequently, t...

  15. Analisis Perhitungan Royalty Fee Franchise Menurut Konsep Musyarakah: Studi pada Jarimatika Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    MR, Nurjannah; Wahid, Nazaruddin A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the calculation of royalty fee at a franchise of Jarimatika in Darussalam Banda Aceh from musyarakah perspective and analyze the strategy employed in solving the dispute. Data was gathered through an in-depth interview and documentation study. The results indicated that in general the calculation of royalty fee was based on profit sharing system, where the total revenue minus 15% operating expenses for the franchisor, and the rest is shared 40% for the franchisor an...

  16. Mining Royalties and Incentives for Security Operations: Evidence from India's Red Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eynde , Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Can tax regimes shape the incentives of governments to engage in or support counterinsurgency operations? India’s Maoist belt contains a large share of the country’s most valuable mineral deposits. Indian mining royalties benefit the States, but they are set by the central government. States are largely responsible for counter-insurgency operations within their territory. Therefore, the royalty regime could shape the incentive of states to support counter-insurgency efforts ien mining areas. ...

  17. Exploring the Industry-Dermatologist Financial Relationship: Insight From the Open Payment Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Wu, Paula; Leger, Marie

    2016-12-01

    Significant ties exist between clinicians and industry. Little is known about the characteristics of industry payments to dermatologists. To analyze the nature and extent of industry payments to dermatologists. This was a retrospective review using the publicly available Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Sunshine Act Open Payment database. Data were downloaded from the publically available CMS website under General Payment and Research Payment data sets. All payments to dermatologists from companies making products reimbursed by a government-run health program were reviewed. Mean, median, and range of payments made, including quantity and total sum of payments, per clinician. Total payments and number of transactions per category of payment, geographic region, and payment source were also assessed. A total of 8333 dermatologists received 208 613 payments totaling more than $34 million. The median total payment per dermatologist was $298 with an interquartile range of $99 to $844. The top 10% of dermatologists (n = 833) received more than $31.2 million, 90% of the total payments. The top 1% each (n = 83) received at least $93 622 and accounted for 44% of total payments. While 83% of payment entries were for food and beverage, they accounted for only 13% of total amount of payments. Speaker fees (31.7%), consulting fees (21.6%), and research payments (16.5%) comprised 69.8% of total payment amount. The top 15 companies were all pharmaceutical manufacturers and paid dermatologists $28.7 million, representing 81% of total disbursement. Dermatologists received substantial payments from the pharmaceutical industry. The nature and amount of payments varied widely. The impact of the data on patient care, physicians practice patterns, and patient perception of physicians is unclear.

  18. Impact of the federal contraceptive coverage guarantee on out-of-pocket payments for contraceptives: 2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonfield, Adam; Tapales, Athena; Jones, Rachel K; Finer, Lawrence B

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires most private health plans to cover contraceptive methods, services and counseling, without any out-of-pocket costs to patients; that requirement took effect for millions of Americans in January 2013. Data for this study come from a subset of the 1842 women aged 18-39 years who responded to all four waves of a national longitudinal survey. This analysis focuses on the 892 women who had private health insurance and who used a prescription contraceptive method during any of the four study periods. Women were asked about the amount they paid out of pocket in an average month for their method of choice. Between fall 2012 and spring 2014, the proportion of privately insured women paying zero dollars out of pocket for oral contraceptives increased substantially, from 15% to 67%. Similar changes occurred among privately insured women using injectable contraception, the vaginal ring and the intrauterine device. The implementation of the federal contraceptive coverage requirement appears to have had a notable impact on the out-of-pocket costs paid by privately insured women, and that impact has increased over time. This study measures the out-of-pocket costs for women with private insurance prior to the federal contraceptive coverage requirement and after it took effect; in doing so, it highlights areas of progress in eliminating these costs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Invoicing, Payments Info

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Vendors Invoicing, Payments Info Bidding Opportunities Code of Conduct regarding holiday gifts Business

  20. Informal payments for health care in transition economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that unofficial payments are deeply embedded in the markets for health care in transition countries. Numerous surveys indicate that these payments provide a significant but possibly distorting contribution to health care financing. Unofficial payments can be characterised into three groups: cost contributions, including supplies and salaries, misuse of market position and payments for additional services. There is evidence from across the region on the presence of payment in each category although it is often difficult to distinguish between payment types. Regulatory policy must address a number of issues. Imposing penalties may help to reduce some payments but if the system is simply unable to provide services, such sanctions will drive workers into the private sector. There appears to be some support for formalising payments in order to reduce unofficial charges although the impact must be monitored and the danger is that formal fees add to the burden of payment. Regulation might also attempt to increase the amount of competition, provide information on good performing facilities and develop the legal basis of patient rights. Ultimately, unless governments address the endemic nature of payments across all sectors, policy interventions are unlikely to be fully effective.

  1. Industry Financial Relationships in Plastic Surgery: Analysis of the Sunshine Act Open Payments Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Albert H; Gangopadhyay, Noopur

    2016-08-01

    Limited data exist regarding industry financial relationships in plastic surgery. The Sunshine Act Open Payments Database currently represents the largest repository of these data, but is limited primarily to queries of individual providers. The purpose of this study was to analyze these data and present them in a manner that better delineates these relationships, and to compare plastic surgery with other surgical subspecialties. A review of the Open Payments Database was performed for the period from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. These data were analyzed with respect to types of payments, characteristics of plastic surgeons and companies, and comparison with other surgical subspecialties. A total of 49,053 payments from 274 companies were identified that were made to 4812 plastic surgeons (475 academic and 4337 private practice). The total value of payments was $17,091,077. Food and beverage represented the most common type of payment (82.2 percent). Royalties and licensing represented the highest valued type of payment (35.7 percent), but were received by only a minority of plastic surgeons (0.5 percent). No significant differences were identified between academic and private practice plastic surgeons in the value or quantity of payments. Plastic surgery (54.5 percent) exhibited the lowest prevalence of industry financial relationships compared with otolaryngology (57.9 percent), orthopedics (62.4 percent), neurosurgery (87.8 percent), and urology (63.1 percent) (p < 0.001). Approximately half of all plastic surgeons have industry financial relationships. The prevalence of these relationships is comparatively less than in other surgical subspecialties.

  2. PAYMENT INNOVATIONS IN POLAND: THE ROLE OF PAYMENT SERVICES IN THE STRATEGIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Polasik, Michał; Piotrowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of innovations in the area of payment services for strategies implemented by commercial banks in Poland. We propose a definition of payment innovations and present the evolution of their introduction in the Polish market, indicating the impact of legal regulations and the critical character of the new FinTech phenomenon. The analysis that we conducted was based on the results of a survey which obtained responses from 24 commercial banks representing almost...

  3. Towards A Framework of Digital Payment Platform Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment...... platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters....... By hosting third-party services, payment instruments are evolving from single-purpose to multi-functional ones. Our research extends existing payment literature from the MSP perspective to emphasize certain digital payment platform components, which impact strategies and complementary products....

  4. Payments to the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management the Lab Make payments for event registrations, sponsorships, insurance, travel, other fees. Contact Treasury Team (505) 667-4090 Email If you need to make a payment to the Lab for an event registration

  5. Effect of medicare payment on rural health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith J

    2002-01-01

    Medicare payments constitute a significant share of patient-generated revenues for rural providers, more so than for urban providers. Therefore, Medicare payment policies influence the behavior of rural providers and determine their financial viability. Health services researchers need to contribute to the understanding of the implications of changes in fee-for-service payment policy, prospects for change because of the payment to Medicare+Choice risk plans, and implications for rural providers inherent in any restructuring of the Medicare program. This article outlines the basic policy choices, implications for rural providers and Medicare beneficiaries, impacts of existing research, and suggestions for further research. Topics for further research include implications of the Critical Access Hospital program, understanding how changes in payment to rural hospitals affect patient care, developing improved formulas for paying rural hospitals, determining the payment-to-cost ratio for physicians, measuring the impact of changes in the payment methodology used to pay for services delivered by rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers, accounting for the reasons for differences in historical Medicare expenditures across rural counties and between rural and urban counties, explicating all reasons for Medicare+Choice plans withdrawing from some rural areas and entering others, measuring the rural impact of proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program, and measuring the impact of Medicare payment policies on rural economies.

  6. 30 CFR 206.356 - How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty or fees due on... Resources § 206.356 How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use for direct use... revised fees schedules using the following formulas: ER02MY07.004 Where: RV = Royalty due as a function of...

  7. 30 CFR 206.360 - What records must I keep to support my calculations of royalty or fees under this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculations of royalty or fees under this subpart? 206.360 Section 206.360 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Resources § 206.360 What records must I keep to support my calculations of royalty or fees under this subpart? If you determine royalties or direct use fees for your geothermal resource under this subpart...

  8. 30 CFR 203.60 - Who may apply for royalty relief on a case-by-case basis in deep water in the Gulf of Mexico or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-case basis in deep water in the Gulf of Mexico or offshore of Alaska? 203.60 Section 203.60 Mineral... basis in deep water in the Gulf of Mexico or offshore of Alaska? You may apply for royalty relief under... REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and...

  9. Impacts of a new insurance benefit with capitated provider payment on healthcare utilization, expenditure and quality of medication prescribing in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Zou; Wagner, Anita K.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Hogerzeil, Hans V.

    ObjectivesTo assess a new Chinese insurance benefit with capitated provider payment for common diseases in outpatients. MethodsLongitudinal health insurance claims data, health administrative data and primary care facility data were used to assess trajectories in outpatient visits, inpatient

  10. 30 CFR 204.5 - What statutory requirements must I meet to obtain royalty prepayment or accounting and auditing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain royalty prepayment or accounting and auditing relief? 204.5 Section 204.5 Mineral Resources... prepayment or accounting and auditing relief? (a) MMS and the State may allow royalty prepayment or accounting and auditing relief for your marginal property production if MMS and the State jointly determine...

  11. 77 FR 44618 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Prospective Payment System for Federal Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    .... impact of this notice include a notice is an net increase in estimated $140 payments to IRF million in providers. Overall, increased payments no IRFs are to IRFs during FY estimated to 2013. experience a net... (that is, in a budget neutral manner) by applying a budget neutrality factor to the standard payment...

  12. Impact of the healthcare payment system on patient access to oral anticancer drugs: an illustration from the French and United States contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral anticancer drugs (OADs) allow treating a growing range of cancers. Despite their convenience, their acceptance by healthcare professionals and patients may be affected by medical, economical and organizational factors. The way the healthcare payment system (HPS) reimburses OADs or finances hospital activities may impact patients’ access to such drugs. We discuss how the HPS in France and USA may generate disincentives to the use of OADs in certain circumstances. Discussion French public and private hospitals are financed by National Health Insurance (NHI) according to the nature and volume of medical services provided annually. Patients receiving intravenous anticancer drugs (IADs) in a hospital setting generate services, while those receiving OADs shift a part of service provision from the hospital to the community. In 2013, two million outpatient IADs sessions were performed, representing a cost of €815 million to the NHI, but positive contribution margin of €86 million to hospitals. Substitution of IADs by OADs mechanically induces a shortfall in hospital income related to hospitalizations. Such economic constraints may partially contribute to making physicians reluctant to prescribe OADs. In the US healthcare system, coverage for OADs is less favorable than coverage for injectable anticancer drugs. In 2006, a Cancer Drug Coverage Parity Act was adopted by several states in order to provide patients with better coverage for OADs. Nonetheless, the complexity of reimbursement systems and multiple reimbursement channels from private insurance represent real economic barriers which may prevent patients with low income being treated with OADs. From an organizational perspective, in both countries the use of OADs generates additional activities related to physician consultations, therapeutic education and healthcare coordination between hospitals and community settings, which are not considered in the funding of hospitals activities so far

  13. The Innovative Capabilities Of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a model for studying the innovative capabilities of digital payment platforms in regards to open innovation integration and commercialization. We perceive digital platforms as layered modular IT artifacts, where platform governance and the configuration of platform layers impact...... the support for open innovation. The proposed model has been employed in a comparative case study between two digital payment platforms: Apple Pay and Google Wallet. The findings suggest that digital payment platforms make use of boundary resources to be highly integrative or integratable, which supports...... the intended conjoint commercialization efforts. Furthermore, the architectural design of digital platforms impacts the access to commercialization, resulting to an exclusion or inclusion strategy in accessing value opportunities. Our findings contribute to the open innovation and digital platform literature...

  14. The Future of the Mobile Payment as Electronic Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Bezovski, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Internet and the arrival of e-commerce fostered digitalization in the payment processes by providing a variety of electronic payment options including payment cards (credit and debit), digital and mobile wallets, electronic cash, contactless payment methods etc. Mobile payment services with their increasing popularity are presently under the phase of transition, heading towards a promising future of tentative possibilities along with the innovation in technology. In thi...

  15. Protocol of the impact of alternative social assistance disbursement on drug-related harm (TASA) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate changes to payment timing and frequency among people who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lindsey; Laing, Allison; Milloy, M-J; Maynard, Russ; Nosyk, Bohdan; Marshall, Brandon; Grafstein, Eric; Daly, Patricia; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-07-29

    Government social assistance payments seek to alleviate poverty and address survival needs, but their monthly disbursement may cue increases in illicit drug use. This cue may be magnified when assistance is disbursed simultaneously across the population. Synchronized payments have been linked to escalations in drug use and unintended but severe drug-related harms, including overdose, as well as spikes in demand for health, social, financial and police services. The TASA study examines whether changing payment timing and frequency can mitigate drug-related harm associated with synchronized social assistance disbursement. The study is a parallel arm multi-group randomized controlled trial in which 273 participants are randomly allocated for six assistance cycles to a control or one of two intervention arms on a 1:1:1 basis. Intervention arm participants receive their payments: (1) monthly; or (2) semi-monthly, in each case on days that are not during the week when cheques are normally issued. The study partners with a community-based credit union that has developed a system to vary social assistance payment timing. The primary outcome is a 40 % increase in drug use during the 3 days beginning with cheque issue day compared to other days of the month. Bi-weekly follow-up interviews collect participant information on this and secondary outcomes of interest, including drug-related harm (e.g. non-fatal overdose), exposure to violence and health service utilization. Self-reported data will be supplemented with participant information from health, financial, police and government administrative databases. A longitudinal, nested, qualitative parallel process evaluation explores participant experiences, and a cost-effectiveness evaluation of different disbursement scenarios will be undertaken. Outcomes will be compared between control and intervention arms to identify the impacts of alternative disbursement schedules on drug-related harm resulting from synchronized income

  16. Protocol of the impact of alternative social assistance disbursement on drug-related harm (TASA study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate changes to payment timing and frequency among people who use illicit drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Richardson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Government social assistance payments seek to alleviate poverty and address survival needs, but their monthly disbursement may cue increases in illicit drug use. This cue may be magnified when assistance is disbursed simultaneously across the population. Synchronized payments have been linked to escalations in drug use and unintended but severe drug-related harms, including overdose, as well as spikes in demand for health, social, financial and police services. Methods/design The TASA study examines whether changing payment timing and frequency can mitigate drug-related harm associated with synchronized social assistance disbursement. The study is a parallel arm multi-group randomized controlled trial in which 273 participants are randomly allocated for six assistance cycles to a control or one of two intervention arms on a 1:1:1 basis. Intervention arm participants receive their payments: (1 monthly; or (2 semi-monthly, in each case on days that are not during the week when cheques are normally issued. The study partners with a community-based credit union that has developed a system to vary social assistance payment timing. The primary outcome is a 40 % increase in drug use during the 3 days beginning with cheque issue day compared to other days of the month. Bi-weekly follow-up interviews collect participant information on this and secondary outcomes of interest, including drug-related harm (e.g. non-fatal overdose, exposure to violence and health service utilization. Self-reported data will be supplemented with participant information from health, financial, police and government administrative databases. A longitudinal, nested, qualitative parallel process evaluation explores participant experiences, and a cost-effectiveness evaluation of different disbursement scenarios will be undertaken. Outcomes will be compared between control and intervention arms to identify the impacts of alternative disbursement schedules on

  17. ANALISIS PERHITUNGAN ROYALTY FEE FRANCHISE MENURUT KONSEP MUSYARAKAH: STUDI PADA JARIMATIKA DARUSSALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjannah MR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the calculation of royalty fee at a franchise of Jarimatika in Darussalam Banda Aceh from musyarakah perspective and analyze the strategy employed in solving the dispute. Data was gathered through an in-depth interview and documentation study. The results indicated that in general the calculation of royalty fee was based on profit sharing system, where the total revenue minus 15% operating expenses for the franchisor, and the rest is shared 40% for the franchisor and 60% for the franchisee. Although the system seems normal, the determination 15% of operating cost, however, created a problem for the franchisee as the total income received was not cover the regular operational costs. Consequently, the franchisee unable to fulfill its obligation of paying the royalty fees on time. To solve this problem, the franchisor provide an extension for the franchisee to pay the royalty fee. However, during the grace period, the franchisee was not allowed to order the equipment needed to run the operation. As a result, it created another problem for the franchisee as it would not be able to run the operation due to insufficient equipment. =========================================== Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perhitungan royalty fee pada franchise Jarimatika Darussalam dalam perpektif musyarakah, dan strategi yang digunakan dalam penyelesaian masalah profit sharing di Jarimatika tersebut. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam dan studi dokumentasi. Data yang terkumpul kemudian dianalisis dengan metode deskriptif analisis. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa mekanisme perhitungan royalty fee pada Jarimatika Darussalam menggunakan sistem profit sharing, dimana total pendapatan dikurangi beban operasional sebesar 15%, dan sisanya dibagi dua bagian, franchisor 40% dan franchisee 60%. Dalam kenyataannya, penetapan biaya beban operasional yang fix sebesar 15 % ini yang menyebabkan franchisee

  18. Licensing Uncertain Patents: Per-Unit Royalty vs Up-Front Fee

    OpenAIRE

    Encaoua , David; Lefouili , Yassine

    2008-01-01

    ED EPS; In this paper we examine the implications of uncertainty over patent validity on patentholders' licensing strategies. Two licensing mechanisms are examined: per-unit royalty and up-front fee.We provide conditions under which uncertain patents are licensed in order to avoid patent litigation. It is shown that while it is possible for the patentholder to reap som e "extra profit" by selling an uncertain patent under the pure per-unit royalty regime, the opportunity to do so does not exi...

  19. Negative royalty in duopoly and definition of license fee: general demand and cost functions

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the definition of license fee and a possibility of negative royalty in a duopoly with an outside innovator which has an option to enter the market and imposes a combination of a royalty per output and a fixed fee under general demand and cost functions. We consider two scenarios about determination of license fee. One is a scenario which does not assume entry of the innovator, and the other is a scenario which takes a possibility of entry of the innovator i...

  20. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  1. Payments by US pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers to US medical journal editors: retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chaim M; Matelski, John J; Detsky, Allan S; Cram, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate financial payments from industry to US journal editors. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting 52 influential (high impact factor for their specialty) US medical journals from 26 specialties and US Open Payments database, 2014. Participants 713 editors at the associate level and above identified from each journal’s online masthead. Main outcome measures All general payments (eg, personal income) and research related payments from pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers to eligible physicians in 2014. Percentages of editors receiving payments and the magnitude of such payments were compared across journals and by specialty. Journal websites were also reviewed to determine if conflict of interest policies for editors were readily accessible. Results Of 713 eligible editors, 361 (50.6%) received some (>$0) general payments in 2014, and 139 (19.5%) received research payments. The median general payment was $11 (£8; €9) (interquartile range $0-2923) and the median research payment was $0 ($0-0). The mean general payment was $28 136 (SD $415 045), and the mean research payment was $37 963 (SD $175 239). The highest median general payments were received by journal editors from endocrinology ($7207, $0-85 816), cardiology ($2664, $0-12 912), gastroenterology ($696, $0-20 002), rheumatology ($515, $0-14 280), and urology ($480, $90-669). For high impact general medicine journals, median payments were $0 ($0-14). A review of the 52 journal websites revealed that editor conflict of interest policies were readily accessible (ie, within five minutes) for 17/52 (32.7%) of journals. Conclusions Industry payments to journal editors are common and often large, particularly for certain subspecialties. Journals should consider the potential impact of such payments on public trust in published research. PMID:29074628

  2. Line-of-Credit Payment Scheme and Its Impact on the Retailer’s Ordering Policy with Inventory-Level-Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Practically, the supplier frequently offers the retailer credit period to stimulate his/her ordering quantity. However, such credit-period-only policy may lead to the dilemma that the supplier’s account receivable increases with sale volume during delay period, especially for the item with inventory-level-dependent demand. Thus, a line-of-credit (LOC payment scheme is usually adopted by the supplier for better controlling account receivables. In this paper, the two-parameter LOC clause is firstly applied to develop an economic order quantity (EOQ model with inventory-level-dependent demand, aiming to explore its influences on the retailer’s ordering policy. Under this new policy, the retailer will be granted full delay payment if his/her order quantity is below a predetermined quantity. Otherwise, the retailer should make immediate payment for the excess part. After analyzing the relationships among parameters, two distinct cases and several theoretical results can be derived. From numerical examples, two incentives, a longer credit period and a lower rate of the retailer’s capital opportunity cost, should account for the retailer’s excessive ordering policy. And a well-designed LOC clause can be applied to induce the retailer to place an appropriate ordering quantity and ensure the supplier maintains a reasonable account receivable.

  3. Advance Payment ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Advance Payment Model is designed for physician-based and rural providers who have come together voluntarily to give coordinated high quality care to the...

  4. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  5. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  6. Paying for Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    depends only on the relative costs of producing cash and card payments and can be used by regulators to assess privately set interchange fees. When calibrated to cost data, the model implies an optimal fee that is low and may even be negative. The findings are consistent with empirical evidence of high......Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how interchange fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay...... transaction fees to banks - a common feature in bank contracts - card use is declining in interchange fees, and surcharging does not neutralize interchange fees. According to my model, banks set interchange fees at too high a level, resulting in too few card payments. I derive an optimal interchange fee which...

  7. ESRD Payment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare payment to ESRD facilities for outpatient maintenance dialysis services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is based on...

  8. Governmental participation and its importance in the information of the royalties fund; Participacoes governamentais e sua importancia na formacao de fundo de 'royalties'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Otavio; Chaves, Hernani; Dourado, Francisco de Assis; Serrao, Marcio [Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CIPEG), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work has the objective of presenting the governmental participation and its importance in the formation of the main royalty funds. In the present work only royalties and the special participation will be considered, which together add up to about R$ 14,7 billion in 2007. The Brazilian experience is already appearing, with some states and cities having taken the initiative to implement funds with royalty based resources. In Rio de Janeiro we have the case of the FECAM - the State Environmental Conservation and Urban Development Fund, and in Campos de Goytacazes, the FUNDECAM. In Espirito Santo, there is the Fund for the Reduction of Regional Inequalities. The international experience includes the state of Alaska, which approved, in 1976, a constitutional amendment creating a permanent fund (Permanent Fund Dividends), and in Norway, the Petroleum Fund was established in 1990 and is managed by the Central Bank, currently with assets of US$ 312 billion. In Brazil, we call attention to the fact that there is no strategy or planning on the part of the government view, since these resources are limited in time, due to the exhaustion of the petroleum basin reserves, as in the case of the Campos Basin, since the oil is a finite mineral asset. (author)

  9. Payments for watershed services: opportunities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Ivan

    2007-08-15

    Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management - under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective these 'payments for watershed services' must cover the cost of watershed management. In developing countries, they might also aid local development and reduce poverty. But new research shows that the problems in watersheds are complex and not easily solved. Payments for watershed services do not guarantee poverty reduction and cannot replace the best aspects of regulation.

  10. 25 CFR 213.26 - Rate of royalty on casing-head gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gasoline the minimum rate of royalty shall be 121/2 percent of the value of the casing-head gas, which... operating regulations of the Department. (b) In cases where gas produced and sold has a value for drip gasoline, casing-head gasoline content, and as dry gas from which the casing-head gasoline has been...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1502-44 - Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage depletion for independent producers...-44 Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners. (a) In general. The sum of the percentage depletion deductions for the taxable year for all oil or gas property owned by all members, plus...

  12. 48 CFR 252.227-7007 - License term-running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7007 License term—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(b), insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: License Term—Running...

  13. 75 FR 32857 - Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 256 Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License CFR Correction In Title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2009, on page 666, in Sec. 256.2, make the following changes: a. In paragraph (b)(2)(i), remove ``$189,800...

  14. 75 FR 26278 - The Register of Copyrights’ and the Copyright Royalty Judges’ authority to determine the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... law were referred to the Register of Copyrights concerning the authority of the Register of Copyrights... questions of substantive law for her consideration: Does the Register of Copyrights have the authority under... law. That motion was denied by the Copyright Royalty Judges on March 30, 2010. Order Denying Motion...

  15. 26 CFR 509.110 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.110 Patent and copyright... copyrights, artistic and scientific works, patents, designs, plans, secret processes and formulae, trademarks...

  16. 78 FR 50113 - Distribution of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559- 6000... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... categories of copyrightable content (movies, sports programming, music, etc.). For broadcast years 2006...

  17. 76 FR 11287 - Distribution of 2005 Through 2008 DART Musical Works Funds Royalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ..., comments must be brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101... envelope must be addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... e- mail at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 8, 2010, Broadcast Music, Inc., the...

  18. 30 CFR 206.452 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.452 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM pursuant to 43 CFR group 3400...

  19. 30 CFR 206.253 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.253 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM under 43 CFR part 3400) from a...

  20. 30 CFR 210.55 - May I submit this royalty report manually?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Minerals Management Service, P.O. Box 5810, Denver, Colorado 80217-5810; or (2) Special courier or... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I submit this royalty report manually? 210.55 Section 210.55 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS...

  1. Delaying Payments after the Financial Crisis: Evidence from EU Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Kwame Essien Obeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates economic impact of delayed payments caused by liquidity crisis in the European Union. Using micro data sets on financial statements of 54,277 firms for the period of 2005 to 2014 inclusive, we perform panel data analysis by estimating fixed effects regression models with selected macroeconomic shocks. The results show high variability of late payments during financial crisis compare to period of relative stable economic situations and late payments is significantly evident across countries under different economic conditions. Additionally, we identify positive relationship between the response variable, late payments, and firm profitability measured with returns on assets, but negative relationship with firm total assets as it depends on the speed of collections from receivables. The results suggest delays in payment of invoices beyond the given credit period across the different European Union member countries.

  2. CASH-FLOW SENSITIVITY TO PAYMENTS FOR MATERIAL RESSOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Elena BRÎNDESCU OLARIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The financing decision is taken based on the expectations concerning the future cash-flows generated in the operating activity, which should provide coverage for the debt service and allow for an increase of the shareholders’ wealth. Still, the future cash-flows are affected by risk, which makes the sensitivity analysis a very important part of the decision process. The current research sets to evaluate the sensitivity of the payment capacity to variations of the payments for raw materials and consumables. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flow statements collected from 50 companies together with detailed information concerning the hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study allow for the establishment of benchmarks for the payment capacity’s sensitivity, the determination of the mechanisms through which the variation of payments for raw materials and consumables impacts the payment capacity, as well as the identification of the possible causes of such a variation.

  3. Payment card rewards programs and consumer payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ching; Fumiko Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Card payments have been growing very rapidly. To continue the growth, payment card networks keep adding new merchants and card issuers try to stimulate their existing customers’ card usage by providing rewards. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of payment card rewards programs on consumer payment choice, by using consumer survey data. Specifically, we examine whether credit/debit reward receivers use credit/debit cards relatively more often than other consumers, if so how much more ofte...

  4. Cash and Payments Management Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Prompt Payment Act, along with the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, requires the timely payment of commercial obligations for supplies and services using...

  5. Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments This link provides you with information about Medicaid DSH Payments. You can find information on DSH Audit...

  6. Assessing catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health care payments in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kwesiga, Brendan; Zikusooka, Charlotte M; Ataguba, John E

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct out-of-pocket payments for health care are recognised as limiting access to health care services and also endangering the welfare of households. In Uganda, such payments comprise a large portion of total health financing. This study assesses the catastrophic and impoverishing impact of paying for health care out-of-pocket in Uganda. Methods Using data from the Uganda National Household Surveys 2009/10, the catastrophic impact of out-of-pocket health care payments is defined ...

  7. Issues in the use of payments in lieu of taxes to provide nuclear waste facility siting incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Goss, E.

    1981-01-01

    High-level, nuclear waste isolation facilities will be federally owned and therefore exempt from local taxation. Because local residents view tax payments as a major benefit of industrial development, the absence of these payments, coupled with the inherent undesirability of hazardous-materials-handling activities, may discourage communities from accepting a facility. One method to overcome this disincentive is for the facility to make payments in lieu of taxes to localities. This paper examines the concept of payments in lieu of taxes and presents statistics describing local fiscal characteristics. The range these payments might take under alternative-payment arrangements is calculated, and the impact of such payments on the facility's user-free schedule is estimated. It is concluded that a payment plan based on hypothetical property-tax liabilities for an identical, but taxable, facility would have a significant revenue impact on most localities but would not increase user fees significantly. (Auth.)

  8. Specialty Payment Model Opportunities and Assessment: Oncology Simulation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Chapin; Chan, Chris; Huckfeldt, Peter J; Kofner, Aaron; Mulcahy, Andrew W; Pollak, Julia; Popescu, Ioana; Timbie, Justin W; Hussey, Peter S

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the results of a simulation analysis of a payment model for specialty oncology services that is being developed for possible testing by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). CMS asked MITRE and RAND to conduct simulation analyses to preview some of the possible impacts of the payment model and to inform design decisions related to the model. The simulation analysis used an episode-level dataset based on Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) claims for historical oncology episodes provided to Medicare FFS beneficiaries in 2010. Under the proposed model, participating practices would continue to receive FFS payments, would also receive per-beneficiary per-month care management payments for episodes lasting up to six months, and would be eligible for performance-based payments based on per-episode spending for attributed episodes relative to a per-episode spending target. The simulation offers several insights into the proposed payment model for oncology: (1) The care management payments used in the simulation analysis-$960 total per six-month episode-represent only 4 percent of projected average total spending per episode (around $27,000 in 2016), but they are large relative to the FFS revenues of participating oncology practices, which are projected to be around $2,000 per oncology episode. By themselves, the care management payments would increase physician practices' Medicare revenues by roughly 50 percent on average. This represents a substantial new outlay for the Medicare program and a substantial new source of revenues for oncology practices. (2) For the Medicare program to break even, participating oncology practices would have to reduce utilization and intensity by roughly 4 percent. (3) The break-even point can be reduced if the care management payments are reduced or if the performance-based payments are reduced.

  9. Framework for Mobile Payments Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Fergal; Hedman, Jonas; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    consumers and merchants. These instruments are centralised, costly and lack decision support functionality. The ubiquity of the mobile phone has provided a decentralised platform for managing payment processes in a new way, but the value proposition for customers has yet to be elaborated clearly....... This inertia has stalled the design of sustainable revenue models for a mobile payments ecosystem. Merchants and consumers in the meantime are being seduced by the convenience of on‑line and mobile payment solutions. Adopting the purchase and payment process as the unit of analysis, the current mobile payment...

  10. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  11. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  12. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable en...... sustainable relationships with nature, conserving and restoring ecosystems and their benefits for people now and in the future....

  13. Impacto dos Royalties do Petróleo no PIB Per Capita dos Municípios do Estado do Espírito Santo, BrasilOil Royalties Effects on the Per Capita GDP in the cities of Espirito Santo, BrazilEl Impacto de los Royalties del Petróleo en el PIB Per Capita de los Municipios del Estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO, Edivan Guidote

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIdentificar os impactos que a política pública provoca na economia é essencial para a sua formulação e para o direcionamento da aplicação dos recursos financeiros auferidos pelo Estado. Este trabalho estuda a política pública brasileira de royalties de petróleo e gás natural e tem como objetivo identificar os efeitos das receitas de royalties dos governos municipais do Estado do Espírito Santo, no PIB per capita dos respectivos municípios. Os dados utilizados neste estudo correspondem aos 78 municípios de que se compõe o Estado, entre os anos de 1999 e 2004. Por meio de um modelo estatístico de dados em painel equilibrado, procedeu-se à estimação do modelo para sua efetiva análise. Os resultados mostraram que não há evidências dos impactos dessas políticas no PIB per capita nos municípios do Espírito Santo.ABSTRACTThe identification of the economical effects of public policies is essential for the formulation of such policies, as well as for the adequate allocation of the financial resources obtained by the government. The present work studies the Brazilian public policies regarding oil and natural gas royalties. Its main goal is to uncover the effects of royalties’ revenues on the per capita GDP at the city level in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The data correspond to the 78 cities comprising the Brazilian state, from 1999 to 2004. An econometric model, using balanced panel data, was used to estimate the effects. The results indicate that there is no evidence of impact of these public policies on the per capita GDP of the cities of Espirito Santo.RESUMENLa identificación de los impactos que la política pública produce en la economía es esencial para su formulación y para orientar la aplicación de los recursos financieros obtenidos por el estado. Este trabajo estudia la política pública brasileña de los royalties del petróleo y del gas natural y tiene la finalidad de identificar los efectos del

  14. Deepwater royalty relief product of 3 1/2 year U.S. political effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.E.; Neff, S.

    1996-01-01

    Against the backdrop of more than 20 years of increasingly stringent environmental regulation, ever-expanding exploration and development moratoria on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and reductions in producer tax incentives, oil and natural gas exploration companies active in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently won a significant legislative victory. On Nov. 28, 1995, President Clinton signed into law S.395, the Alaska Power Administration Sale Act. Title 3 of S.395 embodies the Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act. This landmark legislation provides substantial incentives for oil and natural gas production in the gulf of Mexico by temporarily eliminating royalties on certain deepwater leases. It is the first direct incentive for oil and gas production enacted at the federal level in many years. This paper reviews the elements used to arrive at this successful legislation including the congressional leadership. It describes debates, cabinet level discussions, and use of parlimentary procedures

  15. Payment and economic evaluation of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases have an increasingly negative impact on (1 population health by increasing morbidity and mortality, (2 society by increasing health inequalities and burden to informal caregivers, and (3 economy by requiring enormous financial resources and jeopardising macro-economic development (e.g. consumption, capital accumulation, labour productivity and labour supply. Integrated care is the most promising concept in redesigning care to tackle the increasing threat of chronic diseases. Several European countries have experimented with models for integrating care, most frequently in the form of disease management programmes. These models were often supported by payment schemes to provide financial incentives to health care providers for implementing integrated care. This thesis aimed to investigate these payment schemes and assess their impact, explore the variability in costs of disease management programmes, and determine the costs and effects of disease management programmes.

  16. Informal payments and the quality of health care: Mechanisms revealed by Tanzanian health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mæstad, Ottar; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2011-02-01

    Informal payments for health services are common in many transitional and developing countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of informal payments in the health sector of Tanzania and to identify mechanisms through which informal payments may affect the quality of health care. Our focus is on the effect of informal payments on health worker behaviours, in particular the interpersonal dynamics among health workers at their workplaces. We organised eight focus groups with 58 health workers representing different cadres and levels of care in one rural and one urban district in Tanzania. We found that health workers at all levels receive informal payments in a number of different contexts. Health workers sometimes share the payments received, but only partially, and more rarely within the cadre than across cadres. Our findings indicate that health workers are involved in 'rent-seeking' activities, such as creating artificial shortages and deliberately lowering the quality of service, in order to extract extra payments from patients or to bargain for a higher share of the payments received by their colleagues. The discussions revealed that many health workers think that the distribution of informal payments is grossly unfair. The findings suggest that informal payments can impact negatively on the quality of health care through rent-seeking behaviours and through frustrations created by the unfair allocation of payments. Interestingly, the presence of corruption may also induce non-corrupt workers to reduce the quality of care. Positive impacts can occur because informal payments may induce health workers to increase their efforts, and maybe more so if there is competition among health workers about receiving the payments. Moreover, informal payments add to health workers' incomes and might thus contribute to retention of health workers within the health sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Más allá del royalty: Análisis crítico de la tributación minera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Leturia I

    2007-01-01

    homogenizar las normas de tributación en el país.On 1st January 2006 a special tax or an additional to the operational rent of the mining companies known as Royalty came into force. In spite of the different ways in which it was technically approached the discussion gave the possibility to observe some of the annexed realities which are worth for a close analysis. The most relevant perhaps could have been the less support shown by the citizens and the politics which stirs up the mine industry, in spite of its important undisputable economic support, recognition of the completion of the law and the payment of the taxes that it demands. Secondly, it shows some mechanisms of our tax system in general especially notorious in the intensive sectors in the use of the capital which allows complex results that are difficult to explain to citizens and of whose existence the mine industry had no responsibilities. The combination of both situations plus the ideological opposition and the history of the mine placed it in a fragile position which to a large scale explains easily the approval of the weakly founded specific tax. We sustain in this work that in place of Royalty it would have been desirable the implementation of a general perfecting plan of the normative of the tax which could have ended with the options or tax alternatives (principally in depreciation the inequality of treatment offered to some contributors (principally between Chileans and Foreigners and the increase in the less actual amount of the mining license. We believe that they offered interesting possibilities that benefit as much as the mining institution and also the tax system in general. Unfortunately, the Royalty law instead of taking into account these points creates a series of exceptions, benefits and special situations from which many searched to lessen the negative aspects of the tax, but they are heading in an opposite direction different from which the authors had proposed, in order to simplify and

  18. On properties of royalty and tax regimes in Alberta's oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Simulation models that include royalty and tax provisions are used to examine the distribution between developers and governments of net returns from the development of Alberta's oil sands deposits. A specific focus is to assess the effects on the level and distribution of net revenues associated with a number of changes in assumed revenue and expenditure conditions. Developers typically bear a greater share of the consequences of variations in capital expenditures than they do of changes in operating expenditures, prices, and exchange rates. A comparison across royalty and tax regimes suggest that there is a positive relationship between the level of net revenues estimated to accrue to either developers or governments and the share of the consequences of changes in conditions borne by that party. Some differences across production technologies are noted. The role of the federal government as a fiscal player in oil sands development has shrunk over time. In contrast, under the current regime, the Government of Alberta captures a higher share of net returns and typically bears a greater proportion of the consequences of changes in conditions than at any time since the introduction of an explicit royalty and tax regime in 1997.

  19. 24 CFR 206.19 - Payment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment options. 206.19 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.19 Payment options. (a) Term payment option. Under the term payment option, equal monthly payments are made by the mortgagee to the...

  20. 24 CFR 983.352 - Vacancy payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.352 Vacancy payment. (a) Payment for move-out month. If an assisted family moves out of the unit, the owner may keep the housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacancy payment. 983.352 Section...

  1. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  2. Variation in Payment Rates under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky, Sam; Ryan, Andrew M; Mijanovich, Tod; Blustein, Jan

    2017-04-01

    To measure variation in payment rates under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) and identify the main payment adjustments that drive variation. Medicare cost reports for all Medicare-certified hospitals, 1987-2013, and Dartmouth Atlas geographic files. We measure the Medicare payment rate as a hospital's total acute inpatient Medicare Part A payment, divided by the standard IPPS payment for its geographic area. We assess variation using several measures, both within local markets and nationally. We perform a factor decomposition to identify the share of variation attributable to specific adjustments. We also describe the characteristics of hospitals receiving different payment rates and evaluate changes in the magnitude of the main adjustments over time. Data downloaded from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the National Bureau of Economic Research, and the Dartmouth Atlas. In 2013, Medicare paid for acute inpatient discharges at a rate 31 percent above the IPPS base. For the top 10 percent of discharges, the mean rate was double the IPPS base. Variations were driven by adjustments for medical education and care to low-income populations. The magnitude of variation has increased over time. Adjustments are a large and growing share of Medicare hospital payments, and they create significant variation in payment rates. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. 20 CFR 411.525 - What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EN payment systems? 411.525 Section 411.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.525 What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems? (a) For payments for outcome payment months, both...

  4. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass...... of users. In this paper, we investigate successful platform adoption strategies by using the Reach and Range Framework for Multi-Sided Platforms as a strategic tool to which mobile payment providers can adhere in order to tackle some of the main challenges they face throughout the evolution...... of their platforms. The analysis indicates that successful mobile payment solutions tend to be launched as one-sided platforms and then gradually be expanded into being two-sided. Our study showcases that the success of mobile payment platforms lies with the ability of the platform to balance the reach (number...

  5. Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyer, Nina; Pousttchi, Key; Turowski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs, security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedure can be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, ...

  6. Payment methods for outpatient care facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; He, Li; Meng, Qingyue; Jia, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Background Outpatient care facilities provide a variety of basic healthcare services to individuals who do not require hospitalisation or institutionalisation, and are usually the patient's first contact. The provision of outpatient care contributes to immediate and large gains in health status, and a large portion of total health expenditure goes to outpatient healthcare services. Payment method is one of the most important incentive methods applied by purchasers to guide the performance of outpatient care providers. Objectives To assess the impact of different payment methods on the performance of outpatient care facilities and to analyse the differences in impact of payment methods in different settings. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2016, Issue 3, part of the Cochrane Library (searched 8 March 2016); MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 8 March 2016); Embase, OvidSP (searched 24 April 2014); PubMed (NCBI) (searched 8 March 2016); Dissertations and Theses Database, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); Conference Proceedings Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) (searched 8 March 2016); IDEAS (searched 8 March 2016); EconLit, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); POPLINE, K4Health (searched 8 March 2016); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (searched 8 March 2016); Chinese Medicine Premier (searched 8 March 2016); OpenGrey (searched 8 March 2016); ClinicalTrials.gov, US National Institutes of Health (NIH) (searched 8 March 2016); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched 8 March 2016); and the website of the World Bank (searched 8 March 2016). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via ISI Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. We also contacted authors of the main included studies regarding any further published or unpublished work. Selection criteria Randomised

  7. Medicare Provider Payment Data - Home Health Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Home Health Agency PUF contains information on utilization, payment (Medicare payment and standard payment), and submitted charges organized by CMS Certification...

  8. Fingerprint start the next generation of payment method : Fingerprint payment: a new mode of mobile payment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    In the generation of mobile internet, fingerprint payment is one of the most popular topics at the moment. China has a big market and many users are using the mobile payment methods. There are a large number of mobile phones equipped with fingerprint recognition technology. As we know, fingerprint payment brings us more convenience and safety. We do not need to use many bankcards, and fingerprint also eliminates the users from the trouble of queuing to pay. However, users send traditional dig...

  9. Managing bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system.

  10. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  11. 78 FR 22913 - Review of Copyright Royalty Judges Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... impact on the structure of the industries involved and on generally prevailing industry practices. 17 U.S... time of the commencement of the PSS SDARS hearing, of the original participants, only Music Choice... involved the participants Music Choice and SoundExchange.\\2\\ As set forth above, under 17 U.S.C. 801(b)(1...

  12. Empirical Studies on Cash Payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kippers (Jeanine)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCash is still the most common means of daily payments. The large number of cash payments is supported by a costly distribution system in which retailers, banks and central banks participate. Currency is issued in a range of bank note and coin denominations to facilitate efficiency

  13. Build Your Own Payment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-07-01

    Physicians participating in MACRA have a unique opportunity to create and submit their own alternative payment models to the government and take command of their own future payments. At least one Texas physician is taking a crack at developing his own model.

  14. Implementation of DRG Payment in France: issues and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Zeynep

    2014-08-01

    In France, a DRG-based payment system was introduced in 2004/2005 for funding acute services in all hospitals with the objectives of improving hospital efficiency, transparency and fairness in payments to public and private hospitals. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity of the reform, providers have become increasingly critical of the system because of the problems encountered during the implementation. In 2012 the government announced its intention to modify the payment model to better deal with its adverse effects. The paper reports on the issues raised by the DRG-based payment in the French hospital sector and provides an overview of the main problems with the French DRG payment model. It also summarises the evidence on its impact and presents recent developments for reforming the current model. DRG-based payment addressed some of the chronic problems inherent in the French hospital market and improved accountability and productivity of health-care facilities. However, it has also created new problems for controlling hospital activity and ensuring that care provided is medically appropriate. In order to alter its adverse effects the French DRG model needs to better align greater efficiency with the objectives of better quality and effectiveness of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  16. License and entry strategies for an outside innovator under duopoly with combination of royalty and fixed fee

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We consider a choice of options for an innovating firm to enter the market with or without licensing its new cost-reducing technology to the incumbent firm using a combination of a royalty per output and a fixed license fee, or to license its technology without entry. With general demand and cost functions we show the following results. When the innovating firm licenses its technology to the incumbent firm without entry, the optimal royalty rate per output for the innovating firm is zero with...

  17. Payments by US pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers to US medical journal editors: retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jessica J; Bell, Chaim M; Matelski, John J; Detsky, Allan S; Cram, Peter

    2017-10-26

    Objective  To estimate financial payments from industry to US journal editors. Design  Retrospective observational study. Setting  52 influential (high impact factor for their specialty) US medical journals from 26 specialties and US Open Payments database, 2014. Participants  713 editors at the associate level and above identified from each journal's online masthead. Main outcome measures  All general payments (eg, personal income) and research related payments from pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers to eligible physicians in 2014. Percentages of editors receiving payments and the magnitude of such payments were compared across journals and by specialty. Journal websites were also reviewed to determine if conflict of interest policies for editors were readily accessible. Results  Of 713 eligible editors, 361 (50.6%) received some (>$0) general payments in 2014, and 139 (19.5%) received research payments. The median general payment was $11 (£8; €9) (interquartile range $0-2923) and the median research payment was $0 ($0-0). The mean general payment was $28 136 (SD $415 045), and the mean research payment was $37 963 (SD $175 239). The highest median general payments were received by journal editors from endocrinology ($7207, $0-85 816), cardiology ($2664, $0-12 912), gastroenterology ($696, $0-20 002), rheumatology ($515, $0-14 280), and urology ($480, $90-669). For high impact general medicine journals, median payments were $0 ($0-14). A review of the 52 journal websites revealed that editor conflict of interest policies were readily accessible (ie, within five minutes) for 17/52 (32.7%) of journals. Conclusions  Industry payments to journal editors are common and often large, particularly for certain subspecialties. Journals should consider the potential impact of such payments on public trust in published research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  18. Survey of electronic payment methods and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helme, A.; Verbraeck, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  19. 32 CFR 751.13 - Partial payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voucher and all other information related to the partial payment shall be placed in the claim file. Action... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partial payments. 751.13 Section 751.13 National... Claims Against the United States § 751.13 Partial payments. (a) Partial payments when hardship exists...

  20. 32 CFR 750.9 - Claims: Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requires submission of the payment voucher to the General Accounting Office. All other field authorized payment vouchers are submitted directly to the servicing disbursing office for payment. ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims: Payments. 750.9 Section 750.9 National...

  1. 12 CFR 412.11 - Payment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment guidelines. 412.11 Section 412.11 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES § 412.11 Payment guidelines. (a) Payments from a non-Federal source, other than...

  2. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment methods. 603.805 Section 603.805 Energy DEPARTMENT... Other Administrative Matters Payments § 603.805 Payment methods. A TIA may provide for: (a... progress. A fixed-support TIA must use this payment method (this does not preclude use of an initial...

  3. Payment methods for outpatient care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; He, Li; Meng, Qingyue; Jia, Liying

    2017-03-03

    Outpatient care facilities provide a variety of basic healthcare services to individuals who do not require hospitalisation or institutionalisation, and are usually the patient's first contact. The provision of outpatient care contributes to immediate and large gains in health status, and a large portion of total health expenditure goes to outpatient healthcare services. Payment method is one of the most important incentive methods applied by purchasers to guide the performance of outpatient care providers. To assess the impact of different payment methods on the performance of outpatient care facilities and to analyse the differences in impact of payment methods in different settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2016, Issue 3, part of the Cochrane Library (searched 8 March 2016); MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 8 March 2016); Embase, OvidSP (searched 24 April 2014); PubMed (NCBI) (searched 8 March 2016); Dissertations and Theses Database, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); Conference Proceedings Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) (searched 8 March 2016); IDEAS (searched 8 March 2016); EconLit, ProQuest (searched 8 March 2016); POPLINE, K4Health (searched 8 March 2016); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (searched 8 March 2016); Chinese Medicine Premier (searched 8 March 2016); OpenGrey (searched 8 March 2016); ClinicalTrials.gov, US National Institutes of Health (NIH) (searched 8 March 2016); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched 8 March 2016); and the website of the World Bank (searched 8 March 2016).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via ISI Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. We also contacted authors of the main included studies regarding any further published or unpublished work. Randomised trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before

  4. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  5. The financial reward for the utilization of hydric resources, the Itaipu royalties and the new water Brazilian policy; A compensacao financeira pela utilizacao de recursos hidricos, os 'royalties' de Itaipu e a nova politica nacional de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Sales, Paulo Roberto de Holanda [Ministerio das Minas e Energia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Ventura Filho, Altino; Barbosa, Claudio Simoes [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Spagnol, Marcos [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the chronology of the legislation referring the financial compensation and the royalties paid by the Itaipu Bi nacional, from the origin to the important moment defined by the law introducing the new Water National Policy. Besides the aspects related to the legislation and the new Water National Policy, the ELETROBRAS participation in the process dynamic of the financial compensation is reported.

  6. Payment by Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan A. Rapple

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the public is demanding that it exercise more control over how tax dollars are spent in the educational sphere, with multitudes also canvassing that education become closely aligned to the marketplace's economic forces. In this paper I examine an historical precedent for such demands, i.e. the comprehensive 19th century system of accountability, "Payment by Results," which endured in English and Welsh elementary schools from 1862 until 1897. Particular emphasis is focused on the economic market-driven aspect of the system whereby every pupil was examined annually by an Inspector, the amount of the governmental grant being largely dependent on the answering. I argue that this was a narrow, restrictive system of educational accountability though one totally in keeping with the age's pervasive utilitarian belief in laissez-faire. I conclude by observing that this Victorian system might be suggestive to us today when calls for analogous schemes of educational accountability are shrill.

  7. 42 CFR 412.521 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.521 Basis of payment. (a) Method of payment. (1) Under the prospective payment system, long... furnished to Medicare beneficiaries. (2) The amount of payment under the prospective payment system is based...

  8. Maternity Leave and Payment for Childcare, Impact on the Economic Situation of a Married Couple in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain, and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Charlotte; Willumsen, Marie; Wüst, Miriam

    of families in 6 European countries. It compares the situation of families at different income levels and in distinctly different situations: First, the paper looks at the economic situation of the family after the birth of a child with one parent on paid leave. Second, the paper illustrates the impact of day...... care costs on the economic situation of the family after the expiration of the leave scheme and the return of both spouses to work. Furthermore, to analyse and compare the transitions from one family situation to the next, the paper also presents time graphs showing the changing economic situation...

  9. Paying for payments: free payments and optimal interchange fees

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how inter- change fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay transaction fees to banks - a common feature in bank contracts - card use is declining in interchange fees, and surcharging does not neutralize interchange fees. According to my model, banks set interchan...

  10. Study on payments through mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of information and communications technology, together with the increasing use of electronic commerce, phones and mobile applications, have facilitated mobile payments to become an alternative payment method for buyers and vendors. Mobile payments offer various opportunities to business environment and became a starting point in the transition from electronic to mobile. This paper aims to analyze the present situation of the mobile payment methods and to identify the effects that mobile payment systems have on electronic commerce.

  11. Preparing for budget-based payment methodologies: global payment and episode-based payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Use of budget-based payment methodologies (capitation and episode-based bundled payment) has been demonstrated to drive value in healthcare delivery. With a focus on high-volume, high-cost surgical procedures, inclusion of anaesthesiology services in these methodologies is likely. This review provides a summary of budget-based payment methodologies and practical information necessary for anaesthesiologists to prepare for participation in these programmes. Although few examples of anaesthesiologists' participation in these models exist, an understanding of the structure of these programmes and opportunities for participation are available. Prospective preparation in developing anaesthesiology-specific bundled payment profiles and early participation in pathway development associated with selected episodes of care are essential for successful participation as a gainsharing partner. With significant opportunity to contribute to care coordination and cost management, anaesthesiology can play an important role in budget-based payment programmes and should expect to participate as full gainsharing partners. Precise costing methodologies and accurate economic modelling, along with identification of quality management and cost control opportunities, will help identify participation opportunities and appropriate payment and gainsharing agreements. Anaesthesiology-specific examples with budget-based payment models are needed to help guide increased participation in these programmes.

  12. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they are finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard conditions

  13. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they could be finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard

  14. 30 CFR 227.401 - What are a State's responsibilities if it processes production reports or royalty reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Reports, the MMS Minerals Production Reporter Handbook, any interagency memorandum of... processes production reports or royalty reports? 227.401 Section 227.401 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES States...

  15. 37 CFR 201.19 - Royalties and statements of account under compulsory license for making and distributing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for failure to pay royalties for the reproduction of copyrighted music on phonorecords, or within such... corporation, by the title or official position held in the partnership or corporation by the person signing... corporation, by the title or official position held in the partnership or corporation by the person signing...

  16. 75 FR 61624 - Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy Oil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-241A.00] RIN 1004-AE04 Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy... economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or..., investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based...

  17. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado 80217-5810; or (ii) For courier service or overnight mail (excluding Express Mail): Minerals... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report? 210.201 Section 210.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  18. 42 CFR 413.350 - Periodic interim payments for skilled nursing facilities receiving payment under the skilled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities receiving payment under the skilled nursing facility prospective payment system for Part A... nursing facilities receiving payment under the skilled nursing facility prospective payment system for... SNF receiving payment under the prospective payment system may receive periodic interim payments (PIP...

  19. 7 CFR 3.11 - Demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a post-delinquency payment agreement) provides otherwise (such as providing USDA an immediate right to collect upon delinquency). Written demand as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall be... agency shall immediately seek legal advice from OGC concerning the impact of the Bankruptcy Code on any...

  20. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  1. Payment changes require integrating records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, M A

    1990-06-01

    The greatest challenges for healthcare organizations facing radical changes in their payment and reporting structures lie in finding ways to integrate various forms of patient information. An analysis of how three New York City hospitals dealt with their state's switch to an all-payer diagnosis related group-based payment system reveals strengths and weaknesses in their existing information systems and in steps taken to adapt to the change.

  2. The Direct Payments in the European Model of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Bečvářová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of economic contexts of the direct payments, as a targeted lump-sum financial transfer to the recipient’s income, employment in agricultural policy. Based upon the basic types of subsidies and their economic costs evaluation from the point of view of their deforming effects as well as transaction costs the direct payments are analysed generally as a type of support without a distorting effect on the gathering and transmission of market signals. The direct payments imply that the predominant flow from public funding to agriculture is paid independently from the volume of the present production (its amount and structure and make possible to choose the best structure of farm activities. However, their additional expenses are evaluated as a relatively very high. The transaction costs are high because the realisation of their objective (increase of the recipients’ income requires detailed personal information. Budgetary costs may also become extraordinarily high in the long term. On the basis at above the positive as well as negative components of their capacity for producers’ decision-making processes and their impact on the competitiveness in the framework of the modern agriculture are evaluated. In the following part of the paper the relationships effects of decoupled payments and agrarian markets are evaluated. Results of analyses indicate, the decoupled payments are not fully production neutral. Four topics of influence through which decoupled payments could affect production decisions are bringing to the attention as follows: wealth and investment effects (direct wealth effect, a wealth-facilitated increased investment effect, and a secondary wealth effect resulting from the increase in investment, sector consolidation effects, payment basis effects, and producer risk and expectations effects.

  3. 78 FR 70477 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Accelerated Payments to Small Business Subcontractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance... Payments to Small Business Subcontractors, as prescribed in 32.009-2. * * * * * PART 32--CONTRACT FINANCING...

  4. Episodic payments (bundling): PART I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-10-01

    Episodic, or bundled payments, is a concept now familiar to most in the healthcare arena, but the models are often misunderstood. Under a traditional fee-for-service model, each provider bills separately for their services which creates financial incentives to maximise volumes. Under a bundled payment, a single entity, often referred to as a convener (maybe the hospital, the physician group, or a third party) assumes the risk through a payer contract for all services provided within a defined episode of care, and receives a single (bundled) payment for all services provided for that episode. The time frame around the intervention is variable, but defined in advance, as are included and excluded costs. Timing of the actual payment in a bundle may either be before the episode occurs (prospective payment model), or after the end of the episode through a reconciliation (retrospective payment model). In either case, the defined costs over the defined time frame are borne by the convener. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1280-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  6. Equity in out-of-pocket payment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca, Alicia Lorena Núñez; Chi, Chunhuei

    2017-05-04

    To assess the distribution of financial burden in Chile, with a focus on the burden and progressivity of out-of-pocket payment. Based on the principle of ability to pay, we explore factors that contribute to inequities in the health system finance and issues about the burden of out-of-pocket payment, as well as the progressivity and redistributive effect of out-of-pocket payment in Chile. Our analysis is based on data from the 2006 National Survey on Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payments. Results from this study indicate evidence of inequity, in spite of the progressivity of the healthcare system. Our analysis also identifies relevant policy variables such as education, insurance system, and method of payment that should be taken into consideration in the ongoing debates and research in improving the Chilean system. In order to reduce the detected disparities among income groups, healthcare priorities should target low-income groups. Furthermore, policies should explore changes in the access to education and its impact on equity.

  7. Alternative Payment Models in Radiology: The Legislative and Regulatory Roadmap for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ezequiel; McGinty, Geraldine B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) replaces the sustainable growth rate with a payment system based on the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System and incentives for alternative payment model participation. It is important that radiologists understand the statutory requirements of MACRA. This includes the nature of the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System composite performance score and its impact on payments. The timeline for MACRA implementation is fairly aggressive and includes a robust effort to define episode groups, which include radiologic services. A number of organizations, including the ACR, are commenting on the structure of MACRA-directed initiatives. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bank of Montreal v. Dynex Petroleum Ltd.: the priority of overriding royalties and net profit interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearlove, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The practice by the petroleum industry of granting overriding royalties (ORRs) and net profit interests (NPIs), was discussed. Some of the reasons for granting ORRs or NPIs included: (1) securing a lease, (2) obtaining geological information, (3) a condition of employment, or (4) acceptance of risk in exploration. In the recent case of Bank of Montreal versus Dynex Petroleum Ltd., it was held that in Alberta, ORRs and NPIs issuing out of a lessee's interest in an oil and gas lease cannot be a grant of interest in land. The effect of this decision is that it will make it difficult to create an ORR or NPI that is not merely a contract. An appeal is expected

  9. Mining royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenković Rade J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources are finite and nonrenewable in the sense that their extraction permanently depletes a country's resource inventory. The role of governments should be to manage the exploitation of these resources to maximize the economic benefits to their community, consistent with the need to attract and retain the exploration and development capital necessary to continue to realize these benefits for as long as possible. In designing mineral sector taxation systems, policy makers must carefully seek to balance tax types, rates, and incentives that satisfy the needs of both the nation and the mining investor.

  10. CMS announces new payment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On Tuesday, 1/9/18, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS announced a new voluntary bundled-payment model that will be considered an advanced alternative payment model under Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA (1. The new model is the first advanced Alternative Payment Model (APM to be introduced by the Trump administration. The Trump administration has been a vocal advocate of reducing administrative burden for clinicians and has touted voluntary models as a solution (2. The new, voluntary model comes less than two months after the CMS officially decided to eliminate two mandatory bundled-payment models created during the Obama administration. Under the model, clinician payment will be based on quality measures during a 90-day episode of care. Participants must select at least one of the 32 clinical episodes to apply to the model. The inpatient clinical episodes are listed in Table 1 (3. Table 1. Clinical inpatient episodes under …

  11. Ethical Implications of Case-Based Payment in China: A Systematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pingyue; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Wild, Verina

    2015-12-01

    How health care providers are paid affects how medicine is practiced. It is thus important to assess provider payment models not only from the economic perspective but also from the ethical perspective. China recently started to reform the provider payment model in the health care system from fee-for-service to case-based payment. This paper aims to examine this transition from an ethical perspective. We collected empirical studies on the impact of case-based payment in the Chinese health care system and applied a systematic ethical matrix that integrates clinical ethics and public health ethics to analyze the empirical findings. We identified eleven prominent ethical issues related to case-based payment. Some ethical problems of case-based payment in China are comparable to ethical problems of managed care and diagnosis related groups in high-income countries. However, in this paper we discuss in greater detail four specific ethical issues in the Chinese context: professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, access to care and patient autonomy. Based on the analysis, we cautiously infer that case-based payment is currently more ethically acceptable than fee-for-service in the context of China, mainly because it seems to lower financial barriers to access care. Nonetheless, it will be difficult to justify the implementation of case-based payment if no additional measures are taken to monitor and minimize its existing negative ethical implications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Strategic interaction among hospitals and nursing facilities: the efficiency effects of payment systems and vertical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D; Parker, E; Wendel, J

    2001-03-01

    Rising post-acute care expenditures for Medicare transfer patients and increasing vertical integration between hospitals and nursing facilities raise questions about the links between payment system structure, the incentive for vertical integration and the impact on efficiency. In the United States, policy-makers are responding to these concerns by initiating prospective payments to nursing facilities, and are exploring the bundling of payments to hospitals. This paper develops a static profit-maximization model of the strategic interaction between the transferring hospital and a receiving nursing facility. This model suggests that the post-1984 system of prospective payment for hospital care, coupled with nursing facility payments that reimburse for services performed, induces inefficient under-provision of hospital services and encourages vertical integration. It further indicates that the extension of prospective payment to nursing facilities will not eliminate the incentive to vertically integrate, and will not result in efficient production unless such integration takes place. Bundling prospective payments for hospitals and nursing facilities will neither remove the incentive for vertical integration nor induce production efficiency without such vertical integration. However, bundled payment will induce efficient production, with or without vertical integration, if nursing facilities are reimbursed for services performed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Amendment of the law of obligations and the impact on power service contracts: the new provisions on statutory limitation and default in payment; Schuldrechtsmodernisierung und Stromlieferung: Auswirkungen des neuen Verjaehrungs- und Verzugsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genten, A. [Stadtwerke Aachen AG (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    The amendments to the BGB (German Civil Code) were necessary in response to three novel EU Directives: the Directives on consumer goods, default in payment, and e-commerce. (orig./CB) [German] Die Notwendigkeit der Anpassung ergab sich aus der Pflicht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zur Umsetzung von drei Richtlinien der Europaeischen Union: Verbrauchsgueterrichtlinie, Zahlungsverzugsrichtlinie, E-Commerce-Richtlinie. (orig./CB)

  14. 20 CFR 411.550 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system? 411.550 Section 411.550 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system? The amount of each monthly outcome...

  15. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  16. Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year 2010...

  17. 32 CFR 756.7 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment is possible under another statute. In some cases, neither the NAFI nor its insurer may be legally responsible. In those instances when there is no negligence, and payment is authorized under some other...

  18. The investment of royalties on municipality of Presidente Kennedy and the diversification of production; A aplicacao dos recursos advindos dos 'royalties' do petroleo no municipio de Presidente Kennedy e a diversificacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, Alessandro; Zardo, Bruno [Universidade de Vila Velha, MG (Brazil). Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    After the promulgation of the Law number 9.478/97 and the magnifying of oil extraction on Field Jubarte, a significant increase of the Royalties and Special Participations could be noticed on the municipality of Presidente Kennedy. The aim of the present article is to to carry through a study about the importance of such resource on the municipality's economy and to analyse how does the shares were reinvested with the objective of minimizing the local economy's dependence from oil activities. The method adopted involved data research and analysis referent to the royalties and special participations values, as well as information regarding work market's diversification. What is persuited is to show that the amounts proceeding from the oil activities ends up responsible for financing government's machine, what disables inter-generation's justice and sector's diversification. (author)

  19. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  20. 36 CFR 51.79 - May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of a franchise fee or other payments? 51.79 Section 51.79 Parks, Forests, and Public Property....79 May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments? The Director may not waive the concessioner's payment of a franchise fee or other payments or consideration required by a...

  1. 42 CFR 412.540 - Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital prospective payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.540 Section 412.540 Public Health CENTERS... PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals... payment system. The prospective payment system includes payment for inpatient operating costs of...

  2. 42 CFR 408.65 - Payment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment options. 408.65 Section 408.65 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Individual Payment § 408.65 Payment options...

  3. 7 CFR 1599.6 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.6 Payments. (a... payment; the bank ABA number to which payment is to be made; the account number for the deposit at the bank; the participant's taxpayer identification number; and the type of the account into which the...

  4. 7 CFR 1499.6 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.6 Payments. (a) If the... payment; the bank ABA number to which payment is to be made; the account number for the deposit at the bank; the participant's taxpayer identification number; and the type of the account into which the...

  5. 24 CFR 2002.15 - Advance payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... where the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees, or require an advance payment of an amount up to the full estimated charges in the case of requesters with no history of payment; or (2) Where a requester has previously failed to pay a fee charged in a timely fashion (i.e., within 30 days...

  6. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees, or require an advance payment of an amount up to the full estimated charges in the case of requesters with no history of payment; or (2) A requester has previously failed to pay a fee in a timely fashion (within 30 days of billing), then NASA may...

  7. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment methods..., and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability as..., Payment Management System, Rockville, MD 20852. Interest amounts up to $250 per year may be retained by...

  8. 20 CFR 410.501 - Payment periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment periods. 410.501 Section 410.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.501 Payment periods. Benefits are paid to...

  9. 20 CFR 627.430 - Grant payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... after receipt of a proper request for reimbursement. (e) Working capital advance payments. If a... working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash on a working capital advance payment basis. Under... reimburse the subrecipient for its actual cash disbursements. The working capital advance method of payment...

  10. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.112 Late payments. Pursuant to § 920.41(a), interest will be charged at a 1.5 percent monthly simple interest rate. Assessments for kiwifruit shall be deemed late if not received... late charge will be assessed when payment becomes 30 days late. Interest and late payment charges shall...

  11. 42 CFR 460.182 - Medicaid payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid payment. 460.182 Section 460.182 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Payment § 460.182 Medicaid payment. (a) Under a PACE program agreement, the State administering agency...

  12. 45 CFR 34.7 - Payment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whole or part, the claims officer shall prepare and mail a payment voucher to the claimant. (b) This... payment voucher, the claims officer shall sign and forward the signed voucher to the office where the claimant is or was employed for processing. (d) Upon receipt of the signed payment voucher, the office in...

  13. 41 CFR 51-5.7 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payments. 51-5.7 Section... Payments. Payments for products or services of persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities shall be made within 30 days after shipment or receipt of a proper invoice or voucher. ...

  14. 5 CFR 1655.14 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1655.14 Section 1655.14 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.14 Loan payments. (a) Loan payments must be made through payroll deduction in accordance with the loan agreement. Once loan...

  15. 5 CFR 1620.35 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1620.35 Section 1620.35... Nonappropriated Fund Employees § 1620.35 Loan payments. NAF instrumentalities must deduct and transmit TSP loan... CFR part 1655 and Board procedures. Loan payments may not be deducted and transmitted for employees...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1186 - Payment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment issues. 27.1186 Section 27.1186 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1186 Payment issues. Payment of cost...

  17. Security of payment in Malaysian construction industry: issues on sub-contract's direct payment

    OpenAIRE

    Supardi, Azizan; Adnan, Hamimah

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, sub-contractors have to bear with the current structure of payment mechanisms in the standard forms of contract, which are payment upon certification, direct payment from the employer, and contingent or conditional payment. However, „direct payment‟ provision is applied for in most of the nominated sub-contracts and not to the domestic sub-contractors; thus the Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication (CIPA) Act is proposed. This paper, though, is to disclose the findings o...

  18. Assessing catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health care payments in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwesiga, Brendan; Zikusooka, Charlotte M; Ataguba, John E

    2015-01-22

    Direct out-of-pocket payments for health care are recognised as limiting access to health care services and also endangering the welfare of households. In Uganda, such payments comprise a large portion of total health financing. This study assesses the catastrophic and impoverishing impact of paying for health care out-of-pocket in Uganda. Using data from the Uganda National Household Surveys 2009/10, the catastrophic impact of out-of-pocket health care payments is defined using thresholds that vary with household income. The impoverishing effect of out-of-pocket health care payments is assessed using the Ugandan national poverty line and the World Bank poverty line ($1.25/day). A high level and intensity of both financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to out-of-pocket payments are recorded. Using an initial threshold of 10% of household income, about 23% of Ugandan households face financial ruin. Based on both the $1.25/day and the Ugandan poverty lines, about 4% of the population are further impoverished by such payments. This represents a relative increase in poverty head count of 17.1% and 18.1% respectively. The absence of financial protection in Uganda's health system calls for concerted action. Currently, out-of-pocket payments account for a large share of total health financing and there is no pooled prepayment system available. There is therefore a need to move towards mandatory prepayment. In this way, people could access the needed health services without any associated financial consequence.

  19. Economic governance of property rights: comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in genetically modified soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fowler de Avila Monteiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the governance of property rights on genetically modified (GM soybean seeds. Specifically, the article undertakes a comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in GM soybean seeds in the U.S. and Brazil. For each country, the authors describe the regulatory framework governing the protection of biotechnology innovations in agriculture and investigate the mechanisms of royalty collection in GM soybean seeds. The paper also offers econometric evidence linking the capture of value on biotech innovations and the protection mechanisms deployed by biotech firms. The results suggest that, subject to the institutional environment, firms may choose to transact a GM attribute separated from the seed, building specialized governance structures framed around the genetic attribute and not around the seed as a whole.

  20. Insider patent holder licensing in an oligopoly market with different cost structures: Fixed-fee, royalty, and auction

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Chung Chang

    2010-01-01

    The issue of the optimal licensing contract in firms having different cost structures is studied when the innovator is a producing patent holder who has three alternative licensing strategies, namely, the fixed-fee, royalty rate, and auction strategies. We conclude that the auction licensing strategy is not the best strategy when the innovator is a producing patent holder. This finding differs from that of Kabiraj (2004) where the auction licensing method is the optimal licensing strategy whe...

  1. License and entry strategies for an outside innovator in duopoly with combination of royalty and fixed fee under vertical differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We consider a choice of options for an innovating firm in duopoly under vertical differentiation to enter the market with or without licensing its technology for producing a higher quality good to the incumbent firm using a combination of a royalty per output and a fixed license fee, or to license its technology without entry. With general distribution function of consumers' taste parameter and cost function we will show that when the innovating firm licenses its technology to the incumbent f...

  2. Economic governance of property rights: comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in genetically modified soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fowler de Avila Monteiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the governance of property rights on genetically modified (GM soybean seeds. Specifically, the article undertakes a comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in GM soybean seeds in the U.S. and Brazil. For each country, the authors describe the regulatory framework governing the protection of biotechnology innovations in agriculture and investigate the mechanisms of royalty collection in GM soybean seeds. The paper also offers econometric evidence linking the capture of value on biotech innovations and the protection mechanisms deployed by biotech firms. The results suggest that, subject to the institutional environment, firms may choose to transact a GM attribute separated from the seed, building specialized governance structures framed around the genetic attribute and not around the seed as a whole.Este artigo examina a governança de direitos de propriedade em sementes transgênicas de soja. Especificamente, o estudo empreende uma análise comparativa sobre a cobrança de royalties em sementes transgênicas de soja nos EUA e no Brasil. Para cada país, os autores descrevem a estrutura regulatória que rege a proteção de inovações biotecnológicas na agricultura e investigam os mecanismos de cobrança de royalties em sementes transgênicas de soja. O artigo também examina evidências econométricas que relacionam a captura de valor sobre inovações biotecnológicas e os mecanismos de proteção utilizados por firmas de biotecnologia. Os resultados sugerem que, com base no ambiente institucional, uma firma pode optar por transacionar um atributo transgênico separado da semente, estabelecendo estruturas especializadas de governança que se emolduram em torno do atributo e não da semente em si.

  3. Bundled payment and enhanced recovery after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Medicare's fee-for-service (FFS) payment model may contribute to unsustainable spending growth. Payers are turning to alternative payment methods. The leading alternative payment model to the FFS problem is bundled payment. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is taking another step to improve healthcare quality at lower cost. The CMS's Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation developed four models of bundled payments and 48 discrete clinical condition episodes. Many surgical care procedures are included in the 48 different clinical condition episodes.

  4. Payment Instruments, Finance and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, H.; Uras, R.B.; Ramrattan, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of a payment technology innovation (mobile money) on entrepreneurship and economic development in a quantitative dynamic general equilibrium model. In the model mobile money dominates fiat money as a medium of exchange, since it avoids the risk of theft, but comes with

  5. Payment instruments, finance and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Thorsten; Pamuk, Haki; Ramrattan, Ravindra; Uras, Burak R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of a payment technology innovation (mobile money) on entrepreneurship and economic development in a quantitative dynamic general equilibrium model. In the model mobile money dominates fiat money as a medium of exchange, since it avoids the risk of theft, but comes with

  6. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  7. Board effectiveness: Investigating payment asymmetry between board members and shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchun Chi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Board members may well be responsible for dissension between themselves and shareholders since they are simultaneously the setters and receivers of both board remuneration and dividends. They may act out of their own personal interests at the expense of external shareholders. We investigate the impact of ownership structure, board structure and control deviation on payment asymmetry, where excessively high remuneration is paid to board members but considerably lower dividends are distributed to shareholders. We find strong evidence confirming that the smaller the shareholdings of board members and outside blockholders are, the more asymmetric the payments are. With controlling family members on the board and a higher percentage of seats held by independent board members, there is a slight reduction in the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. In addition, it is abundantly clear that the larger the board seat-control deviation is, the greater is the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. While prior research has primarily focused on board-manager agency issues, the board-shareholder perspective could be even more important in that it is the board that is the most directly delegated agent of shareholders, not the managers

  8. Payment mechanisms for micro-generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, W.; Andrews, S.

    2002-07-01

    The Department of Trade and Industry commissioned a study into payment options for the increasing number of micro-generators (in domestic dwellings and where the generating capacity is not more than 5kW i.e. essentially micro-CHP and photovoltaics) supplying power for the national distribution network. It is shown that small generators will impact on all aspects of industry and connection will need to be simplified. The network will call for a more actively managed regime. Metering will need to be more sophisticated and agreement reached on how costs should be allocated when demand is low and surplus electricity is exported to the system. Three options were considered to be viable.

  9. Catastrophic Economic Consequences of Healthcare Payments: Effects on Poverty Estimates in Egypt, Jordan, and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shoukry Rashad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare payments could drive households with no health insurance coverage into financial catastrophe, which might lead them to cut spending on necessities, sell assets, or use credit. In extreme cases, healthcare payments could have devastating consequences on the household economic status that would push them into extreme poverty. Using nationally representative surveys from three Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Jordan, and Palestine, this paper examines the incidence, intensity and distribution of catastrophic health payments, and assesses the poverty impact of out-of-pocket health payments (OOP. The OOP for healthcare were considered catastrophic if it exceeded 10% of a household’s total expenditure or 40% of non-food expenditure. The poverty impact was evaluated using poverty head counts and poverty gaps before and after OOP. Results show that OOP exacerbate households’ living severely in Egypt, pushing more than one-fifth of the population into a financial catastrophe and 3% into extreme poverty in 2011. However, in Jordan and Palestine, the disruptive impact of OOP remains modest over time. In the three countries, the catastrophic health payment is the problem of the better off households. Poverty alleviation policies should help reduce the reliance on OOP to finance healthcare. Moving toward universal health coverage could also be a promising option to protect households from the catastrophic economic consequences of health care payments.

  10. A Capacity Payment Model for the Italian Electricity Market. Why It is Needed and How Can It Be Designed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, A.; Benini, M.; Gallanti, M [CESI RICERCA S.p.A(Italy)

    2007-06-15

    The capacity payment model proposed by the Regulatory Authority for the Italian electricity market has been described and its impact has been assessed by means of long-term dynamic simulations. By comparing the simulation results of scenarios with and without the proposed capacity payment models, as well as with a scenario characterized by a fixed-payment model, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. the proposed capacity payment model is able to sufficiently incentivize investments, so that a satisfactory amount of generation capacity results available over time, keeping the reserve margin substantially over the reference lower limit; 2. the proposed capacity payment model allows to substantially reduce price peaks, thus reducing both the average electricity prices and their volatility; 3. specific costs of the proposed capacity payment model are in the range between 2.5 to 5.5 Euro/MWh along the simulation period; 4. savings in buying energy from the power exchange due to price reductions substantially compensate the 'premium' related costs in the long term: this means that, with the proposed capacity payment model, it is possible to guarantee a better adequacy of the electric system without additional costs; 5. the simulations confirmed that the dynamic behavior of the proposed capacity payment model results in a better timing in providing incentive to investments in new generation capacity when needed, w.r.t. a simple conventional fixed-payment model.

  11. The role of hospital payments in the adoption of new medical technologies: an international survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Torbica, Aleksandra; Callea, Giuditta; Mateus, Ceu

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of prospective payment systems in the adoption of new medical technologies across different countries. A literature review was conducted to provide background for the study and guide development of a survey instrument. The survey was disseminated to hospital payment systems experts in 15 jurisdictions. Fifty-one surveys were disseminated, with 34 returned. The surveys returned covered 14 of the 15 jurisdictions invited to participate. The majority (71%) of countries update the patient classification system and/or payment tariffs on an annual basis to try to account for new technologies. Use of short-term separate or supplementary payments for new technologies occurs in 79% of countries to ensure adequate funding and facilitate adoption. A minority (43%) of countries use evidence of therapeutic benefit and/or costs to determine or update payment tariffs, although it is somewhat more common in establishing short-term payments. The main barrier to using evidence is uncertain or unavailable clinical evidence. Almost three-fourths of respondents believed diagnosis-related group systems incentivize or deter technology adoption, depending on the particular circumstances. Improvements are needed, such as enhanced strategies for evidence generation and linking evidence of value to payments, national and international collaboration and training to improve existing practice, and flexible timelines for short-term payments. Importantly, additional research is needed to understand how different payment policies impact technology uptake as well as quality of care and costs.

  12. A Capacity Payment Model for the Italian Electricity Market. Why It is Needed and How Can It Be Designed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, A.; Benini, M.; Gallanti, M

    2007-06-01

    The capacity payment model proposed by the Regulatory Authority for the Italian electricity market has been described and its impact has been assessed by means of long-term dynamic simulations. By comparing the simulation results of scenarios with and without the proposed capacity payment models, as well as with a scenario characterized by a fixed-payment model, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. the proposed capacity payment model is able to sufficiently incentivize investments, so that a satisfactory amount of generation capacity results available over time, keeping the reserve margin substantially over the reference lower limit; 2. the proposed capacity payment model allows to substantially reduce price peaks, thus reducing both the average electricity prices and their volatility; 3. specific costs of the proposed capacity payment model are in the range between 2.5 to 5.5 Euro/MWh along the simulation period; 4. savings in buying energy from the power exchange due to price reductions substantially compensate the 'premium' related costs in the long term: this means that, with the proposed capacity payment model, it is possible to guarantee a better adequacy of the electric system without additional costs; 5. the simulations confirmed that the dynamic behavior of the proposed capacity payment model results in a better timing in providing incentive to investments in new generation capacity when needed, w.r.t. a simple conventional fixed-payment model.

  13. Inflation and balanced-path growth with alternative payment mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 500 (2005), s. 247-270 ISSN 0013-0133 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/2172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation * payment mechanisms Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2005 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2004.00968.x

  14. Participation determinants in the DRG payment system of obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung-Kook; Kim, Chang-yup

    2010-03-01

    The Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payment system, which has been implemented in Korea since 1997, is based on voluntary participation. Hence, the positive impact of this system depends on the participation of physicians. This study examined the factors determining participation of Korean obstetrics & gynecology (OBGYN) clinics in the DRG-based payment system. The demographic information, practice-related variables of OBGYN clinics and participation information in the DRG-based payment system were acquired from the nationwide data from 2002 to 2007 produced by the National Health Insurance Corporation and the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. The subjects were 336 OBGYN clinics consisting of 43 DRG clinics that had maintained their participation in 2003-2007 and 293 no-DRG (fee-for-service) clinics that had never been a DRG clinic during the same period. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with the participation of OBGYN clinics in the DRG-based payment system. The factors affecting participation of OBGYN clinics in the DRG-based payment system were as follows (psystem are more likely to participate in the DRG-based payment system. Therefore, to ensure adequate participation of physicians, a payment system with a stronger financial incentive might be more suitable in Korea.

  15. Os efeitos da aplicação dos royalties petrolíferos sobre os investimentos públicos nos municípios brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Araujo Reis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A promulgação da Lei no 9.478, de 1997, proporcionou um maior ingresso de royalties provenientes da exploração de petróleo e gás natural em alguns municípios brasileiros. Por ser uma receita transitória, é relevante investigar a aplicação desses recursos, da perspectiva das finanças públicas. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar os efeitos da aplicação dos royalties petrolíferos sobre os investimentos públicos nos municípios brasileiros, no período de 1999 a 2011. A estratégia metodológica envolveu o uso do modelo econométrico de painel, a partir da utilização das variáveis receitas orçamentárias, royalties e despesas de capital dos respectivos municípios, obtidas a partir de fontes secundárias. Os resultados mostram que os municípios mais dependentes dos royalties elevaram as despesas de capital com o aumento dos royalties, tanto pela ótica per capita como pela proporção fiscal.

  16. Stalkers and harassers of royalty: the role of mental illness and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D V; Mullen, P E; Pathé, M T; Meloy, J R; Preston, L F; Darnley, B; Farnham, F R

    2009-09-01

    Public figures are at increased risk of attracting unwanted attention in the form of intrusions, stalking and, occasionally, attack. Whereas the potential threat to the British Royal Family from terrorists and organized groups is clearly defined, there is a dearth of knowledge about that from individual harassers and stalkers. This paper reports findings from the first systematic study of this group. A retrospective study was conducted of a randomly selected stratified sample (n=275) of 8001 files compiled by the Metropolitan Police Service's Royalty Protection Unit over 15 years on inappropriate communications or approaches to members of the British Royal Family. Cases were split into behavioural types. Evidence of major mental illness was recorded from the files. Cases were classified according to a motivational typology. An analysis was undertaken of associations between motivation, type of behaviour and mental illness. Of the study sample, 83.6% were suffering from serious mental illness. Different forms of behaviour were associated with different patterns of symptomatology. Cases could be separated into eight motivational groups, which also showed significant differences in mental state. Marked differences in the intrusiveness of behaviour were found between motivational groups. The high prevalence of mental illness indicates the relevance of psychiatric intervention. This would serve the health interests of psychotic individuals and alleviate protection concerns without the necessity of attempting large numbers of individual risk predictions. The finding that some motivations are more likely to drive intrusive behaviours than others may help focus both health and protection interventions.

  17. Model Checking a Client-Side Micro Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhary, Kaylash; Fehnker, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Virtual payment systems overcome the drawbacks such as processing and operational cost of the traditional payment system. The main aim of the virtual payment system is to provide efficient services in terms of cost. Online payment using credit card is one of the most expensive of all payment means.

  18. 42 CFR 484.205 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... episode payment is subject to the following adjustments and additional payments: (1) A low-utilization... 5, 1997 unless the national 60-day episode payment is subject to a low-utilization payment... payment for initial episodes is paid to an HHA at 60 percent of the case-mix and wage adjusted 60-day...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.361 - Special skills payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Special Payments § 9701.361 Special skills payments... at the same time as basic pay or in periodic lump-sum payments. Special skills payments are not basic... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special skills payments. 9701.361 Section...

  20. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  1. Charging of mobile services by mobile payment reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  2. 31 CFR 203.10 - Electronic payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic payment methods. 203.10... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Electronic Federal Tax Payments § 203.10 Electronic payment methods. (a) General. Electronic payment methods for Federal tax payments available under this subpart include ACH debit entries...

  3. Switzerland advances payments to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the picture, Charles Kleiber (third from left) visits the TI8 tunnel with (left to right) Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council, Guy Hentsch, Personal adviser to the Director-General, Michel Buchs and Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger. The State Secretary for Science and Research in Switzerland, Charles Kleiber, signed an agreement with CERN last week for an advancement of contributions from his country. The Confédération Helvétique will make an advanced payment of 90 million CHF. There will be no interest involved in this payment and the amount of money will be deducted from Switzerland's ordinary contributions to CERN in later years.

  4. Capital financing in prospective payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszustowicz, R J; Dreachslin, J L

    1984-03-01

    In the era of prospective payment, arranging financing for hospital capital projects is expected to become even more complicated than under cost-based reimbursement systems. This article outlines the information needed for a bond issue in the prospective payment environment, defines the roles and duties of several external persons and organizations involved with planning a major capital financing, and provides an overview of the entire process. This article assumes for illustrative purposes that a tax-exempt bond issue is going to be used to finance a facility expansion. This method was chosen since over 70% of all major capital financing for hospitals use the tax-exempt bond as the principal vehicle for attracting the necessary debt to finance a major construction project. The tax-exempt bond issue also requires the most detail in documentation and legal provisions.

  5. Genesis and Evolution of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...... thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment paltforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  6. Specialty Payment Model Opportunities and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Andrew W.; Chan, Chris; Hirshman, Samuel; Huckfeldt, Peter J.; Kofner, Aaron; Liu, Jodi L.; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Popescu, Ioana; Timbie, Justin W.; Hussey, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastroenterology and cardiology services are common and costly among Medicare beneficiaries. Episode-based payment, which aims to create incentives for high-quality, low-cost care, has been identified as a promising alternative payment model. This article describes research related to the design of episode-based payment models for ambulatory gastroenterology and cardiology services for possible testing by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The authors analyzed Medicare claims data to describe the frequency and characteristics of gastroenterology and cardiology index procedures, the practices that delivered index procedures, and the patients that received index procedures. The results of these analyses can help inform CMS decisions about the definition of episodes in an episode-based payment model; payment adjustments for service setting, multiple procedures, or other factors; and eligibility for the payment model. PMID:28083363

  7. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments... an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? Yes, an EN may use milestone or outcome payments to make payments to a beneficiary. [73 FR 29350, May 20, 2008] ...

  8. 20 CFR 411.536 - Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.536 Section 411.536 Employees' Benefits... Systems § 411.536 Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment system? When the beneficiary's outcome payment period begins before the beneficiary has...

  9. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital... must meet the conditions of this section to receive payment under the prospective payment system...

  10. Medicare Program; Cancellation of Advancing Care Coordination Through Episode Payment and Cardiac Rehabilitation Incentive Payment Models; Changes to Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Payment Model: Extreme and Uncontrollable Circumstances Policy for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Payment Model. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This final rule cancels the Episode Payment Models (EPMs) and Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) Incentive Payment Model and rescinds the regulations governing these models. It also implements certain revisions to the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, including: Giving certain hospitals selected for participation in the CJR model a one-time option to choose whether to continue their participation in the model; technical refinements and clarifications for certain payment, reconciliation and quality provisions; and a change to increase the pool of eligible clinicians that qualify as affiliated practitioners under the Advanced Alternative Payment Model (Advanced APM) track. An interim final rule with comment period is being issued in conjunction with this final rule in order to address the need for a policy to provide some flexibility in the determination of episode costs for providers located in areas impacted by extreme and uncontrollable circumstances.

  11. Payment Procedures for Electronic Government Services

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse payment procedures for their suitability for electronic government. We provide an overview of the payment procedures currently available on the market, compare the situation in electronic government with the situation in electronic commerce and analyze what we can transfer. Based on functional requirements we propose a scheme that allows public agencies to examine the appropriateness of any given payment procedure for electronic government.

  12. Developing a framework for mobile payments integration

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, Fergal; Hedman, Jonas; Dennehy, Denis J.; Damsgaard, Jan; Tan, Kay-Ti; McCarthy, James B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper derives a theoretical framework for consideration of both the technologically driven dimensions of mobile payment solutions, and the associated value proposition for customers. Banks promote traditional payment instruments whose value proposition is the management of risk for both consumers and merchants. These instruments are centralised, costly and lack decision support functionality. The ubiquity of the mobile phone has provided a decentralised platform for managing payment proc...

  13. Coopetitive Service Innovation in Mobile Payment Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Mobile payments are a new way to pay in the digital era. The emerging mobile payment platforms and services enable viable businesses through exchanges of value between consumers and collaborating actors in a real-time and context-specific way. However, business interactions in mobile payment markets are reected in a highly dynamic market structure that requires coopetition (simultaneous competition and collaboration) between the participants in the markets. This dissertation studies how mo...

  14. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 4001 - Calculation of Upfront Payment or Future Appreciation Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depend on actual appreciation of the property as determined in accordance with 24 CFR 4001.120. Payment... Future Appreciation Payment A Appendix A to Part 4001 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Future Appreciation Payment Subordinate mortgage lien holder's cumulative combined loan-to-value ratio...

  15. 42 CFR 412.632 - Method of payment under the inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rehabilitation facility receives payment under this subpart for inpatient operating costs and capital-related... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR... and for costs of an approved education program and other costs paid outside the prospective payment...

  16. 42 CFR 412.432 - Method of payment under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facility prospective payment system. 412.432 Section 412.432 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Services of Inpatient...

  17. 42 CFR 419.31 - Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and... Outpatient Services § 419.31 Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights. (a) APC... of resource use into APC groups. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, items and...

  18. Financial Assistance Payments to Multiemployer Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet contains a list of multiemployer plans receiving financial assistance payments from the Pension Benefits Guaranty Corporation from the period 2005...

  19. Informal payments in the Greek health sector amid the financial crisis: old habits die last...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Golna, Christina; Tountas, Yannis; Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2016-03-01

    Under-the-table informal payments are commonplace as reimbursements for health care services in Greece. As the country faces a severe financial crisis, the need to investigate the extent of such payments, their incidence and their impact on household income is pressing. A survey of 2,741 persons from across the country was conducted between December 2011 and February 2012. The sample was defined via a multistage selection process using a quota for municipality of residence, sex and age. The maximum error margin was 2.41% with a confidence interval of 95%. The survey reports under-the-table payments for approximately 32.4% of public hospital admissions. Private clinics, which display the bulk of out-of-pocket payments, naturally display the lowest under-the-table payments. The highest percentage of under-the-table payments in the private sector appears at visits to private practitioners and dentists (36%). Informal payments are most frequently made upon request, prior to service provision, to facilitate access to care and to reduce waiting times, and at a much lower percentage, to post-service provision, and out of gratitude. This survey reveals that, due to severe financial pressure, there is a growing unwillingness of citizens to pay informally and an increasing demand for these payments as a prerequisite for access to services or to redeem services provided. This "hidden" financial burden of at least 27% impacts negatively on the living conditions of households and is not reported as purchasing ability or cost of living.

  20. Measuring Effective Tax Rates for Oil and Gas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to provide cost of capital formulae for assessing the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest in oil and gas industries in Canada. The analysis is based on the assumption that businesses invest in capital until the after-tax rate of return on capital is equal to the tax-adjusted cost of capital. The cost of capital in absence of taxation is the inflation-adjusted cost of finance. The after-tax rate of return on capital is the annualized profit earned on a project net of the taxes paid by the businesses. For this purpose, we include corporate income, sales and other capital-related taxes as applied to oil and gas investments. For oil and gas taxation, it is necessary to account for royalties in a special way. Royalties are payment made by businesses for the right to extract oil and gas from land owned by the property holder. The land is owned by the province so the royalties are a rental payment for the benefit received from extracting the product from provincial lands. Thus, provincial royalty payments are a cost to oil and gas companies for using public property. However, since the provincial government is responsible for the royalty regime and could use taxes like the corporate income tax to extract revenue, one might think of royalties as part of the overall fiscal regime to raise revenue. In principle, one should subtract the rental benefit received from oil and gas businesses from taxes and royalty payments to assess the overall fiscal impact. This is impossible to do without measuring some explicit rental rate for use of provincial property. Further, royalty payments may distort economic decisions unlike a payment based on the economic rents earned on oil and gas projects. Instead, for comparability across jurisdictions, one might calculate the aggregate tax and royalty effective tax rates (such as between Alberta and Texas.

  1. 42 CFR 413.172 - Principles of prospective payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End... methodology used to establish payment rates and the changes specified in § 413.196(b) in the Federal Register...

  2. 28 CFR 104.51 - Payments to eligible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Payment of Claims § 104.51 Payments to eligible individuals. Not later than 20 days... compensation due a claimant under the Fund, the Special Master shall authorize payment to such claimant of the...

  3. 75 FR 47236 - Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... golden parachute, severance, indemnification or other agreement. Claims for employee welfare benefits or... legitimate employee severance payments and improper golden parachute payments. DATES: Comments must be... FICUs with greater clarity on the distinction between legitimate employee severance payments and...

  4. CRADA Payment Options | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI TTC CRADA PAYMENT OPTIONS: Electronic Payments by Wire Transfer via Fedwire, Mail a check to the Institute or Center, or Automated Clearing House (ACH)/Electronic Funds Transfer (ETF) payments via Pay.gov (NCI ONLY).

  5. 76 FR 13292 - Medicare Program: Changes to the Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System and CY 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Prospective Payment System and CY 2011 Payment Rates; Changes to the Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment System..., 2010, entitled ``Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System and CY 2011 Payment Rates; Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment System and CY 2011 Payment Rates; Payments to Hospitals for...

  6. INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMS PAYMENTS ON THE ECONOMIC SECURITY OF THE COUNTRY, PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF OVERCOMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kiyanchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of customs payments as one of the main revenue sources of the state budget of Ukraine. The volume of receipt of customs payments to the state budget is characterized. The structure of receipts from customs payments for 2016-2017 is considered. Problems that violate the stable level of economic security of the country are identified. The complex of measures proposed to resolve deficiencies in the system of collection of customs payments to the State Budget of Ukraine is considered. The purpose of this article is to reveal the content and role of revenues from customs payments to the state budget and their impact on the country’s economic security. The subject of research: the impact of customs payments on the country’s economic security. The methodological basis of the study is a set of general, scientific, specific scientific and special methods and approaches, which helped to realize the conceptual unity of the research. In particular: an integrated approach that is used to analyse the collection of customs payments methods of induction and deduction, formalization to study the mechanism of charging customs payments, the method of analysis – in the study of the main elements of the collection of customs payments in Ukraine. Positive and normative research methods are used to develop proposed budget revenues from receipt of customs payments and to ensure stable economic security. Results. Thus, according to the results of the analysis, in 2017, there is a clear tendency to increase revenues to the state budget, including from customs payments. Thus, in 2017, the total amount of customs payments amounted to 277.27 billion UAH, which is 57.24 billion UAH more than the previous year (220.03 billion UAH. That is, customs payments increased by 26%. Economic implications. However, there are some problems in collecting customs payments to the state budget, which in turn violate a stable level of economic security of

  7. Global Patterns in the Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Ezzine-de-Blas

    Full Text Available Assessing global tendencies and impacts of conditional payments for environmental services (PES programs is challenging because of their heterogeneity, and scarcity of comparative studies. This meta-study systematizes 55 PES schemes worldwide in a quantitative database. Using categorical principal component analysis to highlight clustering patterns, we reconfirm frequently hypothesized differences between public and private PES schemes, but also identify diverging patterns between commercial and non-commercial private PES vis-à-vis their service focus, area size, and market orientation. When do these PES schemes likely achieve significant environmental additionality? Using binary logistical regression, we find additionality to be positively influenced by three theoretically recommended PES 'best design' features: spatial targeting, payment differentiation, and strong conditionality, alongside some contextual controls (activity paid for and implementation time elapsed. Our results thus stress the preeminence of customized design over operational characteristics when assessing what determines the outcomes of PES implementation.

  8. ANÁLISE DO IMPACTO DOS ROYALTIES DO PETRÓLEO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL DOS MUNICÍPIOS POTIGUARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridalvo Medeiros Alves de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os royalties do petróleo são compensações financeiras consequentes da exploração de petróleo ou gás natural. Devido à relevância da receita dos royalties do petróleo para a política fiscal e de desenvolvimento econômico do Rio Grande do Norte, e em particular, para os municípios que compõem a Área de Petróleo Potiguar, se fez necessário estabelecer um estudo sobre as suas influências na dinâmica socioeconômica dessa região. O objetivo geral desse artigo é investigar as contribuições das receitas extraordinárias, originadas da atividade industrial de petróleo no território potiguar, para a melhoria da qualidade de vida destes municípios. Assim, através da evolução dos índices de IDH-M vislumbrou-se observar se os royalties têm contribuído para o desenvolvimento humano nos municípios em estudo. Os dados para a pesquisa foram obtidos junto ao IBGE, ANP e FERMURN, e para analisar aevolução das duas variáveis – royalties e IDH-M – foi utilizada a metodologia descritiva. Ao final do artigo conclui-se que um dos fatores que ocasionaram na melhoria da dinâmica de desenvolvimento dos municípios da região foi o incremento dessa receita extraordinária nosorçamentos municipais, permitindo investimentos em programas que possibilitaram melhoria nas variáveis: renda, longevidade e educação. O resultado do coeficiente de Pearson (0,689apresentou que existe uma correlação positiva entre as variáveis no período de 1995 a 2000.

  9. Efecto de tres preservadores de la longevidad sobre la vida postcosecha de Rosa cv. Royalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. De la Cruz-Guzmán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de tres tratamientos: a sulfato de aluminio 0.6 g·l-1; b 400 ppm de sulfato de 8-hidroxiquinoleina (8-HQS; c pulso con tiosulfato de plata (STS, 0.025 mM durante 20 minutos y agua destilada como testigo sobre consumo hídrico, peso fresco, diámetro floral, concentración de azúcares solubles totales en pétalos y longevidad en Rosa cv. Royalty. En el testigo el consumo de agua descendió significativamente al noveno día, no así en los otros tratamientos que se mantuvieron por arriba del testigo hasta el final del experimento. La menor tasa de pérdida de peso fresco se observó en el tratamiento con sulfato de aluminio (Al, seguido por STS, HQS y testigo respectivamente, sugiriendo una probable asociación inversa con la vida postcosecha. Las flores tratadas con sulfato de aluminio, resultaron estadísticamente diferentes en cuanto a su estado ornamental óptimo en los días 9, 10, 11, 12 y 14 de vida postcosecha, evaluados mediante la prueba de Kruskall-Wallis El diámetro floral fue mayor en las flores tratadas con STS (9 cm, seguido por sulfato de aluminio (7.6 cm; éste último mantuvo la apertura dos días más que STS. En cuanto a la concentración de azúcares solubles totales en estado de botón y flor abierta, no se registraron diferencias significativas (P>0.05 ni entre tratamientos ni estados florales.

  10. International Petroleum Fiscal Regimes: Trends in Tax-Royalty Worldwide and in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Resource nationalism” is a cyclical phenomenon whereby governments assert varying degrees of control over natural resources located within their territories, in an attempt to maximise revenue generation from their national resources. Resource nationalism often depends on the price of hydrocarbons and the ability of national governments to extract them. International oil companies are attractive partners for the development of concessions as they have advanced extractive technology, superior project management skills, flexible logistical chains and access to capital from global financial markets. However, these advantages will erode as National Oil Companies (NOCs improve their expertise over the mid- to long-term and new forms of resource nationalism may restrict their room for manoeuvre.The recent trends in most of oil producing countries’ policies are focusing on highly increasing the fiscal levies imposed to resources exploited under the concession agreements and also on imposing minimum labor taxes. At the end of 2014, The Romanian Government will have to reappraise the fiscal systems for the companies operating in the national oil and gas upstream sector, because the 10-year "freezing" of royalties on oil and gas, at a very low level compared with other producing countries will come to an end. This article tries to present the trends in the international petroleum fiscal regimes worldwide, to make a comparative analysis between Romania and other countries from this point of view and finally to make some recommendations as regards the main guidelines that the negociators could follow in order to obtain better conditions for the new fiscal regime and implicitly a better turning into account of our natural resources to the benefit of the consumers.

  11. Secure E-payment Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar J Aboud

    2009-01-01

    The vast spreading of information in the last decade has led to greatdevelopment in e-commerce. For instance, e-trade and e-bank are two mainInternet services that implement e-transaction from anyplace in the world. Thishelps merchant and bank to ease the financial transaction process and to giveuser friendly services at any time. However, the cost of workers andcommunications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority andprotecting information is increased. E-payment is now ...

  12. Effects of Medicare payment reform: evidence from the home health interim and prospective payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Peter J; Sood, Neeraj; Escarce, José J; Grabowski, David C; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Medicare continues to implement payment reforms that shift reimbursement from fee-for-service toward episode-based payment, affecting average and marginal payment. We contrast the effects of two reforms for home health agencies. The home health interim payment system in 1997 lowered both types of payment; our conceptual model predicts a decline in the likelihood of use and costs, both of which we find. The home health prospective payment system in 2000 raised average but lowered marginal payment with theoretically ambiguous effects; we find a modest increase in use and costs. We find little substantive effect of either policy on readmissions or mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 42 CFR 86.15 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments. 86.15 Section 86.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.15 Payments....

  14. 42 CFR 86.35 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments. 86.35 Section 86.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.35 Payment...

  15. 20 CFR 617.28 - Transportation payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation payments. 617.28 Section 617... ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.28 Transportation payments. (a... transportation expenses if the training is outside the commuting area, but may not receive such assistance if...

  16. 5 CFR 1653.5 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... letter. This is intended to permit the payee sufficient time to consider decisions about tax withholding... time. A series of payments will not be made, even if the court order provides for such a method of.... (k) If a court ordered payment is returned as undeliverable, the TSP record keeper will attempt to...

  17. Risk Management for Third Party Payment Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, W; Hernandez Ganan, C.; Lobbezoo, M; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The payment industry has been characterized by a small number of players that operate the schemes for the facilitation of credit and debit card payments. Over the years, various initiatives have been taken in order to increase competition and hence cost efficiency within the industry. One of the

  18. 47 CFR 0.469 - Advance payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the requester has no history of payment. Where allowable charges are likely to exceed $250.00 and the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees the Commission may notify the requester of the... (k) (i.e., twenty business days from receipt of initial requests and twenty business days from...

  19. 36 CFR 1207.21 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a working.... The working capital advance method of payment shall not be used by grantees or subgrantees if the...

  20. 38 CFR 43.21 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a working.... The working capital advance method of payment shall not be used by grantees or subgrantees if the...

  1. 40 CFR 31.21 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a working.... The working capital advance method of payment shall not be used by grantees or subgrantees if the...

  2. 43 CFR 12.61 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a working.... The working capital advance method of payment shall not be used by grantees or subgrantees if the...

  3. 41 CFR 105-71.121 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital the awarding agency may provide cash or a working... disbursements. The working capital advance method of payment shall not be used by grantees or subgrantees if the...

  4. 20 CFR 437.21 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... lacks sufficient working capital, SSA may provide cash or a working capital advance basis. Under this... its actual cash disbursements. The working capital advance method of payment may not be used by...

  5. 32 CFR 33.21 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a working.... The working capital advance method of payment shall not be used by grantees or subgrantees if the...

  6. 7 CFR 3430.51 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION... payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted (see § 3430.3) or as specified in paragraph... Standard Application for Payments (ASAP) system, or another electronic funds transfer (EFT) method, except...

  7. 48 CFR 252.217-7007 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Officer shall approve progress payments based on the value, computed on the price of the job order, of... Contracting Officer may require. (c) The Government will retain until final completion and acceptance of all... direct that progress payments be based on the price of the job order as adjusted as a result of change...

  8. 12 CFR 219.6 - Payment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obtain payment of costs incurred prior to the time the financial institution receives this notice. [Reg... PROVIDING FINANCIAL RECORDS; RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FINANCIAL RECORDS (REGULATION S) Reimbursement to Financial Institutions for Providing Financial Records § 219.6 Payment procedures. (a) Notice...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6280 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA shall advance cash to the recipient to cover its estimated disbursement needs for an initial... following requirements, the recipient must comply with the requirements regarding payment described in 40 CFR 31.21 (f) through (h). (1) Assignment of payment. The recipient cannot assign the right to receive...

  10. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by a provider or supplier if the billing... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered...

  11. 7 CFR 1466.23 - Payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... practices on some or all of the operations of a producer related to organic production and the transition to organic production. Payments may not be made to cover the costs associated with organic certification or for practices that are eligible for cost-share payments under the National Organic Program (7 U.S.C...

  12. Model Adoption Exchange Payment System: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Robert J.

    This executive summary provides a brief description of the Model Adoption Exchange Payment System (MAEPS), a unique payment system aimed at improving the delivery of adoption exchange services throughout the United States. Following a brief introductory overview, MAEPS is described in terms of (1) its six components (registration, listing,…

  13. 45 CFR 2543.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods shall minimize the time... and disbursement by the recipient, and (2) Financial management systems that meet the standards for...

  14. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods must... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management systems that meet the...

  15. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management systems that meet the...

  16. 30 CFR 281.26 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments. 281.26 Section 281.26 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.26 Payments. (a...

  17. 32 CFR 34.12 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Program Management § 34.12 Payment. (a) Methods available. Payment methods for awards with for-profit... Administration Services Components,” DLAH 4105.4, which can be obtained from either: Defense Logistics Agency...-6220; or the Defense Contract Management Command home page at http://www.dcmc.dcrb.dla.mil. 2 See...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1170 - Payment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment Issues. 27.1170 Section 27.1170 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200 Mhz Bands § 27.1170 Payment Issues. Prior to...

  19. 38 CFR 70.30 - Payment principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment principles. 70.30 Section 70.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VHA BENEFICIARY TRAVEL UNDER 38 U.S.C. 111 § 70.30 Payment principles. (a) Subject to the other provisions of this...

  20. Consumer’s and merchant’s confidence in internet payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Bračun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Performing payment transactions over the Internet is becoming increasingly important. Whenever one interacts with others, he or she faces the problem of uncertainty because in interacting with others, one makes him or herself vulnerable, i.e. one can be betrayed. Thus, perceived risk and confidence are of fundamental importance in electronic payment transactions. A higher risk leads to greater hesitance about entering into a business relationship with a high degree of uncertainty; and therefore, to an increased need for confidence. This paper has two objectives. First, it aims to introduce and test a theoretical model that predicts consumer and merchant acceptance of the Internet payment solution by explaining the complex set of relationships among the key factors influencing confidence in electronic payment transactions. Second, the paper attempts to shed light on the complex interrelationship among confidence, control and perceived risk. An empirical study was conducted to test the proposed model using data from consumers and merchants in Slovenia. The results show how perceived risk dimensions and post-transaction control influence consumer’s and merchant’s confidence in electronic payment transactions, and the impact of confidence on the adoption of mass-market on-line payment solutions.

  1. A Secure Operational Model for Mobile Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Ku Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead of paying by cash, check, or credit cards, customers can now also use their mobile devices to pay for a wide range of services and both digital and physical goods. However, customers’ security concerns are a major barrier to the broad adoption and use of mobile payments. In this paper we present the design of a secure operational model for mobile payments in which access control is based on a service-oriented architecture. A customer uses his/her mobile device to get authorization from a remote server and generate a two-dimensional barcode as the payment certificate. This payment certificate has a time limit and can be used once only. The system also provides the ability to remotely lock and disable the mobile payment service.

  2. Congestion and cascades in payment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Robert J.; Bech, Morten L.; Soramäki, Kimmo

    2007-10-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of the interbank payment system. The model incorporates an endogenous instruction arrival process, a scale-free topology of payments between banks, a fixed total liquidity which limits banks’ capacity to process arriving instructions, and a global market that distributes liquidity. We find that at low liquidity the system becomes congested and payment settlement loses correlation with payment instruction arrival, becoming coupled across the network. The onset of congestion is evidently related to the relative values of three characteristic times: the time for banks’ net position to return to 0, the time for a bank to exhaust its liquidity endowment, and the liquidity market relaxation time. In the congested regime settlement takes place in cascades having a characteristic length scale. A global liquidity market substantially attenuates congestion, requiring only a small fraction of the payment-induced liquidity flow to achieve strong beneficial effects.

  3. 77 FR 42329 - Notice of Intent To Initiate Public Scoping and Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... analyze impacts for the BHP Navajo Coal Company (BNCC) Proposed Pinabete Permit and for the Navajo Mine... Nation and Hopi Tribe through lease and right-of-way revenues, royalties, tribal taxes and jobs. The EIS... Navajo Reservation, is a coal-fired electric generating station, which currently includes five units...

  4. Fundamental Reform of Payment for Adult Primary Care: Comprehensive Payment for Comprehensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A.; Schoenbaum, Stephen C.; Gardner, Laurence B.

    2007-01-01

    Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977

  5. 24 CFR 206.26 - Change in payment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in payment option. 206.26... in payment option. (a) General. The payment option may be changed as provided in this section. (b... credit payment option. Until the repairs are completed, the mortgagee shall make no line of credit...

  6. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock payment calculations. 760.209 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.209 Livestock payment calculations. (a) Payments for an...

  7. 34 CFR 5.62 - Advance payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anticipated cost and obtains satisfactory assurance of full payment if the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees; or (2) Requires an advance payment if the requester has no history of payment. (b) If a requester has previously failed to pay a fee in a timely fashion, the FOI Officer does not...

  8. 46 CFR 282.30 - Payment of subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... include for payment in such voucher the amount of ODS accrued for the voyages terminated during the period. ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of subsidy. 282.30 Section 282.30 Shipping... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 282.30 Payment of subsidy...

  9. 34 CFR 35.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sign the voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (SF 1145) shall designate both the claimant and his... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of approved claims. 35.7 Section 35.7 Education...

  10. 45 CFR 35.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... duly authorized agent shall sign the voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (SF 1145) shall... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of approved claims. 35.7 Section 35.7...

  11. 24 CFR 983.353 - Tenant rent; payment to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.353 Tenant rent; payment to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenant rent; payment to owner. 983... owner. (b) Tenant payment to owner. (1) The family is responsible for paying the tenant rent (total...

  12. 40 CFR 10.7 - Payment of approved claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., claimant or his duly authorized agent shall sign the voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (SF 1145... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of approved claim. 10.7 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 252.40 - Payment of subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.40 Payment of subsidy. (a) Submission of voucher. At the close of each calendar month, the subsidized operator may submit a voucher, and include for payment in such... submit an initial voucher and include for payment in such voucher a percentage of the ODS payable for the...

  14. 12 CFR 793.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (S.F. 1145) shall designate both the claimant and his attorney... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of approved claims. 793.7 Section 793.7...

  15. 28 CFR 74.12 - Order of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of payment. 74.12 Section 74.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION Notification and Payment § 74.12 Order of payment. Payment will be made in the order of date of birth pursuant...

  16. Retail payments in the Netherlands : Facts and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko

    Over the last decade, the Netherlands observed a rapid shift from cash and paper-based payment instruments toward electronic payment instruments. Banks are well aware that transaction pricing can speed up the shift to low-cost electronic payments. But payment pricing is a complex matter, due to

  17. 7 CFR 760.3 - Indemnity payments on milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indemnity payments on milk. 760.3 Section 760.3... Farmers for Milk § 760.3 Indemnity payments on milk. An indemnity payment for milk may be made to an... whole milk marketed during the applications period, and (b) any payment not subject to refund which he...

  18. Designing internet-based payment system: guidelines and empirical basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrazhevich, D.; Markopoulos, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes research into online electronic payment systems, focusing on the aspects of payment systems that are critical for their acceptance by end users. Based on our earlier research and a diary study of payments with an online payment system and with online banking systems of a

  19. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for payment...

  20. 42 CFR 102.83 - Payment of all benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of all benefits. 102.83 Section 102.83... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment of Benefits § 102.83 Payment of all benefits. (a) The Secretary may pay any benefits under this Program through lump-sum payments. If the Secretary determines that...

  1. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts. However, no advance payment will be required that would make the sum of such payment and of... required, advance payments will operate the same as provided for in § 163.23(a) of this part. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163...

  2. 42 CFR 413.74 - Payment to a foreign hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... chapter. (d) Exchange rate. Payment to the hospital will be subject to the official exchange rate on the... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to a foreign hospital. 413.74 Section 413...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payments to Providers § 413...

  3. 38 CFR 10.51 - Payments to minor child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments to minor child. 10.51 Section 10.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Payments § 10.51 Payments to minor child. Payments to minor child through legal guardian, natural...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1055 - Payments for agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments for agricultural labor. 404.1055... Payments for agricultural labor. (a) When cash payments are not wages. We do not include as wages your cash payments in a calendar year after 1987 from an employer for agricultural labor (see § 404.1056) if your...

  5. Financial Technologies: A Note on Mobile Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yee Leng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial market is currently disrupted by the rise of new technologies "FinTech” a short form for financial technology, which profoundly reshapes the financial intermediary structure and makes financial services more efficient. Mobile technology with Internet-enabled devices are the next logical phase of the World Wide Web campaign such as mobile phone taking over the mass market and will fundamentally change the way products are buy and sell as well as financial services especially the mobile payment system. This research examines changes payment method in financial services, particularly those involving mobile payments that can create new channels for consumers to purchase goods and services using mobile phone. Mobile payment application is ready to replace traditional cash, checks, credit and debit card throughout the country. In this stage of development, the current situation of mobile payment market, review the previous literature on mobile payment services, analysis use of mobile payment worldwide and various initiatives use mobile phones to offer financial services for those ‘unbanked’.

  6. Financial Technologies: A Note on Mobile Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yee Leng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial market is currently disrupted by the rise of new technologies “FinTech” a short form of financial technology, which profoundly reshapes the financial intermediary structure and makes financial services more efficient. Mobile technology with Internet-enabled devices are the next logical phase of the World Wide Web a campaign such as mobile phone taking over the mass market and will fundamentally change the way products are bought and sold as well as financial services especially the mobile payment system. This research examines changes payment method in financial services, particularly those involving mobile payments that can create new channels for consumers to purchase goods and services using a mobile phone. Mobile payment application is ready to replace traditional cash, checks, credit and debit card throughout the country. In this stage of development, the current situation of mobile payment market, review the previous literature on mobile payment services, analysis use of mobile payment worldwide and various initiatives use mobile phones to offer financial services for those ‘unbanked’.

  7. The operations of the free maternal care policy and out of pocket payments during childbirth in rural Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Wang, Alex Y.; Homer, Caroline S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background To promote skilled attendance at births and reduce maternal deaths, the government of Ghana introduced the free maternal care policy under the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2008. The objective is to eliminate financial barriers associated with the use of services. But studies elsewhere showed that out of pocket (OOP) payments still exist in the midst of fee exemptions. The aim of this study was to estimate OOP payments and the financial impact on women during childbirt...

  8. Function-based payment model for inpatient medical rehabilitation: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J P; DeJong, G; Wilkerson, D

    1996-07-01

    To describe the components of a function-based prospective payment model for inpatient medical rehabilitation that parallels diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), to evaluate this model in relation to stakeholder objectives, and to detail the components of a quality of care incentive program that, when combined with this payment model, creates an incentive for provides to maximize functional outcomes. This article describes a conceptual model, involving no data collection or data synthesis. The basic payment model described parallels DRGs. Information on the potential impact of this model on medical rehabilitation is gleaned from the literature evaluating the impact of DRGs. The conceptual model described is evaluated against the results of a Delphi Survey of rehabilitation providers, consumers, policymakers, and researchers previously conducted by members of the research team. The major shortcoming of a function-based prospective payment model for inpatient medical rehabilitation is that it contains no inherent incentive to maximize functional outcomes. Linkage of reimbursement to outcomes, however, by withholding a fixed proportion of the standard FRG payment amount, placing that amount in a "quality of care" pool, and distributing that pool annually among providers whose predesignated, facility-level, case-mix-adjusted outcomes are attained, may be one strategy for maximizing outcome goals.

  9. Mobile Payments : Comparison of Mobile Wallet Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Srikant

    2013-01-01

    Mobile payments are an emerging trend and an alternative to traditional payment methods. Mobile payments involve the usage of the mobile phone to handle credit transfers during purchase of goods and peer to peer money transfers referred to as mobile wallet service, instead of depending on bank cards and cash. In this scenario, while the mobile wallet industry still being in its infancy there exist a few drivers of mobile wallet solutions aiming to create a de-facto standard in the mobile mark...

  10. M-Payments Issues and Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TOMA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has four sections. First section has an intro for the mobile payments requirements for a reliable service. Second section shows types and models of mobile payment service but not taking into account the service patterns and the electronic money systems. In section three as a case study is shown an author solution may be improved taking into account the security and ergonomic issues presented in the first two sections. The last section presents a summary of technologies available for improvement of the mobile payment services.

  11. 20 CFR 411.545 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.545 Section 411.545 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system? The amount of each...

  12. 20 CFR 411.597 - Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the outcome-milestone payment system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the outcome-milestone payment system for possible modifications? 411.597 Section 411... Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.597 Will SSA periodically review the outcome payment system and the...

  13. 75 FR 78806 - Agency Information Collection (Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); a Computer Generated Funding Fee Receipt.... 2900-0474.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); a Computer Generated Funding Fee Receipt, VA Form 26-8986. OMB Control Number: 2900...

  14. 42 CFR 412.604 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient rehabilitation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient rehabilitation facilities. 412.604 Section 412.604 Public Health CENTERS FOR... SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment for Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.604 Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient...

  15. 75 FR 61252 - Proposed Information Collection (Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); A Computer Generated Funding Fee Receipt... Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); A Computer Generated Funding Fee Receipt... information through the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov or to Nancy J...

  16. 42 CFR 412.125 - Effect of change of ownership on payments under the prospective payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prospective payment systems. 412.125 Section 412.125 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Payments to Hospitals Under the Prospective Payment Systems § 412.125 Effect of change of...

  17. 78 FR 59771 - Proposed Information Collection (Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); a Computer Generated Funding Fee Receipt.... Title: Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); A Computer Generated... through the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at www.Regulations.gov or to Nancy J. Kessinger...

  18. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... § 413.210 Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system... prospective payment system described in § 413.215 through § 413.235 of this part. (a) Qualifications for...

  19. 75 FR 61859 - Proposed Information Collection (Create Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); A Computer Generated Funding Fee Receipt... Payment Request for the VA Funding Fee Payment System (VA FFPS); A Computer Generated Funding Fee Receipt... information through the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov or to Nancy J...

  20. Security Safeguards on E-Payment Systems in Malaysia: Analysis on the Payment Systems Act 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Zulhuda, Sonny; Azmi, Ida Madieha bt. Abdul Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Central to the infrastructure of electronic commerce activities is the electronic payment system. This encompasses not only the issues of technical sophistication but also legal readiness. In the context of electronic commerce environment in Malaysia, this paper seeks to highlight and examine the Malaysian legal readiness in the aspect of electronic payment system, focusing on its Payment Systems Act 2003. The discussion is limited to the issue of electronic security measures embodied in the ...