Sample records for royal naval submarines

  1. Comparative naval architecture analysis of diesel submarines

    Torkelson, Kai Oscar


    CIVINS Many comparative naval architecture analyses of surface ships have been performed, but few published comparative analyses of submarines exist. Of the several design concept papers, reports and studies that have been written on submarines, no exclusively diesel submarine comparative naval architecture analyses have been published. One possible reason for few submarine studies may be the lack of complete and accurate information regarding the naval architecture of foreign diesel subma...

  2. Comparative Naval Architecture Analysis of Diesel Submarines


    space required to enclose all of the requirements, this volume must be able to support the weight of the submarine. In other words, Archimedes ’ principle ...accurate information regarding the naval architecture of foreign diesel submarines. However, with some fundamental submarine design principles , drawings of...cycling and hiking, I thank you for pushing me to relieve stress through my favorite sports. Last but not least of all, I want to pay tribute to the

  3. Royal Naval nursing: 'testing but worth it'.

    Moore, Alison


    Inga Kennedy is the most senior nurse in the Royal Navy. She enjoys the commitment and discipline required by a career in the armed forces and says the work offers great opportunities for nurses. Her career highlights have included checking that injured personnel in Afghanistan were receiving the best care possible.

  4. Re-engineering production systems: the Royal Netherlands Naval Dockyard

    Zijm, Willem H.M.


    Reengineering production systems in an attempt to meet tight cost, quality and leadtime standards has received considerable attention in the last decade. In this paper, we discuss the reengineering process at the Royal Netherlands Naval Dockyard. The process starts with a characterisation and a

  5. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...


    ... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is increasing a portion of an existing San Diego Bay security zone at Naval Base... Diego Bay in order to ensure the safety and security of Naval assets. Both security zones will safeguard...

  6. Survey of health status and physical fitness in Royal Thai Naval Aircraft Carrier personnel

    Supanitayanon, Thanawat; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML


    forces. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study using data from annual medical examinations of crew members as stipulated in the decree of the Naval Medical Department's budget for the fiscal year 2009 Nov to 2010 Oct. We analyzed the following health status variables: impaired fasting...... should be recommended while the naval personnel are in dock. Indoor activities such as gym and physical training are deemed more suitable during sea missions however. The health status of Royal Thai Naval aircraft carrier personnel is similar to that of the general naval officers with slightly poorer...

  7. Medical audit: a Well Woman Clinic in the Royal Naval training practice, Gibraltar.

    Westwood, P R


    In order to assess the effectiveness of patient self-selection, and the value of dedicating surgery time to a specific clinic, attendances at a Well Woman Clinic were compared with attendances for the same reasons at other times. During the nine month audit period the opportunity was also taken to overhaul the Age/Sex Register, and assess the uptake of Cervical Screening at the Garrison Medical Centre. This unit is part of the Royal Naval Training Practice in Gibraltar.

  8. Technological Advancements in EW: A Way Forward for Royal Saudi Naval Force


    Middle East and North Africa MSBU Military system business unit MODA Ministry of Defense and Aviation MBET Missile borne ECM technology NEWAC NATO...organized under the Ministry of Defence and Aviation ( MODA ) to defend the Kingdom against any external aggression. The RSNF is an operational force of... MODA . Another force, the Saudi Arabian National Guard, is responsible for maintaining the internal stability of the Kingdom. The Royal Saudi Naval

  9. Sir William Burnett (1779-1861), professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department and entrepreneur.

    Penn, Christopher


    Sir William Burnett (1779-1861) had an active career as a Royal Navy surgeon in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the battles of St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar. From 1822 to 1855 he was professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department, when he provided effective leadership in a time of great change. Although his official work earned him the reputation of a "hard-working, unimaginative, somewhat harsh man", his correspondence shows a very humane centre under the official carapace. His official performance and reputation were both eroded towards the end of his career by his determined promotion of zinc chloride, for which he held lucrative patents.

  10. Naval submarine base Kings Bay and Bangor soil evaluations.

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.


    This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.

  11. south african naval personnel seconded to the royal navy during the ...

    the Port Elizabeth Naval Volunteer Brigade was raised in ... It is clear that a full account of the service of our ... HMS Comorin was caused by a fire on board in ..... Capt T. D. Manning and Cdr C. F. Walker,British Warship Names, London 1959.

  12. Manpower for the Royal Thai Naval Fleet: A Development of Petty Officer Recruitment and Retention.


    well armed, is more capable than the individaul and collective strengths of its Navy personnel. For the Operating Fleet maintain the objective of Naval...The Navy needs to make a psycholog - ical campaign in order to induce the people to the Navy. All kinds of advertising media such as television, radio

  13. Learning from Experience, Volume 3: Lessons from the United Kingdom’s Astute Submarine Program


    Nuclear Installations Inspectorate NSRP nuclear steam-raising plant PNO Principal Naval Overseer RCNC Royal Corps of Naval Constructors SEPP Submarine...The Principal Naval Overseer ( PNO ),9 supported by organizations that oversaw the manufacture of critical items, had a staff of approximately 50 people...stationed at the shipyard to oversee product assurance and construction, test, and commissioning activi- ties. Through the PNO , the MOD had a

  14. 78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...


    ...-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes extending a portion of an existing San Diego Bay security zone... security zone modifications are intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the San Diego Bay in order...

  15. Broaching the Ship: Rethinking Submarines as a Signaling Tool in Naval Diplomacy


    offset such costs.50 In the Washington Naval Treaty and its attendant conferences, great pains were taken to develop a systematic method by which sea...concepts.104 China took visceral lessons learned regarding the United States’ carrier diplomacy and retooled its naval construction and defensive

  16. Density as a Cost Driver in Naval Submarine Design and Procurement


    submerge, the submarine allows the MBTs to fill with water, eliminating the buoyancy reserve. This satisfies Archimedes ’ Principle , which states...research because Archimedes ’ Principle requires the densities of all submarines (when submerged) to achieve densities equal to that of water. The primary...counterproductive and almost certainly push up building costs rather than reduce them, as well as making maintenance in service and the work of refitting more

  17. Density as a Cost-driver in Naval Submarine Design and Procurement


    eliminating the buoyancy reserve. This satisfies Archimedes ’ Principle , which states that the weight of a displaced fluid is directly proportional to the...because Archimedes ’ Principle requires the densities of all submarines (when submerged) to achieve densities equal to that of water. The primary goal...under very confined conditions; to go further in squeezing up on the contents could become counterproductive and almost certainly push up building costs

  18. British Naval Aviation and the Anti-Submarine Campaign, 1917-18


    fitting out aeroplanes with airbags , capable of keeping a ditched aeroplane afloat long enough to allow a rescue of the crew. Also, employing pilots...for Belgian Coast Patrol,’ 1 Jul 1918, ADM 137/2277, 381-92. 21Layman, Naval Aviation, 25. Chapter 2 34 aircraft itself; G. E. Livock recalls how...that contained a series of airbags . Since large ship volumes meant more hydrogen-producing lift, rigids enjoyed the highest potential for lifting

  19. History of Military Psychology at the U. S. Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory


    sickness ( nitrogen narcosis or rapture of the deep) as well as decompression sickness (bends or Caisson’s disease). The second example was a research...decrements in 3 divers exposed for 11. days to a helium/oxygen/ nitrogen "mix" In a pressure chamber at 7 times normal pressure (3. 37). Tending to...oxygen/ nitrogen atmosphere for 284 hours, 1964. AD 457909 4. NSMRL - The Second Decade of the Nuclear Submarine Era •1965-1975) 4.1 1965-1968 4. 11

  20. Are Midshipmen Properly Equipped to Enter the Submarine Community? A Needs Assessment for the Submarine Capstone Course at the United States Naval Academy


    acutely detailed relevance are essential officer preparation for midshipmen. The professional programs begin during Plebe summer and conclude...leadership skills required of Navy and Marine Corps officers” (United States Naval Academy Admissions Office Publication, 2005). Plebe summer pushes the...Leadership Continuum The Leadership Continuum 4/c YEAR 3/C YEAR 2/C YEAR 1/C YEAR Plebe Summer Plebe Year Fleet/Cruise / Open Ocean Sail 3/C Year

  1. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  2. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup

    Eagle, James N.


    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers. supported by the Naval War College NA

  3. Submarines against Submarines (Selected Articles),


    vowels , and after b, b; t 1lse Whre. . ."r. w itten as ! in Russian, transliterate as yL cr . RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS . 1-1 English...submarines. The assimilation of postwar scientific and technological achieve- ments into submarine construction has greatly enlarged the role and

  4. Simulation of Naval Wargames

    S. C. Jethi


    Full Text Available Computerised naval wargames are being used worldwide for operational planning, personnel training, operational development, and research and development. These wargames simulatesurface, antisubmarine warfare, anti-air, and air warfare. Generally, the three forces participate in these wargames, namely blue (friendly, red (enemy, and neutral. The platforms of theseforces, ie, ships, submarines, and aircraft along with their sensors and weapons are simulated under varying environmental conditions. These platforms are manoeuvered by the players withconflicting objectives, and they consequently detect, react, engage, and inflict or suffer damages. Efforts are made to model the performance of weapons and sensors. The outcome of the wargames has been analysed and used for the required purposes.

  5. Submarine hydrodynamics

    Renilson, Martin


    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  6. Submarine Communications .

    H.B. Singh


    Full Text Available Submarines operating in deep water are virtually cut off from the outer world. It becomes very important and essential to convey survivable and critical information to the submarine during the time it operates under water. Conventional means of radio communication do not serve any useful purpose as the higher frequencies get attenuated very sharply in sea water. At VLF band, which is presently being used by most of the world Navies, signal can penetrate only upto 8-10 m of depth. This depth is not sufficient under hostile environment. ELF is another band where listening depth is around 100 m but data rate is very low. This paper summarizes the various means of communication used to send messages to submarine while cruising at various depths. It seems that in the near future blue-green laser is going to be the vital means of sending large information to a submarine operating much deeper (500-700 m with unrestricted speed.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Persuasive Influences on Midshipman Service Selection at the United States Naval Academy: Comparing Service Selection for the Submarine Force and the United States Marine Corps


    States Naval Academy...................16 3. Introversion vs. Extroversion ...........................................................17 4...Extraversion – Introversion in Work Situations .......................18 Table 3. Effects of Judging – Perceiving in Work midshipmen (personal communication, March, 2007). If a midshipman is intelligent enough to graduate from the Naval Academy, according to

  8. Naval Arms Control: Yes or No?


    and marine forces are undesirable spider webs. Other Soviet CBM proposals have included setting a cap on the maximum number of naval vessels...twice since World War II, that being when a British submarine sank the Argentine ship "General Belgrano" during the Falklands conflict with a loss of

  9. Submarine Atmospheres


    antimutagenesis. Obviously, as a lot of you know, extracts of many, many vegetables , especially cruciferous vegetables , contain a lot of antimutagenic...accidents, suicides, and hcmocldes) and cancer . The accidental deaths of enlisted veterans were higher among those with history of demotlons or duty...aboard fast-attack submarines. There was clustering of cancer deaths in the year immediately following discharge from the Navy for medical disability

  10. The Dragonian Subsurface Abyss and Submarine Force’s Ability to Counter the Rising Threat


    College Review 61, no. 1 (Winter 2008): 70. 21Andrew S. Erikson and Lyle J. Goldstein, "China’s Future Nuclear Submarine Force: Insights from Chinese...Institute Press, 2007. 47 Erikson , Andrew S., and Lyle J. Goldstein. "China’s Future Nuclear Submarine Force: Insights from Chinese Writings." Naval War...Erickson, Lyle J. Goldstein, William S. Murray and Andrew R. Wilson. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2007. McVadon, Eric A. "China’s Maturing

  11. China’s Future Nuclear Submarine Force. Insights from Chinese Writings


    Dynamics and Electric Boat], [Naval and Merchant Ships] 1 (2005), pp. 58–61. 31. See, for example, [Yi Fan], “ ” [France’s “ Barracuda ” Class...Attack Submarine], [Militang], no. 3 (2005), p. 17; “ ” [The Demonstration of France’s Barracuda -Class Attack Submarine Nears a Conclusion



    A submarine is any naval vessel that is capable of propelling itself beneath the water as well as on the water surface. Submersibles are capable of operating for extended period of time underwater and are subjected to heavy hydrostatic pressure. The conventional submarines made up of high strength steel and concrete prevents them from going to greater depth owing to its large dead weight. In the present work, the pressure hull of submarine is considered both in isotropic and composite materia...

  13. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)


    increasing performance capabilities more than eleven years after lead ship delivery in October 2004. With the delivery to the Navy of USS JOHN WARNER (SSN...of VIRGINIA Class Submarines are highlighted by the Commissioning of USS JOHN WARNER (SSN 785) at Norfolk Naval Shipyard on August 1, 2015 and the...significant production milestone with the completion of her pressure hull on August 29, 2015. Other near term VIRGINIA Class program events include Pre

  14. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine


    Tool Examples Number of Tools Naval architecture   40 Submarine arrangements Software: AutoCAD, CATIA, Siemens NX , Solidworks, SolidEdge 36 Applied...Software), ROH2 10 Mechanical systems Software: AutoCAD, CATIA, Siemens NX , Solidworks, SolidEdge 24 Propulsion systems   2 Acoustic analysis   3...companies, including MSC Software, NEi Software (NEi NASTRAN), and Siemens PLM Software ( NX NASTRAN). DDAM, in conjunction with NASTRAN and Finite

  15. Submarine Medicine Team

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  16. Naval Sea Systems Command On Watch 2010


    USS Hampton (SSN 767) Docking Selected Restricted Availability in San Di- ego 15 days early. getting greener Each of the four Naval Shipyards has been...fol- lowed by full-rate production, and led up to the team’s ultimate objective―a global battle force with a formidable ship self - defense...craft, quiet diesel submarines and mines. The LCS seaframes will be outfitted with reconfigurable payloads, called mission packages, which can be

  17. Doctrine and Fleet Tactics in the Royal Navy.


    embarrassed the Turks that it was diplomatically inexpedient and he was recalled and his career ruined. During the long wars with the continental powers in...amphibious operations, the Royal Navy fell somewhat short. A landing in German East Africa was successfully neutralized. The disastrous attempt at...Madrid, SP: Instituto de Historia y Cultura Naval, 1983 [original version written from 1520-1538]. 5. "Traditional tactics, 1530: ’A book of orders for the

  18. Royal Observatory, Greenwich

    Murdin, P.


    The Royal Observatory at Greenwich, London, founded in 1675, is the location of the Airy Transit Telescope that defines the prime meridian of the world and is the home of the Harrison Chronometers. The Observatory was founded by Charles II with the ultimate purpose of providing an accurate star catalog and model of the Moon's motion, that enabled mariners to find their longitude. During the twen...

  19. The Royal Navy’s New-Generation Type 45 Destroyer. Acquisition Options and Implications


    Future Offshore Patrol Vessel FPSO Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel xxiii xxiv The Royal Navy’s New-Generation Type 45 Destroyer FSC...the conversion of a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading ( FPSO ) vessel, and a naval order for two Alternative Landing Ships Logistics (ALSL...Frigates, various Marine (OPVs) for Royal Brunei design work Navy Offshore SupplyVessel, ALSL, Landing Craft Utility, miscellaneous module and Auxiliary

  20. Hawaiian Royal Incest

    Joanne Carando


    Full Text Available When early navigators reported on Hawaii, its practices and customs, one of the most often mentioned features of the archipelago was the practice of incest among members of the royal families. Though it was restricted to a limited number of people, it was such an openly practiced tradition that it could not go unnoticed, all the more so as it concerned the rulers of the islands. What struck these first observers was also the fact that it was not considered as a sin nor as a peculiar custom by...

  1. A royal visit


    King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway made a trip to CERN on Tuesday 4 April, taking a tour of part of the LHC and greeting the Norwegian students and scientists at the Laboratory. Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN Director-General Robert Aymar.King Harald V and Queen Sonja are greeted warmly by members of the Norwegian community at the CERN Globe. CERN Director-General Robert Aymar welcomed the royal party, which included the Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jonas Gahr Støre, and provided an overview of CERN's history and current and future research. ATLAS deputy spokesperson Steinar Stapnes then quickly explained the concept and inner workings of the LHC, some LHC physics goals and ATLAS, which is one of the main experiments receiving Norwegian contributions. 'I don't think I've ever had so many distinguished students before,' Stapnes said jokingly to the crowd.The royal delegation was then escorted underground for a look at the LHC tunnel and the...

  2. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to

  3. Environment in Submarine Compartments

    Anil K. Shrivastava


    Full Text Available The crew operating in the confined environment of a submarine are subjected to discomfort as a result of physiological stress caused by toxic substances which are generated due to engineering, operational and other human activities. The physioiogical problems of men under prolonged confinement in a submarine have been reviewed. Data on air pollutants monitored during 'cruise' and 'at rest' conditions inside a submarine are given. Threshold limit value (TLV of trace substances in the confined environment has been discussed. The merits of air purification and air revitalization systems currently employed for control of air pollution have been brought out.

  4. Submarine neutrino communication

    Huber, Patrick


    We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged submarine. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the submarine or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly onto the hull of the submersible. The achievable data transfer rates compare favorable with existing technologies and do allow for a communication at the usual speed and depth of submarines.

  5. Submarine neutrino communication

    Huber, Patrick, E-mail: pahuber@vt.ed [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged submarine. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the submarine or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly onto the hull of the submersible. The achievable data transfer rates compare favorable with existing technologies and do allow for a communication at the usual speed and depth of submarines.

  6. Submarine neutrino communication

    Huber, Patrick


    We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged submarine. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the submarine or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly onto the hull of the submersible. The achievable data transfer rates compare favorable with existing technologies and do allow for a communication at the usual speed and depth of submarines.

  7. Submarine neutrino communication

    Huber, Patrick


    We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged submarine. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the submarine or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly...

  8. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    None, None


    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  9. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  10. Index of Oral Histories Relating to Naval Research and Development


    his views on the engineering ability and management style of CAPT Harold Saunders. He mentions the GUPPY program, submarine hull design, seaworthiness...Ballistic Missile FCRC Federal Contract Research Center FOSS Fiber-Optic Sensor System FY Fiscal Year GAO General Accounting Office GEN General GUPPY ...Smith 4 SI/NMAH 1 Western Michigan U/University I Division of Naval History Archives 1 Dept of Social and Cultural History 1 U of Michigan

  11. Naval War College Review. Volume 68, Number 1, Winter 2015


    White Paper: The Feasibility of a Corrosion Resistant Ship ( Bath , U�K�: BMT Defence Services, 2009), www�bmtdsl�co�uk/� 34� Anthony, Naval Arms Trade...these aircraft could not be used in a strike until they had been recovered, refueled, and armed with bombs � When possible, land-based, long-range...submarine attacks, air bombing , attack on isolated units� The principle of calculated chance [sic] is indicated, as set forth in a letter of

  12. [Anaphylaxis caused by royal jelly].

    Roger, A; Rubira, N; Nogueiras, C; Guspi, R; Baltasar, M; Cadahia, A


    Royal jelly is the food on which are fed and which causes them to develop into queen bees. It is claimed to have rejuvenating virtues for human beings. This report describes a 15-year-old atopic woman who presented, 15 minutes after the intake of royal jelly, local angioedema, generalised urticaria, dysphonia and bronchospasm. She was given antihistaminics and corticoesteroids and responded well. The ingested product contains royal jelly, lactose and potassium sorbate. No anaphylactic reactions to lactose and sorbates have been described previously. Prick test to common food allergens hymenoptera venoms and pollens were negative. RAST to meletin was also negative. Blood eosinophils were 600 and total IgE 465. Non-commercial prepared specific IgE to royal jelly was positive (0.8 KU/l). Prick by prick was positive to 1/10 dilution, being negative in controls (undiluted). No oral provocation test was performed due to the risk of anaphylaxis. No reported cases of royal jelly allergy were founded in a review of the medical literature. Concluding, it is the first described case of IgE anaphylactic reaction due to royal jelly.

  13. Performance analyses of naval ships based on engineering level of simulation at the initial design stage

    Dong-Hoon Jeong


    Full Text Available Naval ships are assigned many and varied missions. Their performance is critical for mission success, and depends on the specifications of the components. This is why performance analyses of naval ships are required at the initial design stage. Since the design and construction of naval ships take a very long time and incurs a huge cost, Modeling and Simulation (M & S is an effective method for performance analyses. Thus in this study, a simulation core is proposed to analyze the performance of naval ships considering their specifications. This simulation core can perform the engineering level of simulations, considering the mathematical models for naval ships, such as maneuvering equations and passive sonar equations. Also, the simulation models of the simulation core follow Discrete EVent system Specification (DEVS and Discrete Time System Specification (DTSS formalisms, so that simulations can progress over discrete events and discrete times. In addition, applying DEVS and DTSS formalisms makes the structure of simulation models flexible and reusable. To verify the applicability of this simulation core, such a simulation core was applied to simulations for the performance analyses of a submarine in an Anti-SUrface Warfare (ASUW mission. These simulations were composed of two scenarios. The first scenario of submarine diving carried out maneuvering performance analysis by analyzing the pitch angle variation and depth variation of the submarine over time. The second scenario of submarine detection carried out detection performance analysis by analyzing how well the sonar of the submarine resolves adjacent targets. The results of these simulations ensure that the simulation core of this study could be applied to the performance analyses of naval ships considering their specifications.

  14. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  15. Contact Lenses on Submarines


    Kinney, J.A.S., Luria , S.M., McKay, C.L., and Ryan, A.P. Vision of submariners. Undersea Biomed. Res. Sub. Suppl.: S163-S173, 1979. 3’. Kinney, J.A.S... Luria , S.M., Ryan, A. P., Schlichting, C.L., and Paulson, H.M. The vision of submariners and National Guardsmen: a longitudinal study. NSMRL...Rep. No. 918, 1980. 4. Socks, J.F. and Luria , S.M. Improvement of vision through the periscope, background and proposed solutions. NSMRL Rep. No

  16. Updated Fiscal Impact Analysis, Naval Submarine Base, Kings Bay, Georgia


    It also uses the grade structure of the inmigrating Navy personnel to 4-3- calculate the salaries that will be brought to the area. The population and...of inmigrants who wish to work. The FIA model treats the labor market as a dynamic condition that varies with base load-up and multiplier changes...Florida and Georgia (see the map on Figure 1-1). The selection of these counties was based on preliminary information about where the inmigrating

  17. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography


    energy requirements and strategic metals and for over 70 percent of its food . Despite the importance of the sealanes to Japanese security, the “A Kiosk -Hydro for Submarines,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 40(6):3826 November... Malaysia considering Agosta submarine purchase,” Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 25:24 January 2000. 344 PAKISTANI de Lionis, Andres. “Pakistan’s

  18. ANS Based Submarine Simulation


    computer based simulation proraon supplied by Dr. John Ware at Computer Sceinces Corporation (CSC). Thee am two reasons to use simulated data instead...ANS (Artificial Neural System) capable of modeling submarine perfomncie based on full scale data generated using a computer based simulabon program...The Optimized Entropy algorilth enables the solutions to diffcu problems on a desktop computer within an acceptable time frame. Ob6ectve for w

  19. Warfarin and royal jelly interaction.

    Lee, Nancy J; Fermo, Joli D


    An 87-year-old African-American man came to the internal medicine clinic for a routine anticoagulation management visit. He had no complaints. His medical history was significant for stage IV-A follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension. His long-term drug therapy consisted of warfarin, felodopine, lisinopril-hydrochlorothiazide, controlled-release diltiazem, potassium chloride, and oxycodone. He reported adherence with his prescribed drugs and denied taking any over-the-counter or herbal products. Overall, the patient's drug therapy had been consistent during the preceding 3 months, no significant changes had occurred in his clinical status, and no significant changes had been noted in his diet; his international normalized ratio (INR) had ranged from 1.9-2.4 (therapeutic range 2-3). He denied tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and recent travel. Four weeks later, the patient came to the emergency department with hematuria. He denied dysuria, taking more than the prescribed amount of warfarin, any changes in his diet, taking any over-the-counter or herbal products, and any other bleeding. On admission to the hospital, his INR was 6.88, which increased to 7.29 during his hospital stay. On further investigation, the patient admitted that he had started taking an herbal supplement, royal jelly, 1 week earlier. When asked specifically about the ingredients in the supplement, he stated that royal jelly was the only component. Relative to the patient's denial of any other changes in his condition or drug regimen, the most probable explanation for his elevated INR and subsequent bleeding is a possible interaction between royal jelly and warfarin. To our knowledge, no case reports concerning royal jelly and warfarin taken concomitantly have been reported. Clinicians should be proactive and repeatedly provide education regarding the potential dangers of dietary supplements taken with conventional drugs.

  20. Anti Submarine Warfare Search Models


    DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Stealth and high endurance make submarines ideally suited to a variety of missions, and finding...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Stealth and high endurance make submarines ideally suited to a variety of missions, and finding ways to detect, track...II. UNIFORM DIRECTION ......................................................................................5 A. NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS

  1. Submarine Landslides: A Multidisciplinary Crossroad

    Moscardelli, L. G.


    The study of submarine landslides has advanced considerably in the last decade. A multitude of geoscience disciplines, including marine, petroleum and planetary geology, as well as geohazard assessments, are concerned with the study of these units. Oftentimes, researchers working in these fields disseminate their findings within their own communities and a multidisciplinary approach seems to lack. This presentation showcases several case studies in which a broader approach has increased our understanding of submarine landslides in a variety of geologic settings. Three-dimensional seismic data from several continental margins (Trinidad, Brazil, Morocco, Canada, GOM), as well as data from outcrop localities are shown to explore geomorphological complexities associated with submarine landslides. Discussion associated with the characterization and classification of submarine landslides is also part of this work. Topics that will be cover include: 1) how data from conventional oil and gas exploration activities can be used to increase our understanding of the dynamic behavior of submarine landslides, 2) analogies between terrestrial submarine landslides and potential Martian counterparts, 3) impact of submarine landslides in margin construction, as well as their economic significance and 4) the importance of quantifying the morphology of submarine landslides in a systematic fashion.

  2. Overseas or Submarines?

    Vestergaard, Morten Hetmar

    The rise of China in recent decades has taken place on an unprecedented scale and at a breathtaking a pace. Few, perhaps none, have gone so far so fast from weakness to strength. Especially the modernization of China’s Navy has been a focal point of debate regarding the evolving security...... environment in Asia. Deduced from defensive and offensive realism, this paper makes theoretically informed hypotheses and predicts corresponding naval force postures expected in each hypothesis. The hypotheses are then tested on the empirical data to explain China’s strategic behaviour and procurement...... concludes that the naval capabilities of China have evolved in a manner exhibiting a power-maximising strategic behaviour in line with the revisionist disposition of great powers in offensive realism that accordingly corresponds with the predicted posture. As a whole, the empirical data presented...

  3. Submarine Escape Set Test Facilities

    G.S.N. Murthy


    Full Text Available Submarine Escape Set (SES is used by submariners to escape from a sunken submarine. This set caters for breathing needs of the submariner under water, until he reaches the surface. Evaluation of such life-saving equipment is of paramount importance. This paper describes the submarine escape set and various constructional features and schedules of operation of test facilities designed indegenously and which can evaluate the SES. The test facility is divided into two parts: the reducer test facility, and the breathing bag test facility. The equipment has been rigorously tested and accepted by Indian Navy. Two such test facilities have been developed, one of which is installed at INS Satavahana, Visakhapatnam, and are working satisfactorily.

  4. Current submarine atmosphere control technology.

    Mazurek, W


    Air purification in submarines was introduced towards the end of World War II and was limited to the use of soda lime for the removal of carbon dioxide and oxygen candles for the regeneration of oxygen. The next major advances came with the advent of nuclear-powered submarines. These included the development of regenerative and, sometimes, energy-intensive processes for comprehensive atmosphere revitalization. With the present development of conventional submarines using air-independent propulsion there is a requirement for air purification similar to that of the nuclear-powered submarines but it is constrained by limited power and space. Some progress has been made in the development of new technology and the adoption of air purification equipment used in the nuclear-powered submarines for this application.

  5. 6 Kilos: Can Vietnamese Submarines Help Reclaim the South China Sea?


    reached out to another regional partner, and asked India to assist in training naval cadets and officers in submarine warfare. In 2008, Vietnam...31 Ibid., 2. 32 Ibid. 13 Pacifists and anti- militarization sentiment also argue that adding more weaponry to the South China Sea will be...detrimental to progress. Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbradt, a China analyst with the International Crisis Group claims that, “The more militarized the region

  6. Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress


    711) was significantly damaged in a collision with an undersea mountain near Guam. The ship was repaired in part by transplanting onto it the bow...section of the deactivated sister ship Honolulu (SSN-718). (See, for example, Associated Press, “Damaged Submarine To Get Nose Transplant ,” Seattle Post...Report RL33153, China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 39 Stephen J

  7. Pirates of the Nuclear Age: The Role of U.S. Submarines in Modern Trade Warfare


    the Department of the Navy. Signature: _____________________ 14 July 2016 ii Contents Page...World War II ,” (U.S. Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Submarine Warfare Division, 1999). 2 Geoffrey Till, “A Changing Focus for the...escalation to nuclear war or a major conventional war such as the forcible reunification of Taiwan via a cross-strait invasion. If U.S. national strategic

  8. [D.P.Zuikhin and his contribution to the establishment and development of the system of medical maintenance of nuclear submarines personnel].

    Petrov, O I; Sukhorukov, V S


    A highly qualified physician, an outstanding leader, a scientist Dmitry Zuikhin (1924-1988) was directly involved into establishment of a system of medical support for submariners in the sea and on shore, he proved the necessity of forces and means for the medical service fleet. He was a pioneer in this challenging and new field of naval medicine. His energy, perseverance and determination helped to establish in the early 1960 a system of medical support for nuclear submarines personnel, which was subsequently implemented in all associations and connections of nuclear submarines of the Northern and Pacific fleets.

  9. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  10. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Alan Beckley


    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  11. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Submariner Personnel


    metabolism the Wilkerson Point System, for glucose values, used in conjunction with patterns of insulin response described by Kraft(4) serves as the means...amount of exercise and carbohydrate metabolism characteristics occurred in both submariners and non-submariners. An inverse relationship also seems to...individuals(7). In the present study a significant negative correlation was also found between exercise vs one and two hour postprandial glucose and two hour

  12. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard



  13. Initial testing for the recommendation of improved gas metal arc welding procedures for HY-80 steel plate butt joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    Rice, Veronika J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Hull cut welding proficiency is an essential skill maintained by personnel at naval shipyards. This thesis explores arc weld theory to develop ideal submarine hull butt joint designs and recommends preliminary testing to be used to develop improved butt joint welding procedures at Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) is the ideal process for shipboard hull welding applications, theoretically. Butt joint samples...

  14. 90,000 Tons of Diplomacy: How the U.S. Navy Supports Naval Aviation


    take-off and landing xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my beautiful wife, Mary, who has...the Korean War produced, and provided enough speed to outrun improved Soviet submarines.41 By the end of the Korean War naval aviation had flown 40...improvements that had occurred since the Korean War. These advantages paid off in the 1962 Cuba Missile Crisis as A-7 Corsairs provided

  15. Powering Future Naval Forces


    Ground Renewable Expeditionary Energy System Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell 9  Long endurance fuel cell power (26hr flight Nov 2009)  Low noise...Near Mid Long EMRG Solid State Lights for Submarines Power Node Switching Center Perovskite - based Pyroelectrics 3 Power & Energy Technologies...Fuel Power Generation Energy Storage Distribution& Control Power Loads Fuels Chemistry Alternative Fuels Gas Turbine Generators Fuel Cells Aircraft

  16. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines


    Agency, 1995. CASA, Flight Manual to Operators CASA 212 S43 Aircraft, Spain. Comando Naval de Operaciones , Venezuelan Navy, Manual de Doctrina de...Empleo del Comando de la Aviaci6n Naval (MAN-DC-CNAOP-0004), 2001. Comando Naval de Operaciones Venezuelan Navy. Observatorio Naval Cajigal, Aguas Marinas

  17. Does Royal jelly affect tumor cells?

    Shirzad Maryam


    Full Text Available Introduction: Royal jelly is a substance that appears to be effective on immune system and it appears to be effective on both prevention and growth of cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to carry out a research to investigate the effect of royal jelly on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cell in syngenic Balb/c mice. Methods: In an experimental study, 28 male Balb/c mice were designated into four equal groups. The mice were subcutaneously injected with 5x105 WEHI-164 tumor cells on the day zero in the chest area of the animal. Animals in groups 1 to 4 were orally given 100, 200, 300 mg/kg of royal jelly or vehicle, respectively. In every individual mouse, the tumour size was measured every 2 days from day 5 (days 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney-U tests. Result: Our results showed that the mean size of tumor in case group was significantly smaller than the control group in days 11, 13, 15 and 17 (P<0.05. No metastasis was seen in test and control groups. Conclusion: With emphasize on antitumor effect of royal jelly, it seems that royal jelly has important role in control and regression of fibrosarcoma cells. Since royal jelly showed a delayed effect in control of fibrosarcoma, we suggest that royal jelly be used at least 10 days before tumor inoculation.

  18. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress


    Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program : Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke...Specialist in Naval Affairs October 3, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R41129 Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Program ...1,091.1 million in research and development funding for the Columbia class program , previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X

  19. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Crenguţa I. Pavel


    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  20. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  1. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    T. Schmitt


    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  2. LES of a submarine model in self-propulsion

    Posa, Antonio; Balaras, Elias


    Wall-resolved LES computations are presented on the flow over a notional submarine geometry in self-propelled conditions at Re=1.2e+06 (based on the free-stream velocity and the length of the body). The rotational speed of the propeller was dynamically adjusted during the simulation using a proportional-integral controller, in order for the propeller thrust to balance the overall drag on the system. An immersed-boundary methodology was adopted to enforce boundary conditions over the body. Comparisons with the same submarine geometry in the towed configuration allowed us to verify that the boundary layer over the hull surface is affected only in the stern region, while that over the cylindrical mid-body is roughly in equilibrium in both towed and self-propelled conditions. The quasi-streamwise structures of the turbulent boundary layer and their development along the stern dominate the flow ingested by the propeller. The wake and junction flows from the fins break the axial symmetry of such flow. Comparisons with the towed configuration verify that the propeller affects substantially its own inflow, defined by the overlapping effects of adverse pressure gradient, due to the tapered geometry of the stern, and suction generated by the same propeller. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research, under Grant No. N000141110455, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  3. Submarine periscope thermal imaging: its evolution in the UK

    Armstrong, George R.


    The first submarine periscope to carry a thermal imaging sensor started sea trials in 1978. As a leading EO company and the sole supplier of periscopes to the Royal Navy since 1917, Pilkington Optronics (Barr & Stroud) has led the evolution of this technology in the UK. As is often the case, the evolutionary path has been IR detector technology- led. The first operational periscope TI system (1981) used a serial/parallel array of first generation photoconductive detectors operating in the LWIR (8 - 12 micrometer) waveband. The advent of SPRITE detectors in the 1980s opened the way to greatly improved performance within a reduced space volume, culminating in 1993 with the entry into fleet service of the SPRITE-based IR028 modular system for Vanguard, the new class of RN ballistic submarines. Today, second generation focal plane array detectors, along with the concept of the non-hull penetrating optronics mast, are ready to revolutionize periscope TI. The Pilkington Optronics CM10 Optronics Mast, presently under development, has been bid for the next class of RN submarines, Trafalgar Batch 2. CM10 exists in two versions, allowing the user to choose the operational waveband most suited to his operational needs. The sensor in the LWIR version is the PO high definition thermal imager (HDTI), which makes optimum use of SPRITEs to achieve very high performance within a compact space. The MWIR version features dual-band (TV plus 3 - 5 micrometer) optics viewing through a single pressure window; the TI sensor is based on a microscanned CMT FPA, yielding high spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity with small aperture optics.

  4. Biomonitoring of physiological status and cognitive performance of underway submariners undergoing a novel watch-standing schedule

    Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.


    Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.

  5. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Weiss, K G


    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  6. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  7. Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines

    Dugas, Albert C.; Webman, Kenneth M.


    The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in uncharted littoral waters. It accomplishes this by using advanced processing techniques with extremely narrow beamwidths. The receive array consists of 36 modules arranged in a 15-ft-diameter semicircle at the bottom of the submarine sonar dome to form a chin-mounted array. Each module consists of 40 piezoelectric rubber elements. The modules provide the necessary signal conditioning to the element data prior to signal transmission (uplink) through the hull. The elements are amplified, filtered, converted to digital signals by an A/D converter, and multiplexed prior to uplink to the inboard receiver. Each module also has a downlink over which it receives synchronization and mode/gain control. Uplink and downlink transmission is done using fiberoptic telemetry. AMDS was installed on the USS Asheville. The high-frequency chin array for Virginia class submarines is based on the Asheville design.

  8. Storm Water Toxicity Evaluation Conducted at Naval Station San Diego, Naval Submarine Base San Diego, Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, and Naval Air Station North Island


    MBAS includes a common group of anionic surfactants known as linear alkyl sulfonates (LAS). Surfactants were analyzed by CEL following EPA Method...P. Giro, M. Marin, P. Negrisolo and L. Tallandini. 1989. Effects of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonates (LAS) on benthic organisms. Tenside...produce the dilution series test concentrations. Figure 70 shows the results. The linear regression was generated only for TUA values less than 6.2, as

  9. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...




    Full Text Available A submarine is any naval vessel that is capable of propelling itself beneath the water as well as on the water surface. Submersibles are capable of operating for extended period of time underwater and are subjected to heavy hydrostatic pressure. The conventional submarines made up of high strength steel and concrete prevents them from going to greater depth owing to its large dead weight. In the present work, the pressure hull of submarine is considered both in isotropic and composite material. Materials that have high strength to weight ratio include carbon fibre composites. Carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP is a very strong and light weight fibre reinforced polymer containing carbon fibers on various orientations. It has many applications in aerospace and automotive fields. A parametric study is conducted to find the optimum ply orientation by employing FiniteElement Analysis Software package, ANSYS. Also linear and nonlinear buckling analysis is used to predict the feasibility of CFRP submarine at the deep waters. From the studies conducted regarding the weight reduction, it is estimated that by replacing steel by CFRP results in saving of 67% in the structural weight.

  11. Man-machine interface in a submarine command and weapon control system: features and design experience

    Johan H. Aas


    Full Text Available Important man-machine interface (MMI issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.

  12. 国外核潜艇大潜深技术发展趋势%Developing trend on deep diving technology of foreign nuclear submarines

    张彩坤; 陈国琳; 王磊


    In this paper, present situation of deep diving technology of foreign naval nuclear submarines is introduced, including it's materials, structures and vessel systems being analyzed pointedly, and the developing trend on deep diving technology of nuclear submarines is looked forward to. Therefore the developing train of thoughts of deep diving technology of foreign naval nuclear submarines can be showed before readers clearly, as well as different nuclear weapons strategies of every states, especially the adjustments of nuclear submarines equipments, which will be provoking on the nuclear submarines developing.%简要介绍了国外主要海军强国大潜深核潜艇现状,从大潜深材料技术、大潜深结构技术、大潜深系统技术三方面,认真分析核潜艇实现大潜深的技术难点和重点,展望了核潜艇大潜深技术的发展趋势.通过该文可了解世界各海军强国发展核潜艇大潜深技术的思路,以及各国对当今世界核战略的不同认识,特别是对核潜艇装备发展方向的调整,从中得到有益的启示.

  13. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines; Logistica de producao de combustiveis para submarinos nucleares

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail:


    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  14. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment


    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  15. Naval Airborne ESM Systems Analysis


    GiScre-te, E4 superhet receiver is the optimum choice. 2 In wartime tactical operations, the IFM is superior becauseV cf its shorter time to...General de Educacion I Primera Zona Naval Guayaquil , Ecuador 4. Naval Postgraduate School 2 Attn: Captain Thomas H. Hoivik, Code 55 Ho Monterey

  16. Quality Parameters for Commercial Royal Jelly

    Carmen Ioana Muresan


    Full Text Available Royal jelly has become a high-value commercial product and the standardization of this product is required to guarantee its quality on the market. The objective of the research activity was to pursue the chemical composition of commercial samples of Royal Jelly in Romania in order to propose standardization for this product. The physico-chemical composition of commercial Royal Jelly samples was analysed by determining quality parameters like: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA and mineral elements. Carbohydrates analysis showed values between 3.4 % and 5.87 % for fructose, 4.12 % and 7.05 % for glucose, while for sucrose the values ranged between 0.95 % and 2.56 % (determined by HPLC-RI. The lipids content ranged between 1.85 % and 6.32 % (determined by the Soxhlet method. The protein values extended from 13.10 % (RJ2 to 17.04 % (RJ10 (the total protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. The values for the major fatty acid in Royal Jelly, 10-HDA, ranged between 1.35 % (RJ8 and 2.03 % (RJ10 (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of minerals varied between 3188.70 mg/kg and 4023.39 mg/kg (the concentration of minerals was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Potassium, followed by magnesium, sodium and calcium, occurs in the highest concentrations. The commercial Royal Jelly samples analysed presented variable physico-chemical characteristics that correspond with the values given by international quality standard proposals for Royal Jelly.

  17. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.


    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  18. North Korean Protective Mine Warfare: An Analysis of the Naval Minefields at Wonsan, Chinnampo and Hungnam during the Korean War


    return to Hango, Osel and Moon Islands and the Aland Islands; also not to be forgotten is the Russian foothold in the Baltic at Kaliningrad . If the...defense missile system at Kaliningrad (see Fig. 28). Due to the distance from Russian naval defenses, these mines would likely be laid by submarines... Kaliningrad , to support the defense of that enclave. An advantage of placing mines this far out is that it demonstrates intent to mine throughout the

  19. Accessing the online archive for the Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service.

    Angus, D


    Following work by the editorial team, notably Surg Lt Cdr M O'Shea, and with funding from the Wellcome Trust, every edition of this Journal dating back to the first edition in 1915 is available on our website. This article gives details of how to access it.

  20. Margaret Cavendish and the Royal Society

    Wilkins, Emma


    It is often claimed that Margaret Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was deeply hostile to the activities of the early Royal Society—particularly in relation to Robert Hooke's experiments with microscopes. Some scholars have argued that her views were odd or even childish, while others have claimed that they were shaped by her gender-based status as a scientific ‘outsider’. In this paper I examine Cavendish's views in contemporary context, arguing that her relationship with the Royal Society was more nuanced than previous accounts have suggested. This contextualized approach reveals two points: first, that Cavendish's views were not isolated or odd when compared with those of her contemporaries, and second, that the early Royal Society was less intellectually homogeneous than is sometimes thought. I also show that, although hostile to some aspects of experimentalism, Cavendish nevertheless shared many of the Royal Society's ambitions for natural philosophy, especially in relation to its usefulness and the importance of plain language as a means to disseminate new ideas. PMID:25254278

  1. Royal Ahold: A Failure Of Corporate Governance

    A. de Jong (Abe); D.V. DeJong; G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)


    textabstractRoyal Ahold (Koninklijke Ahold NV) was one of the major success stories in the 1990s and is one of the major failures in corporate governance, suffering a complete meltdown in 2003. This clinical study analyzes Ahold’s growth strategy through acquisitions and isolates the cause of the fa

  2. Royal Ahold: A Failure Of Corporate Governance

    A. de Jong (Abe); D.V. DeJong; G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)


    textabstractRoyal Ahold (Koninklijke Ahold NV) was one of the major success stories in the 1990s and is one of the major failures in corporate governance, suffering a complete meltdown in 2003. This clinical study analyzes Ahold’s growth strategy through acquisitions and isolates the cause of the

  3. Leadership between decks : a synthesis and development of engagement and resistance theories of leadership based on evidence from practice in Royal Navy warships.

    Offord, M.; Gill, R.; Kendal, J.R.


    Purpose To understand the role of interaction in the process of leadership. Interaction has been claimed to be a leadership competence in earlier research into leadership in the Royal Navy. The aim of this research is to define how interaction works within naval teams. Design/methodology/approach The research uses Grounded Theory. Following a series of leadership discussions in separate focus groups, discussion topics were coded and subjected to recursive qualitative analysis. The g...

  4. Local scour at submarine pipelines

    Yee-Meng Chiew


    The rapid development of offshore oil_fields has increased the number of submarine pipelines being constructed for the transport of crude oil to onshore refineries.Interactions between the pipeline and an erodible bed under the influence of current and waves often lead to local scouring around the structure.When this occurs, the pipeline may be suspended on the seabed resulting in the formation of a span.If the free span is long enough, the pipe may experience resonant flow-induced oscillations,leading to structural failure.This study examines the complex flow-structure-sediment interaction leading to the development of local scour holes around submarine pipelines.It reviews published literature in this area,which primarily is confined to the development of 2-dimensional scour holes.Despite the abundance of such research studies,pipeline-scour in the field essentially is 3-dimensional in nature.Hence, most of these studies have overlooked the importance of the transverse dimension of the scour hole,while emphasizing on its vertical dimension.This dearly is an issue that must be re-examined in light of the potential hazard and environmental disaster that one faces in the event of a pipeline failure.Recent studies have begun to recognize this shortcoming,and attempts have been made to overcome the deficiency.The study presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on local scour at submarine pipelines,both from a 2-dimensional as well as the 3-dimensional perspective.

  5. Naval Aerodynamics Test Facility (NATF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NATF specializes in Aerodynamics testing of scaled and fullsized Naval models, research into flow physics found on US Navy planes and ships, aerosol testing and...

  6. Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons

    Herndon, J Marvin


    The discovery of close-to-star gas-giant exo-planets lends support to the idea of Earth's origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant and to the consequences of its compression, including whole-Earth decompression dynamics that gives rise, without requiring mantle convection, to the myriad measurements and observations whose descriptions are attributed to plate tectonics. I propose here another, unanticipated consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics: namely, a specific, dominant, non-erosion, underlying initiation-mechanism precursor for submarine canyons that follows as a direct consequence of Earth's early origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant.

  7. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications.


    Gaver, D P; Acar, M Analytical hazard representations for use in reliability, mortality and simulation studies Communications in Statistics - Simulation...use in reliability, mortality ° and simulation studies Naval postgraduate School, (NPS-55-78-017), Aug., 1978. 48 p. Gaver, D P; Jacobs, P A Storage...Systems Command, Washinqton, D. C. Naval Postgraduate School, (NPS-62-81-026), Jan., 1981. 153 p. Hollands, C C; Achyanto, D; Ba cura , 0 N Digital

  8. [The Royal Chemistry Laboratory (1694-1700)].

    del Mar Rey Bueno, M; Alegre Pérez, M E


    One of the most interesting events of the trasformation of science in Spain toward the end of the XVII century was the foundation of the Royal Chemistry Laboratory. This institution, brillantly promoted by the physician Dionisio de Cardona, was condemned to failure from the very beginning, due to the opposition of the Protomedicato and the royal apothecaries in the service of King Charles II. The period studied here, between 1693 and 1700, comprises two different phases: an initial stage (1693-1697) characterized by the struggle between novatores and traditionalists, which ended in triumph for the latter; and a second stage (1697-1700) completely separate from the initial measures, in which the influence of alchemy was marked. This stage can be considered compatible with the series of spells and superstitions that characterized the court of Charles II.

  9. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  10. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines....

  11. The Royal Navy and British Security Policy.


    SCHOOL December 1983 Author Approved by: Tesis Avisor s" econd R e r Chafrman, Department of National Security Affairs -- and Policy Sciences " Dean of...8217s based on the 14 VULCAN , VICTOR and VALIANT bombers. Although cooperation with the American SAC was envisioned from the begining, the force did...British strategic nuclear deterrent. This responsibility was once the domain of the Royal Air Force and its VULCAN , VICTOR, and VALIANT bombers, but after

  12. Inca Royal Estates in the Sacred Valley

    McKim Malville, J.

    The royal estates lying between Cusco and Machu Picchu illustrate the remarkable variety by which the sun was honored and worshipped in the Inca Empire. The terraced basins of Moray combine the sun at both solstices and, perhaps, the zenith sun, with flowing water and offerings to Pachamama. The complex astronomy at Urubamba involves the palace of Quespiwanka, horizon pillars, solstices, and mountain worship. Ollantaytambo contains horizontal shadow-casting gnomons with a major water shrine.

  13. Ottoman royal women's spaces: The acoustic dimension

    Ergin, Nina


    In their discussion of space in relation to gender, historians of women in the Middle East so far have focused primarily on physical and visual access. This paper argues that women's acoustic space merits closer consideration, especially since acoustic methods of communication very often could and did exceed the limits of vision and visually bounded space. This argument is based on three different case studies concerning Ottoman royal women of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: (1) hare...

  14. Balanced scorecard at the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Karl Krarup


    Full Text Available The Royal Library is the national library of Denmark and University Library for Copenhagen University. In 2000 the Royal Library started using Balanced Scorecard as an instrument for creating a better connection between its day to day activities and its strategic goals. The Royal Library has a number of goals in choosing the Balanced Scorecard. Important goals are: to develop a strategic instrument which can be used to represent the strategic goals of the library in such a way that we can measure how close our actual performance comes in reaching these goals to create an instrument which can be used in negotiating the goals and performance of the departments in such a way that the department leaders keep a fair level of autonomy in running the departments and give the institution leader a good overview of the actual performance to make the individual department's contribution to the institutional performance explicit to personnel and leaders to formulate and monitor important strategic areas of the library's development to support steering the development to make the library and its performance more transparent to all interested actors in the library The article presents the main issues in developing the library's use of the Balanced Scorecard. It includes a number of concrete cases from the implementation of the method and its use as a strategic instrument in monitoring and developing the Royal Library as a library growing more digital and hybrid. To increase the digital part of its content, its services and its internal processes is among the library's major strategic goals.

  15. Flow Over a Model Submarine

    Jiménez, Juan; Smits, Alexander


    Experimental investigation over a DARPA SUBOFF submarine model (SUBOFF Model) was performed using flow visualization and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The model has an axisymmetric body with sail and fins, and it was supported by a streamlined strut that was formed by the extension of the sail appendage. The range of flow conditions studied correspond to a Reynolds numbers based on model length, Re_L, of about 10^5. Velocity vector fields, turbulence intensities, vorticity fields, and flow visualization in the vicinity of the junction flows are presented. In the vicinity of the control surface and sail hull junctions, the presence of streamwise vortices in the form of horseshoe or necklace vortices locally dominates the flow. The effects of unsteady motions about an axis passing through the sail are also investigated to understand the evolution of the unsteady wake.

  16. 33 CFR 334.1215 - Port Gardner, Everett Naval Base, naval restricted area, Everett, Washington.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Gardner, Everett Naval Base... REGULATIONS § 334.1215 Port Gardner, Everett Naval Base, naval restricted area, Everett, Washington. (a) The area. The waters of Port Gardner and East Waterway surrounding Naval Station Everett beginning at Point...

  17. Personality and coping strategies during submarine missions.

    Sandal, Gro M; Endresen, Inger M; Vaernes, Ragnar; Ursin, Holger


    Relations between personality profiles, measured by the Personality Characteristics Inventory (PCI), and habitual coping strategies, measured by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), were investigated in a sample of submarine personnel and office employees. The predictive validity of these instruments were examined for reported stress, health complaints, and salivary cortisone measures during 3 submarine missions. PCI and UCL were completed before the missions, and questionnaires and saliva were collected weekly. The results showed no significant relations between PCI profiles and coping strategies. Interpersonal orientation, achievement motivation, and habitual coping strategies were predictors for coping during the submarine missions. Problem-directed strategies and interpersonal sensitivity combined with strong achievement motivation were related to low indicated stress from social factors (lack of privacy, interpersonal tension, and crowding) and homesickness. The findings suggest that interpersonal characteristics need to be considered in the selection of submariners and personnel for other military settings in which units are exposed to prolonged stress and isolation.

  18. Aspects of Propeller Developements for a Submarine

    Andersen, Poul; kappel, Jens Julius; Spangenberg, Eugen


    Design and development of propellers for submarines are in some ways different from propellers for surface vessels. The most important demand is low acoustic signature that has priority over propeller efficiency, and the submarine propeller must be optimized with respect to acoustics rather than...... efficiency. Moreover the operating conditions of a submarine propeller are quite different. These aspects are discussed as well as the weighing of the various propeller parameters against the design objectives. The noise generated by the propeller can be characterized as thrust noise due to the inhomogeneous...... wake field of the submarine, trailing-edge noise and noise caused by turbulence in the inflow. The items discussed are demonstrated in a case study where a propeller of the Kappel type was developed. Three stages of the development are presented, including a design of an 8-bladed propeller where...


    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew


    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  20. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall


    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  1. Personality and Coping Strategies During Submarine Missions

    Sandal, Gro M.; Endresen, Inger M.; Vaernes, Ragnar; Ursin, Holger


    Relations between personality profiles, measured by the Personality Characteristics Inventory (PCI), and habitual coping strategies, measured by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), were investigated in a sample of submarine personnel and office employees. The predictive validity of these instruments were examined for reported stress, health complaings, and salivary cortisone measures during 3 submarine missions. PCI and UCL were completed before the missions, and questionnaires and saliva were col...

  2. China's First Robot Submarine Archeologist


    China recently announced successful experimentation with the first bionic robot “fish” in submarine archeology. This fish-like robot was put to work off the Fujian coast last year by archeologists conducting a submarine survey of an ancient battleship that was part of Ming general Zheng Chenggong's fleet The robot is capable of working continuously for 2-3 hours at a maximum speed of 1.5 m per second. Its performance was reported as “excellent”

  3. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F


    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  4. The RES reactor, a test reactor for naval propulsion; Le reacteur d'essais RES, reacteur d'essais de la propulsion navale

    Pivet, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Minguet, J.L. [AREVA-Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France)


    The RES, the new test reactor for naval propulsion, will replace the RNG that nears the end of its operating life after 30 years in service. The main asset of a land-based installation is to provide an in-core instrumented reactor while the on-board system must stay as simple as possible for robustness reasons. The objective of the RES is fivefold: 1) to foresee and help solving problems likely to happen on on-board reactor, 2) to validate nuclear fuels and reactor systems for naval propulsion, 3) to validate reactor system and equipment for the Barracuda submarine program, 4) to upgrade the on-ground facility located at Cadarache, and 5) to provide the Cea with a new capacity for the storing of spent fuels from naval propulsion systems and from Cea research reactors. The RES facility is made of 2 parts: one that houses the reactor and the other that is dedicated to the handling on spent fuels, their examination through a gamma spectrometry bench and their storing in a pool. The RES facility is scheduled to open in 2009. (A.C.)

  5. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications.


    Instrumqntation for Atmospheric Observation, �IEZ Reqion 5 Ann., Conf., El Paso , Tex., Apr.3-5° 1979. fi Proc., p. 1-5. Harrison, D E Atom ejection...DEPART3ENT OF METEOROLOGY TECHNICAL REPORTS AND NOTES Anthes R A Tesis of a mesoscale model over Europe and the United States Naval Postgraduate School

  6. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Supplement for February 1968


    five PGMs, four PCEs and one MSC assigned daily to .’ MfLRKET TIME forces. In addition, the Royal Thai Navy had one PGM assigned to MAKET TIIýL forces in...Economic Development 6 ib,120 Education o40 24oo49 Social Welfare 2002 802,435 Transportation 192 18,169 Refugee Assistance Support 1010 3,491,81)4 TOTALS...patrols, conducted sweeps, manned listening posts and maintained an excellent defense posture. At ti e Naval Recruit Training Center, Can Ranh Bay

  7. Sociomateriality at the Royal Court of IS

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Jensen, Tina Blegind


    The notion of ‘sociomateriality’ has recently gained in popularity among information systems (IS) scholars in their search for providing new ways of investigating and theorizing about IS in organizations and society at large. While some scholars put forward arguments and research accounts that lead...... for progressing the theorizing of ‘man–machine’ reconfigurations, we point to the necessity of a deeper exploration of the term. Inspired by the Alternative Genres Track at the European Conference on Information Systems 2012, the purpose here is to take a fresh look, to evoke new insights and to gain deeper...... understanding of the notion of sociomateriality and its use in the IS discipline. We invite the reader to attend a prolonged monologue – characterized by honesty, frank observations and wit – at the royal court of IS. The monologue is delivered by the court jester and directed to the two sovereigns who, based...

  8. Hydroplaning and submarine debris flows

    de Blasio, Fabio V.; Engvik, Lars; Harbitz, Carl B.; ElverhøI, Anders


    Examination of submarine clastic deposits along the continental margins reveals the remnants of holocenic or older debris flows with run-out distances up to hundreds of kilometers. Laboratory experiments on subaqueous debris flows, where typically one tenth of a cubic meter of material is dropped down a flume, also show high velocities and long run-out distances compared to subaerial debris flows. Moreover, they show the tendency of the head of the flow to run out ahead of the rest of the body. The experiments reveal the possible clue to the mechanism of long run-out. This mechanism, called hydroplaning, begins as the dynamic pressure at the front of the debris flow becomes of the order of the pressure exerted by the weight of the sediment. In such conditions a layer of water can intrude under the sediment with a lubrication effect and a decrease in the resistance forces between the sediment and the seabed. A physical-mathematical model of hydroplaning is presented and investigated numerically. The model is applied to both laboratory- and field-scale debris flows. Agreement with laboratory experiments makes us confident in the extrapolation of our model to natural flows and shows that long run-out distances can be naturally attained.


    Nørby, Søren



  10. Proceedings of the Ship Control Systems Symposium (5th), Held at U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland on October 30 - November 3, 1978. Volume 6,


    Williams, V. E. 1 C 1-1 National Maritime Research Center Wolford , J. C. 5 R 1-1 Naval Weapons Support Center Zuidweg, J. 3 Jl 4-1 Royal Netherlands of the Man Machine Interface requirements for the Command and Control of Ships’ Machinery on which this paper is based. LCDR LARRY E. PARKIN...of in-service ship performance standards. Previously, he spent a number of years in industry in the ship control field. JAMES C. WOLFORD received

  11. Reducing Unsteady Loads on a Piggyback Miniature Submarine

    Lin, John


    A small, simple fixture has been found to be highly effective in reducing destructive unsteady hydrodynamic loads on a miniature submarine that is attached in piggyback fashion to the top of a larger, nuclear-powered, host submarine. The fixture, denoted compact ramp, can be installed with minimal structural modification, and the use of it does not entail any change in submarine operations.

  12. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  13. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David


    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  14. Trident Biological Surveys: Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Washington (1979, 1980 & 1981) Summary Report. Supplement 3


    Relationships in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) to Detect Heavy Metal Pollution, Water Research, vol 7, p 451 -460, 1973 43Jenkins, DW...Metal Pollution, Water Research, vol 7, p 451 -460, 1973. 86 43. Jenkins, DW, Biological Monitoring of Toxic Trace Metals: Biological Monitoring and...when water temperatures are favorably warm (usually about 67 degrees Farenheit ). For normal growth of oyster larvae during the fast several weeks of

  15. Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory Command History, OPNAV 5750-1 Fiscal Year 2005


    nitrogen narcosis • Effects of atmospheric constituents on hrnational Orange Color ealth and ect • e presence • oustic signal discrimination and...Dr. David Fothergill gave an update on the progress of undersea medicine research efforts on Mechanisms to Improve Nitrogen Elimination and Reduce

  16. Updated Fiscal Impact Analysis for the Naval Submarine Base, Kings Bay, Georgia. Technical Appendices


    any person wishing to enter the labor force. Thus, the only existing labor supply is actually the inflow of spouses of inmigrants who wish to work...The existing labor supply for the Kings Bay expansion is calculated in the model by assuming that 60 percent of the spouses of inmigrants who wish The existing labor supply for the Kings Bay expansion is calculated in the model by assuming that 60 percent of the spouses of inmigrants from the

  17. A History of Computer-Assisted Medical Diagnosis at Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory


    Table 2. Diagnoses considered by Eye Module Acute angle closure glaucoma Dislocation of the lens Acute iritis Hash burn Allergic conjunctivitis...Gonococcal conjunctivitis Bacterial conjunctivitis Herpes simplex keratitis Blepharitis Hordeolum Chalazion Hyphema Chronic iritis Inclusion conjunctivitis...the globe Corneal abrasion Subconjunctival hemorrhage Corneal foreign body Traumatic iritis Viral conjunctivitis 11 cal Practice Support System). MEPSS

  18. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.


    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  19. The Royal pilgrimage of the Goddess Nanda

    William S. Sax


    Full Text Available Once every twelve years, when it is thought that some calamity has taken place because of the curse of the goddess Nanda Devi, a four-horned ram is born in the fields of the former king of Garhwal, an erstwhile Central Himalayan kingdom in north India (see map of Garhwal. This four-horned ram leads a procession of priests and pilgrims on the most dangerous and spectacular pilgrimage in all of India: a three-week, barefoot journey of one-hundred and sixty-four miles, during some of the worst weather of the year, at the end of the rainy season. The procession reaches Rupkund, a small pond located at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, which is surrounded by human­ skeletons, and from there it goes yet further, to Homkund, the ‘Lake of the Fire Sacrifice’. According to the faithful, the four-horned ram leaves the procession at that point and finds its way, unaided, to the summit of Mount Trishul. As its name suggests, the Royal Procession is closely associated with the ruler of this erstwhile Himalayan kingdom: he attends its inaugural rituals, the bones that litter the shores of Rupkund are believed to be those of one of his ancestors, and the chief sponsor of the event is a local ‘Prince’ who is thought to be descended from the first kings of Garhwal. This Prince traverses the domain of his ancestors and thereby lays claim to it in the name of the goddess Nanda, who is not only his lineage goddess but was also the royal goddess of the neighbouring kingdom of Kumaon, in pre-colonial times. Although the Royal Procession ideally fosters social integration, it was disrupted in 1987 by a quarrel between two factions of priests. The goddess’s itinerary, the culminating date of the pilgrimage, the type of sacrifice to be performed, the order of procession, the participation of previously excluded persons, and the competency of certain ritual specialists—all were subjects of heated dispute between the rival groups. What was the reason for

  20. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英


    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  1. Reliability of Naval Radar Systems


    CONFIDENTIAL (THIS PACE IS UNCUIASSFIED) CONFIDENTIAL (U) For airborne radars, 3-M’(Maintenance and Material Management )and RISE (Readiness Improvement...of the 3-M Program reports (3-M from Maintenance and Material Management ) as well as Naval Air Systems Command RISE (Readi-. ness Improvement Summary...TRANSIT PULSE LE11CTR (;As): 12.8 ANTENNA UEIGHr (k 1058 (2331 lbs.) excluding pedestal COMPRESSED PLUE LENGTH (.is): 0.2 BEAN POSITIObiNG TECNIQUES : H)RZ

  2. Chaotic LIDAR for Naval Applications


    LIDAR for Naval Applications: FY12 Progress Report (7/1/2014- 9/30/2014) This document provides a progress report on the project "Chaotic LIDAR receiver to form a chaotic LIDAR (CLIDAR) ranging system. The design of the chaotic fiber ring laser and the fiber amplifiers are guided by...Wideband Amplifier Chain High Power Blue-Green Ranging Fig 1. The chaotic LIDAR (CLIDAR) transmitter approach. Several stages are used to

  3. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications


    Tecnicos e Cientificos Editora S.A. , 1986. 160 p. Ein-Dor, P; Jones, C R Information systems management: Analytical tools and techniques Elsevier, New...Fluid dynamics and fluid machiner John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1986. 1200 p. Platzer M F; Carta, F 0 AGARD manual on aeroelasticity in axial-flow...Miller, J A Stream heat distribution program users manual TM-M73-87-20, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA., 1988. Miller, D L

  4. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  5. An analysis of Naval Officer accession programs

    Lehner, William D.


    This thesis conducts an extensive literature review of prior studies on the three major commissioning programs for United States naval officers --the United States Naval Academy, Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps, and Officer Candidate School. Three areas are covered: historical patterns in officer accessions and historical changes in Navy pre-commissioning training and education philosophy and policy; cost comparisons of the three major commissioning programs; and comparisons of job perf...

  6. Naval Reserve: an organization in transition.

    Mazza, Richard Charles


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to examine the issues facing the Naval Reserve as it transitions from its cold war mission to new and, possibly, expanded roles under the New National Military Strategy. The thesis further provides an overview of the changed strategic environment and budgetary concerns that serve as drivers for change within the Naval Reserve. The evolution of the present Naval Reserve organization, manpower an...

  7. Quantitative analysis of the geometry of submarine channels: Implications for the classification of submarine fans

    Clark, J. D.; Kenyon, N. H.; Pickering, K. T.


    Certain attributes of submarine channels measured from GLORIA sidescan sonar data from 16 different submarine fans indicate similarities with fluviatile systems. Channel width, depth, meander radius and wavelength, sinuosity, and gradient were measured. This approach makes it possible to identify high- sinuosity, low-gradient (e.g., Indus Fan channels) and low-sinuosity, high- gradient (e.g., Porcupine Seabight channels) channel systems as end members. Current classifications of submarine fans relate fan shape to grain size or sediment caliber and therefore are inadequate, principally because the shape of the fan is strongly controlled by the shape of the receiving basin, which in turn is dependent upon parameters such as tectonics and diapirism. Overall fan shape is almost invariably independent of the physics of sediment transport. Rather than fan shape, the geometry and other characteristics of submarine channels and canyons provide a more promising means of differentiating deep- marine turbidite systems.

  8. Seatbelt submarining injury and its prevention countermeasures: How a cantilever seat pan structure exacerbate submarining.

    Thorbole, Chandrashekhar K


    The purpose of this study and a case report was to demonstrate seat belt webbing induced injury due to seatbelt submarining during the frontal motor vehicle crash. Submarining is an undesired phenomenon during a frontal crash scenario and is dependent on design features of the seat pan and seatbelt system. The lack of adequate anti-submarining features at any seating position with three-point restraint can cause abdominal solid and hollow organ injuries. This paper reports a case of submarining and factors that exacerbated this phenomenon leading to critical occupant abdominal injury. This case report and the following injury causation analysis demonstrate the shortcomings of a cantilever seat pan design in context to the occupant safety. The inadequate seat pan anti-submarining feature in association with lack of seatbelt load-limiter and Pretensioner reduces the level of occupant protection offered by the seat belt system in the rear seat. This case report shows the dangers of cantilever seat pan design and its association with increased risk of submarining causing severe abdominal injuries.

  9. Seatbelt submarining injury and its prevention countermeasures: How a cantilever seat pan structure exacerbate submarining

    Chandrashekhar K Thorbole


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study and a case report was to demonstrate seat belt webbing induced injury due to seatbelt submarining during the frontal motor vehicle crash. Submarining is an undesired phenomenon during a frontal crash scenario and is dependent on design features of the seat pan and seatbelt system. The lack of adequate anti-submarining features at any seating position with three-point restraint can cause abdominal solid and hollow organ injuries. This paper reports a case of submarining and factors that exacerbated this phenomenon leading to critical occupant abdominal injury. This case report and the following injury causation analysis demonstrate the shortcomings of a cantilever seat pan design in context to the occupant safety. The inadequate seat pan anti-submarining feature in association with lack of seatbelt load-limiter and Pretensioner reduces the level of occupant protection offered by the seat belt system in the rear seat. This case report shows the dangers of cantilever seat pan design and its association with increased risk of submarining causing severe abdominal injuries.

  10. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures ...


    The first German submarine offensive in South African waters during 1942, Operation ... The German occupation of France in May 1940 provided the BdU with an ...... trawlers had to protect an average of 38 convoys which operated in South ...

  11. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.


    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  12. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)


    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  13. Computational aspects of steel fracturing pertinent to naval requirements.

    Matic, Peter; Geltmacher, Andrew; Rath, Bhakta


    Modern high strength and ductile steels are a key element of US Navy ship structural technology. The development of these alloys spurred the development of modern structural integrity analysis methods over the past 70 years. Strength and ductility provided the designers and builders of navy surface ships and submarines with the opportunity to reduce ship structural weight, increase hull stiffness, increase damage resistance, improve construction practices and reduce maintenance costs. This paper reviews how analytical and computational tools, driving simulation methods and experimental techniques, were developed to provide ongoing insights into the material, damage and fracture characteristics of these alloys. The need to understand alloy fracture mechanics provided unique motivations to measure and model performance from structural to microstructural scales. This was done while accounting for the highly nonlinear behaviours of both materials and underlying fracture processes. Theoretical methods, data acquisition strategies, computational simulation and scientific imaging were applied to increasingly smaller scales and complex materials phenomena under deformation. Knowledge gained about fracture resistance was used to meet minimum fracture initiation, crack growth and crack arrest characteristics as part of overall structural integrity considerations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 21349 - Meeting of the Board of Advisors to the Presidents of the Naval Postgraduate School and Naval War...


    ... and Naval War College, Naval Postgraduate School Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD... also through the Board of Advisors (BOA) to the Presidents of NPS and Naval War College report on...

  15. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.


    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  16. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final report

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.


    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petrolem by the development of different sources of energy. The study was accomplished under a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy's San Francisco Operations Office and the Department of the Navy's Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, for joint research and development of geothermal energy at military installations.

  17. “机敏”级潜艇设计和建造的经验教训%Lessons from design and building of the Astute submarine



    UK Astute submarine program has been delayed a long time and has seen a sharp rise in cost,which is an important lesson in the history of submarine development for UK Royal Navy. In this paper, problems and reasons arisen in this program are discussed, by reviewing Astute submarine's design, building, test and delivery. At last, measures and findings for Astute submarine program management during designing and building process are summarized, which have reference effect for overarching design of our ship equipments program.%英国“机敏”级潜艇项目严重拖期,成本大幅上涨,使英国为此付出了巨大的代价.本文从项目管理的角度,剖析了“机敏”级潜艇在设计、建造、测试和交付等方面出现的问题及其原因,得出了“机敏”级潜艇在设计和建造中的经验和教训,对我国舰船装备研制管理顶层设计具有一定的参考价值.

  18. Safety doctrine synthesis for nuclear submarines construction and operation; Sintese de doutrina de seguranca para projeto e operacao de submarinos nucleares

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos; Veiga, Jorge Pinheiro da Costa [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail:; Brinati, Hernani Luiz [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval


    The paper consists in an abstract of the thesis with the same title. This thesis intended to organize and to systematize a Global Safety Doctrine applicable to future national Nuclear Attack Submarines (SSN) considering both nuclear and naval aspects. This doctrine has the form of a set of basic principles, general criteria, specific requirements, design verification process procedures for construction and operation inspection, aiming the assurance of a high level of safety pattern to these warships. Consequently the doctrine would form a consistent and coherent basis for Nuclear Safety Authority (NSA) evaluate the social acceptability of SSN life cycle risks, considering the proposed Safety Objectives, in order to contribute to its competent decisions on submarine licensing. (author)

  19. Population Limitation and the Wolves of Isle Royale

    Rolf O. Peterson; Nancy J. Thomas; Joanne M. Thurber; John A. Vucetich; Thomas A. Waite


    Population regulation for gray wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, was examined in 1987-1995 when wolves were in chronic decline following a crash of the population in 1981-1982. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2...

  20. Apiology: royal secrets in the queen's fat body.

    Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B


    Royalactin, a component of royal jelly, induces queen differentiation in honeybees. Surprisingly, royalactin has a similar effect on growth in fruit flies, highlighting many unexpected features of growth regulation by the insect fat tissue.

  1. Physicochemical composition of pure and adulterated royal jelly

    Luis Henrique Garcia-Amoedo; Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian


    ... (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid). The solubility in alkaline medium was used to detect the main frauds for adulterating royal jelly which comprise addition of yogurt, water, egg white, sweet condensed milk mixed with propolis, unripe...

  2. Naval Arms Control: The Backdrop of History


    from Europe and The Hague. In the Pactos de Mayo of 1902, Argentina and Chile agreed to cancel existing orders for naval warships and to give each...the Soviet Union, signed protocols modeled on the Pactos de Mayo of the preceding century. In the two agreements, the parties forswore further naval

  3. 38 CFR 3.803 - Naval pension.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval pension. 3.803 Section 3.803 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.803 Naval pension. (a) Payment of...

  4. Physicochemical composition of pure and adulterated royal jelly

    Luis Henrique Garcia-Amoedo


    Full Text Available The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly as well as of some adulterated samples was analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, nitrogen/proteins, carbohydrates, starch and 10- HDA (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid. The solubility in alkaline medium was used to detect the main frauds for adulterating royal jelly which comprise addition of yogurt, water, egg white, sweet condensed milk mixed with propolis, unripe banana and corn starch slurry.

  5. Physicochemical composition of pure and adulterated royal jelly

    Luis Henrique Garcia-Amoedo; Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian


    The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly as well as of some adulterated samples was analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, nitrogen/proteins, carbohydrates, starch and 10- HDA (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid). The solubility in alkaline medium was used to detect the main frauds for adulterating royal jelly which comprise addition of yogurt, water, egg white, sweet condensed milk mixed with propolis, unripe banana and corn starch slurry.

  6. Tropical storm Flossie and the Ark Royal storm

    Peteherych, S.; Cunningham, G. F.; Davies, A. F.; Muttitt, G.


    The development of the tropical storm Flossie north of Scotland on September 16-17, 1978 from the Ark Royal storm is described. Land, marine, upper air data, satellite imagery, Seasat scatterometer (SASS) wind data, and SMMR moisture data were utilized to analyze the storms' development. The factors which contributed to the formation of the Ark Royal storm are discussed. Isobaric surface charts, isotachs and streamlines of the SASS winds, and SMMR water vapor contours are provided.

  7. Production logistic for an attack nuclear submarine squadron fuel; Logistica de producao de combustivel para um esquadrao de submarinos nucleares de ataque

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)


    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  8. Response analysis of a submarine cable under fault movement

    Liu Aiwen


    Based on the performance of submarine cables in past earthquakes, an analytical method to determine cable performance under seabed fault movement is proposed in this paper. First, common types of earthquake damage to submarine cables are summarized, which include seabed displacement induced by fault movement, submarine landslides and seabed soil liquefaction, etc. The damage is similar to damage observed to buried pipelines following land earthquakes. The Hengchun earthquake of Dec. 26, 2006 is used as a case study. The M7.2 earthquake occurred in the South China Sea at 20:26 Beijing Time, and caused 14 international submarine cables to sever and break. The results show that the proposed method predicts damage similar to that observed in the Hengchun earthquake. Based on parametric studies of the influence of the water depth and the magnitude of the submarine earthquake, countermeasures to prevent damage to submarine cables are proposed.

  9. Submarine Magnetic Field Extrapolation Based on Boundary Element Method

    GAO Jun-ji; LIU Da-ming; YAO Qiong-hui; ZHOU Guo-hua; YAN Hui


    In order to master the magnetic field distribution of submarines in the air completely and exactly and study the magnetic stealthy performance of submarine, a mathematic model of submarine magnetic field extrapolation is built based on the boundary element method (BEM). An experiment is designed to measure three components of magnetic field on the envelope surface surrounding a model submarine. The data in differentheights above the model submarine are obtained by use of tri-axial magnetometers. The results show that this extrapolation model has good stabilities and high accuracies compared the measured data with the extrapolated data. Moreover, the model can reflect the submarine magnetic field distribution in the air exactly, and is valuable in practical engineering.

  10. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Minghui Wang


    Full Text Available While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro‐fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  11. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.


    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  12. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Minghui Wang


    Full Text Available Abstract While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro-fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  13. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    Yuan Zhuang; Yang Li; Wei Su


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emerge...

  14. Submarine Landslides: What we Know and Where we are Going!

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Strasser, M.; Vanneste, M.; Chaytor, J. D.; Mosher, D.; Krastel, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Yamada, Y.


    Submarine landslides and other gravity-induced movements can disrupt very large areas of continental margins resulting in long-term seafloor morphologic change and multi-scale mass transport deposits (MTDs). Potential consequences of submarine landslides include damage to seabed infrastructure, offshore facilities, as well as generation or enhancement of tsunamis. MTDs are common on the modern seafloor and within the stratigraphic record. Slides, slumps and debris flows can be constituents of MTDs and can co-occur in the same event or depositional unit. Recent research indicates that relationships exist between MTD geological setting, causal mechanisms, and geometries. Quantitative data analysis suggests that MTD morphometric parameters can be used to link these three parameters. Despite many advances in this field, it still remains unclear how to definitively identify pre-conditioning factors and triggers of submarine landslides in modern slopes, and how submarine landslides evolve after initiation. In addition, new questions regarding the interaction between submarine landslides and active marine processes, such as bottom currents and fluid flow, have emerged.One of the mandates of the S4SLIDE (IGCP-640) project, a joint endeavor of UNESCO and IGCP that represents the broad field of submarine landslide research, is to facilitate interactions at an international level among scientists, industry and government representatives to advance our knowledge on a number of outstanding science questions: (i) What is the nature of the interaction between current-controlled sedimentation and submarine landslides? (ii) What role do transient turbulent-laminar flows play in the formation of submarine landslides? (iii) Do climatic variations control the occurrence of submarine landslides? (iv) What is the economic significance of submarine landslides? (v) Do we understand the hazards that submarine landslides pose to the environment and to humans? This presentation will cover




    Submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation under water. Use of submarines includes marine science, offshore industry underwater exploration etc. The pressure hull of submarine is constructed as combination of cylinders and domes. The shell is subjected to very high hydrostatic pressure, which creates large compressive stress resultants. Due to this the structure is susceptible to buckling. The introduction of stiffeners in both directions considerably increases the buckling st...

  16. Using Ice Predictions to Guide Submarines


    prevented the use of several airfields used for transporting personnel and equipment to the ice camp. The rapidly changing conditions of the ice ...of the ice cover. The age of the sea ice serves as an indicator of its physical properties including surface roughness, melt pond coverage, and...Sailors and members of the Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station clear ice from the hatch of the submarine USS Connecticut (SSN 22) during Ice

  17. William Brouncker MD Viscount Castlelyons (c 1620-84) First President of the Royal Society.

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S


    William Brouncker was the grandson of Sir Henry Brouncker, President of Munster during the Elizabethan Plantation of Ireland in the 16th century. William's date and place of birth are uncertain; he was born about 1620, most probably at Castlelyons, County Cork, and educated at Oxford where he shone in mathematics and languages. Until his death in 1684 he served the Stuarts as a senior member of the Navy Board from which sprang the Admiralty, and we owe much of what we know about his life to the warts-and-all diary of his younger naval colleague, Samuel Pepys (1633-1703). Although William was granted a doctorate in medicine by Oxford in 1646, music and mathematics were his major interests. He was the first President of the Royal Society and he held that position from 1662 to 1677, when his tenure was brought to a reluctant close by an election, sardonically recorded in the diary of the curator of experiments, Robert Hooke (1635-1703). If Brouncker did not add any empirical facts, he certainly contributed to the promotion and dissemination of natural knowledge.

  18. Decontamination and Decommissioned Small Nuclear AIP Hybrid Systems Submarines

    Guangya Liu


    Full Text Available Being equipped with small reactor AIP is the trend of conventional submarine power in 21st century as well as a real power revolution in conventional submarine. Thus, the quantity of small reactor AIP Submarines is on the increase, and its decommissioning and decontamination will also become a significant international issue. However, decommissioning the small reactor AIP submarines is not only a problem that appears beyond the lifetime of the small reactor nuclear devices, but the problem involving the entire process of design, construction, running and closure. In the paper, the problem is explored based on the conception and the feasible decommissioning and decontamination means are supplied to choose from.

  19. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted...

  20. Human Capital Management Through the Use of a Standard Integrated Personnel System in Royal Saudi Naval Forces


    and Supply System CRM Customer Relationship Management DOD Department of Defense DP Demand Planning EIS Employee Information System ERP...provides. These software solutions include payroll, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ), and Supply Chain...the RSNF doctrine in terms of customization , analytics, integration, interoperability, network management , system upgradation, and security. The


    Wiström, Petter; Gustafsson, Marcus


    This report is a master thesis performed at The Royal Institute of Technology divisions of Lightweight Structures and Naval Architecture in collaboration with the Swedish defence material administration, FMV. There are several naval submarines used by the Swedish navy and more to be built. The existing submarines have stability problems due to a high centre of gravity. Most parts on the existing vessels are made of steel, despite a position far above the vertical centre of gravity. By replaci...

  2. Effects of submarine escape training on the pulmonary function and carbon dioxide retention in the escape

    CHEN Rui-yong; WANG Wen-bo; FANG Yi-qun; XU Ji; XU Lin-jun


    Objective Fast buoyancy ascent escape used in submarine escape is the most probable choice of survival in case of a submarine accident.Rate of success for escape depends very much on the extent of training,in spite of the fact that rapid compression and decompression pose great challenges to the human body in terms of enormous stresses.To minimize stresses experienced during sub escape training has always been a research subject for us.Lungs are susceptible to rapid change in pressure during escape.Dynamic pulmonary function and the end-tidal PCO2 ( PETCO2 ) might be the best indicator for its effect on the pulmonary function of the submarine escapee.Methods Five male navy divers received submarine escape trainings,at different depths from 3-60 m.They were compressed at different rates (with pressure doubled every 20 s or 30 s),in the simulated submarine escape tower located in the Naval Medical Research Institute.The gas of end-expiration was collected immediately after escape,respiratory rate (RR) and dynamic pulmonary function were closely monitored,and PETCO2 was determined with the mass spectrometer.Results Experimental results showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.0) tended to increase with increasing depth,and that it increased significantly at 50 m and 60 m,when compared with the basic data (P < 0.05 ),and it was coupled with a decrease in forced expiratory flow at 25 % ( FEF25% ),indicating that it had certain effect on the function of small airways.PETCO2 and RR all elevated markedly following escapes.No significant differences could be seen in RR following escapes at various depths.PETCO2 and depth ( r =0.387,P < 0.01 ) were positively correlated with compression rate ( r =0.459,P < 0.01 ) and RR ( r =0.467,P < 0.01 ).CO2 retention might be attributed to pulmonary ventilation disorder induced by rapid changes in pressure.PETCO2 was within normal range,following escapes at various depths,suggesting that increased RR might be

  3. The Accounting Register of a Royal Secretary in Aragonese Naples

    Enza Russo


    Full Text Available In the crucial years of the succession war that involved the Kingdom of Naples after Alfonso the Magnanimous’death (1459-1464, a secretary of the new king Ferrante I of Aragon, Antonello Petrucci, was entrusted with royal financial charges. He therefore compiled an account book, where receipts and payments of the royal finances were carefully recorded. It has been recently discovered: this paper aims at examining its actual framework as well as the relative volume of the state budget. Because of its new and comprehensive body of evidence, Petrucci’s account book is a very useful source, which may provide additional informations not only on the bulk of the state funds and expenditure but also on the structure of the king’s household and on the system of the royal financial administration, which appears now as characterized by a more complex organization than it was supposed to be in the past.

  4. [The Protomedicato Tribunal and the royal physicians (1665-1724)].

    Pardo Tomás, J; Martínez Vidal, A


    This article tries to reconstruct the composition of the Board of Royal Physicians during the reign of Charles II (1665-1799) and the first part of the reign of Philip V (1700-1724), a crucial period in the introduction of modern science and medicine in the Spanish Kingdoms. Their personal records, to be found in the Archivo General de Palacio in Madrid, have been exhaustively consulted. Some of these royal physicians formed part of the Castilian Tribunal del Protomedicato, by means of which the Board of Royal Physicians was selected, promoted and controlled. The Protomedicato was an important battlefield in the conflict between traditional and modern medicine, in which Italian physicians played a decisive role.

  5. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto


    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite.

  6. Naval Research Reviews. Volume 35, Number 3,


    Selsmlclty Qnd Volcainism at The Navc 4 Weapons Centert by Glenn R. Roquemoe and John T. Zellmer Naval Weapon. Center Introduction The Naval Weapons Center...Range has a history of volcanism and earth- quakes. The eruption of high-silica rhyolite occurred at least 38 times over the last million years, and...basaltic eruptions ceased only 30,000 years ago. Duffield, et al.’, have shown that, in all, about 35 cubic kilometers of lava have erupted during the

  7. Wolves, moose, and tree rings on isle royale.

    McLaren, B E; Peterson, R O


    Investigation of tree growth in Isle Royale National Park in Michigan revealed the influence of herbivores and carnivores on plants in an intimately linked food chain. Plant growth rates were regulated by cycles in animal density and responded to annual changes in primary productivity only when released from herbivory by wolf predation. Isle Royale's dendrochronology complements a rich literature on food chain control in aquatic systems, which often supports a trophic cascade model. This study provides evidence of top-down control in a forested ecosystem.

  8. 32 CFR 707.7 - Submarine identification light.


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submarine identification light. 707.7 Section... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.7 Submarine identification light... off-period. The light will be located where it can best be seen, as near as practicable, all...

  9. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    Gleyzes, C.


    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  10. Monitoring of radioactivity at the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk

    Amundsen, I. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway); Lind, B. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Enviromental Protection Unit, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)


    In the morning of August 12th 2000, a Russian submarine accident occurred in international waters east of Rybatschi Peninsula in the Barents Sea about 250 km from Norway. The submarine, a Russian Oscar class II attack submarine, sunk to 116 meters depth at the position 69 deg. 36,99N, 37 deg. 34,50E. The submarine 'Kursk' is 154 meters long, equipped with two pressurised water reactors and the submerged displacement is 24000 tons. Each reactor has a thermal effect or 190 megawatt, or less than 10% of a typical nuclear power plant reactor. The submarines in Oscar-II class is one of the largest and most capable in the Russian Northern Fleet. No indications of leakage from the submarine have so far been observed during the monitoring expeditions. Elevated levels of radioactivity have note been detected in any dose-rate readings or at any of the measurements of environmental samples taken close to Kursk. Furthermore, no increased levels were measured on bits and pieces from the submarine or from water sampled inside the submarine. A more comprehensive report covering experience and monitoring results from the two expeditions term and impact assessments of possible future releases from Kursk. (LN)


    PAN Yu-cun; ZHANG Huai-xin; ZHOU Qi-dou


    The submarine Hydrodynamic coefficients are predicted by numerical simulations.Steady and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are carried out to numerically simulate the oblique towing experiment and the Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) experiment performed on the SUBOFF submarine model.The dynamic mesh method is adopted to simulate the maneuvering motions of pure heaving,pure swaying,pure pitching and pure yawing.The hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the maneuvering submarine are obtained.Consequently,by analyzing these results,the hydrodynamic coefficients of the submarine maneuvering motions can be determined.The computational results are verified by comparison with experimental data,which show that this method can be used to estimate the hydrodynamic derivatives of a fully appended submarine.

  12. Experimental Study on Free Spanning Submarine Pipeline Under Dynamic Excitation

    李昕; 刘亚坤; 周晶; 马恒春; 朱彤


    Seismic load has a significant effect on the response of a free spanning submarine pipeline when the pipeline is constructed in a seismically active region. The model experiment is performed on an underwater shaking table to simulate the response of submarine pipelines under dynamic input. In consideration of the effects of the terrestrial and submarine pipeline, water depth, support condition, distance from seabed, empty and full pipeline, and span on dynamic response, 120 groups of experiments are conducted. Affecting factors are analyzed and conclnsions are drawn for reference. For the control of dynamic response, the span of a submarine pipeline is by far more important than the other factors. Meanwhile, the rosponse difference between a submarine pipeline under sine excitation and that under random excitation exists in experiments.

  13. The 1929 Grand Banks submarine landslide revisited

    Schulten, Irena; Mosher, David C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Piper, David J. W.; Kienast, Markus


    On November 18th, 1929 a large submarine landslide occurred along the St. Pierre Slope of the southwestern Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as a result of a Mw 7.2 earthquake. This submarine landslide led to the first recognition of naturally-occurring submarine turbidity currents and is one of the few landslides known to have generated a tsunami. The event caused 28 causalities in Newfoundland and severe infrastructural damage. Earlier investigations of the area identified widely distributed shallow mass failures (15 - 20 m high escarpments), but no evidence of a larger headscarp. It is difficult to conceive, therefore, how this distributed shallow failure that rapidly evolved into a turbidity current would have generated a tsunami. It is hypothesised in this study that a deeper rooted sediment failure ( 500 m), involving faulting and mass-rotation, was involved in the sediment failure and this displacement generated the tsunami. In order to test this hypothesis, the volume and kinematics of the 1929 slope failure are analysed by means of recently acquired high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data, in addition to a significant volume of legacy data. The data allow determination of: 1) the dimension of the failure area, 2) the thickness and volume of failed sediment on St. Pierre Slope, 3) fault patterns and displacements, and 4) styles of sediment failure involved. Shallow (20 m high) sinuous escarpments and a number of faults are observed along the upper St. Pierre Slope (500 - 2 500 m water depth). The uppermost and largest of these escarpments shows association with a fault system. Preliminary results, therefore, indicate a complex sediment failure pattern along the St. Pierre Slope, possibly involving a deep-seated decollement and mobilization of a large volume of surficial sediment through retrogressive failure. Causes for the tsunami are yet to be determined.

  14. Submarine harbor navigation using image data

    Stubberud, Stephen C.; Kramer, Kathleen A.


    The process of ingress and egress of a United States Navy submarine is a human-intensive process that takes numerous individuals to monitor locations and for hazards. Sailors pass vocal information to bridge where it is processed manually. There is interest in using video imaging of the periscope view to more automatically provide navigation within harbors and other points of ingress and egress. In this paper, video-based navigation is examined as a target-tracking problem. While some image-processing methods claim to provide range information, the moving platform problem and weather concerns, such as fog, reduce the effectiveness of these range estimates. The video-navigation problem then becomes an angle-only tracking problem. Angle-only tracking is known to be fraught with difficulties, due to the fact that the unobservable space is not the null space. When using a Kalman filter estimator to perform the tracking, significant errors arise which could endanger the submarine. This work analyzes the performance of the Kalman filter when angle-only measurements are used to provide the target tracks. This paper addresses estimation unobservability and the minimal set of requirements that are needed to address it in this complex but real-world problem. Three major issues are addressed: the knowledge of navigation beacons/landmarks' locations, the minimal number of these beacons needed to maintain the course, and update rates of the angles of the landmarks as the periscope rotates and landmarks become obscured due to blockage and weather. The goal is to address the problem of navigation to and from the docks, while maintaining the traversing of the harbor channel based on maritime rules relying solely on the image-based data. The minimal number of beacons will be considered. For this effort, the image correlation from frame to frame is assumed to be achieved perfectly. Variation in the update rates and the dropping of data due to rotation and obscuration is considered

  15. Professors of War. The Naval War College and the Development of the Naval Profession.

    Spector, Ronald

    A study is presented of the role of the Naval War College in the professionalization of the U.S. Navy and the effects of that process upon the shaping of naval policy from the founding of the College in 1884 to its temporary discontinuance in 1917 during World War 1. A summary biography is given of Stephen Bleeker Luce, leading advocate and first…

  16. Communication: the royal pathway to patient-centered medicine.

    Bensing, J.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Visser, A.P.


    The papers in this special issue on communication in health care can be summarized in one easy and powerful message: communication is the royal pathway to patient-centerd medicine. Approached from differen angles, the linkage between communication and patient-centered medicine is the common theme th

  17. Royal Numico N.V. : Resurrecting shareholder value

    Lachotzki, F.W.I.; Olson, M.A.


    This case presents the extraordinary turn-around engineered at Royal Numico (a specialized nutrition company, previously covered in another Nyenrode case under its old name Nutricia) by a team of managers formed and led by Jan Bennink. Company fortunes were at a low ebb by the beginning of 2002, as

  18. Louise Bourgeois (1563-1636): royal midwife of France.

    Dunn, P M


    Louise Bourgeois was the first practicing midwife to write of her experience of childbirth and of women's problems. She did much to enhance the respect in which her craft was held. For 26 years she was midwife to the royal court.

  19. Identification of a novel hypocholesterolemic protein, major royal jelly protein 1, derived from royal jelly.

    Yuri Kashima

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ intake lowers serum cholesterol levels in animals and humans, but the active component in RJ that lowers serum cholesterol level and its molecular mechanism are unclear. In this study, we set out to identify the bile acid-binding protein contained in RJ, because dietary bile acid-binding proteins including soybean protein and its peptide are effective in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia. Using a cholic acid-conjugated column, we separated some bile acid-binding proteins from RJ and identified the major RJ protein 1 (MRJP1, MRJP2, and MRJP3 as novel bile acid-binding proteins from RJ, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Purified MRJP1, which is the most abundant protein of the bile acid-binding proteins in RJ, exhibited taurocholate-binding activity in vitro. The micellar solubility of cholesterol was significantly decreased in the presence of MRJP1 compared with casein in vitro. Liver bile acids levels were significantly increased, and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 mRNA and protein tended to increase by MRJP1 feeding compared with the control. CYP7A1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by MRJP1 tryptic hydrolysate treatment compared with that of casein tryptic hydrolysate in hepatocytes. MRJP1 hypocholesterolemic effect has been investigated in rats. The cholesterol-lowering action induced by MRJP1 occurs because MRJP1 interacts with bile acids induces a significant increase in fecal bile acids excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion and also enhances the hepatic cholesterol catabolism. We have identified, for the first time, a novel hypocholesterolemic protein, MRJP1, in RJ. Interestingly, MRJP1 exhibits greater hypocholesterolemic activity than the medicine β-sitosterol in rats.

  20. Gas hydrate dissociation structures in submarine slopes

    Gidley, I.; Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Studies have suggested that gas hydrates may play a role in submarine slope failures. However, the mechanics surrounding such failures are poorly understood. This paper discussed experimental tests conducted on a small-scale physical model of submarine soils with hydrate inclusions. The laboratory tests investigated the effects of slope angle and depth of burial of the hydrate on gas escape structures and slope stability. Laponite was used to model the soils due to its ability to swell and produce a clear, colorless thixotropic gel when dispersed in water. An R-11 refrigerant was used to form hydrate layers and nodules. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the path of the fluid escape structures and the development of a subsequent slip plane caused by the dissociation of the R-11 hydrates. Slope angles of 5, 10, and 15 degrees were examined. Slopes were examined using high-resolution, high-speed imaging techniques. Hydrate placement and slope inclinations were varied in order to obtain stability data. Results of the study showed that slope angle influenced the direction of travel of the escaping gas, and that the depth of burial affected sensitivity to slope angle. Theoretical models developed from the experimental data have accurately mapped deformations and stress states during testing. Further research is being conducted to investigate the influence of the size, shape, and placement of the hydrates. 30 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    J. M. Spurgin


    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (Northwest Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger number were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10 day model period, however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. Offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies were explained within this new dynamic framework.

  2. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    J. M. Spurgin


    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  3. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Spurgin, J. M.; Allen, S. E.


    Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively) and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ) was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m). Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate), as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  4. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel


    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  5. A potential submarine landslide tsunami in South China Sea

    Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Switzer, A. D.


    Submarine earthquakes and submarine landslides are two main sources of tsunamis. Tsunami hazard modeling in the South China Sea has been primarily concerned with the potential large submarine earthquakes in the Manila trench. In contrast, evaluating the regional risk posed by tsunamis generated from submarine landslide is a new endeavor. At offshore south central Vietnam, bathymetric and seismic surveys show evidence of potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides although their ages remain uncertain. We model two hypothetical submarine landslide events at a potential site on the heavily sediment laden, seismically active, steep continental slope offshore southeast Vietnam. Water level rises along the coast of Vietnam are presented for the potential scenarios, which indicate that the southeast coastal areas of Vietnam are at considerable risk of tsunami generated offshore submarine landslides. Key references: Kusnowidjaja Megawati, Felicia Shaw, Kerry Sieh, Zhenhua Huang, Tso-Ren Wu, Y. Lin, Soon Keat Tan and Tso-Chien Pan.(2009). Tsunami hazard from the subduction megathrust of the South China Sea, Part I, Source characterization and the resulting tsunami, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 36(1), pp. 13-20. Enet, F., Grilli, S.T. and Watts, P. (2003). Laboratory experiments for tsunami generated by underwater landslides: comparison with numerical modeling, In: Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Offshore and Polar Engineering, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 372-379.

  6. Sound effects as a genre-defining factor in submarine films

    Linda Maria Koldau


    Full Text Available Submarine films can be regarded as a genre with a specific semantic and syntactical structure that heavily depends on the acoustemological nature of submarine warfare. The sound design in submarine films therefore has decisive dramatic and emotive functions. The article presents the sound effects most specific to submarine films and discusses the creative potential they offer both as diegetic sounds bound to submarine existence and as emotive cues with an immediate effect on the audience.

  7. Teaching of Naval Architecture and Ship Design

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    freely select their courses. In the paper this system is briefly outlined and the teaching of naval achitecture and offshore engineering within this system described. In contrast to many other universities ship design is taught for students relatively early in their study. This course and the advantages......At the Technical University of Denmark naval architecture has been taught for students of Master of Science in more than 100 years. This teaching has of course seen many changes as has the science. During the last 20 years the university has used a modular system of courses where students can quite...... and disadvantages of it will be discussed. Finally, a few reflections on teaching naval architecture in the future will be made, including subjects likedecision support and reliability....

  8. The Acoustics of the Double Elliptical Vault of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy)

    Umberto Berardi; Gino Iannace; Amelia Trematerra


    This work investigates the acoustic characteristics of the double elliptical vault, which overlooks the Grand Staircase of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy). The Royal Palace was built by the architect Luigi Vanvitelli in the Seventeenth Century and it is the largest royal building in Italy. The double elliptical vault presents a great scenography effect. Inside the vault, on the planking level, musicians used to play for the king and his guests when the royal procession, going up the grand...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1230 - Port Orchard; naval restricted area.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Orchard; naval restricted... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1230 Port Orchard; naval restricted area. (a) Port Orchard; naval restricted area—(1) The area. Shoreward of a line beginning at a...

  10. Determining Optimal Allocation of Naval Obstetric Resources with Linear Programming


    NHCP Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton NICU neonatal intensive care unit NMCP Naval Medical Center Portsmouth NMCSD Naval Medical Center San Diego... obstetric care that meets the delivery volume of specific facilities as well as the standards and vision of BUMED. Furthermore, optimum staffing... obstetric care to include, but not limited to, the following services: hospitalization for labor, delivery, and postpartum care ; anesthesia; cesarean

  11. Population limitation and the wolves of Isle Royale

    Peterson, R.O.; Thomas, N.J.; Thurber, J.M.; Vucetich, J.A.; Waite, T.A.


    Population regulation for gray wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, was ex- amined in 1987-1995 when wolves were in chronic decline following a crash of the pop- ulation in 1981-1982. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) was probably influential during the crash, but it disappeared by the lae 1980s. High mortality abruptly ceased after 1988, but low recruitment in the absence of disease and obvious shortage of food prevented recovery of the wolf population. In 1983-1995, with a comparable number of moose '10 years old as potential prey, wolves were only half as numerous as in 1959-1980. A simulation of annual fluctuations in effective population size (Ne) for wolves on Isle Royale suggests that their genetic heterozygosity has declined ca. 13% with each generation and ca. 80% in the 50- year history of this population. Inbreeding depression and stochastic demographic variation both remain possible explanations for recent low recruitment.

  12. The Royal College of Psychiatrists and the death penalty.

    Gunn, John


    The Royal College of Psychiatrists recently issued a revised statement on its position concerning capital punishment. The College proposes to support psychiatrists who refuse to be involved in the capital process, but accepts that some may take up limited involvement in the manner set out in the document. The Royal College is the professional body for psychiatric practitioners in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Almost no public statements are issued from the College without first being deliberated on within at least two of its three major committees. The new document on capital punishment remains in the spirit of the previous ones. The topic of capital punishment is noncontroversial within the British medical profession. In all European countries, capital punishment is against the law, because there is an overarching directive from the Council of Europe (a wide group of nations, wider than the European Union) insisting that it be abolished.

  13. Recent progress in submarine geosciences in China

    JIN Xianglong


    In China submarine geosciences represents a newly established discipline of oceanography, focusing on the oceanic lithosphere, and its interface with the hydrosphere and biosphere. Recently, supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program and other high-tech development projects, significant progress has been made in the development of advanced technologies and equipment. This en-ables the scientists in China to carry out explorations of the international seabed area in the Pacific Ocean and on the Southwest Indian Ridge. In addition, they have been active in the research activities associated the mid-ocean ridges and western Pacific marginal seas. It is anticipated that this research field will continue to be highly fruitful in the near future.

  14. Victualling for Future Royal Australia Navy Platforms - Alternative Technologies


    Electric Field QL Quick Look RAN Royal Australian Navy RPDE Rapid Prototyping, Development and Evaluation program SFE Supercritical Fluid ...however, to be suited to liquid or ‘pumpable’ foods such as milk , juices, sauces and soups. Many are used in the treatment of waste water in the food...the liquid, killing the cells and rendering them harmless. • Supercritical Fluids [8] – carbon dioxide is often used as a supercritical fluid . The

  15. Royal Thai Army Personnel, Education and Training System.


    north, Laos to the north and northeast and Cambodia to the eastj Thailand is approximately the size of France with a population of 50 million...paper focuses on the role played by the US, and US assistance to Thailand . ii k4 ROYAL THAI ARMY PERSONNEL, EDUCATION AND TRAINING SYSTEM Thailand ... Thailand history is as complex as a slow Thai classical dance. Thai beliefs, attitudes, political structures and customs have been molded by a remarkable

  16. The Ursula Faince Dinnerware Series by Royal Copenhagen

    Moeran, Brian

    This working paper is a case study about the development of a faience product line in Royal Copenhagen and illustrates several aspects of how, at what stages of development, and by whom, cultural products in general are evaluated. Three theoretical issues emerge. One concerns the constraints impo...... of a particular cultural product had to be negotiated within a particular organizational world embracing both management and workers, with differentiated skills. These issues lead to a more general discussion of craftsmanship and storytelling....

  17. Effect of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Relict Arctic Submarine Permafrost and Gas Hydrate

    Frederick, J. M.; Buffett, B. A.


    Permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits exist at shallow depths within the sediments of the circum-Arctic continental shelves. Degradation of this shallow water reservoir has the potential to release large quantities of methane gas directly to the atmosphere. Gas hydrate stability and the permeability of the shelf sediments to gas migration is closely linked with submarine permafrost. Submarine permafrost extent depends on several factors, such as the lithology, sea level variations, mean annual air temperature, ocean bottom water temperature, geothermal heat flux, and the salinity of the pore water. The salinity of the pore water is especially relevant because it partially controls the freezing point for both ice and gas hydrate. Measurements of deep pore water salinity are few and far between, but show that deep off-shore sediments are fresh. Deep freshening has been attributed to large-scale topographically-driven submarine groundwater discharge, which introduces fresh terrestrial groundwater into deep marine sediments. We investigate the role of submarine ground water discharge on the salinity field and its effects on the seaward extent of relict submarine permafrost and gas hydrate stability on the Arctic shelf with a 2D shelf-scale model based on the finite volume method. The model tracks the evolution of the temperature, salinity, and pressure fields given imposed boundary conditions, with latent heat of water ice and hydrate formation included. The permeability structure of the sediments is coupled to changes in permafrost. Results show that pore fluid is strongly influenced by the permeability variations imposed by the overlying permafrost layer. Groundwater discharge tends to travel horizontally off-shore beneath the permafrost layer and the freshwater-saltwater interface location displays long timescale transient behavior that is dependent on the groundwater discharge strength. The seaward permafrost extent is in turn strongly influenced by the

  18. Submarine volcanoes along the Aegean volcanic arc

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Alexandri, Matina; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Rousakis, Grigoris


    The Aegean volcanic arc has been investigated along its offshore areas and several submarine volcanic outcrops have been discovered in the last 25 years of research. The basic data including swath bathymetric maps, air-gun profiles, underwater photos and samples analysis have been presented along the four main volcanic groups of the arc. The description concerns: (i) Paphsanias submarine volcano in the Methana group, (ii) three volcanic domes to the east of Antimilos Volcano and hydrothermal activity in southeast Milos in the Milos group, (iii) three volcanic domes east of Christiana and a chain of about twenty volcanic domes and craters in the Kolumbo zone northeast of Santorini in the Santorini group and (iv) several volcanic domes and a volcanic caldera together with very deep slopes of several volcanic islands in the Nisyros group. The tectonic structure of the volcanic centers is described and related to the geometry of the arc and the neotectonic graben structures that usually host them. The NE-SW direction is dominant in the Santorini and Nisyros volcanic groups, located at the eastern part of the arc, where strike-slip is also present, whereas NW-SE direction dominates in Milos and Methana at the western part, where co-existence of E-W disrupting normal faults is observed. The volcanic relief reaches 1100-1200 m in most cases. This is produced from the outcrops of the volcanic centers emerging usually at 400-600 m depth and ending either below sea level or at high altitudes of 600-700 m on the islands. Hydrothermal activity at relatively high temperatures observed in Kolumbo is remarkable whereas low temperature phenomena have been detected in the Santorini caldera around Kameni islands and in the area southeast of Milos. In Methana and Nisyros, hydrothermal activity seems to be limited in the coastal areas without other offshore manifestations.

  19. Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot

    Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi


    A proposed system for exploiting the ocean thermal gradient to generate power would be based on the thawing-expansion/ freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material. The power generated by this system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery-powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and various depths, measuring temperature and salinity. This proposed system would be an alternative to another proposed ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system that would serve the same purpose but would utilize a thermodynamic cycle in which CO2 would be the working fluid. That system is described in Utilizing Ocean Thermal Energy in a Submarine Robot (NPO-43304), immediately following this brief. The main advantage of this proposed system over the one using CO2 is that it could derive a useful amount of energy from a significantly smaller temperature difference. At one phase of its operational cycle, the system now proposed would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 20 C over most of the Earth) to melt a wax (e.g., pentadecane) that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the wax. The melting or freezing causes the wax to expand or contract, respectively, by about 8 volume percent.

  20. Improved OTEC System for a Submarine Robot

    Chao, Yi; Jones, Jack; Valdez, Thomas


    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), now undergoing development, is a less-massive, more-efficient means of exploiting the same basic principle as that of the proposed system described in "Alternative OTEC Scheme for a Submarine Robot" (NPO-43500), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 50. The proposed system as described previously would be based on the thawing-expansion/freezing-contraction behavior of a wax or perhaps another suitable phase-change material (PCM). The power generated by the system would be used to recharge the batteries in a battery- powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. At one phase of its operational cycle, the previously proposed system would utilize the surface ocean temperature (which lies between 15 and 30 C over most of the Earth) to melt a PCM that has a melting/freezing temperature of about 10 C. At the opposite phase of its operational cycle, the system would utilize the lower ocean temperature at depth (e.g., between 4 and 7 C at a depth of 300 m) to freeze the PCM. The melting or freezing would cause the PCM to expand or contract, respectively, by about 9 volume percent. The PCM would be contained in tubes that would be capable of expanding and contracting with the PCM. The PCM-containing tubes would be immersed in a hydraulic fluid. The expansion and contraction would drive a flow of the hydraulic fluid against a piston that, in turn, would push a rack-and-pinion gear system to spin a generator to charge a battery.

  1. Geohydrologic data from Port Royal Sound, Beaufort County, South Carolina

    Burt, R.A.; Belval, D.L.; Crouch, Michael; Hughes, W.B.


    Nine offshore wells were drilled through overlying sediments into the Upper Floridan aquifer in Port Royal Sound, South Carolina and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean, to obtain geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data. The Upper Floridan aquifer consists predominantly of light-gray, poorly consolidated, fossiliferous limestone. In the Port Royal Sound area, the Upper Floridan is overlain by olive-gray, medium to course sand and silty sand. Falling-head permeability tests on these overlying clastic sediments indicate permeabilities of 1,100 to 4.3 x 10 to the 7th power centimeters/sec. Other geologic and hydrologic data, including geophysical logs, sieve analyses, and detailed core descriptions were obtained, along with continuous water level records of the wells, tidal records, and barometric pressure records. Water collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer beneath Port Royal Sound and the ocean ranged in concentration of chloride from 54 to 12,000 mg/l. Measured pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.4, and alkalinity ranged from 122 to 368 mg/l as CaC03. Other water quality data obtained include temperature, specific conductance, carbon-13, carbon-14, tritium , deuterium, oxygen-18, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, nitrogen species, phosphorus, organic carbon, cyanide, sulfide, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, fluoride, silica , bromide, iodide, and selected trace metals. (USGS)

  2. Functional properties of honey, propolis, and royal jelly.

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A


    Honey, propolis, and royal jelly, products originating in the beehive, are attractive ingredients for healthy foods. Honey has been used since ancient times as part of traditional medicine. Several aspects of this use indicate that it also has functions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflamatory, antibrowning, and antiviral. Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees. This substance has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to its many biological properties to possess, such as antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Royal jelly has been demonstrated to possess numerous functional properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vasodilative and hypotensive activities, disinfectant action, antioxidant activity, antihypercholesterolemic activity, and antitumor activity. Biological activities of honey, propolis, and royal jelly are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilatory actions. In addition, flavonoids inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and the activity of enzyme systems including cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase.

  3. Three-dimensional grid generation about a submarine

    Abolhassani, Jamshid Samareh; Smith, Robert E.


    A systematic multiple-block grid method has been developed to compute grids about submarines. Several topologies are proposed, and an oscillatory transfinite interpolation is used in the grid construction.

  4. Exploration of submarine wake and powering performance using CFD method

    Huizhi, Y.; Hongcui, S.; Nan, Z.; Renyou, Y.; Liangmei, Y. [China Ship Scientific Research Center, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China)]. E-mail:


    In response to the needs of better design and less time, Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods have become an impartible part in the ship design, especially in the earlier design phases. In this paper FLUENT software was used to predict the wake character and powering performance of submarine at model scale. By an effective combination of the block topology, grid, turbulence model and validation, the simulation scheme was developed and applied to the predictions of multiple designs and optimizations of the earlier submarine design iterations. The incompressible RANS equations with different turbulence models were solved. To handle the block interface between the propeller and submarine stern, sliding girds in multiple blocks were employed, unstructural grids were used in the block around the propeller. Submarine with/without stator and/or propeller were studied. The flow feature, forces and powering performance at various conditions were calculated. The results were compared with experimental data, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)

  5. Compounding the Losses of Convoyed Ships Attacked by Tactical Submarines

    Kåre M. Mjelde


    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that a time dependent stochastic model for the losses of convoyed ships attacked by submarines can be applied in the determination of the losses in terms of the results of two submodels:

  6. Application of SAR Imagery in Submarine Topography Surveys

    张宁川; 梁开龙; 桂力民


    An important research area in oceanographic surveying and mapping is to obtain submarine topography by remote sensing technique, especially by SAR imagery. In this article, problems related to SAR imagery are analyzed to provide references for the further research.

  7. At Periscope Depth: Exploring Submarine Proliferation In Southeast Asia


    that Malaysia would sell more than €230 million worth of palm oil to France and accept more than €130 million in French investment.83 In total, the...deterrence, enforcement, prestige, or a combination of the three? This thesis compared the case studies of Indonesia , Malaysia, Singapore, and...rationales for purchasing submarines. Indonesia , Malaysia, and Singapore likely purchased submarines for deterrence and enforcement, and Vietnam for

  8. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare


    COVERED Capstone 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) 311-124O/Team LCS...Life cycle cost LCCE Life cycle cost estimate LCS Littoral combat ship LHA Landing ship, helicopter assault LHD Landing ship, unlimited LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI- SUBMARINE WARFARE by Team LCS 311-124O June 2014 Capstone Advisors: John Green Dan

  9. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form


    measured from the body (x) axis hf height of the fin measured from the casing L length of the submarine Lc /4 distance from the submarine nose to the...very fine alternating local positive- and negative- bifurcation lines. These structures scale with the thickness of the boundary layer and they resemble...flow bifurcations. In Fig. 23(a), the smoke filaments (illuminated by a 2mm thick laser-light sheet) capture the instantaneous roll-up. In the simplest

  10. An Analysis on Limit Load for Corroded Submarine Pipelines

    TAN Kai-ren; XIAO Xi


    By means of elastic-plastic finite element analysis, a systematic nonlinear analysis of material and geometry has been carried out for submarine pipelines. A criterion for deriving limit load is studied. Based on this criterion, the limit load for corroded submarine pipelines is calculated. The corrosion length, corrosion depth and corrosion width affect the limit load. A solution to limit load is proposed and proved valid through comparison of the solution with burst test results and ASME B31G solutions.

  11. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    Vieira, R S


    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink in a given frame while floating in another one. If the submarine density is adjusted to be the same as the water density (when both of them are at rest) and then it is put to move, the density of the submarine will become higher than that of the water, thanks to Lorentz contraction, and hence it sinks. However, in the submarine proper frame, is the water that becomes denser, so the submarine supposedly should float and we get a paradox situation. In this paper we analyze the submarine paradox in both a flat and a curved spacetime. In the case of a flat spacetime, we first show that any relativistic force field in special relativity can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. Taking into account the gravitomagnetic effects between the Earth and the water, a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle can be established, ...

  12. The development of permafrost bacterial communities under submarine conditions

    Mitzscherling, Julia; Winkel, Matthias; Winterfeld, Maria; Horn, Fabian; Yang, Sizhong; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Wagner, Dirk; Overduin, Pier P.; Liebner, Susanne


    Submarine permafrost is more vulnerable to thawing than permafrost on land. Besides increased heat transfer from the ocean water, the penetration of salt lowers the freezing temperature and accelerates permafrost degradation. Microbial communities in thawing permafrost are expected to be stimulated by warming, but how they develop under submarine conditions is completely unknown. We used the unique records of two submarine permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, inundated about 540 and 2500 years ago, to trace how bacterial communities develop depending on duration of the marine influence and pore water chemistry. Combined with geochemical analysis, we quantified total cell numbers and bacterial gene copies and determined the community structure of bacteria using deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We show that submarine permafrost is an extreme habitat for microbial life deep below the seafloor with changing thermal and chemical conditions. Pore water chemistry revealed different pore water units reflecting the degree of marine influence and stages of permafrost thaw. Millennia after inundation by seawater, bacteria stratify into communities in permafrost, marine-affected permafrost, and seabed sediments. In contrast to pore water chemistry, the development of bacterial community structure, diversity, and abundance in submarine permafrost appears site specific, showing that both sedimentation and permafrost thaw histories strongly affect bacteria. Finally, highest microbial abundance was observed in the ice-bonded seawater unaffected but warmed permafrost of the longer inundated core, suggesting that permafrost bacterial communities exposed to submarine conditions start to proliferate millennia after warming.

  13. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    Heath G. Gasier


    Full Text Available Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF% ≥ 25% (obesity, and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5% and fat-mass (11% occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population.

  14. Electromagnetic protection assessment of naval vessels

    Middelkoop, R.; Vernooy, J.A.M.


    Modern naval vessels are well equipped with a lot of weapon and sensor systems, all controlled by electronics. Mutual interference between all those electronic systems as well as illumination of a ship by an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) caused by lightning or by a nuclear detonation can potentially u

  15. A Theory of Naval Strategic Planning


    This study proposes a theory of naval strategic planning for programming. It identifies and describes those factors which should influence how the...requirements. The resultant concepts can then be further developed as required by the organization’s overall needs. Strategic planning is first and foremost a

  16. Naval Justice School Procedure Study Guide. Revision


    number; be personally signed by the convening authority; and show his name, grade, and title -- including organizacion and unit. While R.C.M. 1302(c...accused’s convening authority may, "in his sole Naval Justice School Rev. 10/92 Publica ý on 19-45 Procedure Study Guide discretion," decide to defer the

  17. Decision Aids for Naval Air ASW


    referred to as the target’s Location, with a capital "L.") The following description will describe a single iteration through the loop. 4.4.2 Underlying...Crawford M. L. Metersky American Psycological Association Naval Air Development Center Office of Educational Affairs Code 2031 1200 17th Street, NW

  18. Rio Branco, grand strategy and naval power

    João Paulo Alsina Jr.


    Full Text Available This article addresses Baron of Rio Branco's grand strategy and the role played by the naval reorganization program (1904-1910 in this context. The ensuing case study determined the domestic and international constraints that affected the program, as well as the worldview of the patron of Brazilian diplomacy regarding military power's instrumentality to foreign policy.

  19. The 3D visualization technology research of submarine pipeline based Horde3D GameEngine

    Yao, Guanghui; Ma, Xiushui; Chen, Genlang; Ye, Lingjian


    With the development of 3D display and virtual reality technology, its application gets more and more widespread. This paper applies 3D display technology to the monitoring of submarine pipeline. We reconstruct the submarine pipeline and its surrounding submarine terrain in computer using Horde3D graphics rendering engine on the foundation database "submarine pipeline and relative landforms landscape synthesis database" so as to display the virtual scene of submarine pipeline based virtual reality and show the relevant data collected from the monitoring of submarine pipeline.

  20. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R


    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  1. Controls on plan-form evolution of submarine channels

    Imran, J.; Mohrig, D. C.


    Vertically aggrading sinuous channels constitute a basic building block of modern submarine fans and the greater continental slope. Interpretation of seismically imaged channels reveals a significant diversity in internal architecture, as well as important similarities and differences in the evolution of submarine channels relative to better studied rivers. Many submarine channel cross sections possess a 'gull wing' shape. Successive stacking of such channels demonstrates that systematic bank erosion is not required in order for lateral migration to occur. The lateral shift of such aggrading channels, however, is expected to be much less dynamic than in the case of terrestrial rivers. Recent high-resolution 3D seismic data from offshore Angola and an upstream segment of the Bengal Submarine Fan show intensely meandering channels that experience considerable lateral shifting during periods of active migration within submarine valleys. The cross sections of the actively migrating channels are similar to meandering river channels characterized by an outer cut-bank and inner-bank accretion. In submarine channels, the orientation of the secondary flow can be river-like or river-reverse depending on the channel gradient, cross sectional shape, and the adaptation length of the channel bend. In river channels, a single circulation cell commonly occupies the entire channel relief, redistributing the bed-load sediment across the channel, and influencing the thread of high velocity and thus the plan-form evolution of the channel. In submarine environments, the height of the circulation cell will be significantly smaller than channel relief, thus leading to development of lower relief point bars from bed-load transport. Nevertheless these "underfit" bars may play an important role in plan-form evolution of submarine channels. In rivers and submarine channels, the inclined surface accretion can be constructed via pure bed-load, suspended-load, or a combination of both transport

  2. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.


    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  3. Submarine Volcanic Morphology of Santorini Caldera, Greece

    Nomikou, P.; Croff Bell, K.; Carey, S.; Bejelou, K.; Parks, M.; Antoniou, V.


    Santorini volcanic group form the central part of the modern Aegean volcanic arc, developed within the Hellenic arc and trench system, because of the ongoing subduction of the African plate beneath the European margin throughout Cenozoic. It comprises three distinct volcanic structures occurring along a NE-SW direction: Christianna form the southwestern part of the group, Santorini occupies the middle part and Koloumbo volcanic rift zone extends towards the northeastern part. The geology of the Santorini volcano has been described by a large number of researchers with petrological as well as geochronological data. The offshore area of the Santorini volcanic field has only recently been investigated with emphasis mainly inside the Santorini caldera and the submarine volcano of Kolumbo. In September 2011, cruise NA-014 on the E/V Nautilus carried out new surveys on the submarine volcanism of the study area, investigating the seafloor morphology with high-definition video imaging. Submarine hydrothermal vents were found on the seafloor of the northern basin of the Santorini caldera with no evidence of high temperature fluid discharges or massive sulphide formations, but only low temperature seeps characterized by meter-high mounds of bacteria-rich sediment. This vent field is located in line with the normal fault system of the Kolumbo rift, and also near the margin of a shallow intrusion that occurs within the sediments of the North Basin. Push cores have been collected and they will provide insights for their geochemical characteristics and their relationship to the active vents of the Kolumbo underwater volcano. Similar vent mounds occur in the South Basin, at shallow depths around the islets of Nea and Palaia Kameni. ROV exploration at the northern slopes of Nea Kameni revealed a fascinating underwater landscape of lava flows, lava spines and fractured lava blocks that have been formed as a result of 1707-1711 and 1925-1928 AD eruptions. A hummocky topography at

  4. Quantifying submarine landslide processes driven by active tectonic forcing: Cook Strait submarine canyon, New Zealand.

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Barnes, P. M.; Pettinga, J. R.


    The Cook Strait submarine canyon system is a multi-branched, deeply incised and highly sinuous feature of New Zealand's active margin, covering some 1500km2 of sea floor between the North and South Islands and spanning water depths of between 50 and 2700m. The canyon occurs at the transition from the westward dipping oblique subduction zone adjacent to the SE North Island and the zone of continental transpression in NE South Island. The recent acquisition of high resolution (5-10m) SIMRAD EM300 bathymetric data allows active tectonic and geomorphic processes to be assessed and quantified at a level of detail previously not possible. While multiple active submarine fault traces have been identified in the Cook Strait by previous studies, quantitative information on their activity has been limited. Cook Strait is structurally characterized by westward dipping thrust faults and E-W trending dextral strike slip faults. The multiple large magnitude high frequency earthquake sources define zones of very high ground shaking expected to contribute to triggering of extensive submarine slope failures. Landslide activity within the canyon system is widespread and represents the dominant mass movement process affecting canyon heads and walls, redistributing material into valley fills. Complexes of large (km3) multi-stepped, deep-seated (100m) translational bedding plane failures represented by gently sloping (<3°) evacuated slide-scar areas with associated blocky valley fill deposits are numerous. Steep catchment heads, channel walls and the leading edges of asymmetric thrust-fault driven anticlines are dominated by gulley and rill systems with associated eroded and/or incipient slump features. Large (107m3+) slide blocks are recognized in discrete failures with quantifiable displacement vectors. Tsunamigenic landslides in this environment are inevitable. This study will provide quantification of landslide models including triggering mechanisms, discrete geometries and

  5. The geologic story of Isle Royale National Park

    Huber, N. King


    Isle Royale is an outstanding example of relatively undisturbed northwoods lake wilderness. But more than simple preservation of such an environment is involved in its inclusion in our National Park System. Its isolation from the mainland provides an almost untouched laboratory for research in the natural sciences, especially those studies whose very nature depends upon such isolation. One excellent example of such research is the intensive study of the predator-prey relationship of the timber wolf and moose, long sponsored by the National Park Service and Purdue University. In probably no other place in North America are the necessary ecological conditions for such a study so admirably fulfilled as on Isle Royale. The development of a natural laboratory with such conditions is ultimately dependent upon geologic processes and events that although not unique in themselves, produced in their interplay a unique result, the island archipelago as we know it today, with its hills and valleys, swamps and bogs the ecological framework of the plant and animal world. Even the most casual visitor can hardly fail to be struck by the fiordlike nature of many of the bays, the chains of fringing islands, the ridge-and-valley topography, and the linear nature of all these features. The distinctive topography of the archipelago is, of course, only the latest manifestation of geologic processes in operation since time immemorial. Fragments of geologic history going back over a billion years can be read from the rocks of the island, and with additional data from other parts of the Lake Superior region, we can fill in some of the story of Isle Royale. After more than a hundred years of study by man, the story is still incomplete. But then, geologic stories are seldom complete, and what we do know allows a deeper appreciation of one of our most naturally preserved parks and whets our curiosity about the missing fragments.

  6. El Museo Naval y el Instituto de Historia y Cultura Naval

    Riaño Lozano, Fernando


    Full Text Available Not available

    El autor de este artículo, director del Museo Naval y del Instituto de Historia y Cultura Naval, logra introducirnos en la historia de la Armada desde el siglo XVIII a través de unas pinceladas descriptivas de los principales fondos patrimoniales que se conservan en el Museo Naval, cuyas salas abarcan una temática realmente diversa y abrumadora: modelos de buques y arsenales, cartografía, colecciones documentales, instrumentos náuticos, iconografía, etnografía, medallística, numismática, vexilología, etc. etc. Refleja también el artículo los orígenes de estos fondos y su progresivo enriquecimiento a lo largo de los años, así como la paralela evolución de la configuración orgánica del Museo Naval, con especial relevancia del importante papel que desempeña su Patronato, auténtico motor de cuantas actividades se llevan a cabo. Con respecto al Instituto de Historia y Cultura Naval, cuyos orígenes se encuentran en el seno del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, se describe la ingente labor de investigación que se está realizando mediante publicaciones de carácter periódico, premios «Virgen del Carmen», trabajos monográficos. Revistas de Historia Naval, Jornadas de Historia Marítima, ciclos de conferencias, etc. etc. En definitiva, ambos organismos. Museo e Instituto, son los depositarios e impulsores de la Armada para difundir en la sociedad española algo tan ligado a nuestra historia y condición como es la Cultura Naval.

  7. Visit of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Thailand

    Patrice Loïez


    Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (left) visiting DELPHI with Spokesman, Tiziano Camporesi, and Prapol Assavavirulhakarn, Pattaratorn Chirapravati, Claude Détraz, CERN Director for Fixed Target andFuture Programmes and Richard Breedon, University of California. No. 05: Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Daniel Treille, former spokesman of Delphi. No. 31: in Delphi experiment. No. 35: H.E. Mr. Virasakdi Futrakul, Ambassador, Permanent Representative ofThailand, Geneva with H.E. Dr. Ronarong Nopakun, Ambassador of the Thai Embassy in Bern

  8. The Royal Society and the decline of magic.

    Hunter, Michael


    Whereas some have asserted that the early Royal Society actively sought to discredit magical beliefs, others have seen ideas of this kind as integral to the Society's 'nature' in its early years. This paper argues that, whatever the magical commitments of individual Fellows, the Society's corporate policy simply sidelined such pursuits. Yet, insofar as the result was that magic was excluded by default from the proper realm of scientific enquiry, this attitude was to prove paradoxically influential (although its roots have been retrospectively misconstrued to an extent that is significant in itself).

  9. Creative IL embedding at Royal Holloway, University of London 2013

    Burke, Russell; Coles, Kim; Downes, Sian; Woods, Emma


    n 2013, Helen Westwood and Russell Burke presented at LILAC about how information literacy was embedded in Geography courses at Royal Holloway. One of our plans for the future was to embed IL across the college. In May 2014, a paper was accepted at the College’s Learning, Teaching and Quality Committee making IL training and assessment a requirement for all first year undergraduate courses from 2014/15. This poster will show the steps involved in achieving this outcome, the challenges we have...

  10. La fondation royale des Dominicaines d'Aix-en-Provence

    Richarté-Manfredi, Catherine; Barra, Catherine


    Notre-Dame de Nazareth, couvent de dominicaines, est fondé en 1292 à Aix-en-Provence par le comte d’Anjou et de Provence, roi de Naples et de Jérusalem. Les résultats archéologiques de plusieurs campagnes de fouilles conduites sur une partie de l’ancien domaine, associés aux informations apportées par les sources écrites, permettent dans une certaine mesure d’appréhender la vie dans cette institution originale. Couvent royal, d’un ordre mendiant apostolique de femmes contemplatives, le comple...

  11. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    Katsunori Yamaura


    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1, with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1% for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1% and betamethasone (0.01% significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.

  12. Design and analysis of submarine radome

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.


    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  13. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Meinikmann, Karin; Pöschke, Franziska; Nützmann, Gunnar; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD), is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  14. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  15. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Andreassen, K.


    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.


    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  17. NOAA Charted Submarine cables in the United States as of December 2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data depict the occurrence of submarine cables in and around U.S. navigable waters. The geographic extent of these data is greater than the "NASCA Submarine...

  18. High-resolution Geophysical Mapping of Submarine Glacial Landforms

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.; Mayer, L. A.


    Glacial landforms are generated from the activity of glaciers and display spatial dimensions ranging from below one meter up to tens of kilometers. Glacial landforms are used as diagnostic features of past activity of ice sheets and glaciers; they are specifically important in the field of palaeoglaciology. Mapping of submarine glacial landforms is largely dependent on geophysical survey methods capable of imaging the seafloor and sub-bottom through the water column. Full "global" seafloor mapping coverage, equivalent to what exists for land elevation, is to-date only achieved by the powerful method of deriving bathymetry from altimeters on satellites like GEOSAT and ERS-1. The lateral resolution of satellite derived bathymetry is, however, limited by the footprint of the satellite and the need to average out local wave and wind effects resulting in values of around 15 km. Consequently, mapping submarine glacial landforms requires for the most part higher resolution than is achievable by satellite derived bathymetry. The most widely-used methods for mapping submarine glacial landforms are based on echo-sounding principles. This presentation shows how the evolution of marine geophysical mapping techniques, in particular the advent of side-scan and multibeam bathymetric sonars, has made it possible to study submarine glacial landforms in unprecedented detail. Examples are shown from the Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient, which will be published in late 2015 in the Memoir Series of the Geological Society of London.

  19. An enlightened age: building the naval hospitals.

    Buchanan, Emmakate MacQueen


    Summerson writes that, in the spirit of the Enlightenment, the notion of 'bienfaisance', literally meaning the desire to render society more reasonable and more humane, liberated the scope of both hospital and prison planning. Both types of institution housed people who were deprived of their freedom either by disability or by force of law; therefore, we find similarities in the disposition of space and in the degree of humanitarianism expressed in their outward appearance. This observation can be transferred to naval hospital design, where architecture was combined to fulfil a twofold purpose. The high walls, sturdy massing and pared-down details intimated a strict economy of means, but also a strong sense of gravitas and authority. This visual authoritarian character was fundamental to the identity of a naval hospital, for whilst the prime intention was to provide efficient medical care, an equally important consideration was to maintain discipline and prevent sailors from escaping.

  20. [Medical care at the Royal Hospital of Natives].

    Romero-Huesca, Andrés; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio


    After the Conquest, the indigenous populations of New Spain were left unprotected by the new government. Thus the Royal Hospital of Naturals (RHN) was created, offering care to the indigenous population for health and with hospitality, as well as religious aid. However, later solely care was provided. The RHN had great support from the Spanish Crown and became a suitable place for clinical investigation that on the peninsula and in all of Europe was forbidden: the autopsies, that in indigenous population are carried out without sanction, only needing authorization of local authorities for their accomplishment, considering the indigenous as inferior to Spaniards. In addition, the RHN was the best place for foundation of the Royal Surgery School of Mexico in the XVIII century. The contribution of the RHN was the fusion of indigenous medicine with European medicine, increasing the therapeutic resource array, as well as the opportunity of carrying clinic investigation through autopsy's for better clinic correlation, and matchless learning for the era in the art of out surgery, this being an important point in the development of the medicine and surgery of Mexico.

  1. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L


    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  2. Naval District Washington -- Anacostia Annex Building Survey


    variation of Art Deco ) style that was prevalent in naval architecture at the time. Figure 59. The east side of Building 92 (old operations...which was constructed in 1942. Building 92 (old operations building) was designed by the Bureau of Yards and Docks in 1942 in the Government Deco (a...Government Deco style. ERDC/CERL SR-09-12 52 Figure 60. The west side of Building 93 (Bachelors Officers’ Quarters) which was constructed in 1942

  3. Naval Law Review, Number 52, 2005


    Klein , JAGC, USN Major Felipe Paez, USMC Lieutenant Dustin E. Wallace, JAGC, USN Lieutenant Mark A. Lindsey, JAGC, USN Captain Joseph C. Silvio...Donald H. Rumsfeld and Melanie A. Marr, Commander of the naval brig in which Padilla was detained.152 The habeas petition was filed in the Southern...should include an abstract of the proposed article, a short biography , and a statement as to whether the manuscript has been submitted elsewhere for

  4. Logistics Support of Naval Expeditionary Units


    DIEGO, CA NSCT 1 SAN DIEGO, CA EODMU 12 CHAS’N EODMU 10 FT STORY, VA EODMU 4 BAHRAIN EODMU 8 SICILY, IT EODMU 6 CHAS’N EODMU 2 NORFOLK, VA Figure...create a disincentive to accurately depict requirements if those requirements paint a negative image of the logistics process or management. For...the 2020 force. The ones that will directly affect naval expeditionary forces are: Joint Deployment and Rapid Distribution, Information Fusion

  5. Roadmap to an Electric Naval Force


    West Virginia University CDR Paul T. Norton, RN (Ret.) Alstom Power Conversion Ltd LtGen Keith A. Smith, USMCR (Ret...UK Royal Navy – Newport News Shipbuilding – Alstom – Sandia National Lab • 3 Field Trips – IPS – GTS Infinity – Brooks AFB • 33 Papers & Reports... Alstom Power Conversion Ltd LtGen Keith A. Smith, USMCR (Ret) **............... Private Consultant Dr. Jason Stamp

  6. Evaluating cryostat performance for naval applications

    Knoll, David; Willen, Dag; Fesmire, James; Johnson, Wesley; Smith, Jonathan; Meneghelli, Barry; Demko, Jonathan; George, Daniel; Fowler, Brian; Huber, Patti


    The Navy intends to use High Temperature Superconducting Degaussing (HTSDG) coil systems on future Navy platforms. The Navy Metalworking Center (NMC) is leading a team that is addressing cryostat configuration and manufacturing issues associated with fabricating long lengths of flexible, vacuum-jacketed cryostats that meet Navy shipboard performance requirements. The project includes provisions to evaluate the reliability performance, as well as proofing of fabrication techniques. Navy cryostat performance specifications include less than 1 Wm-1 heat loss, 2 MPa working pressure, and a 25-year vacuum life. Cryostat multilayer insulation (MLI) systems developed on the project have been validated using a standardized cryogenic test facility and implemented on 5-meterlong test samples. Performance data from these test samples, which were characterized using both LN2 boiloff and flow-through measurement techniques, will be presented. NMC is working with an Integrated Project Team consisting of Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Surface Warfare Center-Carderock Division, Southwire Company, nkt cables, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ASRC Aerospace, and NASA Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) to complete these efforts. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This material is submitted with the understanding that right of reproduction for governmental purposes is reserved for the Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia 22203-1995.

  7. How the Success of the CSS Hunley Inspired the Development of the United States Naval Submarine Force


    utilized a bronze magnetic needle installed in the ceiling of the turret. This design eliminated any electrical interference to compass driven...good form were at the forefront of British warfare, and war itself was considered a necessity, an endeavor which should be waged fairly while enemy...forces. In 1879 Aube wrote, [Armored] ships had their day and a new navy was needed to fight a running battle and wage war against commerce

  8. An Empirical Evaluation of Sonar Courseware Developed with Intelligent Tutoring Software (InTrain[TM]) at Naval Submarine School.

    Birchard, Marcy; Dye, Charles; Gordon, John

    With limits on both personnel and time available to conduct effective instruction, the decision is being made increasingly to enhance instructor-led courses with Computer-Based Training (CBT). The effectiveness of this conversion is often unknown and in many cases empirical evaluations are never conducted. This paper describes and discusses the…

  9. 75 FR 1706 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood... be in effect whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and being escorted by the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines,...

  10. 77 FR 59749 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River, Chicago, IL


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Chicago River due to the installation of submarine... the installation of submarine cables in the vicinity of both the West Adams Street and West...

  11. 75 FR 27638 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA


    ... No. USCG-2009-1058] RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA... whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in that area and is being escorted by the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines, their Coast Guard...

  12. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424 Section 32.6424 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine...

  13. 76 FR 78159 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River South Branch, Chicago, IL


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project... the installation of submarine cables in the vicinity of the Madison Street Bridge. This temporary... the installation of submarine cables in the vicinity of the Madison Street Bridge. Entry into...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.


    .... Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section 165.1328 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1328 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location. The following... whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being escorted by the Coast...

  15. 78 FR 67086 - Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County, MD


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations... safety of mariners and their vessels on navigable waters during submarine cable replacement operations at... installation of a submarine cable within a federal navigation channel requiring divers, a barge, and...

  16. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives

    Postma, George


    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  17. Solution of Supplee's submarine paradox through special and general relativity

    Vieira, R. S.


    In 1989 Supplee described an apparent relativistic paradox on which a submarine seems to sink to observers at rest within the ocean, but it rather seems to float in the submarine proper frame. In this letter, we show that the paradox arises from a misuse of the Archimedes principle in the relativistic case. Considering first the special relativity, we show that any relativistic force field can be written in the Lorentz form, so that it can always be decomposed into a static (electric-like) and a dynamic (magnetic-like) part. These gravitomagnetic effects provide a relativistic formulation of Archimedes principle, from which the paradox is explained. Besides, if the curved spacetime on the vicinity of the Earth is taken into account, we show that the gravitational force exerted by the Earth on a moving body must increase with the speed of the body. The submarine paradox is then analyzed again with this speed-dependent gravitational force.

  18. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo


    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  19. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth


    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore....... However, research performed in this paper shows that while the armour is responsible for the extra losses, the main calculation error for typical HVAC submarine cables may be in the screen’s loss factor (λ1). Overestimation of the cable losses may result in core cross-sections too large with more material...

  20. Attitudes to smoking on submarines: results of a questionnaire study.

    Norris, William D; Brims, Fraser J H


    An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required.

  1. A heuristic solution for the stability problem in conventional submarines

    M. Sinclair


    Full Text Available Seafaring vessels must meet a few very obvious conditions in order to be of any use. The one condition is that they should stay afloat when loaded. The other condition is that they should float upright and with a level keel. The technical terms for these conditions are gravitational stability and trim. In practice some very precise numerical values are calculated for certain parameters in order to describe these conditions. After each refit of a submarine, the numerical values for the parameters referred to above must be recalculated. In the conventional submarines used by the South African Navy these new values must then be translated into the physical redistribution of weights housed in bays in the keel of the submarine. This paper discusses the problem of how this redistribution must be done in order to minimise the amount of work necessary. A heuristic algorithm is proposed by means of which a satisfactory redistribution may economically be computed.

  2. A Havelock Source Panel Method for Near-surface Submarines

    Tim Gourlay; Edward Dawson


    A panel method is described for calculating potential flow around near-surface submarines. The method uses Havelock sources which automatically satisfy the linearized free-surface boundary condition. Outputs from the method include pressure field, pressure drag, wave resistance, vertical force, trim moment and wave pattern. Comparisons are made with model tests for wave resistance of Series 58 and DARPA SUBOFF hulls, as well as with wave resistance, lift force and trim moment of three length-to-diameter variants of the DSTO Joubert submarine hull. It is found that the Havelock source panel method is capable of determining with reasonable accuracy wave resistance, vertical force and trim moment for submarine hulls. Further experimental data are required in order to assess the accuracy of the method for pressure field and wave pattern prediction. The method is implemented in the computer code“HullWave”and offers potential advantages over RANS-CFD codes in terms of speed, simplicity and robustness.

  3. Active control of radiated pressure of a submarine hull

    Pan, Xia; Tso, Yan; Juniper, Ross


    A theoretical analysis of the active control of low-frequency radiated pressure from submarine hulls is presented. Two typical hull models are examined in this paper. Each model consists of a water-loaded cylindrical shell with a hemispherical shell at one end and conical shell at the other end, which forms a simple model of a submarine hull. The conical end is excited by an axial force to simulate propeller excitations while the other end is free. The control action is implemented through a Tee-sectioned circumferential stiffener driven by pairs of PZT stack actuators. These actuators are located under the flange of the stiffener and driven out of phase to produce a control moment. A number of cost functions for minimizing the radiated pressure are examined. In general, it was found that the control system was capable of reducing more than half of the total radiated pressure from each of the submarine hull for the first three axial modes.

  4. Naval Medical R and D News. Volume 8, Issue 9


    Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) provided a tour and overview of the center’s research capabilities and physical assets to the science advisors...Naval Medical Research Unit San Antonio (NAMRU-SA) joined 2400 attendees at the 24th Annual Military Health Systems Research Symposium (MHSRS) in...surgeon general and chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, visited the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) to meet with the scientists whose research

  5. Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance Initiative


    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 JUL 10-30 JUN 12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Naval Special Warfare Group 4 Injury Prevention and Human Performance...from suboptimal biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and physiological characteristics and is further compounded with poor or inadequate nutrition . The...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance

  6. Medical rescue of naval combat:challenge and future

    Hai Jin; Li-Jun Hou; Xiao-Bing Fu


    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what chal-lenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future develop-ments of medical rescue at sea.


    J.D. Bredenkamp


    Full Text Available Naval Headquarters moved from Simonstown to Pretoria in January 1977. The then SA Naval Headquarters Unit was there 'to support the Chief of the Navy and his five Chiefs of Naval Staff and their Staff Officers in matters pertaining to personnel, administration, operations, logistics, intelligence and finance as well as most naval matters related to the inland area'. During the period 1977 to 1979, members of the HQ Unit were accommodated in mainly the Air Force Officers and NCO Messes till the Union Hotel was purchased in 1979.

  8. Constructive measures for handling submarine desalination plants. Konstruktive Massnahmen zur Handhabung submariner Entsalzungsanlagen

    Drude, B.C.; Klapp, E.; Peters, T.


    The erection and the periodical repair works of a submarine desalination plant are made easier by the separate construction of the main components, as such a membrane body for the desalination and the fresh water conveying device, both in pressure-proof vessels and by the light-weight construction method. Considerable membrane surfaces for the desalination by reverse osmosis are wound spirally around a collecting vessel of fresh water. The vessel is made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics or another light material. The main components are connected by sufficiently long and flexible pipes by which the handling of the parts is simplified during erection. This is particularly advantageous if several desalination aggregates are fed by one conveyor system.

  9. Eclipsing Binary Stars: the Royal Road to Stellar Astrophysics

    Southworth, John


    Russell (1948) famously described eclipses as the "royal road" to stellar astrophysics. From photometric and spectroscopic observations it is possible to measure the masses and radii (to 1% or better!), and thus surface gravities and mean densities, of stars in eclipsing binary systems using nothing more than geometry. Adding an effective temperature subsequently yields luminosity and then distance (or vice versa) to high precision. This wealth of directly measurable quantities makes eclipsing binaries the primary source of empirical information on the properties of stars, and therefore a cornerstone of stellar astrophysics. In this review paper I summarise the current standing of eclipsing binary research, present an overview of useful analysis techniques, and conclude with a glance to the future.

  10. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L


    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  11. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final Report 1

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.


    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petroleum by the development of different sources of energy. The project required research of various reports and data, both published and unpublished, particularly those of the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas and of oil companies with leases on or adjacent to the naval bases. Important field investigations included the measurement of well-head temperatures of fluids produced from selected oil wells at each naval base and a detailed gravity survey of the Seal Beach naval base and vicinity. The well-head temperatures were needed to evaluate individual wells as sources of geothermal energy, while the gravity survey attempted to discover subsurface geologic structures that might contain geothermal fluids of temperatures higher than those predicted by the regional geothermal conditions.

  12. Operating Below Crush Depth: The Formation, Evolution, and Collapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force in World War II


    Subamrine, Medium) LCDR Lieutenant Commander LT Lieutenant NM Nautical Mile RADM Rear Admiral ST Sen- Taka (Submarine, High Speed) STo Sen-Toku...Special Submarine) STS Sen- Taka -Sho (Submarine, High Speed(Victory)) USS United States Ship VADM Vice Admiral 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION On...Kirai-Sen meaning Mine-Layer, KT for Kai-Toku-Chu meaning Medium, Special Submarine, ST for Sen- Taka meaning Submarine, High speed, STo for Sen Toku

  13. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der


    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  14. Investigating Outfitting Density as a Cost Driver in Submarine Construction


    35 b. Compensated Gross Tonnage .................................................36 c. Acoustic Requirements and the Effect on Procurement...hours inside the hull. Previously, submarines were assembled piece by piece on location, typically on the shipbuilding ways or inclined railway . The...ultimate capability for ASW, ISR and polar missions, and was fast, acoustically superior and could navigate in deeper waters than any other fast

  15. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth


    The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...

  16. Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review

    de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel


    This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

  17. New fuel cell plants and power sources for submarines

    Nikiforov, B.; Sokolov, V. [CDB ME ' ' Rubin' ' (Russian Federation)


    The existing storage batteries for submarines have been analyzed, the quality of their design has been estimated and a power plant with electrochemical generators (fuel cells) has been suggested as an electric energy source. The history and the status of power plant design in Russia have been reflected. (authors)

  18. TNMG to Make a Profit on Submarine Mine


    <正>TNMG released a notice indicating that it and Nautilus Minerals Niugini Limited (hereinafter referred to as "Nautilus Mining Company"), on April 21, signed major clauses of the cooperative agreement concerning submarine ore processing of Bismarck Sea Solwara project in

  19. Submarine barite-opal rocks of hydrothermal origin.

    Bertine, K K; Keene, J B


    Unusual submarine rocks consisting of barite, opal, and volcanic detritus were recovered from the Lau Basin northeast of Australia. It is proposed that these rocks were formed when hydrothermal solutions emanating from a fracture zone offsetting the active spreading center in the Lau Basin came into contact with cooler ocean waters.

  20. Naval Aviation Costs: Targeting Operations and Support


    17 Defense AT&L: November–December 2013 Naval Aviation Costs Targeting Operations and Support Capt. Robert Farmer n Capt. Keith Nixon n Capt...ONR Maj. Gen. Murray, TECOM Brig. Gen. Jansson, DLA Aviation SES Gilpin , DASN (Air) SES Stiller, DASN (Ships) SES Zangardi, DASN (C4I) *NAE Air... Robert Brown Training/Training Supt 6.7.6 – Lorie Nace Support Equipment 6.7.7 – Bruce Wilhelm Industrial Business Ops 6.8D – Roy Harris Tech Dir

  1. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements


    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordé to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  2. Geography, Technology, and British Naval Strategy in the Dreadnought Era


    destruction of the lu- crative China trade. Faced with the prospect of war against France and Russia in combination, Britain responded from 1889 with enormous...government bent on economy and social reform, a sharp increase in German naval construction, and signs of a Russian naval recovery had created the

  3. A Naval Postgraduate Dental School Analysis of Initial Endodontic Treatment


    Vertucci FJ. Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth . Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1984;58:589-99. 5. Yesilsoy C, Gordon W, Porras O...1 A NAVAL POSTGRADUATE DENTAL SCHOOL ANALYSIS OF INITIAL ENDODONTIC TREATMENT by Rodney V. Scott LCDR, DC, USN...A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Endodontics Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services

  4. Refined Orbital Architecture for Targets of Naval Interest


    pioneered the Walker delta pattern.29 The technique distributes t total satellites into p orbital planes, evenly spaced with a f relative phasing...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REFINED ORBITAL ...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS REFINED ORBITAL ARCHITECTURE FOR TARGETS OF NAVAL INTEREST 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew Konowicz 7

  5. Combat Simulation Modeling in Naval Special Warfare Mission Planning.


    This thesis explores the potential role of combat simulation modeling in the Naval Special Warfare mission planning cycle. It discusses methods the tactical level. The thesis concludes by discussing additional applications of combat simulation modeling within the Naval Special Warfare community and makes recommendations for its effective and efficient implementation.

  6. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.


    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  7. The portrait of Dr William Harvey in the Royal Society since 1683.

    Keynes, Milo


    A portrait of William Harvey in the Royal Society since 1683 is a copy by an unknown artist after a portrait, now lost, painted by Sir Peter Lely ca. 1650. Three other unattributed copies besides a copy bought from Lely's studio on his death by the Earl of Bradford have been located. The present labelling of the Royal Society portrait should be corrected.




    Full Text Available This paper contents a summery about physicochemical composition of frash and lyophilized royal jelly. Royal jelly (RJ is a yellowish and creamy secretion from hypo pharyngeal and mandibular glands of young worker bees (Apis mellifera L. to feed all larvae for the first three days of their life and the queen bee for both her larval life and adulthood.. Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion that is used in the nutrition of the larvae. Queen bees are made, not born, and their feeding with royal jelly is the key to that process. The geographical authenticity of royal jelly can be determined also by pollen analysis (Ricciardelli d'Albore et al., 1978; Ricciardelli d'Albore, 1986. The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; and for lyophilized royal jelly are analyzed by determining ash, lipids, protein, carbohydrates, 10-HDA, sugars. 10-HDA content is the criteria of royal jelly quality analysis and it is a freshness parameter(Antinelli J.F., Sarah Zeggane, Renee Davico, Catherine Rognone, Jean Paul Faucon, Louisette Lizzani.

  9. Self-configurable distributed control networks on naval ships

    Janssen, J.A.A.J.; Maris, M.


    One significant challenge the Royal Netherlands Navy is facing is how to increase the ship's response capabilities to calamities. In our view, self-configuring distributed control networks are required to reach this goal. TNO-FEL, in cooperation with the Royal Netherlands Navy researches such an aut

  10. A submarine perspective of the Honolulu Volcanics, Oahu

    Clague, David A.; Paduan, Jennifer B.; McIntosh, William C.; Cousens, Brian L.; Davis, Alicé S.; Reynolds, Jennifer R.


    Lavas and volcaniclastic deposits were observed and collected from 4 submarine cones that are part of the Honolulu Volcanics on Oahu, Hawaii. The locations of these and a few additional, but unsampled, vents demonstrate that nearly all the vents are located on or very close to the shoreline of Oahu, with the most distal vent just 12 km offshore. The clastic samples and outcrops range from coarse breccias to cross-bedded ash deposits and show that explosive volcanism at depths between about 350 and 590 m depth played a part in forming these volcanic cones. The eruptive styles appear to be dominantly effusive to strombolian at greater depths, but apparently include violent phreatomagmatic explosive activity at the shallower sites along the submarine southwest extension of the Koko Rift. The compositions of the recovered samples are broadly similar to the strongly alkalic subaerial Honolulu Volcanics lavas, but the submarine lavas, erupted further from the Koolau caldera, have slightly more radiogenic Sr isotopic ratios, and trace element patterns that are distinct from either the subaerial Honolulu Volcanics or the submarine North Arch lavas. These patterns are characterized by moderate to strong positive Sr and P anomalies, and moderate to strong negative Cs, Rb, U, Th, Zr, and Hf anomalies. Most samples have strong negative K and moderate negative Ti anomalies, as do all subaerial Honolulu Volcanics and North Arch samples, but one group of samples from the Koko Rift lack this chemical signature. The data are consistent with more garnet in the source region for the off-shore samples than for either the on-shore Honolulu Volcanics lavas. New Ar-Ar ages show that eruptions at the submarine vents and Diamond Head occurred between about 0.5 Ma and 0.1 Ma, with the youngest ages from the Koko Rift. These ages are in general agreement with most published ages for the formation and suggest that some much younger ages reported previously from the Koko Rift are probably

  11. Titan Submarine: Exploring The Depths of Kraken Mare

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.


    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I for 2014. The effort investigated what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon approximately 93 Kelvin (-180 degrees Centigrade) seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (approximately100 kilograms) it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive and exciting science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare The submerged science includes mapping using side looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the sea at all depths, as well as sampling of the sea's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 kilometers inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (approximately 2047) to allow for continuous lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth (DTE) communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid/sediment/chemical interactions. An estimated 25 megabits of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system. This paper discusses the results of Phase I as well as the plans for Phase II.

  12. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Mauro Coltelli


    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  13. Quality of royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees fed a supplemented diet

    Maria Josiane Sereia


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial supplements prepared with soybean protein isolate, brewer's yeast, mixture of soybean protein isolate with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil, and a mixture of linseed oil with palm oil on the physicochemical and microbiological composition of royal jelly produced by Africanized honey bee colonies. Considering these results, providing supplements for Africanized honeybee colonies subjected to royal jelly production can help and strengthen the technological development of the Brazilian beekeeping industry increasing its consumption in the national market. This research presents values of royal jelly a little different from those established by the Brazilian legislation. This fact shows that is important to discuss or change the official method for royal jelly analysis. The characterization of physicochemical and microbiological parameters is important in order to standardize fresh, frozen, and lyophilized royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees.


    Langdon-Down, R


    The principal reference of the Royal Commission was certification and detention, and treatment without certification of persons suffering from mental disorder.The general principles laid down as the result of the inquiry are set forth and shown to accord with the views of the medical profession.The Commission supports the medical view that greater facilities should be granted for treating mental disorders in their early stages without certification and repudiates the contention that grave abuses exist.It makes proposals for avoiding the stigma of certification by admitting patients to treatment under a provisional order without full certification. The real objection of the public to certification appears to lie in the judicial intervention and the legal formalities. Since these are accentuated in the proposed method, it is very little different from the present procedure. The reason for this anomaly appears to be adherence to what is said to be "an inviolable principle of law."This principle is violated in the present law, in the proposals of the Royal Commission and was disregarded prior to 1890.A scheme is put forward to avoid these objections by extending the present facilities on the lines of the Report and simplifying the procedure, thus eliminating the magistrate from the proceedings prior to admission unless the patient desires his intervention, and placing the authorization for treatment on the relatives and friends in all cases where the patient does not apply voluntarily for treatment. The Board of Control is the safeguard in these matters. These two procedures would be applicable to all cases in the first instance; but should the friends prefer full certification, that should be possible at any stage.The proposals for voluntary boarders are approved with the proviso that it should not be necessary to apply these proposals where restraint is neither necessary nor, in fact, applied.The protection that doctors signing certificates need is considered and it

  15. Obituary: R(oyal) Glenn Hall, 1921-2004

    McCarthy, Dennis Dean


    R. Glenn Hall died on 25 June 2004 following a battle with prostate cancer. His contributions to the determination of the frequency corresponding to an energy level transition in the Cesium atom led to the definition of the length of the second and formed the basis for precise modern timekeeping. Glenn was born on 23 June 1921 in Koloa, Hawaii, and together with a brother and three sisters, grew up in Albion, Michigan. His father was a professor of political science at Albion College. He graduated from Park College in Parkville, Missouri with a degree in mathematics in 1941. He served as a corpsman in the U. S. Navy during World War II, and went on to earn a PhD at the University of Chicago in 1949. Glenn joined the faculty at the University of Chicago as an instructor from 1949 through 1952 and became a research associate there in 1953. While at the U. of Chicago he worked extensively on mass ratios of binary stars, binary star orbits and the determination of stellar parallaxes. In 1953 Glenn came to the U. S. Naval Observatory (USNO) where he became the Assistant Director of the Time Service Division. His early work at the Naval Observatory was related to the determination of Ephemeris Time (ET) from photographic observations of the Moon with respect to background stars. This work provided a time scale more uniform than that based on the Earth's rotation, which was the internationally accepted time scale at the time. As a result, the International Astronomical Union in 1955 redefined the second to be the second as determined from Ephemeris Time. In June 1955, L. Essen and J.V.L. Parry placed in operation a Cesium beam atomic standard at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, England. William Markowitz (1907-1998), the director of the Time Service, and Hall together with Essen and Parry then began the work leading to the determination of the frequency of the Cesium atom in terms of the second of the seasonally corrected time scale determined from the

  16. Domingos Vandelli and the deficit in royal Portuguese treasury

    Ricardo Dalla Costa


    Full Text Available This work aims to discuss the economic situation and policy recommendations of Vandelli to solve the difficulties in economic situation in Portugal at the end of seven hundred. Starting with a prior proposal for Vandelli on institutionalization of knowledge in Sciencia of Finance to further expose the difficulties in maintaining the Kingdom in not justifiable times as costly ordered and even military expenditures, investments in manufacturing, arts and science without there being at that time a real war economy. As a result, it failed to materialize the idea of a Portuguese Economic Society since it was transmuted into a Science Academy. With regard to the deficit in the Royal Treasury, there was an increase of Portuguese State spending concurrently with the drop in revenue from overseas, and finally opportunism behind the financial difficulties of the metropolis led Vandelli to do harsh criticism to financial managers and usurers who took advantage of an emblematic situation and suggest economic policies to balance public finances

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society

    Brown, Neil


    Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had

  18. Anaemia in elective orthopaedic surgery - Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia.

    Kearney, B; To, J; Southam, K; Howie, D; To, B


    An anaemia clinic was established to improve the preoperative management of elective orthopaedic patients scheduled for arthroplasty. This paper is a report on the first 100 patients assessed. To assess the incidence and causes of anaemia in patients on a waiting list for elective arthroplasty in a public hospital and to assess the impact of anaemia detection in this patient population. Patients attending an Anaemia Clinic for elective orthopaedic surgical patients, during March 2010 to June 2013 were studied. Outcome measures included change in haemoglobin preoperative results and perioperative transfusion rates by preoperative haemoglobin. Seventeen per cent of patients scheduled for elective surgery were found to be anaemic. Of the 100 patients who attended, approximately half were found to be iron deficient and the remainder had anaemia of chronic disease. Serum ferritin anaemia were able to be treated, in all cases, to achieve a significant increase in preoperative haemoglobin. The general unavailability of erythropoietin limited effective intervention for the non-iron-deficient anaemic patients. Seven patients had their surgery cancelled because of the screening programme. Half of the anaemic patients in a joint replacement screening clinic were iron deficient, and treatment was effective in improving the pre-operative haemoglobin and reducing perioperative transfusion rates. This screening process should improve patient outcome. Another important finding in this group of patients is that ferritin levels cannot be reliably used as the sole indicator in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in this group of patients undergoing elective arthroplasty. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen


    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  20. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Atsushi Miyashita


    Full Text Available Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species.

  1. United States Naval War College, 1919-1941: An Institutional Response to Naval Preparedness


    X-Zi&*m& ^*^**s?WJ»«!gi!«33l«^^ _ 38 30 31 College building. In the weeks ahead, the Sims’ and their children , together with their household...entering." al, p. 235. 51 Naval War College, Outline History, Supplement 1, 1937-1938, pp. 2-3; Suplement 4, 1940-1941, p. 3. *m mm ^*3?^:-*ej£s,! ;1

  2. [Medical-physiological characteristics of combat training of nuclear-power submarine crews].

    Dovgusha, V V; Myznikov, I L; Shalabodov, S A; Bumaĭ, O K


    The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.

  3. The clinical implications of a smoking ban on submarines in the U.S. Navy.

    Shah, Anil N; Arnold, Michael J


    By the end of calendar year 2010, a total smoking ban on submarines is expected to be implemented throughout the submarine force because of the negative health effects of environmental tobacco smoke and the recently demonstrated exposure of nonsmoking submariners to measurable levels of nicotine during submarine deployments. Historically, smoking has been highly prevalent in the military, but new data on the negative health effects of tobacco have led the military to change its policies, restricting its use in certain environments. A number of research studies have examined the effect of smoking on the military, cessation and prevention interventions, effect of environmental tobacco smoke onboard the submarine, and treatment modalities aimed at smokers attempting to quit. With the potential for considerable physical and psychological effects, a mass tobacco cessation program is being implemented to support the prohibition onboard the submarine. Recommendations for a successful implementation program are included.

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental study of the submarine's cold wake temperature character

    Chen, Shengtao; Zhong, Jingjun; Sun, Peng


    The temperature difference of the submarine's wake on the sea surface is the base for the IR detection. In this paper, the temperature difference on the sea surface caused by the submarine's propellers and the submarine's hull is studied by solving the three dimensional N-S equations. The results show that under the condition of sea temperature surroundings of minus gradient, such as in summer the upper water's temperature is higher than the lower water, it is cold wake on the sea surface and hot wake on the submarine's plane. The temperature difference between the wake and the water around in the wake's initial part becomes more and more obvious as the wake's distance gets longer. Through the IR camera, the submarine's propeller wake is studied under the same temperature status. Obvious IR temperature difference signals can be observed and it is consistent with the numerical simulation for the submarine.


    T.L. Mitchell


    The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF WP will be discussed; however, only a sub-set of such analyses will be presented and shall be limited to those identified in the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The objective of this analysis is to describe the naval SNF WP design method and to show that the design of the naval SNF WP complies with the ''Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Interface Control Document (ICD) criteria for Site Recommendation. Additional criteria for the design of the naval SNF WP have been outlined in Section 6.2 of the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the naval long WP containing one naval long SNF canister. This WP is representative of the WPs that will contain both naval short SNF and naval long SNF canisters. The following items are included in the scope of this analysis: (1) Providing a general description of the applicable design criteria; (2) Describing the design methodology to be used; (3) Presenting the design of the naval SNF waste package; and (4) Showing compliance with all applicable design criteria. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the technical product development plan (TPDP) ''Design Analysis for the Naval SNF Waste Package (CRWMS M

  6. The Madrid Royal Schools of St. Elisabeth and Loreto according Constitutions of 1715 and 1718



    Full Text Available The Madrid Royal Schools of Saint Elizabeth and Loreto were founded by Philip II at the end of 16th Century. Both institutions provided education for orphan girls. They still exist as Catholic coeducational schools granted by the Education Department. These two Schools were Royal Sponsorship belonging to Palace ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The Schools Constitutions sanctioned by Philip V have been preserved until now. Although these Schools have a parallel history, the mentioned Constitutions are completely different for each School. According to these Norms, the Madrid Royal Schools of Saint Elizabeth and Loreto have many differences between them.

  7. US Naval Research Laboratory focus issue: introduction.

    Hoffman, Craig A


    Rather than concentrate on a single topic, this feature issue presents the wide variety of research in optics that takes place at a single institution, the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and is analogous to an NRL feature issue published in Applied Optics in 1967. NRL is the corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps. It conducts a broadly based multidisciplinary program of scientific research and advanced technological development in the physical, engineering, space, and environmental sciences related to maritime, atmospheric, and space domains. NRL's research is directed toward new and improved materials, techniques, equipment, and systems in response to identified and anticipated Navy needs. A number of articles in this issue review progress in broader research areas while other articles present the latest results on specific topics.

  8. Spanish Naval Artillery on 1890–1900

    Kent R. Crawford


    Full Text Available Spanish naval artillery in the late XIX cen. had features such as artillery great maritime states and the countries of the second world. On the one hand, in Spain, developed and put into service the original artillery systems of national development, on the other - export versions of the world's leading manufacturers. And often when applying for a variety of weapons could be made is not in favor of cheaper and more advanced foreign models. But we should not downplay the role of Spanish designers: often implements its development could outpace similar foreign solutions. All this predetermined the extraordinary diverse nature and diversity of nomenclature, both the guns and ammunition. The proposed work –is the first attempt to bring together a variety of eclectic details, often contradict each other, the Spanish artillery of the period.

  9. Morphodynamics of submarine channel inception revealed by new experimental approach

    de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.


    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor.

  10. Submarine Cables for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning

    Bueti, Cristina; Barnes, Chris; Meldrum, David


    A joint initiative between International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO is examining novel uses for submarine telecommunication cables. The initiative addresses two main issues: the need for sustained climate-quality data from the sparsely observed deep oceans, and the desire to increase the reliability and integrity of the global tsunami warning networks. In the latter case, a significant proportion of the network suffers from failure and vandalism of the sea-surface telemetry buoys that relay the tsunami signals from the sea-bed sensor package: incorporating the sensors within a submarine cable repeater is an obvious way of increasing system reliability. At the present time, plans are well advanced to launch a pilot project with the active involvement of cable industry players.

  11. Optimization of Submarine Hydrodynamic Coefficients Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    HU Kun; XU Yi-fan


    Aiming at the demand for optimization of hydrodynamic coefficients in submarine's motion equations, an adaptive weight immune genetic algorithm was proposed to optimize hydrodynamic coefficients in motion equations. Some hydrody-namic coefficients of high sensitivity to control and maneuver were chosen as the optimization objects in the algorithm. By using adaptive weight method to determine the weight and target function, the multi-objective optimization could be transla-ted into single-objective optimization. For a certain kind of submarine, three typical maneuvers were chosen to be the objects of study: overshoot maneuver in horizontal plane, overshoot maneuver in vertical plane and turning circle maneuver in horizontal plane. From the results of computer simulations using primal hydrodynamic coefficient and optimized hydrody-namic coefficient, the efficiency of proposed method is proved.

  12. Armor corrosion monitoring of a submarine AC cable

    Genesca, J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Dept. Ingenieria Metalurgica; Perez, T. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico; Lara, C. [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato (Mexico)


    After the hurricane Gilberto flattened (devastated) Cancun in September 1988, the submarine cables which supplied electricity to Isla Mjueres Island remained very damaged, and it was decided to install the new ones. In 1989, four new submarine cables were installed from Punta Sam, Cancun to Isla Mujeres. Such cables, of nominal tension 34.5 KV, were manufactures with a galvanized steel armor coated with asphalt, and began operation during 1990. The object of this communication is to present the experimental procedure that gave place to the armor corrosion monitoring procedure carried out in this particular case and to compare the results with those obtained on the field. Results of the cathodic protection system applied are also presented.

  13. The importance of shallow confining units to submarine groundwater flow

    Bratton, J.F.


    In addition to variable density flow, the lateral and vertical heterogeneity of submarine sediments creates important controls on coastal aquifer systems. Submarine confining units produce semi-confined offshore aquifers that are recharged on shore. These low-permeability deposits are usually either late Pleistocene to Holocene in age, or date to the period of the last interglacial highstand. Extensive confining units consisting of peat form in tropical mangrove swamps, and in salt marshes and freshwater marshes and swamps at mid-latitudes. At higher latitudes, fine-grained glaciomarine sediments are widespread. The net effect of these shallow confining units is that groundwater from land often flows farther offshore before discharging than would normally be expected. In many settings, the presence of such confining units is critical to determining how and where pollutants from land will be discharged into coastal waters. Alternatively, these confining units may also protect fresh groundwater supplies from saltwater intrusion into coastal wells.

  14. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  15. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.


    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  16. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming


    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colordao, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3) located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 (NOSR-3) located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 (NOSR-2) located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment.

  17. Submarine and Autonomous Vessel Proliferation: Implications for Future Strategic Stability at Sea


    replace the Ohio- class SSBN and Virginia -class SSN to replace the Los Angeles class attack submarine. Although more sophisticated than their...predecessors and with some modifications to demands of the post-Cold War era and (in the Virginia class) an emphasis on littoral conflict, these purchases...Congressional Research Service analyst Amy Woolf observes: “With few submarines in the fleet, the Navy would have to reduce the number of submarines on

  18. The Study on Fatigue Experiment and Reliability Life of Submarine Pipeline Steel

    Yan Yifei; Shao Bing; Liu Jinkun; Cheng Lufeng


    The aim of the fatigue experiment study is to solve the fatigue fracture problem of X70 submarine tubing when it is under the scouring effect of offshore current. The multilevel fatigue experiments are carried out following the internation (GB4337-84) recommended method. The standard round bar fatigue specimen was made by the material of submarine pipeline steel. The fatigue life of submarine pipeline steel in different survival probability and P-S-N curve were achieved. According to reliabil...

  19. Concours annuels Academie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-mer

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences


    Full Text Available Yearly competitions Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences. L'Organisation des Nations Unies, face aux inégalités croissantes a initié le processus des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD qui doivent être réalisés d'ici 2015. L'atteinte des huit OMD devrait permettre de réduire la pauvreté et d'améliorer les conditions de vie des populations. L'élevage est pratiqué par une grande partie de la population mondiale surtout les plus pauvres. Il est pourvoyeur d'emplois et contribue à l'émancipation des femmes grâce aux revenus générés par la vente des produits animaux. Les animaux d'élevage sont également utilisés pour le transport et la culture attelée. La forte densité en nutriments des produits animaux en fait des aliments de choix pour améliorer l'état nutritionnel des enfants. La domestication des espèces animales sauvages et le développement de l'aquaculture contribuent à réduire les prélèvements dans la nature et à protéger la biodiversité. Le développement d'un élevage durable et raisonné peut donc positivement impacter plusieurs secteurs et doper la croissance économique des pays. Ce qui peut aider les pays en développement à se rapprocher des OMD d'ici 2015. La note présente également les pré-requis pour rendre effective la contribution de l'élevage aux.

  20. Royal London space analysis: plaster versus digital model assessment.

    Grewal, Balpreet; Lee, Robert T; Zou, Lifong; Johal, Ama


    With the advent of digital study models, the importance of being able to evaluate space requirements becomes valuable to treatment planning and the justification for any required extraction pattern. This study was undertaken to compare the validity and reliability of the Royal London space analysis (RLSA) undertaken on plaster as compared with digital models. A pilot study (n = 5) was undertaken on plaster and digital models to evaluate the feasibility of digital space planning. This also helped to determine the sample size calculation and as a result, 30 sets of study models with specified inclusion criteria were selected. All five components of the RLSA, namely: crowding; depth of occlusal curve; arch expansion/contraction; incisor antero-posterior advancement and inclination (assessed from the pre-treatment lateral cephalogram) were accounted for in relation to both model types. The plaster models served as the gold standard. Intra-operator measurement error (reliability) was evaluated along with a direct comparison of the measured digital values (validity) with the plaster models. The measurement error or coefficient of repeatability was comparable for plaster and digital space analyses and ranged from 0.66 to 0.95mm. No difference was found between the space analysis performed in either the upper or lower dental arch. Hence, the null hypothesis was accepted. The digital model measurements were consistently larger, albeit by a relatively small amount, than the plaster models (0.35mm upper arch and 0.32mm lower arch). No difference was detected in the RLSA when performed using either plaster or digital models. Thus, digital space analysis provides a valid and reproducible alternative method in the new era of digital records.

  1. Software Architecture for Anti-Submarine Warfare Unmanned Surface Vehicles


    autonomous vehicles,” M.S.C. thesis, Dept. Elect. and Comput. Eng., Instituto Superior Tecnico , Lisbon, Portugal, 2009. [6] V. Berzins and Luqi...TOC.htm. [Accessed: 18 July 2016]. [9] Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, Fleet Oceanographic and Acoustic Reference Manual . Stennis Space

  2. Evaluation and comparison of electric propulsion motors for submarines

    Harbour, Joel P.


    CIVINS The Navy has announced its conviction to make its warships run on electric power through the decision to make its newest line of destroyers propelled with an electric propulsion system. Several ship construction firms and electric motor manufacturers are thus striving to develop enabling technology, including high power density motors. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate some of the proposed motor designs for use in a submarine. Permanent magnet, superconducting synchronous an...

  3. The Polar Submarine and Navigation of the Arctic Ocean


    bottomaide Training troubles Echo sounder for depth SESE 3180 Fwd. torp. rm. Bow-topside Transducer fuied below ice 111-3 Sonic listening JT Fwd...the training siaft keyway of the topside QLA sound head and made it inoperative. Equipments installed on the CARP are listed in Table V and are s;iown...submarine post and between submerged ice stalactites that extend to its depth. The choice of safe cruising depth is determined from oceanographic data of

  4. The evolution of composite materials in submarine structures.

    Lemiere, Y


    Since the sixties, the amount of composite structures on submarines has increased continuously. The main reasons are their low apparent weight in water, good behaviour in a marine environment, excellent mechanical properties and acoustic transparency. The new applications required the use of prepreg. Relevant processes had to be adapted to the large dimensions and thickness of the structures. Future applications will be concerned with both structures and internal equipment. A lively debate is...

  5. Scaling for Shock Response of Equipment in Different Submarines

    O’Hara, G.J.; Cunniff, P.F.


    This article presents scaling rules developed to predict the response of submarine equipment subjected to underwater chemical explosions. The computer was used as a surrogate for shock tests. A simplified model of a hull section was used to contain frame-mounted single degree of freedom equipment. A general scaling rule has been developed to handle the spread in the shock response attributable to the charge weight, equipment weight, and equipment frequency, where the shock response is the abs...

  6. The first days of the new submarine volcano near Krakatoa

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.


    The geological history of the Krakatoa volcano, especially the eruption of 1883, is amply described in the great work “Krakatau” by R. D. M. Verheer (1885), the Report of the Krakatoa Committee (Royal Soc. London 1888) and in the publications of B. G. Escher (Handel. 1e Nederl. Indisch Natuurwet ens

  7. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E


    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  8. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger


    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  9. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano.

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko


    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  10. Flow splitting modifies the helical motion in submarine channels

    Islam, M. Ashraful; Imran, Jasim; Pirmez, Carlos; Cantelli, Alessandro


    Intricately meandering channels of various scales constitute a major morphological feature of the submarine slope and fan systems. These channels act as conduits of density-driven gravity underflows and in turn are shaped by these underflows. The relationship between channel curvature and the dynamics of sediment-laden underflows commonly known as turbidity current has been an enigma, and recently, a subject of controversy. This contribution unravels the flow field of turbidity current at submarine channel bends captured from large scale laboratory experiments. The experimental results show that a mildly sloping channel bank greatly enhances the tilt of the turbidity current-ambient water interface, so much so that the current completely separates from the convex or the inside bank. We also show that irrespective of the shape of the channel cross section, two cells of helical flow appear in confined submarine bend flow. The near-bed cell has a circulation pattern similar to that observed in fluvial channels; the other cell has an opposite sense of rotation. If, on the other hand, a portion of the flow detaches from the body of the current and spills to the concave or outside overbank area, the upper circulation cell becomes suppressed by the resulting lateral convection.

  11. Structural and acoustic response of a finite stiffened submarine hull

    Wang, Xian-zhong; Jiang, Chen-ban; Xu, Rui-yang


    After borrowing the idea of precise integration method, a precise integration transfer matrix method (PITMM) is proposed by modifying traditional transfer matrix method. The submarine hull can be modeled as joined conicalcylindrical-spherical shells. By considering the effect of the ring-stiffeners, the field transfer matrixes of shells of revolution are obtained accurately by PITMM. After assembling the field transfer matrixes into an entire matrix, the dynamic model is established to solve the dynamic responses of the joined shell. By describing the sound pressure in fluid by modified wave superposition method (MWSM) and collocating points along the meridian line of the joined shell, finally the structural and acoustic responses of a finite stiffened submarine hull can be predicted by coupled PITMM and MWSM. The effectiveness of the present method has been verified by comparing the structural and acoustic responses of the spherical shell with existing results. Furthermore, the effects of the model truncation, stiffness and thickness on the structural and acoustic responses of the submarine hull are studied.

  12. Submarine navigation based on gravity gradient-terrain matching

    Xiong, Ling; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Li; Tian, Jin-Wen; Liu, Jian


    Based on the geophysics technology, a gravity gradient-terrain matching submarine navigation approach is proposed in this paper. The submarine's current position obtained by matching the measured gravity gradient data to the prepared gravity gradient reference map is used to correct the inertial navigation system's accumulated error. Although the precision gradiometer is in use, there is no world-wide gravity gradient map. The ocean's gravity gradient data is even scarce. Therefore, a gravity gradient matching navigation system directly utilizing the gravity gradient reference map can't be realized. With the sensitivity of gravity gradient to terrain, the gravity gradient reference map can be computed from the local terrain elevation data and the preparing approach of the gravity gradient map is proposed in detail in the paper. Since the seabed terrain elevation map, especially highly accurate offing terrain elevation map has been pre-surveyed, the location can be actualized through matching the real-time measured gravity gradient data to the prepared gravity gradient reference map. Simulations show that the submarine navigation approach on gravity gradient-terrain matching is feasible and can be put into practice.

  13. Source term analysis for a nuclear submarine accident

    Lewis, B.J.; Hugron, J.J.M.R. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)


    A source term analysis has been conducted to determine the activity release into the environment as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident aboard a visiting nuclear-powered submarine to a Canadian port. This best-estimate analysis considers the fractional release from the core, and fission product transport in the primary heat transport system, primary containment (i.e. reactor compartment) and submarine hull. Physical removal mechanisms such as vapour and aerosol deposition are treated in the calculation. Since a thermalhydraulic analysis indicated that the integrity of the reactor compartment is maintained, release from the reactor compartment will only occur by leakage; however, it is conservatively assumed that the secondary containment is not isolated for a 24-h period where release occurs through an open hatch in the submarine hull. Consequently, during this period, the activity release into the atmosphere is estimated as 4.6 TBq, leading to a maximum individual dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv at 800 metres from the berthing location. This activity release is comparable to that obtained in the BEREX TSA study (for a similar accident scenario) but is four orders of magnitude less than that reported in the earlier Davis study where, unrealistically, no credit had been taken for the containment system or for any physical removal processes. (author)

  14. Certification of a submarine design using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Baldwin, Chris S.; Salter, Toni J.


    Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has recently planned, installed, and tested a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor system to validate FEM predictions of a new submarine design undergoing American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) certification testing. Fiber optic triaxial, biaxial, and uniaxial gage locations were selected based on the FEM analysis. FBGs were placed on six optical fibers with two fibers (33 sensors) mounted internally to the hull and four fibers (64 sensors) mounted externally. Testing was performed by lowering the submarine to the design depth and recording strain measurements. The optical sensor signals were transmitted directly to the water's surface and monitored by top-side interrogation instrumentation through over 2000 feet of optical cable. Measured temperature-compensated strain values were compared to the FEM predicted strain values with excellent results. To the author's knowledge, this successful test represents the first time that FBG sensors have been used to certify a submarine design and to validate FEM analysis on a large-scale structure.

  15. Pouvoir et religion à la chapelle royale de Versailles sous Louis XIV Power and religion at the royal chapel of Versailles under Louis XIV

    Alexandre Maral


    Full Text Available D’une manière peut‑être plus sensible que partout ailleurs, les objets et les insignes du pouvoir prennent une importance particulière dans le contexte du cérémonial liturgique de la religion catholique. À la chapelle royale de Versailles, la présence régulière du monarque et de sa cour complique encore la situation, d’autant que la desserte est assurée par deux corps distincts d’ecclésiastiques. Dépassant le simple cadre des préséances, Louis XIV a défini autour de sa personne royale un système rituel susceptible d’en manifester le caractère épiscopal dérivé du sacre. De même, l’enjeu juridictionnel représenté par la Chapelle royale se traduit par un jeu subtil d’attitudes, de gestes et de rites, chorégraphie sacrée qui accompagne et exprime les revendications des partisans et des adversaires de l’exemption du lieu de culte royal au regard du diocèse de Paris. Ce discours trouve un écho partiel dans le programme décoratif de la chapelle définitive du palais, achevée en 1710.Objects and symbols of power take on a particular importance in the liturgical ceremony of the Catholic Church, perhaps more so than in any other context. At the royal chapel of Versailles, the regular presence of the king and his court complicated the situation further, all the more so in that religious ceremony was administered by two distinct ecclesiastic bodies. Beyond the rules of precedence, Louis XIV had introduced around his royal persona a system of ritual that would manifest the episcopal identity conferred upon him by his coronation. Similarly, the jurisdictional authority represented by the royal chapel was conveyed in a subtle play of attitudes, gestures and rites, a symbolic choreography that accompanied and expressed the claims of the partisans and adversaries of the exemption of the royal place of worship with regard to the diocese of Paris. This stance was reflected in the decorative scheme of the palace

  16. Information assurance for network-centric naval forces

    Committee on Information Assurance for Network-Centric Naval Forces; National Research Council

    ... and growing importance and concern. Because of the forward positioning of both the Navy's afloat and the Marine Corps expeditionary forces, IA issues for naval forces are exacerbated, and are tightly linked to operational success...

  17. Portsmouth Naval Yard Sediment Data (JOHNSTON94 shapefile)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sediment data presented in this data layer were from an ecological study sited near the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The analog data were...

  18. U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office Cores (BOCKMAN65 shapefile)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The results of the sediment size analysis performed by the U.S.Naval Oceanographic Office Geological Laboratory for six Phleger gravity cores are presented in this...

  19. 'Any style but gothic': Building a home for the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland.

    Wheelock, H


    On 15 July 1864 the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland held its first business meeting in its newly built home at 6 Kildare Street, Dublin. Although the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland had been in existence for over 200 years this was the first occasion that a College meeting had been held in a building owned by the College. This paper looks at the history behind the construction of a home for the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. It will examine why it took over 200 years for the Physicians to find a permanent home, how they ended up with the building they did, and what they borrowed from the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh in the process.

  20. Royal Service on Eesti mainekaim üritusturundusfirma / Eda-Liis Kann

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-


    Turu-uuringute AS-i korraldatud üritusturunduse ettevõtete maineuuringust selgus, et kõige mainekamad Eestis on Royal Service, Event Masters, Broadline ja Sinine Elevant. Kõige madalama mainega on Tequila

  1. Royal Service on Eesti mainekaim üritusturundusfirma / Eda-Liis Kann

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-


    Turu-uuringute AS-i korraldatud üritusturunduse ettevõtete maineuuringust selgus, et kõige mainekamad Eestis on Royal Service, Event Masters, Broadline ja Sinine Elevant. Kõige madalama mainega on Tequila

  2. Presence of women in Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country (1775-1808

    María Consolación Calderón España


    Full Text Available In this work we present the performance of women in the work of the Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country, institutions of the eighteenth century who sought to lift the economy of Spain in that century. Women’s participation in the Royal Economic So- ciety was carried out by the Boards of Damas and supervisory work of the Schools «patriotism» and the first letters. The first schools to be named, according to Campomanes conceived of yarn and fabric and should be established in major cities throughout the kingdom. Participation in the Royal Economic Society from all social classes and genders with equal rights, was a fact. There is no comprehensive study on all of the Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country, therefore there is no one on women in one way or another took part in them. With this work we present the work done by some.

  3. Size distributions and failure initiation of submarine and subaerial landslides

    ten Brink, U.S.; Barkan, R.; Andrews, B.D.; Chaytor, J.D.


    Landslides are often viewed together with other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and fires, as phenomena whose size distribution obeys an inverse power law. Inverse power law distributions are the result of additive avalanche processes, in which the final size cannot be predicted at the onset of the disturbance. Volume and area distributions of submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic continental slope follow a lognormal distribution and not an inverse power law. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generated area distributions of submarine landslides that show a characteristic size and with few smaller and larger areas, which can be described well by a lognormal distribution. To generate these distributions we assumed that the area of slope failure depends on earthquake magnitude, i.e., that failure occurs simultaneously over the area affected by horizontal ground shaking, and does not cascade from nucleating points. Furthermore, the downslope movement of displaced sediments does not entrain significant amounts of additional material. Our simulations fit well the area distribution of landslide sources along the Atlantic continental margin, if we assume that the slope has been subjected to earthquakes of magnitude ??? 6.3. Regions of submarine landslides, whose area distributions obey inverse power laws, may be controlled by different generation mechanisms, such as the gradual development of fractures in the headwalls of cliffs. The observation of a large number of small subaerial landslides being triggered by a single earthquake is also compatible with the hypothesis that failure occurs simultaneously in many locations within the area affected by ground shaking. Unlike submarine landslides, which are found on large uniformly-dipping slopes, a single large landslide scarp cannot form on land because of the heterogeneous morphology and short slope distances of tectonically-active subaerial regions. However, for a given earthquake magnitude, the total area

  4. Structural evolution of deep-water submarine intraplate volcanoes / Azores

    Stakemann, Josefine; Huebscher, Christian; Beier, Christoph; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Terrinha, Pedro; Weiß, Benedikt


    We present multibeam and high-resolution reflection seismic data which elucidate the architecture of three submarine intraplate volcanoes located in the southern Azores Archipelago. Data have been collected during RV Meteor cruise M113 in 2015. Four GI-Guns served as the seismic source. The digital streamer comprised 144 channels distributed over a length of 600 m. The three cones are situated in a depth down to 2300 m with heights varying between 200 m and 243 m, an average diameter of 1360 m and an average slope angle of ca. 22°. All three circular cones are surrounded by a circular channel. These features, previously named "fried eggs" were previously interpreted as impact crater (Dias et al., 2009). A comparison with nearby submarine volcanoes close to São Miguel island (Weiß et al., 2015), however, strongly suggests a volcanic origin. The seismic data indicate that the volcanic cones formed on top of a ca. 100 m thick pelagic succession covering the igneous basement. Magma ascent deformed the volcanic basement, displaced the pelagic sediments and a first eruption phase formed a small, seismically transparent volcanic cone. Further eruptions created a volcanic cone with rather transparent reflections within the inferior region changing to strong reflection amplitudes with a chaotic pattern in the superior area. Compared to the igneous basement internal reflection amplitudes are mainly weak. The seismic transparency and slope angle exclude the presence of effusive rocks, since lavas usually create strong impedance contrasts. A comparison of the seismic characteristics with those from submarine Kolumbo volcano (Hübscher et al., 2015) suggests volcaniclastic lithologies from explosive eruptions. The circular channel around the volcanic cone shows the characteristics of a moat channel created by bottom currents. References: Dias, F.C., Lourenco, N., Lobo, A., Santos de Campos, A., Pinto de Abreu, M., 2009. "Fried Egg": An Oceanic Impact Crater in the Mid

  5. Naval War College Review. Volume 62, Number 1, Winter 2009


    pregnancy and childbirth are one in sixteen, compared to one in 3,800 in the developed world.18 Almost half the population does not have access to clean...German naval activities. Aided by his deep knowledge of naval matters, the disposition of U.S. and Japanese forces, and the dictates of geography... teenagers . At the same time, the American public identified its military as an institution deserving the highest confidence and trust, easily scoring

  6. Fallon Geothermal Exploration Project, Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada.


    Dral. Iron Ore Deposits of Nevada . Part A: Geology and Iron Ore Deposits of the Buena Vista Hills, Chur- chill and Pershing Counties , Nevada . Nevada ...tumber) Geothermal Potential Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada Fallon Exploration Project 20. ABSTRACT (Coawu en reverse aide It neeeen end $doaft...UNCLASSIFIED ICUMTY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAat L tmb Doe aneem (U) Fallon Geothermal Exploration Project, Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada , Interim Report

  7. Naval War College Review. Volume 65, Number 3


    crucial to our success. Only Nimitz at Pearl Harbor had the power to control long-range air search and activate the initial air attacks from Midway...irregular, warfare is intense and ongoing. See A. M. Fritz , The Navy Role in Confronting Irregular Challenges (Wash- ington, D.C.: Center for Naval Analyses...of Japan before Pearl Harbor (Naval Institute Press, 2007), written by a skilled financial analyst who discusses in great detail how the Franklin D

  8. International Students’ Perceptions of the Naval Postgraduate School.


    West Washington, D.C. 20008 8. Lt.Col. Jose Pedro P. Goncalves 5 EMFA la Divisio Av. Leite de Vasconcelos - Alfragide 2700 Amadora Portugal 9. Library...Master’s Thesis the Naval Postgraduate School December 1984 S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR() S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) Jose / Pedro Pereira...distribution is unlimited. International Students’ Perceptions of the Naval Postgraduate School - by Jose ’ Pedro Pereira Gongalves Lieutenant Colonel

  9. Naval College Review. Volume 61, Number 3, Summer 2008


    strengthen its comprehensive deterrence and warfighting capabilities.”1 The introduction of new classes of advanced surface warships; the unveiling of new...Avenger (a truck-borne Stinger), and Chaparral ; they might be stored in hardened or disguised shelters and frequently moved between them. These steps... California , 1995), pp. 58–61. 25. Ibid., pp. 64–69. 26. Conversation with Professor John Meyer, Captain, USN (Ret.), Naval War College, College of Naval

  10. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 10


    facilities across the DoD. The Naval Medical Research Unit- San Antonio’s (NAMRU-SA) Veterinary Science Department and Vivarium are located in... Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. NMR&D News is published monthly by the NMRC Public Affairs Office, 301-319-9378...deployed to Latin American countries, researchers at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit - No. 6 (NAMRU-6), are leading a study titled, “Epidemiology

  11. Naval Biodynamics Laboratory: 1989 and 1990 Command History


    Washington, DC Dr. Charles McLeod Maryland Medical Laboratory Baltimore, MD CDR Kenneth Meyer Naval Medical Center Corpus Christi , TX 62 1989 and 1990...Padro, Madrid , Spain, 24-26 April 1990. Call, D. W., "Mission and Capabilities of the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory." Three separate presentations and...Seminar, Baton Rouge, LA, 15 February 1990. Call, D. W., attended the NATO IEG/6 Ship Design SG/5 Seakeeping Conference, Madrid , Spain, 22-28 April

  12. The Royal Industrial Institute of Madrid (1850-1867). A Historical Overview

    Cano Pavón, Jose Manuel


    This paper reviews the history, structure, evolution and salient activities of the Royal Industrial Institute of Madrid. This was the first higher engineering school established in Spain and also the key to the teaching system devised by Spain's moderate liberal government of the 1850s to gather the human resources (engineers, intermediate technicians and skilled workers) needed to face the industrialization process under way in the country. The Royal Industrial Institute was foun...

  13. The Queens' estates: fiscal properties and royal policy ( 9th -10th centuries

    Tiziana Lazzari (a cura di


    Full Text Available The special condition of the queens of italic Kingdom during the 9th and 10th centuries is exemplified by the title of consors regni and by the exceptionally copious dowers bestowed to them when compared to those entrusted to other European queens. Through the accurate reconstruction of these dowries, composed of royal fiscal assets, this anomaly is explained within the context of specific royal governmental strategies.

  14. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

    Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti; Lakhsmi Sammugam; Nagesvari Ramesh; Siew Hua Gan


    Background. There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions. An overview of honey, p...

  15. Bedrock, soil, and lichen geochemistry from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Dicken, Connie L.; Bennett, James P.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.


    Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, is a large island in northeastern Lake Superior that became a national park in 1940 and was designated as a wilderness area in 1976. The relative isolation of Isle Royale (Figure 1), 25 kilometers out in Lake Superior from the Canadian mainland, its generally harsh climate, and its status as a wilderness national park have minimized human influence on the geochemical evolution of its landscape.

  16. Submarine structure of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) inferred from gravity

    Gailler, L.; Lénat, J.


    La Reunion is a large (diameter: 220 km; height: 7 km), mostly immerged (97%) oceanic volcanic system. New land and marine gravity data are used to study the structure of its submarine part. The gravity models are interpreted jointly with the published geology interpretations and compared with magnetic models. This allows us to derive a new model of the shallow and internal structure of the submarine flanks. Recent cruises have collected high quality gravity, magnetic and multi-beam swath bathymetry data over the submarine flanks of La Réunion and the surrounding oceanic plate. A new Bouguer anomaly map has been computed for a reduction density of 2.67.103 kg m-3. A magnetic anomalies map covering the same area has been also built. Studies based on bathymetric and acoustic data have previously shown the presence of different types of submarine features: a coastal shelf, huge bulges built by debris avalanches and sediment deposits, erosion canyons, volcanic constructions near the coast, isolated seamounts offshore, and elongate volcanic ridges on the Mascarene plate. On the new Bouguer anomaly map, all these features are associated with negative anomalies. They have been modeled using 2 3/4 D modeling techniques. The short wavelength anomalies over the coastal shelf area can be explained by piles of low density layers. This suggests that they are mostly built by hyaloclastites which are generally characterized by lower densities than lava flows. The voluminous debris avalanche deposits which formed the huge Submarine Bulges to the east, north, west, and south of the island have also been modeled as low density formations. Each bulge is modeled with an overall density less than 2.67.103 kg m-3, in order to account for its long wavelength anomaly. Some shorter wavelength features are superimposed on these long wavelength negative anomalies. They probably represent heterogeneities within the bulges. Some shallow ones can be associated with observed surface geological

  17. The Acoustics of the Double Elliptical Vault of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy

    Umberto Berardi


    Full Text Available This work investigates the acoustic characteristics of the double elliptical vault, which overlooks the Grand Staircase of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy. The Royal Palace was built by the architect Luigi Vanvitelli in the Seventeenth Century and it is the largest royal building in Italy. The double elliptical vault presents a great scenography effect. Inside the vault, on the planking level, musicians used to play for the king and his guests when the royal procession, going up the grand staircase, entered the royal apartments, creating astonishment among the guests who heard the music without understanding from where it was coming. Since the musicians were inside the vault, the long reverberation made the listeners perceive the vault to be enveloped by the music. To investigate this effect, the acoustic characteristics of the double vault were measured, putting the sound source on the planking level of the vault, while the microphones were put along the staircase and in the vestibule towards the royal apartments. Finally, the spatial distribution of several acoustic parameters is evaluated also using architectural acoustic simulations.

  18. The Sigiriya Royal Gardens. Analysis of the Landscape Architectonic Composition

    Jude Nilan Cooray


    Full Text Available Besides the efforts that are of descriptive and celebrative nature, studies related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage are largely to view material remains in historical, sociological, socio-historical and semiological perspectives. But there is hardly any serious attempt to view such material remains from a technical-analytical approach to understand the compositional aspects of their designs. The 5th century AC royal complex at Sigiriya is no exception in this regard.The enormous wealth of information and the unearthed material remains during more than hundred years of field-based research by several generations of archaeologists at Sigiriya provide ideal opportunity for such an analysis. The present study is, therefore, to fill the gap in research related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage in general and to Sigiriya in particular. Therefore the present research attempts to read Sigiriya as a landscape architectonic design to expose its architectonic composition and design instruments.The study which is approached from a technical-analytical point of view follows a methodological framework that is developed at the Landscape Design Department of the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology. The study reveals that the architectonic design of Sigiriya constitutes multiple design layers and multiple layers of significance with material-spatial-metaphorical-functional coherence, and that it has both general and unique landscape architectonic elements, aspects, characteristics and qualities.The richness of its composition also enables to identify the landscape architectural value of the Sigiriya, which will help re-shape the policies related to conservation and presentation of Sigiriya as a heritage site as well as the protection and management as a green monument. The positive results of the study also underline that the methodology adapted in this research has devised a framework for the study of other examples of

  19. Design of Conventional Submarines with Advanced Air Independent Propulsion Systems and Determination of Corresponding Theater-Level Impacts


    Response surface method SOA: Speeds of advance TNSW: Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH tsnorkeling: Time submarine spends snorkeling tquiet: Time submarine spends on...during snorkeling operations. The limiting factor for the power of the diesel engines is the maximum current limitation on charging the batteries...for the AIP endurance of some of the modern submarines are 12–14. Extended AIP endurance reduces the time that the submarine needs to spend snorkeling

  20. A Validation of the Proposed Royal Australian Navy Standard Work Week and Naval Management Diary Using a Simulated Crew of an Armidale Class Patrol Boat


    maintenance most often exceeded its allocated hours, leading to the recommendation that further research on a larger sample might address whether the...categories included watch, maintenance , training, meeting, sleep, messing, personal, and Sunday free time. Haynes found that many sailors reported ...were exempt from machine , engine, or ship maintenance and watch keeping in the simulation. Their allocation of maintenance relates only to the core

  1. 75 FR 1709 - Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector Seattle Captain of the Port Zone


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a moving security zone around any U.S. Navy submarine that is... to help ensure the security of the submarines, their Coast Guard security escorts, and the...

  2. 76 FR 56973 - Office of National Marine Sanctuaries Final Policy and Permit Guidance for Submarine Cable Projects


    ... Policy and Permit Guidance for Submarine Cable Projects AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries...) has developed final policy and permitting guidance for submarine cable projects proposed in national... install and maintain submarine cables in sanctuaries are reviewed consistently and in a manner...

  3. 75 FR 28202 - Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector Seattle Captain of the Port Zone


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector... establishing a moving security zone around any U.S. Navy submarine that is operating in the Sector Seattle... of the submarines, their Coast Guard security escorts, and the maritime public in general....

  4. 75 FR 33701 - Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a moving security zone around all U.S. Navy submarines that are... to help ensure the security of the submarines, their Coast Guard security escorts, and the...

  5. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974




    A cross-sectional survey of two fleet ballistic missile submarine crews revealed no remarkable oral health factors. A close relationship was found...effects of FBM submarine service on oral health could be demonstrated; however, in view of the isolated nature of the FBM patrols great stress needs to

  7. 33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.


    ... cables and pipelines on nautical charts. 209.310 Section 209.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy of the Corps of Engineers with respect to showing the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by...

  8. Exploring the Gas Chemistry of Old Submarine Technologies Using Plastic Bottles as Reaction Vessels and Models

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi


    We describe an activity that is suitable for high school students and makes use of plastic bottles. This activity allows students to familiarize themselves with gas chemistry by introducing technologies that were applied in old submarine systems. Plastic bottles, which are representative of submarines, are used as reaction vessels. Three simple…

  9. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  10. Submarine Propulsion Shaft Life: Probabilistic Prediction and Extension through Prevention of Water Ingress


    Inspection. Reliability Engineering and System Safety , 271-292. 47 Shi, P., & Mahadevan, S. (2001). Damage Tolerance Approach for Probabilistic ...Submarine Propulsion Shaft Life: Probabilistic Prediction and Extension through Prevention of Water Ingress By Douglas E. Jonart M.S. Systems...number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Submarine Propulsion Shaft Life: Probabilistic

  11. The method to control the submarine horseshoe vortex by breaking the vortex core

    LIU Zhi-hua; XIONG Ying; TU Cheng-xu


    The quality of the inflow across the propeller is closely related with the hydrodynamic performance and the noise characteristics of the propeller. For a submarine, with a horseshoe vortex generated at the junction of the main body and the appendages, the submarine wake is dominated by a kind of highly non-uniform flow field, which has an adverse effect on the performance of the submarine propeller. In order to control the horseshoe vortex and improve the quality of the submarine wake, the flow field around a submarine model is simulated by the detached eddies simulation (DES) method, and the vortex configuration is displayed using the second invariant of the velocity derivative tensor. The state and the transition process of the horseshoe vortex are analyzed, then a modified method to break the vortex core by a vortex baffle is proposed. The flow numerical simulation is carried out to study the effect of this method. Numerical simulations show that, with the breakdown of the vortex core, many unstable vortices are shed and the energy of the horseshoe vortex is dissipated quickly, and the uniformity of the submarine wake is improved. The submarine wake test in a wind tunnel has verified the effect of the method to control the horseshoe vortex. The vortex baffle can improve the wake uniformity in cases of high Reynolds numbers as well, and it does not have adverse effects on the maneuverability and the speed ability of the submarine.

  12. Dive! Dive! An Introduction to the History and Technology of Submarines.

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This resource guide for science and social studies classes explores the world of U.S. Navy submarines and other submersibles. The guide consists of background information on the history and development of submarines and a list of cross-curricular activities to challenge, educate, and entertain students. Students learn the inherent challenges that…

  13. The Relationship of Job Performance to Physical Fitness and Its Application to U. S. Navy Submariners


    hematologic data collected from 1,017 active duty submariners. The results revealed that percent body fat as determined by skinfold thickness ...and ultimately may lead to increased effectiveness and efficiency of the submarine crew. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS page 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1

  14. La Enseñanza Naval

    Nieto Manso, Emilio J.


    Full Text Available Not available

    La situación mundial en los albores del siglo XXI presenta un escenario de drásticos y rápidos cambios que, naturalmente, afectan también a los ámbitos de Seguridad y Defensa. La Armada, consciente de que su centro de gravedad reside en la calidad humana y competencia profesional de los hombres y mujeres que la componen, se enfrenta al futuro con el decidido propósito de potenciar su enseñanza y formación. El Director de Enseñanza Naval, tras una breve descripción de los diferentes niveles de enseñanza y centros docentes con que cuenta actualmente la Armada, centra su artículo en un acertado análisis de los factores determinantes que han conducido a un proceso de reestructuración para racionalizar los medios disponibles y mejorar la calidad de la enseñanza, finalizando su presentación con una síntesis sobre las principales líneas de actuación a corto y medio plazo, y la implantación progresiva de un ambicioso Plan de Innovación Tecnológica de la Enseñanza en la Armada.

  15. The depth and pitch control of submarines based on the pump-hydraulic servo

    XU Chao


    Full Text Available This study aims to research submarine motion control features in different conditions and com-plex environments in order to solve the problem of actual submarine control and apply it to building an actu-al hydraulic control platform. The paper focuses on the vertical motion of submarines, designs a fast termi-nal sliding mode control algorithm and analyzes the data using the combined simulation and experiment method to study the robustness and reliability of a submarine's vertical motion control system for hydraulic and control. At the same time, the simulation and experiment results analyze the hysteresis and oscillation of the hydraulic steering gear, and effectively reduce the chattering that may be caused by sliding mode variable structure control. This system can be used in simulations to solve the problems of new submarine control characteristics.

  16. The Study on Fatigue Experiment and Reliability Life of Submarine Pipeline Steel

    Yan Yifei


    Full Text Available The aim of the fatigue experiment study is to solve the fatigue fracture problem of X70 submarine tubing when it is under the scouring effect of offshore current. The multilevel fatigue experiments are carried out following the internation (GB4337-84 recommended method. The standard round bar fatigue specimen was made by the material of submarine pipeline steel. The fatigue life of submarine pipeline steel in different survival probability and P-S-N curve were achieved. According to reliability numerical analysis method, the reliability fatigue life of pipeline steel in different stress level is got. The results show that the fatigue life of X70 submarine pipeline steel obeys the normal distribution. The detection of submarine pipeline scouring condation should be enhanced and the pipeline zone which was scoured seriously should be repaired and controlled effectively in order to reduce the scouring effect of ocean current.

  17. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy


    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  18. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)


    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  19. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn


    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  20. Two Submarine Pipelines To Be Built in Bohai Sea


    @@ To ensure the second step forward of CNOOC on oil/gas output for the Ninth -Five-Year Plan period, a transcentury project embarked upon its implementation in an all-round way at the beginning of this year by Bohai Company, i.e. two submarine oil/gas pipelines are going to be built across the Bohai Seabed. The two pipelines are of remarkably strategic significance for delivering the abundant resources of oil and gas developed in the Bohai Sea waters to the coastal cities in support of local economic construction and, in a couple of years, they will become "energy corridors" with great economic expectation.

  1. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope

    Reuven, Einav; Katz, Oded; Aharonov, Einat


    Numerous shallow submarine slope failures (scars and deposits) are observed in recent high resolution bathymetric grids of the continental slope off the Israeli eastern Mediterranean coast. The nature of these slope failures is currently not comprehensively understood as well as the question of whether the eastern Mediterranean continental slope is continuously or episodically unstable. We report here first steps towards understanding the present state of this submarine landslide system, which include mapping and analyzing the geology of the landslides and the hosting slopes. The continental slope extends from water depths of about 150 to more than 1000 meters with a slope of less than 5 degrees in general. Bathymetric grids with pixel resolution of 15 m till water depth of 700 m and 50 m till water depth of 1700 m were used. Analyzing the bathymetry revealed three main submarine surface features: (a) numerous shallow landslides, within the upper sequence of the post-Messenian sediments. Landslide widths range between hundreds to thousand of meters at the scar, with scar heights up to hundred meters. The toes of the landslides are not always mapable and lay up to a few kilometers down slope from the scar. Slope angles within the scars are 5 to more than15 degrees. At least two types of landslides were detected: presumably young slides with sharp scars, and presumably old slides with secondary slides and secondary drainage systems developed within the scar area; (b) a few kilometers long, north striking step-like lineaments. Step heights are up to 100 meters and the slopes are up to 20 degrees. The offset between parallel steps is less than a kilometer to a few kilometers. The steps are interpreted as surface expressions of growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates up to 1.5 kilometers below surface; (c) a few north striking channels were also detected with steep walls of more than 15 degrees, up to two kilometers width and a few kilometers length. The nature

  2. Radioactive Substances Act 1993 - annex document. To accompany the explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to assist public consultation on the application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth



    This document constitutes Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited' s (DML) application to vary its authorisations to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard (DRD). The document describes the radioactive waste arisings from existing and future facilities at DRD and the way these wastes are handled and treated on site from generation to disposal. It also serves to present to a wider audience DML's activities and plans for radioactive waste management, and the 'benefits and detriments of the activities giving rise to radioactive wastes. DML's current Authorisations, granted in 1997, cover its refuelling, refitting and general maintenance activities on the so-called 'Hunter-killer' nuclear powered submarines. Following Ministerial approval, DRD is being modernised and enhanced. This will bring existing dock structures, refuelling facilities, and services in line with latest standards, and also provide new facilities to support the refit and refuel of the new Vanguard class ballistic missile carrying nuclear powered submarines. To cover these additional activities, revised authorisations - which in some cases include increased disposal limits - are being requested tinder the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. The current DML Authorisations were also due for review and so this Application covers both continuing and new operations and facilities. It is Government policy that the UK should maintain and operate a fleet of nuclear powered submarines. It is also Government policy to have a single dockyard for the refitting of nuclear powered submarines at DRD. DML owns the DRD site, and carries out work for the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and other customers. The radiation from the operation of a submarine's nuclear reactor causes some of the materials of the reactor core - and the Water used to cool it - to become radioactive. As a consequence of DML's work on these submarines, radioactive wastes are generated; these wastes

  3. Nephroprotective effect of bee honey and royal jelly against subchronic cisplatin toxicity in rats.

    Ibrahim, Abdelazim; Eldaim, Mabrouk A Abd; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M


    Cisplatin is one of the most potent and effective chemotherapeutic agents. However, its antineoplastic use is limited due to its cumulative nephrotoxic side effects. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the nephroprotective potential of dietary bee honey and royal jelly against subchronic cisplatin toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into controls, cisplatin-treated, bee honey-pretreated cisplatin-treated and royal jelly-pretreated cisplatin-treated groups. Bee honey and royal jelly were given orally at doses of 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Subchronic toxicity was induced by cisplatin (1 mg/kg bw, ip), twice weekly for 10 weeks. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum level of renal injury products (urea, creatinine and uric acid). Histopathologically, cisplatin produced pronounced tubulointerstitial injuries, upregulated the fibrogenic factors, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), and downregulated the cell proliferation marker, bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu). Dietary bee honey and royal jelly normalized the elevated serum renal injury product biomarkers, improved the histopathologic changes, reduced the expression of α-SMA and TGF-β1 and increased the expression of Brdu. Therefore, it could be concluded that bee honey, and royal jelly could be used as dietary preventive natural products against subchronic cisplatin-induced renal injury.

  4. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

    Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti


    Full Text Available Background. There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions. An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

  5. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits.

    Pasupuleti, Visweswara Rao; Sammugam, Lakhsmi; Ramesh, Nagesvari; Gan, Siew Hua


    There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

  6. 77 FR 13296 - Subcommittee Meeting of the Board of Advisors to the President, Naval Postgraduate School


    ... meeting will be held at the Naval Postgraduate School, Herrmann Hall, 1 University Circle, Didactic Room... meeting is to elicit the advice of the Board on the Naval Service's Postgraduate Education Program and...

  7. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington

    Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Frans, Lonna M.


    Information about groundwater-flow paths and locations where groundwater discharges at and near Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is necessary for understanding the potential migration of subsurface contaminants by groundwater at the shipyard. The design of some remediation alternatives would be aided by knowledge of whether groundwater flowing at specific locations beneath the shipyard will eventually discharge directly to Sinclair Inlet of Puget Sound, or if it will discharge to the drainage system of one of the six dry docks located in the shipyard. A 1997 numerical (finite difference) groundwater-flow model of the shipyard and surrounding area was constructed to help evaluate the potential for groundwater discharge to Puget Sound. That steady-state, multilayer numerical model with homogeneous hydraulic characteristics indicated that groundwater flowing beneath nearly all of the shipyard discharges to the dry-dock drainage systems, and only shallow groundwater flowing beneath the western end of the shipyard discharges directly to Sinclair Inlet.Updated information from a 2016 regional groundwater-flow model constructed for the greater Kitsap Peninsula was used to update the 1997 groundwater model of the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. That information included a new interpretation of the hydrogeologic units underlying the area, as well as improved recharge estimates. Other updates to the 1997 model included finer discretization of the finite-difference model grid into more layers, rows, and columns, all with reduced dimensions. This updated Puget Sound Naval Shipyard model was calibrated to 2001–2005 measured water levels, and hydraulic characteristics of the model layers representing different hydrogeologic units were estimated with the aid of state-of-the-art parameter optimization techniques.The flow directions and discharge locations predicted by this updated model generally match the 1997 model despite refinements and other changes. In the updated model, most

  8. Some giant submarine landslides do not produce large tsunamis

    Løvholt, Finn; Bondevik, Stein; Laberg, Jan Sverre; Kim, Jihwan; Boylan, Noel


    Landslides are the second most important cause of tsunamis after earthquakes, and their potential for generating large tsunamis depend on the slide process. Among the world's largest submarine landslides is the Storegga Slide that generated a large tsunami over an ocean-wide scale, while no traces of a tsunami generated from the similar and nearby Trænadjupet Slide have been found. Previous models for such landslide tsunamis have not been able to capture the complexity of the landslide processes and are at odds with geotechnical and geomorphological data that reveal retrogressive landslide development. The tsunami generation from these massive events are here modeled with new methods that incorporate complex retrogressive slide motion. We show that the tsunamigenic strength is closely related to the retrogressive development and explain, for the first time, why similar giant landslides can produce very different tsunamis, sometimes smaller than anticipated. Because these slide mechanisms are common for submarine landslides, modeling procedures for dealing with their associated tsunamis should be revised.

  9. Finite volume methods for submarine debris flows and generated waves

    Kim, Jihwan; Løvholt, Finn; Issler, Dieter


    Submarine landslides can impose great danger to the underwater structures and generate destructive tsunamis. Submarine debris flows often behave like visco-plastic materials, and the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is known to be appropriate for describing the motion. In this work, we develop numerical schemes for the visco-plastic debris flows using finite volume methods in Eulerian coordinates with two horizontal dimensions. We provide parameter sensitivity analysis and demonstrate how common ad-hoc assumptions such as including a minimum shear layer depth influence the modeling of the landslide dynamics. Hydrodynamic resistance forces, hydroplaning, and remolding are all crucial terms for underwater landslides, and are hence added into the numerical formulation. The landslide deformation is coupled to the water column and simulated in the Clawpack framework. For the propagation of the tsunamis, the shallow water equations and the Boussinesq-type equations are employed to observe how important the wave dispersion is. Finally, two cases in central Norway, i.e. the subaerial quick clay landslide at Byneset in 2012, and the submerged tsunamigenic Statland landslide in 2014, are both presented for validation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project TsunamiLand) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).

  10. Large-eddy simulations of a propelled submarine model

    Posa, Antonio; Balaras, Elias


    The influence of the propeller on the wake as well as the evolution of the turbulent boundary layers over an appended notional submarine geometry (DARPA SUBOFF) is reported. The present approach utilizes a wall-resolved LES, coupled with an immersed boundary formulation, to simulate the flow model scale Reynolds numbers (Re = 1 . 2 e + 06 , based on the free-stream velocity and the length of the body). Cylindrical coordinates are adopted, and the computational grid is composed of 3.5 billion nodes. Our approach has been validated on the appended submarine body in towed conditions (without propeller), by comparisons to wind tunnel experiments in the literature. The comparison with the towed configuration shows profound modifications in the boundary layer over the stern surface, due to flow acceleration, with higher values of turbulent kinetic energy in the inner layer and lower values in the outer layer. This behavior was found tied to a different topology of the coherent structures between propelled and towed cases. The wake is also highly affected, and the momentum deficit displays a non-monotonic evolution downstream. An axial peak of turbulent kinetic energy replaces the bimodal distribution of the stresses in the wake, observed in the towed configuration. Supported by ONR Grant N000141110455, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  11. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen......A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed...... and suspended load descriptions forming the basis for seabed morphology. The model was successfully validated against experimental measurements involving scour development and eventual equilibrium in pure-current flows over a range of Shields parameters characteristic of both clear-water and live-bed regimes....... This validation complements previously demonstrated accuracy for the same model in simulating pipeline scour processes in pure-wave environments. The model was subsequently utilized to simulate combined wave-plus-current scour over a wide range of combined Keulegan–Carpenter numbers and relative current strengths...

  12. Similarities in the chemistry of shallow submarine hydrothermal vents

    Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico). Instituto de Geofisica


    Shallow submarine hydrothermal activity has been observed in Western Mexico related to extensional tectonic faults. Hydrothermal vents occur at Punta Banda on the Pacific coast of Baja California, at Bahia Concepcion on the eastern coast of Baja California, and in Punta Mita on the Pacific coast of central Mexico. Submarine discharge of geothermal fluids is located at depths varying between 5 and 30 m. Water and gas discharge at temperatures between 40 and more than 100{sup o}C. The composition of the thermal end-member can be calculated for Mg=0 using the chemistry data of the water samples. A linear regression of the concentration values vs magnesium content is used to determine the concentration of the end-member thermal water. The chemical composition of the thermal end-member indicates that the water is more dilute than seawater and enriched in Ca, Mn, Ba, I, Cs, B, Li, Rb, Sr and Si. The results show that the water chemistry is similar in these coastal hydrothermal systems. The thermal water is probably of meteoric origin, penetrating through the extensional faults, and heated by the high geothermal gradient. The components in the thermal water are contributed by the deep strata. (author)

  13. ATTICA family of thermal cameras in submarine applications

    Kuerbitz, Gunther; Fritze, Joerg; Hoefft, Jens-Rainer; Ruf, Berthold


    Optronics Mast Systems (US: Photonics Mast Systems) are electro-optical devices which enable a submarine crew to observe the scenery above water during dive. Unlike classical submarine periscopes they are non-hull-penetrating and therefore have no direct viewing capability. Typically they have electro-optical cameras both for the visual and for an IR spectral band with panoramic view and a stabilized line of sight. They can optionally be equipped with laser range- finders, antennas, etc. The brand name ATTICA (Advanced Two- dimensional Thermal Imager with CMOS-Array) characterizes a family of thermal cameras using focal-plane-array (FPA) detectors which can be tailored to a variety of requirements. The modular design of the ATTICA components allows the use of various detectors (InSb, CMT 3...5 μm , CMT 7...11 μm ) for specific applications. By means of a microscanner ATTICA cameras achieve full standard TV resolution using detectors with only 288 X 384 (US:240 X 320) detector elements. A typical requirement for Optronics-Mast Systems is a Quick- Look-Around capability. For FPA cameras this implies the need for a 'descan' module which can be incorporated in the ATTICA cameras without complications.

  14. Lessons from history: morbidity of cold injury in the Royal Marines during the Falklands Conflict of 1982.

    Golden, Francis St Clair; Francis, Thomas James Roose; Gallimore, Deborah; Pethybridge, Roger


    Environmental conditions in the Falklands Conflict of 1982 favoured the genesis of cold injuries. Immediately, post-war, cold injury morbidity and its contributory factors were assessed, in the personnel of UK 3 Commando Brigade (3 Cdo Bde). A questionnaire survey of the 3,006 members of 3 Cdo Bde who landed on the islands was conducted within 6-10 weeks of the end of hostilities. Questions included those relating to features of cold injury, body morphology, age, symptoms experienced, past medical history and other possible contributory causes. Additionally, the unit medical team conducted a cursory examination. Data were sent to the Royal Navy Institute of Naval Medicine (INM), where the degree of likely cold injury was broadly classified ('asymptomatic' 'mild', 'moderate' or 'severe'). A sample (total 109) was then selected at random from each category and subsequently examined and tested at the INM (nerve conduction, photoplethysmography and thermography testing). Forty-seven non-cold exposed sailors acted as a control group. These contemporaneous records have now been identified and interrogated. Some 2,354 (78%) completed questionnaires were returned, revealing that 1,505 (64%) had experienced symptoms of non-freezing cold injury. The morbidity in the infantry units was significantly greater than that in the support troops (1,051 (76%) vs 454 (46%), p cold injury. Whilst there was no significant relationship between past history and cold injury morbidity in the brigade as a whole, or within the infantry units alone, an association was identified in the collective infantry units (73%) and the support/headquarter units (59%) (p cold sensitivity test showed that most (including those classed by questionnaire as asymptomatic) had residual 'cold sensitivity'. Although the passage of time has made retrospective interrogation of historical documents hard, the available data do appear to offer valuable historical and clinical insights. Cold injury affected the

  15. Identifications of ancient Egyptian royal mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered.

    Habicht, M E; Bouwman, A S; Rühli, F J


    For centuries, ancient Egyptian Royal mummies have drawn the attention both of the general public and scientists. Many royal mummies from the New Kingdom have survived. The discoveries of the bodies of these ancient rulers have always sparked much attention, yet not all identifications are clear even nowadays. This study presents a meta-analysis to demonstrate the difficulties in identifying ancient Egyptian royal mummies. Various methods and pitfalls in the identification of the Pharaohs are reassessed since new scientific methods can be used, such as ancient DNA-profiling and CT-scanning. While the ancestors of Tutankhamun have been identified, some identities are still highly controversial (e.g., the mystery of the KV-55 skeleton, recently most likely identified as the genetic father of Tutankhamun). The meta-analysis confirms the suggested identity of some mummies (e.g., Amenhotep III, Thutmosis IV, and Queen Tjye).

  16. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

    Pedro da Rosa Santos


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  17. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov


    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  18. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Submarine Flow to Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Halley, R. B.; Reich, C. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Langevin, C. D.


    Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park (BNP) are located next to the Miami-Dade urban complex and are adjacent to the Dade County South Dade Landfill Facility and the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer South District Plant. The base of the landfill is lined to separate it from the underlying Miami Limestone, the host rock for the surficial Biscayne Aquifer. The sewage-treatment facility injects treated sewage into the lower Florida Aquifer (750 m) that is overlain by an aquitard termed the Middle Confining Unit (450 m). The Biscayne Aquifer (up to 50 m thick) borders the western margin of BNP, and the Floridan Aquifer underlies the entire park. There is concern about leakage of contaminated aquifer water into BNP and its potential effects on water quality. Groundwater flux to Biscayne Bay is being studied using pressure measurements and geochemical analyses from submarine wells, electromagnetic seepage meters, streaming resistivity profiling, and local and regional model simulations. Both seepage meters and water analyses provide point information that can be placed into the regional context provided by flow models and geochemical and geophysical profiling, which, in turn, constrain the groundwater contribution. Water samples were collected approximately quarterly from August 2002 until March 2004 from submarine wells along a transect through Biscayne Bay and across the reef to the shelf edge. Samples were analyzed for conductivity (salinity), dissolved oxygen, temperature, redox potential, nutrients, metals, strontium isotopes, radon, sulfate, and wastewater compounds. Low-salinity water was identified from nearshore wells and indicates seepage from the Biscayne Aquifer and/or surface-water intrusion into the rocks along western Biscayne Bay. Analyses of water samples (n = 109) collected from wells across the Florida shelf show no consistent evidence of wastewater contaminants occurring in groundwater beneath BNP. No significant leakage from the Floridan Aquifer

  19. The Royal Treasury of the Kingdom of Majorca during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1715



    Full Text Available The royal treasury of the kingdom of Majorca during the War of the Spanish Succession suffered an economic downturn caused mainly by its logistical contribution to the war. This article shows the evolution of the taxation carried out by the Royal Treasury of Majorca during the war, and is divided into three parts. The first one is a description of the Royal Treasury as an institution. The second one analyses revenues and expenses and shows the evolution of the institution’s finances during the conflict. The third part is a general inventory of the royal accounts during the war.

  20. ‘All Touched my Hand’: Queenly Sentiment and Royal Prerogative

    Rachel Bates


    Full Text Available The Crimean War occurred during a formative period of ‘civic publicness’, a term used by John Plunkett to describe the press-mediated public duties undertaken by Victoria and Albert to affirm the monarchy’s popular constitution. The war triggered significant royal intervention into the condition of the army, one of the few sites of royal prerogative. At a time when aristocratic governance was being attacked and the privations of soldiers exposed to an unprecedented extent, the monarchy was keen both to legitimize its role as head of the army and to demonstrate its sensitivity to popular concern for the suffering of ordinary soldiers. This manifested in a highly publicized leaked letter from the Queen expressing her regard for ‘her troops’, the royal family’s visits to wounded soldiers, and the distribution of the Crimean Medal at a special ceremony, which portrayed the accessibility of the Queen through the use of touch. This article explores the symbolism and impetus of these occurrences and assesses the reception of royal intervention in the press. The few assessments of royal influence during the Crimean War have focused largely on Victoria’s personal fascination with the progress of the war and her soldiers. This article explores instead the wider, political significance of the army as extension of the royal family. The Liberal press and artists responded favourably to demonstrations of the Queen’s maternal sympathy for the troops, but my article will point to a hidden struggle to assert the Crown’s authority. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    Xu, J. P.


    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  2. The Participation of Ukrainian Companies in Building the Mechanisms for Naval Aviation

    Andrey I. Kharuk


    Full Text Available The main program for the development and production of equipment for naval aviation, carried out in Ukraine in 1910 - 1980. The author comes to the conclusion that naval aviation has never been a priority area for the Ukrainian aviation industry. However, throughout its history, the aircrafts intended for naval aviation, developed and in some cases introduced into serial production.

  3. 76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San... in support of the Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... Purpose On February 12, 2010, the Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff will take place in San Diego Bay...

  4. 30 CFR 218.101 - Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum reserves).


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum... INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 218.101 Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum reserves). Remittance covering payments of royalty or rental on naval petroleum reserves must be accomplished by...

  5. 78 FR 29124 - Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors


    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of partially closed meeting. SUMMARY: The United States Naval Academy Board of... Naval Academy. The executive session of this meeting from 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. on June 3, 2013,...

  6. 77 FR 65870 - Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors


    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of partially closed meeting. SUMMARY: The U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors... Naval Academy. The executive session of this meeting from 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. on December 3,...

  7. 75 FR 18167 - Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors


    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of partially closed meeting. SUMMARY: The U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors... Naval Academy. The executive session of this meeting from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. on June 28, 2010,...

  8. 78 FR 53430 - Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors


    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of partially closed meeting. SUMMARY: The U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors... Naval Academy. The executive session of this meeting from 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. on September 30,...

  9. Naval Aviation Attrition 1950-1976: Implications for the Development of Future Research and Evaluation.


    threat. NAMI-1077, Naval Aerospace Medical Institute, Pensacola, Fla.: 1969. 67. Creelman , J. A., An analysis of the physical fitness index in training criteria in naval air trining. NSAM-180, Naval School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Fla.: 1954. 68. Creelman , J. A., Evaluation of

  10. The Case of the Royal School of Library and Information Science

    Borlund, Pia


    The present paper forms the basis of the invited talk to be given by the author at the International Symposium on the Transformation and Innovation of Library and Information Science, November 16-17, 2010, Taipei, Taiwan. The paper introduces the Royal School of Library and Information Science......, Denmark, as a European School of Library and Information Science and a member of iSchool Caucus. The paper outlines some of the current challenges of the Royal School of Library and Information Science and how these challenges are met, including how the membership of the iSchool movement is considered...

  11. Presidential addresses of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: 1907–2013

    Hay, Simon I.; McHugh, Gerri M.


    Presidents have been required to give an inaugural address on commencing office at the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) since its foundation in 1907. All presidential addresses were identified, sourced and assembled into an annotated bibliography. The majority of presidential addresses have been published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Unpublished and in some cases ‘lost’ contributions have now been sourced where possible and archived at the RSTMH. This unique, rich and rewarding archive provides a vista into the development of the RSTMH and the discipline of tropical medicine. The archive is freely available to all. PMID:24026462

  12. The Role of the Royal Navy in Counter-Insurgency Campaigns since 1945

    Guoth, Maroš


    The aim of this work is to prove that a navy can play an important role during a counter-insurgency campaign and be involved in many different tasks both at sea and from sea, particularly due to its flexibility, mobility and versatility. The main research question of the thesis is: what role can a navy play in a counter-insurgency campaign? The decision to focus on the role of the Royal Navy is based on the fact, that the Royal Navy is probably the most experienced navy in the world in the fi...

  13. Alternative sources of supplements for Africanized honeybees submitted to royal jelly production

    Sereia, Maria Josiane; Toledo,Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; Furlan,Antonio Claudio; Faquinello,Patrícia; Maia,Fabiana Martins Costa; Wielewski,Priscila


    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplements with isolated soy protein, brewer's yeast, a mixture of isolated soy protein with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil and mixture of linseed oil with palm oil in the production of royal jelly by Africanized honeybee colonies. Total royal jelly production was higher (p < 0.05) in colonies fed with isolated soy protein and brewer's yeast (11.68 g colony-1), followed by linseed oil and palm oil (11.30 g colony-1) and palm oil (9....

  14. Cienfuegos’ Linguistic Anxieties. Notes on the Author’s Papers Held at the Spanish Royal Academy



    Full Text Available This article looks at the relationship between Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos and the Spanish Royal Academy. Cienfuegos was inducted in 1799 and remained more or less active until 1805. He had an abiding interest in linguistic questions, and his membership in the Academy give him a chance to work on both grammatical and lexicographic issues. Few of the studies ever reached the light of day, however. Here, both the published works and the unpublished manuscripts that are held in the Library and the Archive of the Spanish Royal Academy are described in detail.

  15. Benchmarking Naval Shipbuilding with 3D Laser Scanning, Additive Manufacturing, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management


    ballistic missile submarines; • 11 nuclear-powered aircraft carriers; • 48 nuclear-powered attack submarines; • 0–4 nuclear-powered cruise missile...Department of the Navy. Notes: The colored parts of the chart reflect the Navy’s old counting rules. SSBNs = ballistic missile submarines; SSGNs...crime scene documentation, forensics , and accident reconstruction. • Architectural and Civil Engineering. Used to capture as-built documentation of

  16. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    P. Delmolino


    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  17. The rise of naval powes in Asia and Europe's decline

    Terjesen, Bjørn; Tunsjø, Øystein (eds.)


    For the first time in modern history Asian states are spending more on defence than their European counterparts. The sea power ambitions of leading land powers such as China, Russia and India stand as a challenge to US naval supremacy in the region. The old European great powers are becoming marginalised in an increasingly Asia-centred world. The edited volume The Rise of Naval Powers in Asia and Europe’s Decline examines this new geopolitical landscape of the 21st century, emphasising ...

  18. Ion sequestration particles for naval anticorrosion coatings

    Zguris, Zachary Z.

    Corrosion is the electrochemical process of a metal returning to its lower energy state, the metal oxide. The cost of corrosion is difficult to estimate. One area particularly susceptible to corrosion problems with high maintenance costs is that of the 20,000 tanks existent in the US Naval Fleet. The Navy is sponsoring the development of novel coatings and additives that can be used to decrease the rising corrosion related costs. This dissertation describes in detail the synthesis of Ion Sequestration Particles (ISP) that when added to the standard MIL-DTL-24441 or potentially another coating system act to enhance the anticorrosion properties of the coating. A solid ion sequestration core material (SISCM) is first produced. The core is then encapsulated in a second stage forming a shell that protects the SISCM sufficiently from the harmful interactions with uncured epoxy based coatings. ISPs were designed to sequester harmful ions while releasing passivating ions in their place. The passivating ions then migrate to defect sites at the coating interface where they act to inhibit corrosion. The anticorrosion performance of ISPs in epoxy coatings has been demonstrated by both 500 hrs of hot deionized water immersion and 1000 hrs of salt spray exposure (ASTM B117). The best improvements in coating performance are attained with ISP content ranging from 5-10 wt % loading in a coating. ISPs were designed to limit the transport of harmful ions through the coating. However this work has determined high diffusion coefficients for ions (CI- and PO42-) through the epoxy matrix. Without ISPs, the diffusion coefficient through the MIL-DTL-24441 coating was determined for phosphate to be 1.16x10-7 cm2/s and for chloride to be in the range of 2.7x10-9 to 5.6x10-10 cm2/s. The addition of 5 wt % ISPs to the coating had the effect of decreasing the diffusion coefficient by an average of 25.5%. These results yield the conclusion that the enhanced anticorrosion properties of coatings

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nuclear weapons effects on submarine cable systems. Volume 1. Experiments and analysis. Final report


    This report presents a study of the nuclear weapons magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on submarine communications cables. The study consisted of the analysis and interpretation of currently available data on submarine cable systems TAT-4, TAT-6, and TAT-7. The primary result of the study is that decrease of the effective resistivity with frequency over the available experimental range, coupled with the model results, leads to quite small effective resistivities at the MHD characteristic frequencies, and hence small earth potential differences. Thus, it appears that submarine cable systems are less susceptible to an MHD threat than their land-based counter-parts.

  20. The Needed Minimum Submergence Depth When a Submarine Runs into Typhoon

    Zhang Deyu


    In this paper,the influence depths of all levels of wind power produced waves are reckoned according to the measured swaying degree when a submarine meets with a force 11 strong tropical storm and has to submerge;Then the minimum submergence depth is given when a submarine is faced with weather systems with force ≥6 wind and the swaying degree of less than 12 degree is assured as reference for a submarine working and sailing in big strong winds and waves.

  1. Design specifications of the Human Robotic interface for the biomimetic underwater robot "yellow submarine project"

    Bheemaiah, Anil


    This paper describes the design of a web based multi agent design for a collision avoidance auto navigation biomimetic submarine for submarine hydroelectricity. The paper describes the nature of the map - topology interface for river bodies and the design of interactive agents for the control of the robotic submarine. The agents are migratory on the web and are designed in XML/html interface with both interactive capabilities and visibility on a map. The paper describes mathematically the user interface and the map definition languages used for the multi agent description

  2. Prediction of nuclear submariner adaptability from autonomic indices and Rorschach Inkblot responses. Interim report

    Weybrew, B.B.; Molish, H.B.


    To identify the most valid predictors of submariner adaptability, the authors derived 23 indices from the responses of 170 nuclear submariners to the Rorschach Inkblot Test, 11 measures of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity to contrived stress, and five adjustment criteria. Factor analysis of this 39x39 correlation matrix yielded two Rorschach Factors, one of which correlated with three criterion dimensions. Two unique factors were also discovered, one, a structured ANS factor, and the other, a complex criterion scale. Selected Rorschach scores and, to a lesser extent, certain ANS indices emanating from this study, may be usefully-valid predictors of the adaptability of nuclear submariners during long patrols.

  3. The thermal regime around buried submarine high-voltage cables

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.


    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine high-voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70 °C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near-surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2-D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments—coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m2) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples to measure the time-dependent 2-D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes and normalized radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10 °C up to 40 cm from the source of 60 °C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between cf. 20 and 36 °C above ambient, with >10 °C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55 °C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (cf. 7 °C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18 °C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18 °C. These findings are important for the surrounding near

  4. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.


    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999).In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns.As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of collecting

  5. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool?

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.


    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  6. Royal Ahold : A Failure of Corporate Governance and an Accounting Scandal

    de Jong, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Mertens, G.M.H.; Roosenboom, P.G.J.


    Royal Ahold (Koninklijke Ahold NV) was one of the major success stories in the 1990s and is one of the major failures, suffering a complete meltdown, in 2003.We investigate the strategy, accounting transparency and corporate governance of Ahold; elements which jointly drive the firm s performance

  7. MANAGEMENT ART - The Royal Danish Opera's Artistic Director Kasper Bech Holten as case

    Nørreklit, Hanne

    successful Artistic Director of the Royal Danish Opera, Kasper Bech Holten. The analysis shows that conventional management models primarily use the symbolic forms of science and myth, while Kasper integrates the symbolic forms of art and science. In what Kasper has to say on management, features...

  8. Dr. Steve Thompson, Chief Executive, The Royal Society of New Zealand

    Maximilien Brice


    L. to r.: Dr Austin Ball, Deputy Technical Coordinator, CMS experiment; Dr Roland Horisberger, Paul Scherrer Institute and CERN, CMS experiment; Dr Steve Thompson, Chief Executive, The Royal Society of New Zealand; Dr Michel Della Negra, Spokesman, CMS experiment and Dr Alick Macpherson, Paul Scherrer Institute and CERN, CMS experiment, in the CMS Silicon Tracker assembly hall.

  9. Berta and Adelaide: the policy of consolidation of the royal power of Hugh of Arles

    Giacomo Vignodelli


    Full Text Available Both twins dowers made up by Hugh of Provence, king of Italic Kingdom, for his betrothal with Berta and that of his son Lothair with Adelaide, have to be understood within the policy of strengthening the royal power led by the king in the Thirties of the Tenth century: the dowers are in fact the crown of that policy. The double dower constitution supplies the king of Italy the opportunity to reserve for himself (and for the new formed young royal couple a strong control of the center of the Po valley around Pavia and dismantles (for the benefit of the royal domain ducal bases of power in Tuscia. The analysis of the work of Hugh allows us to understand its policy towards the aristocracy and the mechanisms for the promotion of new families (Aleramici, Obertenghi, Canossa. The original documents of dower were kept in the monastery of St. Salvatore of Pavia, founded by Adelaide; this locations isn’t due to the goods endowment of the monastery but to their importance as instrument of political legitimacy of the new Ottonian royal family.

  10. Reflections on a Degree Initiative: The UK's Birmingham Royal Ballet Dancers Enter the University of Birmingham

    Benn, Tansin


    This paper provides an opportunity to share experiences and perceptions of the first 5 years of a degree programme for professional dancers. A partnership developed in the mid-1990s between the UK's Birmingham Royal Ballet and the University of Birmingham, Westhill (now School of Education), to provide a part-time, post-experience, flexible study…

  11. Ruptured-yolk peritonitis and organochlorine residues in a royal tern

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Stafford, C.J.


    Ruptured-yolk peritonitis was responsible for the death of a royal tern. Lodgment of eggs in the oviduct was probably due to reverse peristalsis brought about by breakage of the thin-shelled eggs and secondary bacterial infection. The thin shells were apparently not related to the low levels of DDE and other organochlorine pollutants found in tissues and egg contents.

  12. Royal Service tegutseb üheksas riigis / Paavo Pilv ; interv. Eda-Liis Kann

    Pilv, Paavo


    Äripäeva üritusturundusfirmade TOP-is I koha saavutanud Royal Service-i juht ettevõtte edukuse põhjustest, olulisematest töödest 2003. aastal, üritusturunduse tulevikutrendidest ja EL-iga liitumise mõjust valdkonna arengule

  13. Integrating Social Sustainability in Engineering Education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson; Skogh, Inga-Britt; Strömberg, Emma


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate what are perceived to be the main challenges associated with the integration of social sustainability into engineering education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with programme leaders and teachers from…

  14. Royal Ahold : A Failure of Corporate Governance and an Accounting Scandal

    de Jong, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Mertens, G.M.H.; Roosenboom, P.G.J.


    Royal Ahold (Koninklijke Ahold NV) was one of the major success stories in the 1990s and is one of the major failures, suffering a complete meltdown, in 2003.We investigate the strategy, accounting transparency and corporate governance of Ahold; elements which jointly drive the firm s performance ov

  15. Integrating Social Sustainability in Engineering Education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson; Skogh, Inga-Britt; Strömberg, Emma


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate what are perceived to be the main challenges associated with the integration of social sustainability into engineering education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with programme leaders and teachers from…

  16. Royal Ahold : A Failure of Corporate Governance and an Accounting Scandal

    de Jong, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Mertens, G.M.H.; Roosenboom, P.G.J.


    Royal Ahold (Koninklijke Ahold NV) was one of the major success stories in the 1990s and is one of the major failures, suffering a complete meltdown, in 2003.We investigate the strategy, accounting transparency and corporate governance of Ahold; elements which jointly drive the firm s performance ov

  17. Royal Patronage and Religious Tolerance : The Formative Period of Gupta-Vakataka Culture

    Bakker, H.T.


    Patronage by the royal court of religious institutions and foundations is one of the hallmarks of the development of India under the rule of the Gupta and Vakataka kings (4th-5th centuries). This patronage was extended also to religious movements other than the king's own persuasion. The evolving cu

  18. 78 FR 42512 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada


    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  19. Linguistica Neerlandica: a Dutch translation of the Port-Royal Grammar

    Noordegraaf, J.


    In this note it is pointed out that the first translation of the so-called Port-Royal Grammar, the Grammaire générale et raisonnée (1660), was a Dutch one. The translator was the Amsterdam Johanna Corleva (1698-1752); the translation appeared in Amsterdam in 1740.

  20. Verification of the Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model During Fire

    Davidson, K.L.; Leeuw, G. de; Gathman, S.G.; Jensen, D.R.


    The Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) has been formulated to estimate the vertical structure of the optical and infrared extinction coefficients in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), for waverengths between 0,2 and 40 um. NOVAM was designed to predict, utilizing a set of routin

  1. The Naval Ocean Vertical Aerosol Model : Progress Report

    Leeuw, G. de; Gathman, S.G.; Davidson, K.L.; Jensen, D.R.


    The Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) has been formulated to estimate the vertical structure of the optical and infrared extinction coefficients in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). NOVAM was designed to predict the non-uniform and non-logarithmic extinction profiles which are

  2. Security Guard Services Contract at Naval Weapons Station Earle


    Naval Operations Instruction QA Quality Assurance QAE Quality Assurance Evaluator QAP Quality Assurance Plan INSPECTOR GENERAL... QAP ) that specifies all contract work requiring surveillance and the surveillance method. Maintenance and Operation Manual (MO)-327 provides...guidance for creating and administering the plan. MO-327 states that QAPs : (a) Provide quality assurance evaluators (QAEs) with a systematic plan

  3. Acoustic Signature Monitoring and Management of Naval Platforms

    Basten, T.G.H.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Graafland, F.; Hof, J. van 't


    Acoustic signatures make naval platforms susceptible to detection by threat sensors. The variable operational conditions and lifespan of a platform cause variations in the acoustic signature. To deal with these variations, a real time signature monitoring capability is being developed, with advisory

  4. Office of Naval Research: Solid and Structural Mechanics

    Belytschenko, T.; Murphy, W.P.; Bernitsas, M.M.;


    The goal of this report is to pursue a new paradigm for basic research in Solid and Structural Mechanics in order to serve the needs of the Navy of the 21st century. The framework for the report was established through meetings of the committee with Navy engineers and Office of Naval Research...

  5. Naval Ships Acquisition Strategy for the Venezuelan Navy.


    General de la Marina,’ Acta No ACT-DM-CGM-0001 Definicion del Modelo Teorico Para Systemas Mayores de Defensa Naval, Comando General de la MarFina...Manual de Normas y Procedimientos Adiuinistrativos de ia Mision Venezolana en Italia, Programa.d Adquisicion para las Fragatas Clase "Mariscal Sucre

  6. TACOP : A cognitive agent for a naval training simulation environment

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Heuvelink, A.; Broek, E.L. van den


    This paper describes how cognitive modeling can be exploited in the design of software agents that support naval training sessions. The architecture, specifications, and embedding of the cognitive agent in a simulation environment are described. Subsequently, the agent's functioning was evaluated in

  7. Pommihirm Pae tänaval kestab / Allar Viivik

    Viivik, Allar


    Lasnamäe elanikud ei ole kindlad, kas Pae tänava pommiplahvatustega seoses vahistati õige inimene. Kaitsepolitseiameti komissari Henno Kuurmanni sõnul annavad kogutud tõendid piisava aluse kahtlustada vahistatud meest seotuses mitme Pae tänaval toimunud plahvatusega

  8. Naval War College. Volume 60, Number 2, Spring 2007


    line between the belligerents, a liaison office in Tindouf ( Algeria ), a staging area in Dakhla, and the UN headquarters in Laayoune. The team sites...and CATCHPOLE) and the Marianas ( FORAGER ) are examples. A preliminary major naval operation is usually planned to isolate a maritime area of operations

  9. An Autonomous Distributed Control System for Naval Platforms

    Janssen, J.A.A.J.; Logtmeijer, R.A.; Bodegraven, K.S. van


    The success of the missions of naval ships depends highly on the availability of sensor, weapon, and command systems. These systems depend on support systems such as chilled water systems and electrical power systems. Disturbances caused by technical problems or battle damage may result in

  10. An Autonomous Distributed Control System for Naval Platforms

    Janssen, J.A.A.J.; Logtmeijer, R.A.; Bodegraven, K.S. van


    The success of the missions of naval ships depends highly on the availability of sensor, weapon, and command systems. These systems depend on support systems such as chilled water systems and electrical power systems. Disturbances caused by technical problems or battle damage may result in deteriora

  11. High-Speed, Small Naval Vessel Technology Development Plan


    the 134 m long, Corsaire 13000 class ferry built in 2000 by Alstom Leroux Naval in France. This steel- hulled ship displaces about 3,400 mt and has a...turbine, putting them in the 26 MW power range. Two steerable units of this size are in service on a Corsaire 14000 monohull ferry built by Alstom

  12. Naval Postgraduate School Research. Volume 9, Number 3, October 1999


    Electronic Warfare Conference Naval Air Warfare Center (SECRET) 23-24 Jun 00 Thirty-Fifth Annual Colonel Allyn D. Burke Memorial U.S. Army Dental Symposium...Programs Judy Joyce Code: 91JJ Phone: 831-656-5041 Mail: Administrative Support Assistant Dolores Jackson Code: 91DJ Phone

  13. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States


    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership... platform for future relationship between Vietnam and the United States. Finally, this research suggests a framework for naval cooperation between Vietnam...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed

  14. Oravate erahuvid Harju tänaval / Jaanus Kõrv

    Kõrv, Jaanus


    Kuigi tallinlased hääletasid Harju tänavale pargi ja memoriaali rajamise poolt, pole otsus ellu viidud, kuna planeeringud olid eelmises koalitsioonis ja on ka praegu Reformierakonna haldusalas, ütleb autor. Harju tänavaga piirnevate kruntide omanikest

  15. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly. Volume 29, Number 1.


    University of North Carolina Paul R. Kleindorfer, University of Pennsylvania John W. Wingate, Naval Surface Weapons Center, White Oak Darwin Klingman...Mathematical Methods of Risk Theory (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1970). [31 De Finetti, B., "Su una Impostazione Alternativa della Teoria Collettiva del Rischio

  16. Evaluating Point-of-Sale Alternatives within Naval Aviation


    efficient (doing it economically )? Tertiary Questions. What are the metrics that drive CWR within Naval Aviation? How does NAE measure these metrics...repairs. If the NADEP cannot repair the item at a reasonable cost, it declares the component Beyond Economic Repair (BER). The NADEP FISC Annex will...Demand Management Order Fulfillment Manufacturing Flow Management Supplier Relationship Management Product Development and Commercialization Returns

  17. Women at the Naval Academy: The First Year of Integration.

    Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego, CA.

    The 81 women who entered the U.S. Naval Academy in the summer of 1976 were breaking precedent and attempting to function in a male ethos with virtually no female role models. A central purpose of this study was to determine how various degrees of contact between male and female midshipmen would affect male attitudes. Plebes were administered two…

  18. Naval War College Review. Volume 61, Number 4, Autumn 2008


    detailed assessment of Axis intentions and capabilities in the Mediter - ranean theater. This assessment was largely a British one, as American 7 8 N A V...chief, Genda, put the naval pilots through classroom briefings and training in flight formations and tactics to be used in the attack. The necessity for

  19. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 9


    and women of Navy Medicine West are excited to align themselves with NMRC to help burnish its outstanding legacy of operational and clinical...results in four minutes and negative results in 30 minutes. This point- of-care diagnostic test is like a pregnancy test, in that it can be used in...Officer, Capt. Fred Yeo. Highlights included NSMRL’s research that directly led to the ban on smoking aboard U.S. Navy submarines and the recent

  20. 32 CFR 770.31 - List of major naval installations in the State of Hawaii and cognizant commanders authorized to...


    ..., Pearl Harbor complex, and the waters of Pearl Harbor). Contact: Commander, Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860. (2) Naval Western Oceanography Center, Pearl Harbor. Contact: Commanding Officer, Naval Western Oceanography Center, Box 113, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860. (3) Naval Air Station, Barbers Point. Contact:...

  1. Continental patterns of submarine groundwater discharge reveal coastal vulnerabilities

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; David, Cédric H.; Famiglietti, James S.


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) delivers water and dissolved chemicals from continents to oceans, and its spatial distribution affects coastal water quality. Unlike rivers, SGD is broadly distributed and relatively difficult to measure, especially at continental scales. We present spatially resolved estimates of fresh (land-derived) SGD for the contiguous United States based on historical climate records and high-resolution hydrographic data. Climate controls regional patterns in fresh SGD, while coastal drainage geometry imparts strong local variability. Because the recharge zones that contribute fresh SGD are densely populated, the quality and quantity of fresh SGD are both vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Our analysis unveils hot spots for contaminant discharge to marine waters and saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers.

  2. Submarine hydrothermal metamorphism of the Del Puerto ophiolite, California.

    Evarts, R.C.; Schiffman, P.


    Metamorphic zonation overprinted on the volcanic member and overlying volcanogenic sediments of the ophiolite complex increases downward in grade and is characterized by the sequential appearance with depth of zeolites, ferric pumpellyite and pistacitic epidote. Metamorphic assemblages of the plutonic member of the complex are characterized by the presence of calcic amphibole. The overprinting represents the effects of hydrothermal metamorphism resulting from the massive interaction between hot igneous rocks and convecting sea-water in a submarine environment. A thermal gradient of 100oC/km is postulated to account for the zonal recrystallization effects in the volcanic member. The diversity and sporadic distribution of mineral assemblages in the amphibole zone are considered due to the limited availability of H2O in the deeper part of the complex. Details of the zonation and representative microprobe analyses are tabulated.-M.S.

  3. Probabilistic ultimate strength analysis of submarine pressure hulls

    Cerik, Burak Can; Shin, Hyun-Kyoung; Cho, Sang-Rai


    This paper examines the application of structural reliability analysis to submarine pressure hulls to clarify the merits of probabilistic approach in respect thereof. Ultimate strength prediction methods which take the inelastic behavior of ring-stiffened cylindrical shells and hemi-spherical shells into account are reviewed. The modeling uncertainties in terms of bias and coefficient of variation for failure prediction methods in current design guidelines are defined by evaluating the compiled experimental data. A simple ultimate strength formulation for ring-stiffened cylinders taking into account the interaction between local and global failure modes and an ultimate strength formula for hemispherical shells which have better accuracy and reliability than current design codes are taken as basis for reliability analysis. The effects of randomness of geometrical and material properties on failure are assessed by a prelimnary study on reference models. By evaluation of sensitivity factors important variables are determined and comparesons are made with conclusions of previous reliability studies.

  4. [A tale of 2 cities. The dispute over the true origins of the Royal Society].

    Beeley, Philip


    When the Royal Society was founded in November 1660 it took scientific societies already existing in other European countries as its model. However, at a time when the new mathematical and experimental sciences were still generally without a secure institutional foundation there was also great interest in the new society on the part of scientists and scholars abroad. Soon visitors such as Christiaan Huygens and Balthazar de Monconys were able to report positively on its practical orientation, while among others Johannes Hevelius and Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb in letters to the founder member John Wallis and to the secretary Henry Oldenburg requested more information on its origins and statutes. Meanwhile, in England the Royal Society found itself the object of vociferous criticism, especially from the universities, which saw their own role as centres of learning increasingly compromised by the existence of an institution dedicated to the promotion of modern science. The Royal Society responded to this interest from abroad and criticism at home by commissioning an official history written by Thomas Sprat, a man with a university as well as a literary background. However, despite the author's good credentials, the History of the Royal Society presents a one-sided account of the institution, mainly from the perspective of the circle around John Wilkins to which Sprat had belonged. According to their point of view the Royal Society arose from meetings which Wilkins had organized at Wadham College in Oxford in the early 1650s. For members of the old guard, such as Wallis and William Brouncker, the origins of the Royal Society were, however, not in Oxford but rather in London, where meetings involving a significant number of members of the future institution had taken place already in the mid-1640s. This was not simply a question of historical accuracy, but also of the way in which the Royal Society conceived itself: while the circle around Wilkins was in

  5. 78 FR 23316 - The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order


    ... COMMISSION The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order April 12, 2013.... APPLICANTS: The Royal Bank of Scotland plc (``RBS plc''), Citizens Investment Advisors (``Citizens IA''), a... Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Applicants: RBS plc, RBS, Gogarburn,...

  6. The Effects of Royal Jelly on In-Vitro Cytotoxicity of K562 Cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    SE Hosseini


    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Royal jelly, secreted by worker bees, has different biological activities on cells and tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of royal jelly on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and on the tumor category of K562 cell line. Methods: In the present experimental study, three subjects were selected separately with three repetitions. K562 (104 cells and PBMC (105 cells with different concentrations of royal jelly (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml were cultured under standard conditions for 48 and 72 h separately. The fatality rate on PBMC cells and K562 cancer cells was evaluated by using MTT (Tetrazolium Dye-Reduction Assay. The number of viable cells in PBMC that were exposed for 48 hours with Royal Jelly was evaluated by trypan blue staining. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: The royal jelly had no cytotoxicity effect on PBMC cells but at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/mL the cytotoxicity effect were observed on k562 cells whereas, at 10 and 25 mg/ml the number of PBMC viable cells increased. Conclusion: Due to the lack of lethality of royal jelly on PBMC cells and PBMC cell viability and an increase in the fatality rate of cancer cells in the future, royal jelly can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of leukemia. Keywords: Royal jelly, K562, peripheral blood mononuclear cell

  7. Statistical Tests of the PTHA Poisson Assumption for Submarine Landslides

    Geist, E. L.; Chaytor, J. D.; Parsons, T.; Ten Brink, U. S.


    We demonstrate that a sequence of dated mass transport deposits (MTDs) can provide information to statistically test whether or not submarine landslides associated with these deposits conform to a Poisson model of occurrence. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) most often assumes Poissonian occurrence for all sources, with an exponential distribution of return times. Using dates that define the bounds of individual MTDs, we first describe likelihood and Monte Carlo methods of parameter estimation for a suite of candidate occurrence models (Poisson, lognormal, gamma, Brownian Passage Time). In addition to age-dating uncertainty, both methods incorporate uncertainty caused by the open time intervals: i.e., before the first and after the last event to the present. Accounting for these open intervals is critical when there are a small number of observed events. The optimal occurrence model is selected according to both the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). In addition, the likelihood ratio test can be performed on occurrence models from the same family: e.g., the gamma model relative to the exponential model of return time distribution. Parameter estimation, model selection, and hypothesis testing are performed on data from two IODP holes in the northern Gulf of Mexico that penetrated a total of 14 MTDs, some of which are correlated between the two holes. Each of these events has been assigned an age based on microfossil zonations and magnetostratigraphic datums. Results from these sites indicate that the Poisson assumption is likely valid. However, parameter estimation results using the likelihood method for one of the sites suggest that the events may have occurred quasi-periodically. Methods developed in this study provide tools with which one can determine both the rate of occurrence and the statistical validity of the Poisson assumption when submarine landslides are included in PTHA.

  8. An Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.


    In the past two decades there have been several advances that make the production of an atlas of submarine glacial landforms timely. First is the development of high-resolution imaging technologies; multi-beam echo-sounding or swath bathymetry that allows the detailed mapping of the sea floor at water depths of tens to thousands of metres across continental margins, and 3-D seismic methods that enable the visualisation of palaeo-continental shelves in Quaternary sediments and ancient palaeo-glacial rocks (e.g. Late Ordovician of Northern Africa). A second technological development is that of ice-breaking or ice-strengthened ships that can penetrate deep into the ice-infested waters of the Arctic and Antarctic, to deploy the multibeam systems. A third component is that of relevance - through both the recognition that the polar regions, and especially the Arctic, are particularly sensitive parts of the global environmental system and that these high-latitude margins (both modern and ancient) are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon resources. An enhanced understanding of the sediments and landforms of these fjord-shelf-slope systems is, therefore, of increasing importance to both academics and industry. We are editing an Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms that presents a series of individual contributions that describe, discuss and illustrate features on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced sea floor. Contributions are organised in two ways: first, by position on a continental margin - from fjords, through continental shelves to the continental slope and rise; secondly, by scale - as individual landforms and assemblages of landforms. A final section provides discussion of integrated fjord-shelf-slope systems. Over 100 contributions by scientists from many countries contain descriptions and interpretation of swath-bathymetric data from both Arctic and Antarctic margins and use 3D seismic data to investigate ancient glacial landforms. The Atlas will be

  9. Total Magnetic Field Signatures over Submarine HVDC Power Cables

    Johnson, R. M.; Tchernychev, M.; Johnston, J. M.; Tryggestad, J.


    Mikhail Tchernychev, Geometrics, Inc. Ross Johnson, Geometrics, Inc. Jeff Johnston, Geometrics, Inc. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is widely used to transmit electrical power over considerable distances using submarine cables. The most commonly known examples are the HVDC cable between Italy and Greece (160 km), Victoria-Tasmania (300 km), New Jersey - Long Island (82 km) and the Transbay cable (Pittsburg, California - San-Francisco). These cables are inspected periodically and their location and burial depth verified. This inspection applies to live and idle cables; in particular a survey company could be required to locate pieces of a dead cable for subsequent removal from the sea floor. Most HVDC cables produce a constant magnetic field; therefore one of the possible survey tools would be Marine Total Field Magnetometer. We present mathematical expressions of the expected magnetic fields and compare them with fields observed during actual surveys. We also compare these anomalies fields with magnetic fields produced by other long objects, such as submarine pipelines The data processing techniques are discussed. There include the use of Analytic Signal and direct modeling of Total Magnetic Field. The Analytic Signal analysis can be adapted using ground truth where available, but the total field allows better discrimination of the cable parameters, in particular to distinguish between live and idle cable. Use of a Transverse Gradiometer (TVG) allows for easy discrimination between cable and pipe line objects. Considerable magnetic gradient is present in the case of a pipeline whereas there is less gradient for the DC power cable. Thus the TVG is used to validate assumptions made during the data interpretation process. Data obtained during the TVG surveys suggest that the magnetic field of a live HVDC cable is described by an expression for two infinite long wires carrying current in opposite directions.

  10. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo


    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  11. Submarine lithification of Holocene reef hardground: north Jamaica

    Mitchell, J.T.


    Submarine cementation and organic binding of skeletal reef debris have brought about the formation of an extensive carbonate hardground, which is exposed on the submerged seaward slope of the reefcrest at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. The hardground, dated as Holocene by carbon-14, is comprised of the fragmented and bioeroded remnants of a diverse coral-algal community. Mg-calcite and aragonite, the dominant cements, are common in a variety of growth forms and occupy intraskeletal and interparticle voids. In order of decreasing abundance, Mg-calcite cements exhibit the following growth forms: (1) cryptocrystalline (micritic); (2) submicrocrystalline rhombic; (3) microcrystalline, stubby-to-acicular isopachous; and (4) microcrystalline blocky mosaic. Mg-calcite peloids, spherical bodies 20-60 in diameter, are ubiquitous as geopedal pore-fill. Aragonite cement is most common as acicular needles 50-100 long which grow as syntaxial fringes on skeletal substrates. Less common aragonite cement forms are microcrystalline blocky mosaic cements and radial fibrous aggregates. Adjacent pore spaces generally exhibit different cement fabrics, indicating that pores have unique microenvironments. Electron microprobe analysis revealed dolomite dispersed in the peloidal pore-fill of a coral fragment sampled from 5 cm beneath the hardground surface. /sup 14/C dating, field relationships, isotopic and trace element analysis suggest that trace quantities of Holocene dolomite are forming in the shallow, subtidal reef environment. The formation of the extensive coral pavement is a consequence of the interplay between the destructive forces of catastrophic storm events and bioerosion on one hand and the constructive effects of submarine cementation and organic binding on the other hand.

  12. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C


    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm(-2)) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the benthos near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets"].

    Kuznetsov, A P; Shmelev, I P; Demidov, A M; Efimov, B V; Shubko, V M


    We have analyzed the content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the benthofauna and deposits near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets." Analysis was performed on the basis of the materials of the 31st (1993) and 36th (1995) voyages of R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" in correspondence with the system of monitoring the state of the abiotic and biotic situation near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets" (Norwegian Sea). Whereas during the 33rd voyage of this vessel (1994) the content of these elements in the benthic animals at stations located close to the submarine somewhat exceeded the background level of radioactivity (Kuznetsov et al., 1996), no such excess was found during the 31st and 36th voyages. Meanwhile, radioactive cobalt (60Co) was found in representatives of three groups of animals during the 31st voyage at two stations located near the submarine.

  14. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.


    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  15. Is the turbidite facies association scheme valid for interpreting ancient submarine fan environments?

    Shanmugam, G.; Damuth, J. E.; Moiola, R. J.


    Although turbidite facies reflect only processes of deposition, turbidite facies associations are routinely used to identify ancient submarine-fan subenvironments (e.g., upper fan, channel, lobe, etc.). The assumption that process of deposition also reflects environment of deposition may not be valid for the following reasons: (1) Mutti and Ricci Lucchi's facies association scheme for submarine fans has been developed exclusively from ancient turbidite sequences; however, the true relationship between such turbidite facies associations and related fan subenvironments has not been confirmed from modern fans; (2) individual channel-levee systems of many modern submarine fans are in many cases large enough to contain the entire ancient fan systems on which these facies associations are based; (3) large channel-levee systems comparable to those of modern fans have not been recognized in outcrops. Consequently, the validity of turbidite facies associations for interpreting ancient submarine-fan subenvironments must be considered tenuous until confirmed in modern fans.

  16. Submarine groundwater discharge and nutrient addition to the coastal zone of the Godavari estuary

    Rengarajan, R.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) represents a significant pathway of materials between land and sea, especially as it supplies nutrients, carbon and trace metals to coastal waters. To estimate SGD fluxes to the Godavari estuary, India, we used...

  17. Evaluation of Littoral Combat Ships for Open-Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare


    7 Figure 6. China’s Kilo Class Submarine...35 Figure 17. MFTA Probability of Detection vs. Range against LCS Threats .............. 36 Figure 18. MFTA... 36 Table 7. Counter-Detection Parameters ...................................................................47 Table

  18. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  19. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2013 (NODC Accession 0115895)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  20. Experimental Study on the Distribution of Velocity and Pressure near a Submarine Pipeline

    HAN Yan; SHI Bing; REN Xingyue; JING Xiaodong


    As a transport means of oil and gas the submarine pipeline has many merits, such as continuous delivery, large conveying capacity, convenient management, etc. A tube was chosen in our study to simulate the submarine pipeline in the experiments. A high accuracy instrument ADV and high precision point-type pressure sensors were used to measure the parameters of the flow field, including the pressure distribution, velocities at seven cross sections near the submarine pipeline with five different clearance ratios, and twelve dynamic pressure values around the pipeline. The pressure distributions and velocity changes around the pipe under different flow velocities and clearance ratios were analyzed. These results might be useful for further study of submarine pipeline erosion and protection.