Sample records for routine post-mortem computerized

  1. Status of routine post-mortem computerized tomography in Odense, Denmark

    Leth, Peter Mygind


      In February 2006 a dual slice CT scanner was installed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Odense, Denmark. Since that time a CT-scanning has been performed on all bodies prior to autopsy. This article provides an overview of the experience gained.  We found that computerized tomography...... rarely is a substitute for autopsy, but may contribute with important new information in many cases such as identifications (including mass-disasters), battered child, gunshot wounds, traffic accidents and air embolism. Computerized tomography provides documentation in digital form - easily stored...

  2. Status of routine post-mortem computerized tomography in Odense, Denmark

    Leth, Peter Mygind


    rarely is a substitute for autopsy, but may contribute with important new information in many cases such as identifications (including mass-disasters), battered child, gunshot wounds, traffic accidents and air embolism. Computerized tomography provides documentation in digital form - easily stored...

  3. Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem radiography: detection rates and implications for practice

    Arthurs, Owen J. [NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Calder, Alistair D. [NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Kiho, Liina [Camelia Botnar Laboratories Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Paediatric Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Camelia Botnar Laboratories Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Paediatric Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)


    Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem plain radiography allows for the diagnosis and assessment of skeletal dysplasias, fractures and other bony abnormalities. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic yield of this practice. We identified 1,027 cases performed in a single institution over a 21/2-year period, including babygrams (whole-body examinations) and full skeletal surveys. Images were reported prior to autopsy in all cases. Radiology findings were cross-referenced with the autopsy findings using an autopsy database. We scored each case from 0 to 4 according to the level of diagnostic usefulness. The overall abnormality rate was 126/1,027 (12.3%). There was a significantly higher rate of abnormality when a skeletal survey was performed (18%) rather than a babygram (10%; P < 0.01); 90% (665/739) of babygrams were normal. Of the 74 abnormal babygrams, we found 33 incidental non-contributory cases, 19 contributory, 20 diagnostic, and 2 false-positive cases. There were only 2 cases out of 739 (0.27%) in whom routine post-mortem imaging identified potentially significant abnormalities that would not have been detected if only selected imaging had been performed. A policy of performing selected, rather than routine, foetal post-mortem radiography could result in a significant cost saving. Routine post-mortem paediatric radiography in foetuses and neonates is neither diagnostically useful nor cost-effective. A more evidence-based, selective protocol should yield significant cost savings. (orig.)

  4. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia


    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  5. Post-mortem CT-coronary angiography

    Pøhlsgaard, Camilla; Leth, Peter Mygind


    post-mortem coronary angiography and computerized tomography.  We describe how to prepare and inject the contrast medium, and how to establish a CT-protocol that optimizes spatial resolution, low contrast resolution and noise level. Testing of the method on 6 hearts, showed that the lumen...

  6. [Legal aspects of post-mortem radiology in the Netherlands

    Venderink, W.; Dute, J.C.


    In the Netherlands, the application of post-mortem radiology (virtual autopsy) is on the rise. Contrary to conventional autopsy, with post-mortem radiology the body remains intact. There is uncertainty concerning the legal admissibility of post-mortem radiology, since the Dutch Corpse Disposal Act

  7. The LHC Post-mortem System

    Ciapala, Edmond; Schmidt, R; Wenninger, J


    The energy stored in the beam and the magnets of the LHC is of unprecedented scale compared to other existing accelerators. The LHC machine is protected from an uncontrolled release of this energy by a large number of interlock channels. The LHC machine interlock system manages the interlock conditions and has as main task to trigger safe extraction of the energy stored in the electrical circuits and in the beams. To operate the machine in the presence of such a large interlock system requires powerful diagnostics to trace back the origin of power and beam related problems. This diagnostics tool, called herein the post-mortem system, has the role of organizing the collection and analysis of transient data recorded around a beam or power abort by all relevant LHC equipment systems. A first conceptual design of the LHC post-mortem system is presented in this document together with the main requirements for the LHC equipment systems.

  8. Post-mortem interval and bacteriological culture yield in sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI).

    Weber, Martin A; Hartley, John C; Brooke, Ivan; Lock, Paul E; Klein, Nigel J; Malone, Marian; Sebire, Neil J


    It has been hypothesised that post-mortem translocation, the migration of micro-organisms from mucosal surfaces into the body after death, leads to microbial overgrowth in post-mortem samples, which is more frequently polymicrobial and which would be detected more frequently with increased post-mortem interval (PMI) from death to autopsy. This study aimed to evaluate the association between PMI and bacteriological yield in post-mortem examinations of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI). A retrospective review of all microbiological findings from >500 SUDI autopsies (7-365 days of age) was performed as part of a larger review of >1500 paediatric autopsies over a 10-year period, 1996-2005. All autopsies were carried out in a single specialist centre by a small number of paediatric pathologists. For the 507 SUDI included in the analysis, there were 2079 samples collected for bacteriological culture. The median PMI was 2 days. The proportion of positive cultures decreased from 83% for samples taken within 24h of death, to 67% when taken five or more days after death (chi-square for linear trend=19.99, Ppost-mortem translocation. Indeed, the opposite trend is observed, suggesting that a longer PMI may result in death of micro-organisms. However, these data do not allow assessment of the possibility of significant post-mortem translocation occurring within the first few hours after death. Whilst the interpretation of positive microbiological cultures in SUDI post-mortems remains difficult, a PMI of several days' duration is not associated with an increased risk of post-mortem translocation and routine microbiological sampling is recommended in all SUDI autopsies, even when there is a PMI of several days.

  9. Pitfalls in post-mortem CT-angiography--intravascular contrast induces post-mortem pericardial effusion.

    Berger, Nicole; Martinez, Rosita; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Flach, Patricia M; Ross, Steffen; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Gascho, Dominic; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D


    We present a case where multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) induced a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion during the venous phase of angiography. Post-mortem non-contrast CT (PMCT) suggested the presence of a ruptured aortic dissection. This diagnosis was confirmed by PMCTA after pressure controlled arterial injection of contrast. During the second phase of multi-phase PMCTA the presence of contrast leakage from the inferior cava vein into the pericardial sac was noted. Autopsy confirmed the post-mortem nature of this vascular tear. This case teaches us an important lesson: it underlines the necessity to critically analyze PMCT and PMCTA images in order to distinguish between artifacts, true pathologies and iatrogenic findings. In cases with ambiguous findings such as the case reported here, correlation of imaging findings with autopsy is elementary.

  10. [Interest of post mortem analysis in diagnosis and etiopathogeny of ischemic myocardial infarction].

    Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Rambaud, Caroline; Dedouit, Fabrice; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel; Delisle, Marie Bernadette


    The discovery of an ischaemic myocardial infarction during forensic or scientific autopsy is sometimes surprising when found in a young subject. It is therefore important to find out the etiology of vascular lesions to take preventive measures in the family. In post mortem, some complementary analysis can be performed to determine the diagnosis of ischaemic myocardial infarction and its etiopathogeny. Such analyses, routinely made in forensic practice, are rarely used by pathologists during scientific autopsy. Some biological mediums are stable enough to be used for biological, biochemical and even genetical analyses. We will study the different post mortem analyses, and see their interest and reliability.


    Armando Cortés


    Full Text Available Por estos días se inaugura el “Centro de consulta post-mortem del Hospital Universitario del Valle”, una denominación más apropiada para la autopsia «ver por sí mismo» o cualquiera de sus sinónimos necropsia, examen post-mortem, necroscopia, o tanatopsia; todos ellos no aceptados y condicionados por factores culturales, sociales o religiosos. Estos términos han alcanzado una connotación claramente negativa en el ambiente médico y en el público general. Quizás, el mejor término sea «consulta post-mortem», porque representa en verdad un examen médico después de la vida, cuyos objetivos son la búsqueda de las causas de la muerte, el análisis de la enfermedad básica, sus efectos y complicaciones y las consecuencias de la intervención médica. Nadie puede dudar de los aportes a la medicina de la consulta post-mortem. Su carácter riguroso transformó la medicina animista en el presente científico. Así aprendimos las lesiones producidas en los órganos, las anomalías asociadas con los defectos congénitos, las infecciones silenciosas o la cardiopatía en el hipotiroidismo; nos ha permitido identificar nuevas enfermedades, nuevas formas o patrones de presentación de viejas enfermedades, reconocer a ciertos agentes patógenos, conocer cómo la terapéutica cambia la historia natural de ciertas enfermedades, etc., y, en consecuencia, cómo debemos replantear los enfoques terapéuticos y de manejo; y ha dado origen a ideas para tratamientos médicos y quirúrgicos y el control de la efectividad de los tratamientos médicos. Aunque hoy casi ninguna zona de nuestro organismo es inaccesible o escapa a la exploración con los avances de la tecnología y nos permite realizar diagnósticos más precisos. Aún las nuevas técnicas de diagnóstico tienen una carga variable de subjetividad que depende de la habilidad, experiencia y conocimientos de quien los emplea, realiza o interpreta. Por tanto, es necesario utilizar esos recursos

  12. Value of systematic post mortem radiographic examinations of fetuses - 400 cases

    Kalifa, G.; Sellier, N.; Barbet, J.P.; Labbe, F.; Houette, A.


    A retrospective study of 400 cases of fetal deaths has been carried out to assess the value of systematic post mortem radiological examination. Apart from general diagnosis purpose, special attention was given to the assessment of bone age and mineralization. The results were correlated with the clinical, U.S., chromosomal and pathological data. Computerized analysis of our information show the following results: (1) The radiological examination was valuable for the final diagnosis in 13.5% of cases. (2) It brings additional information in 34.5% of cases. (3) It had no diagnostic value in 52%. Furthermore several points deserve attention such as apparition of teeth (21 weeks), calcaneum (24 weeks). Major osteoporosis was always associated with a constitutional bone disease or an infectious process. An excessive length of the upper limbs (12) was seen in 11 cases of anencephaly. We suggest that a radiological examination should not be routinely performed, when the diagnosis is otherwise obvious, but should be considered in the presence of dwarfism, or other limb abnormalities and when the gestational age is uncertain. The films provide essential information especially for further genetic counselling.

  13. Essentials of forensic post-mortem MR imaging in adults

    Ruder, T D; Thali, M J; Hatch, G M


    Post-mortem MR (PMMR) imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool with a wide scope in forensic radiology. In the past 20 years, PMMR has been used as both an adjunct and an alternative to autopsy. The role of PMMR in forensic death investigations largely depends on the rules and habits of local jurisdictions, availability of experts, financial resources, and individual case circumstances. PMMR images are affected by post-mortem changes, including position-dependent sedimentation, variable body temperature and decomposition. Investigators must be familiar with the appearance of normal findings on PMMR to distinguish them from disease or injury. Coronal whole-body images provide a comprehensive overview. Notably, short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) images enable investigators to screen for pathological fluid accumulation, to which we refer as “forensic sentinel sign”. If scan time is short, subsequent PMMR imaging may be focussed on regions with a positive forensic sentinel sign. PMMR offers excellent anatomical detail and is especially useful to visualize pathologies of the brain, heart, subcutaneous fat tissue and abdominal organs. PMMR may also be used to document skeletal injury. Cardiovascular imaging is a core area of PMMR imaging and growing evidence indicates that PMMR is able to detect ischaemic injury at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology. The aim of this review is to present an overview of normal findings on forensic PMMR, provide general advice on the application of PMMR and summarise the current literature on PMMR imaging of the head and neck, cardiovascular system, abdomen and musculoskeletal system. PMID:24191122

  14. West Royalty substation fire post mortem



    This post mortem discussed a fire that occurred as a result of three 13.8 kV circuit breakers tripping at a substation control building in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Employees of the electric utility were immediately dispatched to the substation. Between 25,000 and 55,000 customers were without power as a result of firefighters tripping the 138 kV supply to the substation in order to disconnect electricity from the building. A 55 MW combustion turbine was black-started by the operator in order to pick up the electrical load from the Charlottetown substation. Power was gradually restored to utility customers in the region over the next day. An additional generator was used to supply electricity to a final few customers in outlying areas. A subsequent investigation determined that a squirrel caused the breaker to trip. However, a fault in the breaker caused the outage to become more widespread. The utility will continue to investigate methods of improving pest control for substation buildings. A new 13.8 kV circuit will be built to interconnect the Charlottetown and West Royalty substations. 1 fig.

  15. Human skull translucency: post mortem studies

    Sawosz, P.; Wojtkiewicz, S.; Kacprzak, M.; Weigl, W.; Borowska-Solonynko, A.; Krajewski, P.; Bejm, K.; Milej, D.; Ciszek, B.; Maniewski, R.; Liebert, A.


    Measurements of optical translucency of human skulls were carried out. An incandescent light source and a CCD camera were used to measure the distribution of light transmitted through the skull in 10 subjects post-mortem. We noticed that intra-individual differences in optical translucency may be up to 100 times but inter-individual translucency differences across the skull reach 105 times. Based on the measurement results, a “theoretical” experiment was simulated. Monte-Carlo calculations were used in order to evaluate the influence of the differences in optical translucency of the skull on results of NIRS measurements. In these calculations a functional stimulation was done, in which the oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in the brain cortex change by 5μM and −5μM respectively. The maximal discrepancies between assumed hemoglobin concentration changes and hemoglobin concentration changes estimated with Monte-Carlo simulation may reach 50% depending of the translucency of the skull. PMID:28018721

  16. [Post-mortem angio-CT: a new diagnostic approach].

    Grabherr, S; Dominguez, A; Mangin, P


    Post-mortem CT-angiography is a minimally invasive exam that allows the investigation of the vascular system in a very detailed way, impossible to realize during conventional autopsy. The research group for post-mortem angio-CT in Lausanne has developed a standardized protocol fora technique called "multi-phase post-mortem CT-angiography" that leads to an easy applicable performance of the exam and an increased diagnostic value. Additionally, new equipment including a perfusion device with single use sets as well as a special contrast agent for post-mortem investigations has been created. Using this technique, angio-CT permits to detect of the source of haemorrhages, vascular malformations, arteriosclerotic lesions as well as vascular occlusions and to visualize the vascular anatomy exactly.

  17. Post Mortem System - Playback of the RHIC Collider

    Laster, J S; D'Ottavio, T; Marusic, A; Skelly, J F


    A Post Mortem System was developed for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide a playback of the collider state at the time of a beam abort, quench, or other failure event. Post Mortem data is used to provide diagnostics about the failure and to improve future stores. This data is read from hardware buffers and is written directly to the main file system by Accelerator Device Objects in the front-end computers. The Post Mortem System has facilitated analysis of loss monitor and power supply data, such as beam loss during magnet quenches, dump kicker misfires and power supply malfunctions. System details and recent operating experience will be discussed.




    Full Text Available Teeth have an increased resistance to environmental factors and decomposition processes, which makes them highly valuable in forensic investigations. The either physical (wind, water, sun, soil type or biological (plant roots, insects, animals environmental factors and the decomposition processes induce post-mortem changes in teeth, which are relevant to forensic investigation in terms of estimating the post-mortem interval or of elucidating the conditions in which the body stood after death. In this paper, based on the data provided in the literature, the authors present the main changes induced by environmental factors and decomposition processes in teeth and refer to their relevance in forensic activity.

  19. Dermal lesions after post mortem petrol-exposure.

    Bux, R; Stengel, P D; Schnabel, A


    The effect of post mortem contact of the skin with petrol was investigated in 18 corpses with exposure times between 10 min and 24 h. The earliest onset of skin changes was observed within 2 h of exposure. They consisted of swelling and wrinkling with detachment of the upper layers of the skin (positive Nikolski's sign). Histologically the lesions appeared as non-vital acantholyses located in the prickle-cell layer with formation of intra-epidermal bullae. An influence of age and sex could be excluded, the earlier onset of lesions at 22 degrees C than at 4 degrees C was not statistically significant. These findings prove that post mortem petrol exposure may lead to dermal lesions.

  20. Making post-mortem implantable cardioverter defibrillator explantation safe

    Räder, Sune B.E.W.; Zeijlemaker, Volkert; Pehrson, Steen; Svendsen, Jesper H


    Aims The aim of this study is to investigate whether protection with rubber or plastic gloves during post-mortem explantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) offers enough protection for the explanting operator during a worst-case scenario (i.e. ICD shock). Methods and results We investigated the insulating properties of rubber and plastic gloves (double layer) within the first 60 min exposure (mimicking the maximum time of an explantation procedure) to saline (simulating t...

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging of post mortem multiple sclerosis brain.

    Schmierer, Klaus; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Boulby, Phil A; Scaravilli, Francesco; Altmann, Daniel R; Barker, Gareth J; Tofts, Paul S; Miller, David H


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used to probe the central nervous system (CNS) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease. Conventional T(2)-weighted MRI (cMRI) largely fails to predict the degree of patients' disability. This shortcoming may be due to poor specificity of cMRI for clinically relevant pathology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown promise to be more specific for MS pathology. In this study we investigated the association between histological indices of myelin content, axonal count and gliosis, and two measures of DTI (mean diffusivity [MD] and fractional anisotropy [FA]), in unfixed post mortem MS brain using a 1.5-T MR system. Both MD and FA were significantly lower in post mortem MS brain compared to published data acquired in vivo. However, the differences of MD and FA described in vivo between white matter lesions (WMLs) and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were retained in this study of post mortem brain: average MD in WMLs was 0.35x10(-3) mm(2)/s (SD, 0.09) versus 0.22 (0.04) in NAWM; FA was 0.22 (0.06) in WMLs versus 0.38 (0.13) in NAWM. Correlations were detected between myelin content (Tr(myelin)) and (i) FA (r=-0.79, ppost mortem MS brain.

  2. The post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon: a case report.

    Soriano, Evelyne-Pessoa; Carvalho, Marcus-Vitor-Diniz de; Santos, Francisco-Bernardo Dos; Mendoza, Clóvis-César de; Araújo, Maria-do Socorro-Dantas de; Campello, Reginaldo-Inojosa-Carneiro


    This study presents the case of the post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon observed during an autopsy procedure performed on the body of a man who was kidnapped and murdered approximately 30 days before the examination. The corpse was in an advanced stage of decomposition and putrefaction. Both maxillary and jaw bones were intact, as well as the permanent teeth which presented the "pink teeth phenomenon", probably due to a haemorrhage in the pulp chambers. The pink discolouration was most pronounced at the neck of the teeth. The cause of death was asphyxia. Although the examiners stressed that post-mortem pink teeth must not be considered as a reliable odontological parameter for determining the cause of death, the results of other studies have shown that the pink teeth phenomenon is a common finding related to cases of asphyxia such as strangulation, drowning or suffocation. Thus, the pink teeth phenomenon must be studied in order to determine its role as a post-mortem finding. As of now, an exact relationship between the cause of death and this phenomenon remains unknown.

  3. Radiologic-Histopathologic Correlation of Cerebral Microbleeds Using Pre-Mortem and Post-Mortem MRI.

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Lazeyras, François; Scheffler, Max; Meckel, Stephan; Herrmann, Francois R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Kövari, Enikö


    Cerebral microbleeds (CMB), also known as cerebral microhemorrhages, are small areas of susceptibility on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that are increasingly detected due to the higher availability of high-field MRI systems and dedicated pulse sequences. The prevalence of CMBs increases in cases with cognitive decline. The current investigation assessed the poorly investigated radiologic-histopathologic correlation of CMBs on MRI. The local ethical committee approved the current investigation. We retrospectively assessed a consecutive series of 1303 autopsy cases hospitalized in Geneva University Hospitals between 2000-2014. Of 112 cases with pre-mortem T2* sequences, we included 25 cases (mean age 77.3 ± 9.6, 9 females) with at least one CMB. We compared pre-mortem CMBs with targeted histopathology and post-mortem MRI. 25 cases had 31 CMB lesions detected by pre-mortem MRI. 25 additional CMB were detected on histopathology. 4 CMBs on pre-mortem MRI were false positives, resulting in a total of 52 CMBs. 27 CMBs on pre-mortem MRI were confirmed on histopathology, corresponding to a sensitivity or true positive rate of 51.9% (95% CI 37.6-66.0%). The false negative rate of pre-mortem MRI was 48.1% (95% CI 34.0-62.4%). Post-mortem MRI showed only 3 cases with additional CMBs. Overall, pre-mortem MRI significantly underestimated CMBs (p = 0.0001). Routine clinical brain MRI underestimates the prevalence of CMBs by approximately 50%, and 12% of radiologic pre-mortem MRI CMBs were false positives. Post-mortem MRI confirmed that this discordance is not explained by microbleeds occurring after the pre-mortem MRI.

  4. Visualisation of the intact dura mater and brain surface in infant autopsies: a minimally destructive technique for the post-mortem assessment of head injury.

    Cheshire, Emma C; Malcomson, Roger D G; Rutty, Guy N; James, Deryk S


    During the post-mortem examination of babies and young children, it is important to be able to visualise the brain and its coverings, particularly in cases where a head injury is likely to have occurred. In this paper, we present an improved method for removal of the calvarial bones in infant autopsies to enable viewing of the dura mater and brain. In contrast to the standard post-mortem procedure for observing and removing the brain, this novel technique is minimally disruptive, allowing the dura mater to remain undamaged. Specialised paediatric neurosurgical tools were used to remove the skull bones from 23 neonates, infants and young children during post-mortem examination. In 21 of our 23 cases, the calvarial bones were removed successfully with the dura mater remaining intact. In one case, there was a thickening of the dura mater which created a strong adherence of this membrane to the bone. In another case, the dura mater was slightly damaged due to the inexperience of the operator in using the neurosurgical tools. This method of calvarial bone removal reduces the degree of post-mortem artefact and enhances the ability to observe and photographically document autopsy findings, including the artefact-free detection of signs of injury such as epidural or subdural haematoma, and brain swelling. This technique has now become a routine practise in both of our units to remove the skull bones in infant/young children post-mortem examinations.

  5. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line


    certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved and read to identify cases of sudden death and establish cause of death. All medico-legal autopsied SCD were included and toxicological reports collected. Positive toxicology was defined as the presence of any substance (licit and/or illicit). All toxicological...... findings had previously been evaluated not to have caused the death (i.e. lethal concentrations were excluded). We identified 620 medico-legal autopsied cases of SCD, of which 77% (n = 477) were toxicologically investigated post-mortem, and 57% (n = 270) had a positive toxicology profile. Sudden cardiac...

  6. Making post-mortem implantable cardioverter defibrillator explantation safe

    Räder, Sune B E W; Zeijlemaker, Volkert; Pehrson, Steen;


    AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate whether protection with rubber or plastic gloves during post-mortem explantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) offers enough protection for the explanting operator during a worst-case scenario (i.e. ICD shock). METHODS AND RESULTS...... that the resting voltage over the operating person would not exceed 50 V. CONCLUSION: The use of intact medical gloves made of latex, neoprene, or plastic eliminates the potential electrical risk during explantation of an ICD. Two gloves on each hand offer sufficient protection. We will recommend the use...

  7. Note sulla concezione del post mortem presso gli Ittiti

    Vigo, Matteo; Bellucci, Benedetta

    Oggetto d’analisi di questo paper è la concezione della sfera del post-mortem presso la civiltà degli Ittiti. Lo studio delle tematiche che riguardano la concezione dell’“aldilà” nel mondo ittita, sia in senso fisico che metafisico, riveste una larga importanza nella letteratura ittitologica ed è...... ricerca di elementi che simboleggiano la vita dopo la morte come contraltare della stessa. L’approccio metodologico a questo tipo di analisi sarà comparativo: verranno infatti analizzati alcuni passaggi testuali, particolarmente significativi, afferenti alla categoria dei testi magico - religiosi, con il...

  8. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.


    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  9. Post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    Thayyil, S. S.


    My thesis explores the feasibility and utility of whole body post-mortem magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an alternative for conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children. The thesis starts with a systematic review of the existing literature on post-mortem MR imaging to identify the knowledge gaps. This is followed by the development of an effective recruitment model and a comparative study on the accuracy of less invasive autopsy by post-mortem MR imaging with co...

  10. Post-mortem MRI of the foetal spine and spinal cord

    Widjaja, E.; Whitby, E.H.; Cohen, M.; Paley, M.N.J.; Griffiths, P.D


    Aims: To compare the findings of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the foetal spine with autopsy with a view to using post-mortem MRI as an alternative or adjunct to autopsy, particularly in foetal and neonatal cases. Materials and Methods: The brains and spines of 41 foetuses, with a gestational age range of 14-41 weeks, underwent post-mortem MRI before autopsy. Post-mortem MRI of the brain consisted of T2-weighted sequences in three orthogonal planes and MRI of the spine consisted of T2-weighted sequence in the sagittal and axial planes in all cases and coronal planes in selected cases. Results: Thirty of 41 (78%) foetal spines were found to be normal at autopsy and on post-mortem MRI. Eleven of 41 (22%) foetal spines were abnormal: eight foetuses had myelomeningocoeles and Chiari 2 deformities, one foetus had limited dorsal myeloschisis, one foetus had caudal regression syndrome, and one had diastematomyelia. The post-mortem MRI findings concurred with the autopsy findings in 10/11 of the abnormal cases, the disagreement being the case of diastematomyelia that was shown on post-mortem MRI but was not diagnosed at autopsy. Conclusions: In this series, post-mortem MRI findings agreed with the autopsy findings in 40/41(98%) cases and in one case the post-mortem MRI demonstrated an abnormality not demonstrated at autopsy.

  11. Outdoor post-mortem depredation by local fauna.

    Feola, Alessandro; Campilongo, Sara; Pietra, Bruno Della


    We present the case of complete post-mortem decapitation of a 43 years old man killed by gunshots discharged from a distance of 40 - 50 cm. The corpse was left in the courtyard of his isolated carpentry and a mongrel dog lived in that courtyard, maybe attracted by the blood gushed from the wound, got a depredation of the corpse till the complete decapitation and the removal of all intrathoracic organs. The action of the dog was completed by the rats and mice that lived in the place. The case is not rare and sometimes the alteration of the features of the corpse makes it impossible for the investigators, to objectify any other signs of criminal nature.

  12. The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula

    Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL


    The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

  13. Histopathological features of post-mortem pituitaries: A retrospective analysis

    Francisco José Tortosa Vallecillos

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: As a result of the use of neuroimaging techniques, silent pituitary lesions are diagnosed more and more frequently; however, there are few published post-mortem studies about this gland. Incidence data of pituitary lesions are rare and in Portugal they are outdated or even non-existent. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of normal patterns and incidental post-mortem pituitary pathology at Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, analyzing the associations with clinical data and assessing the clinical relevance of the findings. Method: We reviewed retrospectively and histologically 167 pituitaries of a consecutive series of autopsies from the Department of Pathology of this centre. They were done between 2012 and 2014, and in all cases medical records were reviewed. The morphological patterns observed, were classified into three major groups: 1 Normal histological patterns and variants; 2 Infectious-inflammatory pathology, metabolic and vascular disorders; 3 Incidental primary proliferation and secondary to systemic diseases. Results: The subjects included in this study were of all age groups (from 1 day to 91 years old, 71 were female and 96 male. Fifty-seven of these glands didn’t show any alteration; 51 showed colloid cysts arising from Rathke cleft; 44 presented hyperplasia in adenohypophysis and we identified 20 adenomas in 19 glands (immunohistochemically, eight PRL-producing and five ACTH-producing tumors, ten of which associated with obesity, 11 to hypertension and six to diabetes mellitus. There were two cases with metastasis. Conclusion: Subclinical pathology in our country is similar to that seen in other parts of the world, but at older ages.

  14. Computerized tomography used as a routine procedure at postmortem investigations

    Leth, Peter Mygind


    This is a prospective investigation of a consecutive series of 250 deceased individuals who were computerized tomography (CT)-scanned and autopsied. In 13% of patients, important findings at the CT-scanning were not found at the autopsy, and in 48% of patients, important autopsy findings were...

  15. Post-mortem pH decline in different ostrich muscles.

    Sales, J; Mellett, F D


    Post-mortem glycolysis, as described by muscle pH decline, was investigated in several ostrich muscles. While the gastrocnemius pars interna, femorotibialis medius, iliotibialis lateralis and iliofemoralis showed the normal descending pH decline pattern, the ambiens as well as the iliofibularis showed a very rapid pH decline until 2 hr post mortem whereafter pH increased.

  16. [Survey of post-mortem findings in rabbits].

    Henriksen, P


    This paper gives an outline of the pathological findings in an one-year autopsy material from a major rabbit colony. The colony houses 1600-2000 animals (50% is Dansk Landrace and 50% is Rex-race). In the one year period 651 rabbits are presented for a post mortem examination and only rabbits with spontaneously lesions are included in the material. The frequency of lesions in the different organ systems of the two races is very variated. In the Dansk Landrace the most frequent findings are in the kidneys (28%) and in the respiratory system (25%). In the Rex-race findings in the locomotory system (32%) and the gastro-intestinal tract (22%) are the most frequent. Although the colony houses 50% Dansk Landrace and 50% Rex-race, nearly 2/3 of the autopsy-material is Rex-race and only 1/3 is Dansk Landrace. It is concluded that the Rex-race is less resistant to diseases (both infectious and non-infectious) than the Dansk Landrace and that long term studies on the Rex-race are very difficult to carry out.

  17. Adenosine receptors in post-mortem human brain.

    James, S; Xuereb, J H; Askalan, R; Richardson, P J


    1. Adenosine A2-like binding sites were characterized in post-mortem human brain membranes by examining several compounds for their ability to displace [3H]-CGS 21680 (2[p-(2 carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine) binding. 2. Two A2-like binding sites were identified in the striatum. 3. The more abundant striatal site was similar to the A2a receptor previously described in rat striatum, both in its pharmacological profile and striatal localization. 4. The less abundant striatal site had a pharmacological profile similar to that of the binding site characterized in the other brain regions examined. This was intermediate in character between A1 and A2 and may represent another adenosine receptor subtype. 5. The co-purification of [3H]-CGS 21680 binding during immunoisolation of human striatal cholinergic membranes was used to assess the possible cholinergic localization of A2-like binding sites in the human striatum. Only the more abundant striatal site co-purified with cholinergic membranes. This suggests that this A2a-like site is present on cholinergic neurones in the human striatum.

  18. Conflict of consent for post mortem organs donation in Brazil

    Lorena Oliveira Dantas Maynard


    Full Text Available Given the refinement in surgical, immunogenetic and pharmacotherapeutic techniques fostered by medicine in the last few decades, organ and tissue transplantation has become a real possibility and an essential alternative towards the extension and quality of human life. This study aimed to analyze the consent for post mortem organ and tissue removal in Brazilian law, from the perspective of the authorization of the family. A qualitative methodological approach was adopted, using literature and legislative reviews, and allowing a deeper insight into the meanings, motives, aspirations, beliefs, values and attitudes surrounding the subject. Results showed that, in the current Transplant Act, and in the event of a confrontation between the will of the donor and the family’s wishes, personality rights and the principle of freedom of choice are underestimated at the expense of the prevailing monopoly of the family decision-making process. In view of the organ shortages faced by the country, the solution that is most consentaneous to justice would be to tailor the dispositions of the Transplant Act to those of the Civil Code. It would be suitable to take the existing wording in Article 4 of Law 9,434/97 and to include the duly documented expression of the donor’s will before death. Public awareness and information about the humanitarian nature of organ donation are likewise important as measures aimed at discussing the principle of solidarity for an organ donation policy.

  19. Serial Post-mortem Relaxometry in the Normal Rat Brain and Following Stroke

    Fagan, Andrew J.; Mullin, JM; Gallagher, L; Hadley, DM; Macrae, IM; Condon, B


    PUBLISHED Purpose: Investigation of MRI for non-invasive autopsy via measurements of serial changes in relaxation parameters of the rat brain during the post-mortem interval. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem relaxometry measurements were performed before and hourly after death for 24 hours on five control rats and five rats which underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Analyses were performed on representative regions of grey, white, and mixed grey/white matter structures. ...

  20. O líquido cefalorraqueano no post-mortem The cerebrospinal fluid in the post-mortem

    A. Spina-França


    Full Text Available Foi estudado o LCR de 45 cadáveres, sendo os resultados considerados em função do tempo decorrido entre o momento da morte e a colheita do LCR (TOC. Obedecendo a esse critério os casos foram assim grupados: 1 aqueles com TOC até 4 horas; 2 aqueles com TOC de 4 a 8 horas; 3 aqueles com TOC de 8 horas ou mais. Com o aumento do TOC a presença de hemácias no LCR de cadáveres se torna mais freqüente e mais intensa. A mistura de sangue ao LCR prejudica a avaliação das modificações cadavéricas de outros componentes do LCR, conforme foi demonstrado para as concentrações de cloretos glicose e proteínas totais, para o perfil protêico e para a atividade de transaminases. Assim sendo, para avaliar as modificações da composição do LCR próprias ao post-mortem devem ser considerados apenas os casos com menos de 1000 hemácias/mm³. O número normal de leucócitos foi proporcionalmente mais comum nas amostras provenientes de cadáveres cujo TOC era igual ou superior a 8 horas. A pleocitose foi observada com mais freqüência que o número normal de leucócitos, sendo mais comumente ligeira ou discreta. Quantidades superiores a 50 leucócitos/mm³ foram observadas geralmente em casos relativos a pacientes que faleceram na vigência de processos infecciosos agudos. As concentrações de cloretos e de glicose no LCR tendem a cair no postmortem e as diminuições mostraram-se, em média, tanto mais intensas quanto maior o TOC. A hipoglicorraquia foi, em média mais acentuada nos casos com pleoeitose mais intensa. A concentração de uréia tende a elevar-se de modo precoce, não tendo sido encontradas médias significativamente diversas em função do TOC. A atividade de TGO tende a elevar-se no post-mortem sendo esta elevação, em média, mais nítida a partir do grupo de casos com TOC de 4 até 8 horas. Ocorre também tendência a aumento da atividade de TGP; esta se mostrou menos intensa que a de TGO e, em média, foi mais nítida a

  1. Biochemistry changes that occur after death: potential markers for determining post-mortem interval.

    Andrea E Donaldson

    Full Text Available Death is likely to result in very extensive biochemical changes in all body tissues due to lack of circulating oxygen, altered enzymatic reactions, cellular degradation, and cessation of anabolic production of metabolites. These biochemical changes may provide chemical markers for helping to more accurately determine the time since death (post-mortem interval, which is challenging to establish with current observation-based methodologies. In this study blood pH and changes in concentration of six metabolites (lactic acid, hypoxanthine, uric acid, ammonia, NADH and formic acid were examined post-mortem over a 96 hour period in blood taken from animal corpses (rat and pig and blood from rats and humans stored in vitro. The pH and the concentration of all six metabolites changed post-mortem but the extent and rate of change varied. Blood pH in corpses fell from 7.4 to 5.1. Concentrations of hypoxanthine, ammonia, NADH and formic acid all increased with time and these metabolites may be potential markers for post-mortem interval. The concentration of lactate increased and then remained at an elevated level and changes in the concentration were different in the rat compared to the human and pig. This is the first systematic study of multiple metabolic changes post-mortem and demonstrates the nature and extent of the changes that occur, in addition to identifying potential markers for estimating post-mortem interval.

  2. Edema is a sign of early acute myocardial infarction on post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

    Ruder, Thomas D; Ebert, Lars C; Khattab, Ahmed A; Rieben, Robert; Thali, Michael J; Kamat, Pranitha


    The aim of this study was to investigate if acute myocardial infarction can be detected by post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMMR) at an earlier stage than by traditional autopsy, i.e., within less than 4 h after onset of ischemia; and if so, to determine the characteristics of PMMR findings in early acute infarcts. Twenty-one ex vivo porcine hearts with acute myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted cardiac PMMR imaging within 3 h of onset of iatrogenic ischemia. PMMR imaging findings were compared to macroscopic findings. Myocardial edema induced by ischemia and reperfusion was visible on PMMR in all cases. Typical findings of early acute ischemic injury on PMMR consist of a central zone of intermediate signal intensity bordered by a rim of increased signal intensity. Myocardial edema can be detected on cardiac PMMR within the first 3 h after the onset of ischemia in porcine hearts. The size of myocardial edema reflects the area of ischemic injury in early acute (per-acute) myocardial infarction. This study provides evidence that cardiac PMMR is able to detect acute myocardial infarcts at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology.

  3. SU-E-T-481: In Vivo and Post Mortem Animal Irradiation: Measured Vs. Calculated Doses

    Heintz, P [Univ New Mexico Radiology Dept., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heintz, B [Texas Oncology, PA, Southlake, TX (United States); Sandoval, D [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W; Melo, D; Guilmette, R [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Purpose: Computerized radiation therapy treatment planning is performed on almost all patients today. However it is seldom used for laboratory irradiations. The first objective is to assess whether modern radiation therapy treatment planning (RTP) systems accurately predict the subject dose by comparing in vivo and decedent dose measurements to calculated doses. The other objective is determine the importance of using a RTP system for laboratory irradiations. Methods: 5 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the absorbed dose at 5 levels (carina, lung, heart, liver and rectum) during whole body irradiation. The subjects were treated with large opposed lateral fields and extended distances to cover the entire subject using a Varian 600C linac. CT simulation was performed ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM). To compare AM and PM doses, calculation points were placed at the location of each dosimeter in the treatment plan. The measured results were compared to the results using Varian Eclipse and Prowess Panther RTP systems. Results: The Varian and Prowess treatment planning system agreed to within in +1.5% for both subjects. However there were significant differences between the measured and calculated doses. For both animals the calculated central axis dose was higher than prescribed by 3–5%. This was caused in part by inaccurate measurement of animal thickness at the time of irradiation. For one subject the doses ranged from 4% to 7% high and the other subject the doses ranged 7% to 14% high when compared to the RTP doses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that using proper CT RTP system can more accurately deliver the prescribed dose to laboratory subjects. It also shows that there is significant dose variation in such subjects when inhomogeneities are not considered in the planning process.

  4. Retrospective analysis of post-mortem findings in 1,444 aged donkeys.

    Morrow, L D; Smith, K C; Piercy, R J; du Toit, N; Burden, F A; Olmos, G; Gregory, N G; Verheyen, K L P


    The aim of this study was to describe and report the prevalence of conditions found at necropsy examination of UK donkeys. Records from 1,444 donkeys over a 7-year period were included in the analysis. Sixty-one categories of post-mortem finding were identified from 9,744 observations. The four most prevalent conditions noted were dental disorder (78.7%), vascular disease other than aneurysm (60.9%), arthritis (55.4%) and foot disorder (44.8%). Gastric ulceration was found in 42% of the donkeys and gastrointestinal impaction in 18.6%. The most frequent combination of two post-mortem findings in the same animal was arthritis and dental disorder. The most common disorders were associated with age, body weight and/or body condition post mortem and, for some disorders, gender. For many of the post-mortem findings, crude associations were found between the presence of one finding and the odds of also having certain other post-mortem findings. This study is the first to summarize all conditions noted at necropsy examination for a large group of donkeys. The findings increase knowledge of diseases and conditions of this species and may be useful when investigating the relevance of various pathological conditions in the live animal.

  5. [Post-mortem animal predation of the genital region caused by a half-breed dog].

    Buschmann, Claas T; Wrobel, Detlev; Tsokos, Michael


    The authors describe and discuss the case of a 51-year-old man, who was lying mummified in his apartment. Beside the corpse, the well-fed half-breed dog of the deceased was found. Only the penis and testicles of the corpse were destroyed by post-mortem animal scavenging, whereas the face and the rest of the body were intact. There was plenty of dog food in the apartment. In contrast to wild animals, with domestic dogs hunger is the cause for post-mortem scavenging only in the minority of cases. It is rather a displacement activity. Frequently, the face and hands are destroyed by post-mortem animal predation, as these body regions are usually unclothed and thus easily accessible. Lesions in other localizations are seldom seen and injuries in the genital region are a rarity.

  6. Post-mortem fetal MRI: What do we learn from it?

    Whitby, E.H. [Section of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 2JF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Paley, M.N.J. [Section of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 2JF (United Kingdom); Cohen, M. [Department of Histopathology, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, P.D. [Section of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 2JF (United Kingdom)


    Post-mortem magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is of increasing interest not only as an alternative to autopsy but as a research tool to aid the interpretation and diagnosis of in utero MR images. The information from the post-mortem MR has allowed the development of imaging sequences applicable to in utero imaging and neonatal imaging. It has established brain development during gestation and has provided data on this to which in utero MR can be compared. The detail available from the post-mortem images is such that brain development can be studied in a non-invasive manner, a permanent record on the normal and abnormal areas is available and a greater understanding of developmental abnormalities is possible.

  7. Statistical analysis of post mortem DNA damage-derived miscoding lesions in Neandertal mitochondrial DNA

    Vives, Sergi; Gilbert, Thomas; Arenas, Conchita; Gigli, Elena, 1978-; Lao Grueso, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles


    textabstractBackground. We have analysed the distribution of post mortem DNA damage derived miscoding lesions from the datasets of seven published Neandertal specimens that have extensive cloned sequence coverage over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVS1). The analysis was restricted to C → T and G → A miscoding lesions (the predominant manifestation of post mortem damage) that are seen at a frequency of more than one clone among sequences from a single PCR, but do not r...

  8. Dental Identification With Post Mortem MSCT Scan - A Novel Approach Using OsiriX®

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis; Jensen, Niels Dyrgaard

    Intensity Projection and 3D MIP/VR (3D Maximum Intensity Projection/Volume Rendering) was found to give a very useful first view for the forensic odontological evaluation, and the combined use overcomes many of the problems which are contained in the Post Mortem MSCT procedure compared to regular X......Abstract: Purpose: To demonstrate the workflow used in the evaluation of Post Mortem MSCT as part of dental identification in single and possibly multiple fatalities. Material and method: The workflow in a couple of cases from the Section of Forensic Pathology in Copenhagen, Denmark is used...

  9. Influence of post-mortem muscle glycogen content on the quality of beef during aging

    Onopiuk Anna


    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycolic changes which occur post-mortem have an impact on the physical and sensory features of beef, which in turn determine the successive processes and influence such beef quality traits as colour, tenderness, and cooling loss. The aim of this study was evaluation of the post-mortem changes in bovine meat during aging, quantitative analysis of glycogen and lactic acid, as well as examination of their impact on technological and sensory quality of selected muscles from Holstein-Friesian × Limousin breed carcasses.

  10. Detection of hemorrhage source: the diagnostic value of post-mortem CT-angiography.

    Palmiere, C; Binaghi, S; Doenz, F; Bize, P; Chevallier, C; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S


    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) to conventional, ante-mortem computed tomography (CT)-scan, CT-angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the detection and localization of the source of bleeding in cases of acute hemorrhage with fatal outcomes. The medical records and imaging scans of nine individuals who underwent a conventional, ante-mortem CT-scan, CTA or DSA and later died in the hospital as a result of an acute hemorrhage were reviewed. Post-mortem computed tomography angiography, using multi-phase post-mortem CTA, as well as medico-legal autopsies were performed. Localization accuracy of the bleeding was assessed by comparing the diagnostic findings of the different techniques. The results revealed that data from ante-mortem and post-mortem radiological examinations were similar, though the PMCTA showed a higher sensitivity for detecting the hemorrhage source than did ante-mortem radiological investigations. By comparing the results of PMCTA and conventional autopsy, much higher sensitivity was noted in PMCTA in identifying the source of the bleeding. In fact, the vessels involved were identified in eight out of nine cases using PMCTA and only in three cases through conventional autopsy. Our study showed that PMCTA, similar to clinical radiological investigations, is able to precisely identify lesions of arterial and/or venous vessels and thus determine the source of bleeding in cases of acute hemorrhages with fatal outcomes.

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of peripheral nerves in non-fixed post-mortem subjects

    Haakma, Wieke; Pedersen, Michael; Froeling, Martijn; Uhrenholt, Lars; Leemans, Alexander; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup


    Purpose: While standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are increasingly employed in post-mortem (PM) examinations, more advanced techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) remain unexplored in forensic sciences. Therefore, we studied the temporal stability and reproducibility of D

  12. Statistical analysis of post mortem DNA damage-derived miscoding lesions in Neandertal mitochondrial DNA

    S. Vives (Sergi); M.T. Gilbert (Thomas); C. Arenas (Conchita); E. Gigli (Elena); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); C. Lalueza-Fox (Carles)


    textabstractBackground. We have analysed the distribution of post mortem DNA damage derived miscoding lesions from the datasets of seven published Neandertal specimens that have extensive cloned sequence coverage over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVS1). The analysis was rest

  13. Perspective of NIRS measurements early post mortem for prediction of pork quality

    Hoving, A.H.; Vedder, H.W.; Merks, J.W.M.; Klein, W.J.H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Frankhuizen, R.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Lambooij, E.


    The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements early post mortem was investigated to predict ultimate drip loss, colour, tenderness and intra-muscular fat of pork. Three locations (M. longissimus thoracis, M. longissimus lumborum and M. semimembranosus) in 102 pig carcasses were tes

  14. 9 CFR 312.6 - Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of...


    ... marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of adulterated products... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of adulterated products and insanitary equipment...

  15. Knowledge towards post-mortem examination and reasons for not specialising in morbid anatomy: study among medical undergraduate students

    Inderjit Singh Bagga


    Conclusions: Students possess a reasonable knowledge about post-mortem but knowledge alone may not be enough for increasing the post-mortem/autopsy rate, unless they acquire the skills required for the procedure as currently they are not provided with any training during their medical curriculum. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2792-2795

  16. Current status of paediatric post-mortem imaging: an ESPR questionnaire-based survey

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)


    The use of post-mortem imaging, including skeletal radiography, CT and MRI, is increasing, providing a minimally invasive alternative to conventional autopsy techniques. The development of clinical guidelines and national standards is being encouraged, particularly for cross-sectional techniques. To outline the current practice of post-mortem imaging amongst members of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR). We e-mailed an online questionnaire of current post-mortem service provisions to members of the ESPR in January 2013. The survey included direct questions about what services were offered, the population imaged, current techniques used, imaging protocols, reporting experience and intended future involvement. Seventy-one percent (47/66) of centres from which surveys were returned reported performing some form of post-mortem imaging in children, of which 81 % perform radiographs, 51% CT and 38% MRI. Eighty-seven percent of the imaging is performed within the radiology or imaging departments, usually by radiographers (75%), and 89% is reported by radiologists, of which 64% is reported by paediatric radiologists. Overall, 72% of positive respondents have a standardised protocol for radiographs, but only 32% have such a protocol for CT and 27% for MRI. Sixty-one percent of respondents wrote that this is an important area that needs to be developed. Overall, the majority of centres provide some post-mortem imaging service, most of which is performed within an imaging department and reported by a paediatric radiologist. However, the populations imaged as well as the details of the services offered are highly variable among institutions and lack standardisation. We have identified people who would be interested in taking this work forwards. (orig.)

  17. Seroprevalence of Louping Ill virus (LIV antibodies in sheep submitted for post mortem examination in the North West of Ireland in 2011

    Barrett Damien


    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were collected opportunistically at routine post mortem examination from 199 sheep which came from 152 flocks. The location of each submitting flock was mapped. Sera were tested using a goose blood haemagglutination inhibition assay for louping ill virus. There was an animal level prevalence of 8.5%, and a flock level prevalence of 9.8%. The greatest proportion of seropositive animals was identified among the animals older than 24 months of age. The elevation of the land associated with positive flocks was greater than that of negative flocks. Lesions of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis were observed in three of the 199 animals.

  18. Seroprevalence of Louping Ill virus (LIV) antibodies in sheep submitted for post mortem examination in the North West of Ireland in 2011.

    Barrett, Damien; Collins, Daniel M; McGrath, Guy; O Muireagain, Colm


    Blood samples were collected opportunistically at routine post mortem examination from 199 sheep which came from 152 flocks. The location of each submitting flock was mapped. Sera were tested using a goose blood haemagglutination inhibition assay for louping ill virus. There was an animal level prevalence of 8.5%, and a flock level prevalence of 9.8%. The greatest proportion of seropositive animals was identified among the animals older than 24 months of age. The elevation of the land associated with positive flocks was greater than that of negative flocks. Lesions of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis were observed in three of the 199 animals.

  19. Effects of post-mortem and physical degradation on RNA integrity and quality

    Monika Sidova


    Full Text Available The precision and reliability of quantitative nucleic acid analysis depends on the quality of the sample analyzed and the integrity of the nucleic acids. The integrity of RNA is currently primarily assessed by the analysis of ribosomal RNA, which is the by far dominant species. The extrapolation of these results to mRNAs and microRNAs, which are structurally quite different, is questionable. Here we show that ribosomal and some nucleolar and mitochondrial RNAs, are highly resistant to naturally occurring post-mortem degradation, while mRNAs, although showing substantial internal variability, are generally much more prone to nucleolytic degradation. In contrast, all types of RNA show the same sensitivity to heat. Using qPCR assays targeting different regions of mRNA molecules, we find no support for 5′ or 3′ preferentiality upon post-mortem degradation.

  20. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii

    Kocan, Richard M.; Hart, Lucas M.; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul


    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus. Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  1. Statistical analysis of post mortem DNA damage-derived miscoding lesions in Neandertal mitochondrial DNA

    Vives, Sergi; Gilbert, M Thomas; Arenas, Conchita


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We have analysed the distribution of post mortem DNA damage derived miscoding lesions from the datasets of seven published Neandertal specimens that have extensive cloned sequence coverage over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVS1). The analysis...... was restricted to C-->T and G-->A miscoding lesions (the predominant manifestation of post mortem damage) that are seen at a frequency of more than one clone among sequences from a single PCR, but do not represent the true endogenous sequence. FINDINGS: The data indicates an extreme bias towards C-->T over G......-->A miscoding lesions (observed ratio of 67:2 compared to an expected ratio of 7:2), implying that the mtDNA Light strand molecule suffers proportionally more damage-derived miscoding lesions than the Heavy strand. CONCLUSION: The clustering of Cs in the Light strand as opposed to the singleton pattern of Cs...

  2. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 2. Biochemical and morphological examinations.

    Rorat, M; Jurek, T; Simon, K


    Contemporary post-mortem diagnostics of sepsis makes it possible to obtain multiple evidence verifying the cause of death which is valuable for forensic medicine. There are a number of reports indicating the usefulness of tests of inflammatory markers (chiefly C-reactive protein and procalcitonin) that are employed in clinical medicine. During medico-legal autopsy, it becomes necessary to perform a careful search of pathological symptoms and inflammatory foci - both during external and internal examinations. Although sepsis lacks pathognomonic lesions that can be identified by histopathological examination, it represents an intrinsic element of post-mortem diagnostics. In order to be able to interpret the findings and establish the cause of death, the evaluation must concurrently take into account the circumstances of death, clinical symptoms, results of microbiological and biochemical tests, autopsy findings and histopathological examination results.

  3. Minimally invasive post-mortem CT-angiography in a case involving a gunshot wound.

    Ruder, Thomas D; Ross, Steffen; Preiss, Ulrich; Thali, Michael J


    Non-contrast post-mortem computed tomography (pm-CT) is useful in the evaluation of bony pathologies, whereas minimally invasive pm-CT-angiography allows for the detection of subtle vascular lesions. We present a case of an accidentally self-inflicted fatal bullet wound to the chest where pm-CT-angiography revealed a small laceration of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery and a tiny disruption of the right ventricle with pericardial and pleural effusion. Subsequent autopsy confirmed our radiological findings. Post-mortem CT-angiography has a great potential for the detection of vascular lesions and can be considered equivalent to autopsy for selected cases in forensic medicine.

  4. Herpetic brainstem encephalitis: report of a post-mortem case studied electron microscopically and immunohisiochemically

    José Eymard Homem Pitella


    Full Text Available A post-mortem examined case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis is presented. Clinically, the patient had cephalea followed by ataxia, drowsiness and multiple palsies of some cranial nerves, developing into death in eight days. The pathologic examination of the brain showed necrotizing encephalitis in multiple foci limited to the brainstem, more distinctly in the pons and medula oblongata. The technique of immunoperoxidase revealed rare glial cells with intranuclear immunoreactivity for herpes antigen. Rare viral particles with the morphological characteristics of the herpesvirus were identified in the nuclei of neurons in 10% formol fixed material. This is the second reported case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis confirmed by post-mortem examination. The pathway used by the virus to reach the central nervous system and its posterior dissemination to the oral cavity, the orbitofrontal region and the temporal lobes as well as to the brainstem, after a period of latency and reactivation, are discussed.

  5. Post-mortem genetic testing in a family with long-QT syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Kane, David A; Triedman, John


    Pediatric sudden unexplained deaths are rare and tragic events that should be evaluated with all the tools available to the medical community. The current state of genetic testing is an excellent resource that improves our ability to diagnose cardiovascular disorders that can lead to sudden cardiac arrest. Post-mortem genetic testing is not typically a covered benefit of health insurance and may not be offered to families in the setting of a negative autopsy. This unusual case includes two separate cardiovascular disorders that highlight the use of genetic testing and its role in diagnosis, screening, and risk stratification. The insurance company's decision to cover post-mortem testing demonstrated both compassion as well as an understanding of the long-term cost effectiveness.

  6. From lighting to dust death, funeral and post mortem destiny of Nikola Tesla

    Pavićević Aleksandra


    Full Text Available This text points out some less known facts about death and funeral of great Serbian scientists Nikola Tesla. Keeping on mind social and political contexts in which Tesla's post mortem destiny took place, author offered possible answers on the issues of ideological usage of his work and character. Different features of public discourses about Tesla in different historical periods 1936-2014, as well as various forms of his post mortem glorification were shown. One of the conclusions is related to different status that Tesla's mortal remains - incinerated two and half months after his death - had in different periods - from complete marginalization in the socialist era in Yugoslavia to main political trump in the time of post socialist transition in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177028: Strategije identiteta: savremena kultura i religioznost

  7. Identification of post-mortem indicators of welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S


    and lifting by other pigs in the race to the stunning chamber. At sticking, a blood sample was collected for analysis of glucose, lactate and creatine kinase activity (CK), the blood and the m. longissimus dorsi (LD) temperature and the LD pH were measured, and skin damages were recorded. PCA and PLSR...... analyses were performed to investigate the correlation structures between the ante- and post-mortem measurements. The PCA plot indicated that the plasma concentration of glucose and lactate was correlated with lifting, falling and handling in the race to the stunning chamber, lactate was correlated with pH......Welfare measurements inspired by the Welfare Quality® (2009) Protocol for slaughter pigs at the abattoir were recorded for a total of 80 pigs from four herds in order to investigate the relationship between selected ante-mortem observations and post-mortem measurements with the aim of identifying...

  8. Post-mortem blood concentration of methanol in 17 cases of fatal poisoning from contraband vodka.

    Hashemy Tonkabony, S E


    Recently in Tehran 57 persons were poisoned and admitted to hospitals after consumption of vodka. Seventeen of the 57 died and two others became blind. Analyses of the remaining vodka samples showed that they were contraband and were mixtures of methanol and water. Post-mortem samples of blood from 15 victims' hearts and two samples of viscera were analysed for methanol, the concentrations ranging from 23 to 268 mg per 100 ml blood and per 100 g viscera, respectively.

  9. Uses and social meanings of post-mortem photography in Colombia

    Henao Albarracín, Ana María; Universidad Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Paris, Francia


    This research is intended to understand the social uses and meanings of post-mortem or funeral photography between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth century in Colombia. The article seeks to contribute to the analysis of the relationship between photography and society, and more particularly, between photography and a social representation of death, identifying the conventions and rules of this photographic practice that determine aesthetic behaviors around death. Esta investigación ti...

  10. Estudio Post mortem del aparato genital de perras en la ciudad de México

    Cruz María Mariño Munguía; Rosa Ma. Páramo Ramírez; Francisco J. Trigo Tavera


    A post mortem study was conducted on 180 stray dogs at the Pathology Department of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Fifty bitches were in a follicular phase and 75 in a luteal one; the rest were discarded. A gross and microscopic study was conducted on each selected bitch. The presence of lesions was recorded, as well as the type, frequency and possible relationship with the estrus cycle. Lesions were classified as: cystic, neoplasic, of hormo...

  11. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong-Chun


    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Althoug...

  12. Uses and social meanings of post-mortem photography in Colombia

    Ana María Henao Albarracín


    Full Text Available This research is intended to understand the social uses and meanings of post-mortem or funeral photography between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth century in Colombia. The article seeks to contribute to the analysis of the relationship between photography and society, and more particularly, between photography and a social representation of death, identifying the conventions and rules of this photographic practice that determine aesthetic behaviors around death.

  13. A Case Study in Support of Multiple Post Mortem Assessments (Invited Paper

    Jill Pable


    Full Text Available Creative projects in various fields are often subjected to afterthe- fact 'post-mortem' assessments to better understand their successes and failures. Names for these include project retrospectives or post occupancy evaluations (POEs depending on their field of origin. This case study from the architecture field will show the utility of engaging in multiple rounds of post-mortem activities in order to assess the solution from multiple stakeholder perspectives and in doing so, more fully recognize its strengths and weaknesses. The design of a homeless shelter bedroom was subjected to two POE analyses: a 'demand side' focused study that analyzed user accommodation, and a 'supply side' study that addressed issues including budget and funding. The two POEs yielded both corroborative and contrasting findings that sometimes worked at cross purposes. Three evaluation tactics emerged that could be extended to other fields' post mortem assessment activities: 1 conduct two or more POEs; 2 vary the POE criteria so that one is deep and focused 'demand side' user analysis and the other is 'supply side' operational and installation issues; and 3 conduct the POEs over a broad time period.

  14. Assessment of coronary artery disease by post-mortem cardiac MR

    Ruder, Thomas D., E-mail: [Center of Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bauer-Kreutz, Regula [Department of Forensic Pathology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia [Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Rosskopf, Andrea B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Pilgrim, Thomas M. [Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, University Hospital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Weber, Oliver M. [Siemens Switzerland AG, Healthcare Sector, CH-3007 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Hatch, Gary M. [Center of Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    Objectives: Minimally invasive or virtual autopsies are being advocated as alternative to traditional autopsy, but have limited abilities to detect coronary artery disease. It was the objective of this study to assess if the occurrence of chemical shift artifacts (CSA) along the coronary arteries on non-contrast, post-mortem cardiac MR may be used to investigate coronary artery disease. Methods: We retrospectively compared autopsy and CT findings of 30 cases with significant (≥75%), insignificant (<75%), or absent coronary artery stenosis to post-mortem cardiac MR findings. The chi-square test was used to investigate if the occurrence of CSA depends on the presence or absence of stenosis. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for each finding. Results: CSA indicates the absence of (significant) stenosis (p < 0.001). The occurrence of paired dark bands in lieu of CSA on post-mortem cardiac MR suggests (significant) coronary arteries stenosis (p < 0.001). Both findings have a high specificity but low sensitivity. Conclusions: CSA is a marker of vessel patency. The presence of paired dark bands indicates stenosis. These criteria improve the ability of minimally invasive or virtual autopsy to detect coronary artery disease related deaths.

  15. Post-mortem cardiac diffusion tensor imaging: detection of myocardial infarction and remodeling of myofiber architecture

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Berger, Nicole; Stolzmann, Paul [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Stoeck, Christian T.; Kozerke, Sebastian [Institute for Biomedical Engineering University and ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Manka, Robert [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering University and ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)


    To investigate the accuracy of post-mortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) and to demonstrate the feasibility of helix angle (HA) calculation to study remodelling of myofibre architecture. Cardiac DTI was performed in 26 deceased subjects prior to autopsy for medicolegal reasons. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were determined. Accuracy was calculated on per-segment (AHA classification), per-territory, and per-patient basis, with pathology as reference standard. HAs were calculated and compared between healthy segments and those with MI. Autopsy demonstrated MI in 61/440 segments (13.9 %) in 12/26 deceased subjects. Healthy myocardial segments had significantly higher FA (p < 0.01) and lower MD (p < 0.001) compared to segments with MI. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that FA (p < 0.10) and MD (p = 0.01) with the covariate post-mortem time (p < 0.01) predicted MI with an accuracy of 0.73. Analysis of HA distribution demonstrated remodelling of myofibre architecture, with significant differences between healthy segments and segments with chronic (p < 0.001) but not with acute MI (p > 0.05). Post-mortem cardiac DTI enablesdifferentiation between healthy and infarcted myocardial segments by means of FA and MD. HA assessment allows for the demonstration of remodelling of myofibre architecture following chronic MI. (orig.)

  16. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail:


    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  17. Effect of epididymis handling conditions on the quality of ram spermatozoa recovered post-mortem.

    Kaabi, M; Paz, P; Alvarez, M; Anel, E; Boixo, J C; Rouissi, H; Herraez, P; Anel, L


    Post-mortem spermatozoa recovery is an important technique for obtaining germplasm reserves from genetically valuable animals or endangered species. However, there are many factors that influence the outcome of this technique. We have studied the effect of the interval between animal's death and sperm recovery (0, 24 or 48 h) on the quality and freezability of ram spermatozoa from cauda epididymidis. Storage temperature of epididymis (room temperature or 5 degrees C) was also analysed. Spermatozoa were diluted with Tes-Tris-Fructose solution supplemented with egg yolk (10%) and glycerol (4%), and frozen using a programmable biofreezer (-20 degrees C/min). Pre-freeze and post-thaw sperm samples showed viable spermatozoa up to 48 h after the animal's death, although their quality declined significantly as post-mortem storage time increased. Epididymis sperm stored at 5 degrees C showed better motility and a lower percentage of abnormal forms than epididymis stored at room temperature after 24 and 48 h. The fertilizing ability of cauda epididymis ram spermatozoa obtained at 0 and 24h after the animal's death is similar to that of ejaculated spermatozoa. Therefore, a good protocol for post-mortem semen collection in rams when epididymal spermatozoa cannot be collected immediately, is to preserve the epididymis at 5 degrees C and process the samples in the first 24h after the animal's death.

  18. Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a Muslim society

    Sejvar James J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-mortem needle biopsies have been used in resource-poor settings to determine cause of death and there is interest in using them in Bangladesh. However, we did not know how families and communities would perceive this procedure or how they would decide whether or not to consent to a post-mortem needle biopsy. The goal of this study was to better understand family and community concerns and decision-making about post-mortem needle biopsies in this low-income, predominantly Muslim country in order to design an informed consent process. Methods We conducted 16 group discussions with family members of persons who died during an outbreak of Nipah virus illness during 2004-2008 and 11 key informant interviews with their community and religious leaders. Qualitative researchers first described the post-mortem needle biopsy procedure and asked participants whether they would have agreed to this procedure during the outbreak. Researchers probed participants about the circumstances under which the procedure would be acceptable, if any, their concerns about the procedure, and how they would decide whether or not to consent to the procedure. Results Overall, most participants agreed that post-mortem needle biopsies would be acceptable in some situations, particularly if they benefitted society. This procedure was deemed more acceptable than full autopsy because it would not require major delays in burial or remove organs, and did not require cutting or stitching of the body. It could be performed before the ritual bathing of the body in either the community or hospital setting. However, before consent would be granted for such a procedure, the research team must gain the trust of the family and community which could be difficult. Although consent may only be provided by the guardians of the body, decisions about consent for the procedure would involve extended family and community and religious leaders. Conclusions The possible

  19. Post-mortem findings and piglet mortality in relation to strategic use of straw at farrowing.

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Ortman, Kerstin; Linder, Anders; Algers, Bo


    Piglet survival is the outcome of complex interactions between the sow, the piglet and their environment. In order to facilitate nest-building and to provide a suitable environment for the newborn piglets, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objectives of this cohort study were to use post-mortem findings to assess the causes of death and to quantify the effect of a large quantity of straw provided before farrowing compared to limited small daily amounts on stillbirths, post-mortem findings in piglets dying within 5 days after birth and the pre-weaning mortality. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in South-West Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the next lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus about 2 kg for nest-building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. After onset of farrowing, additionally 1-2 kg was given. Post-mortem examination was performed in all piglets that died within 5 days after birth (n=798). The three major post-mortem findings were starvation (34%) crushing by the sow (28%), and enteritis (24%). In conclusion, strategic use of large quantities of straw reduced the number of stillborn piglets per litter by 27% (p=0.007). Under the conditions studied, the pre-weaning mortality of liveborn piglets was not affected by treatment; however, the distribution of post-mortem findings differed with fewer piglets dying due to starvation and more due to crushing and enteritis in STRAW litters.

  20. Autopsy in older medical patients: concordance in ante- and post-mortem findings and changing trends.

    Swaro, A; Adhiyaman, V


    Despite modern diagnostics, the discordance between ante- and post-mortem diagnoses is still around 25%, reiterating the need for high post-mortem rates. In our study, 3.5% had class I errors that, had they been detected during life, would or might have affected short-term outcome. Another 14% had major errors, conditions recorded as primary cause of death that were clinically missed or unrecorded but would not have affected the outcome. There has been an unexplained decline in hospital post mortems and more than a third of UK autopsies are now performed under the instruction of the relevant Coroner's office. The UK Coroners' system is currently under judicial and administrative review to improve the speed of and reduce the need for post-mortem analysis.

  1. Perdida de textura post mortem de la carne de pescado por almacenamiento en frio Post Mortem Lost of Texture of Fish Meat During Cold Storage

    Cortés Rodríguez Misael


    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una revisión sobre la conformación e importancia del tejido conectivo de la carne de los peces. El ablandamiento post mortem en los peces es un factor de calidad directamente influenciado por las características de los colágenos presentes en cada especie. La degradación del colágeno está relacionada con los fenómenos que acontecen durante el almacenamiento en frío o congelamiento. Varias investigaciones han demostrado a través de análisis bioquímicos y, principalmente, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y transmisión, que la pérdida de la textura en la carne de los peces es uno de los efectos ocasionados por la degradación del tejido conectivo pericelular y no por el tejido conectivo intersticial. En la actualidad son propuestas algunas prácticas postcosecha para disminuir este fenómeno.This work is a review on the conformation and importance of connective tissue of fish meat. The post mortem softening of fish meat as a quality factor is influenced by the characteristics of the collagens present in each species. The degradation of collagen appears to be related to freezing. By biochemical analysis as well as electronic microscopy many researches have demonstrated that the loss of texture is related to pericelular connective tissue degradation. Currently some post crop practices are proposed to reduce this phenomenon.

  2. Prevalence of pancreatic, hepatic and renal microscopic lesions in post-mortem samples from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels

    Kent, Andrew C. C.; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Rusbridge, Clare; Corcoran, Brendan; Carter, Margaret; Ledger, Tania; Watson, Penny J.


    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Wiley. Objectives: To describe the prevalence of pancreatic, hepatic and renal microscopic lesions in post-mortem samples from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) presented to a UK post-mortem collection scheme. Methods: Histopathology was performed on the organs of interest and the prevalence of microscopic lesions described, this was related back to the clinical signs shown an...

  3. Long-term stability of RNA in post-mortem bovine skeletal muscle, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissues

    Schmidt Olaf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovering high quality intact RNA from post-mortem tissue is of major concern for gene expression studies in animals and humans. Since the availability of post-mortem tissue is often associated with substantial delay, it is important that we understand the temporal variation in the stability of total RNA and of individual gene transcripts so as to be able to appropriately interpret the data generated from such studies. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the integrity of total and messenger RNA extracted from bovine skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver stored at 4°C at a range of time points up to 22 days post-mortem. These conditions were designed to mimic the environment prevailing during the transport of beef from the abattoir to retail outlets. Results The 28S and 18S rRNA molecules of total RNA were intact for up to 24 h post-mortem in liver and adipose tissues and up to 8 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. The mRNA of housekeeping genes (GAPDH and ACTB and two diet-related genes (RBP5 and SCD were detectable up to 22 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. While the mRNA stability of the two housekeeping genes was different in skeletal muscle and liver, they were similar to each other in adipose tissue. After 22 days post-mortem, the relative abundance of RBP5 gene was increased in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue and decreased in liver. During this period, the relative abundance of SCD gene also increased in skeletal muscle whereas it decreased in both adipose tissue and liver. Conclusion Stability of RNA in three tissues (skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver subjected to long-term post-mortem storage at refrigeration temperature indicated that skeletal muscle can be a suitable tissue for recovering biologically useful RNA for gene expression studies even if the tissue is subjected to post-mortem storage for weeks, whereas

  4. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology.

    Kolasinski, James; Stagg, Charlotte J; Chance, Steven A; Deluca, Gabriele C; Esiri, Margaret M; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A; McNab, Jennifer A; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L; Johansen-Berg, Heidi


    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  5. Post-mortem 1.5T MR quantification of regular anatomical brain structures.

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Hottinger, Anna-Lena; Schwendener, Nicole; Schuster, Frederick; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Jackowski, Christian


    Recently, post-mortem MR quantification has been introduced to the field of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. By usage of a particular MR quantification sequence, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD) of tissues and organs can be quantified simultaneously. The aim of the present basic research study was to assess the quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of regular anatomical brain structures for a 1.5T application and to correlate the assessed values with corpse temperatures. In a prospective study, 30 forensic cases were MR-scanned with a quantification sequence prior to autopsy. Body temperature was assessed during MR scans. In synthetically calculated T1, T2, and PD-weighted images, quantitative T1, T2 (both in ms) and PD (in %) values of anatomical structures of cerebrum (Group 1: frontal gray matter, frontal white matter, thalamus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) and brainstem/cerebellum (Group 2: cerebral crus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, cerebellar hemisphere, and superior cerebellar peduncle) were assessed. The investigated brain structures of cerebrum and brainstem/cerebellum could be characterized and differentiated based on a combination of their quantitative T1, T2, and PD values. MANOVA testing verified significant differences between the investigated anatomical brain structures among each other in Group 1 and Group 2 based on their quantitative values. Temperature dependence was observed mainly for T1 values, which were slightly increasing with rising temperature in the investigated brain structures in both groups. The results provide a base for future computer-aided diagnosis of brain pathologies and lesions in post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Sudden death in racing Thoroughbred horses: an international multicentre study of post mortem findings.

    Lyle, C H; Uzal, F A; McGorum, B C; Aida, H; Blissitt, K J; Case, J T; Charles, J T; Gardner, I; Horadagoda, N; Kusano, K; Lam, K; Pack, J D; Parkin, T D; Slocombe, R F; Stewart, B D; Boden, L A


    To improve the understanding of exercise related sudden death in Thoroughbred racehorses. To describe the post mortem findings in cases of sudden death associated with exercise in 268 Thoroughbred racehorses. Gross and histological post mortem findings of 268 cases of sudden death were collated and reviewed. Cases originated from 6 racing jurisdictions around the world. Sudden death was defined as acute collapse and death in a closely observed and previously apparently healthy Thoroughbred racehorse, during, or within one hour after, exercise. Cause of death as determined by the attending pathologist was categorised as definitive, presumptive or unexplained and compared between the different populations. Cardiopulmonary lesions recorded at post mortem examination were compared between different populations. Pathologists recorded a definitive cause of death in 53% (143/268) of cases. Major definitive causes of sudden death included cardiac failure, apparent pulmonary failure, pulmonary haemorrhage, haemorrhage associated with pelvic fractures or with idiopathic blood vessel rupture, and spinal cord injury. A presumptive cause of death was made in 25% (67/268) of cases and death remained unexplained in 22% (58/268) of cases. There were several statistically significant inter-population differences in the cause of death and in reporting of cardiopulmonary lesions. Sudden death can be attributed to a variety of causes. Causes of sudden death and the lesions found in cases of exercise-related sudden death are similar in different racing jurisdictions. However, the lesions are often not specific for the cause of death and determination of the cause of death is therefore affected by interpretation by the individual pathologist. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  8. Autism associated gene, engrailed2, and flanking gene levels are altered in post-mortem cerebellum.

    Jiyeon Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous genetic studies demonstrated association between the transcription factor engrailed2 (EN2 and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Subsequent molecular analysis determined that the EN2 ASD-associated haplotype (rs1861972-rs1861973 A-C functions as a transcriptional activator to increase gene expression. EN2 is flanked by 5 genes, serotonin receptor5a (HTR5A, insulin induced gene1 (INSIG1, canopy1 homolog (CNPY1, RNA binding motif protein33 (RBM33, and sonic hedgehog (SHH. These flanking genes are co-expressed with EN2 during development and coordinate similar developmental processes. To investigate if mRNA levels for these genes are altered in individuals with autism, post-mortem analysis was performed. METHODS: qRT-PCR quantified mRNA levels for EN2 and the 5 flanking genes in 78 post-mortem cerebellar samples. mRNA levels were correlated with both affection status and rs1861972-rs1861973 genotype. Molecular analysis investigated whether EN2 regulates flanking gene expression. RESULTS: EN2 levels are increased in affected A-C/G-T individuals (p = .0077. Affected individuals also display a significant increase in SHH and a decrease in INSIG1 levels. Rs1861972-rs1861973 genotype is correlated with significant increases for SHH (A-C/G-T and CNPY1 (G-T/G-T levels. Human cell line over-expression and knock-down as well as mouse knock-out analysis are consistent with EN2 and SHH being co-regulated, which provides a possible mechanism for increased SHH post-mortem levels. CONCLUSIONS: EN2 levels are increased in affected individuals with an A-C/G-T genotype, supporting EN2 as an ASD susceptibility gene. SHH, CNPY1, and INSIG1 levels are also significantly altered depending upon affection status or rs1861972-rs1861973 genotype. Increased EN2 levels likely contribute to elevated SHH expression observed in the post-mortem samples.

  9. Comparison of different methods for delayed post-mortem diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Fleischmann Erna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 10,000 and 12,000 cases of imported malaria are notified in the European Union each year. Despite an excellent health care system, fatalities do occur. In case of advanced autolysis, the post-mortem diagnostic is impaired. Quicker diagnosis could be achieved by using rapid diagnostic malaria tests. Methods In order to evaluate different methods for the post-mortem diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-immunes, a study was performed on the basis of forensic autopsies of corpses examined at variable intervals after death in five cases of fatal malaria (with an interval of four hours to five days, and in 20 cases of deaths unrelated to malaria. Detection of parasite DNA by PCR and an immunochromatographic test (ICT based upon the detection of P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2 were compared with the results of microscopic examination of smears from cadaveric blood, histopathological findings, and autopsy results. Results In all cases of fatal malaria, post-mortem findings were unsuspicious for the final diagnosis, and autoptic investigations, including histopathology, were only performed because of additional information by police officers and neighbours. Macroscopic findings during autopsy were unspecific. Histopathology confirmed sequestration of erythrocytes and pigment in macrophages in most organs in four patients (not evaluable in one patient due to autolysis. Microscopy of cadaveric blood smears revealed remnants of intraerythrocytic parasites, and was compromised or impossible due to autolysis in two cases. PCR and ICT performed with cadaveric blood were positive in all malaria patients and negative in all controls. Conclusion In non-immune fatalities with unclear anamnesis, ICT can be recommended as a sensitive and specific tool for post-mortem malaria diagnosis, which is easier and faster than microscopy, and also applicable when microscopic examination is impossible due to autolysis

  10. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.


    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  11. (31)P NMR study of post mortem changes in pig muscle.

    Miri, A; Talmant, A; Renou, J P; Monin, G


    The rate and the extent of post mortem pH changes in pig muscle largely determine pork quality. Fast pH fall combined with low ultimate pH leads to pale soft exudative (PSE) meat; high ultimate pH leads to dark firm dry (DFD) meat. Post mortem metabolism was studied in pig muscle using(31)P NMR. Fifteen pigs, i.e. 7 Large White pigs and 8 Pietrain pigs, were used. Five pigs of each breed were slaughtered, taking care to minimize preslaughter stress. The other pigs (3 Large Whites and 2 Pietrains) were injected with 0·1 mg adrenaline per kg liveweight before slaughter, in order to increase meat ultimate pH. All the animals were killed by electronarcosis and exsanguination. Three of the adrenaline-treated pigs (1 Large White and 2 Pietrains) gave meat with ultimate pH above 6 (DFD meat). The pigs with normal muscle ultimate pH, i.e. 6 Large Whites and 6 Pietrains, had very variable rates of post mortem muscle metabolism (pH at 30 min after slaughter: 6·17-6·85 in Large Whites; 6·04-6·23 in Pietrains). The relationships between pH and ATP changes were similar in all pigs showing normal muscle ultimate pH, whereas ATP disappeared at a high pH value (on average pH 6·4) in pigs with high ultimate pH. The course of post mortem biochemical changes in a given animal could be predicted rather well by examination of a single(31)P NMR spectrum obtained around 30 min after death. At this time, muscle with a low rate of metabolism simultaneously showed medium to high pH, high ATP content (4-6·8 μmol/g) and rather low Pi content (6-14 μmol/g); muscle with a fast rate of metabolism (PSE-prone muscle) had low pH, low to medium ATP content (1·1-4 μmol/g) and generally high phosphomonoester (PME) content (9-23 μmol/g); muscle with high ultimate pH (DFD-prone muscle) had high pH, low PME content (4-8 μmol/g) and high Pi content (22-27 μmol/g).

  12. Intravital and post-mortem CT examinations of cerebral gunshot injuries

    Schumacher, M.; Oehmichen, M.; Koenig, H.G.; Einighammer, H.


    The value of CT was assessed in 24 patients who died of cerebral gun-shot injuries and in two patients with more recent injuries in order to reconstruct the mode of injury and for adding forensic information. The post-mortem and intravital appearances are described and are compared with ultrasound rotation compound scans of the isolated brains. CT showed good agreement with pathological findings. Ultrasound produced images with an accuracy between CT and photographs of the brain specimen. Both methods are regarded as valuable additions to the pathological and forensic information concerning gunshot injuries.

  13. A human post-mortem brain model for the standardization of multi-centre MRI studies.

    Droby, Amgad; Lukas, Carsten; Schänzer, Anne; Spiwoks-Becker, Isabella; Giorgio, Antonio; Gold, Ralf; De Stefano, Nicola; Kugel, Harald; Deppe, Michael; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G; Acker, Till; Zipp, Frauke; Deichmann, Ralf


    Multi-centre MRI studies of the brain are essential for enrolling large and diverse patient cohorts, as required for the investigation of heterogeneous neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, the multi-site comparison of standard MRI data sets that are weighted with respect to tissue parameters such as the relaxation times (T1, T2) and proton density (PD) may be problematic, as signal intensities and image contrasts depend on site-specific details such as the sequences used, imaging parameters, and sensitivity profiles of the radiofrequency (RF) coils. Water or gel phantoms are frequently used for long-term and/or inter-site quality assessment. However, these phantoms hardly mimic the structure, shape, size or tissue distribution of the human brain. The goals of this study were: (1) to validate the long-term stability of a human post-mortem brain phantom, performing quantitative mapping of T1, T2, and PD, and the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) over a period of 18months; (2) to acquire and analyse data for this phantom and the brain of a healthy control (HC) in a multi-centre study for MRI protocol standardization in four centres, while conducting a voxel-wise as well as whole brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) tissue volume comparison. MTR, T2, and the quotient of PD in WM and GM were stable in the post-mortem brain with no significant changes. T1 was found to decrease from 267/236ms (GM/WM) to 234/216ms between 5 and 17weeks post embedment, stabilizing during an 18-month period following the first scan at about 215/190ms. The volumetric measures, based on T1-weighted MP-RAGE images obtained at all participating centres, revealed inter- and intra-centre variations in the evaluated GM and WM volumes that displayed similar trends in both the post-mortem brain as well as the HC. At a confidence level of 95%, brain regions such as the brainstem, deep GM structures as well as boundaries between GM and WM tissues were found to be less reproducible than

  14. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog.

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong-Chun


    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification.

  15. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A


    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Post mortem DNA degradation of human tissue experimentally mummified in salt.

    Shved, Natallia; Haas, Cordula; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Akguel, Guelfirde; Paulsen, Katja; Bouwman, Abigail; Warinner, Christina; Rühli, Frank


    Mummified human tissues are of great interest in forensics and biomolecular archaeology. The aim of this study was to analyse post mortem DNA alterations in soft tissues in order to improve our knowledge of the patterns of DNA degradation that occur during salt mummification. In this study, the lower limb of a female human donor was amputated within 24 h post mortem and mummified using a process designed to simulate the salt dehydration phase of natural or artificial mummification. Skin and skeletal muscle were sampled at multiple time points over a period of 322 days and subjected to genetic analysis. Patterns of genomic fragmentation, miscoding lesions, and overall DNA degradation in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was assessed by different methods: gel electrophoresis, multiplex comparative autosomal STR length amplification, cloning and sequence analysis, and PCR amplification of different fragment sizes using a damage sensitive recombinant polymerase. The study outcome reveals a very good level of DNA preservation in salt mummified tissues over the course of the experiment, with an overall slower rate of DNA fragmentation in skin compared to muscle.

  17. Statistical analysis of post mortem DNA damage-derived miscoding lesions in Neandertal mitochondrial DNA

    Gigli Elena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have analysed the distribution of post mortem DNA damage derived miscoding lesions from the datasets of seven published Neandertal specimens that have extensive cloned sequence coverage over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region 1 (HVS1. The analysis was restricted to C→T and G→A miscoding lesions (the predominant manifestation of post mortem damage that are seen at a frequency of more than one clone among sequences from a single PCR, but do not represent the true endogenous sequence. Findings The data indicates an extreme bias towards C→T over G→A miscoding lesions (observed ratio of 67:2 compared to an expected ratio of 7:2, implying that the mtDNA Light strand molecule suffers proportionally more damage-derived miscoding lesions than the Heavy strand. Conclusion The clustering of Cs in the Light strand as opposed to the singleton pattern of Cs in the Heavy strand could explain the observed bias, a phenomenon that could be further tested with non-PCR based approaches. The characterization of the HVS1 hotspots will be of use to future Neandertal mtDNA studies, with specific regards to assessing the authenticity of new positions previously unknown to be polymorphic.

  18. The role of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in post-mortem tissues.

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Ismail, Mamudo R; Carrilho, Carla; Ussene, Esperança; Castillo, Paola; Chitsungo, Dércio; Rodríguez, Cristina; Lovane, Lucília; Vergara, Andrea; López-Varela, Elisa; Mandomando, Inacio; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Ordi, Jaume; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique; Martínez, Miguel J


    The extent to which the Xpert MTB/RIF (Gene Xpert) contributes to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in samples other than sputum and cerebrospinal fluid remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the role of Xpert MTB/RIF for detecting M. tuberculosis in post-mortem tissues. We conducted a study among 30 complete diagnostic autopsies (CDA) performed at the Maputo Central Hospital (Mozambique). Lung tissues were screened for TB in all cases. In addition other tissues were tested when compatible lesions were identified in the histological exam. We used in-house real time PCR and LAMP assays to confirm the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. The diagnosis of tuberculosis at death was established based on microbiological and histopathological results. Eight out of 30 cases (26.7%) were diagnosed of tuberculosis. Xpert had a sensitivity to detect TB in lung tissue of 87.5% (95% CI 47.3-99.7) and a specificity of 95.7% (95% CI: 78.1-99.9). In-house DNA amplification methods and Xpert showed 93.6% concordance for lung tissue and 100% concordance for brain and liver tissues. The final cause of death was attributable to tuberculosis in four cases. Xpert MTB/RIF may represent a valuable, easy-to perform technique for post-mortem TB diagnosis.

  19. Post-mortem imaging of laryngohyoid fractures in strangulation incidents: first results.

    Kempter, M; Ross, S; Spendlove, D; Flach, P M; Preiss, U; Thali, M J; Bolliger, S A


    Fractures and soft-tissue injuries of the neck are of great importance in forensic pathology, as they help in assessing whether strangulation took place, and if so, how severely. In this study, we examined the usefulness of post-mortem imaging with multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting lesions of the laryngohyoid structures and the surrounding soft-tissues. For this purpose, we examined MSCT images of the neck of eight deceased persons who had suffered different types of strangulation and compared the findings with those obtained at the subsequent forensic autopsy. In six of the eight cases (75%), the fracture findings at autopsy were concordant with those found with MSCT. In the two non-congruent cases, MSCT revealed fractures, which were not discovered at autopsy. Soft-tissue haemorrhages were detected by autopsy in five cases, but only in one case with MSCT. MSCT does not suffice in detecting soft-tissue injuries. These preliminary results are promising regarding the detection of fractures in strangulation cases. If these results can be confirmed in larger studies, we believe that post-mortem MSCT may serve - in combination with a thorough external examination and a profound incident-scene investigation - as a useful decision-making tool regarding the necessity of further examinations, i.e. autopsy.

  20. Genetic analysis in post-mortem samples with micro-ischemic alterations.

    Campuzano, Oscar; Sanchez-Molero, Olallo; Mademont-Soler, Irene; Coll, Monica; Allegue, Catarina; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Mates, Jesus; Perez-Serra, Alexandra; Del Olmo, Bernat; Iglesias, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Castella, Josep; Medallo, Jordi; Brugada, Ramon


    Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death worldwide. Most cardiac arrests happen in patients who have previously suffered a myocardial infarct. The risk of sudden death after infarction may increase in people who carry a pathogenic genetic alteration in cardiac ion channels. We hypothesized that micro-ischemia could trigger lethal arrhythmogenesis, thus we sought to identify genetic alterations in cardiac ion channels in patients with micro-ischemic disease. We studied a cohort of 56 post-mortem samples. Autopsy studies identified myocardial infarction as the cause of death in each case. We used both Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing to screen candidate genes associated with sudden cardiac death. We identified six rare missense genetic variations in five unrelated patients. Two variants have been previously reported; one is associated with atrial fibrillation (SCN5A_p.H445D), and the other is predicted to be benign (ANK2_p.T2059M). The novel variants were predicted in silico as benign, except for one (RyR2_p.M4019T), which was classified as deleterious. Our post-mortem, micro-infarction cohort displayed a rate of nearly 10% non-common genetic variants. However, the clinical significance of most of the identified variants remains unknown due to lack of family assessment. Further analyses should be performed in large cohorts to clarify the role of ion-channel gene analysis in samples showing microscopic ischemic alterations.

  1. Performance of immunoassays in screening for opiates, cannabinoids and amphetamines in post-mortem blood.

    Hino, Yukiko; Ojanperä, Ilkka; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki


    Several immunoassay methods for screening of abused drugs in whole blood were evaluated in post-mortem forensic toxicology. Blood samples known to be positive or negative for opiates, cannabinoids or amphetamines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were analysed by EMIT II Plus and EMIT d.a.u., Syva RapidTest and Triage 8 after acetone precipitation. In these experiments, the EMIT immunoassay method was modified by using the Dade Behring VIVA analyser to detect substances more sensitively. Low concentrations of abused drugs were detected in blood samples. The sensitivities of the modified EMIT method for opiates, cannabinoids and amphetamines were 100, 86 and 98%, respectively, whereas the values were below 86% with the other methods. The specificities of all immunoassay methods for opiates and cannabinoids were 83% or above but 51-85% for amphetamines. Sample rejection occurred in a few cases with the EMIT amphetamine assays. The modified EMIT immunoassay system presented here seems to be useful for screening of drugs of abuse in post-mortem blood samples, especially when urine is not available.

  2. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine


    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface.

  3. Profiling of RNA degradation for estimation of post mortem [corrected] interval.

    Fernanda Sampaio-Silva

    Full Text Available An estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI is frequently touted as the Holy Grail of forensic pathology. During the first hours after death, PMI estimation is dependent on the rate of physical observable modifications including algor, rigor and livor mortis. However, these assessment methods are still largely unreliable and inaccurate. Alternatively, RNA has been put forward as a valuable tool in forensic pathology, namely to identify body fluids, estimate the age of biological stains and to study the mechanism of death. Nevertheless, the attempts to find correlation between RNA degradation and PMI have been unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to characterize the RNA degradation in different post mortem tissues in order to develop a mathematical model that can be used as coadjuvant method for a more accurate PMI determination. For this purpose, we performed an eleven-hour kinetic analysis of total extracted RNA from murine's visceral and muscle tissues. The degradation profile of total RNA and the expression levels of several reference genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. A quantitative analysis of normalized transcript levels on the former tissues allowed the identification of four quadriceps muscle genes (Actb, Gapdh, Ppia and Srp72 that were found to significantly correlate with PMI. These results allowed us to develop a mathematical model with predictive value for estimation of the PMI (confidence interval of ±51 minutes at 95% that can become an important complementary tool for traditional methods.

  4. The social life of the dead: The role of post-mortem examinations in medical student socialisation.

    Goodwin, Dawn; Machin, Laura; Taylor, Adam


    Dissection has held a privileged position in medical education although the professional values it inculcates have been subject to intense debate. Claims vary from it generating a dehumanising level of emotional detachment, to promotion of rational and dispassionate decision-making, even to being a positive vehicle for ethical education. Social scientists have positioned dissection as a critical experience in the emotional socialisation of medical students. However, curricular revision has provoked debate about the style and quantity of anatomy teaching thus threatening this 'rite of passage' of medical students. Consequently, some UK medical schools do not employ dissection at all. In its place, observation of post-mortem examinations - a long established, if underutilised, practice - has re-emerged in an attempt to recoup aspects of anatomical knowledge that are arguably lost when dissection is omitted. Bodies for post-mortem examinations and bodies for dissection, however, have striking differences, meaning that post-mortem examinations and dissection cannot be considered comparable opportunities to learn anatomy. In this article, we explore the distinctions between dissection and post-mortem examinations. In particular, we focus on the absence of a discourse of consent, concerns about bodily integrity, how the body's shifting ontology, between object and person, disrupts students' attempts to distance themselves, and how the observation of post-mortem examinations features in the emotional socialisation of medical students.

  5. Endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens and further recommendation for interpretative cut-offs.

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Jensen, P; Kietzerow, J; Schrot, M; Wilke, N; Vettorazzi, E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S


    When interpreting gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens, a possible increase in GHB concentrations because of post-mortem generation must be considered. In this study, endogenous GHB concentrations in post-mortem biological fluids were investigated. Additionally, we review post-mortem GHB concentrations already published in the literature. Heart and peripheral blood samples, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and vitreous humor were collected from 64 autopsies in subjects where the cause of death excluded GHB exposure. Sample analysis was carried out either on the day of autopsy or later after immediate freezing and storage at -20 °C. GHB concentrations in venous blood samples (n = 61) were GHB concentrations in cases where there were signs of beginning putrefaction at the time of autopsy (n = 9) and cases without obvious signs of putrefaction. In one case with advanced putrefaction, the GHB concentration in venous blood was 32.7 mg/L. In conclusion, for post-mortem venous blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, an interpretative cut-off of 30 mg/L for GHB concentrations is suggested in cases where GHB analysis is conducted on the day of sample collection at autopsy or if samples have been stored at -20 °C immediately after collection.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, children and adults: A systematic review

    Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Chandrasekaran, Manigandan [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Clinical Molecular Genetics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie [Medical Statistics, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Skordis-Worrall, Jolene [Centre for International Health and Development, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Bennett-Britton, Ian [Centre for International Health and Development, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Health Economics and Financing Program, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cohen, Marta [Department of Histopathology, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Withby, Elspeth [Department of Academic Radiology, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Department of Histopathology, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)


    To determine, in a systematic review, the diagnostic accuracy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of less invasive autopsy by post-mortem MR imaging, in fetuses, children and adults. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and reference lists to identify all studies comparing post-mortem MR imaging with conventional autopsy, published between January 1990 and March 2009. 539 abstracts were identified; 15 papers met the inclusion criteria; data from 9 studies were extracted (total: 146 fetuses, 11 children and 24 adults). In accurately identifying the final cause of death or most clinically significant abnormality, post-mortem MR imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 69% (95% CI-56%, 80%) and 95% (95% CI-88%, 98%) in fetuses, and 28% (95% CI-13%, 47%) and 64% (95% CI-23%, 94%) in children and adults, respectively; however the published data is limited to small, heterogenous and poorly designed studies. Insufficient data is available on acceptability and economic evaluation of post-mortem MR imaging. Well designed, large, prospective studies are required to evaluate the accuracy of post-mortem MR imaging, before it can be offered as a clinical tool.

  7. Effects of Preslaughter Stress Levels on the Post-mortem Sarcoplasmic Proteomic Profile of Gilthead Seabream Muscle

    Silva, Tomé Santos; Cordeiro, Odete D; Matos, Elisabete D.


    affects these post-mortem processes. For the experiment, two groups of gilthead seabream (n = 5) were subjected to distinct levels of preslaughter stress, with three muscle samples being taken from each fish. Proteins were extracted from the muscle samples, fractionated, and separated by 2DE. Protein......Fish welfare is an important concern in aquaculture, not only due to the ethical implications but also for productivity and quality-related reasons. The purpose of this study was to track soluble proteome expression in post-mortem gilthead seabream muscle and to observe how preslaughter stress...... been hastened by preslaughter stress, confirming that it induces clear post-mortem changes in the muscle proteome of gilthead seabream....

  8. Fillet texture of Rainbow trout as affected by feeding strategy, slaughtering procedure and storage post-mortem

    Færgemand, J.; Rønsholdt, B.; Alsted, N.;


    measurements were undertaken using an Instron Universal Testing Machine and sensory analysis. Results indicated that fillet fat content could be increased 20% without affecting texture. Storage time post mortem was found to be the single most important factor affecting fillet texture. Sensory analyses verified......Due to the enactment of environmental legislation in Denmark, feed expenditure by commercial aquaculture operations has been limited. This development has created a demand for high energy diets, which presently dominate the market place. Such diets limit waste load to the surrounding environment...... period before harvesting, iv) method of slaughter and v) storage time post mortem on fillet quality of 600g trout. The fillet fat content was examined and related to each of the five factors investigated in order to determine which had the most pronounced effect on fillet texture post mortem. Texture...

  9. The relationship between selected physiological post mortem measures and an overall pig welfare assessment from farm to slaughter

    Brandt, Pia; Aaslyng, M.; Rousing, Tine;


    a certain threshold using the post-mortem measures with AWIRace and lactate as an example. In conclusion, physiological post-mortem measures may, after the development of technological solutions for implementation at abattoirs, be used in daily operations as on-site tools for systematic monitoring......, clinical and physiological measures was carried out from farm to slaughter with the aim of investigating the relationship between selected post-mortem physiological measures and an aggregated animal welfare index (AWI). Blood temperature was quantified at exsanguination, and a blood sample collected...... at exsanguination was analysed for plasma concentration of glucose, lactate, albumin, total protein and creatine kinase activity. pH was measured 45 min after sticking in the m. longissimus dorsi (LD). All welfare measures were categorised on a three-point scale (mild level: 0, moderate level: 1, severe level: 2...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA (CC398) isolated from post-mortem samples from pigs.

    van der Wolf, P J; Rothkamp, A; Junker, K; de Neeling, A J


    There are many reports on the occurrence of Livestock Associated Methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA, CC398) in healthy pigs. There are however, very few reports of LA-MRSA being associated with pathological lesions in pigs. With this study we try to find the answers to the questions: (1) how often is S. aureus found in post-mortem material from pigs, (2) how many of these isolates are methicillin resistant, (3) are these equally distributed over the years? Here we report the isolation of MRSA and of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from samples derived from post-mortem examinations at the Animal Health Service in The Netherlands in the period from 2003 through October 2008. The MSSA and MRSA described here were isolated from 159 pathological lesions and from 7 submissions of aborted foetuses derived from a total of 116 animals, representing 103 submissions coming from 92 different herds. This is approximately 0.5% of all pigs submitted for post mortem examination in those years. The proportion of pigs from which S. aureus (both MSSA and MRSA) was isolated from, did not increase over the years. MSSA (N=97) and LA-MRSA CC398 (N=18) were present mainly in (peri)arthritis in over 30% of all cases, but were also isolated from internal organs such as lung, brain, spleen, kidneys, heart, indicating septicaemia. Remarkably, one non-CC398 MRSA (ST1) was isolated in a joint and a kidney of one pig. This isolate was resistant to 5 out of 6 antimicrobials tested. There was no significant difference in the type of lesions in which LA-MRSA was found compared to MSSA. The number of antimicrobials these isolates were resistant to, increased rapidly after 2004. LA-MRSA was isolated for the first time in 2005 and then again in 2007 and 2008, suggesting that this is an emerging pathogen. However, due to changes in the panel of antimicrobials used to test S. aureus for antimicrobial susceptibility in 2005 and 2007, the possibility exists that we may have

  11. Post-mortem histopathological investigations of the bone marrow in forensic medicine: an important issue for both the forensic and clinical pathologist.

    Roll, P; Beham, A; Beham-Schmid, Ch


    In the forensic literature only a few scientific reports are dealing with series of histopathological bone marrow (BM) investigations, mainly concerning changes after drug abuse and alcoholic consumption. In a period of 13 years (1995-2008) we routinely investigated 225 BM specimens from anterior iliac crests taken at forensic autopsies if the cause of death was unclear or vague, septicaemia was suspected or known, in cases of presumed haemorrhagic diathesis or bleeding tendencies, spleens were found to be enlarged or intoxications were suspected or proofed. In 78 cases (34.66%) abnormal histopathologic changes were found. Forty of those revealed neoplastic, mainly haematological diseases, which were unknown during lifetime. Referring to our findings, extraction of post-mortem BM specimens for histopathological investigations should become an essential issue for both the forensic and clinical pathologist.

  12. The effect of stress and exercise on post-mortem biochemistry of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout

    Thomas, P.M.; Pankhurst, N.W.; Bremner, Allan


    Freshwater Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss responded similarly to increase in water flow (exercise), reduction in holding tank water level (stress), or 30 min chasing with water level reduction (stress and exercise). Stress generally resulted in elevated plasma c...... and exercise, results in mostly transient changes in post-mortem muscle biochemistry. These changes lead to an earlier onset and resolution of rigor, and lower post-mortem muscle pH in comparison to the control. (C) 1999 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  13. Retratos fotográficos post-mortem en Galicia (siglos XIX y XX)

    Cruz Lichet, Virginia de la


    La fotografía post-mortem es un género que se dio en el mundo occidental desde los orígenes de la Historia de la Fotografía hasta bien entrado el último cuarto del siglo XX. En su conjunto, todas estas imágenes nacieron partiendo de una causa común heredada de la tradición pictórica: la de perpetuar en la memoria el rostro de un ser querido ya desaparecido. Sin embargo, existe a su vez un gran número de variantes y matices, tanto formales como funcionales, en relación a las creencias y costum...

  14. Presentation, clinical pathological and post-mortem findings in three related Scottish terriers with ligneous membranitis.

    Mason, S L; Fisher, C; Ressel, L; Bommer, N X; Buckley, L M; Nuttall, T


    Ligneous conjunctivitis and gingivitis were diagnosed in three related Scottish terrier dogs presented for investigation of severe conjunctivitis and respiratory signs. Hypoplasminogenaemia was confirmed in one of the three affected dogs. Supportive treatment was not effective, and the dogs died or were euthanased because of the disease. Post-mortem analysis of two of the dogs revealed multiple abnormalities including severe proliferative fibrinous lesions affecting the conjunctiva, gingiva, trachea, larynx and epicardium and multiple fibrous adhesions throughout the thoracic and abdominal cavities. One dog had internal hydrocephalus and lacked a cerebellar vermis. Ligneous membranitis was confirmed on histopathology. This is a rare condition in dogs but an important differential diagnosis for severe conjunctivitis and gingivitis.

  15. Lipoma of the midbrain: post-mortem finding in a patient with breast cancer

    Verônica Maia Gouvea


    Full Text Available Intracranial lipomas are rare, usually do not have clinical expression and are located mare frequently in the corpus callosum. Other locations include the spinal cord, midbrain tectum, superior vermis, tuber cinereum, infundibulum and more rarely cerebellopontine angle, hypothalamus, superior medullary velum and insula. We report the case of a lipoma of the left inferior colliculus which was a post-mortem finding in a woman who died of breast cancer. Although there are reports of intracranial lipomas in patients with malignant tumors there is no explanation for the co-existence of the two tumors. The present tumor also includes a segment of a nerve which is not uncommon, but a less common finding was the presence of nests of Schwann cells within it, shown by immunohistochemistry.

  16. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Marta Rorat


    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  17. Detection of diabetic metabolism disorders post-mortem--forensic case reports on cause of death hyperglycaemia.

    Hess, C; Wöllner, K; Musshoff, F; Madea, B


    Diabetic coma is the most severe form of hyperglycaemic metabolic disorders. The post-mortem diagnosis of this disorder of glucose metabolism can be difficult and vague due to a lack of characteristic morphological findings. Six death cases caused by diabetic coma are described with special focus on biochemical (and histological) findings. The possible glycaemia markers glucose, lactate, HbA1c, fructosamine, anhydroglucitol, and ketone bodies were measured and the usefulness of these parameters is evaluated and discussed. Estimations of glucose concentrations in vitreous humour or cerebrospinal fluid and of ketone bodies in blood or other matrices are obligatory while measurements of HbA1c, fructosamine, or anhydroglucitol can only provide additional information on the long-term adjustment of diabetes in the deceased. Lactate concentrations (addition of glucose and lactate levels to form the sum formula of Traub) do not give more information than the glucose concentration itself and can be therefore omitted.

  18. Post-mortem cooling of the human head: an infrared thermology study.

    Khallaf, A; Williams, R W


    The post-mortem cooling of the human head, over the first fifteen hours after death, was measured by infrared thermology. A detailed temperature map of the head and face was obtained by the use of image processing techniques and the cooling behaviour of twelve preselected facial features was observed. The two main findings of the study were a difference in cooling pattern between the upper and the lower part of the head, and a consistency in the cooling pattern of the lower part of the head in all the cases studied. A comparison of various model fits to the raw data was undertaken and the "best" bodies, models and features were determined on a statistical basis. The formula that best fitted the raw data was a novel double application of Newton's law. The features with the least error in data fitting were the chin and zygoma; that with the most error was the mouth.

  19. The Traditional Egyptian Antecedents of Graeco-Roman Post-Mortem Ascent

    Eliezer Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Despite the greater antiquity of Egyptian civilisation, when we refer to Egyptian and Graeco-Roman cultures, we are generally referring to cultures that were contiguous, and the profound impact that Egyptian ideas had upon the Graeco-Roman world cannot be denied. In key respects, Egyptian views of the afterlife foreshadowed Graeco-Roman, Jewish, and early Christian conceptions, particularly in terms of the motif of post-mortem ascent. Although the channels of transmission have been lost in antiquity, the motif may still be sketched clearly enough in both cultures to suggest that Egypt was an important source for its expression. After some methodological considerations, this essay will trace the motif of ascent as it was manifested in Graeco-Roman culture, and then analyze the nature of the ancient Egyptian evidence in order to suggest the existence of key elements of this same motif from the earliest times in ancient Egypt.

  20. Post-mortem investigations on a leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea stranded along the Northern Adriatic coastline.

    Poppi, Lisa; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Pasotto, Daniela; Dotto, Giorgia; Marcer, Federica; Scaravelli, Dino; Mazzariol, Sandro


    Leatherback sea turtles Dermochelys coriacea are regularly reported in the Mediterranean Sea but rarely reach the northern Adriatic Sea. In the summer of 2009, a well-preserved carcass of an adult female of this species was found dead along the coast of Lido di Venezia. A complete necropsy was carried out, along with evaluation of levels of tissue trace elements. The the post-mortem revealed acute severe bacterial gastroenteritis caused by Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, an opportunistic agent that infected an apparently debilitated animal weakened by ingested plastic debris. High levels of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd and As) found in the liver and kidneys might have contributed to the animal's demise. These findings support previous indications that marine debris is one of the major threats to marine animals, particularly for critically endangered species such as the leatherback turtle.

  1. Experience with post-mortem computed tomography in Southern Denmark 2006-11

    Leth, Peter Mygind


    Objectives: (1) To explore the ability of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) to establish the cause of death. (2) To investigate the inter-method variation between autopsy and PMCT. (3) To investigate whether PMCT can select cases for autopsy. (4) To investigate the importance of histology...... and was less reliable at detecting injuries in inner organs, small hematomas and vesseltransections. PMCT was unable to detect thrombosis, thromboembolism, cirrhosis, esophagealvarices, myocardialinfarctions and myocardial scartissue, peritonitis and gastro-intestinal ulcerations. At least 15% of the autopsies...... in this study could have been substituted by PMCT. Histology yielded important new information in onefourth of the cases, but this proportion was much smaller among cases for which we estimated that the autopsy could have been substituted by PMCT. Conclusion: PMCT is a valuable supplement to autopsy and may...

  2. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.


    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... labelling in fish. Labelling for talin in pork muscle was intense at the sarcolemma but was not present in samples stored for 4 days. In contrast, the label for talin was concentrated at the myotendinous junction of the cod muscle throughout the storage period. These are the first reports of the detection...... and location of spectrin and vinculin in fish muscle and of the location of talin. The results are discussed in terms of muscle structure, function and post-mortem tenderisation. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry....

  3. Signature Based Detection of User Events for Post-mortem Forensic Analysis

    James, Joshua Isaac; Gladyshev, Pavel; Zhu, Yuandong

    This paper introduces a novel approach to user event reconstruction by showing the practicality of generating and implementing signature-based analysis methods to reconstruct high-level user actions from a collection of low-level traces found during a post-mortem forensic analysis of a system. Traditional forensic analysis and the inferences an investigator normally makes when given digital evidence, are examined. It is then demonstrated that this natural process of inferring high-level events from low-level traces may be encoded using signature-matching techniques. Simple signatures using the defined method are created and applied for three popular Windows-based programs as a proof of concept.

  4. Pregnant woman and road safety: experimental crash test with post mortem human subject.

    Delotte, Jerome; Behr, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Bongain, Andre; Brunet, Christian


    Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to create a realistic anatomical model of pregnant woman using a post mortem human subject (PMHS). We inserted a physical model of the gravid uterus into the pelvis of a PMHS. 3D acceleration sensors were placed on the subject to measure the acceleration on different body segments. We simulated three frontal impact situations at 20 km/h between two average European cars. Two main kinematics events were identified as possible causes of injuries: lap belt loading and backrest impact. Cadaver experiments provide one interesting complementary approach to study injury mechanisms related to road accidents involving pregnant women. This anatomical accuracy makes it possible to progress in the field of safety devices.

  5. Plug-in Based Analysis Framework for LHC Post-Mortem Analysis

    Gorbonosov, R; Zerlauth, M; Baggiolini, V


    Plug-in based software architectures [1] are extensible, enforce modularity and allow several teams to work in parallel. But they have certain technical and organizational challenges, which we discuss in this paper. We gained our experience when developing the Post-Mortem Analysis (PMA) system, which is a mission critical system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We used a plugin-based architecture with a general-purpose analysis engine, for which physicists and equipment experts code plugins containing the analysis algorithms. We have over 45 analysis plugins developed by a dozen of domain experts. This paper focuses on the design challenges we faced in order to mitigate the risks of executing third-party code: assurance that even a badly written plugin doesn't perturb the work of the overall application; plugin execution control which allows to detect plugin misbehaviour and react; robust communication mechanism between plugins, diagnostics facilitation in case of plugin failure; testing of the plugins be...

  6. Next-generation sequencing in post-mortem genetic testing of young sudden cardiac death cases

    Najim eLahrouchi


    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD in the young (<40 years occurs in the setting of a variety of rare inherited cardiac disorders and is a disastrous event for family members. Establishing the cause of SCD is important as it permits the pre-symptomatic identification of relatives at risk of SCD. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS is defined as SCD in the setting of negative autopsy findings and toxicological analysis. In such cases reaching a diagnosis is even more challenging and post mortem genetic testing can crucially contribute to the identification of the underlying cause of death. In this review, we will discuss the current achievements of ‘the molecular autopsy’ in young SADS cases and provide an overview of key challenges in assessing pathogenicity (i.e. causality of genetic variants identified through next-generation sequencing.

  7. Injury-related mortality among adolescents: findings from a teaching hospital's post mortem data

    Tettey Yao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are noted to be an important cause of death among adolescents. There is however limited data on the injury related deaths among adolescents in Ghana. Findings Using data from post-mortem records derived from the Department of Pathology of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH, Accra Ghana from 2001 to 2003, the causes of injury related deaths among adolescents 10 to 19 years were analyzed by gender and age groups 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years. There were 151 injury-related deaths constituting 17% of the autopsies performed among adolescents in the study period. The male-to-female ratio was 2.1:1. Drowning was the most common cause of death (37% in the study population. This was followed by road traffic accidents (RTA (33%. Over 70% of the RTA victims were pedestrians knocked downed by a vehicle. Deaths from electrocution, poisoning, burns, stab/gunshot, hanging and other miscellaneous causes (example blast injury, traumatic injury from falling debris, fall from height made up the remaining 30% of the injury related mortality. Among males and in both age categories, drowning was the leading cause of death. In females, the highest mortality was from road traffic accidents accounting for almost half (49% of the deaths; significantly more than that occurring in males (25%, p = .004. Conclusions Findings from Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital post-mortem data on adolescents show that drowning and road traffic accidents are the leading causes of injury-related mortality. Appropriate injury reducing interventions are needed to facilitate a decrease in these preventable deaths.

  8. Prenatal assessment of cerebellar vermian lobulation: fetal MRI with 3 Tesla post-mortem correlation.

    Dovjak, Gregor O; Brugger, Peter C; Gruber, Gerlinde M; Song, Jae W; Weber, Michael; Langs, Georg; Bettelheim, Dieter; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor


    To optimize the imaging assessment of fetal hindbrain malformations, this observational MRI study aimed to provide quantitative biometric data in normal vermian development in human fetal brains in vivo. In this retrospective, review board approved study, 78 fetuses (18-32 gestational weeks (GW)) scanned prenatally at 1.5T, and seven fetuses (16-30GW), scanned within 24 hours post-mortem at 3T,were included. All fetal brains were segmented on a T2-weighted midline sagittal slice. The mean relative area contribution (MRAC, proportion of the lobule relative to total vermian area) of all discernable vermian lobules was determined. Inter- and intrarater variability of a representative selection (22 cases) was determined with the Intraclass correlation coefficient based on voxel based differences. Furthermore, a linear regression model was used to assess the correlation between vermian lobules and gestational age. After 22GW 7 of 9 vermian lobules could be reliably discriminated. MRAC showed a mean difference of 2.89 ± 3.01% between in vivo and post-mortem measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of voxel based interrater differences was 0.91 ± 0.05 and intrarater ICC was 0.95 ± 0.03. Growth of cerebellar lobules was non-uniform - the MRAC of Culmen and DFT (Declive + Folium + Tuber) increased with gestational age, whereas Lingula, Centralis, Pyramis and Nodulus decreased. Vermian lobulation can be accurately and reliably assessed prenatally, on exact midsagittal T2-weighted sequences after 22GW. Fetal vermian lobules show non-uniform growth, with an expansion of DFT and Culmen at the expense of spinocerebellar structures. An evaluation of vermian lobulation could supply a better characterization of fetuses with hindbrain malformations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypothermic death: Possibility of diagnosis by post-mortem computed tomography

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Onozuka, Naoki; Kakizaki, Ayana [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Sato, Miho, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan)


    Referring to our experience with post-mortem computed tomography (CT), many hypothermic death cases presented a lack of increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and urine retention in the bladder. Thus we evaluated the diagnostic performance of post-mortem CT on hypothermic death based on the above-mentioned three findings. Twenty-four hypothermic death subjects and 53 non-hypothermic death subjects were examined. Two radiologists assessed the presence or lack of an increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and measured urine volume in the bladder. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to assess the relationship between the three findings and hypothermic death. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis were also calculated. Lack of an increase in lung-field concentration and blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery were significantly associated with hypothermic death (p = 0.0007, p < 0.0001, respectively). The hypothermic death cases had significantly more urine in the bladder than the non-hypothermic death cases (p = 0.0011). Regarding the diagnostic performance with all three findings, the sensitivity was 29.2% but the specificity was 100%. These three findings were more common in hypothermic death cases. Although the sensitivity was low, these findings will assist forensic physicians in diagnosing hypothermic death since the specificity was high.

  10. Quantification of aconitine in post-mortem specimens by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: three case reports on fatal 'monkshood' poisoning.

    Bicker, Wolfgang; Monticelli, Fabio; Bauer, Andreas; Roider, Gabriele; Keller, Thomas


    The diester-diterpene alkaloid aconitine was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in post-mortem specimens of three cases where suicidal ingestion of Aconitum napellus L. ('monkshood') was supposed. In an attempt at rationalization, sample preparation and chromatographic conditions of plasma/serum drug analysis routine were utilized. Linearity was established from 0.5 to 20 µg L⁻¹ using newborn calf serum (NCS) as a surrogate calibration matrix for all sample types and mesaconitine as an internal standard. Validation (selectivity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery of the extraction procedure, matrix effect, processed sample stability) confirmed the applicability of the analytical method to various post-mortem matrices. Internal standard selection was based on multi-matrix process efficiency data. In human post-mortem peripheral blood a lower limit of quantification of 0.51 µg L⁻¹ and a limit of detection of 0.13 µg L⁻¹ were accomplished (0.1 ml sample aliquots). Aconitine was degraded to a large extent in different sample types when being stored at +20 °C for 30 days, while at -20 °C and for some matrices also at +4 °C no appreciable degradation occurred. Aconitine concentrations in real samples were 10.3-17.9 µg L⁻¹ (peripheral blood, n = 3), 14.9-87.9 µg L⁻¹ (heart blood, n = 3), 317-481 µg L⁻¹ (urine, n = 2), 609-4040 µg L⁻¹ (stomach content, n = 3), 139-240 µg L⁻¹ (bile, n = 2), 8.4 µg L⁻¹ (vitreous humor, n = 1), 54.7 µg L⁻¹ (pericardial fluid, n = 1), 492 µg kg⁻¹ (liver, n = 1), 15.2-19.7 mg L⁻¹ (unknown liquids secured onsite, n = 3). Together with concomitant circumstances the analytical data provided compelling evidence for acute Aconitum poisoning as being the cause of death.

  11. Combined Determination of Glucose and Fructosamine in Vitreous Humor as a Post-Mortem Tool to Identify Antemortem Hyperglycemia

    Vivero, Guillermo; Vivero-Salmerón, Guillermo; Pérez Cárceles, Maria D.; Bedate, Andrés; Luna, Aurelio; Osuna, Eduardo


    In clinical practice, serum glucose levels are used to diagnose diabetes mellitus. In post-mortem diagnosis, however, biochemical markers in vitreous humor are more useful because of the difficulty involved in interpreting blood glucose levels and relatively non-specific pathological features. The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of post-mortem determination of glucose and fructosamine combined and to compare the results with those obtained for fructosamine and combined glucose and lactate levels in two diagnostic groups (one diabetic and the other non-diabetic). We studied 377 cadavers (mean age 57.6 yr, SD 20.4, range 15 to 98 yr) with a mean post-mortem interval of 14.9 h. (SD 6.0; range 2 to 24 h). The highest levels were obtained in cases where diabetes mellitus had previously been diagnosed. In relation to diagnostic performance, the most reliable values were those in which glucose and fructosamine were determined jointly. The findings provide information concerning the usefulness of measuring glucose and fructosamine levels as a post-mortem tool for identifying antemortem glycemic control in diabetics. PMID:19290382

  12. Corroboration of in utero MRI using post-mortem MRI and autopsy in foetuses with CNS abnormalities

    Whitby, E.H. E-mail:; Variend, S.; Rutter, S.; Paley, M.N.J.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Davies, N.P.; Sparey, C.; Griffiths, P.D


    AIMS: To corroborate the findings of in utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy and post-mortem MRI in cases of known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities on ultrasound and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ante-natal ultrasound and in utero MRI. METHODS: Twelve pregnant women, whose foetuses had suspected central nervous system abnormalities underwent in utero MRI. The foetuses were imaged using MRi before autopsy. The data were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of in utero MRI when compared with a reference standard of autopsy and post-mortem MRI in 10 cases and post-mortem MRI alone in two cases. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of antenatal ultrasound and in utero MRI in correctly characterizing brain and spine abnormalities were 42 and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In utero MRI provides a useful adjuvant to antenatal ultrasound when assessing CNS abnormalities by providing more accurate anatomical information. Post-mortem MRI assists the diagnosis of macroscopic structural abnormalities.

  13. Sequencing CYP2D6 for the detection of poor-metabolizers in post-mortem blood samples with tramadol.

    Fonseca, Suzana; Amorim, António; Costa, Heloísa Afonso; Franco, João; Porto, Maria João; Santos, Jorge Costa; Dias, Mário


    Tramadol concentrations and analgesic effect are dependent on the CYP2D6 enzymatic activity. It is well known that some genetic polymorphisms are responsible for the variability in the expression of this enzyme and in the individual drug response. The detection of allelic variants described as non-functional can be useful to explain some circumstances of death in the study of post-mortem cases with tramadol. A Sanger sequencing methodology was developed for the detection of genetic variants that cause absent or reduced CYP2D6 activity, such as *3, *4, *6, *8, *10 and *12 alleles. This methodology, as well as the GC/MS method for the detection and quantification of tramadol and its main metabolites in blood samples was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines. Both methodologies were successfully applied to 100 post-mortem blood samples and the relation between toxicological and genetic results evaluated. Tramadol metabolism, expressed as its metabolites concentration ratio (N-desmethyltramadol/O-desmethyltramadol), has been shown to be correlated with the poor-metabolizer phenotype based on genetic characterization. It was also demonstrated the importance of enzyme inhibitors identification in toxicological analysis. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where a CYP2D6 sequencing methodology is validated and applied to post-mortem samples, in Portugal. The developed methodology allows the data collection of post-mortem cases, which is of primordial importance to enhance the application of these genetic tools to forensic toxicology and pathology.

  14. Post-mortem changes in chicken muscle : some key biochemical processes involved in the conversion of muscle to meat

    Schreurs, F.J.G.


    The post mortem changes taking place in poultry muscular tissue and the resulting meat quality, until the moment of consumption of the meat by the consumer are described. Modern broiler chickens grow 'at the edge of what is metabolically possible'. This hypothesis is derived from the fact that muscl

  15. Effects of housing conditions of slaughter pigs on some post mortem muscle metabolites and pork quality characteristics

    Lambooij, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Klont, R.E.; Winkelman-Goedhart, H.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Kranen, R.W.


    The results of two experiments studying the effects of housing conditions on post mortem muscle metabolism and meat quality are presented. In the first experiment slaughter pigs (n = 71) from two different crossings, were raised at a density of 0.7 m(2)/animal, (10 pigs/pen) either with (enriched)

  16. Forensic relevance of post-mortem CT imaging of the haemopericardium in determining the cause of death.

    Filograna, Laura; Thali, Michael J; Marchetti, Daniela


    The post-mortem diagnosis of pericardial tamponade is associated with several medical legal problems. Thus, we explored whether post-mortem computed tomography might provide useful and reliable information for the diagnosis of this relevant disease in combination with autopsy data. We retrospectively reviewed the post-mortem computed tomography and autopsy reports of 15 autopsy cases with haemopericardium detected at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Berne from July 2005 to February 2010. Two computer tomography findings were examined in combination with autopsy results. The first was the "hyperdense armoured heart," which has been previously described as post-mortem evidence of heart beating for a time after the initiation of intrapericardial bleeding. The second was the "flattening of the anterior surface" of the heart which has been previously observed in vivo as a sign of the compression effect of the haemopericardium on the heart. Our retrospective analysis showed the combined presence of both of these findings in all cases of autopsy evidence of pericardial tamponade with the exception of one case. In contrast, the concomitance of both of them was never observed in cases of autopsy death due to haemorrhage in which neither the flattening of the anterior surface of the heart was detected except for one case. In conclusion, these results should be considered a first step toward the potentially using post-mortem computed tomography in combination with autopsy data in the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade especially considering the possibility to detect sign as the flattened heart signal which cannot be assessed after opening the pericardium at autopsy.

  17. Post mortem computed tomography and core needle biopsy in comparison to autopsy in eleven Bernese mountain dogs with histiocytic sarcoma.

    Hostettler, Franziska C; Wiener, Dominique J; Welle, Monika M; Posthaus, Horst; Geissbühler, Urs


    Bernese mountain dogs are reported to have a shorter life expectancy than other breeds. A major reason for this has been assigned to a high tumour prevalence, especially of histiocytic sarcoma. The efforts made by the breeding clubs to improve the longevity with the help of genetic tests and breeding value estimations are impeded by insufficiently reliable diagnoses regarding the cause of death. The current standard for post mortem examination in animals is performance of an autopsy. In human forensic medicine, imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are used with increasing frequency as a complement to autopsy. The present study investigates, whether post mortem computed tomography in combination with core needle biopsy is able to provide a definitive diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma. For this purpose we have analysed the results of post mortem computed tomography and core needle biopsy in eleven Bernese mountain dogs. In the subsequent autopsy, every dog had a definitive diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma, based on immunohistochemistry. Computed tomography revealed space-occupying lesions in all dogs. Lesion detection by post mortem computed tomography was similar to lesion detection in autopsy for lung tissue (9 cases in computed tomography / 8 cases in autopsy), thoracic lymph nodes (9/8), spleen (6/7), kidney (2/2) and bone (3/3). Hepatic nodules, however, were difficult to detect with our scanning protocol (2/7). Histology of the core needle biopsies provided definitive diagnoses of histiocytic sarcoma in ten dogs, including confirmation by immunohistochemistry in six dogs. The biopsy samples of the remaining dog did not contain any identifiable neoplastic cells. Autolysis was the main reason for uncertain histological diagnoses. Post mortem computed tomography is a fast and effective method for the detection of lesions suspicious for histiocytic sarcoma in pulmonary, thoracic lymphatic, splenic, osseous and renal tissue


    Maíra Soalheiro Grade


    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente artigo pretende explanar sobre o surgimento e as diferentes espécies de reprodução artificial e a maneira como o tema se relaciona com a Bioética, além de discorrer sobre as distintas posições acerca da presunção de filiação e do direito sucessório do embrião fruto de reprodução assistida post mortem. Sendo tema ainda não disciplinado pela legislação brasileira, discute-se acerca da legitimidade para suceder que, se verificada no momento da morte do autor da sucessão, afastaria o direito sucessório do embrião fruto da citada técnica reprodutiva. Entretanto, com a presunção de filiação estabelecida pelo Código Civil na inseminação artificial homóloga, mesmo que falecido o pai, surgiu a possibilidade de ser incluído na sucessão o filho nascido após a morte do pai, mediante reprodução assistida homóloga, sob pena de ser violado o princípio constitucional da isonomia na filiação. Palavras- chave: Fecundação post mortem; Filiação; Sucessão; Igualdade. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION AFTER DEATH AND THE RIGHT OF INHERITANCE ABSTRACT This article intends to analyze the beggining and the artificial insemination’s species and also how this subject is related with Bioethics, besides of discuss the different positions about the filiation’s presumption and the right of inheritance of the embryo produced by artificial insemination after death. As a subject that hasn’t been treated by Brazilian’s Legislation, the controversy is about the legitimacy to succeed. In case of verification about the legitimacy at the moment of the succession’s author death, the right of inheritance of the embryo produced by artificial insemination would be rejected. Meanwhile, since the civil law established the filiation’s presumption in homologous artificial insemination, even in case of the father’s decease, arose the possibility of the inclusion on succession of the son born after father’s decease, by

  19. Practical experience in post-mortem tissue donation in consideration of the European tissue law.

    Karbe, Thomas; Braun, Christian; Wulff, Birgit; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus


    In consequence of the European guidelines of safety and quality standards for the donation, retrieval, storing and distribution of human tissues and cells the purpose of tissue transplantation was implemented into German legislation in May 2007. The law came into effect on August 1st 2007 considering of the European rules. The Institutes for Legal Medicine of the University of Frankfurt/Main and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf developed a model for tissue retrieval. The Institute of Legal Medicine (I.f.R.) at the University Medical Center Hamburg cooperates with the German Institute of Cell and Tissue Replacement (Deutsches Institut für Zell--und Gewebeersatz DIZG). Potential post-mortem tissue donors (PMTD) among the deceased are selected by standardized sets of defined criteria. The procedure is guided by the intended exclusion criteria of the tissue regulation draft (German Transplant Law TPG GewV) in accordance with the European Guideline (2006/17/EC). Following the identification of the donor and subsequent removal of tissue, the retrieved samples were sent to the DIZG, a non-profit tissue bank according to the tissue regulation. Here the final processing into transplantable tissue grafts takes place, which then results in the allocation of tissue to hospitals in Germany and other European countries. The Center of Legal Medicine at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical Center Frankfurt/Main cooperates since 2000 with Tutogen, a pharmaceutical company. Harvesting of musculoskeletal tissues follows corresponding regulations. To verify the outcome of PMTD at the I.f.R. Hamburg, two-statistic analysis over 12 and 4 months have been implemented. Our results have shown an increasing number of potential appropriate PMTD within the second inquiry interval but a relatively small and unvaryingly rate of successful post-mortem tissue retrievals similar to the first examination period. Thus, the aim of the model developed by the I.f.R. is to

  20. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Elvander M


    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  1. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike


    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and β-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone

  2. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings.

    Thom, Maria; Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M


    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P epilepsy history and investigations. Our findings support the contribution of examination of the whole fixed brain in SUDEP, with high rates of detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy-related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  3. Post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT and PMCT-angiography after transvascular cardiac intervention

    Beatrice Vogel


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: During the last years, Post Mortem Computed Tomography (PMCT has become an integral part of the autopsy. PMCT-angiography may augment PMCT. Both exams have proven their value in visualizing complications after heart surgery. Therefore, they should also show complications after transvascular interventions. This assumption initiated our project: to evaluate the possibilities of PMCT and PMCT-angiography after transvascular cardiac interventions. Material and Methods: In our archives of characteristic and typical PMCT findings, we searched for observations on preceding transvascular cardiac interventions. Additionally, we reviewed our PMCTangiographies (N=140. Results: After transvascular cardiac interventions, PMCT and PMCT-angiography visualized bleeding, its amount and its origin, cardiac tamponade, free and covered perforations, transvascular implanted valves and their position, catheters and pacemakers with fractures, abnormal loops and bending. Bubbles in the coronary vessels (indicating air embolism become visible. Conclusion: After transvascular cardiac interventions, PMCT and PMCT-angiography show complications and causes of death. They prove a correct interventional approach and also guide autopsy. In isolated cases, they may even replace autopsy.

  4. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast.

    Bailey, Ann M; Christopher, John J; Brozoski, Frederick; Salzar, Robert S


    Military vehicle underbody blast (UBB) is the cause of many serious injuries in theatre today; however, the effects of these chaotic events on the human body are not well understood. The purpose of this research was to replicate both UBB loading conditions and investigate occupant response in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition to better understanding the response of the human to high rate vertical loading, this test series also aimed to identify high rate injury thresholds. Ten whole body post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests were completed using the University of Virginia's ODYSSEY simulated blast rig under a range of loading conditions. Seat pan accelerations ranged from 291 to 738 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration, and foot pan accelerations from 234 to 858 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration. Post-test computed tomography (CT) scans and necropsies were performed to determine injuries, and revealed a combination of pelvic, lumbar, thoracic, and lower extremity injuries. The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads.

  5. Heavy alcohol consumption and neuropathological lesions: a post-mortem human study.

    Aho, Leena; Karkola, Kari; Juusela, Jari; Alafuzoff, Irina


    Epidemiological studies have indicated that excessive alcohol consumption leads to cognitive impairment, but the specific pathological mechanism involved remains unknown. The present study evaluated the association between heavy alcohol intake and the neuropathological hallmark lesions of the three most common neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), in post-mortem human brains. The study cohort was sampled from the subjects who underwent a medicolegal autopsy during a 6-month period in 1999 and it included 54 heavy alcohol consumers and 54 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Immunohistochemical methodology was used to visualize the aggregation of beta-amyloid, hyperphosphorylated tau, and alpha-synuclein and the extent of infarcts. In the present study, no statistically significant influence was observed for alcohol consumption on the extent of neuropathological lesions encountered in the three most common degenerative disorders. Our results indicate that alcohol-related dementia differs from VCI, AD, and DLB; i.e., it has a different etiology and pathogenesis.

  6. Forensic aspects of incised wounds and bruises in pigs established post-mortem.

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang


    Recognizing post-mortem (PM) changes is of crucial importance in veterinary forensic pathology. In porcine wounds established PM contradicting observations regarding infiltration of leukocytes have been described. In the present study, skin, subcutis and muscle tissue sampled from experimental pigs with PM incised wounds (n=8), PM bruises (n=8) and no lesions, i.e. controls (n=4), were examined for signs of vitality over time. All tissue samples were subjected to gross and histopathological evaluation. Hemorrhages were present along the edges of PM incised wounds but deposits of fibrin were never observed. PM bruise led to hemorrhage in the subcutis visible on cross section of the skin in 3 out of 8 pigs. Histologically, hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue and disrupted muscle fibers were observed in PM bruises and could not be differentiated from similar lesions in ante-mortem (AM) bruises. Vital reactions, i.e. infiltrating leukocytes, hyper-leukocytosis and pavement of leukocytes, were absent in all incised wounds and bruises regardless of the time of sampling after traumatization. In conclusion, a vital reaction was not present in PM incised wounds, regardless of the time of sampling. Moreover, it was found that AM bruises free of leukocyte infiltration cannot be distinguished from PM bruises, an observation which is of crucial importance when timing bruises in forensic cases.

  7. Temperature dependent ageing mechanisms in Lithium-ion batteries - A Post-Mortem study

    Waldmann, Thomas; Wilka, Marcel; Kasper, Michael; Fleischhammer, Meike; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret


    The effects of temperatures in the range of -20 °C to 70 °C on the ageing behaviour of cycled Lithium-ion batteries are investigated quantitatively by electrochemical methods and Post-Mortem analysis. Commercial 18650-type high-power cells with a LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/LiyMn2O4 blend cathode and graphite/carbon anode were used as test system. The cells were cycled at a rate of 1 C until the discharge capacity falls below 80% of the initial capacity. Interestingly, an Arrhenius plot indicates two different ageing mechanisms for the ranges of -20 °C to 25 °C and 25 °C to 70 °C. Below 25 °C, the ageing rates increase with decreasing temperature, while above 25 °C ageing is accelerated with increasing temperature. The aged 18650 cells are inspected via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), measurements of electrode thickness and X-ray diffraction (XRD) after disassembly to learn more about the chemical reasons of the degradation. The effect of different temperatures on the electrode polarizations are evaluated by assembling electrodes in pouch cells with reference electrode as a model system. We find that the dominating ageing mechanism for T 25 °C the cathodes show degeneration and the anodes will be increasingly covered by SEI layers.

  8. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.


    Aims Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. Methods We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Results Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P < 0.01). Information was more frequently recorded regarding circumstances of death and body position/location than clinical epilepsy history and investigations. Conclusion Our findings support the contribution of examination of the whole fixed brain in SUDEP, with high rates of detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy‐related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. PMID:26300477

  9. Physical aggression among patients with dementia, neuropathologically confirmed post-mortem.

    Liljegren, Madeleine; Landqvist Waldö, Maria; Englund, Elisabet


    To investigate the prevalence of physical aggression among patients with dementia of different types and to analyze potential differences in clinical traits, in terms of singular or repetitive behavior and occurrence in early or late stage of the disease. We also aimed at examining against whom the physical aggression was exerted. We included 281 cases with a neuropathological dementia diagnosis from the brain bank at the Department of Pathology, Lund University, for this retrospective medical records review. The study covers cases with a post-mortem examination performed between 1967 and 2013. Of the 281 patients studied, 97 (35%) patients had a history of exerting physical aggression during the course of their disease. The patients with frontotemporal dementia exerted physical aggression earlier in the course of their disease than Alzheimer's disease patients. The most frequent victims of the patients' physical aggression were health staff and other patients. The aggression also affected family members as well as (to the demented patient) unknown people. The frequency of the physical aggression differed among the different diagnostic groups; frontotemporal dementia patients exhibiting a higher physical aggression frequency score than did Alzheimer's disease patients. The patterns of manifested physical aggression thus differ between the frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease patient groups in this study. Knowledge about such differences may be of value in decision making in patient care. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Partial autolysis of μ/m-calpain during post mortem aging of chicken muscle.

    Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Nanqi; Li, Miaozhen; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong


    The objective of this study was to investigate changes occurring in μ/m-calpain in post mortem chicken muscles and to determine the origin of the unknown bands found in calpain casein zymography. The unknown bands were reported with slightly greater mobility compared to conventional μ/m-calpain bands in casein zymography. Identification of these bands was accomplished using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and with protein phosphatase treatment. Results showed that the unknown bands were corresponding to μ/m-calpain, and dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase did not change their appearance. The calpain samples were then incubated with various concentrations of Ca(2+) to determine the relationship between changes in μ/m-calpain and the appearance of the unknown bands. The products of μ/m-calpain partial autolysis were found to be consistent with the appearance of the unknown bands. Therefore, the appearance of these bands did not result from phosphorylation of μ/m-calpain as previously hypothesized, but from partial autolysis of μ/m-calpain. Also their presence suggests that μ/m-calpain undergoes partial autolysis during aging which may play certain roles in meat quality improvement.

  11. A forensic toxicological dilemma: the interpretation of post-mortem concentrations of central acting analgesics.

    Daldrup, Th


    Dora V., a 88-year-old pensioner suffering from a hiatus hernia, died at the home of an orthopaedist and his wife, an anaesthetist, immediately after she had received a dose of 300 mg pethidine via intravenous infusion in a timeframe of about 90 min. One day before her death a befriended notary of the couple visited Dora V. and obtained a blank signature. After her death, a will was forged using this signature, rendering the couple sole heirs of Dora V.'s estate with a value of several million euros. Post-mortem toxicology was performed in three different institutes of legal medicine. The concentrations of pethidine in peripheral venous blood were between 6.1 and 6.5mg/l and 9.5 and 17.2mg/kg in brain. Pharmacokinetic calculation confirms the given dose. There was no doubt that the cause of death was acute pethidine intoxication. The accused couple claimed that this dose of pethidine was indicated to relief pain, and as the pathologists said in their expert opinions that the hiatus hernia could explain her death, the court had to acquit the accused. This very special case demonstrates that preconceived murder of a sick person with suitable analgesics cannot be proven--at least not with the methods available to forensic toxicology and pathology. This has to be taken into consideration if euthanasia will be legalised under special circumstances.

  12. Cochlear neuropathy in human presbycusis: Confocal analysis of hidden hearing loss in post-mortem tissue.

    Viana, Lucas M; O'Malley, Jennifer T; Burgess, Barbara J; Jones, Dianne D; Oliveira, Carlos A C P; Santos, Felipe; Merchant, Saumil N; Liberman, Leslie D; Liberman, M Charles


    Recent animal work has suggested that cochlear synapses are more vulnerable than hair cells in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. This synaptopathy is invisible in conventional histopathological analysis, because cochlear nerve cell bodies in the spiral ganglion survive for years, and synaptic analysis requires special immunostaining or serial-section electron microscopy. Here, we show that the same quadruple-immunostaining protocols that allow synaptic counts, hair cell counts, neuronal counts and differentiation of afferent and efferent fibers in mouse can be applied to human temporal bones, when harvested within 9 h post-mortem and prepared as dissected whole mounts of the sensory epithelium and osseous spiral lamina. Quantitative analysis of five "normal" ears, aged 54-89 yrs, without any history of otologic disease, suggests that cochlear synaptopathy and the degeneration of cochlear nerve peripheral axons, despite a near-normal hair cell population, may be an important component of human presbycusis. Although primary cochlear nerve degeneration is not expected to affect audiometric thresholds, it may be key to problems with hearing in noise that are characteristic of declining hearing abilities in the aging ear.

  13. Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral Impact Tests using Chestbands.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Arun, Mike W J; Rhule, Heather; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew


    While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given. Analysis of deformation contours, peak deflections, and angulations indicated that the left rear seated specimen were exposed to anterior oblique loading while left front specimens in both tests sustained essentially pure lateral loading to the torso. These data can be used to validate human body computational models. The occurrence of oblique loading in full-scale testing, hitherto unrecognized, may serve to stimulate the exploration of its role in injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in modern vehicles. It may be important to continue research in this area because injury metrics have a lower threshold for angled loading.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem MRI for thoracic abnormalities in fetuses and children

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin; Addison, Shea [Imperial College London, Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie [UCL Institute of Child Health, Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J. [University College London Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, Academic Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Genetics and Genomic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); UCLH NHS Foundation Trusts, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Collaboration: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Autopsy Study (MaRIAS) Collaborative Group


    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for non-cardiac thoracic pathology in fetuses and children, compared with conventional autopsy. Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. A total of 400 unselected fetuses and children underwent PMMR before conventional autopsy, reported blinded to the other dataset. Of 400 non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities, 113 (28 %) were found at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) of PMMR for any thoracic pathology was poor at 39.6 % (31.0, 48.9) and 85.5 % (80.7, 89.2) respectively, with positive predictive value (PPV) 53.7 % (42.9, 64.0) and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.0 % (71.8, 81.4). Overall agreement was 71.8 % (67.1, 76.2). PMMR was most sensitive at detecting anatomical abnormalities, including pleural effusions and lung or thoracic hypoplasia, but particularly poor at detecting infection. PMMR currently has relatively poor diagnostic detection rates for the commonest intra-thoracic pathologies identified at autopsy in fetuses and children, including respiratory tract infection and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The reasonable NPV suggests that normal thoracic appearances at PMMR exclude the majority of important thoracic lesions at autopsy, and so could be useful in the context of minimally invasive autopsy for detecting non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities. (orig.)

  15. Post mortem sampling of the bladder for the identification of victims of fire related deaths.

    Owen, Rebecca; Bedford, Paul; Leditschke, Jodie; Schlenker, Andrew; Hartman, Dadna


    In a coronial setting a deceased person must be formally identified. It is difficult to identify a deceased person when their physical features are disrupted and identification by visual means cannot occur. In the absence of visual identification, the confirmation of identity of a deceased person relies on the scientific comparison of information obtained post mortem with ante mortem information. The ante mortem information may include dental and medical records, fingerprints, and DNA profiling. For cases involving incinerated remains, this traditionally requires the collection of blood, muscle or bone samples from the deceased (depending on the severity of the burns) for DNA analysis and subsequent comparison to a reference sample for kinship determination. Following on from work conducted during the DVI response to a plane crash in Papua New Guinea in 2011, a study has been performed examining the viability of utilising material obtained from bladder swabs in deaths associated with fires. Twenty-eight cases were analysed during 2012 with deaths occurring in motor vehicle and aviation accidents, as well as house fires, homicides and from self-immolation. Bladder and conventional (blood, muscle or bone) samples were subjected to DNA analysis and compared. Our findings demonstrate that the bladder samples all gave DNA of sufficient quality for DNA profiling. This easily obtained sample (when available) can be now recommended in the scientific identification process of fire affected deceased persons.

  16. Post-mortem analysis of lactate concentration in diabetics and metformin poisonings.

    Keltanen, T; Nenonen, T; Ketola, R A; Ojanperä, I; Sajantila, A; Lindroos, K


    Lactate is produced in carbohydrate metabolism under anaerobic conditions. Lactic acidosis occurs when the production of lactate exceeds its removal. In post-mortem (PM) context, the lactic acidosis is difficult to interpret due to unknown pathophysiological factors prior to death and PM changes that may affect the lactate levels. We evaluated 1865 medico-legal autopsy cases where the quantitation of glucose, lactate, and ketone bodies was performed as a part of the cause of death (CoD) investigation. Lactate was shown to ascend in a logarithmic manner as the PM interval increased until a plateau was achieved approximately after 8-10 days PM, and the elevation was caused mainly by PM changes. The lactate level was higher than the mean in cases where the CoD was diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) or metformin poisoning. Although there was a correlation between metformin and lactate levels, our findings suggest the DM2 and its complications were the cause for elevated lactate levels rather than metformin, since the lactate levels were similar in DM2-associated deaths where no metformin was detected. Elevated lactate levels in PM samples rather referred to metabolic disturbances often caused by DM2. An assay to detect D-lactate in PM samples was described.

  17. Post-mortem in the Victorian asylum: practice, purpose and findings at the Littlemore County Lunatic Asylum, 1886-7.

    Cullen, Lynsey T


    This article examines the purpose of the post-mortem in the late Victorian asylum and discusses what the findings reveal about contemporary understanding of mental health. By examining the practice at the Littlemore Asylum of Oxford, the definition of the asylum post-mortem will be questioned and issues of consent and ownership of the dead body explored. It will be argued that the purpose of the examination was partly to appease the demands of the Commissioners in Lunacy, to protect the asylum against accusations of malpractice, and to appease the resident assistant medical officer's own morbid curiosity. The examinations would therefore be better defined as dissections. This article will challenge understanding of institutional death, the legal processes required for dissection, and mental healthcare.

  18. Unusually extensive head trauma in a hydraulic elevator accident: post-mortem MSCT findings, autopsy results and scene reconstruction.

    Jacobsen, Christina; Schön, Corinna A; Kneubuehl, Beat; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin


    Accidental or intentional falls from a height are a form of blunt trauma and occur frequently in forensic medicine. Reports describing elevator accidents as a small subcategory of falls from heights are rare in the medical literature and no report on injury patterns or scene reconstruction of such an accident was found. A case of an accident in a hydraulic elevator with a man falling 3m was examined using post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and autopsy. The man suffered an unusually extensive trauma and died at the scene. Post-mortem MSCT examination showed a comminute fracture of the skull, the right femur and the first lumbar vertebra. Severe lacerations of the brain with epidural, subdural and subarachnoidal haemorrhages over both hemispheres were diagnosed. Autopsy confirmed these findings. To reconstruct the accident we used radiological and autopsy results as well as findings at the scene.

  19. Virtopsy post-mortem multi-slice computed tomograhy (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating descending tonsillar herniation: comparison to clinical studies

    Aghayev, Emin; Yen, Kathrin; Thali, Michael; Jackowski, Christian; Dirnhofer, Richard [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, IRM-Buehlstrasse 20, 3012, Bern (Switzerland); Sonnenschein, Martin [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, 3010, Bern (Switzerland); Ozdoba, Christoph [Department of Neuroradiology, Inselspital, 3010, Bern (Switzerland)


    Descending cerebellar tonsillar herniation is a serious and common complication of intracranial mass lesions. We documented three cases of fatal blunt head injury using post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results showed massive bone and soft-tissue injuries of the head and signs of high intracranial pressure with herniation of the cerebellar tonsils. The diagnosis of tonsillar herniation by post-mortem radiological examination was performed prior to autopsy. This paper describes the detailed retrospective evaluation of the position of the cerebellar tonsils in post-mortem imaging in comparison to clinical studies. (orig.)

  20. Post mortem computed tomography and core needle biopsy in comparison to autopsy in eleven bernese mountain Dogs with histiocytic sarcoma

    Hostettler, Franziska Céline; Welle, Monika Maria; Wiener, Dominique Judith; Posthaus, Horst; Geissbühler, Urs


    Background: Bernese mountain dogs are reported to have a shorter life expectancy than other breeds. A Major reason for this has been assigned to a high tumour prevalence, especially of histiocytic sarcoma. The efforts made by the breeding clubs to improve the longevity with the help of genetic tests and breeding value estimations are impeded by insufficiently reliable diagnoses regarding the cause of death. The current standard for post mortem examination in animals is performance of an...

  1. Estimating the Post-Mortem Interval of skeletonized remains: The use of Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectro-microscopy

    Creagh, Dudley; Cameron, Alyce


    When skeletonized remains are found it becomes a police task to determine to identify the body and establish the cause of death. It assists investigators if the Post-Mortem Interval (PMI) can be established. Hitherto no reliable qualitative method of estimating the PMI has been found. A quantitative method has yet to be developed. This paper shows that IR spectroscopy and Raman microscopy have the potential to form the basis of a quantitative method.

  2. The possible influence of micro-organisms and putrefaction in the production of GHB in post-mortem biological fluid.

    Elliott, Simon; Lowe, Pauline; Symonds, Amanda


    In recent years, the post-mortem production of the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biological fluids (e.g. blood and urine) has caused various interpretative problems for toxicologists. Previously, other researchers have shown certain microbial species (Pseudomonas spp. and Clostridium aminobutyricum) possess the necessary enzymes to convert GABA to GHB. A preliminary investigation involving putrefied post-mortem blood indicated there was no observed relationship between "endogenous" GHB concentrations and concentrations of common putrefactive markers (tryptamine and phenyl-2-ethylamine). Microbiological analysis identified the presence of various micro-organisms: Clostridia spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalis and Aeromonoas spp. Equine plasma, human blood and urine samples were inoculated with these and an additional micro-organism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and incubated at 22 degrees C for 1 month. Following comparison with control samples and pre-inoculation concentrations, the data indicated an apparent production of GHB in unpreserved P. aeruginosa inoculated blood (2.3 mg/l). All other fluoride-preserved and unpreserved samples (including controls) had GHB concentrations post-mortem GHB concentrations, this paper proposes a potential microbial production of GHB with time.

  3. Comparison of the pathology of cerebral white matter with post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the elderly brain.

    Fernando, M S; O'Brien, J T; Perry, R H; English, P; Forster, G; McMeekin, W; Slade, J Y; Golkhar, A; Matthews, F E; Barber, R; Kalaria, R N; Ince, P G


    White matter lesions (WML) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans are associated with ageing. They are unrelated to specific disorders, and their impact on cognitive and other brain functions is poorly characterized. Pathological studies often omit systematic survey of WML because of the need to study multiple full coronal tissue blocks, and uncertainty over the significance of lesions identified in periventricular and deep subcortical regions. Post-mortem MRI provides a means of mapping WML but the sensitivity and specificity of the method are unresolved. In this study post-mortem MRI of WML in fixed brain slices was compared with pathology in 33 brains donated to the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS). This study shows that MRI detection of WML was less sensitive than pathology: periventricaular lesions (PVL) sensitivity = 95% (87-99%), specificity = 71% (44-90%); deep subcortical lesions (DSCL) sensitivity = 86% (79-93%), specificity = 80% (72-88%). False negative MRI was associated with milder pathology, but lesions detected by myelin attenuation alone showed both microglial and endothelial activation. Therefore post-mortem MRI of formalin-fixed brain slices is a reliable method to obtain systematic data on the severity and distribution of cerebral white matter disease, and appears to detect those WML most likely to have clinical impact.

  4. Midbrain dopamine function in schizophrenia and depression: a post-mortem and positron emission tomographic imaging study.

    Howes, Oliver D; Williams, Matthew; Ibrahim, Kemal; Leung, Garret; Egerton, Alice; McGuire, Philip K; Turkheimer, Federico


    Elevated in vivo markers of presynaptic striatal dopamine activity have been a consistent finding in schizophrenia, and include a large effect size elevation in dopamine synthesis capacity. However, it is not known if the dopaminergic dysfunction is limited to the striatal terminals of dopamine neurons, or is also evident in the dopamine neuron cell bodies, which mostly originate in the substantia nigra. The aim of our studies was therefore to determine whether dopamine synthesis capacity is altered in the substantia nigra of people with schizophrenia, and how this relates to symptoms. In a post-mortem study, a semi-quantitative analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase staining was conducted in nigral dopaminergic cells from post-mortem tissue from patients with schizophrenia (n = 12), major depressive disorder (n = 13) and matched control subjects (n = 13). In an in vivo imaging study, nigral and striatal dopaminergic function was measured in patients with schizophrenia (n = 29) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 29) using (18)F-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine ((18)F-DOPA) positron emission tomography. In the post-mortem study we found that tyrosine hydroxylase staining was significantly increased in nigral dopaminergic neurons in schizophrenia compared with both control subjects (P dopamine synthesis capacity is seen in the nigral origin of dopamine neurons as well as their striatal terminals in schizophrenia, and is linked to symptom severity in patients.

  5. Comparison of endogenous GHB concentrations in blood and hair in death cases with emphasis on the post mortem interval.

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M


    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound which has a story of clinical use and illicit abuse since the 1960's. The possibility to use a multi-sample approach for GHB evaluation, including whole blood and hair, to better characterize a forensic toxicology case and evaluate a possible causal association with the death is an exciting up-to-date issue. In addition, its post-mortem behaviour, namely regarding degradation and metabolism, has been increasingly investigated as a putative biomarker for post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. Thus, in order to contribute to clarification of this specific aspect, whole blood and hair post-mortem GHB levels were evaluated in 32 real cases with previous information on death and autopsy data. The results obtained suggest that the PMI (until 5 days between death and sampling) influences GHB whole blood concentration, but not GHB levels in hair samples. No differences were encountered for the other parameters evaluated, including age, gender, cause of death and presence or absence of substances. This study brings new insights regarding the usefulness of GHB levels in forensic toxicology, which might be further strengthened with larger, but comparable, studies from other laboratories and institutions in the context of legal medicine.

  6. Analysis of axial prestretch in the abdominal aorta with reference to post mortem interval and degree of atherosclerosis.

    Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Kulvajtova, Marketa


    It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This prestretch plays an important role in arterial physiology. We have recently determined that the decrease of axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta is so closely correlated with age that it is suitable for forensic applications (estimation of the age at time of death for cadavers of unknown identity). Since post mortem autolysis may affect the reliability of an estimate based on axial prestretch, the present study aims to detail analysis of the effect of post mortem time. The abdominal aorta is a prominent site of atherosclerotic changes (ATH), which may potentially affect longitudinal prestretch. Thus ATH was also involved in the analysis. Axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta, post mortem interval (PMI), and the degree of ATH were documented in 365 regular autopsies. The data was first age adjusted to remove any supposed correlation with age. After the age adjustment of the sample, the correlation analysis showed no significant PMI effects on the prestretch in non-putrefied bodies. Analysis of the prestretch variance with respect to ATH suggested that ATH is not a suitable factor to explain the prestretch variability remaining after the age adjustment. It was concluded that, although atherosclerotic plaques may certainly change the biomechanics of arteries, they do not significantly affect the longitudinal prestretch in the human abdominal aorta.

  7. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review.

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping


    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock's skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further.

  8. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E


    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P0.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-mortem forensic neuroimaging: correlation of MSCT and MRI findings with autopsy results.

    Yen, Kathrin; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Scheurer, Eva; Ozdoba, Christoph; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Anon, Javier; Frickey, Nathalie; Zwygart, Karin; Weis, Joachim; Dirnhofer, Richard


    Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly used for forensic purposes. Based on broad experience in clinical neuroimaging, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were performed in 57 forensic cases with the goal to evaluate the radiological methods concerning their usability for forensic head and brain examination. An experienced clinical radiologist evaluated the imaging data. The results were compared to the autopsy findings that served as the gold standard with regard to common forensic neurotrauma findings such as skull fractures, soft tissue lesions of the scalp, various forms of intracranial hemorrhage or signs of increased brain pressure. The sensitivity of the imaging methods ranged from 100% (e.g., heat-induced alterations, intracranial gas) to zero (e.g., mediobasal impression marks as a sign of increased brain pressure, plaques jaunes). The agreement between MRI and CT was 69%. The radiological methods prevalently failed in the detection of lesions smaller than 3mm of size, whereas they were generally satisfactory concerning the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage. Due to its advanced 2D and 3D post-processing possibilities, CT in particular possessed certain advantages in comparison with autopsy with regard to forensic reconstruction. MRI showed forensically relevant findings not seen during autopsy in several cases. The partly limited sensitivity of imaging that was observed in this retrospective study was based on several factors: besides general technical limitations it became apparent that clinical radiologists require a sound basic forensic background in order to detect specific signs. Focused teaching sessions will be essential to improve the outcome in future examinations. On the other hand, the autopsy protocols should be further standardized to allow an exact comparison of imaging and autopsy data. In consideration of these facts, MRI and CT have the power to play an important role in future forensic

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    Arthurs, Owen J., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: [Clinical Epidemiology, Nutrition and Biostatistics Section, UCL Institute of Child health, London (United Kingdom); Addison, Shea, E-mail: [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod, E-mail: [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Norman, Wendy, E-mail: [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J., E-mail: [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); and others


    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities.

  11. Lateral neck injury assessments in side impact using post mortem human subject tests.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank A; Wolfla, Christopher E; Maiman, Dennis J


    Current neck injury criteria are based on matching upper cervical spine injuries from piglet tests to airbag deployment loads and pairing kinematics from child dummies. These "child-based" scaled data together with adult human cadaver tolerances in axial loading are used to specify neck injury thresholds in axial compression and tension, and flexion and extension moment about the occipital condyles; no thresholds are specified for any other force or moment including lateral bending. The objective of this study was to develop a testing methodology and to determine the lateral bending moment injury threshold under coronal loading. Post mortem human subjects (PMHS) were used. Specimens consisted of whole body and isolated head-neck complexes with intact musculature. Intact specimen positioning included: sitting PMHS upright on a rigid seat, supporting the torso by a plate, maintaining Frankfurt plane horizontal. Isolated head-neck complexes were fixed at T1 with the occiput connected via a custom apparatus to a testing device to induce lateral bending motion. Head angular and linear accelerations and angular velocities were computed using a pyramid nine accelerometer package on the head; specimen-specific physical properties including center of gravity and moments of inertia in the three-dimensions; and equations of equilibrium. These data were used to determine neck loads at the occipital condyles. No specimens sustained injuries, identified by palpation, x-rays, CT, and autopsy. Results from 24 tests indicated that PMHS head-neck complexes can tolerate 75 Nm of coronal moment at low axial load without failure, and this level may be used as an initial estimate of the injury reference value under lateral loading to the human head-neck complex.

  12. Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts.

    Lebarbé, Matthieu; Baudrit, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Compigne, Sabine; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Fujii, Takumi; Douard, Richard


    The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50(th) dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries. In the second configuration, four specimens out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. Two of them presented sacroiliac joint fractures associated with pubic area injuries. The other two presented injuries at the pubic area and acetabulum only. The strain gauges signals suggested that the pubic fractures occurred before the sacroiliac joint fractures in the great majority of the cases (five cases out of seven). Conclusions - Even in the oblique impact conditions of the present study, the pubic symphysis area was observed to be the weakest zone of the pelvis and its failure the predominant cause of sacroiliac joint injuries. It was hypothesized that the failure of the pubic rami allowed the hemi-pelvis to rotate inward, and that this closing-book motion induced the failure of the sacroiliac joint.

  13. Skeletal abnormalities in fetuses with Down`s syndrome: a radiographic post-mortem study

    Stempfle, N.; Brisse, H. [Department of Radiology, R. Debre Hospital, Paris (France); Huten, Y.; Fredouille, C.; Nessmann, C. [Department of Developmental Biology, R. Debre Hospital, Paris (France)


    Objective. To evaluate skeletal abnormalities on post-mortem radiographs of fetuses with Down`s syndrome. Materials and methods. Biometrical and morphological criteria, which are used for US prenatal detection of trisomy 21, were assessed. Limb long bones, biparietal diameter (BPD)/occipito-frontal diameter (OFD) ratio, ossification of nasal bones and appearance of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit (P2) in 60 fetuses with Down`s syndrome were analysed and compared with 82 normal fetuses matched for gestational age (GA) from 15 to 40 weeks` gestation (WG). Results. We observed reduced growth velocity of limb long bones during the third trimester in both groups, but the reduction was more pronounced in the trisomic group. Brachycephaly was found as early as 15 WG in Down`s syndrome and continued throughout gestation (sensitivity 0.28, specificity 1). Ossification of the nasal bones, which can be detected in normal fetuses from 14 WG, was absent in one quarter of trisomic fetuses, regardless of GA. The middle phalanx of the fifth digit was evaluated by comparison with the distal phalanx (P3) of the same digit. We found that P2 was not ossified in 11/31 trisomic fetuses before 23 WG, and was either not ossified or hypoplastic in 17/29 cases after 24 WG (sensitivity 0.56, specificity 1). Conclusions. Three key skeletal signs were present in trisomic fetuses: brachycephaly, absence of nasal bone ossification, and hypoplasia of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit. All these signs are appropriate to prenatal US screening. When present, they fully justify determination of the fetal karyotype by amniocentesis. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 25 refs.

  14. Effect of post-mortem delay on N-terminal huntingtin protein fragments in human control and Huntington disease brain lysates.

    Schut, Menno H; Patassini, Stefano; Kim, Eric H; Bullock, Jocelyn; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Pepers, Barry A; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C


    Huntington disease is associated with elongation of a CAG repeat in the HTT gene that results in a mutant huntingtin protein. Several studies have implicated N-terminal huntingtin protein fragments in Huntington disease pathogenesis. Ideally, these fragments are studied in human brain tissue. However, the use of human brain tissue comes with certain unavoidable variables such as post mortem delay, artefacts from freeze-thaw cycles and subject-to-subject variation. Knowledge on how these variables might affect N-terminal huntingtin protein fragments in post mortem human brain is important for a proper interpretation of study results. The effect of post mortem delay on protein in human brain is known to vary depending on the protein of interest. In the present study, we have assessed the effect of post mortem delay on N-terminal huntingtin protein fragments using western blot. We mimicked post mortem delay in one individual control case and one individual Huntington disease case with low initial post mortem delay. The influence of subject-to-subject variation on N-terminal huntingtin fragments was assessed in human cortex and human striatum using two cohorts of control and Huntington disease subjects. Our results show that effects of post mortem delay on N-terminal huntingtin protein fragments are minor in our individual subjects. Additionally, one freeze-thaw cycle decreases the huntingtin western blot signal intensity in the cortex control subject, but does not introduce additional N-terminal huntingtin fragments. Our results suggest that subject-to-subject variation contributes more to variability in N-terminal huntingtin fragments than post mortem delay.

  15. Technical note: early post-mortem changes of human bone in taphonomy with μCT.

    Le Garff, Erwan; Mesli, Vadim; Delannoy, Yann; Colard, Thomas; Demondion, Xavier; Becart, Anne; Hedouin, Valéry


    Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month. The μCT features were identical for every sample. Each set of data from the μCTs was reconstructed, registered, and analyzed in terms of the total volume, bone volume, bone surface, number of trabeculae, trabeculae thickness, and mean distance of the trabeculae. The samples were conserved in a glass box in 20 °C air with 60% humidity in a laboratory hood between each μCT acquisition. Descriptive statistics were determined. Each sample was observed and compared to itself over time.After 1 month of conservation, the mean bone volume (-1.9%), bone surface (-5.1%), and trabecular number (-12.35%) decreased, whereas the mean trabecular separation (+5.55%) and trabecular thickness (+12.7%) increased. Many variations (i.e., increases and decreases) were observed between the extraction of the sample and the end of the 4 weeks of conservation. The present observations may be explained by bone diagenesis. Previous observations have indicated that protein and lipid losses occur with bone weight and volume losses. These diagenesis effects may explain the trabecular modifications observed in the present work. We observed many bone variations with the μCT scans between the beginning and the end of the conservation that had no explanations. Additional studies, particularly studies involving statistics, need to be performed to confirm our observations and explain these results

  16. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report

    Adem Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is an important, but newly recognized, human pathogen. For the first time, post-mortem findings from a fatal case of knowlesi malaria are reported here. Case presentation A formerly healthy 40 year-old male became symptomatic 10 days after spending time in the jungle of North Borneo. Four days later, he presented to hospital in a state of collapse and died within two hours. He was hyponatraemic and had elevated blood urea, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and amino transferase values; he was also thrombocytopenic and eosinophilic. Dengue haemorrhagic shock was suspected and a post-mortem examination performed. Investigations for dengue virus were negative. Blood for malaria parasites indicated hyperparasitaemia and single species P. knowlesi infection was confirmed by nested-PCR. Macroscopic pathology of the brain and endocardium showed multiple petechial haemorrhages, the liver and spleen were enlarged and lungs had features consistent with ARDS. Microscopic pathology showed sequestration of pigmented parasitized red blood cells in the vessels of the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart and kidney without evidence of chronic inflammatory reaction in the brain or any other organ examined. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of acute tubular necrosis and endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Conclusions The overall picture in this case was one of systemic malaria infection that fit the WHO classification for severe malaria. Post-mortem findings in this case were unexpectedly similar to those that define fatal falciparum malaria, including cerebral pathology. There were important differences including the absence of coma despite petechial haemorrhages and parasite sequestration in the brain. These results suggest that further

  17. Post-mortem magnetic resonance foetal imaging: a study of morphological correlation with conventional autopsy and histopathological findings.

    Vullo, Annamaria; Panebianco, Valeria; Cannavale, Giuseppe; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Cipolloni, Luigi; Frati, Paola; Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Francesco; Catalano, Carlo; Fineschi, Vittorio


    The aim of the present study is to offer our experience concerning post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) in foetal death cases and an evaluation of the differences between the findings acquired by PMMR and by forensic autopsy. Fifteen foetuses were recruited from July 2014 to December 2015. These had suffered intrauterine death in women in the 21st to 38th week of gestation who were treated in the emergency department for non-perception of foetal movements. We performed a PMMR on foetuses, 3 ± 1 days on average from the time of death, and then a complete forensic autopsy was performed. All 15 foetuses were examined with a whole-body study protocol, starting from the skull, down to and including the lower limbs. The total time of examination ranged from 20 to 30 min in each case. The external evaluation and description of post-mortem phenomena (maceration), record of the weight and detection and the various measurements of foetal diameters were evaluated before performing autopsy. A complete histopathological study was performed in each case. Out of 15 cases examined, eight were negative for structural anatomical abnormalities and/or diseases, both in the preliminary radiological examination and the traditional autopsy. In the remaining seven cases, pathological findings were detected by PMMR with corresponding results at autopsy. PMMR can provide useful information on foetal medical conditions and result in improved diagnostic classification. It may enable the planning of a more suitable technique before proceeding to autopsy, including focusing on certain aspects of organ pathology otherwise not detectable. The association between PMMR, post-mortem examination and related histological study of the foetus-placenta unit could help reduce the percentage of cases in which the cause of foetal death remains unexplained. Lastly, it may allow a selective sampling of the organ in order to target histological investigations.

  18. Assessment of the use of gross lesions at post-mortem to detect outbreaks of classical swine fever.

    Elbers, Armin R W; Vos, Jan H; Bouma, Annemarie; van Exsel, Ad C A; Stegeman, Arjan


    The performance of pathological findings as a diagnostic tool for the detection of classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks during the 1997/1998 CSF-epidemic in The Netherlands was evaluated by constructing and analysing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. This was done at the individual pig level and at the submission level (a group of pigs from the same herd submitted together for post-mortem investigation). At post-mortem examination, the tonsils, spleen, ileo-caecal valve and renal pelvis were sampled, sent to the reference laboratory, and tested by means of a CSF-specific fluorescent antibody test in combination with a confirmatory test. This resulted in an infection status at the individual pig level. The infection status and pathological findings of 1072 individual pigs from a total of 230 infected herds were included in this analysis. We also included submissions of pigs from herds that were sent to post-mortem examination because of a clinically CSF-suspect situation but afterwards were concluded to be from non-infected herds. Infection status and pathological findings of 1224 individual pigs from a total of 241 non-infected herds were included in the analysis. Pneumonia, pleuritis, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary oedema, chronic gastric ulceration, dry faecal contents in the colon, conjunctivitis, haemorrhages in the renal pelvis, renal haemorrhages, splenic enlargement, haemorrhages in the urinary bladder, haemorrhagic and enlarged lymph nodes were the most frequently recorded pathological findings during a post-mortem examination of pigs submitted in a CSF-suspect clinical situation. However, some of these pathological findings (e.g. pneumonia, pleuritis) were almost evenly distributed in infected and in non-infected pigs, resulting in a high sensitivity combined with a low specificity. The area under the ROC curve of pathological findings at the individual pig level and at the submission level was 0.720 and 0.782, respectively, which was

  19. Hippocampal Microbleed on a Post-Mortem T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo 7.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    J. De Reuck


    Full Text Available The present post-mortem study of a brain from an Alzheimer patient showed on a T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0-T MRI of a coronal brain section a hyposignal in the hippocampus, suggesting a microbleed. On the corresponding histological examination, only iron deposits around the granular cellular layer and in blood vessel walls of the hippocampus were observed without evidence of a bleeding. This case report illustrates that the detection of microbleeds on MRI has to be interpreted with caution.

  20. Efeito do resfriamento sobre a textura post-mortem da carne do Matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Pisces: Characiforme)

    Mahecha, Hector Suarez


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências dos Alimentos. O amolecimento da carne dos peixes, post-mortem, é um fator de qualidade diretamente influenciado pelas características dos tipos de colágenos presentes em cada espécie. A degradação do colágeno está relacionada com a armazenagem dos peixes sob resfriamento. Algumas pesquisas têm demonstrado, através de testes bioquímicos e, principalmente, atra...

  1. New evidence for old lore--urinary bladder distension on post-mortem computed tomography is related to intoxication.

    Rohner, Carolina; Franckenberg, Sabine; Schwendener, Nicole; Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas; Thali, Michael J; Hatch, Gary M; Ruder, Thomas D


    Distension of the urinary bladder is reported to be a sign of intoxication at autopsy. The purpose of this study was to compare radiologically calculated urinary bladder volume (UBV) to autopsy measurements of UBV, and to investigate the relationship between intoxication and calculated UBV. Autopsy reports, toxicology reports and post-mortem CTs of 332 adult human cadavers were retrospectively analyzed, 259 cases were included in the final population. Spearman's rho test was used to compare calculated UBV to autopsy measurements. Significance levels for UBV in relation to toxicology results were investigated with the Mann-Whitney test. Spearman's rho test was also used to correlate the widest left-right bladder diameter on axial images to calculated UBV. Both calculated UBV and axial diameters were subjected to receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for individual cutoff values. There is a strong correlation and high consistency (r=0.92, p330 ml indicate positive toxicology results with a sensitivity/specificity of 40%/87% and 25%/97% respectively. Axial urinary bladder diameter of 8.5 cm and >10 cm indicate positive toxicology results with a sensitivity/specificity of 36%/85% and 16%/95% respectively. Radiologically calculated UBV accurately represents the autoptically measured UBV. The occurrence of urinary bladder distension on post-mortem imaging should raise suspicion of intoxication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Teaching post-mortem external examination in undergraduate medical education--the formal and the informal curriculum.

    Anders, Sven; Fischer-Bruegge, Dorothee; Fabian, Merle; Raupach, Tobias; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna; Harendza, Sigrid


    In undergraduate medical education, the training of post-mortem external examination on dead bodies might evoke strong emotional reactions in medical students that could counteract the intended learning goals. We evaluated student perception of a forensic medicine course, their perceived learning outcome (via self-assessment) and possible tutor-dependent influences on the overall evaluation of the course by a questionnaire-based survey among 150 medical students in Hamburg, Germany. The majority of students identified post-mortem external examination as an important learning objective in undergraduate medical education and did not feel that the dignity of the deceased was offended by the course procedures. After the course, more than 70% of the students felt able to perform an external examination and to fill in a death certificate. Respectful behavior of course tutors towards the deceased entailed better overall course ratings by students (pformal curriculum) as well as tutor behavior (informal curriculum) in undergraduate education in forensic medicine. Furthermore, we suggest embedding teaching in forensic medicine in longitudinal curricula on death and dying and on the health consequences of interpersonal violence.

  3. Prevalence and concordance between the clinical and the post-mortem diagnosis of dementia in a psychogeriatric clinic.

    Grandal Leiros, B; Pérez Méndez, L I; Zelaya Huerta, M V; Moreno Eguinoa, L; García-Bragado, F; Tuñón Álvarez, T; Roldán Larreta, J J


    The aim of our study is to describe the types of dementia found in a series of patients and to estimate the level of agreement between the clinical diagnosis and post-mortem diagnosis. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of the types of dementia found in our series and we established the level of concordance between the clinical and the post-mortem diagnoses. The diagnosis was made based on current diagnostic criteria. 114 cases were included. The most common clinical diagnoses both at a clinical and autopsy level were Alzheimer disease and mixed dementia but the prevalence was quite different. While at a clinical level, prevalence was 39% for Alzheimer disease and 18% for mixed dementia, in the autopsy level, prevalence was 22% and 34%, respectively. The agreement between the clinical and the autopsy diagnoses was 62% (95% CI 53-72%). Almost a third of our patients were not correctly diagnosed in vivo. The most common mistake was the underdiagnosis of cerebrovascular pathology. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in confrontation with conventional forensic autopsy of victims of motorcycle accidents.

    Moskała, Artur; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kluza, Piotr; Romaszko, Karol; Lopatin, Oleksij


    Since traffic accidents are an important problem in forensic medicine, there is a constant search for new solutions to help with an investigation process in such cases. In recent years there was a rapid development of post-mortem imaging techniques, especially post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). In our work we concentrated on a potential advantage of PMCT in cases of motorcycle accident fatalities. The results of forensic autopsy were compared with combined results of the autopsy and PMCT to check in which areas use of these two techniques gives statistically important increase in number of findings. The hypothesis was confirmed in case of pneumothorax and fractures of skull, spine, clavicle, scapula, lower leg bones. As for majority of other bone fractures locations and brain injures there were single cases with pathologies visible only in PMCT, but too few to reach expected level of p-value. In case of injuries of solid organs and soft tissues statistical analysis did not confirmed any advantage of unenhanced PMCT use. On the whole it has been shown that PMCT used as an adjunct to forensic autopsy can cause an increase in information about vitally important regions in case of motorcycle accident fatalities.

  5. Assessing the relationship between farming practices, laboratory analyses and post-mortem findings: a case study in pig fattening.

    Langkabel, N; Fries, R


    European Union legislation on animal production associated with food safety requires the collection and management of information and data about the farm, the herd and the individual animal. This paper describes the technical steps of the generation, collection and interpretation of data from 296 pig-fattening farms, belonging to two farming associations and using indoor production systems (56 management parameters). The paper also describes post-mortem findings and the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for antibodies to salmonellae, Trichinella spp. and Yersinia spp. A total of nearly 30 million data points were collected and analysed for this study. The results of the ELISA were negative for Trichinella spp.; for salmonellae and Yersinia spp., both negative and positive results were obtained. Analysis of the farm management parameters showed no significant differences; therefore, the cut-off levels for salmonellae and Yersinia spp. were increased, in order to identify farms with a greater hygiene burden. Post-mortem findings, possibly related to 'farm hygiene', were used in the analysis. As a result, three farms with particular management decisions were identified as potentially having contributed to the high burden of pathogens detected using ELISA. A relationship between laboratory results and farm management parameters assessed from yes/no answers could not be established in this study without further work on the available data set.

  6. Post mortem magnetic resonance imaging in the fetus, infant and child: A comparative study with conventional autopsy (MaRIAS Protocol

    Thayyil Sudhin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally invasive autopsy by post mortem magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been suggested as an alternative for conventional autopsy in view of the declining consented autopsy rates. However, large prospective studies rigorously evaluating the accuracy of such an approach are lacking. We intend to compare the accuracy of a minimally invasive autopsy approach using post mortem MR imaging with that of conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children for detection of the major pathological abnormalities and/or determination of the cause of death. Methods/Design We recruited 400 consecutive fetuses, newborns and children referred for conventional autopsy to one of the two participating hospitals over a three-year period. We acquired whole body post mortem MR imaging using a 1.5 T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Enlargen, Germany prior to autopsy. The total scan time varied between 90 to 120 minutes. Each MR image was reported by a team of four specialist radiologists (paediatric neuroradiology, paediatric cardiology, paediatric chest & abdominal imaging and musculoskeletal imaging, blinded to the autopsy data. Conventional autopsy was performed according to the guidelines set down by the Royal College of Pathologists (UK by experienced paediatric or perinatal pathologists, blinded to the MR data. The MR and autopsy data were recorded using predefined categorical variables by an independent person. Discussion Using conventional post mortem as the gold standard comparator, the MR images will be assessed for accuracy of the anatomical morphology, associated lesions, clinical usefulness of information and determination of the cause of death. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values of post mortem MR alone and MR imaging along with other minimally invasive post mortem investigations will be presented for the final diagnosis, broad diagnostic categories and for specific diagnosis of each system

  7. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido


    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (pGHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature.

  8. PÉRDIDA DE TEXTURA post mortem DE LA CARNE DE PESCADO DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO EN FRÍO Post Mortem Lost of Texture of Fish Meat During Cold Storage



    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una revisión sobre la conformación e importancia del tejido conectivo de la carne de los peces. El ablandamiento post mortem en los peces es un factor de calidad directamente influenciado por las características de los colágenos presentes en cada especie. La degradación del colágeno está relacionada con los fenómenos que acontecen durante el almacenamiento en frío o congelamiento. Varias investigaciones han demostrado a través de análisis bioquímicos y, principalmente, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y transmisión, que la pérdida de la textura en la carne de los peces es uno de los efectos ocasionados por la degradación del tejido conectivo pericelular y no por el tejido conectivo intersticial. En la actualidad son propuestas algunas prácticas postcosecha para disminuir este fenómeno.This work is a review on the conformation and importance of connective tissue of fish meat. The post mortem softening of fish meat as a quality factor is influenced by the characteristics of the collagens present in each species. The degradation of collagen appears to be related to freezing. By biochemical analysis as well as electronic microscopy many researches have demonstrated that the loss of texture is related to pericelular connective tissue degradation. Currently some post crop practices are proposed to reduce this phenomenon.

  9. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on palatability of low marbled beef loins.

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T


    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of post-mortem aging period (14 to 49days), dry vs. wet (D vs W) type of aging on the palatability of bone-in (BI) beef short loins (n=96) and boneless (BL) strip loins (n=96) possessing United States Department of Agriculture marbling scores between Slight and Small. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) scores decreased linearly over time (P=0.0001). WBSF was not influenced by aging method or loin type. Aged flavor was higher for DBL than for DBI with WBL and WBI intermediate. Dry aging strip loins increase aged flavor yet did not improve beefy flavor compared to wet aging. Based on objective data and panelist's scores for tenderness, juiciness and aged flavor, a boneless, 28days wet aged strip steak, cooked to 71°C would provide the best combination of eating satisfaction and value.

  10. Genomic convergence analysis of schizophrenia: mRNA sequencing reveals altered synaptic vesicular transport in post-mortem cerebellum.

    Joann Mudge

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCZ is a common, disabling mental illness with high heritability but complex, poorly understood genetic etiology. As the first phase of a genomic convergence analysis of SCZ, we generated 16.7 billion nucleotides of short read, shotgun sequences of cDNA from post-mortem cerebellar cortices of 14 patients and six, matched controls. A rigorous analysis pipeline was developed for analysis of digital gene expression studies. Sequences aligned to approximately 33,200 transcripts in each sample, with average coverage of 450 reads per gene. Following adjustments for confounding clinical, sample and experimental sources of variation, 215 genes differed significantly in expression between cases and controls. Golgi apparatus, vesicular transport, membrane association, Zinc binding and regulation of transcription were over-represented among differentially expressed genes. Twenty three genes with altered expression and involvement in presynaptic vesicular transport, Golgi function and GABAergic neurotransmission define a unifying molecular hypothesis for dysfunction in cerebellar cortex in SCZ.

  11. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    R. Ugolini


    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  12. Post-Mortem Analysis after High-Power Operation of the TD24_R05 Tested in Xbox_1

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Mouriz Irazabal, Nerea; Aicheler, Markus


    The CLIC prototype structure TD24_R05 has been high power tested in Xbox_1 in 2013. This report summarizes all examinations conducted after the high power test including bead-pull measurements, structure cutting, metrology and SEM observations. A synthesis of the various results is then made. The structure developed a hot cell progressively during operation and detuning was observed after the test was complete. The post mortem examination clearly showed a developed standing wave pattern which was explained by the physical deformation of one of the coupler iris. An elevated breakdown count through SEM imaging in the suspected hot cell however could not be confirmed. Neither any particular feature offering an explanation for the observed longitudinal breakdown distribution could be detected.

  13. Post-mortem toxicology: A pilot study to evaluate the use of a Bayesian network to assess the likelihood of fatality.

    Langford, Alan M; Bolton, Jennifer R; Carlin, Michelle G; Palmer, Ray


    The challenge of interpreting post-mortem drug concentrations is well documented and relies on appropriate sample collection, knowledge of case circumstances as well as reference to published tables of data, whilst taking into account the known issues of post-mortem drug redistribution and tolerance. Existing published data has evolved from simple data tables to those now including sample origin and single to poly drug use, but additional information tends to be specific to those reported in individual case studies. We have developed a Bayesian network framework to assign a likelihood of fatality based on the contribution of drug concentrations whilst taking into account the pathological findings. This expert system has been tested against casework within the coronial jurisdiction of Sunderland, UK. We demonstrate in this pilot study that the Bayesian network can be used to proffer a degree of confidence in how deaths may be reported in cases when drugs are implicated. It has also highlighted the potential for deaths to be reported according to the pathological states at post-mortem when drugs have a significant contribution that may have an impact on mortality statistics. The Bayesian network could be used as complementary approach to assist in the interpretation of post-mortem drug concentrations.

  14. Sonar-induced pressure fields in a post-mortem common dolphin.

    Foote, Kenneth G; Hastings, Mardi C; Ketten, Darlene R; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reidenberg, Joy S; Rye, Kent


    Potential physical effects of sonar transmissions on marine mammals were investigated by measuring pressure fields induced in a 119-kg, 211-cm-long, young adult male common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) cadaver. The specimen was instrumented with tourmaline acoustic pressure gauges used as receiving sensors. Gauge implantation near critical tissues was guided by intraoperative, high-resolution, computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Instrumented structures included the melon, nares, ear, thoracic wall, lungs, epaxial muscle, and lower abdomen. The specimen was suspended from a frame equipped with a standard 50.8-mm-diameter spherical transducer used as the acoustic source and additional receiving sensors to monitor the transmitted and external, scattered field. Following immersion, the transducer transmitted pulsed sinusoidal signals at 5, 7, and 10 kHz. Quantitative internal pressure fields are reported for all cases except those in which the gauge failed or no received signal was detected. A full necropsy was performed immediately after the experiment to examine instrumented areas and all major organs. No lesions attributable to acoustic transmissions were found, consistent with the low source level and source-receiver distances.

  15. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains.

    Woess, Claudia; Unterberger, Seraphin Hubert; Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus


    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with time

  16. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains

    Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus


    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43−at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43− from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with

  17. DNA quality and quantity from up to 16 years old post-mortem blood stored on FTA cards.

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; de Leeuw, Wiljo; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti


    Blood samples preserved on FTA cards offer unique opportunities for genetic research. DNA recovered from these cards should be stable for long periods of time. However, it is not well established as how well the DNA stored on FTA card for substantial time periods meets the demands of forensic or genomic DNA analyses and especially so for from post-mortem (PM) samples in which the quality can vary upon initial collection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent degradation on DNA quality and quantity extracted from up to 16 years old post-mortem bloodstained FTA cards. Four random FTA samples from eight time points spanning 1998 to 2013 (n=32) were collected and extracted in triplicate. The quantity and quality of the extracted DNA samples were determined with Quantifiler(®) Human Plus (HP) Quantification kit. Internal sample and sample-to-sample variation were evaluated by comparing recovered DNA yields. The DNA from the triplicate samplings were subsequently combined and normalized for further analysis. The practical effect of degradation on DNA quality was evaluated from normalized samples both with forensic and pharmacogenetic target markers. Our results suggest that (1) a PM change, e.g. blood clotting prior to sampling, affects the recovered DNA yield, creating both internal and sample-to-sample variation; (2) a negative correlation between the FTA card storage time and DNA quantity (r=-0.836 at the 0.01 level) was observed; (3) a positive correlation (r=0.738 at the level 0.01) was found between FTA card storage time and degradation levels. However, no inhibition was observed with the method used. The effect of degradation was manifested clearly with functional applications. Although complete STR-profiles were obtained for all samples, there was evidence of degradation manifested as decreased peak heights in the larger-sized amplicons. Lower amplification success was notable with the large 5.1 kb CYP2D6 gene fragment which strongly supports

  18. Using bacterial and necrophagous insect dynamics for post-mortem interval estimation during cold season: Novel case study in Romania.

    Iancu, Lavinia; Carter, David O; Junkins, Emily N; Purcarea, Cristina


    Considering the biogeographical characteristics of forensic entomology, and the recent development of forensic microbiology as a complementary approach for post-mortem interval estimation, the current study focused on characterizing the succession of necrophagous insect species and bacterial communities inhabiting the rectum and mouth cavities of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during a cold season outdoor experiment in an urban natural environment of Bucharest, Romania. We monitored the decomposition process of three swine carcasses during a 7 month period (November 2012-May 2013) corresponding to winter and spring periods of a temperate climate region. The carcasses, protected by wire cages, were placed on the ground in a park type environment, while the meteorological parameters were constantly recorded. The succession of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera taxa was monitored weekly, both the adult and larval stages, and the species were identified both by morphological and genetic characterization. The structure of bacterial communities from swine rectum and mouth tissues was characterized during the same time intervals by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We observed a shift in the structure of both insect and bacterial communities, primarily due to seasonal effects and the depletion of the carcass. A total of 14 Diptera and 6 Coleoptera species were recorded on the swine carcasses, from which Calliphora vomitoria and C. vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Thanatophilus rugosus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were observed as predominant species. The first colonizing wave, primarily Calliphoridae, was observed after 15 weeks when the temperature increased to 13°C. This was followed by Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Sepsidae and Piophilidae. Families belonging to Coleoptera Order were observed at week 18 when temperatures raised above 18°C, starting with

  19. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Igari, Yui, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosoya, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)


    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  20. [Infanticide in the light of post-mortem findings and court files from the period 1990-2000 (selected problems)].

    Kołowski, Janusz; Nowak, Klaudia Magdalena


    Drawing upon 28 court files of the District Court in Poznań and 30 post-mortem protocols--from the Department of Forensic Medicine at Poznań Medical Academy. This article tackles the issue of infanticide in the period from 1990 to 2000. The aim of this paper was to find answers to the following questions: what was the social background and mental state of female offenders? How was infanticide committed? In order to solve certain research problems, a document examination technique was employed to analyse the contents of the documents available. Female offenders were aged between 17 to 42 years. In the majority of cases (56.7%), perpetrators were occupationally active, single young women with a low level of education and having a working-class background. In the majority of cases (80%), active infanticide was committed. Most frequently, infanticide was committed by shutting a child into a tight space, and tamponade of throat and larynx. Passive infanticide was committed in 20% of cases, with infants left without care at the place of birth. No case of psychosis was determined in the examined material.

  1. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio


    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions.

  2. A note on the frequency of gastric ulcers detected during post-mortem examination at a pig abattoir.

    Swaby, H; Gregory, N G


    There is growing interest in using findings from post-mortem meat inspection as indicators of on-farm and preslaughter animal welfare. This study considered whether oesophago-gastric ulcers might be a useful feature in pigs. The stomachs of 9827 finishing pigs from 60 farms were examined to provide an estimate of the frequency of oesophago-gastric ulcers in England. Stomachs were graded using a four-point scale ranging from normal, hyperkeratotic, eroded or ulcerated with or without stenosis. Over 79% of stomachs had either an oesophago-gastric ulcer or visible pre-ulcerative changes, including hyperkeratosis of the epithelium lining the pars oesophagea. The frequency of severe ulceration (Grade 3) was 6%, and mild ulcers (Grades 1 and 2) 73%. There was a significantly higher frequency of oesophago-gastric lesions in the groups of pigs that were held at the abattoir overnight, compared with those slaughtered on the day of arrival. This could have been due to the combined effect of overnight fasting plus stress in an unfamiliar environment. However, the exact fasting times of the animals were unknown and so it was not possible to provide a precise assessment of the effect of feed withdrawal.

  3. Is it health or the burial environment: differentiating between hypomineralised and post-mortem stained enamel in an archaeological context.

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E


    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions.

  4. Is it health or the burial environment: differentiating between hypomineralised and post-mortem stained enamel in an archaeological context.

    Samantha McKay

    Full Text Available Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions.

  5. Long live the stem cell: the use of stem cells isolated from post mortem tissues for translational strategies.

    Hodgetts, Stuart I; Stagg, Kelda; Sturm, Marian; Edel, Michael; Blancafort, Pilar


    The "stem cell" has become arguably one of the most important biological tools in the arsenal of translational research directed at regeneration and repair. It remains to be seen whether every tissue has its own stem cell niche, although relatively recently a large amount of research has focused on isolating and characterizing tissue-specific stem cell populations, as well as those that are able to be directed to transdifferentiate into a variety of different lineages. Traditionally, stem cells are isolated from the viable tissue of embryonic, fetal, or adult living hosts; from "fresh" donated tissues that have been surgically or otherwise removed (biopsies), or obtained directly from tissues within minutes to several hours post mortem (PM). These human progenitor/stem cell sources remain potentially highly controversial, since they are accompanied by various still-unresolved ethical, social, moral and legal challenges. Due to the limited number of "live" donors, the small amount of material obtained from biopsies and difficulties during purification processes, harvesting from cadaveric material presents itself as an alternative strategy that could provide a hitherto untapped source of stem cells. However, PM stem cells are not without their own unique set of limitations including difficulty of obtaining samples, limited supply of material, variations in delay between death and sample collection, possible lack of medication history and suboptimal retrospective assignment of diagnostic and demographic data. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: The challenge of translation.

  6. Distinction between saltwater drowning and freshwater drowning by assessment of sinus fluid on post-mortem computed tomography

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Sato, Yuki; Sato, Yumi; Ishibashi, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Usui, Akihito; Daigaku, Nami; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)


    To evaluate the difference in sinus fluid volume and density between saltwater and freshwater drowning and diagnose saltwater drowning in distinction from freshwater drowning. Ninety-three drowning cases (22 saltwater and 71 freshwater) were retrospectively investigated; all had undergone post-mortem CT and forensic autopsy. Sinus fluid volume and density were calculated using a 3D-DICOM workstation, and differences were evaluated. Diagnostic performance of these indicators for saltwater drowning was evaluated using a cut-off value calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median sinus fluid volume was 5.68 mL in cases of saltwater drowning (range 0.08 to 37.55) and 5.46 mL in cases of freshwater drowning (0.02 to 27.68), and the average densities were 47.28 (14.26 to 75.98) HU and 32.56 (-14.38 to 77.43) HU, respectively. While sinus volume did not differ significantly (p = 0.6000), sinus density was significantly higher in saltwater than freshwater drowning cases (p = 0.0002). ROC analysis for diagnosis of saltwater drowning determined the cut-off value as 37.77 HU, with a sensitivity of 77 %, specificity of 72 %, PPV of 46 % and NPV of 91 %. The average density of sinus fluid in cases of saltwater drowning was significantly higher than in freshwater drowning cases; there was no significant difference in the sinus fluid volume. (orig.)

  7. The effect of charging rate on the graphite electrode of commercial lithium-ion cells: A post-mortem study

    Somerville, L.; Bareño, J.; Trask, S.; Jennings, P.; McGordon, A.; Lyness, C.; Bloom, I.


    Increased charging rates negatively affect the lifetime of lithium-ion cells by increasing cell resistance and reducing capacity. This work is a post-mortem study of 18650-type cells subjected to charge rates of 0.7-, 2-, 4-, and 6-C. For cells charged at 0.7-C to 4-C, this performance degradation is primarily related to surface film thickness with no observable change in surface film chemical composition. However, at charge rates of 6-C, the chemical composition of the surface film changes significantly, suggesting that this change is the reason for the sharper increase in cell resistance compared to the lower charge rates. In addition, we found that surface film formation was not uniform across the electrode. Surface film was thicker and chemically different along the central band of the electrode "jelly roll". This result is most likely attributable to an increase in temperature that results from non-uniform electrode wetting during manufacture. This non-uniform change further resulted in active material delamination from the current collector owing to chemical changes to the binder for the cell charged at 6-C.

  8. Early detection of widespread progressive brain injury after cardiac arrest: a single case DTI and post-mortem histology study.

    Jan S Gerdes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis in sense of a proof of principle that white matter (WM degeneration after cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA can be assessed much earlier by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI than by conventional MRI. METHODS: We performed DTI and T2-weighted FLAIR imaging over four serial acquisitions of a 76-year-old man with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome at day 41, 75, 173 and 284 after CPA. DTI was also performed in ten healthy control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA derived from DTI was assessed in eleven regions of interest within the cerebral white matter (WM and compared with post-mortem neuropathological findings. RESULTS: In contrast to conventional FLAIR images that revealed only circumscribed WM damage, the first DTI demonstrated significant reduction of FA across the whole WM. The following FLAIR images (MRI 2-4 revealed increasing atrophy and leukoaraiosis paralleled by clinical deterioration with reduction of wakefulness and intractable seizures. Neuropathological findings confirmed the widespread and marked brain injury following CPA. CONCLUSION: DTI may help to evaluate microstructural brain damage following CPA and may have predictive value for further evolution of cerebral degeneration in the chronic phase after CPA.

  9. Indel markers: genetic diversity of 38 polymorphisms in Brazilian populations and application in a paternity investigation with post mortem material.

    Manta, Fernanda; Caiafa, Alexandre; Pereira, Rui; Silva, Dayse; Amorim, António; Carvalho, Elizeu F; Gusmão, Leonor


    Aiming to evaluate the usefulness of 38 non-coding bi-allelic autosomal indels in genetic identification and kinship testing, three Brazilian population samples were studied: two from Rio de Janeiro (including a sample of individuals with self-declared African ancestry) and one Native American population of Terena from Mato Grosso do Sul. Based on the observed allele frequencies, parameters of forensic relevance were calculated. The combined power of discrimination of the 38 indels was high in all studied groups (PD≥0.9999999999997), although slightly lower in Native Americans. Genetic distance analysis showed significant differences between the allele frequencies in the Rio de Janeiro population and those previously reported for Europeans, Africans and Asians explained by its intermediate position between Europeans and Africans. As expected, the Terena sample was significantly different from all the other populations: Brazilians from Rio de Janeiro general population and with self-declared African ancestry, Europeans, Africans and East Asians. Finally, the performance of the 38-indel multiplex assay was tested in post-mortem material with positive results, supporting the use of short amplicon bi-allelic markers as an additional tool to STR analysis when DNA molecules are degraded.

  10. Is It Health or the Burial Environment: Differentiating between Hypomineralised and Post-Mortem Stained Enamel in an Archaeological Context

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E.


    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions. PMID:23734206

  11. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina


    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected.




    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una revisión sobre la conformación e importancia del tejido conectivo de la carne de los peces. El ablandamiento post mortem en los peces es un factor de calidad directamente influenciado por las características de los colágenos presentes en cada especie. La degradación del colágeno está relacionada con los fenómenos que acontecen durante el almacenamiento en frío o congelamiento. Varias investigaciones han demostrado a través de análisis bioquímicos y, principalmente, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y transmisión, que la pérdida de la textura en la carne de los peces es uno de los efectos ocasionados por la degradación del tejido conectivo pericelular y no por el tejido conectivo intersticial. En la actualidad son propuestas algunas prácticas postcosecha para disminuir este fenómeno.

  13. Can post-mortem computed tomography be considered an alternative for autopsy in deaths due to hemopericardium?

    Lorenzo Gitto; Serenella Serinelli; Francesco P Busard; Valeria Panebianco; Giorgio Bolino; Aniello Maiese


    Hemopericardium is a common finding at autopsy, but it may represent a challenge for the forensic pathologist when the etiopathologi-cal relationship in causing death is requested. Hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade can be evaluated in living people using radiological techniques, in particular computer tomography (CT). Only a few studies are reported in literature involving post-mortem (PM) cases, where PMCT imaging has been used in order to investigate acute hemopericardium, and they have shown a good accuracy of this technique. Here we report a case involving a 70-year-old white male found dead on the beach, with a medical history of hepatitis C and chronic hypertension with a poor pharmacological response. A PMCT was performed about 3 h after the discovery of the body. The PMCT examination showed an intrapericardial aortic dissection associated to a periaortic hematoma, a sickle-shaped intramural hematoma, a false lumen, and a hemop-ericardium consisting in fluid and clotted blood. In this case, the PMCT was able to identify the cause of death, even though a traditional autopsy was required to confirm the radiological findings. PMCT is a reliable technique, which in chosen cases, can be performed without the need for a traditional autopsy to be carried out.

  14. Correlation between skeletal trauma and energy in falls from great height detected by post-mortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT).

    Weilemann, Y; Thali, M J; Kneubuehl, B P; Bolliger, S A


    Fatal falls from great height are a frequently encountered setting in forensic pathology. They present--by virtue of a calculable energy transmission to the body--an ideal model for the assessment of the effects of blunt trauma to a human body. As multislice computed tomography (MSCT) has proven not only to be invaluable in clinical examinations, but also to be a viable tool in post-mortem imaging, especially in the field of osseous injuries, we performed a MSCT scan on 20 victims of falls from great height. We hereby detected fractures and their distributions were compared with the impact energy. Our study suggests a marked increase of extensive damage to different body regions at about 20 kJ and more. The thorax was most often affected, regardless of the amount of impacting energy and the primary impact site. Cranial fracture frequency displayed a biphasic distribution with regard to the impacting energy; they were more frequent in energies of less than 10, and more than 20 kJ, but rarer in the intermediate energy group, namely that of 10-20 kJ.

  15. Post-Mortem DTI Reveals Altered Hippocampal Connectivity in Wild Sea Lions Diagnosed with Chronic Toxicosis from Algal Exposure.

    Cook, Peter F; Berns, Gregory S; Colegrove, Kathleen; Johnson, Shawn; Gulland, Frances


    Hundreds of wild California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) exposed to the algal neurotoxin domoic acid are treated in veterinary rehabilitation centers each year. Common chronic effects of toxic exposure in these animals are seizures and hippocampal damage, and they have been proposed as a natural animal model for human epilepsy. Humans with medial temporal lobe epilepsy present with white matter pathology in a number of tracts including the fornix and increased structural connectivity between the hippocampus and thalamus. However, there are no prior data on structural connectivity in sea lion brains, with or without neuropathology. In the present study, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging technique to obtain high resolution (1mm isotropic) white matter maps in brains obtained opportunistically post-mortem from wild sea lions with and without chronic clinical signs of toxic exposure to domoic acid. All animals had received a full veterinary workup and diagnosis prior to euthanasia. We measured hippocampal atrophy morphometrically, and all brains were examined histopathologically. In animals diagnosed with chronic domoic acid toxicosis, the fornix showed signs of altered diffusion properties indicative of pathology; these brains also had increased structural connectivity between hippocampus and thalamus in comparison to brains from animals with no neurological signs. These findings establish further parallels between human medial temporal lobe epilepsy and a naturally occurring condition in wild sea lions and simultaneously advance general knowledge of the deleterious effects of an increasingly common natural toxin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The quantification of COMT mRNA in post mortem cerebellum tissue: diagnosis, genotype, methylation and expression

    Craig Ian W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The COMT gene is located on chromosome 22q11, a region strongly implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Previous research has suggested that activity and expression of COMT is altered in schizophrenia, and is mediated by one or more polymorphisms within the gene, including the functional Val158Met polymorphism. Method In this study we examined the expression levels of COMT mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR in 60 post mortem cerebellum samples derived from individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and no history of psychopathology. Furthermore, we have examined the methylation status of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the gene. Results We found no evidence of altered COMT expression or methylation in any of the psychiatric diagnoses examined. We did, however, find evidence to suggest that genotype is related to COMT gene expression, replicating the findings of two previous studies. Specifically, val158met (rs165688; Val allele rs737865 (G allele and rs165599 (G allele all showed reduced expression (P COMT expression, with females exhibiting significantly greater levels of COMT mRNA. Conclusion The expression of COMT does not appear to be altered in the cerebellum of individuals suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression, but does appear to be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene.

  17. Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Surer, Eddie; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael; Schweitzer, Wolf [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Elliott, Marina [Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)


    To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)

  18. Post-mortem findings in 54 cases of anesthetic associated death in cats from two spay-neuter programs in New York State.

    Gerdin, Jodie A; Slater, Margaret R; Makolinski, Kathleen V; Looney, Andrea L; Appel, Leslie D; Martin, Nicole M; McDonough, Sean P


    Anesthetic-associated death (AAD) in cats is infrequent, but occurs far more frequently than in people. Post-mortem investigations of AAD in cats are uncommon, and results only sporadically published. Here we report the findings in 54 cases of AAD in cats. Significant gross and/or microscopic pre-existing disease, including pulmonary, cardiac, and systemic disease, was detected in 33% of cases. Pulmonary disease was most frequently diagnosed (24% of cases), and included cases of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection (9% of cases). Heart disease, including two cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, was less frequent (11% of cases). Four percent died from surgical complications. No significant gross or microscopic disease was detected in 63% of cases. Additional studies are needed to determine if these findings are representative of AAD in cats in other geographic areas or with access to veterinary care. This study demonstrates that post-mortem investigation of AADs is an important and worthwhile endeavor.

  19. One small scan for radiology, one giant leap for forensic medicine - Post-mortem imaging replaces forensic autopsy in a case of traumatic aortic laceration.

    Ruder, Thomas D; Hatch, Gary M; Thali, Michael J; Fischer, Nadja


    The questions of cause and manner of death are the most pressing ones in any forensic investigation. Traditionally, autopsy is the means to provide answers to these questions and despite the increasing use of CT and MR in the post-mortem setting, imaging has usually been an adjunct to forensic autopsy. Here we describe a case where post-mortem CT and MR were performed instead of autopsy, at the request of the responsible public prosecutor. The forensic conclusions derived from imaging, including cause and manner of death were accepted by the legal authorities, thereby setting precedence for future cases. This case represents a landmark in forensic medicine and is another step toward the full realization of minimally invasive forensic autopsy.

  20. Myocardial contrast defect associated with thrombotic coronary occlusion: Pre-autopsy diagnosis of a cardiac death with post-mortem CT angiography

    Lee, Heon; Cha, Jang Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Soo Kyoung; Yang, Kyung Moo [Dept. of Forensic Medicine, National Forensic Service, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    We report the case of a female who died of suspected acute myocardial infarction. Post-mortem CT angiography (PMCTA) was performed with intravascular contrast infusion before the standard autopsy, and it successfully demonstrated the complete thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery and also a corresponding perfusion defect on myocardium. We herein describe the PMCTA findings of a cardiac death with special emphasis on the potential benefits of this novel CT technique in forensic practice.

  1. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    Kaliszan, Michał


    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter).

  2. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    Morrison, Philippa K; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A; Maltin, Charlotte A; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG


    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  3. Variation in the response to manipulation of post-mortem glycolysis in beef muscles by low-voltage electrical stimulation and conditioning temperature.

    Hollung, Kristin; Veiseth, Eva; Frøystein, Terje; Aass, Laila; Langsrud, Oyvind; Hildrum, Kjell Ivar


    The aim of this study was to investigate how manipulation of glycolytic rate by post-mortem processing conditions influences quality of aged beef of two bovine muscles of different physiological character, longissimus dorsi (LD) and adductor (AD). Post-mortem glycolysis was manipulated by low-voltage electrical stimulation (LV-ES) of half carcasses and by chilling rate of the muscles. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to visualise the data, while ANOVA was used to identify significant effects and interactions. As expected there was a significant effect of LV-ES on the pH decline in the first hours post-mortem in both muscles. Moreover, significant effects of LV-ES on WB shear force measured 2 and 8 days after slaughter were observed for LD at both chilling temperatures, while for AD no effect on WB shear force was observed. Furthermore, the results revealed a large individual variation in the response of LV-ES on both pH decline and WB shear force, and this variation did not always correlate for the two responses. Some animals showed no response of LV-ES on pH decline, but still had an improved WB shear force, and vice versa. The results from this study indicate that there probably are other mechanisms than accelerated pH decline and prevention of cold-shortening, by which LV-ES can affect meat tenderness.

  4. Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A


    During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine. Scatter plots showing injury and non-injury data as a function of peak normalized forces, pulse characteristics, impulse and power, loading rate and sacrum and spine accelerations were evaluated as potential metrics related to pathological outcomes with the focus of examining the role of the pulse characteristics from inferior-to-superior loading of the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex. Interrelationships were explored between non-fracture and fracture outcomes, and fracture patterns with a focus on migration of injuries from the hip-only to hip and spine to spine-only regions. Observations indicate that injury to the pelvis and or spine from inferior-to-superior loading is associated with pulse and not just peak velocity. The role of the effect of mass recruitment and injury migration parallel knee-thigh-hip complex studies, suggest a wider application of the recruitment concept and the role of the pulse characteristics.

  5. Post-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in Ecuador.

    Proaño-Pérez, Freddy; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Desmecht, Daniel; Coral, Marco; Ortiz, Julio; Ron, Lenin; Portaels, Françoise; Rigouts, Leen; Linden, Annick


    Veterinary inspection in slaughterhouses allows for the detection of macroscopic lesions reminiscent of bovine tuberculosis, but the presence of Mycobacterium bovis must be confirmed by laboratory methods. This study aimed at comparing the performances of the standard diagnostic tools used to identify M. bovis in tissue specimens sampled from suspicious animals. During a two years period, 1390 cattle were inspected at the Machachi abattoir in the Mejia canton - Ecuador. A total of 33 animals with granulomatous lesions were detected, representing 2.33% (16/687) and 2.42% (17/703) animals examined in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Ninety-four tissue specimens were sampled and screened for the presence of mycobacteria. Acid-fast bacilli were identified in one third of the suspicious cattle (11/33) and suggestive microscopic lesions in 27.3% (9/33) of the samples examined by direct microscopy and histopathology, respectively. Culturing on Stonebrink medium and 16S-rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) yielded 36.4% (12/33) and 27.3% (9/33) of positives, respectively. Compared to culture, other diagnostic procedures displayed a lower sensitivity, with 56.5% for PCR, and 43.5% for direct microscopy and histopathology; however, the specificity was higher (94.4% for PCR and microscopy, and 97.2% for histopathology). We conclude that reliable post-mortem laboratory testing either requires the combination of a set of available diagnostic tools or necessitates the development of improved new-generation tools with better sensitivity and specificity characteristics.

  6. Distinct proteomic profiles in post-mortem pituitary glands from bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder patients.

    Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Alsaif, Murtada; Chan, Man K; Rahmoune, Hassan; Steeb, Hannah; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine


    Disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine this further, we carried out proteomic profiling of post-mortem pituitaries from 13 BD and 14 MDD patients, in comparison to 15 controls. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) analysis showed that BD patients had significantly increased levels of the major pituitary hormones pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and galanin. BD patients also showed changes in proteins associated with gene transcription, stress response, lipid metabolism and growth signalling. In contrast, LC-MS(E) profiling revealed that MDD patients had significantly decreased levels of the prohormone-converting enzyme carboxypeptidease E and follow-up enzymatic analysis showed decreased activity of prolyl-oligopeptidase convertase. This suggested that altered prohormone processing may occur in pituitaries of MDD patients. In addition, MDD patients had significant changes in proteins involved in intracellular transport and cytoskeletal signalling. Finally, we carried out selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry profiling for validation of protein changes in key biological pathways. This confirmed increased POMC levels in BD patients with no change in the levels of this prohormone in MDD. This study demonstrates that proteomic profiling analysis of the pituitary can lead to new insights into the pathophysiology of BD and MDD. Also, given that the pituitary directly releases a variety of bioactive molecules into the bloodstream, many of the proteins identified here could serve as focal points in the search for peripheral biomarkers in clinical or drug treatment studies of BD and MDD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs.

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina


    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (Ppigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (Ppigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (Ppigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated with the improvement of oxidative fibre composition in LL muscle, and the change in myofibre type may be correlated with the change in the miRNA expression.

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis is linked with selective mitochondrial damage; a post-mortem and in vitro study.

    Wnęk, Małgorzata; Ressel, Lorenzo; Ricci, Emanuele; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carmen; Guerrero, Julio Cesar Villalvazo; Ismail, Zarini; Smith, Colin; Kipar, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Chinnery, Patrick F; Solomon, Tom; Griffiths, Michael J


    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most commonly diagnosed cause of viral encephalitis in western countries. Despite antiviral treatment, HSE remains a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Improved understanding of pathogenesis may lead to more effective therapies. Mitochondrial damage has been reported during HSV infection in vitro. However, whether it occurs in the human brain and whether this contributes to the pathogenesis has not been fully explored. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has been reported to protect mitochondria and limit brain damage. Minocycline has not been studied in HSV infection. In the first genome-wide transcriptomic study of post-mortem human HSE brain tissue, we demonstrated a highly preferential reduction in mitochondrial genome (MtDNA) encoded transcripts in HSE cases (n = 3) compared to controls (n = 5). Brain tissue exhibited a significant inverse correlation for immunostaining between cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), a MtDNA encoded enzyme subunit, and HSV-1; with lower abundance for mitochondrial protein in regions where HSV-1 was abundant. Preferential loss of mitochondrial function, among MtDNA encoded components, was confirmed using an in vitro primary human astrocyte HSV-1 infection model. Dysfunction of cytochrome c oxidase (CO), a mitochondrial enzyme composed predominantly of MtDNA encoded subunits, preceded that of succinate dehydrogenase (composed entirely of nuclear encoded subunits). Minocycline treated astrocytes exhibited higher CO1 transcript abundance, sustained CO activity and cell viability compared to non-treated astrocytes. Based on observations from HSE patient tissue, this study highlights mitochondrial damage as a critical and early event during HSV-1 infection. We demonstrate minocycline preserves mitochondrial function and cell viability during HSV-1 infection. Minocycline, and mitochondrial protection, offers a novel adjunctive therapeutic approach for

  9. Conductometric titration to determine total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) for post-mortem interval (PMI).

    Xia, Zhiyuan; Zhai, Xiandun; Liu, Beibei; Mo, Yaonan


    Precise measurement of cadaver decomposition rate is the basis to accurate post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. There are many approaches explored in recent years, however, it is still unsolved completely. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), which is an important index to predict meat freshness and shelf life in food science, could serve as an indicator for measuring PMI associated decomposition rate of cadavers. The aim of this work was to establish a practical method to determine TVB-N in cadaver soft tissues (mainly skeletal muscle) for measuring decomposition rate. Determination of TVB-N in the simulation and animal experiments was conducted by steam distillation and conductometric titration using Kjeldahl distillation unit and conductivity meter. In simulation, standard concentrations of ammonium were used as TVB analogies, TVB-N contents were determined and the recovery rates of nitrogen were calculated. In animal experiment, TVB-N in skeletal muscle of forty-two rats was determined at different PMIs for 312 h at 24 °C ± 1 °C. The relationship between PMI and TVB-N was investigated also. The method showed high precision with 99%-100% recovery rates. TVB-N in skeletal muscle changed significantly with PMI especially after 24 h, and the data fit well to y = 3.35 E(-5)x(3)-2.17 E(-2)x(2)+6.13x-85.82 (adj. R(2) = 0.985). ECi (initial electrical conductivity in the samples just before titration) had positive linear relationship to final measured TVB-N values, y = 1.98x+16.16 (adj. R(2) = 0.985). The overall results demonstrated that the method is accurate, rapid and flexible, which could be expected as a basic technique for measuring decomposition rate in later PMI-estimation researches. Further studies are needed to validate our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy


    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  11. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases.

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O'Brien, John T; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C; Ridgway, Gerard R; Schott, Jonathan M


    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  12. Antipsychotic drugs attenuate aberrant DNA methylation of DTNBP1 (dysbindin) promoter in saliva and post-mortem brain of patients with schizophrenia and Psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Mostafavi, Ashraf; Thiagalingam, Sam


    Due to the lack of genetic association between individual genes and schizophrenia (SCZ) pathogenesis, the current consensus is to consider both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here, we report the examination of DNA methylation status of DTNBP1 promoter region, one of the most credible candidate genes affected in SCZ, assayed in saliva and post-mortem brain samples. The Illumina DNA methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of representative samples were used to identify methylation status of the DTNBP1 promoter region. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) was employed to assess methylation of DTNBP1 promoter CpGs flanking a SP1 binding site in the saliva of SCZ patients, their first-degree relatives and control subjects (30, 15, and 30/group, respectively) as well as in post-mortem brains of patients with SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) versus controls (35/group). qRT-PCR was used to assess DTNBP1 expression. We found DNA hypermethylation of DTNBP1 promoter in the saliva of SCZ patients (∼12.5%, P = 0.036), particularly in drug-naïve patients (∼20%, P = 0.011), and a trend toward hypermethylation in their first-degree relatives (P = 0.085) versus controls. Analysis of post-mortem brain samples revealed an inverse correlation between DTNBP1 methylation and expression, and normalization of this epigenetic change by classic antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, BD patients with psychotic depression exhibited higher degree of methylation versus other BD patients (∼80%, P = 0.025). DTNBP1 promoter DNA methylation may become a key element in a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis, prevention, or therapy in SCZ and at risk individuals pending confirmatory studies with larger sample sizes to attain a higher degree of significance.

  13. Post-mortem Whole exome sequencing with gene-specific analysis for autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young: a case series.

    Narula, Nupoor; Tester, David J; Paulmichl, Anna; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Ackerman, Michael J


    Annually, thousands of sudden deaths in individuals under 35 years remain unexplained following comprehensive medico-legal autopsy. Previously, post-mortem genetic analysis by Sanger sequencing of four major cardiac channelopathy genes revealed that approximately one-fourth of these autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY) cases harbored an underlying mutation. However, there are now over 100 sudden death-predisposing cardiac channelopathy-, cardiomyopathy-, and metabolic disorder-susceptibility genes. Here, we set out to determine whether post-mortem whole exome sequencing (WES) is an efficient strategy to detect ultra-rare, potentially pathogenic variants. We performed post-mortem WES and gene-specific analysis of 117 sudden death-susceptibility genes for 14 consecutively referred Caucasian SUDY victims (average age at death 17.4 ± 8.6 years) to identify putative SUDY-associated mutations. On average, each SUDY case had 12,758 ± 2,016 non-synonymous variants, of which 79 ± 15 localized to these 117 genes. Overall, eight ultra-rare variants (seven missense, one in-frame insertion) absent in three publically available exome databases were identified in six genes (three in TTN, and one each in CACNA1C, JPH2, MYH7, VCL, RYR2) in seven of 14 cases (50 %). Of the seven missense alterations, two (T171M-CACNA1C, I22160T-TTN) were predicted damaging by three independent in silico tools. Although WES and gene-specific surveillance is an efficient means to detect rare genetic variants that might underlie the pathogenic cause of death, accurate interpretation of each variant is challenging. Great restraint and caution must be exercised otherwise families may be informed prematurely and incorrectly that the root cause has been found.

  14. Los derechos eventuales del concebido post mortem en procedimientos asistidos: falta de tutela jurídica frente a la sucesión por causa de muerte

    Mendoza Medina, Jonny Gustavo


    La situación jurídica del concebido post mortem es un tema sobre el que no se ha realizado una investigación de la que tengamos un antecedente positivo, que haya repercutido en la formación de leyes especiales en las que comúnmente suelen anclarse los procedimientos hasta hace poco desconocidos o nuevos para el derecho, menos aún antecedentes que hayan servido para que se produzca una serie de reformas profundas al Derecho Civil Ecuatoriano, lo que no implica que el tema en cuestión no ...

  15. The importance of post-mortem examinations in cetacean biology: A report of a necropsy on Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833 (Cetacea: Delphinidae, from the Azores, Northeastern Atlantic

    Mário César Sedrez


    Full Text Available This article reports the necropsy of a specimen of striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in the north coast of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Here, the importance of standard protocols in post-mortem examinations and the need to adequately proceed were discussed. Stranded marine mammals are valuable specimens for several studies of pathology and other veterinary medical aspects. Although the causa mortis was not determined, the full access to stranded specimens was crucial, not only for pathology studies but also for a proper training to veterinary medicine students whenever possible.

  16. Possibilities of using the European bison (Bison bonasus epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem for cryopreservation and artificial insemination: a pilot study

    Dubiel Andrzej


    Full Text Available Abstract Background European bison is the largest mammal in Europe with the population of approximately 4000 individuals. However, there is no report of post-mortem spermatozoa collection and cryopreservation from this species and the aim of this study was to test if the epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem from European bison are suitable for cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI. Methods Epididymides were collected post-mortem from two European bison bulls at age of 8 (bull 1 and 11 year (bull 2. Epididymal sperm was harvested by making multiple incisions in caudae epididymidis, which were then rinsed with extender. The left epididymis of bull 1 was rinsed with BioXcell (IMV, France, whereas the right epididymis of bull 1 and the right and left epididymides of bull 2 were rinsed with the extender based on Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk, glycerol, antibiotics and distilled water (extender II. The diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C, and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Then, properties of the frozen/thawed semen were examined with the use of computer-assisted semen analysis system, and thirty cows and nine heifers of domestic cattle were artificially inseminated. Results Motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from the right epididymis of bull 1 was 70% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II, and from the left one was 60% (spermatozoa diluted with BioXcell, whereas motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from bull 2 was 90% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II. Spermatozoa motility just after thawing were 11 and 13% in bull 1, respectively for spermatozoa collected from the left and right epididymis and 48% in bull 2. As a result of AI of domestic cows and heifers with the frozen/thawed European bison spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained in heifers. One pregnancy finished with a premature labour after 253 days of pregnancy, and the second one after 264 days of pregnancy. Conclusions This is the first report

  17. Memoria y muerte. La dictadura de Pinochet en las películas de Pablo Larraín: Tony Manero (2007) y Post Mortem (2010)

    Tal, Tzvi


    La memoria hegemónica de la violencia ejercida durante y después de la toma del poder en Chile por la rebelión del general Augusto Pinochet, manifiesta una visión ambivalente y simétrica que apoya la continuidad en democracia del proyecto económico neoliberal y globalizador impuesto por la dictadura. Las películas de Pablo Larraín, Tony Manero (2007) y Post Mortem (2010), bien apreciadas por la crítica y en festivales internacionales, no obtuvieron un alcance de público notable en Chile. A pe...

  18. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew


    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  19. Advantages of using development models of the carrion beetles Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and T. mutilatus (Castelneau) (Coleoptera: Silphidae) for estimating minimum post mortem intervals, verified with case data.

    Ridgeway, J A; Midgley, J M; Collett, I J; Villet, M H


    Some beetles are as useful as blow flies for estimating the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) or time since death. Examples include Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and Thanatophilus mutilatus (Castelneau), two geographically and ecologically overlapping African beetles. Molecular means of identifying these species, descriptions of their natural history, thermal summation models for the development of each species, and a case in which T. micans was recovered are presented. These beetles colonise bodies soon after death, their development spans more time than that of flies, and they may be little affected by maggot-generated heat. From an experimental perspective, they can be reared individually, which allows the identification of sick individuals and has analytical advantages relative to fly larvae that must be reared in groups. Estimating minimum post mortem intervals for both species using the case data strongly suggests that developmental models parameterised for one species should not be used to make forensic estimates for closely related species for which no specific model is available and emphasises the need for correct identifications.

  20. Immunohistochemical quantification of pulmonary mast-cells and post-mortem blood dosages of tryptase and eosinophil cationic protein in 48 heroin-related deaths.

    Fineschi, V; Cecchi, R; Centini, F; Reattelli, L P; Turillazzi, E


    Recent studies suggest that many fatal heroin overdoses are caused by anaphylactoid reaction. In the present study we measured tryptase and eosinophil cationic protein in post-mortem blood of 48 deaths after heroin injection. We also investigated the presence and pulmonary distribution of mast-cells using specific immunohistochemical antibody for tryptase and morphometric evaluation in those cases of heroin-related deaths. The data were compared with 44 subjects who died following head trauma and to 32 cases of fatal anaphylactic shock. In the heroin-related death cases, the measurements of serum tryptase levels and eosinophil cationic protein dosages resulted in particularly elevated concentrations compared with the trauma cases. Nevertheless, the data that our study supplies by immunohistochemical techniques indicate that when mast-cells count in the lung was determined, no definite pattern was obtained between fatal heroin overdose cases and the control groups. Furthermore, the wide range of morphine concentrations found in post-mortem blood samples suggest that the term 'overdose' is relative and does not sufficiently characterize death associated with heroin addiction. Our study confirms that elevated concentrations of serum tryptase are associated with many heroin-related deaths. At this moment to attribute the cause of these deaths to 'heroin overdose' ignores the likely causal contribution of other possible systemic reactions to the mechanism of death.

  1. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C


    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders.

  2. Topography of Cortical Microbleeds in Alzheimer's Disease with and without Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Post-Mortem 7.0-Tesla MRI Study.

    De Reuck, J; Auger, F; Durieux, N; Deramecourt, V; Cordonnier, C; Pasquier, F; Maurage, C A; Leys, D; Bordet, R


    Cortical microbleeds (CMBs) detected on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered as a possible hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI study investigates whether topographic differences exist in Alzheimer's brains without (AD) and with CAA (AD-CAA). The distribution of CMBs in thirty-two post-mortem brains, consisting of 12 AD, 8 AD-CAA and 12 controls, was mutually compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere. The mean numbers of CMBs were determined in twenty-two different gyri. As a whole there was a trend of more CMBs on GRE MRI in the prefrontal section of the AD, the AD-CAA as well as of the control brains. Compared to controls AD brains had significantly more CMBs in the superior frontal, the inferior temporal, the rectus and the cinguli gyrus, and in the insular cortex. In AD-CAA brains CMBs were increased in all gyri with exception of the medial parietal gyrus and the hippocampus. AD-CAA brains showed a highly significant increase of CMBs in the inferior parietal gyrus (p value: 0.001) and a significant increase in the precuneus and the cuneus (p value: 0.01) compared to the AD brains. The differences in topographic distribution of CMBs between AD and AD-CAA brains should be further investigated on MRI in clinically suspected patients.

  3. Effect of Whole-abdominal Irradiation on Penetration Depth of Doxorubicin in Normal Tissue After Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) in a Post-mortem Swine Model.

    Khosrawipour, Veria; Khosrawipour, Tanja; Hedayat-Pour, Yousef; Diaz-Carballo, David; Bellendorf, Alexander; Böse-Ribeiro, Hugo; Mücke, Ralph; Mohanaraja, Nirushika; Adamietz, Irenäus Anton; Fakhrian, Khashayar


    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of whole-abdominal irradiation on local penetration of doxorubicin into the peritoneum and the abdominal organs in a post-mortem swine model. Doxorubicin was aerosolized into the abdominal cavity of swine at a pressure of 12 mmHg CO2 at room temperature (25°). One swine was subjected to pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) using Micropump(©) without irradiation; the second one received 2 Gy and the third one 7 Gy whole-abdominal irradiation, 15 min prior to PIPAC application. Samples of the peritoneal surface were extracted at different positions from within the abdominal cavity. In-tissue doxorubicin penetration was measured using fluorescence microscopy on frozen thin sections. The depth of penetration of doxorubicin was found to be wide-ranging, between 17 μm on the surface of the stomach and 348 μm in the small intestine. The penetration depth into the small intestine was 348 μm, 312 μm and 265 μm for PIPAC alone, PIPAC with 2 Gy irradiation and PIPAC with 7 Gy irradiation, respectively (pdoxorubicin penetration into normal tissue in the post-mortem swine model. A reduction of doxorubicin penetration was observed after application of higher irradiation doses. Further studies are warranted to determine if irradiation can be used safely as chemopotentiating agent for patients with peritoneal metastases treated with PIPAC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K


    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples.

  5. Longitudinal assessment of short-term memory deterioration in a logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia with post-mortem confirmed Alzheimer's Disease pathology.

    Tree, Jeremy; Kay, Janice


    In the field of dementia research, there are reports of neurodegenerative cases with a focal loss of language, termed primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Currently, this condition has been further sub-classified, with the most recent sub-type dubbed logopenic variant (PPA-LV). As yet, there remains somewhat limited evaluation of the characteristics of this condition, with no studies providing longitudinal assessment accompanied by post-mortem examination. Moreover, a key characteristic of the PPA-LV case is a deterioration of phonological short-term memory, but again little work has scrutinized the nature of this impairment over time. The current study seeks to redress these oversights and presents detailed longitudinal examination of language and memory function in a case of PPA-LV, with special focus on tests linked to components of phonological short-term memory function. Our findings are then considered with reference to a contemporary model of the neuropsychology of phonological short-term memory. Additionally, post-mortem examinations indicated Alzheimer's disease type pathology, providing further evidence that the PPA-LV presentation may reflect an atypical presentation of this condition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Matching simulated antemortem and post-mortem dental radiographs from human skulls by dental students and experts: testing skills for pattern recognition.

    Wenzel, A; Richards, A; Heidmann, J


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of undergraduate dental students to match simulated ante- and post-mortem radiographs in human skulls with experts as controls for the 1)number of post-mortem images needed for a match, 2)accuracy of the matches, and 3)time spent for a match. A film bitewing was recorded in each side of 51 dentate dry human skulls (a.m.-images) and digital images of the teeth were recorded using a sensor (p.m.-images). 102 correctly matching and 102 non-matching image pairs were constructed. Ten students and three experts scored the image pairs as: certain match, certain non-match, or uncertain. None of the experts but half of the students made false positive scores. Half of the students performed just as accurately as the experts. All students (except one who made 8 FPs) asked for more p.m.-images than did the experts before deciding on a match, however, all students, but one, also spent less time per image pair than did the experts before deciding on a match (Ppattern recognition and thus help in the decision on who might be included as part of a forensic dental team when extra help is needed.

  7. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M


    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Original implementation of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in symmetric cells: Evaluation of post-mortem protocols applied to characterize electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Gordon, Isabel Jiménez; Genies, Sylvie; Si Larbi, Gregory; Boulineau, Adrien; Daniel, Lise; Alias, Mélanie


    Understanding ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is essential for further optimizations. To determine performance loss causes, post-mortem analyses are commonly applied. For each type of post-mortem test, different sample preparation protocols are adopted. However, reports on the reliability of these protocols are rare. Herein, Li-ion pouch cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 - polyvinylidene fluoride positive electrode, graphite-carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene rubber negative electrode and LiPF6 - carbonate solvents mixture electrolyte, are opened and electrodes are recovered following a specified protocol. Negative and positive symmetric cells are assembled and their impedances are recorded. A signal analysis is applied to reconstruct the Li-ion pouch cell impedance from the symmetric cells, then comparison against the pouch cell true impedance allows the evaluation of the sample preparation protocols. The results are endorsed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Carbonate solvents used to remove the salt impacts slightly the surface properties of both electrodes. Drying electrodes under vacuum at 25 °C produces an impedance increase, particularly very marked for the positive electrode. Drying at 50 °C under vacuum or/and exposition to the anhydrous room atmosphere is very detrimental.

  9. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N. D. J.


    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  10. Complex suicide by ethanol intoxication and inhalation of fire fumes in an old lady: interdisciplinary elucidation including post-mortem analysis of congener alcohols.

    Jungmann, L; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Bohnert, M; Auwärter, V; Pollak, S


    An 88-year-old woman committed suicide by drinking a toxic amount of highly concentrated alcohol and setting two rooms of her flat on fire. As there was not enough oxygen, the fire went out, however. At autopsy, no thermal lesions were found on the body, but soot depositions in the airways and a COHb value of 14% pointed to the inhalation of fire fumes. The ethanol concentration in femoral blood was 6.62 per mille. The gastric mucosa was fixed by the ingested alcohol and showed hardly any autolytic changes despite a post-mortem interval of five days. Congener analysis of the gastric contents and the femoral blood indicated the uptake of a fruit distillate or its foreshot.

  11. Post-mortem high-resolution computed tomography of the lung: radiologic-morphologic correlation. Postmortale hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge: Radiologisch-morphologische Korrelationen

    Roos, N.; Diederich, X.; Lenzen, H.; Wiesmann, J.; Peters, P.E. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik); Fahrenkamp, A.; Puskas, Z. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Institut fuer Pathologie); Holst, D. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Anaesthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin); Lunkenheimer, P.P. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie)


    To establish precise correlations between high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and normal pulmonary anatomy and pulmonary pathology, 49 lungs affected by different diseases were analysed. Post-mortem high-resolution CT scans were compared with the corresponding macroscopic and microscopic pathological findings. For scanning, lungs were inflated and fixed, which avoided any decrease in the structural resolution of pulmonary parenchyma and allowed a topographically exact correlation between CT appearances and morphological changes. After demonstration of the structural details relevant for CT in normal pulmonary parenchyma, an attempt is made to establish the morphological basis of the following CT phenomena: thickening of interlobular septae, increase in pulmonary translucency, consolidation of the non-nodular alveolar and of the nodular type, and changes in the pleural region. Although CT findings in pulmonary lesions are mainly non-specific, knowledge of the corresponding morphological basis is helpful in diagnostic evaluation. (orig.).

  12. Post-mortem changes in the concentration of lactic acid, phosphates and pH in the muscles of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) according to the perimortal situation.

    Mačanga, Ján; Koréneková, Beáta; Nagy, Jozef; Marcinčák, Slavomir; Popelka, Peter; Kožárová, Ivona; Korének, Marián


    In this study changes in the concentrations of lactate, phosphates, and pH values of water extracts of muscles of transported and hunted rabbits during ripening were determined. Concentrations of lactate were higher in the muscles of hunted rabbits. The highest differences were obtained 24h after kill/hunt. Concentrations of lactate in the muscles of hunted rabbits were decreasing, while in the muscles of transported rabbits we observed it to increase in the 7th day and then decrease in the 14th day. Higher concentrations of phosphates were found in the muscles of transported wild rabbits. During the ripening process concentrations of phosphates were decreasing in muscles of both groups. Muscles of hunted rabbits had lower pH values during the whole ripening process. Our research showed that concentrations of lactate, phosphates and pH value post-mortem depended on the perimortal situations.

  13. PMICALC: an R code-based software for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) compatible with Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems.

    Muñoz-Barús, José I; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M; Vieira, Duarte N; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Febrero-Bande, Manuel


    In legal medicine the correct determination of the time of death is of utmost importance. Recent advances in estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) have made use of vitreous humour chemistry in conjunction with Linear Regression, but the results are questionable. In this paper we present PMICALC, an R code-based freeware package which estimates PMI in cadavers of recent death by measuring the concentrations of potassium ([K+]), hypoxanthine ([Hx]) and urea ([U]) in the vitreous humor using two different regression models: Additive Models (AM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), which offer more flexibility than the previously used Linear Regression. The results from both models are better than those published to date and can give numerical expression of PMI with confidence intervals and graphic support within 20 min. The program also takes into account the cause of death. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microstructural parcellation of the human cerebral cortex – from Brodmann's post-mortem map to in vivo mapping with high-field magnetic resonance imaging

    Stefan Geyer


    Full Text Available The year 2009 marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of the famous brain map of Korbinian Brodmann. Although a "classic" guide to microanatomical parcellation of the cerebral cortex, it is – from today's state-of-the-art neuroimaging perspective – problematic to use Brodmann's map as a structural guide to functional units in the cortex. In this article we discuss some of the reasons, especially the problematic compatibility of the "post-mortem world" of microstructural brain maps with the "in vivo world" of neuroimaging. We conclude with some prospects for the future of in vivo structural brain mapping: a new approach which has the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains: "in vivo Brodmann mapping" with high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Influence of supplemental maslinic acid (olive-derived triterpene) on the post-mortem muscle properties and quality traits of gilthead seabream

    Matos, E.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Wulff, Tune


    , enzymatic activities and protein expression in the muscle were assessed. Supplementing gilthead seabream diets with maslinic acid mainly resulted in hypertrophy of muscle fibres and inhibition of cathepsin B activity, with no observed differences in terms of glycogen and ATP content of the muscle, as well...... as glycogen phosphorylase activity. Proteomic analysis showed a low impact of maslinic acid supplementation on muscle metabolism, with most changes reflecting increased stress coping capacity and muscle hypertrophy in maslinic acid-fed fish. As a finishing strategy to improve the muscle's energetic status......Maslinic acid, a natural triterpene, was evaluated as a dietary supplement to modulate glycogen post-mortem mobilization in gilthead seabream muscle. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary trial was undertaken, where flesh quality criteria, as well as biochemical and histological parameters...

  16. Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO₂.

    Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H


    In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed.

  17. How to optimise the yield of forensic and clinical post-mortem microbiology with an adequate sampling: a proposal for standardisation.

    Fernández-Rodríguez, A; Cohen, M C; Lucena, J; Van de Voorde, W; Angelini, A; Ziyade, N; Saegeman, V


    Post-mortem microbiology (PMM) is an important tool in forensic pathology, helping to determine the cause and manner of death, especially in difficult scenarios such as sudden unexpected death (SD). Currently, there is a lack of standardization of PMM sampling throughout Europe. We present recommendations elaborated by a panel of European experts aimed to standardize microbiological sampling in the most frequent forensic and clinical post-mortem situations. A network of forensic microbiologists, pathologists and physicians from Spain, England, Belgium, Italy and Turkey shaped a flexible protocol providing minimal requirements for PMM sampling at four practical scenarios: SD, bioterrorism, tissue and cell transplantation (TCT) and paleomicrobiology. Biosafety recommendations were also included. SD was categorized into four subgroups according to the age of the deceased and circumstances at autopsy: (1) included SD in infancy and childhood (0-16 years); (2) corresponded to SD in the young (17-35 years); (3) comprised SD at any age with clinical symptoms; and (4) included traumatic/iatrogenic SD. For each subgroup, a minimum set of samples and general recommendations for microbiological analyses were established. Sampling recommendations for main bioterrorism scenarios were provided. In the TCT setting, the Belgian sampling protocol was presented as an example. Finally, regarding paleomicrobiology, the sampling selection for different types of human remains was reviewed. This proposal for standardization in the sampling constitutes the first step towards a consensus in PMM procedures. In addition, the protocol flexibility to adapt the sampling to the clinical scenario and specific forensic findings adds a cost-benefit value.

  18. Frequency and topography of small cerebrovascular lesions in vascular and in mixed dementia: a post-mortem 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates.

    De Reuck, Jacques; Auger, Florent; Durieux, Nicolas; Deramecourt, Vincent; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Pasquier, Florence; Leys, Didier; Bordet, Regis


    Introduction: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD. Material and methods: Based on neuropathological criteria, 14 brains were classified as VaD, 24 as MixD and 11 as controls. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere and a horizontal section of a cerebellar hemisphere underwent T2 and T2* 7.0-tesla MRI examination. The mean values and topographic distribution of white matter changes (WMCs), lacunar infarcts (LIs), cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) and cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) were determined and compared between the different groups. Results: Compared to the controls, both VaD and MixD brains had significantly more severe WMCs and increased numbers of CoMBs and CoMIs. Lacunar infarcts predominated only in the VaD cases. On mutual comparison of VaD and MixD brains, CoMBs and CoMIs predominated in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum of VaD, while were mainly present in the occipital lobe of MixD. White matter changes predominated in the temporal lobe of MixD cases. Lacunar infarcts were significantly increased in the corona radiata and putamen of VaD patients. Conclusions: The present post-mortem MRI study shows clear differences in the distribution and the types of cerebrovascular lesions on high-field MRI, confirming that VaD and MixD are different diseases. .

  19. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    Thayyil, Sudhin [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Schievano, Silvia [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [EGA UCL Institute for Women' s Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rodney [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [EGA UCL Institute for Women' s Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Clinical Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r{sup 2} = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  20. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F


    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently.

  1. Corrosão de refratários utilizados na siderurgia. Parte IV: Caracterização de refratários post mortem

    S. R. Bragança


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizada uma revisão dos principais aspectos encontrados na literatura especializada sobre corrosão de refratários, avaliando-se a viabilidade de determinados ensaios e relacionando-se com resultados experimentais. Refratários magnésia-carbono e doloma-carbono post mortem foram caracterizados quanto às suas propriedades microestruturais, avaliando-se essas em relação ao mecanismo de corrosão. Foram investigados os tijolos refratários utilizados como revestimento da linha de escória em uma panela de aço. A análise post mortem mostra a interface de reação entre as superfícies de corrosão e do refratário íntegro, as fases formadas, como produtos da corrosão, a perda de carbono e a infiltração de escória na matriz do refratário. Em face dessa análise, é possível se compreender o mecanismo de corrosão. Aliando-se esse conhecimento com a prática operacional, pode-se estabelecer critérios para a seleção de refratários com maior vida útil. A caracterização de um tijolo novo que apresentou recorde em sua utilização mostra as características desejáveis em um refratário.

  2. Post-mortem findings in southern right whales Eubalaena australis at Península Valdés, Argentina, 2003-2012.

    McAloose, Denise; Rago, M Virginia; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Olson, Sarah H; Beltramino, Lucas; Pozzi, Luciana M; Musmeci, Luciana; La Sala, Luciano; Mohamed, Nadia; Sala, Juan Emilio; Bandieri, Lucas; Andrejuk, Julian; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Seimon, Tracie; Sironi, Mariano; Samartino, Luis E; Rowntree, Victoria; Uhart, Marcela M


    Between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (SRW; Eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. These deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). Post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of these were newborns or neonates. A known or probable cause of death was established in only a small number (6.6%) of cases. These included ship strike in a juvenile and blunt trauma or lacerations (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 4), myocarditis (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), or myocarditis and meningitis (n = 1) in calves. Ante-mortem gull parasitism was the most common gross finding. It was associated with systemic disease in a single 1-2 mo old calf. Immunohistochemical labeling for canine distemper virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp., and PCR for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), influenza A, and apicomplexan protozoa were negative on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung and brain samples from a subset of whales; PCR for Brucella spp. was positive in a newborn/neonate with pneumonia. Skin samples from whales with gull parasitism were PCR negative for CeMV, poxvirus, and papillomavirus. This is the first long-term study to investigate and summarize notable post-mortem findings in the PV SRW population. Consistent, significant findings within or between years to explain the majority of deaths and those in high-mortality years remain to be identified.

  3. Isolation and determination of ivermectin in post-mortem and in vivo tissues of dung beetles using a continuous solid phase extraction method followed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS.

    Ortiz, Antonio J; Cortez, Vieyle; Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Verdú, José R


    A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues) using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+-MS/MS). Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0.01 ng g-1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng g-1. The proposed method was successfully used to quantitatively determine the levels of ivermectin in the analysis of small samples in in vivo and post mortem samples, demonstrating the usefulness for quantitative analyses that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects and the establishment of a new protocol to study the impact of ivermectin on non-target arthropods such as dung beetles and other insects that are related with the "dung community". Because satisfactory precision and accuracy values were obtained in both in vivo matrices, we suggest that the method can be consistently used for quantitative determinations that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects. Furthermore, this new analytical method was successfully applied to biological samples of dead dung beetles from the field suggesting that the method can be used to establish a new routine analysis of ivermectin residues in insect carcasses that is applied to complement typical mortality tests.

  4. Isolation and determination of ivermectin in post-mortem and in vivo tissues of dung beetles using a continuous solid phase extraction method followed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS

    Ortiz, Antonio J.; Cortez, Vieyle; Azzouz, Abdelmonaim


    A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues) using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+–MS/MS). Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0.01 ng g–1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng g–1. The proposed method was successfully used to quantitatively determine the levels of ivermectin in the analysis of small samples in in vivo and post mortem samples, demonstrating the usefulness for quantitative analyses that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects and the establishment of a new protocol to study the impact of ivermectin on non-target arthropods such as dung beetles and other insects that are related with the “dung community”. Because satisfactory precision and accuracy values were obtained in both in vivo matrices, we suggest that the method can be consistently used for quantitative determinations that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects. Furthermore, this new analytical method was successfully applied to biological samples of dead dung beetles from the field suggesting that the method can be used to establish a new routine analysis of ivermectin residues in insect carcasses that is applied to complement typical mortality tests. PMID:28207908

  5. Understanding Early Post-Mortem Biochemical Processes Underlying Meat Color and pH Decline in the Longissimus thoracis Muscle of Young Blond d'Aquitaine Bulls Using Protein Biomarkers.

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Micol, Didier; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Hocquette, Jean-François; Picard, Brigitte


    Many studies on color biochemistry and protein biomarkers were undertaken in post-mortem beef muscles after ≥24 hours. The present study was conducted on Longissimus thoracis muscles of 21 Blond d'Aquitaine young bulls to evaluate the relationships between protein biomarkers present during the early post-mortem and known to be related to tenderness and pH decline and color development. pH values at 45 min, 3 h, and 30 h post-mortem were correlated with three, seven, and six biomarkers, respectively. L*a*b* color coordinates 24 h post-mortem were correlated with nine, five, and eight protein biomarkers, respectively. Regression models included Hsp proteins and explained between 47 and 59% of the variability between individuals in pH and between 47 and 65% of the variability in L*a*b* color coordinates. Proteins correlated with pH and/or color coordinates were involved in apoptosis or had antioxidative or chaperone activities. The main results include the negative correlations between pH45 min, pH3 h, and pHu and Prdx6, which may be explained by the antioxidative and phospholipase activities of this biomarker. Similarly, inducible Hsp70-1A/B and μ-calpain were correlated with L*a*b* coordinates, due to the protective action of Hsp70-1A/B on the proteolytic activities of μ-calpain on structural proteins. Correlations existed further between MDH1, ENO3, and LDH-B and pH decline and color stability probably due to the involvement of these enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and, thus, the energy status of the cell. The present results show that research using protein indicators may increase the understanding of early post-mortem biological mechanisms involved in pH and beef color development.

  6. Craniocerebral trauma--congruence between post-mortem computed tomography diagnoses and autopsy results: a 2-year retrospective study

    Jacobsen, Christina; Lynnerup, Niels


    Computed tomography (CT) has been used routinely at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen since 2002. A retrospective study was performed in order to correlate CT-scan based diagnoses of cranial and cerebral lesions with macroscopic autopsy diagnoses in 56 cases. The CT...... of the anterior, medial and posterior cranial fossae was 20%, 52% and 60%, respectively. Fractures involving bilateral bones were diagnosed correctly more frequently. The diagnostic agreement regarding brain injuries varied from 0% to 79%. Both the autopsy-reports and CT-scan descriptions need to be standardized...

  7. Craniocerebral trauma--congruence between post-mortem computed tomography diagnoses and autopsy results: a 2-year retrospective study.

    Jacobsen, Christina; Lynnerup, Niels


    Computed tomography (CT) has been used routinely at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen since 2002. A retrospective study was performed in order to correlate CT-scan based diagnoses of cranial and cerebral lesions with macroscopic autopsy diagnoses in 56 cases. The CT-scans were performed by a forensic pathologist. They were obtained by using two different CT-scan protocols. The results showed correct skull fracture diagnoses in 34/56 cases. Fractures were diagnosed partially (9) or missed totally (13) on CT-images in 22 cases. The agreement for fracture diagnoses of the anterior, medial and posterior cranial fossae was 20%, 52% and 60%, respectively. Fractures involving bilateral bones were diagnosed correctly more frequently. The diagnostic agreement regarding brain injuries varied from 0% to 79%. Both the autopsy-reports and CT-scan descriptions need to be standardized in order to secure more exact comparisons in the future.

  8. Post-mortem levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine and morphine glucuronides in a series of codeine-related deaths.

    Frost, Joachim; Løkken, Trine Nordgård; Helland, Arne; Nordrum, Ivar Skjåk; Slørdal, Lars


    This article presents levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine, morphine and the morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem blood (peripheral and heart blood), vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue in a series of 23 codeine-related fatalities. CYP2D6 genotype is also determined and taken into account. Quantification of codeine, C6G, norcodeine, morphine, M3G and M6G was performed with a validated solid phase extraction LC-MS method. The series comprise 19 deaths (83%) attributed to mixed drug intoxication, 4 deaths (17%) attributed to other causes of death, and no cases of unambiguous monointoxication with codeine. The typical peripheral blood concentration pattern in individual cases was C6G≫codeine≫norcodeine>morphine, and M3G>M6G>morphine. In matrices other than blood, the concentration pattern was similar, although in a less systematic fashion. Measured concentrations were generally lower in matrices other than blood, especially in brain and fat, and in particular for the glucuronides (C6G, M3G and M6G) and, to some extent, morphine. In brain tissue, the presumed active moieties morphine and M6G were both below the LLOQ (0.0080mg/L and 0.058mg/L, respectively) in a majority of cases. In general, there was a large variability in both measured concentrations and calculated blood/tissue concentration ratios. There was also a large variability in calculated ratios of morphine to codeine, C6G to codeine and norcodeine to codeine in all matrices, and CYP2D6 genotype was not a reliable predictor of these ratios. The different blood/tissue concentration ratios showed no systematic relationship with the post-mortem interval. No coherent degradation or formation patterns for codeine, morphine, M3G and M6G were observed upon reanalysis in peripheral blood after storage.

  9. Uso de métodos complementares na inspeção post mortem de carcaças com suspeita de tuberculose bovina

    Leone V. Furlanetto


    Full Text Available O objetivo foi utilizar métodos complementares de diagnóstico (histopatológicos, bacteriológicos e moleculares, no julgamento de lesões suspeitas de tuberculose observadas durante a inspeção post mortem de rotina em abatedouros. Foi acompanhado o abate e a inspeção de 41.193 bovinos, sadios ao exame ante mortem, em sete abatedouros no estado de Mato Grosso. Carcaças de 198 (0,48% animais apresentaram lesões, sendo 182 (92,0% classificadas como granulomatosas ou piogranulomatosas na avaliação histopatológica. Entretanto, na baciloscopia, não foi evidenciada a presença de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR. Mycobacterium bovis foi isolado em três (1,5% lesões, provenientes de linfonodos retrofaringeanos de bovinos com até três anos de idade. Quando usado a PCR múltipla (m-PCR diretamente nos fragmentos de tecido, detectou-se a presença de DNA de M. bovis em 14 (7,0% lesões, incluindo as três amostras identificadas na análise bacteriológica. O julgamento das lesões pelo exame macroscópico concordou em 93,0% (184/198 com os resultados obtidos por meio da PCR. A fim de evitar equívocos durante a avaliação, principalmente das lesões paucibacilares, como as encontradas neste estudo, recomenda-se a utilização de testes complementares rápidos e confirmatórios. A m-PCR, associada à inspeção post mortem de rotina, demonstrou ser uma técnica promissora para a vigilância da tuberculose bovina em abatedouros, contribuindo para o sucesso do programa de erradicação da tuberculose bovina.

  10. Intoxicación letal con aldicarb: análisis de sangre post mortem mediante LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Diana Jazmín Mariño-Gaviria


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El aldicarb es un plaguicida carbamato de alta toxicidad asociado a intoxicaciones agudas fatales en el ser humano. Su mecanismo de acción consiste en la inhibición de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa (AChE que ocasiona la acumulación del neurotransmisor acetilcolina en la hendidura sináptica. Esta acumulación provoca síntomas colinérgicos y, dependiendo de la dosis de exposición, puede paralizar los sistemas respiratorio y nervioso hasta llegar a la muerte. Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de aldicarb en sangre post mortem en casos de intoxicación aguda. Materiales y métodos. Investigación de tipo experimental empleando un cromatógrafo líquido con espectrometría de masas, con ionización electrospray y análisis en modo tándem (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Los estándares de aldicarb y el aldicarb-d3 fueron comprados de Dr. Ehrenstorfer GmbH. El método consiste en una precipitación de proteínas de la sangre y su posterior análisis por LC-ESI-MS/MS, utilizando el aldicarb-d3 como estándar interno. El método fue aplicado a siete casos de intoxicación letal por presunta acción del aldicarb. Resultados. El aldicarb se encontró en la sangre de seis de los casos estudiados, en niveles desde 0.12 a 1.90 µg/mL. Solo en uno de los casos no se detectó aldicarb. En cuanto la presunta manera de muerte, en seis de los casos analizados fue el suicidio y en un caso se clasificó como muerte en estudio. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos con la metodología analítica y la técnica LC-ESI-MS/MS son satisfactorios en términos de la determinación cuantitativa de aldicarb en sangre total post mortem. La aplicación de la metodología descrita en toxicología forense evidencia el empleo de este plaguicida en actos suicidas.

  11. Lack of infection with XMRV or other MLV-related viruses in blood, post-mortem brains and paternal gametes of autistic individuals.

    Carla Lintas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by impaired language, communication and social skills, as well as by repetitive and stereotypic patterns of behavior. Many autistic subjects display a dysregulation of the immune system which is compatible with an unresolved viral infection with prenatal onset, potentially due to vertical viral transmission. Recently, the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV has been implicated in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in prostate cancer by several, though not all studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed whether XMRV or other murine leukemia virus (MLV-related viruses are involved in autistic disorder. Using nested PCR targeted to gag genomic sequences, we screened DNA samples from: (i peripheral blood of 102 ASD patients and 97 controls, (ii post-mortem brain samples of 20 ASD patients and 17 sex- and age-matched controls, (iii semen samples of 11 fathers of ASD children, 25 infertile individuals and 7 fertile controls. No XMRV gag DNA sequences were detected, whereas peripheral blood samples of 3/97 (3.1% controls were positive for MLV. CONCLUSIONS| SIGNIFICANCE: No MLV-related virus was detected in blood, brain, and semen samples of ASD patients or fathers. Hence infection with XMRV or other MLV-related viruses is unlikely to contribute to autism pathogenesis.

  12. Heart lesions associated with anabolic steroid abuse: comparison of post-mortem findings in athletes and norethandrolone-induced lesions in rabbits.

    Fanton, Laurent; Belhani, Dalila; Vaillant, Fanny; Tabib, Alain; Gomez, Ludovic; Descotes, Jacques; Dehina, Leila; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Malicier, Daniel; Timour, Quadiri


    Among 15,000 forensic post-mortem examinations performed on the coroner's order over a 24-year period (January 1981-December 2004) in the area of Lyon, France (population: 2,000,000), 2250 cases of unexpected cardiac sudden death were identified retrospectively according to WHO criteria. Of these, 108 occurred during recreational sport and 12 occurred in athletes. In the latter category, a history of anabolic steroid abuse was found in 6 cases, whereas pre-existing ordinary cardiac lesions were observed in the 6 remaining cases. To shed light on the possible role of anabolic steroids in the induction of cardiac lesions, an experimental study was conducted in rabbits that were treated orally with norethandrolone 8mg/kg/day for 60 days, and sacrificed at day 90. The histopathological examination of the heart from treated animals showed coronary thrombosis associated with left ventricle hypertrophy in 3 cases, and lesions analogous to toxic or adrenergic myocarditis in all other treated animals. These findings were very similar to those observed after cardiac sudden death in the 6 athletes with a history of anabolic steroid abuse. In addition, elevated caspase-3 activity in the heart of treated rabbits as compared to controls suggests that apoptosis is involved in the induction of norethandrolone-induced cardiac lesions. These results confirm the cardiotoxic potential of anabolic steroid abuse.

  13. Investigation and Analysis of Post-mortem Pig Lymph Lesions%生猪宰后必检淋巴结病变因素探查

    杨涛; 刘茜; 李平


    宰后检验是兽医卫生检验的重要环节,对于保证肉品质量具有关键性作用。通过在宁夏石嘴山市的4个屠宰场进行必检淋巴结的抽检,分析其外观和病理变化,结果显示,有44.2%的淋巴结有病变。分析认为导致病变的主要原因是应激因素和疫病因素。建议加强屠宰管理和各阶段的检疫,以减少各种应激因素刺激,保证产品的质量与卫生。%Postmortem examinationis an important link inthe veterinary health inspection and play a key role toensure the meat quality.Sampling check on post-mortem pig Lymph-node lesions were carried out in 4 abattoirs in Shizuishan city,Ningxia. The result showed that the proportion of lymphadenopathy was 44%.The main factors were stresses and diseases. Suggestionswere put forward for strengtheningslaughter management and quarantine at various stages to re-duce various stress factors,so asto ensure the qualityand health of products.

  14. The prevalence and distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles) as determined by enhanced post mortem examination and bacteriological culture.

    Murphy, D; Gormley, E; Costello, E; O'Meara, D; Corner, L A L


    The accurate diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers is key to understanding the epidemiology of tuberculosis in this species and has significant implications for devising strategies to limit spread of the disease. In this study, badgers (n=215) in the Republic of Ireland were examined at post mortem and tissues were collected from a range of anatomical locations and pooled into groups for bacterial culture of M. bovis. By assessing confirmed gross visible lesions (VL) alone, infection was detected in 12.1% of badgers. However, by including the results of all culture positive pooled samples, the overall infection prevalence increased significantly to 36.3%. Two-thirds (66.7%) of infected animals had no visible lesions (NVL). While the thoracic cavity (lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes) was found to be the most common site of infection, in a proportion of animals infection was absent from the lungs and draining lymph nodes and was confined to the lymph nodes of the carcase or the head. This may indicate an early extrapulmonary dissemination of infection or alternatively, in the case of the head lymph nodes, a secondary pathogenic pathway involving the lymphoid tissues of the upper respiratory tract (URT).

  15. Comparison of complement fixation test, competitive ELISA and LppQ ELISA with post-mortem findings in the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    Muuka, Geofrey; Hang'ombe, Bernard Mudenda; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Kabilika, Swithine; Mwambazi, Lucas; Muma, John Bwalya


    The complement fixation test (CFT), the c-ELISA and an indirect LppQ ELISA were compared to post-mortem (PM) inspection for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Sera from 797 cattle in the CBPP affected area of Kazungula, Zambia and 202 sera from Lusaka, Zambia, a CBPP-free area were used. The clinical history of CBPP was recorded and all the cattle from Kazungula were slaughtered and PM inspections conducted. The prevalence of CBPP in Kazungula was 67.5% (95%CI 67.2%, 70.8%), 52.6% (95%CI 49.2%, 56.2%), 59.0% (95%CI 55.5%, 62.4%) and 44.4% (95%CI 41.0%, 47.9%) using PM inspection, CFT, c-ELISA and LppQ ELISA, respectively. Three of the 202 negative control animals tested positive on the c-ELISA although they were from a known CBPP negative zone. In this study, the c-ELISA was more sensitive in detecting cattle with lesions in the chronic stage than any other test whilst the CFT detected more during the onset stage. No single serological test could detect all stages of CBPP infection, therefore the use of more than one test is advised.

  16. Tissue microscopic changes and artifacts in multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography in a hospital setting: a fatal case of systemic vasculitis.

    Capuani, Caroline; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Marcheix, Bertrand; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel; Dedouit, Fabrice


    A 27-year-old man suddenly died in hospital of acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to severe systemic vasculitis. Multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography followed by scientific autopsy of the thoracic and abdominal cavity and histology was performed, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of such techniques. Imaging enabled us to examine the cranium, as the family refused cerebral dissection. MPMCTA revealed absence of opacification of the left middle cerebral artery. But parenchymal findings of thoracic and abdominal organs were still difficult to interpret after both imaging and macroscopic examination during the autopsy. Microscopic examination provided the definitive diagnosis of cause of death. Analysis revealed systemic vasculitis of the lung complicated by diffuse alveolar, mediastinal, splenic and retroperitoneal lesions. We were unable to determine the type of vasculitis, whether polyarteritis nodosa or microscopic polyangiitis, because of artifactual glomerular collapse. We observed some structural changes in tissue secondary to contrast agent injection, affecting the vascular system and renal parenchyma in particular. Such artifacts must be known in order to avoid misinterpreting them as pathological findings. MPMCTA and conventional autopsy are two complementary techniques showing both their specific advantages and limits which have to be known in order to choose the appropriate technique. One limit of both techniques is the detection of microscopic findings which can only be obtained by additional histological examination. This case report underlines this fact and demonstrates that caution is required in some cases if microscopic analyses are carried out after contrast agent injection.

  17. [Different CO2-stunning procedures and post mortem obtained lung lesions in response to the corneal reflex and parameters in blood of slaughtered pigs].

    Hartmann, Helmut; Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Wolf, Katharina; Rindermann, Georg; Fries, Reinhard


    The effect of different CO2-stunning on the corneal reflex response and blood parameters in (arterio-venous) killing blood was investigated in n = 614 slaughter pigs (carcass weight = 92-94 kg) at two different abattoirs. CO2-anaesthesia lead to remarkable decrease of PO2 (hypoxaemia), increase of PCO2 (hypercapnia), decrease of pH (respiratory acidosis) and increase of [strong ion difference = SID3] (basic reaction caused by electrolytes). Pigs with subclinical post mortem obtained lung lesions showed no significant modified value of the reflex answer or changes in parameters of killing blood compared to the animals with healthy lungs. The CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and 120 s exposure time resulted in notably less undesired positive reflex responses (6% of slaughter pigs) than the CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and only 90 s exposure time (15% of slaughter pigs). The occurence of the positive reflex response, which means an inadequate depth of anaesthesia, in slaughter pigs can be safely eliminated by use of qualified cut off values of killing blood parameters. These parameters can be measured rapidly and validly with ion-sensitive electrodes, making a beneficial monitoring of the used CO2-stunning possible.

  18. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-NMC/graphite lithium ion batteries part II: Calendar aging

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Zhang, Mengjia; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen


    A detailed post-mortem analysis was carried out for commercial lithium ion batteries stored at 4.2 V and 4.0 V at 60 °C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes for the cells aged at 4.2 V were loss of cycleable lithium, decomposition of the electrolyte and loss of active cathode material (LiMn2O4/Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2). The cells aged at 4.0 V also exhibited loss of cycleable lithium, but at a smaller extent. In fact, the aged anodes did not show significant changes compared to the new anode. Electrochemical impedance measurements including symmetric laboratory test cells gained from new and aged cells revealed valuable information about changing charge-transfer processes. The 4.2 V-cathode and both aged anodes surprisingly exhibited a decreased charge-transfer resistance, while the 4.0 V-cathode's charge-transfer resistance increased.

  19. Simultaneous screening and quantification of 25 opioid drugs in post-mortem blood and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Gergov, M; Nokua, P; Vuori, E; Ojanperä, I


    A method for simultaneous screening and quantification was developed for the fentanyls alfentanil, fentanyl, p-fluorofentanyl, cis-3-methylfentanyl, trans-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, norfentanyl, remifentanil, sufentanil, and the other opioid drugs 6-acetylmorphine, buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, ethylmorphine, heroin, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, norbuprenorphine, normethadone, oxycodone, pentazocine, pethidine, and tramadol in post-mortem blood and urine samples by LC-MS/MS. Samples were extracted with butyl acetate at pH 7. The drugs were separated by LC on a Genesis C(18) reversed-phase column, with a gradient consisting of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with a turbo ion spray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Quantification was performed based on five isotope-labelled internal standards. Validation included assessment of linearity, limit of quantification, inaccuracy, precision, and matrix effects. The limits of quantification were adequate for screening and quantification of opioid drugs at low therapeutic or abuse concentration levels, with inaccuracy less than 23% and precision better than 24% both in blood and urine samples. When this method was applied to autopsy cases, its results were in agreement with those of reference methods.

  20. Influence of temperature on the aging behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: A comprehensive approach combining electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis

    Friesen, Alex; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Börner, Markus; Haetge, Jan; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin


    The understanding of the aging behavior of lithium ion batteries in automotive and energy storage applications is essential for the acceptance of the technology. Therefore, aging experiments were conducted on commercial 18650-type state-of-the-art cells to determine the influence of the temperature during electrochemical cycling on the aging behavior of the different cell components. The cells, based on Li(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)O2 (NCM532)/graphite, were aged at 20 °C and 45 °C to different states of health. The electrochemical performance of the investigated cells shows remarkable differences depending on the cycling temperature. At contrast to the expected behavior, the cells cycled at 45 °C show a better electrochemical performance over lifetime than the cells cycled at 20 °C. Comprehensive post-mortem analyses revealed the main aging mechanisms, showing a complex interaction between electrodes and electrolyte. The main aging mechanisms of the cells cycled at 45 °C differ strongly at contrast to cells cycled at 20 °C. A strong correlation between the formed SEI, the electrolyte composition and the electrochemical performance over lifetime was observed.

  1. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls

    Rong Zhang


    Full Text Available Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB, diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024. The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087. There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB.

  2. Simple spectrophotometric methods for determination of fluoxetine and clomipramine hydrochlorides in dosage forms and in some post-mortem biological fluids samples

    Emam A. Ali


    Full Text Available Sensitive, simple and rapid spectrophotometric methods for micro determination of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLU and clomipramine hydrochloride (CLO. The methods are based on the reaction between the examined drugs and acid dyes, namely; bromocresol green (BCG, phenol red (PhR and metanil yellow (MY producing yellow ion-pair complexes followed by their extraction with methylene chloride and measured at 412, 407 and 409 nm for FLU with BCG, PhR and MY, respectively; whereas for CLO at 409, 406 and 407 nm, respectively. All variables that affect the performance of the proposed methods were carefully studied and optimized. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges 0.86–24.32 μg/mL, 8.64–41.30 μg/mL, 0.86–34.76 μg/mL for FLU and 1.75–24.55 μg/mL, 7.0–50 μg/mL, 1.65–34.78 μg/mL for CLO using BCG, PhR and MY respectively. The methods were validated in terms of accuracy and precision. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of fluoxetine hydrochloride and clomipramine hydrochloride in pure samples, pharmaceutical formulations, spiked post-mortem urine and blood samples.

  3. Altered CB1 receptor coupling to G-proteins in the post-mortem caudate nucleus and cerebellum of alcoholic subjects.

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Rubio, Marina; Meana, J Javier; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Callado, Luis F


    Biochemical, pharmacological and genetic evidence suggests the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the state of CB1 receptors in post-mortem caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum of alcoholic subjects.CB1 protein levels were measured by Western blot, CB1 receptor density and affinity by [(3)H]WIN55,212-2 saturation assays and CB1 functionality by [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays. Experiments were performed in samples from 24 subjects classified as non-suicidal alcoholics (n = 6), suicidal alcoholics (n = 6), non-alcoholic suicide victims (n = 6) and control subjects (n = 6).Alcoholic subjects presented hyperfunctional CB1 receptors in the caudate nucleus resulting in a higher maximal effect in both alcoholic groups compared to the non-alcoholic groups (p CB1 protein expression in either region. In the hippocampus of alcoholic subjects, no changes were observed either in the functionality, density or protein levels.Our data support an association between endocannabinoid system activity and alcoholism. The modifications reported here could be either a consequence of high lifetime ethanol consumption or a vulnerability factor to develop alcohol addiction.

  4. [Reliability of the diagnoses of external post-mortem examinations in non-natural deaths before and after the German reunification].

    Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard; Böhm, Ulrike; Lessig, Rüdiger


    In Germany, the unsatisfactory quality of external post-mortem examinations and the low autopsy rate of only 5 % of all deaths are often criticized. Based on the autopsy protocols of 8,593 cases of non-natural death of the Leipzig Institute of Legal Medicine (1985 to 1989--practice in the former German Democratic Republic; 1990 to 1994 - time around the fall of the Berlin wall, and 2000 to 2004--practice in the Federal Republic of Germany) the diagnosis indicated in the death certificate was compared with that of the autopsy report. Beside a drastic decrease in the number of autopsies performed, it was found that in 72% of the cases the clinical and the autoptical cause of death corresponded completely, whereas in 9.2% there was only partial and in 15.4% no correspondence at all. The lack of correspondence increased from 13.8% (1985-1989) to 18.0% (2000-2004). The low rate of correspondence in the causes of domestic deaths was particularly alarming. There were obvious differences in quality among different groups of specialists in determining the cause of death.

  5. Prolyl oligopeptidase colocalizes with α-synuclein, β-amyloid, tau protein and astroglia in the post-mortem brain samples with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.

    Hannula, M J; Myöhänen, T T; Tenorio-Laranga, J; Männistö, P T; Garcia-Horsman, J A


    Prolyl oligopeptidase (EC, PREP) is a serine protease that hydrolyzes proline-containing peptides shorter than 30-mer but it has also nonhydrolytic functions. PREP has been shown to accelerate aggregation of wild-type α-synuclein (α-syn) under cell-free conditions, and PREP inhibitors can block this aggregation both in vitro and in vivo. α-syn is the main component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. To clarify the possible interaction of PREP with other markers of neurodegenerative diseases, we studied colocalizations of PREP and (1) α-syn, (2) β-amyloid, (3) tau protein and (4) astroglial and microglial cells in human post-mortem brain samples from PD, Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in healthy control brain samples. In the substantia nigra of PD brains, an intense colocalization with PREP and α-syn was evident. PREP colocalized also with β-amyloid plaques in AD brains and with tau protein in AD and in healthy brains. PREP was also found in astroglial cells in PD, AD and control brains, but not in the microglia. Our findings are the first ones to demonstrate colocalization of PREP and pathological proteins in the human brain and support the view that, at least in spatial terms, PREP could be associated with pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Muscle pH and temperature changes in hot- and cold-deboned ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) Muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna and Muscularis iliofibularis during the first 23h post-mortem.

    Hoffman, L C; Botha, Suné St C; Britz, T J


    Cold-shortening is the response when muscles are exposed to temperatures below 10°C with a pH>6.20. The course of pH within hot-deboned and intact ostrich M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and M. iliofibularis were followed for the first 23-24h post-mortem to investigate the changes in pH as well as to determine the point of minimum pH for ostrich muscles post-mortem. The hot-deboned muscles took longer to reach the point of minimum pH than the intact muscles. There was no significant (P=0.4508) difference in the minimum pH (5.91±0.26) between the hot-deboned and the intact muscles. It was concluded that both the M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and the M. iliofibularis reached a pHmuscle temperatures above 10°C; and therefore showed no risk of cold-shortening if these muscles were to be hot-deboned 2-4h post-mortem.

  7. Cerebellar oxidative DNA damage and altered DNA methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism and similarities with human post mortem cerebellum.

    Svitlana Shpyleva

    Full Text Available The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG, 5-methylcytosine (5mC, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1 and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1 and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism.

  8. Suicide candidate genes associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: An exploratory gene expression profiling analysis of post-mortem prefrontal cortex

    Baykiz Ali


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is an important and potentially preventable consequence of serious mental disorders of unknown etiology. Gene expression profiling technology provides an unbiased approach to identifying candidate genes for mental disorders. Microarray studies with post-mortem prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46/10 tissue require larger sample sizes. This study poses the question: to what extent are differentially expressed genes for suicide a diagnostic specific set of genes (bipolar disorder vs. schizophrenia vs. a shared common pathway? Results In a reanalysis of a large set of Affymetrix Human Genome U133A microarray data, gene expression levels were compared between suicide completers vs. non-suicide groups within a diagnostic group, namely Bipolar disorder (N = 45; 22 suicide completers; 23 non-suicide or Schizophrenia (N = 45; 10 suicide completers ; 35 non-suicide. Among bipolar samples, 13 genes were found and among schizophrenia samples, 70 genes were found as differentially expressed. Two genes, PLSCR4 (phospholipid scramblase 4 and EMX2 (empty spiracles homolog 2 (Drosophila were differentially expressed in suicide groups of both diagnostic groups by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, PLSCR4 and EMX2 were significantly down-regulated in the schizophrenia suicide completers, but could not be confirmed in bipolar disorder. Conclusion This molecular level analysis suggests that diagnostic specific genes predominate to shared genes in common among suicide vs. non-suicide groups. These differentially expressed, candidate genes are neural correlates of suicide, not necessarily causal. While suicide is a complex endpoint with many pathways, these candidate genes provide entry points for future studies of molecular mechanisms and genetic association studies to test causality.

  9. Determination of the post mortem interval in skeletal remains by the comparative use of different physico-chemical methods: Are they reliable as an alternative to (14)C?

    Amadasi, Alberto; Cappella, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Cristina; Cofrancesco, Pacifico; Cucca, Lucia; Merli, Daniele; Milanese, Chiara; Pinto, Andrea; Profumo, Antonella; Scarpulla, Valentina; Sguazza, Emanuela


    The determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is a challenging aspect in the forensic field. Previous studies focused their attention on different macroscopic and morphological aspects but a thorough and complete evaluation of the potential of chemical and physical analyses in this field of research has not been performed. In addition to luminol test and Oxford histology index (OHI) reported in a recent paper, widely spread and accessible methods based on physical aspect and chemical characteristics of skeletal remains have been investigated as potential alternatives to dating by determination of (14)C. The investigation was performed on a total of 24 archeological and forensic bone samples with known PMI, with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, the feasibility of such alternative methods was discussed. Some results such as carbonates/phosphates ratio from FT-IR, the amounts of organic and inorganic matter by EDX, crystallite sizes with XRPD, and surface morphology obtained by SEM, showed significant trends along with PMI. Though, from a chemical point of view cut-off values and gold-standard methods still present challenges, and rather different techniques together can provide useful information toward the assessment of the PMI of skeletal remains. It is however clear that in a hypothetical flowchart those methods may be placed practically at the same level and a choice should always consider the evaluation of results by each technique, execution times and a costs/benefits relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O


    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers.

  11. Post-Mortem Evaluation of Pathological Lesions in European Bison (Bison Bonasus in the Białowieża Primeval Forest Between 2008 and 2013

    K. Krzysiak Michał


    Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%, 77 (32.9%, 82 (35.0%, 68 (29.1%, and 56 (23.9% animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1% tested showed some pathological changes of prepuce and penis, described as posthitis or balanoposthitis. Infection with liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus was observed macroscopically in 114 (48.7% and 80 (32.9% bison respectively. F. hepatica prevalence was associated with the emergence of other liver changes such as hepatitis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001. Similarly, the prevalence of D. viviparus coincided with pneumonia (P = 0.001, changes in the upper respiratory tract (P = 0.04, and emphysema (P < 0.001. Hepatitis, infection with F. hepatica, and pathological lesions in the male and female reproductive tracts were associated with the animals’ age. Mechanical injuries, caused by other bison or less commonly by traffic accidents, were the most common cause of death of bison below six months of age. Most pathological changes were significantly more frequent in the selectively culled animals in comparison with the ones having fallen, which confirms the desirability of elimination as a tool to improve the health and welfare of the bison population and limit the number of reservoirs of invasive and possibly infectious diseases.

  12. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 is expressed on vascular cells, but not astroglial cells in the post-mortem human Huntington's disease brain.

    Dowie, Megan J; Grimsey, Natasha L; Hoffman, Therri; Faull, Richard L M; Glass, Michelle


    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurological disease with motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Characterised by neuronal degeneration, HD pathology is initially apparent in the striatum and cortex. Considerable research has recently suggested that the neurological immune response apparent in brain injury and disease may provide a valuable therapeutic target. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are localised and up-regulated on a number of peripheral immune cell types following inflammation and injury. However, their cellular location within the human brain during inflammation has not been well characterised. The present study shows CB2 is expressed in human post-mortem striatum in HD. Quantification revealed a trend towards an increase in CB2 staining with disease, but no significant difference was measured compared to neurologically normal controls. In HD striatal tissue, there is an up-regulation of the brains' resident immune cells, with a significant increase in GFAP-positive astrocyte staining at both grade 1 (685±118%) and grade 3 (1145±163%) and Iba1-positive microglia at grade 1 (299±27%) but not grade 3 (119±48%), compared to neurologically normal controls. Both cell types exhibit irregular cell morphology, particularly at higher grades. Using double-labelled immunohistochemistry CB2 receptors are demonstrated not to be expressed on microglia or astrocytes and instead appear to be localised on CD31-positive blood vessel endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. Co-expression analysis suggests that CB2 may be more highly expressed on CD31 positive cells in HD brains than in control brains. Contrasting with evidence from rodent studies suggesting CB2 glial cell localisation, our observation that CB2 is present on blood vessel cells, with increased CD31 co-localisation in HD may represent a new context for CB2 therapeutic approaches to neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Quantification of the herpesvirus content in various tissues and organs, and associated post mortem lesions of psittacine birds which died during an epornithic of pacheco's parrot disease (PPD).

    Gravendyck, M; Balks, E; Schroder-Gravendyck, A S; Eskens, U; Frank, H; Marschang, R E; Kaleta, E F


    This paper reports on the viral content of up to 52 tissue and organ samples of 18 individual large psittacines which died during an epornithic of Pacheco's parrot disease (PPD) caused by psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV1). Associated clinical signs and pathological lesions are described. The large spectrum of samples found to be positive for PsHVl suggests that birds succumb to PPD during viraemia. Tissues and organs from which the virus could be isolated included the integument and associated structures, the muscular, respiratory and circulatory system, bone marrow, the nervous system, thyroid and adrenal glands, spleen and liver, the urogenital tract and the gastro-intestinal tract. Nevertheless, individual and organ (but not species)-specific variation does occur. Virus isolation appears to be most promising from the respiratory, vascular and nervous system and the liver. Highest titres were obtained from heart blood and liver (up to 7.6 log(10)/g tissue), airsac, Nervus vagus and pulp and quill of pin feathers. Pin feathers may therefore be suitable for in-vivo diagnosis. In contrast, HV could not be isolated from any of the feather vanes examined. For the most part, post mortem lesions do not reflect the organ pattern found to be most permissive for virus replication as judged by the success of virus isolation and virus titres. A closer quantitative correlation is indicated for the lungs, spleen and liver, only. Corresponding findings as to frequency of gross pathological lesions and virus quantification appear to be restricted to the liver. In accordance with clinical observations and experimental findings, tissue virus content indicates that horizontal spread of herpesviruses is mediated by cloacal contents or secretions from the respiratory system.

  14. Comparison between drug screening by immunoassay and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry in post-mortem urine.

    Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka


    Immunoassay is currently the most common approach for urine drug screening. However, the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and their low urinary concentrations have challenged the scope and sensitivity of immunoassays. Consequently, specialized toxicology laboratories rely more and more on mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS) is an especially attractive technique for comprehensive drug screening. The objective was to compare the performances of immunoassay and UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS in terms of scope, flexibility, sensitivity, and reliability of substance identification. A total of 279 post-mortem urine samples were analyzed using a method representative of each technique. The immunoassay method was an Emit II Plus enzyme immunoassay for the following drug groups: amphetamines, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, cannabis, and opiates. The UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS method was a recently published method covering hundreds of drugs: conventional drugs of abuse, abused prescription drugs, and NPS of various classes. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS produced a lower number of false positive (FP) results for the drug groups covered by immunoassay. Many of the false negative (FN, n = 40) and FP (n = 22) immunoassay results were obviously due to the higher cut-off concentrations and interfering matrix, respectively. Moreover, the wider scope of UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS allowed detection of NPS and prescription drugs. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS gave FP results related to a few particular substances. The future option of adjusting all compound-specific reporting parameters individually would allow the method's sensitivity and specificity to be fully exploited.

  15. Network Topology Analysis of Post-Mortem Brain Microarrays Identifies More Alzheimer's Related Genes and MicroRNAs and Points to Novel Routes for Fighting with the Disease.

    Sreedevi Chandrasekaran

    Full Text Available Network-based approaches are powerful and beneficial tools to study complex systems in their entirety, elucidating the essential factors that turn the multitude of individual elements into a functional system. In this study we used critical network topology descriptors and guilt-by-association rule to explore and understand the significant molecular players, drug targets and underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Analyzing two post-mortem brain gene microarrays (GSE4757 and GSE28146 with Pathway Studio software package we constructed and analyzed a set of protein-protein interaction, as well as miRNA-target networks. In a 4-step procedure the expression datasets were normalized using Robust Multi-array Average approach, while the modulation of gene expression by the disease was statistically evaluated by the empirical Bayes method from the limma Bioconductor package. Representative set of 214 seed-genes (p<0.01 common for the three brain sections of the two microarrays was thus created. The Pathway Studio analysis of the networks built identified 15 new potential AD-related genes and 17 novel AD-involved microRNAs. Using KEGG pathways relevant in Alzheimer's disease we built an integrated mechanistic network from the interactions between the overlapping genes in these pathways. Routes of possible disease initiation process were thus revealed through the CD4, DCN, and IL8 extracellular ligands. DAVID and IPA enrichment analysis uncovered a number of deregulated biological processes and pathways including neuron projection/differentiation, aging, oxidative stress, chemokine/ neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation and others. The findings in this study offer information of interest for subsequent experimental studies.

  16. Cerebellar oxidative DNA damage and altered DNA methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism and similarities with human post mortem cerebellum.

    Shpyleva, Svitlana; Ivanovsky, Samuil; de Conti, Aline; Melnyk, Stepan; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Beland, Frederick A; James, S Jill; Pogribny, Igor P


    The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b). Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1) and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism.

  17. The course and the anatomo-functional relationships of the optic radiation: a combined study with 'post mortem' dissections and 'in vivo' direct electrical mapping.

    Sarubbo, Silvio; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Milani, Paola; Paradiso, Beatrice; Barbareschi, Mattia; Rozzanigo, Umbero; Colarusso, Enzo; Tugnoli, Valeria; Farneti, Marco; Granieri, Enrico; Duffau, Hugues; Chioffi, Franco


    Even if different dissection, tractographic and connectivity studies provided pure anatomical evidences about the optic radiations (ORs), descriptions of both the anatomical structure and the anatomo-functional relationships of the ORs with the adjacent bundles were not reported. We propose a detailed anatomical and functional study with 'post mortem' dissections and 'in vivo' direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the OR, demonstrating also the relationships with the adjacent eloquent bundles in a neurosurgical 'connectomic' perspective. Six human hemispheres (three left, three right) were dissected after a modified Klingler's preparation. The anatomy of the white matter was analysed according to systematic and topographical surgical perspectives. The anatomical results were correlated to the functional responses collected during three resections of tumours guided by cortico-subcortical DES during awake procedures. We identified two groups of fibres forming the OR. The superior component runs along the lateral wall of the occipital horn, the trigone and the supero-medial wall of the temporal horn. The inferior component covers inferiorly the occipital horn and the trigone, the lateral wall of the temporal horn and arches antero-medially to form the Meyer's Loop. The inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF) covers completely the superior OR along its entire course, as confirmed by the subcortical DES. The inferior longitudinal fascicle runs in a postero-anterior and inferior direction, covering the superior OR posteriorly and the inferior OR anteriorly. The IFOF identification allows the preservation of the superior OR in the anterior temporal resection, avoiding post-operative complete hemianopia. The identification of the superior OR during the posterior temporal, inferior parietal and occipital resections leads to the preservation of the IFOF and of the eloquent functions it subserves. The accurate knowledge of the OR course and the relationships with the

  18. mRNA levels of BACE1 and its interacting proteins, RTN3 and PPIL2, correlate in human post mortem brain tissue.

    Beyer, N; Coulson, D T R; Quinn, J G; Brockbank, S; Hellemans, J; Irvine, G B; Ravid, R; Johnston, J A


    β-Site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for production of Aβ peptides, proposed to drive the pathological changes found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reticulon 3 (RTN3) is a negative modulator of BACE1 (β-secretase) proteolytic activity, while peptidylprolyl isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2 (PPIL2) positively regulated BACE1 gene expression in a cell-based assay. This study aimed to analyze RTN3 and PPIL2 mRNA levels in four brain regions from individuals with AD and controls. BACE1 mRNA had been previously quantified in the samples, as had glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), to track changing cell populations in the tissue. mRNA levels in the human post mortem brain tissue were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qbase(PLUS), employing validated stably expressed reference genes. No differences in RTN3 or PPIL2 mRNA levels were found in individuals with AD, compared to controls. Both RTN3 and PPIL2 mRNA levels correlated significantly with BACE1 mRNA and all three showed similar disease stage-dependent changes with respect to NSE and GFAP. These findings indicated that the in vitro data demonstrating an effect of PPIL2 on BACE1 expression have functional relevance in vivo. Further research into BACE1-interacting proteins could provide a fruitful approach to the modulation of this protease and consequently Aβ production.

  19. Occurrence of hepatic lesions caused by Strongylus spp larvae diagnosed in post mortem exam in horses slaughtered in Apucarana, state of Paraná / Ocorrência de lesões hepáticas provocadas por larvas de Strongylus spp diagnosticadas no exame post mortem de eqüídeos abatidos em Apucarana, Paraná

    Werner Okano


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determinate the occurrence of hepatic lesions caused by migratory large Strongyle larvaes in horses slaughtered in city of Apucarana in state of Paraná. The lesions were diagnostic in post mortem exam by macro and microscopic analysis. From April 2003 to April 2004, 38,363 animals, coming from different regions of Brazil, were examined. The occurrence of granulomas in liver was observed in 14,443 (37.64%, with adhesions and spot in 6,645 (17,32%, and 17,275 (45.03% without macroscopic lesions. Macroscopic analysis revealed the presence of livers with calcified nodules, the presence of whitish spots, and adhesions in the format of “lines” over the hepatic capsule. No larvae were found in the livers. Hepatic fragments were histologically processed and revealed, by optical microscopy, inflammatory cells with predominance of eosinophils around the granulomas with a moderate amount of macrophages and the presence of fibroblasts.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de lesões hepáticas provocadas por larvas de estrongilídeos em eqüídeos abatidos em matadouro-frigorífico no Paraná, diagnosticado durante o exame post mortem e estudo macro e microscópico destas lesões. Foram pesquisados nos meses de abril de 2003 a abril de 2004, 38.363 animais, procedentes de diversos estados do país. A ocorrência de granulomas no fígado foi observada em 14.443 (37,64%, com aderências e manchas em 6.645 (17,32%, e sem lesões macroscópicas em 17.275 (45.03%. Macroscopicamente, foram verificados fígados com nódulos calcificados, presença de manchas esbranquiçadas, aderências e em forma de “linhas” sob a cápsula hepática. Não foram encontradas as larvas nos fígados. Histologicamente, os fragmentos hepáticos revelaram na microscopia óptica, células inflamatórias com o predomínio de eosinófilos ao redor dos granulomas, com moderada quantidade de macrófagos e presença de fibroblastos.

  20. Alterações bioquímicas post-mortem de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura, mantido em gelo Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice

    Gilvan Machado Batista


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram estudadas as alterações bioquímicas post-mortem que ocorreram em matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura e mantido em gelo em Manaus - AM. Foi determinado o tempo de estocagem em gelo por meio das avaliações sensoriais físicas e gustativas, das análises de pH, Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT e bacteriológicas durante 29 dias. Foram determinados os índices de rigor-mortis, as concentrações de ATP e seus produtos de degradações e o valor K. De acordo com a composição química, o peixe foi classificado como "semi-gordo". Os peixes entraram em rigor-mortis aos 75 minutos após a morte por hipotermia, tendo permanecido durante 10 dias. As avaliações sensoriais (físicas e gustativas mostraram que os peixes apresentaram condição de consumo até 26 dias. As análises de ATP e de seus produtos de degradação mostraram que a referida espécie foi considerada formadora de inosina (HxR, nas condições de experimento. O valor K mostrou que os exemplares de matrinxãs permaneceram "muito frescos" até 16 dias de estocagem em gelo, concordante com a avaliação sensorial gustativa.Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice in Manaus-AM, were studied in this paper. The storage time on ice was determined through tasting and physical sensory evaluations, pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N and bacteriological analyses during 29 days. Rigor-mortis index, ATP-related compounds and K value were also determined. Chemical composition demonstrated that fish was classified as "semi-fat". The specimens presented rigor-mortis 75 minutes after death caused by hypothermia and remained that way for 10 days. Shelf life time on ice was 26 days, according to sensory evaluations, pH, TVBN determinations and bacteriological analyses. ATP-related compounds pointed out that the referred species was considered to

  1. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy


    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  2. Post-mortem MRI-guided sampling of multiple sclerosis brain lesions: increased yield of active demyelinating and (p)reactive lesions.

    De Groot, C J; Bergers, E; Kamphorst, W; Ravid, R; Polman, C H; Barkhof, F; van der Valk, P


    Macroscopic sampling of multiple sclerosis lesions in the brain tends to find chronic lesions. For a better understanding of the dynamics of the multiple sclerosis disease process, research into new and developing lesions is of great interest. As MRI in vivo effectively demonstrates lesions in multiple sclerosis patients, we have applied it to unfixed post-mortem brain slices to identify abnormalities, in order to obtain a higher yield of active lesions. The Netherlands Brain Bank organized the rapid autopsy of 29 multiple sclerosis patients. The brain was cut in 1 cm coronal slices. One or two slices were subjected to T(1)- and T(2)-weighted MRI, and then cut at the plane of the MRI scan into 5 mm thick opposing sections. Areas of interest were identified based on the MRI findings and excised. One half was fixed in 10% formalin and paraffin-embedded, and the corresponding area in the adjacent half was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. In total, 136 out of 174 brain tissue samples could be matched with the abnormalities seen on T(2)-weighted MRIs. The stage of lesional development was determined (immuno) histochemically. For 54 MRI-detectable samples, it was recorded whether they were macroscopically detectable, i.e. visible and/or palpable. Histopathological analysis revealed that 48% of the hyperintense areas seen on T(2)-weighted images represented active lesions, including lesions localized in the normal appearing white matter, without apparent loss of myelin but nevertheless showing a variable degree of oedema, small clusters of microglial cells with enhanced major histocompatibility complex class II antigen, CD45 and CD68 antigen expression and a variable number of perivascular lymphocytes around small blood vessels [designated as (p)reactive lesions]. From the macroscopically not-visible/not-palpable MRI-detected abnormalities, 58% were (p)reactive lesions and 21% contained active demyelinating lesions. In contrast, visible and/or palpable brain tissue samples

  3. A post-mortem survey on end-of-life decisions using a representative sample of death certificates in Flanders, Belgium: research protocol

    Onwuteaka-Philipsen Bregje


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable studies of the incidence and characteristics of medical end-of-life decisions with a certain or possible life shortening effect (ELDs are indispensable for an evidence-based medical and societal debate on this issue. This article presents the protocol drafted for the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, and outlines how the main aims and challenges of the study (i.e. making reliable incidence estimates of end-of-life decisions, even rare ones, and describing their characteristics; allowing comparability with past ELD studies; guaranteeing strict anonymity given the sensitive nature of the research topic; and attaining a sufficient response rate are addressed in a post-mortem survey using a representative sample of death certificates. Study design Reliable incidence estimates are achievable by using large at random samples of death certificates of deceased persons in Flanders (aged one year or older. This entails the cooperation of the appropriate administrative authorities. To further ensure the reliability of the estimates and descriptions, especially of less prevalent end-of-life decisions (e.g. euthanasia, a stratified sample is drawn. A questionnaire is sent out to the certifying physician of each death sampled. The questionnaire, tested thoroughly and avoiding emotionally charged terms is based largely on questions that have been validated in previous national and European ELD studies. Anonymity of both patient and physician is guaranteed through a rigorous procedure, involving a lawyer as intermediary between responding physicians and researchers. To increase response we follow the Total Design Method (TDM with a maximum of three follow-up mailings. Also, a non-response survey is conducted to gain insight into the reasons for lack of response. Discussion The protocol of the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, is appropriate for achieving the objectives of the study; as past studies in Belgium, the Netherlands

  4. Post mortem identification of deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) gene mutations combined with impaired glucose homeostasis and iron overload features in four infants with severe progressive liver failure.

    Pronicka, Ewa; Węglewska-Jurkiewicz, Anna; Taybert, Joanna; Pronicki, Maciej; Szymańska-Dębińska, Tamara; Karkucińska-Więckowska, Agnieszka; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Kowalski, Paweł; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Pajdowska, Magdalena; Socha, Piotr; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz


    Deoxyguanosine kinase deficiency (dGK) is a frequent cause of the hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). A group of 28 infants with severe progressive liver failure of unknown cause was recruited for post mortem search for deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) gene mutations. Four affected patients (14% of the studied group), two homozygotes, one compound heterozygote, and one heterozygote, with DGUOK mutation found on only one allele, were identified. Three known pathogenic mutations in the DGUOK gene were detected, c.3G>A (p.Met1Ile), c.494A>T (p.Glu165Val), and c.766_767insGATT (p.Phe256X), and one novel molecular variant of unknown pathogenicity, c.813_814insTTT (p.Asn271_Thr272insPhe). Profound mitochondrial DNA depletion was confirmed in available specimens of the liver (4%, 15%, and 10% of the normal value) and in the muscle (4%, 23%, 45%, and 6%, respectively). The patients were born with low weights for gestational age and they presented adaptation trouble during the first days of life. Subsequently, liver failure developed, leading to death at the ages of 18, 6, 5.5, and 2.25 months, respectively. Mild neurological involvement was observed in all children (hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and ptosis). Hypoglycemia (hypoketotic) and lactic acidosis were the constant laboratory findings. Elevated transferrin saturation, high ferritin, and alpha-fetoprotein levels resembled, in two cases, a neonatal hemochromatosis. Liver histopathology showed severe hepatic damage ranging from micronodular formation and cirrhosis to the total loss of liver architecture with diffuse fibrosis and neocholangiolar proliferation. Pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia with numerous confluent giant islets was found in both autopsied infants. Analysis of the natural history of the disease in our patients and the literature data led us to the following observations: (i) islet cell hyperplasia (and hyperinsulinism) may contribute to MDS-associated hypoglycemia; (ii

  5. The importance of post-mortem examinations in cetacean biology:A report of a necropsy onStenella coeruleoalba(Meyen, 1833) (Cetacea:Delphinidae), from the Azores, Northeastern Atlantic

    Mrio Csar Sedrez; Joo de vila Barcelos; Joo Pedro Barreiros


    This article reports the necropsy of a specimen of striped dolphinStenella coeruleoalba found stranded in the north coast of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Here, the importance of standard protocols in post-mortem examinations and the need to adequately proceed were discussed. Stranded marine mammals are valuable specimens for several studies of pathology and other veterinary medical aspects. Although the causa mortis was not determined, the full access to stranded specimens was crucial, not only for pathology studies but also for a proper training to veterinary medicine students whenever possible.

  6. Medições testiculares in vivo e post mortem feitas em borregos Churros Bragançanos inteiros ou de escroto curto aos 65 e 80% do seu peso adulto

    Valentim, Ramiro; Azevedo, Jorge; Teixeira, A.; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Soares, Vera


    Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de estudar a relação entre as medidas testiculares e escrotais obtidas in vivo e testiculares post mortem, em animais com dois graus distintos de maturidade - 65 e 80% do peso adulto - e submetidos a diferentes tratamentos. Assim, um lote de 24 borregos da raça Churra Galega Bragançana foi dividido, aleatoriamente, em três grupos (I, EC25% e EC50%) de 8 animais cada: Grupo I - animais inteiros, EC25% - aplicação dum anel de borracha a cerca de 1/4...

  7. Estudio post-mortem de un hormigón refractario colocado en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería

    de Aza, A. H.


    Full Text Available A high alumina concrete with synthetic spinel (MgAl2O4 addition, conformed as a brick, has been tested in the slag line of a secondary steel ladle. A post-mortem study allowed to establish the elements diffusion profile inside the refractory as well as its microstructural evolution. This study was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, reflected optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. From the analysis of the obtained results, making use of the Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2 quaternary system, it has been possible to establish the mechanism of corrosion, justifying, at the same time, the role that spinel and calcium hexaluminate (CaAl12O19 play. The spinel, that is the only stable solid phase in the slag - refractory interface, admits in its structure large amount of bivalent and trivalent elements (e.g. Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cr3+.... Therefore, the slag becomes silica-rich and highly viscous, as CaAl12O19 is precipitated, decreasing the corrosion. The calcium hexaluminate grows from coarse and medium-sized grains of alumina to form a network of interlocked crystals that act as unions among the alumina grains. This microstructure together with that the CaAl12O19 also admits in solid solution large quantities of Fe2+ and Fe3+, provide a smaller, slower and more uniform wear of the refractory material.

    Se ha diseñado y preparado un hormigón de alta alúmina con espinela, el cual ha sido ensayado, en forma de piezas preconformadas, en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería secundaria. El estudio post-morten del material ha permitido establecer las reacciones químicas que tienen lugar durante el proceso de corrosión y determinar el mecanismo imperante durante este proceso haciendo uso del diagrama de equilibrio Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2. Dicho estudio se ha llevado a cabo mediante difracción de rayos X, microscopía óptica de luz reflejada y microscopía electrónica de barrido con

  8. Development and validation of a direct headspace GC-FID method for the determination of sevoflurane, desflurane and other volatile compounds of forensic interest in biological fluids: application on clinical and post-mortem samples.

    Kovatsi, Leda; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Arzoglou, Vasileios; Samanidou, Victoria


    A simple and reliable headspace GC-flame ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven volatile compounds of forensic interest: sevoflurane, desflurane, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, acetone and acetaldehyde. All seven compounds including acetonitrile (internal standard) eluted within 10 min and were well resolved with no endogenous interference. Good linearity was observed in the range of 1-12 mg/dL for both anesthetics and 2.5-40 mg/dL for the other five analytes. The method showed good precision, sensitivity and repeatability. Most of the analytes remained stable during the storage of samples at 4°C. Desflurane and acetone degraded (>10%), when the samples remained on the autosampler for more than 2 and 3 h, respectively. The method was finally applied on clinical and post-mortem blood and urine samples. The clinical samples were collected both from patients who underwent surgery, as well as from the occupationally exposed medical and nursing staff of the university hospital, working in the operating rooms. The hospital staff samples were found negative for all compounds, while the patients' samples were found positive for the anesthetic administered to the patient. The post-mortem blood samples were found positive for ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  9. Relationship between clinical and postmortem evaluation in repeat breeder beef cows Relação entre características clínicas e post-mortem em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço

    Rogério Ferreira


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the causes of the repeat breeder syndrome comparing clinical signs and postmortem findings in beef cows. The identification of factors affecting the reproductive tract can support decisions as to whether treatment of repeat breeder cows is justifiable than culling. Since all animals were submitted to clinical examination before being slaughtered, this study has a differential approach when compared with others, where genital tracts from abattoir were examined. In this study, 130 crossbred cows and heifers that have failed to conceive after three or more services were identified, submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection for karyotyping and sent to an abattoir. postmortem examinations included macroscopic evaluation of the genital tracts, bacteriology and histopathology of the uterus. Uterine alterations were predominant followed by oviduct and ovarian pathologies. Histopathological examination was more sensitive as a diagnostic tool than clinical examination. Repeat breeder cows had a predominance of uterine abnormalities (95%, such as inflammatory (42.9% and degenerative (59.7% conditions. Oviduct abnormalities were found in 29.8 % of animals. Furthermore, 1 out 10 karyotyped cows showed aneuploidy. Thus, this study stressed the importance of laboratory exams in the diagnosis of the causes of infertility of repeat breeder cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as causas de infertilidade em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço, relacionando sinais clínicos com características laboratoriais post-mortem. A identificação dos fatores que afetam o desempenho reprodutivo pode fornecer uma fundamentação científica para auxiliar na decisão quanto ao destino de vacas repetidoras de serviço; tratamento ou descarte. Este estudo tem abordagem diferencial dos trabalhos que contemplam somente a ocorrência de alterações post-mortem do trato genital. A correlação das altera

  10. Impact of cycling at low temperatures on the safety behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: Combined study of mechanical and thermal abuse testing accompanied by post-mortem analysis

    Friesen, Alex; Horsthemke, Fabian; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Brunklaus, Gunther; Krafft, Roman; Börner, Markus; Risthaus, Tim; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.


    The impact of cycling at low temperatures on the thermal and mechanical abuse behavior of commercial 18650-type lithium ion cells was compared to fresh cells. Post-mortem analyses revealed a deposition of high surface area lithium (HSAL) metal on the graphite surface accompanied by severe electrolyte decomposition. Heat wait search (HWS) tests in an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) were performed to investigate the thermal abuse behavior of aged and fresh cells under quasi-adiabatic conditions, showing a strong shift of the onset temperature for exothermic reactions. HSAL deposition promotes the reduction of the carbonate based electrolyte due to the high reactivity of lithium metal with high surface area, leading to a thermally induced decomposition of the electrolyte to produce volatile gaseous products. Nail penetration tests showed a change in the thermal runaway (TR) behavior affected by the decomposition reaction. This study indicates a greater thermal hazard for LIB cells at higher SOC and experiencing aging at low temperature.

  11. [Macroscopical estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) and exclusion of the forensically relevant resting period--a comparison of data presented in the literature with recent osteological findings].

    Holley, Stephanie; Fiedler, Sabine; Graw, Matthias


    The aim of the present study was to determine to what extent macroscopical parameters mentioned in the literature are suitable for the estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) and particularly for the exclusion of the forensically relevant resting period for recent bone material. The macroscopical examination of recent bone material with a known PMI showed that only one published parameter (relics of adipocere in the cross section of the compacta) was consistent with our findings for this particular resting period (27-28 years). Other macroscopical parameters presented in the literature were contradictory to the results observed in this study. Among those are the rigidity of bones, the adhesion of soft tissue, the filling of the marrow cavity, and the permeation of the epiphyses with adipocere. Concerning the exclusion of the forensically relevant resting period, a similar result was observed. This study identified some diagnostic findings in bones with a resting period of less than 50 years which according to the literature should only be present after a resting period of more than 50 years. These features included the lack of macroscopical traces of adipocere, degradation of the compacta surface, detachment of the cortical substance, the ability of bone to be broken with bare hands, and superficial usures. Moreover, in one-third of our cases we identified some intra-individual differences not previously described in the literature. In addition to the other results, those intra-individual differences make an estimation of the PMI more difficult. However it should be noted that those published parameters were collected from bone material which was stored in a "relatively arid sand-grit-clay soil of the broken stone layer of Munich". The bones in the present study were stored in acidic and clayey-loamy soil, partly with lateral water flow. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that one should use caution estimating the post mortem interval and excluding

  12. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer


    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  13. Debridement of cartilage lesions before autologous chondrocyte implantation by open or transarthroscopic techniques: a comparative study using post-mortem materials.

    Drobnic, M; Radosavljevic, D; Cör, A; Brittberg, M; Strazar, K


    We compared the quality of debridement of chondral lesions performed by four arthroscopic (SH, shaver; CU, curette; SHCU, shaver and curette; BP, bipolar electrodes) and one open technique (OPEN, scalpel and curette) which are used prior to autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The ex vivo simulation of all five techniques was carried out on six juvenile equine stifle joints. The OPEN, SH and SHCU techniques were tested on knees harvested from six adult human cadavers. The most vertical walls with the least adjacent damage to cartilage were obtained with the OPEN technique. The CU and SHCU methods gave inferior, but still acceptable results whereas the SH technique alone resulted in a crater-like defect and the BP method undermined the cartilage wall. The subchondral bone was severely violated in all the equine samples which might have been peculiar to this model. The predominant depth of the debridement in the adult human samples was at the level of the calcified cartilage. Some minor penetrations of the subchondral end-plate were induced regardless of the instrumentation used. Our study suggests that not all routine arthroscopic instruments are suitable for the preparation of a defect for ACI. We have shown that the preferred debridement technique is either open or arthroscopically-assisted manual curettage. The use of juvenile equine stifles was not appropriate for the study of the cartilage-subchondral bone interface.

  14. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E


    A number of studies document the prevalence of Taenia solium infections in Nigeria, yet these studies do not cover porcine cysticercosis in private home slaughter slabs where there is no routine meat inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria. Slaughter premises were inspected for availability of basic facilities and questionnaires were used to elicit necessary informative data. Butchers were examined for taeniasis by stool microscopy and copro-antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) to ascertain T. solium - taeniasis. Pigs slaughtered at the premises were examined for cysticerci. Home slaughter conditions were substandard, unhygienic and lacked the basic facilities of a proper slaughterhouse. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 9.3%. The butchers participating in the study had very poor knowledge of T. solium infections and 30% tested positive for taeniasis by copro-Ag ELISA at the time of the study. Home slaughter of pigs in the areas studied should be considered and integrated as a component of prevention and control programmes - particularly through educational interventions - in order to equip individuals involved with a good understanding of the risks associated with animal husbandry and human practices.

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza


    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  16. Research Progress of Carrion-breeding Phorid Flies for Post-mortem Interval Es-timation in Forensic Medicine%利用尸食性蚤蝇推断死亡时间的法医学研究进展

    李论; 冯典兴; 吴静


    死亡时间的准确推断一直是法医学的难题。昆虫学方法已被认为是死亡时间推断的有效方法。尸食性蝇类发育生物学在死亡时间推断中有着重要地位。蚤蝇体形微小,在相对密闭的空间,可成为尸体上主要的甚至是唯一的昆虫证据。本文从尸食性蚤蝇的作用、种属鉴定以及日龄推断方面,综述了利用尸食性蚤蝇推断死亡时间的法医学研究进展。%It is a difficult problem of forensic medicine to accurately estimate the post-mortem interval. Entomological approach has been regarded as an effective way to estimate the post-mortem interval. The developmental biology of carrion-breeding flies has an important position at the post-mortem inter-val estimation. Phorid flies are tiny and occur as the main or even the only insect evidence in relatively enclosed environments. This paper reviews the research progress of carrion-breeding phorid flies for esti-mating post-mortem interval in forensic medicine which includes their roles, species identification and age determination of immatures.

  17. Deficit in sustained attention following selective cholinergic lesion of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in rat, as measured with both post-mortem immunocytochemistry and in vivo PET imaging with [¹⁸F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol.

    Cyr, Marilyn; Parent, Maxime J; Mechawar, Naguib; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Clark, Stewart D; Aghourian, Meghmik; Bedard, Marc-Andre


    Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are thought to be involved in cognitive functions such as sustained attention, and lesions of these cells have been documented in patients showing fluctuations of attention such as in Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy Body. Animal studies have been conducted to support the role of these cells in attention, but the lesions induced in these animals were not specific to the cholinergic PPTg system, and were assessed by post-mortem methods remotely performed from the in vivo behavioral assessments. Moreover, sustained attention have not been directly assessed in these studies, but rather deduced from indirect measurements. In the present study, rats were assessed on the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT), and a specific measure of variability in response latency was created. Animals were observed both before and after selective lesion of the PPTg cholinergic neurons. Brain cholinergic denervation was assessed both in vivo and ex vivo, using PET imaging with [(18)F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([(18)F]FEOBV) and immunocytochemistry respectively. Results showed that the number of correct responses and variability in response latency in the 5-CSRTT were the only behavioral measures affected following the lesions. These measures were found to correlate significantly with the number of PPTg cholinergic cells, as measured with both [(18)F]FEOBV and immunocytochemistry. This suggests the primary role of the PPTg cholinergic cells in sustained attention. It also allows to reliably use the PET imaging with [(18)F]FEOBV for the purpose of assessing the relationship between behavior and cholinergic innervation in living animals.

  18. A validated method for simultaneous determination of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide in post-mortem blood, vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue by LC-MS.

    Frost, Joachim; Løkken, Trine N; Brede, Wenche R; Hegstad, Solfrid; Nordrum, Ivar S; Slørdal, Lars


    The toxicodynamics and, to a lesser degree, toxicokinetics of the widely used opiate codeine remain a matter of controversy. To address this issue, analytical methods capable of providing reliable quantification of codeine metabolites alongside codeine concentrations are required. This article presents a validated method for simultaneous determination of codeine, codeine metabolites codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine and morphine, and morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem whole blood, vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction. The validated ranges were 1.5-300 ng/mL for codeine, norcodeine and morphine, and 23-4,600 ng/mL for C6G, M3G and M6G, with exceptions for norcodeine in muscle (3-300 ng/mL), morphine in muscle, fat and brain (3-300 ng/mL) and M6G in fat (46-4,600 ng/mL). Within-run and between-run accuracy (88.1-114.1%) and precision (CV 0.6-12.7%), matrix effects (CV 0.3-13.5%) and recovery (57.8-94.1%) were validated at two concentration levels; 3 and 150 ng/mL for codeine, norcodeine and morphine, and 46 and 2,300 ng/mL for C6G, M3G and M6G. Freeze-thaw and long-term stability (6 months at -80°C) was assessed, showing no significant changes in analyte concentrations (-12 to +8%). The method was applied in two authentic forensic autopsy cases implicating codeine in both therapeutic and presumably lethal concentration levels.

  19. Comparación de la técnica de Dennis con los hallazgos hepáticos post - mortem para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis bovina

    Alejandra Alvarez


    Full Text Available El presente estudio hace una comparación entre los resultados de la técnica de Dennis para diagnóstico de Fasciolosis bovina, frente a hallazgos post mortem, en hígados de bovinos faenados en la empresa Matadero de Tunja. Es un estudio experimental descriptivo, por cuanto expone los hallazgos en matadero frente a los arrojados por el método de Dennis. La población total de bovinos adultos fue de 2800, de los cuales se tomó una muestra de 139 animales. El muestreo se llevó a cabo durante el mes de febrero del año 2009. Los resultados indican que la técnica de Dennis no es lo suficientemente sensible para el diagnóstico de Fasciola hepática, por lo que se debe evaluar su uso rutinario.La técnica coprológica se fundamenta en el principio de sedimentación delos huevos, por lo tanto depende la salida de éstos en la materia fecal, lo que la hace poco efectiva para la detección del parásito. La razón de este estudiose sustenta en que la enfermedad se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la región y en el país. Su diagnóstico se realiza rutinariamente mediante técnicas coprológicas aplicadas a los animales en los que se sospecha la enfermedad.

  20. Feasibility of salvaging genetic potential of post-mortem fawns: production of sperm in testis tissue xenografts from immature donor white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in recipient mice.

    Abbasi, Sepideh; Honaramooz, Ali


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of testis tissue xenografting from immature deer. Testis tissue was collected post-mortem from a 2-mo-old white-tailed deer fawn (Odocoileus virginianus) and small fragments of the tissue were grafted under the back skin of immunodeficient recipient mice (n = 7 mice; 8 fragments/mouse). Single xenograft samples were removed from representative recipient mice every 2 mo from grafting for up to 14 mo post-grafting. The retrieved xenografts were evaluated for seminiferous tubular density (per mm(2)) and tubular diameter, as well as for seminiferous tubular morphology and identification of the most advanced germ cell type present in each tubule cross section. Overall, 63% of the grafted testis fragments were recovered as xenografts. Testis tissue xenografts showed a gradual testicular development starting with tubular expansion by 2 mo, presence of spermatocytes by 6 mo post-grafting, round and elongated spermatids by 8 mo, followed by fully-formed sperm by 12 mo post-grafting. The timing of complete spermatogenesis generally corresponded to the reported timing of sexual maturation in white-tailed deer. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that testis tissue xenografting from immature deer donors into recipient mice can successfully result in testicular maturation and development of spermatogenesis in the grafts up to the stage of sperm production. These results may therefore provide a model for salvaging genetic material from immature male white-tailed deer that die before reaching sexual maturity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicide terrorism and post-mortem benefits.

    Gray, Jacqueline M; Dickins, Thomas E


    Lankford claims that suicide terrorists are suicidal, but that their suicidal tendencies are often frustrated by injunctive social norms. Martyrdom represents a solution, and terrorist organizations exploit this. In this commentary, we claim that this argument has not been fully made and that such ideation in itself does not explain a willingness to engage in punitive actions against an enemy. We suggest the psychology of kinship as a possible missing factor.

  2. Post-mortem CT-coronary angiography

    Pøhlsgaard, Camilla; Leth, Peter Mygind


      Despite the large number of people who die from complications to coronary atherosclerosis, the method of investigation of the coronary arteries has remained virtually unchanged since the time of Virchow. In this article we will present a method for investigation of the coronary arteries using p...

  3. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer in Asiatic cheetah using nuclei derived from post-mortem frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes.

    Moulavi, F; Hosseini, S M; Tanhaie-Vash, N; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S H; Hajinasrollah, M; Asghari, M H; Gourabi, H; Shahverdi, A; Vosough, A D; Nasr-Esfahani, M H


    Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes. No cells growth was detected in primary culture of skin and tendon pieces or following culture of singled cells prepared by enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, no live cells were detected following differential viable staining and almost all cells had ruptured membrane. Therefore, direct injection of donor nuclei into enucleated cat oocytes matured in vitro was carried out for SCNT experiments. Early signs of nuclear remodeling were observed as early as 2 h post-iSCNT and significantly increased at 4 h post-iSCNT. The percentages of iSCNT reconstructs that cleaved and developed to 4-16 cell and morula stages were 32.3 ± 7.3, 18.2 ± 9.8 and 5.9 ± 4.3%, respectively. However, none of the iSCNT reconstructs developed to the blastocyst stage. When domestic cat somatic and oocytes were used for control SCNT and parthenogenetic activation, the respective percentages of oocytes that cleaved (51.3 ± 13.9 and 77.3 ± 4.0%) and further developed to the blastocyst stage (11.3 ± 3.3 and 16.8 ± 3.8%) were comparable. In summary, this study demonstrated that enucleated cat oocytes can partially remodel and reactivate non-viable nuclei of Asiatic cheetah and support its reprogramming back to the embryonic stage. To our knowledge, this is

  4. Avances en el análisis multielemental de los restos óseos atribuidos al conquistador Don Francisco Pizarro para un estudio de contaminación post-mortem, régimen dietario y paleopatologías, mediante métodos no destructivos de fluorescencia de rayos X

    Olivera, Paula; Greenwich, Raúl


    El análisis químico elemental de huesos proporciona información muy importante, que permite estudiar temas como contaminación post mortem, régimen dietario y diversas patologías que se observan a simple vista basándose en la concentración de los elementos presentes identificados plenamente. Los restos óseos atribuidos al conquistador Don Francisco Pizarro fueron analizados en un equipo de Fluorescencia de Rayos X en Energía Dispersiva, utilizando una fuente de Cd-109 de 25 mCi. Los espectros ...

  5. Avances en el análisis multielemental de los restos óseos atribuidos al conquistador Don Francisco Pizarro para un estudio de contaminación post-mortem, régimen dietario y paleopatologías, mediante métodos no destructivos de fluorescencia de rayos X

    Olivera, Paula; Greenwich, Raúl


    El análisis químico elemental de huesos proporciona información muy importante, que permite estudiar temas como contaminación post mortem, régimen dietario y diversas patologías que se observan a simple vista basándose en la concentración de los elementos presentes identificados plenamente. Los restos óseos atribuidos al conquistador Don Francisco Pizarro fueron analizados en un equipo de Fluorescencia de Rayos X en Energía Dispersiva, utilizando una fuente de Cd-109 de 25 mCi. Los espectros ...

  6. 感染肠道病毒71型尸检病例的分子病原学诊断%Molecular confirmation of enterovirus type 71 infection: a post-mortem study of two cases

    杨郁; 王华; 杜鹃; 赵希顺; 宫恩聪; 高子芬; 郑杰


    Objective To investigate the diagnostic application of molecular detection of enterovirus type 71 (EV71) infection using post-mortem paraffin-embodded tissue. Methods Two autopsy cases of EV71 infection were studied by histopathologicai and immunohistochemical methods. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the viral RNA in paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Results Characteristic features of acute encephalitis were seen in the brain, with most prominent lesions found in the brain stem in both cases. Inflammatory cells were largely CD68-positive micrnglia with a few CD15-pesitive neutrophils in the areas of neuronal necrosis. The 5'-untranslated region of EV71 was detected in the medulla by RT-PCR using paraffin-embedded tissues of both cases. Sequencing analysis of the RT-PCR products showed 100% homology to the EV71 strain, recently submitted to the GenBank database from Fuyang, Anhui province. Conclusions Molecular detection of EV71 can be performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from fatally infected patients. Timely and accurate diagnosis of the infection by such molecular approach is crucial for the proper clinical and public health intervention.%目的 探讨感染肠道病毒71型(EV71)的尸检病例石蜡包埋组织病原学分子检测的应用价值.方法 尸体解剖2例怀疑因EV71感染死亡的患儿,对脑组织进行了组织学观察和免疫组织化学EnVision法标记;应用逆转录聚合酶链反应检测尸检后的石蜡组织中肠道病毒的核酸并测序分析.结果 2例均有中枢神经系统脑干脑炎的病理学特点.坏死神经元周围可见大量的小胶质细胞(CD68阳性)和少量的中性粒细胞(CD15阳性)浸润.2例延髓石蜡组织中均检测出EV71的核酸序列,与GenBank最新公布的安徽阜阳暴发EV71感染的病毒株序列同源性为100%.结论 从甲醛固定、石蜡包埋的EV71感染患儿脑组织中检测出病毒特异性核

  7. Presence of D4 dopamine receptors in human prefrontal cortex: a postmortem study Presença de receptores dopaminérgicos D4 em córtex cerebral humano: um estudo post-mortem

    Donatella Marazziti


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to explore the presence and the distribution of D4 dopamine receptors in postmortem human prefrontal cortex, by means of the binding of [³H]YM-09151-2, an antagonist that has equal affinity for D2, D3 and D4 receptors. It was therefore necessary to devise a unique assay method in order to distinguish and detect the D4 component. METHOD: Frontal cortex samples were harvested postmortem, during autopsy sessions, from 5 subjects. In the first assay, tissue homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations of [³H]YM-09151-2, whereas L-745870, which has a high affinity for D4 and a low affinity for D2/D3 receptors, was used as the displacer. In the second assay, raclopride, which has a high affinity for D2/D3 receptors and a low affinity for D4 receptors, was used to block D2/D3. The L-745870 (500 nM was added to both assays in order to determine the nonspecific binding. RESULTS: Our experiments revealed the presence of specific and saturable binding of [³H]YM-09151-2. The blockade of D2 and D3 receptors with raclopride ensured that the D4 receptors were labeled. The mean maximum binding capacity was 88 ± 25 fmol/mg protein, and the dissociation constant was 0.8 ± 0.4 nM. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, although not conclusive, suggest that the density of D4 receptors is low in the human prefrontal cortex.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença e a distribuição de receptores dopaminérgicos do tipo 4 (D4 no córtex cerebral humano em amostras post-mortem através do bloqueio com ³H-YM-09151-2 - um antagonista com afinidade equivalente pelos receptores D2, D3 e D4 - e do desenvolvimento de um método para a detecção específica do componente D4. MÉTODO: Foram obtidas amostras de córtex cerebral de cinco cadáveres. Em um primeiro ensaio, os homogeneizados de tecido cerebral foram incubados em concentrações crescentes de ³H-YM-09151-2, enquanto que o L-745

  8. A novel non-rapid-eye movement and rapid-eye-movement parasomnia with sleep breathing disorder associated with antibodies to IgLON5: a case series, characterisation of the antigen, and post-mortem study.

    Sabater, Lidia; Gaig, Carles; Gelpi, Ellen; Bataller, Luis; Lewerenz, Jan; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Contreras, Angeles; Giometto, Bruno; Compta, Yaroslau; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc


    Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen. In this observational study, we used clinical and video polysomnography to identify a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain, for abnormal sleep behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea. These patients had antibodies against a neuronal surface antigen, which were also present in five additional patients referred to our laboratory for antibody studies. These five patients had been assessed with polysomnography, which was done in our sleep unit in one patient and the recording reviewed in a second patient. Two patients underwent post-mortem brain examination. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterise the antigen and develop an assay for antibody testing. Serum or CSF from 298 patients with neurodegenerative, sleep, or autoimmune disorders served as control samples. All eight patients (five women; median age at disease onset 59 years [range 52-76]) had abnormal sleep movements and behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea, as confirmed by polysomnography. Six patients had chronic progression with a median duration from symptom onset to death or last visit of 5 years (range 2-12); in four the sleep disorder was the initial and most prominent feature, and in two it was preceded by gait instability followed by dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, or chorea. Two patients had a rapid progression with disequilibrium, dysarthria, dysphagia, and central hypoventilation, and died 2 months and 6 months, respectively, after symptom onset. In five of five patients, video polysomnography showed features of obstructive sleep apnoea, stridor, and abnormal sleep architecture (undifferentiated non-rapid-eye-movement [non-REM] sleep or poorly structured

  9. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  10. Breaking Routines

    Kesting, Peter; Jørgensen, Frances


    On some level, innovation begins when the current way of doing things is questioned and alternatives are sought. In cognitive terms, this can be conceptualized as the point at which an agent breaks with existing routine and returns to planning and decision-making. Thus far, however, very little...

  11. Desenvolvimento e validação de um método analítico para análise de medicamentos por GC-MS em amostras biológicas Post-mortem com recurso a QuEChERS

    Pereira, David Duarte Lopes


    Tese de mestrado, Química (Química Analítica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 A Toxicologia Forense tem como principal objetivo a identificação e quantificação de substâncias tóxicas em amostras biológicas como sangue, urina ou fígado. A amostra mais utilizada quer em situações post-mortem quer em situações in vivo é o sangue, por ser a que melhor pode estabelecer uma correlação entre as concentrações determinadas e os efeitos tóxicos. Contudo, em certos casos post-mor...

  12. A review of computerized tomography in blunt abdominal trauma at Christchurch Hospital

    Bohmer, R.D.; Cowan, I [Christchurch Hospital (New Zealand)


    A review was undertaken of computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen, performed between March 1993 and December 1994 for blunt abdominal trauma at Christchurch Hospital. CT findings were correlated with the clinical outcome. The outcome was either recovery from an abdominal point of view with or without laparotomy, or post mortem. A total of 116 CTs were reviewed, of which 76 were normal. CT was highly sensitive and specific for a variety of abdominal traumatic lesions. there were 1 false positive and 4 false negatives (only 2 of these significant). There was 1 non-therapeutic laparotomy based on CT findings. There was only 1 case of delayed treatment based on CT results. Three patients had unexplained findings of pneumoperitoneum. Care should be taken when interpreting the presence of free intraperitoneal air on CT scan. The possibility of missed bowel perforation should be considered, especially in the presence of free intra-abdominal fluid and no solid organ injury to account for it. CT scans are useful in the conservative management of solid organ injuries. 15 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. Intelligent Routines

    Anastassiou, George A

    “Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  14. Computerized history-taking as a tool to manage dyslipidemia.

    Zakim, David; Fritz, Christine; Braun, Niko; Fritz, Peter; Alscher, M Dominik


    Validated guidelines to manage low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol are utilized inconsistently or not at all even though their application lowers the incidence of coronary events. New approaches are needed, therefore, to implement these guidelines in everyday practice. We compared an automated method for applying The National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) guidelines with results from routine care for managing LDL-cholesterol. The automated method comprised computerized history-taking and analysis of historical data without physician input. Results from routine care were determined for 213 unselected patients and compared with results from interviews of the same 213 patients by a computerized history-taking program. Data extracted from hospital charts showed that routine care typically did not collect sufficient information to stratify risk and assign treatment targets for LDL-cholesterol and that there were inconsistencies in identifying patients with normal or elevated levels of LDL-cholesterol in relation to risk. The computerized interview program outperformed routine care in collecting historical data relevant to stratifying risk, assigning treatment targets, and clarifying the presence of hypercholesterolemia relative to risk. Computerized history-taking coupled with automated analysis of the clinical data can outperform routine medical care in applying NCEP guidelines for stratifying risk and identifying patients with hypercholesterolemia in relation to risk.

  15. Ultrasound diagnosis of bilateral cataracts in a fetus with possible cerebro-ocular congential muscular dystrophy during the routine second trimester anomaly scan.

    Drought, Alexandra; Wimalasundera, Ruwan; Holder, Susan


    The finding of bilateral congenital cataracts in the fetus is rare. We report bilateral congenital cataracts detected during the routine second trimester anomaly scan, which subsequently were found to be associated with other congenital anomalies and the parents opted for a termination of pregnancy. At post-mortem, Muscle-Eye Brain disease or Walker-Warburg Syndrome was considered likely, which are autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy disorders associated with cerebral, cerebellar, muscle and eye anomalies. On ultrasound, bilateral cataracts appear as echogenic, solid areas within the fetal orbits. The examination of the fetal face and orbits plays an important role in confirming fetal well-being antenatally. We propose that it should become a routine part of the structural survey of fetal anatomy during the obstetric anomaly scan. This is especially important in pregnancies previously affected by fetal cataracts or pregnancies at risk of rare genetic syndromes.

  16. Determinación del intervalo postmortem mediante el estudio de la sucesión de insectos en dos cadáveres hallados en el interior de una finca rústica en Madrid Assessment of post-mortem interval through the study of the insect succession in two corpses found indoors in a country house in Madrid

    A.M. García-Rojo


    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un caso estudiado en el Laboratorio de Entomología Forense de la Sección de Antropología de la Comisaría General de Policía Científica (Cuerpo Nacional de Policía. En él, se analizaron muestras entomológicas recogidas en dos cadáveres durante la práctica de la Inspección Ocular Técnico Policial, llevada a cabo en la localidad de Fuenlabrada, sita en la zona Sur de Madrid (España, Región Paleártica. Los dos cadáveres, en avanzado estado de descomposición, fueron encontrados en el interior de una finca rústica en invierno del año 2001. Las evidencias de interés forense recogidas consistieron en dípteros de las Familias Calliphoridae, Muscidae y Phoridae y Coleoptera de las Familias Cleridae, Dermestidae e Histeridae. Además, arácnidos que permitieron afirmar la compatibilidad de los especímenes con el entorno. La sucesión de los insectos recogidos permitió estimar el intervalo post-mortem en un año.In this paper, it is reported a case which was studied in the Forensic Entomology Laboratory belonging to the Anthropology Section from the General Department of the Scientific Police (Spanish National Police. We analysed entomological evidences collected during death scene investigation performed in Fuenlabrada, south of Madrid administrative region (Spain, Paleartic Region. Both corpses, in advanced decomposition stage, were found indoors in a country house in winter 2001. Samples collected consisted of Diptera identified as Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Phoridae Families; Coleoptera corresponding to Cleridae, Dermestidae and Histeridae ones. Furthermore, spiders which allowed us to confirm the compatibility with the place where carcasses were found. The study of the insect succession allowed the estimation of post-mortem interval in one year.

  17. Nem tudo que parece ser, é lesão: aspectos anatômicos, não lesões, artefatos, lesões sem significado clínico e alterações post mortem encontrados na necropsia de suínos domésticos e selvagens (Sus scrofa

    Raquel R. Rech


    Full Text Available A interpretação das alterações encontradas na necropsia é uma etapa importante para o sucesso do diagnóstico final. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever e ilustrar os aspectos anatômicos, não lesões, artefatos, lesões sem significado clínico e alterações post mortem encontradas em suínos domésticos e selvagens. Além disso, também se recomenda técnicas de colheita de tecidos para o diagnóstico de doenças que acometem essa espécie. Os principais aspectos anatômicos e não lesões descritos são fímbrias linguais, quadrilátero esofágico, toro pilórico e demarcação do padrão lobular do fígado (sistema gastrintestinal; tonsilas do palato mole, tecido linfoide associado ao estômago, placas de Peyer do intestino delgado e dobras da margem do baço (sistema hematopoiético; mediastino proeminente do testículo e aréolas da placenta (sistema reprodutor; atelectasia pulmonar e apêndice decidual (feto; e glândulas carpais (sistema tegumentar. Os artefatos de eutanásia abordados são petéquias na superfície do pulmão e rim, falsa anemia por sangria, hemorragia subdural por concussão cerebral, pseudo-infartos do baço e aspecto cerebriforme do intestino delgado. As lesões de pouco significado clínico descritas são cistos renais, linfonodos com pigmento de ferro, papilomas e hemangiomas no escroto, ossos no mesentério e hiperemia da mucosa gástrica. As alterações post mortem comumente encontradas são livor mortis, músculos pálidos, pseudomelanose e líquido serosanguinolento nas cavidades torácica e abdominal em fetos.

  18. Computerizing the Library.

    Chan, Jeanie; Whelan, Errol


    Discusses the development of a computerized high school library which uses CD-ROM optical storage systems. Describes hardware and software, setting up the system, preparing the online catalog, teaching information retrieval skills, and project evaluation. Notes prices of CD-ROM disks and equipment purchased. 4 references. (SV)

  19. Computerized Peer Assessment.

    Davies, Phil


    Describes the introduction of a computerized peer assessment system as part of an undergraduate module in computer studies in the United Kingdom. Analyzes student responses to modification of the tutor-student relationship to a student-student relationship for assessment purposes, discusses plagiarism and the Web, and investigates effects on…

  20. Computerized Drug Information Services

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.


    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  1. Computerized adaptive testing for measuring development of young children

    Jacobusse, G.; Buuren, S. van


    Developmental indicators that are used for routine measurement in The Netherlands are usually chosen to optimally identify delayed children. Measurements on the majority of children without problems are therefore quite imprecise. This study explores the use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to

  2. A computerized TLD system

    Pla, C.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    A computerized thermoluminescent (TL) readout technique is presented which considerably improves the precision of dose readout and facilitates the dose information management and storage. The technique is relatively simple and it involves an interface between a commercially available thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) analyzer and a minicomputer. Curve fitting, subtraction of unwanted thermogram peaks, background subtraction, studies of TL decay kinetics, and storage of large number of measured TL data are easily performed with the technique.

  3. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application and comp......It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application...... and compliance with CPGs in most areas of clinical practice are deficient. Computerization of CPGs has been brought forward as a method to disseminate and to support application of CPGs. Until now, CPG-computerization has focused on development of formal expressions of CPGs. The developed systems have, however......, not gained any extensive application in clinical practice. The basic assumption in this thesis is that the scanty penetration is due to an inappropriate design process when designing computerized CPGs for clinical work practice. This thesis examines the application of guidance within areas where CPG...

  4. Examination of the Circle Spline Routine

    Dolin, R. M.; Jaeger, D. L.


    The Circle Spline routine is currently being used for generating both two and three dimensional spline curves. It was developed for use in ESCHER, a mesh generating routine written to provide a computationally simple and efficient method for building meshes along curved surfaces. Circle Spline is a parametric linear blending spline. Because many computerized machining operations involve circular shapes, the Circle Spline is well suited for both the design and manufacturing processes and shows promise as an alternative to the spline methods currently supported by the Initial Graphics Specification (IGES).

  5. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut


    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  6. Computerized procedures system

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.


    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  7. Post-mortem findings in Irish culled hounds.

    Jahns, H; Callanan, J J; McElroy, M C; Sammin, D J; Bassett, H F


    Little is known of the common diseases of hunting dogs or of the reasons why they are culled. To address these questions, necropsy examinations were conducted on 52 hounds aged 1.5-12 years (mean 6.5 ± 2.5 years) and culled from 10 Irish hunting kennels over a 3-year period. Progressive systemic disease was seen in six dogs only and encompassed individual cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis, bronchioalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, renal amyloidosis, suppurative pneumonia, extramedullary plasmacytoma in the atrial wall of the heart and foreign body-induced hepatitis with focal peritonitis. Single or multiple localized tumours were identified in five dogs and, apart from the aforementioned, included two cutaneous haemangiomas, a trichoepithelioma, a lipoma and a mammary ductal adenoma. Three dogs were culled for lameness; one of these dogs had torn musculature, another had cellulitis and the third had a healed fracture of the tibia and fibula. Chronic renal changes were present in 48% of the dogs and included focal proliferative, exudative or crescentic glomerulonephritis (33%) or low-grade interstitial inflammatory changes (50%). The most frequently diagnosed skin lesions reported in this study were mild healed decubitus ulcers (33%), scars (33%) and stereotypic dermatitis (13%). These findings indicate that hounds are likely to be culled for reasons other than the presence of disease in most cases. In addition, this survey highlights different disease patterns in hounds than are typically observed in pet dogs.

  8. Post-Mortem diagnosis of dementia by informant interview

    Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti

    Full Text Available Abstract The diagnosis of normal cognition or dementia in the Brazilian Brain Bank of the Aging Brain Study Group (BBBABSG has relied on postmortem interview with an informant. Objectives: To ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of postmortem diagnosis based on informant interview compared against the diagnosis established at a memory clinic. Methods: A prospective study was conducted at the BBBABSG and at the Reference Center for Cognitive Disorders (RCCD, a specialized memory clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo Medical School. Control subjects and cognitively impaired subjects were referred from the Hospital das Clínicas to the RCCD where subjects and their informants were assessed. The same informant was then interviewed at the BBBABSG. Specialists' panel consensus, in each group, determined the final diagnosis of the case, blind to other center's diagnosis. Data was compared for frequency of diagnostic equivalence. For this study, the diagnosis established at the RCCD was accepted as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were computed. Results: Ninety individuals were included, 45 with dementia and 45 without dementia (26 cognitively normal and 19 cognitively impaired but non-demented. The informant interview at the BBBABSG had a sensitivity of 86.6% and specificity of 84.4% for the diagnosis of dementia, and a sensitivity of 65.3% and specificity of 93.7% for the diagnosis of normal cognition. Conclusions: The informant interview used at the BBBABSG has a high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of dementia as well as a high specificity for the diagnosis of normal cognition.

  9. Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification

    Jahagirdar B Pramod


    Full Text Available The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind′s understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification.

  10. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Sean M. Kelly


    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached by focusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kind of substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time. The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “ever-living present.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductory matter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternal recurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is a treatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations in the n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have done away with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives as eternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of the nature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notion of holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory. I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence of actual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in his reflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentially more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in the last section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin, as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’s inspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretation leads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of its reconciliation with the once-only view of life and its corresponding version of immortality—along with the idea of a holonic scale of selves leading from individual personality as we normally experience it, through a kind of angelic self (a reinterpreted “Jivatma”, and ultimately to the Godhead as the Absolute Self. Of greater moment than such a speculative ontology, however, is the integral or complex-holistic way of thinking and imagining that is called for by this kind of inquiry.


    K. ARMIN


    Full Text Available In order to study the incidence and histopathological aspects of renal disease and its role in the mortality rate in Iran, the protocols of 4463 autopsies, performed in the last 15 years at the Tehran University Hospitals were reviewed. Among 4463 autopsies there were 861 cases (20 % of various renal diseases including 282 cases (32.75 % of disease of the interstitium, 176 cases (20.44 % of renal lesions in tuberculous patients, 112 cases (13.0 I % of vascular disease, 101 cases (I L73 % of diseases of the glomeruli, 48 cases (5.57 % of rheumatic carditis, 30 cases (3.48 % of epithelial nephrosis, 78 cases (3.25 % of non tuberculous amyloidosis, 28 cases (3.25 % of congenital malformation, 20 cases (2.37 % of non tuberculous diabetes, 13 cases (L51 % of neoplastic disease, 10 cases (1.16 % os septicemia, 8 cases (0.93 % of eclampsia and 5 cases (0.58 % of myelomatous kidney. The underlying diseases in 35 cases of nephrotic syndrome were: tuberculosis, II cases (31 %; Non-tuberculous amyloidosis, 6 cases (17 ;;,; chronic glomerulonephritis, 5 cases (14 %; chronic pyelonephritis, 3 cases (10 %; and acute pyelonephritis, one case. The kidney was severely affected in systemic amyloidosis in 64 cases.

  12. Note sulla concezione del post mortem presso gli Ittiti

    Vigo, Matteo; Bellucci, Benedetta

    significato escatologico della morte; 2) la definizione dello status ultraterreno dei defunti (i.e. il diverso trattamento del defunto, ad esempio dal punto di vista cultuale, sulla base della sua condizione sociale); 3) il delineamento dei caratteri e delle funzioni delle divinità ultra-terrene; 4) la...

  13. FEBEX Project Post-mortem Analysis: Corrosion Study

    Madina, V.; Azkarate, I.


    The partial dismantling of the FEBEX in situ test was carried out during de summer of 2002, following 5 years of continuous heating. The operation included the demolition of the concrete plug and the removal of the section of the test corresponding to the first heater. A large number of samples from all types of materials have been taken during the dismantling for subsequent analysis. Part of the samples collected were devoted to the analysis of the corrosion processes occurred during the first operational phase of the test. These samples comprised corrosion coupons from different metals installed for that purpose, sensors retrieved during the dismantling that were found severely corroded and bentonite in contact with those sensors. In addition, a corrosion study was performed on the heater extracted and on one section of liner surrounding it. All the analyses were carried out by the Fundacion INASMET (Spain). This report describes, in detail the studies carried out the different materials and the obtained results, as well as the drawn conclusions. (Author)

  14. FEBEX II Project Post-mortem analysis EDZ assessment

    Bazargan Sabet, B.; Shao, H.; Autio, J.; Elorza, F. J.


    Within the framework of the FEBEX II project a multidisciplinary team studied the mechanisms of creation of the potential damaged zone around the test drift. The research program includes laboratory and in situ investigations as well as the numerical modelling of the observed phenomena. Where laboratory investigations are concerned, the 14C-PMMA technique was applied to study the spatial distribution of porosity in the samples taken from the test drift wall. In addition complementary microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed to make qualitative investigations on the pore apertures and minerals in porous regions. The results obtained with the PMMA method have not shown any clear increased porosity zone adjacent to the tunnel wall. The total porosity of the samples varied between 0.6-1.2%. The samples of unplugged region did not differ from the samples of plugged region. A clear increase in porosity to depths of 10-15 mm from the tunnel wall was detected in lamprophyre samples. According to the SEM/EDX analyses the excavation-disturbed zone in the granite matrix extended to depths of 1-3 mm from the wall surface. A few quartz grains were crushed and some micro fractures were found. Gas permeability tests were carried out on two hollow cylinder samples of about 1m long each taken on the granite wall perpendicular to the drift axis. The first sample was cored in the service area far from the heated zone and the second one at the level of the heater. The tests were performed at constant gas pressure by setting a steady state radial flow through a section of 1cm wide isolated by means of four mini-packers. The profile of the gas permeability according to the core length has been established. The results obtained for both considered samples have shown permeability ranging between 3.5 10-18 and 8.4 10-19m2, pointing out the absence of a marked damage. Acoustic investigations have been carried out with the objective of quantifying the variations in the propagation velocities of acoustic waves. A cylindrical block of granite 38.8 cm in diameter and 40 cm high has been analysed along 2D transversal sections in six radial directions. Different inverse tomographic strategies have been used to analyse the measured data, which shown no evidences of the existence of an EDZ in FEBEX gallery. However, a preferential direction in the wave propagation similar to the maximum compression direction of the stress tensor has appeared. As for in situ investigations, the hydraulic connectivity of the drift has been assessed at eleven locations in heated area, including granite matrix and lamprophyre dykes and at six locations in undisturbed zones. In the granite matrix area, pulse test using pressurised air with stepwise pressure increasing was conducted to determine gas entry pressure. In the fractured area, a gas constant flow rate injection test was conducted. Only two locations with higher permeability were detected; one in a natural fracture in the lamprophyre dyke and the other in the interface between lamprophyre and granite. Where numerical investigations are concerned, several analyses of the FEBEX in situ experiment were carried out to determine whether if the generation of a potential EDZ in the surrounding rock was possible or not. Stresses have been calculated by 1D full-coupled thermo-hydromechanical model and by 2D and 3D thermo-mechanical models. Results compared with the available data on compressive strength of the Grimsel granite show that in the worst-case studied, the state of stresses induced by the excavation and the heating phases remains far below the critical curve. (Author)

  15. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Sean M. Kelly


    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached byfocusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kindof substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time.The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “everlivingpresent.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complexholistic”theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductorymatter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternalrecurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is atreatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations inthe n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have doneaway with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives aseternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of thenature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notionof holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory.I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence ofactual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in hisreflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentiallymore integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in thelast section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin,as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’sinspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretationleads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of itsreconciliation with the once-only view of life and its corresponding version ofimmortality—along with the idea of a holonic scale of selves leading from individualpersonality as we normally experience it, through a kind of angelic self (a reinterpreted“Jivatma”, and ultimately to the Godhead as the Absolute Self. Of greater moment thansuch a speculative ontology, however, is the integral or complex-holistic way of thinkingand imagining that is called for by this kind of inquiry.

  16. Consent systems for post mortem organ donation in Europe.

    Gevers, S.; Janssen, A.; Friele, R.


    In the Netherlands, like in many other European countries, there is a considerable shortage of vital organs (hearts, kidneys etc.) for transplantation purposes. While living organ donation is of increasing importance as an alternative source for at least some organs (such as kidneys), the supply is

  17. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.


    ... or more inspector slaughter lines, upon the use of a mirror, as described in § 307.2(m)(6), at the..., except in certain cases as determined by the inspection service, if a mirror is used, it must comply with...) Without mirror With mirror Sows and boars (heads detached) Without mirror With mirror 0 to 5 140 150...

  18. Computerized voiding diary.

    Rabin, J M; McNett, J; Badlani, G H


    An electronic, computerized voiding diary, "Compu-Void" (patent pending) was developed in order to simplify, augment, and automate patients' recording of bladder symptomatology. A voiding diary as a tool has the potential to provide essential information for a more complete diagnostic and therefore therapeutic picture for each patient. Two major problems with the standard written voiding diary have been a lack of patient compliance and the limited amount of information it garners. Twenty-five women with various types of voiding dysfunctions were compared to twenty-five age and parity-matched control women in order to determine patient preferences of the Compu-Void when compared to the standard written voiding diary, compliance with each method, and amount and quality of information obtained with each method. Over 90% of subjects and over 70% of control group patients preferred the Compu-Void over the written diary (P Compu-Void exceeded that obtained with the written method.

  19. Computerizing natural history collections.

    Sunderland, Mary E


    Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs.

  20. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    . The analysis focuses on the emergence of general clinical work practice demands on guidance • An analysis of guidance demands from clinical work practice and business strategy, focusing on implications for the design of computerised CPGs. In my research, I have applied observation studies, interviews...... is comprised by fieldwork in three oncology departments and a case study of advanced life support. Although close to all patients within oncology are treated according to a CPG, I found limited application of physical CPGs and web-based CPG portals. However, I found comprehensive application of activity...... feasible • Designed in a way that provides room for local adaptations of guidance • Designed with focus on specific business strategic aims Further, based on my findings, I will suggest that design of computerized CPGs should be based on: 1) scrutinization of the clinical work practice, 2) articulation...

  1. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  2. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten


    Routines in daily life are crucial for consumption by households of energy and water and therefore knowledge of how routines develop and change is extremely relevant from a sustainable consumption perspective. Routines emerge, develop and change in close relation with different kinds of everyday ...

  3. Revisiting Routine Questions

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen


    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  4. Routines and Organizational Change

    Yi, Sangyoon; Becker, Markus; Knudsen, Thorbjørn


    Routines have been perceived as a source of inertia in the process of organizational change. In this study, we suggest an overlooked, but prevalent, mechanism by which the inertial nature of routines helps, rather than hinders, organizational adaptation. Routine-level inertia plays a hidden role...... of generating and retaining useful variations in the process of organization-level adaptation. We demonstrate this mechanism by using a simple theoretical model which formalizes an organization as a configuration of inertial, interdependent routines, and the managerial process by which this configuration adapts...... by discussing how this advanced understanding of the role of routines helps elaborate the theory of economic evolution....

  5. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu


    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  6. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    Endedijk, H.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for prescho

  7. Computerized Systems: Centralized or Decentralized?

    Seitz, Linda Ludington


    Computerized management information systems have long been used in business, and data integration and sophisticated programing now enable many businesses to decentralize their information operations. This approach has advantages and disadvantages that colleges and universities must weigh and plan for carefully. (MSE)

  8. Routines and Organizational Change

    Yi, Sangyoon; Becker, Markus; Knudsen, Thorbjørn


    Routines have been perceived as a source of inertia in the process of organizational change. In this study, we suggest an overlooked, but prevalent, mechanism by which the inertial nature of routines helps, rather than hinders, organizational adaptation. Routine-level inertia plays a hidden role...... to cope with its task environment. In our nuanced perspective, inertia is not only a consequence of adaptation but also a source of adaptation. This logic is helpful to understand why reliable but apparently inertial organizations keep surviving and often exhibit outstanding performance. We conclude...

  9. Importance of Family Routines

    ... Structure Your Child's Nighttime Routine . Weekends: Weekends are good times for family togetherness. You might go grocery shopping as a family, visit museums and zoos, do chores​ that everyone participates in, go on ...

  10. Routine sputum culture

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  11. Computerized tomography. Yesterday and today

    Ethier, R.; Melanson, D. (Montreal Neurological Inst., Quebec (Canada))


    This presentation describes the evolution of computerized tomography over the past decade and its contribution to the radiologic investigation of neurologic disorders. This new technique has not only stimulated development in the diagnosis of cerebral diseases, but the whole body as well. Detailed investigation of the spine, spinal cord, sella turcica, the orbits, as well as the petrous pyramids has been made possible through the development of high resolution scanning.

  12. Motivation through Routine Documentation

    Koth, Laurie J.


    This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…

  13. Learning from Homeschooling Routines

    Thomas, Jesse


    This study provides a rare opportunity to look inside the homeschool and to observe the routines of homeschooling families from across the United States. With more than 1000 survey participants, and nine parents selected for interviews, the compiled data were analyzed through open coding techniques. Meaningful aspects that arose from the routines…

  14. Routine neonatal circumcision?

    Tran, P. T.; Giacomantonio, M.


    Routine neonatal circumcision is still a controversial procedure. This article attempts to clarify some of the advantages and disadvantages of neonatal circumcision. The increased rate of penile cancer among uncircumcised men appears to justify the procedure, but that alone is not sufficient justification. The final decision on neonatal circumcision should be made by parents with balanced counsel from attending physicians.

  15. Memory for Routines.

    Galambos, James A.; Rips, Lance J.


    Presents experiments which compare two theories of memory for routine events, one emphasizing temporal sequence of events, the other focusing on events' hierarchical structure or centrality. Findings suggest that sequence and centrality information may be computed as needed, rather than precompiled. (Author/BK)

  16. A computerized track detector reader

    Rosinski, S.W. (Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))


    The structure and basic operation function of a computerized facility named Track Detection Reader is described. This facility is used for recording, counting and evaluation of defects made by [alpha]-particles in a solid state detector. It consists of a microscope equipped with the movable stage, a TV screen and PC-AT computer. The microscope stage is being controlled by a stepper motor. The TV screen enables surface visualization of the detector analyzed while the PC-AT computer is being used for digital analysis of the detector surface, according to the functions of the program. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

  17. Computerized classification testing with the Rasch model

    Eggen, Theo J.H.M.


    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the

  18. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    Thavikulwat, Precha


    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  19. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John


    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...

  20. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.


    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  1. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  2. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.


    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  3. The routine use of C-reactive protein in forensic investigations

    Astrup, B S; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange


    , and liver is a good post-mortem alternative when blood is not available. We conclude that CRP measurements are easy, viable and inexpensive in a forensic setting, and that the number of cases with CRP elevation is high in a non-selected forensic material. In cases of doubt, marked elevation of CRP...

  4. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  5. Scintillation detectors in computerized tomography

    Gilar, O.; Pavlicek, Z.; Jursova, L. (Tesla, Premysleni (Czechoslovakia). Vyzkumny Ustav Pristroju Jaderne Techniky)


    A new scintillator, Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/ (BGO), was tested for use in the detection part of computerized tomographs. In comparison with the NaI(Tl) scintillator it has a three-fold mass stopping power and allows the detection of medium and high energy gamma radiation with a higher detection efficiency, i.e., for the same detection efficiency its size is much smaller. Some other mechanical, physical and optical parameters of the BGO scintillator are given. BGO is prospective for use in high energy spectrometry and may replace NaI(Tl) wherever the following parameters are significant: crystal size, detection efficiency for gamma radiation, and good spatial resolution.

  6. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Chang, Hua-Hua


    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  7. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)


    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).


    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc


    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  9. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  10. Modified Head Shake Computerized Dynamic Posturography


    form of dizziness (in- cluding complaints of lightheadedness, vertigo , or un- steadiness) lasting longer than 1 hr or recurring for greater than 1...noted limitations. Method: Forty participants ranging in age from 20 to 79 years with no history of dizziness completed Conditions 2 and 5 of the SOT...shake, Sensory Organization Test, computerized dynamic posturography, dizziness Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is anassessment of an

  11. Computerized epileptiform transient detection in the scalp electroencephalogram: obstacles to progress and the example of computerized ECG interpretation.

    Halford, Jonathan J


    Computerized detection of epileptiform transients (ETs), also called spikes and sharp waves, in the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been a research goal for the last 40years. A reliable method for detecting ETs could improve efficiency in reviewing long EEG recordings and assist physicians in interpreting routine EEGs. Computer algorithms developed so far for detecting ETs are not as reliable as human expert interpreters, mostly due to the large number of false positive detections. Typical methods for ET detection include measuring waveform morphology, detecting signal non-stationarity, and power spectrum analysis. Some progress has been made by using more advanced algorithmic approaches including wavelet analysis, artificial neural networks, and dipole analysis. Comparing the performance of different algorithms is difficult since each study uses its own EEG test dataset. In order to overcome this problem, European researchers in the field of computerized electrocardiogram interpretation organized a large multi-center research workgroup to create a standardized dataset of ECG recordings which were interpreted by a large group of cardiologists. EEG researchers need to follow this as a model and seek funding for the creation of a standardized EEG research dataset to develop ET detection algorithms and certify commercial software.

  12. Acute renal failure following contrast injection for head computerized tomography in two patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Matsunaga, H.; Sando, H.; Nunokawa, T.; Murakami, T.; Miyakawa, Y. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    Two cases of diabetes mellitus with renal and retinal involvement developed acute renal failure after undergoing head computerized tomography. The first case was a 62-year-old male who had been diagnosed as having diabetes 25 years before. He had diabetic retinopathy of Scott IIIb. Before head computerized tomography, the serum BUN was 37 mg/dl, and creatinine was 4.1 mg/dl. Oliguria began immediately after the scanning and confinued for 48 hr. The serum levels of BUN and creatinine rose to 106 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively. Case 2 was a 49-year-old male who had been diagnosed as having diabetes 15 years before. He showed Scott IIb and IV retinopathy. The BUN and creatinine levels in the serum were 32 and 2.3 mg/dl, respectively. After receiving head computerized tomography, he developed oliguria and remained oliguric for 48 hr. During that period, the serum levels of BUN and creatinin were elevated to 112 and 7.5 mg/dl, respectively. Fortunately, both of these patients recovered from the oliguria without resorting to hemodialysis. The iodine contrast medium routinely used for contrast enhancement in the head computerized tomography was implicated in the acute renal failure of these patients. Only eleven cases have so far been reported in the literature who developed acute renal failure following computerized tomography. In view of the three or four times greater dosis of iodine contrast medium employed in computerized tomography compared to intravenous pyelography, the acute incidence of such complications might be much higher. Among the thirteen cases including the two reported here, as many as eight were diabetic. It is well recongnized that the incidence of acute renal failure after intravenous pyelography is particularly high in cases of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.


    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  14. Human-eye versus computerized color matching.

    Yap, A U; Sim, C P; Loh, W L; Teo, J H


    This project compared the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry. Fifty dental personnel were asked to color match Vita Lumin shade tabs to seven different randomly arranged test tabs from the Z100 shade guide. All evaluators were blinded to the shades of the test tabs and were asked to match only body shade of the Vita Lumin tab to the middle third or body of each test tab. The results obtained were subsequently computed into L*a*b* values and compared with results obtained by computerized colorimetry. Results indicate that the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry is shade dependent. Discrepancy was significant for b* coordinates for shades A1 and B2 and L* and b* coordinates for shade C4. For all shades evaluated, color difference between human-eye and computerized color matching is perceivable under clinical settings, as delta E values are greater than 3. There is a need for correction factors in the formal specification of the color-matching software due to the discrepancy between human-eye and computerized colorimetric color matching.

  15. Computerized occlusal analysis in bruxism

    Lazić Vojkan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep bruxism as nocturnal parafunction, also known as tooth grinding, is the most common parasomnia (sleep disorder. Most tooth grinding occurs during rapid eye movement - REM sleep. Sleep bruxism is an oral habit characterized by rhythmic activity of the masticatory muscles (m. masseter that causes forced contact between dental surfaces during sleep. Sleep bruxism has been associated with craniomandibular disorders including temporomandibular joint discomfort, pulpalgia, premature loss of teeth due to excessive attrition and mobility, headache, muscle ache, sleep interruption of an individual and problems with removable and fixed denture. Basically, two groups of etiological factors can be distinguished, viz., peripheral (occlusal factors and central (pathophysiological and psychological factors. The role of occlusion (occlusal discrepancies as the causative factor is not enough mentioned in relation to bruxism. Objective. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the connection between occlusal factors and nocturnal parafunctional activities (occlusal disharmonies and bruxism. Method. Two groups were formed- experimental of 15 persons with signs and symptoms of nocturnal parafunctional activity of mandible (mean age 26.6 years and control of 42 persons with no signs and symptoms of bruxism (mean age 26.3 yrs.. The computerized occlusal analyses were performed using the T-Scan II system (Tekscan, Boston, USA. 2D occlusograms were analyzed showing the occlusal force, the center of the occlusal force with the trajectory and the number of antagonistic tooth contacts. Results. Statistically significant difference of force distribution was found between the left and the right side of the arch (L%-R% (t=2.773; p<0.02 in the group with bruxism. The difference of the centre of occlusal force - COF trajectory between the experimental and control group was not significant, but the trajectory of COF was longer in the group of

  16. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimriks, Koen H.

    We discuss the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories of micro-level components underlying routines...

  17. Evaluation of unconstrained optimization routines

    Nazareth, L.; Schlick, F.


    Different approaches to evaluating optimization routines are discussed, and a particular method which uses parameterized test problems is described. This approach is illustrated through a simple case study of three well-known unconstrained optimization routines applied to three parameterized test problems. The results are displayed as a set of graphs. 3 figures.

  18. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.


    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  19. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.


    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  20. The institutionalization of a routine

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian


    The theoretical ambition in this paper is to contribute to institutionalism, and the literature on organizational routines, by allotting a precise role to the context and the material. Through a theoretical discussion of several perspectives on organizational routines, I argue that materiality-wh...... of production. I argue that the negotiation of these changes during test production is the fulcrum in the routinization of the production procedure. It is through these identity shifts that the valve is both reified, and rendered producible and applicable in the customer world....

  1. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.


    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  2. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    Huirne, R.B.M.


    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  3. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa


    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank...

  4. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing


    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  5. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa;


    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank...

  6. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  7. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y


    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  8. Computerized adaptive testing: overview and introduction

    Meijer, Rob R.; Nering, Michael L.


    Use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has increased substantially since it was first formulated in the 1970s. This paper provides an overview of CAT and introduces the contributions to this Special Issue. The elements of CAT discussed here include item selection procedures, estimation of the la

  9. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others


    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  10. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    Huirne, R.B.M.



    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  11. Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.

    Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt


    Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

  12. Health technology assessment review: Computerized glucose regulation in the intensive care unit--how to create artificial control.

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Verbitskiy, Evgeny; Nijsten, Maarten W N


    Current care guidelines recommend glucose control (GC) in critically ill patients. To achieve GC, many ICUs have implemented a (nurse-based) protocol on paper. However, such protocols are often complex, time-consuming, and can cause iatrogenic hypoglycemia. Computerized glucose regulation protocols may improve patient safety, efficiency, and nurse compliance. Such computerized clinical decision support systems (Cuss) use more complex logic to provide an insulin infusion rate based on previous blood glucose levels and other parameters. A computerized CDSS for glucose control has the potential to reduce overall workload, reduce the chance of human cognitive failure, and improve glucose control. Several computer-assisted glucose regulation programs have been published recently. In order of increasing complexity, the three main types of algorithms used are computerized flowcharts, Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID), and Model Predictive Control (MPC). PID is essentially a closed-loop feedback system, whereas MPC models the behavior of glucose and insulin in ICU patients. Although the best approach has not yet been determined, it should be noted that PID controllers are generally thought to be more robust than MPC systems. The computerized Cuss that are most likely to emerge are those that are fully a part of the routine workflow, use patient-specific characteristics and apply variable sampling intervals.

  13. Routines.


    Melser and Michie (1970), 135-151. Sacerdoti, Earl D, [1977], A structure for plans and behavior, Elsevier. * Sartre , Jean - Paul , [1976], Critique of...theorem proving to problem solving," Artificial Intelligence, 2 (3) 189-208. Fitts, Paul M and Michael I Posner, [1967], Human performance, Brooks/Cole...Laing, R D and A Esterson, [1964], Sanity, Madness, and the Family, Tavistock. Laird, John E, Paul Rosenbloom, and Allen Newell, [1984], Towards

  14. Computerized Interactive Gaming via Supporting Vector Machines

    Jiang, Yang; Jiang, Jianmin; Palmer, Ian


    Computerized interactive gaming requires automatic processing of large volume of random data produced by players on spot, such as shooting, football kicking, and boxing. This paper describes a supporting vector machine-based artificial intelligence algorithm as one of the possible solutions to the problem of random data processing and the provision of interactive indication for further actions. In comparison with existing techniques, such as rule-based and neural networks, and so forth, our S...

  15. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.


    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  16. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))


    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  17. The Future of Computerized Decision Making


    available in digital form -- data such as newspaper articles, video, and books -- and can be searched according to topics and keywords , or sounds and...away from using observational or model- driven data to inform their decisions. At the same time, enhancements to methods for rapidly creating, merging...themselves---and that we need automated ways of reoptimizing as these metamodels evolve over time. Causal computerized decision making: As I discuss

  18. Errors associated with outpatient computerized prescribing systems

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Salzberg, Claudia; Keohane, Carol A; Zigmont, Katherine; Devita, Jim; Gandhi, Tejal K; Dalal, Anuj K; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G


    Objective To report the frequency, types, and causes of errors associated with outpatient computer-generated prescriptions, and to develop a framework to classify these errors to determine which strategies have greatest potential for preventing them. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 3850 computer-generated prescriptions received by a commercial outpatient pharmacy chain across three states over 4 weeks in 2008. A clinician panel reviewed the prescriptions using a previously described method to identify and classify medication errors. Primary outcomes were the incidence of medication errors; potential adverse drug events, defined as errors with potential for harm; and rate of prescribing errors by error type and by prescribing system. Results Of 3850 prescriptions, 452 (11.7%) contained 466 total errors, of which 163 (35.0%) were considered potential adverse drug events. Error rates varied by computerized prescribing system, from 5.1% to 37.5%. The most common error was omitted information (60.7% of all errors). Discussion About one in 10 computer-generated prescriptions included at least one error, of which a third had potential for harm. This is consistent with the literature on manual handwritten prescription error rates. The number, type, and severity of errors varied by computerized prescribing system, suggesting that some systems may be better at preventing errors than others. Conclusions Implementing a computerized prescribing system without comprehensive functionality and processes in place to ensure meaningful system use does not decrease medication errors. The authors offer targeted recommendations on improving computerized prescribing systems to prevent errors. PMID:21715428

  19. Changing to computerized documentation--plus!

    Town, J


    A recent change to a computerized documentation system has had a positive influence on productivity, reliability of documentation, quality assurance, nurse satisfaction and professional practice. This software system combines the care plan and nurses' notes and is standard-based. Each patient's care plan is compiled from Units of Care, which provide a menu covering nursing diagnosis, medical diagnosis, chief complaints and special procedures and events.

  20. Computerized analysis of the smile in Orthodontics

    Luiz Vicente de Moura LOPES


    Full Text Available In most cases the search for orthodontic treatment is related withesthetics cause. Nowadays, a beautiful smile is extremely importantfor the society. Establishing elements for diagnosis and planning,looking at a harmonious and well-balanced smile became an obligation at dentistry offices. The esthetics is evaluated by the outline of the bone tissues and its relation with the soft tissues. A good way to get this evaluation is using photographs. The purpose of this research was to analyze computer standard pictures of the maximum smile, as complement to the orthodontic documentation to help not only in the diagnostic and planning but also in the valuation of obtained results. Standard pictures of the maximum smile were obtained in the natural position of the head. Linear,angular and proportional measures were evaluated through the computerized program (CEFX2001 – CDT. The sample consisted of 28 patients, white, male, age between 19 and 25 years old, with Class I occlusion and no previous orthodontic treatment. The values of the descriptive statistics and error analysis were obtained. The results were compared with the values found in the literature, and the values found at a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT, but with female patients. The final results were similar to the values found in the literature and the values found in a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT,but with female patients.

  1. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi


    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  2. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    Minkle Gulati


    Full Text Available Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided or dynamic (navigated systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias, in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.

  3. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification.

    Armato, Samuel G; Drukker, Karen; Li, Feng; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Tourassi, Georgia D; Engelmann, Roger M; Giger, Maryellen L; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin S; Clarke, Laurence P


    The purpose of this work is to describe the LUNGx Challenge for the computerized classification of lung nodules on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans as benign or malignant and report the performance of participants' computerized methods along with that of six radiologists who participated in an observer study performing the same Challenge task on the same dataset. The Challenge provided sets of calibration and testing scans, established a performance assessment process, and created an infrastructure for case dissemination and result submission. Ten groups applied their own methods to 73 lung nodules (37 benign and 36 malignant) that were selected to achieve approximate size matching between the two cohorts. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for these methods ranged from 0.50 to 0.68; only three methods performed statistically better than random guessing. The radiologists' AUC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.85; three radiologists performed statistically better than the best-performing computer method. The LUNGx Challenge compared the performance of computerized methods in the task of differentiating benign from malignant lung nodules on CT scans, placed in the context of the performance of radiologists on the same task. The continued public availability of the Challenge cases will provide a valuable resource for the medical imaging research community.

  4. A touchdown nucleic acid amplification protocol as an alternative to culture backup for immunofluorescence in the routine diagnosis of acute viral respiratory tract infections

    Feeney Susan A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunofluorescence and virus culture are the main methods used to diagnose acute respiratory virus infections. Diagnosing these infections using nucleic acid amplification presents technical challenges, one of which is facilitating the different optimal annealing temperatures needed for each virus. To overcome this problem we developed a diagnostic molecular strip which combined a generic nested touchdown protocol with in-house primer master-mixes that could recognise 12 common respiratory viruses. Results Over an 18 month period a total of 222 specimens were tested by both immunofluorescence and the molecular strip. The specimens came from 103 males (median age 3.5 y, 80 females (median age 9 y and 5 quality assurance scheme specimens. Viruses were recovered from a number of specimen types including broncho-alveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal secretions, sputa, post-mortem lung tissue and combined throat and nasal swabs. Viral detection by IF was poor in sputa and respiratory swabs. A total of 99 viruses were detected in the study from 79 patients and 4 quality control specimens: 31 by immunofluorescence and 99 using the molecular strip. The strip consistently out-performed immunofluorescence with no loss of diagnostic specificity. Conclusions The touchdown protocol with pre-dispensed primer master-mixes was suitable for replacing virus culture for the diagnosis of respiratory viruses which were negative by immunofluorescence. Results by immunofluorescence were available after an average of 4–12 hours while molecular strip results were available within 24 hours, considerably faster than viral culture. The combined strip and touchdown protocol proved to be a convenient and reliable method of testing for multiple viruses in a routine setting.

  5. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.


    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon their return to freshwater in the spring or early summer. For several months throughout the summer, only prespore stages are observed in most fish, even at the time of spawning. But once the fish dies, environmental conditions experienced by C. shasta change and viable presporogonic stages are induced to sporulate. As the post-spawned fish occur in the upper reaches of rivers, the myxospores would be released in a freshwater environment that would provide a reasonable opportunity for them to encounter their freshwater polychaete hosts, which reside downstream.

  6. Radiologic-Histopathologic Correlation of Cerebral Microbleeds Using Pre-Mortem and Post-Mortem MRI

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Lazeyras, François; Scheffler, Max; Meckel, Stephan; Francois R. Herrmann; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Kövari, Enikö


    Introduction Cerebral microbleeds (CMB), also known as cerebral microhemorrhages, are small areas of susceptibility on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that are increasingly detected due to the higher availability of high-field MRI systems and dedicated pulse sequences. The prevalence of CMBs increases in cases with cognitive decline. The current investigation assessed the poorly investigated radiologic–histopathologic correlation of CMBs on MRI. Methods The local ethical committee app...

  7. [Vascular Problem Constellations and the Operational Tactical Approaches in Post-Mortem Liver Transplantations].

    Bauschke, A; Malessa, C; Rauchfuß, F; Gajda, M; Settmacher, U


    In liver transplantation, vascular problems may occur in the donor as well as in the recipient and during the donor operation as well as during the transplantation. They have a major influence on the outcome of the transplantation. In addition to anatomic variants, arteriosclerotic vascular diseases, complications from portal hypertension, vascular lesions from mistakes during the donor operation, complications from interventions and bridging procedures need to be identified and treated. In addition to duplex sonography and contrast enhanced computed tomography, invasive vascular diagnostics (digital subtraction angiography) are established for diagnostic purposes. Problem constellations should be identified prior to transplantation and the technique of the donor operation and the transplantation should be adjusted accordingly. Problems that are diagnosed after transplantation may be treated interventionally or with open surgery. In a number of cases, vascular complications lead to loss of the transplant or death of the recipient from post-operative organ failure.

  8. Prevalences of welfare-related lesions at post-mortem meat-inspection in Danish sows.

    Cleveland-Nielsen, A; Christensen, G; Ersbøll, A K


    We investigated the prevalences and intercorrelations of all daily meat-inspection recordings at four Danish sow abattoirs in the year 2000 from 23,794 sows coming from 207 sow or farrow-to-finisher herds. The meat-inspection data were obtained from databases at the Danish Bacon and Meat Council (DBMC). Prevalences generally were low--but large herd-to-herd variations were seen. Despite low prevalences, many slaughtered sows had recordings which raise welfare concerns. Intercorrelations between the meat-inspection recordings were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis describing underlying latent factors related to health and welfare problems within herds.

  9. Should post-mortem brain dissection be performed in Parkinson's disease with atypical dementia?

    Lauretani, F; Ceda, G P; Nardelli, A; Maggio, M


    We describe a patient affected by PD with a rapid progression of cognitive decline. This case could suggest the coexistence of many neurodegenerative diseases, which is a common condition in older patients. We propose an hypothetical trajectory of the cognitive impairment usually associated with motor symptoms in the later phase of Parkinsonian patients. The trajectory is almost linear in classical Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), while a constant acceleration of the cognitive decline with a subsequent change of the slope of the direction could suggest the coexistence of PD with other neurodegenerative disease. Finally, if the cognitive decline in PD is comparable to a "stepped" decline, vascular lesions could be the cause of the change of the slope. This case could suggest to request an autopsy in all cases of unexplained PDD, for better understanding the mixture of non-motor symptoms in PD.

  10. "Lytic" lesions in autologous bone grafts: demonstration of medullary air pockets on post mortem computed tomography.

    Rotman, A; Hamilton, K; O'Donnell, C


    Donor bone grafts are an important aspect of orthopaedic surgery. The use of plain film as a pathological screening tool before donor bone dispatch has revealed "lytic" lesions in proximal humeri. Donor demographics did not support the diagnosis of myeloma and subsequent computed tomography (CT) scans of these bones identified the lesions as air, not pathology. In total, 27 long bones were scanned and 100% (27/27 cases) exhibited air within the trabecular bone. Three distinct patterns were found: ovoid, linear/branching, and broad channel. A longitudinal course of CT scans was performed to identify at which stage air appeared within the bone. Pre-retrieval, preprocessing, and postprocessing scans revealed that air originated between the retrieval and preprocessing stages of donor bone preparation. There may be multiple aetiology of this phenomenon, including bone retrieval and natural decomposition.

  11. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination.

    Demelash, B; Inangolet, F; Oloya, J; Asseged, B; Badaso, M; Yilkal, A; Skjerve, E


    A study aimed at describing the magnitude and distribution of gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Ethiiopian slaughter cattle in five abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in various cattle husbandry systems in Ethiopia was carried out from July 2006 to January 2007 using detailed meat inspection procedure. Five representative abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in distinct livestock management systems were selected. A total of 3322 cattle; 2876 (86.6%) male, 446 (13.4%) female; 3094 (93.1%) indigenous zebu, 140 (4.2%) crossbred and 88 (2.7%) pure exotic cattle were included in the study. A nine-year meat inspection record was also analyzed to elucidate the trend of BTB in the local cattle population.Of the carcasses inspected, 337 (10.2%, 95%CI= [9.2-11.2]) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, 69 (20.5%) generalized and 268 (79.5%) localized.TB prevalence showed a marked variation between categories of age, breed, class of animals, abattoir, geographic origin and husbandry system. It was higher in old and young animals than middle age group; in exotic than local breed; in calves than other classes of animals. The highest and lowest prevalence of TB was recorded in Adama (24.7%, 95%CI= [21.1-28.7]) and Yabello abattoirs (4.2%, 95%CI= [2.6-6.6]), respectively. Cattle whose origin was from Addis Ababa and its surrounding areas had higher prevalence of TB infection (23.9%, 95%CI= [17.6-31.5]).Cattle maintained in dairy farms had high degree of exposure (23.9%, 95%CI= [16.7-32.9]) to the infection than those maintained in other types of management system. Analysis of meat inspection records also revealed an increasing incidence of TB over the years. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle and this could infer to similar scenario in a reference cattle population in the country. In view of Ethiopia's increasing involvement in livestock export trade, the reported high prevalence of tuberculosis could be a major obstacle, particularly at this moment when sanitary requirements from importing countries are so much strict. Furthermore, the growing concern over increasing incidence of tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS co-infection, the high incidence of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis and a high risk of acquiring zoonotic tuberculosis among the majority of the population emphasize the need for paying the necessary attention towards the control of bovine tuberculosis.

  12. One step forward, two steps backwards: A Freirean post-mortem of ...

    MCP from reassuming power; a weak post-election political environment prone to .... they vehemently condemned Malawi's communications environment in which ..... with 14 Million Malawi Kwacha (approximately US$100,000.00) for revoking.




    Los cambios post mórtem (CPM) son una serie de fenómenos que ocurren luego de acontecida la muerte funcional, han sido ampliamente estudiados en la medicina forense humana y se utilizan rutinariamente para precisar el diagnóstico patológico y para la estimación de un intervalo post mórtem (IPM). En animales, mucha de la información utilizada ha sido extrapolada desde humanos o bien se han utilizado los animales como modelo de experimentación para dar respuesta a interrogantes de la medicina h...

  14. Evaluation of post-mortem estimated dental age versus real age: a retrospective 21-year survey

    Reppien, Kirsa; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of methods used for forensic dental age estimation. We analysed all cases over the last 21 years (1984-2004) of unidentified bodies that were examined for identification purposes (including age assessment), and of which secure identification...... was subsequently achieved. In total, the study included 51 cases and 7 different methods had been used for dental age estimation, with the Bang/Ramm and the Gustafson/Johanson methods being the most frequently applied. The age estimates had usually been recorded as 10-year intervals. Factual ages at death were...... the estimated age, and in six cases by more than 6 years. The average difference between factual age at death and estimated age was 4.5 years. The four subadults in the material were all correctly estimated within an age range of +/-3 years. Our study showed that forensic odontological age estimates...

  15. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael


    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  16. Post-mortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, Kjeld Dahl; Secher, Jan O


    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large...... White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig...... in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17...

  17. Natural and Undetermined Sudden Death: Value of Post-Mortem Genetic Investigation

    Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Cesar, Sergi; Mademont, Irene; Mates, Jesus; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Coll, Monica; Pico, Ferran; Iglesias, Anna; Tirón, Coloma; Allegue, Catarina; Carro, Esther; Gallego, María Ángeles; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Hospital, Anna; Bardalet, Narcís; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Vingut, Albert; Arbelo, Elena; Brugada, Josep; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi; Brugada, Ramon


    Background Sudden unexplained death may be the first manifestation of an unknown inherited cardiac disease. Current genetic technologies may enable the unraveling of an etiology and the identification of relatives at risk. The aim of our study was to define the etiology of natural deaths, younger than 50 years of age, and to investigate whether genetic defects associated with cardiac diseases could provide a potential etiology for the unexplained cases. Methods and Findings Our cohort included a total of 789 consecutive cases (77.19% males) <50 years old (average 38.6±12.2 years old) who died suddenly from non-violent causes. A comprehensive autopsy was performed according to current forensic guidelines. During autopsy a cause of death was identified in most cases (81.1%), mainly due to cardiac alterations (56.87%). In unexplained cases, genetic analysis of the main genes associated with sudden cardiac death was performed using Next Generation Sequencing technology. Genetic analysis was performed in suspected inherited diseases (cardiomyopathy) and in unexplained death, with identification of potentially pathogenic variants in nearly 50% and 40% of samples, respectively. Conclusions Cardiac disease is the most important cause of sudden death, especially after the age of 40. Close to 10% of cases may remain unexplained after a complete autopsy investigation. Molecular autopsy may provide an explanation for a significant part of these unexplained cases. Identification of genetic variations enables genetic counseling and undertaking of preventive measures in relatives at risk. PMID:27930701

  18. Cycling capacity recovery effect: A coulombic efficiency and post-mortem study

    Wilhelm, Jörn; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Keil, Peter; Schuster, Jörg; Kriele, Armin; Gilles, Ralph; Jossen, Andreas


    The analysis of lithium-ion battery aging relies on correct differentiation between irreversible and reversible capacity changes. Anode overhang regions have been observed to influence Coulombic Efficiency (CE) measurements through lithium diffusion into and out of these areas, complicating precise capacity determination. This work presents an analysis of the extent of graphite anode overhang lithiation after calendar storage by means of local X-ray diffraction (XRD), CE measurements, and color change analysis. We found LiC12 lithiation of the anode overhang area after 20 month storage at 40 °C at high state of charge (SoC) and partial lithiation (LiC18) at medium SoC storage at 40 °C and 25 °C. Graphite color changes in the overhang areas are observed and consistent with the state of lithiation measured by XRD. Coulombic efficiencies greater than unity and increasing capacity during 1200 h of cycling are detected for high SoC storage cells. The capacity difference between high and low storage SoC batteries decreases by up to 40 mAh (3.6% of nominal capacity) after cycling compared to tests directly after storage. Consequently, the size of the anode overhang areas as well as the battery storage temperature and duration need to be considered in CE analysis and state of health assessment.

  19. Post-mortem of a Zombie: Conficker cleanup after six years

    Asghari, H.; Ciere, M.; Van Eeten, M.J.G.


    Research on botnet mitigation has focused predominantly on methods to technically disrupt the commandand-control infrastructure. Much less is known about the effectiveness of large-scale efforts to clean up infected machines. We analyze longitudinal data from the sinkhole of Conficker, one the large

  20. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian


    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  1. The gesture of post-mortem writing and other poetic gestures

    Katarzyna Kuczyńska-Koschany


    Full Text Available The essay undertakes to investigate the phenomenon of erotic friendship as an “intertextual friendship” and, at the same time, “somatic (mis understanding” (German: Un-beziehung. The following considerations include a discussion on the relationship between Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud, viewed first of all as bohemian characters of bohemian life and the protagonists of the mitologised homo-erotic relationship. Beside a hermeneutic attempt at describing the intimacy shared by both poets, or stages in the development of their intimate relations (with reference to French literature of the subject and texts that have not yet been translated into Polish, the author writes extensively on the reception of the relationship of the legendary pair of friends-lovers A-war period, Agnieszka Holland’s film Total eclipse and the most recent poetical texts by Ewa Sonnenberg. The essay is complemented by some considerations on similar cases, analogous to the instance of the relationship between the two French poets: epistolary romance between R.M. Rilke and M. Tsvetaeva and, important within the context of the reception of Rimbaud in Poland — love/friendship exhibited in the letters between Andrzej Czajkowski and Anita Janowska.

  2. Post-mortem of a Zombie: Conficker cleanup after six years

    Asghari, H.; Ciere, M.; Van Eeten, M.J.G.


    Research on botnet mitigation has focused predominantly on methods to technically disrupt the commandand-control infrastructure. Much less is known about the effectiveness of large-scale efforts to clean up infected machines. We analyze longitudinal data from the sinkhole of Conficker, one the large

  3. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Israeli, M.; Biegon, A.


    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex.

  4. Post mortem CT scans as a supplementary teaching method in gross anatomy.

    Buenting, Mara; Mueller, Tjark; Raupach, Tobias; Luers, Georg; Wehrenberg, Uwe; Gehl, Axel; Anders, Sven


    Despite increasing the integration of radiologic imaging teaching in anatomy dissection courses, studies on learning outcome of these interventions are rare or have certain shortcomings in study design. In this study, students were randomly allocated to an intervention group (n=53) receiving five weekly CT-courses of 30min duration during a 6-week gross anatomy course. Students in the control group (n=329) received no additional teaching. Total teaching time did not differ among groups. All students were asked to participate in a pre- and post-course self-assessment (comparative self-assessment; CSA) of learning objectives related to anatomical spatial relationships and a post-course formative assessment on radiologic anatomy. Items of both assessments were matched. Moreover, students of the intervention group were asked to evaluate the CT-courses. Most participants of the intervention group classified the CT-courses as "good" or "very good". Nevertheless, results of the CSA and formative assessment did not differ among study and control groups. These findings indicate that the teaching intervention (CT-courses) did not have an impact on recognition of anatomical structures in radiological images beyond the knowledge acquired in the anatomical dissection course. As a consequence, interventions integrating radiology imaging into dissection courses should be based on psychological considerations of how to best foster student learning. Learning outcome has to be monitored, as results of evaluation surveys can be misleading. Further research on curricular concepts is needed considering both short- and long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Archaeal abundance in post-mortem ruminal digesta may help predict methane emissions from beef cattle

    Wallace, R. John; Rooke, John A.; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Hyslop, Jimmy J.; Ross, David W.; McKain, Nest; de Souza, Shirley Motta; Snelling, Timothy J.; Waterhouse, Anthony; Roehe, Rainer


    Methane produced from 35 Aberdeen-Angus and 33 Limousin cross steers was measured in respiration chambers. Each group was split to receive either a medium- or high-concentrate diet. Ruminal digesta samples were subsequently removed to investigate correlations between methane emissions and the rumen microbial community, as measured by qPCR of 16S or 18S rRNA genes. Diet had the greatest influence on methane emissions. The high-concentrate diet resulted in lower methane emissions (P Methane was correlated, irrespective of breed, with the abundance of archaea (R = 0.39), bacteria (-0.47), protozoa (0.45), Bacteroidetes (-0.37) and Clostridium Cluster XIVa (-0.35). The archaea:bacteria ratio provided a stronger correlation (0.49). A similar correlation was found with digesta samples taken 2-3 weeks later at slaughter. This finding could help enable greenhouse gas emissions of large animal cohorts to be predicted from samples taken conveniently in the abattoir.

  6. Dehydration of post-mortem eyes for practice and experimental surgery.

    Swinger, C A; Kornmehl, E W


    A technique has been developed that allows for rapid dehydration of the cornea of an intact globe. This technique results in a marked improvement in corneal clarity and visualization of anterior chamber structures. Treated eyes can be used for practice and experimental surgery.

  7. Post mortem parasitological evaluation of dogs seroreactive for Leishmania from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    de Fátima Madeira, Maria; de O Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia M P; Pereira, Sandro A; Figueiredo, Fabiano B; Baptista, Cibele; Leal, Cristianni A; Melo, Cíntia X; Confort, Eliame M; Marzochi, Mauro C A


    A parasitological study was conducted on 66 dogs seroreactive for Leishmania captured as a control measure of visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Biological samples from different anatomical sites were collected during autopsy of the animals and cultured on biphasic medium (NNN/Schneider). The Leishmania isolates were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Leishmania was isolated from 80.3% of the animals: 12 animals with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated exclusively from cutaneous lesions, 39 with L. (L.) chagasi isolated from different sites in the same animal, and 2 with simultaneous isolation of L. (V.) braziliensis from cutaneous lesions and L. (L.) chagasi from different sites. Isolation in culture revealed the absence of Leishmania parasites in 13 animals. The results obtained confirm the existence of mixed infections in dogs in Rio de Janeiro and indicate the need to complement the investigation of seroreactive dogs using methods for the parasitological diagnosis and identification of Leishmania species.

  8. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    Precht, Helle; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thygesen, Jesper


    Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality. New technological developments in computed tomography (CT), including dual energy, iterative reconstructions and high definition scanning, could significantly improve the non-invasive identification of atherosclerosis plaques....... Here, a new method for optimising cardiac coronary CT with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology is presented. Materials and methods: Twenty human hearts obtained from autopsies were used. A contrast agent that solidifies after cooling was injected into the coronary arteries. CT...

  9. At slaughtering and post mortem characteristics on Traditional market ewes and Halal market ewes in Tuscany.

    Sargentini, Clara; Tocci, Roberto; Campostrini, Matteo; Pippi, Eleonora; Iaconisi, Valeria


    The aim of this work was the comparison between the carcass and the meat ewes of the regional Traditional market and the Islamic religious (Halal) market. Thirty and 20 at the end of career traditional market and Halal market ewes were slaughtered following the EC (European Council, 2009) animal welfare guidelines. Live weight of ewes was taken and dressing percentage of carcasses was calculated. On every carcass zoometric measurement and the evaluation trough the EU grid rules were performed. On the Musculus longissimus thoracis of 12 Traditional market carcasses and 11 Halal market carcasses the physical-chemical and nutritional analysis were performed. Consumer tests for liking meat ewe were performed in order to find consumer's preference level for Traditional and Halal markets ewe meat. Considering as fixed factor the ewe meat market (Traditional and Halal), results were submitted to oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The Halal market ewes have shown lower dressing percentages (42.91 ± 0.82 vs 46.42 ± 0.69) and lower conformation score (4.5 ± 0.5 vs 7.8 ± 0.4). The Halal market meat showed higher cooking loss in oven (37.83 ± 1.20 vs 32.03 ± 1.15 %), lesser Chroma value (18.63 ± 0.70 vs 21.84 ± 0.67), and lesser Hue angle value (0.26 ± 0.02 vs 0.34 ± 0.02). This product had also lower fat percentage (4.2 ± 0.4 vs 7.09 ± 0.4). The traditional market meat had higher percentage in monounsatured fatty acids (MUFA) (43.84 ± 1.05 vs 38.22 ± 1.10), while the Halal market meat had higher percentage in ω3 poliunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) (5.04 ± 0.42 vs 3.60 ± 0.40). The consumer test showed as the ewe meat was appreciate by the consumers. Both meat typologies have shown good nutritional characteristics. The traditional market meat had higher MUFA composition, and a better MUFA/satured fatty acids (SFA) ratio, while the Halal market meat had higher PUFA composition. These results were also supported by the PCA. The consumers preferred the traditional market meat.

  10. Post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT and PMCT-angiography after cardiac surgery. Possibilities and limits

    Beatrice Vogel


    Full Text Available Background: PMCT is a well-known tool of the forensic pathologist. It is employed worldwide. PMCT-angiography offers additional insights. This paper intends to demonstrate possibilities of both methods after cardiac surgery. Material and Methods: Exemplary cases with typical findings were selected from our own collection. PMCT was performed as whole body CT (1mm slice, pitch 1.5, 130kV, 180-130mAs, 16 slice MDCT. In PMCT-angiography, contrast material (1.2 litres is injected into the arteries (arterial phase, also documented with a whole body CT. Thereafter, contrast material is injected into the veins (venous phase, also documented with a whole body CT. The final CT is obtained after circulation has been provoked with a special pump (circulatory phase. Results: PMCT visualised pseudoarthrosis and fractures of the sternum, implanted valves (TAVI encroaching the ostia of the coronary arteries, bleeding and pericardial tamponade. PMCT-angiography showed the sources of the bleeding, vascular stenosis and obstruction and modified vascular supply. With respect to the postoperative care, malposition of tubes, drainages and complication of punctures could be seen. Conclusion: PMCT and PMCT-angiography can visualise complications and the cause of death. Such knowledge may allow for prevention of suffering and death. It may also aid in improving valve design and implantation procedures.

  11. Thyroid morphology in lethal non-thyroidal illness: a post-mortem study

    F.E. de Jongh (Felix); A.C. Jobsis; J.W.F. Elte (Jan Willem)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is associated with alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism. Whether morphological changes of the thyroid gland accompany NTI is unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe thyroid morphology in patients with

  12. 'Post-mortem examination of the reproductive organs of female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden'.

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Dalin, Anne-Marie


    In recent decades, wild boars (Sus scrofa) have increased in numbers and distribution in Europe. Compared to other wild ungulates of similar body size, wild boars have a high reproductive capacity. To increase the knowledge of wild boar reproduction, the objective of this study was to investigate characteristics of reproductive organs, and to provide information on the occurrence of abnormalities in reproductive organs from free-ranging female wild boars. Between December 2011 and December 2015, reproductive organs from female wild boars (>30 kg body weight), were collected during hunting in four Swedish counties at estates where supplementary feeding was applied. The organs were macroscopically examined and measured. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to the ovarian structures and in relation to uterus characteristics. Observed abnormalities were noted. The results from 569 animals that met the requirements to be included in this study showed significant differences in weight and length of the uterus between the various reproductive stages. Sampling region had significant effect on these differences. Abnormalities in the reproductive organs were present in approximately 10% of the examined animals. The prevalence of abnormalities increased significantly with age and was significantly affected by sampling region.

  13. Drug epidemiology, interactions and pharmacogenetics : A post-mortem database study

    Launiainen, Terhi


    Use of adverse drug combinations, abuse of medicinal drugs and substance abuse are considerable social problems that are difficult to study. Prescription database studies might fail to incorporate factors like use of over-the-counter drugs and patient compliance, and spontaneous reporting databases suffer from underreporting. Substance abuse and smoking studies might be impeded by poor participation activity and reliability. The Forensic Toxicology Unit at the University of Helsinki is t...

  14. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    Precht, Helle; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thygesen, Jesper


    Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality. New technological developments in computed tomography (CT), including dual energy, iterative reconstructions and high definition scanning, could significantly improve the non-invasive identification of atherosclerosis plaques...

  15. The post-mortem diagnosis of vasocclusive crisis in sickle cell disease

    Varsha Bhatia


    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD comprises a group of genetic blood disorders that affect the hemoglobin molecular structure, and in some cases, the association with hemoglobin synthesis. In sickle cell anemia, the replacement of glutamic acid by valine at the 6th position on the beta chain from the N terminal results in the synthesis of the abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S (HbS.

  16. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa


    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  17. Post-mortem forensic identity testing: application of PCR to the identification of fire victim

    José Arnaldo Soares-Vieira


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: DNA analysis has been used with success in the identification of carbonized corpses and victims of large accidents. The analysis requires relatives of crash victims to donate blood for analysis. The relatives are generally willing contribute to the identification by giving a blood sample. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR for genetic characterization of one victim extensively burned by fire. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: DNA was extracted from blood of the cardiac chamber, and 15 different loci (D1S80, ApoB, D17S30, D3S1744, D18S849, D12S1090, FGA, D7S820, D1S533, D9S304, HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTHO1, amelogenin and HLA-DQA1 were analyzed using the PCR technique. Results from all loci typing of the corpse were then compared to that of his alleged biological parents, revealing a genetic compatibility.

  18. Ante-, péri- ou post mortem ? Profil de fracturation en contexte humide

    Augias, A.; Benmoussa, N.; Jacqueline, S.


    characteristics. This osteoarchaeological case illustrates the difficulties in diagnosing trauma on ancient bones and explores the specific mechanisms that cause lesions in an ancient mixed organic/inorganic matrix, which is particularly useful for biological anthropology studies.......This forensic archaeo-anthropological study focuses on a skeletonized individual unearthed from a well during preventive archaeological excavations at the Place du Jeu de Paume site in Beauvais. The primary aim of this study was to determine the causes of death by biomedically examining the femoral...

  19. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    Valentina Imperatore


    Full Text Available We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available.

  20. Photography/Monument. History of Childhood and Post-mortem Photography

    José María Borras Llop


    Full Text Available This article presents an argument in favor of the full integration of photographic images within historical analysis. From this perspective, I have approached the history of childhood, the field of research which I have concentrated on, in recent years. My focus is on two major topics: images of child labour and representations of infant mortality. The article is divided into two main sections. The first succinctly lays out the main arguments and opinions concerning the interpretation of photography from the point of view of photographers, historians of photography, photography and art critics, image theorists, anthropologists and social and cultural historians. The second section focuses on the analysis of specific cases, without seeking to present it as a model.

  1. Increased prevalence of Chlamydophila DNA in post-mortem brain frontal cortex from patients with schizophrenia.

    Fellerhoff, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf


    Infection can initiate symptoms of mental illness. It has been shown previously that Chlamydophila DNA is present six times more often in the blood of patients with schizophrenia than in the blood of control individuals. Monocytes, the main targets of Chlamydiaceae infection, are microglia precursors. We identified Chlamydiaceae infection using blinded brain DNA samples derived from the frontal cortex. Using PCR and sequence analysis, we found Chlamydophila DNA to be four times greater in patients with schizophrenia than in controls (schizophrenia: N=34, microbial DNA frequency 23.5%; controls: N=35, microbial DNA frequency 5.7%; P=0.045, OR=5.08). Persistent Chlamydophila-infected microglia or neuronal cells may impair neuronal circuits and thus be a mechanism for causing psychiatric illness in these patients.

  2. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology


    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  3. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    Felin, Tippo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimericks, Koen H.;


    This article introduces the Special Issue and discusses the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories...

  4. Routine Design for Mechanical Engineering

    Brinkop, Axel; Laudwein, Norbert; Maasen, Rudiger


    COMIX (configuration of mixing machines) is a system that assists members of the EKATO Sales Department in designing a mixing machine that fulfills the requirements of a customer. It is used to help the engineer design the requested machine and prepare an offer that's to be submitted to the customer. comix integrates more traditional software techniques with explicit knowledge representation and constraint propagation. During the process of routine design, some design decisions have to be mad...

  5. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy.

    Rasul, Tabraze; Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Pathak, Rajiv; Dalmia, Sanjay


    Splenic rupture is a life-threatening condition characterized by internal hemorrhage, often difficult to diagnose. Colonoscopy is a gold standard routine diagnostic test to investigate patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as to those on the screening program for colorectal cancer. Splenic injury is seldomly discussed during consent for colonoscopy, as opposed to colonic perforation, as its prevalence accounts for less than 0.1%. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of collagen disorder was electively admitted for routine colonoscopy for surveillance of adenoma. She was admitted following the procedure for re-dosing of warfarin, which was stopped prior to the colonoscopy. The patient was found collapsed on the ward the following day with clinical shock and anemia. Computed tomography demonstrated grade 4 splenic rupture. Immediate blood transfusion and splenectomy was required. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy is extremely rare. Awareness of it on this occasion saved the patient's life. Despite it being a rare association, the seriousness warrants inclusion in all information leaflets concerning colonoscopy and during its consent.

  6. Computerized Information System for Nursing Educators; The First Step Towards Computerized Instruction or Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Alvir, Howard P.

    This document outlines the guidelines and procedures for educators interested in using the Computerized Information System for Nursing Educators (CISNE), a project sponsored by Francophone International Learning Module Systems. In the first of the report's four sections are a brief description of CISNE guidelines for entry procedures and forms for…

  7. Computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms

    Nazihah, M. D.; Kadri, S.; Yaacob, M. I. H.; Rosly, J.


    The development of a computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms is described in this paper. The system employs the insertion technique and it was developed using LabView 2011 where the ultrasound signal was acquired through the interfacing scheme of an oscilloscope to a personal computer. The system performance was validated by comparing measured acoustical properties with values obtained from the previous studies. Other than faster measurement time, the developed system carried percentage difference at less than 1.00% for all of the acoustical properties measurements at 23.0°C to 25.0°C respectively.

  8. Visualization in the age of computerization

    Carusi, Annamaria; Webmoor, Timothy; Woolgar, Steve


    Digitalization and computerization are now pervasive in science. This has deep consequences for our understanding of scientific knowledge and of the scientific process, and challenges longstanding assumptions and traditional frameworks of thinking of scientific knowledge. Digital media and computational processes challenge our conception of the way in which perception and cognition work in science, of the objectivity of science, and the nature of scientific objects. They bring about new relationships between science, art and other visual media, and new ways of practicing science and organizing

  9. Computerized documentation systems: blessings or curse?

    Vlasses, F R


    This article considers the possibility that computerized documentation systems will negatively impact knowledge development in nursing. Ideas from three vantage points is presented. First, systems are being developed from theoretical frameworks that are not necessarily grounded in nursing, and these systems, in turn, influence the nurses's ability to process and conceptualize information. Second, computer systems may support the retrieval of empirical data to the elimination of other types of data necessary to the development of nursing knowledge. Third, computers may decrease opportunities for collegial dialogue. These factors together create an atmosphere of "technologic determinism" (Robinson & Robinson, 1990), which can inhibit the development of new ideas in nursing.

  10. Surveillance of cattle health in the Netherlands: Monitoring trends and developments using routinely collected cattle census data.

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Brouwer-Middelesch, H; Van Wuijckhuise, L; de Bont-Smolenaars, A J G; Van Schaik, G


    Since 2002, a national cattle health surveillance system (CHSS) is in place that consists of several surveillance components. The CHSS combines enhanced passive reporting, diagnostic and post-mortem examinations, random surveys for prevalence estimation of endemic diseases and quarterly data analysis. The aim of the data-analysis component, which is called the Trend Analysis Surveillance Component (TASC), is to monitor trends and developments in cattle health using routine census data. The challenges that were faced during the development of TASC and the merits of this surveillance component are discussed, which might be of help to those who want to develop a monitoring and surveillance system that includes data analysis. When TASC was developed, there were process-oriented challenges and analytical related issues that had to be solved. Process-oriented challenges involved data availability, confidentiality, quality, uniformity and economic value of the data. Analytical issues involved data validation, aggregation and modeling. Eventually, the results had to provide information on cattle health that was intuitive to the stakeholders and that could support decision making. Within TASC, both quarterly analysis on census data and, on demand, additional in-depth analysis are performed. The key monitoring indicators that are analyzed as part of TASC all relate to cattle health and involve parameters such as mortality, fertility, udder health and antimicrobial usage. Population-Averaged Generalized Estimating Equations, with the appropriate distribution (i.e. Gaussian, Poisson, Negative Binomial or Binomial) and link function (independent, log or logit), are used for analysis. Both trends in time and associations between cattle health indicators and potential confounders are monitored, discussed and reported to the stakeholders on a quarterly level. The flexibility of the in-depth analyses provides the possibility to conduct additional analyses when anomalies in trends

  11. Computerized axial tomography in clinical pediatrics.

    McCullough, D C; Kufta, C; Axelbaum, S P; Schellinger, D


    Computerized axial tomography (CAT), a noninvasive radiologie method, provides a new dimension in screening and diagnosis of intracranial pathology. Evaluation of 725 scans in infants and children demonstrates that CAT may be performed with negligible risk, although sedation and restraint are essential to the successful performance of studies in children under 6 years of age. CAT is the preferred initial diagnostic method in suspected hydrocephalls and is accurate in the detection and precise localization of brain tumors. The management of hydrocephalus and brain tumors has been significantly altered by the availability of CAT. Few invasive neuroradiologic procedures are required and pneumography is especially curtailed. Serial scanning is the best available method of monitoring ventricular alterations in hydrocephalus, tumor size during radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and postoperative recurrence of benign neoplasms. Complex intracranial anomalies are detectable with computerized tomography, but complete definition of pathology often requires angiography and air studies. Limited clinical experience in detecting neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage suggests that CAT will be a valuable tool for futlre investigations of that problem.

  12. Automatic computerized radiographic identification of cephalometric landmarks.

    Rudolph, D J; Sinclair, P M; Coggins, J M


    Computerized cephalometric analysis currently requires manual identification of landmark locations. This process is time-consuming and limited in accuracy. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel method for automatic computer identification of cephalometric landmarks. Spatial spectroscopy (SS) is a computerized method that identifies image structure on the basis of a convolution of the image with a set of filters followed by a decision method using statistical pattern recognition techniques. By this method, characteristic features are used to recognize anatomic structures. This study compared manual identification on a computer monitor and the SS automatic method for landmark identification on minimum resolution images (0.16 cm2 per pixel). Minimum resolution (defined as the lowest resolution at which a cephalometric structure could be identified) was used to reduce computational time and memory requirements during this development stage of the SS method. Fifteen landmarks were selected on a set of 14 test images. The results showed no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in mean landmark identification errors between manual identification on the computer display and automatic identification using SS. We conclude that SS shows potential for the automatic detection of landmarks, which is an important step in the development of a completely automatic cephalometric analysis.

  13. The Reality, Direction, and Future of Computerized Publications

    Levenstein, Nicholas


    Sharing information in digital form by using a computer is a growing phenomenon. Many universities are making their applications available on computer. More than one hundred and thirty-six universities have developed computerized applications on their own or through a commercial vendor. Universities developed computerized applications in order to…

  14. [Diagnosis of toxic lesions of the brain using computerized tomography].

    Bushev, I I; Karpova, M N; Tskhovrebov, T M


    X-ray computerized tomography was used to examine the brain in 39 patients aged 14 to 39 years with different experience of using volatile narcotically acting substances. The discovered alterations make it possible to appraise the influence of toxic substances and the degree of brain atrophy, which attests to the diagnostic value of computerized tomography in patients with toxicomanias.

  15. Participatory design for computerization of clinical practice guidelines

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Pedersen, B. S.


    There have been made many attempts on computerization of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), none have, however achieved any general application in clinical work practice. The objective of this paper is: (1) to raise awareness about the impact the design method used for computerization of CPGs......: PD as a design philosophy, PD as a toolbox and PD as a way to create a shared realm of understanding among IT-designers and health professionals as these are areas of utmost relevance for the design of computerized CPGs. Additionally, the application of PD for computerization of CPGs is illustrated...... by two cases. We conclude that PD is a beneficial approach for design of computerized CPGs. © 2011 Elsevier Inc....

  16. Diagnostic Prevalence of Ankylosing Spondylitis Using Computerized Health Care Data, 1996 to 2009: Underrecognition in a US Health Care Setting.

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Harrold, Leslie R; Asgari, Maryam M; Deodhar, Atul; Salman, Craig; Gelfand, Joel M; Wu, Jashin J; Herrinton, Lisa J


    Few studies have assessed the prevalence and features of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis in diverse, population-based, community settings. We used computerized diagnoses to estimate the prevalence of axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We identified persons aged 18 years or older with 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis Code 720.X (ankylosing spondylitis and other inflammatory spondylopathies) in clinical encounter data from 1996 through 2009 to estimate the prevalence of axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis. We reviewed medical records to confirm the diagnosis in a random sample and estimated the positive predictive value of computerized data to identify confirmed cases using various case definitions. In the computerized data, 5568 adults had diagnostic codes indicating axSpA. On the basis of our case-finding approach using a single physician diagnosis code for ICD-9 720.X, the point prevalence of these conditions, standardized to the 2000 US Census, was 2.26 per 1000 persons for axSpA and 1.07 per 1000 for ankylosing spondylitis. Less than half of suspected cases saw a rheumatologist. The most specific algorithm for confirmed ankylosing spondylitis required 2 or more computerized diagnoses assigned by a rheumatologist, with 67% sensitivity (95% confidence interval, 64%-69%) and 81% positive predictive value (95% confidence interval, 79%-83%). Observed prevalence in the KPNC population, compared with national estimates for axSpA and ankylosing spondylitis, suggests there is substantial underrecognition of these conditions in routine clinical practice. However, use of computerized data is able to identify true cases of ankylosing spondylitis, facilitating population-based research.

  17. Combined single photon emission computerized tomography and conventional computerized tomography: Clinical value for the shoulder surgeons?

    Michael T Hirschmann


    Full Text Available With the cases described, we strive to introduce single photon emission computerized tomography in combination with conventional computer tomography (SPECT/CT to shoulder surgeons, illustrate the possible clinical value it may offer as new diagnostic radiologic modality, and discuss its limitations. SPECT/CT may facilitate the establishment of diagnosis, process of decision making, and further treatment for complex shoulder pathologies. Some of these advantages were highlighted in cases that are frequently seen in most shoulder clinics.

  18. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  19. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.


    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.


    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  1. Geometric Computing Based on Computerized Descriptive Geometric

    YU Hai-yan; HE Yuan-Jun


    Computer-aided Design (CAD), video games and other computer graphic related technology evolves substantial processing to geometric elements. A novel geometric computing method is proposed with the integration of descriptive geometry, math and computer algorithm. Firstly, geometric elements in general position are transformed to a special position in new coordinate system. Then a 3D problem is projected to new coordinate planes. Finally, according to 2D/3D correspondence principle in descriptive geometry, the solution is constructed computerized drawing process with ruler and compasses. In order to make this method a regular operation, a two-level pattern is established. Basic Layer is a set algebraic packaged function including about ten Primary Geometric Functions (PGF) and one projection transformation. In Application Layer, a proper coordinate is established and a sequence of PGFs is sought for to get the final results. Examples illustrate the advantages of our method on dimension reduction, regulatory and visual computing and robustness.


    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas


    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  3. Organ doses from computerized tomography examinations

    Janeczek, J.


    Estimates of mean organs doses from five typical computerized tomography (CT) examinations were obtained. Measurements were done using Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). Radiation dose distributions within a phantom has been measured for each examination and results were used for organ dose calculation. Doses to organs specified by ICPR 60 Recommendations were measured for five CT scanners (CT/T8800, CT 9800, CT MAX - made by General Electric; CT 1200 SX - made by Picker; SOMATOM 2 - made by Siemens). Dose distributions from scattered radiation were measured and indicate that scattered radiation dose to thyroid and eye lens can be reduced by proper examination limits setting. The lowest mean organ doses were obtained from CT/T8800 scanner. More advanced scanners using high intensity continuous radiation were giving higher organ doses. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs.


    Petrişor MANDU


    Full Text Available The occurrence of risk situation and the manager’s awareness of it are serious threats for the organization and its objectives. Consequently, the manager has to have available, analyze, select and interpret many pieces of information, under stress, before making a decision for avoiding a disaster. Under these circumstances, a computerized model of risk management is the most adequate solution to make the intervention possibilities effective through a quicker and more accurate intervention. The model offers enough confidence and a favorable psychological state for managing risk. In accordance with this model, the risk manager processes the information by means of some operational (mathematical methods and that favors reaching optimum solutions in the shortest delay, based on some estimated anticipations through a rational model.

  5. Sandia computerized shock compression bibliographical database

    Wilbeck, J.S.; Anderson, C.E.; Hokanson, J.C.; Asay, J.R.; Grady, D.E.; Graham, R.A.; Kipp, M.E.


    A searchable and updateable bibliographical database is being developed which will be designed, controlled, and evaluated by working technical experts in the field of shock-compression science. It will emphasize shock-compression properties in the stress region of a few tens of GPa and provide a broad and complete base of bibliographical information on the shock-compression behavior of materials. Through the operation of technical advisors, the database provides authoritative blbliographical and keyword data for use by both the inexperienced and expert user. In its current form, it consists of: (1) a library of journal articles, reports, books, and symposia papers in the areas of shock physics and shock mechanics; and (2) a computerized database system containing complete bibliographical information, exhaustive keyword descriptions, and author abstracts for each of the documents in the database library.

  6. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    Nathan A. Thompson


    Full Text Available Computerized classification testing (CCT is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as - pass- and - fail.- Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion, namely the algorithm that decides whether to classify the examinee and end the test or to continue and administer another item. This paper applies a newly suggested termination criterion, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR, to CCT. It also explores the role of the indifference region in the specification of likelihood-ratio based termination criteria, comparing the GLR to the sequential probability ratio test. Results from simulation studies suggest that the GLR is always at least as efficient as existing methods.

  7. Routine screening for postpartum depression.

    Georgiopoulos, A M; Bryan, T L; Wollan, P; Yawn, B P


    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and often overlooked condition. Validated screening tools for PPD exist but are not commonly used. We present the 1-year outcome of a project to implement universal PPD screening at the 6-week postpartum visit. Universal screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was implemented in all community postnatal care sites. One-year outcome assessments (diagnosis and treatment of PPD) were completed for a sample of the women screened using medical record review of all care they received during the first year postpartum. Sixty-eight (20%) of the 342 women whose medical records were reviewed had been given a documented diagnosis of postpartum depression, resulting in an estimated population rate of 10.7%. Depression was diagnosed in 35% of the women with elevated EPDS scores (> or =10) compared with 5% of the women with low EPDS scores (<10) in the first year postpartum. Treatment was provided for all women diagnosed with depression, including drug therapy for 49% and counseling for 78%. Four women were hospitalized for depression. Some degree of suicidal ideation was noted on the EPDS by 48 women but acknowledged in the chart of only 10 women, including 1 with an immediate hospitalization. The rate of diagnosis of postpartum depression in this community increased from 3.7% before the routine use of EPDS screening to 10.7% following screening. A high EPDS score was predictive of a diagnosis of postpartum depression, and the implementation of routine EPDS screening at 6 weeks postpartum was associated with an increase in the rate of diagnosed postpartum depression in this community.

  8. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a program...

  9. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    Liu, Peng


    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  10. Routines Are the Foundation of Classroom Management

    Lester, Robin Rawlings; Allanson, Patricia Bolton; Notar, Charles E.


    Classroom management is the key to learning. Routines are the foundation of classroom management. Students require structure in their lives. Routines provide that in all of their life from the time they awake until the time they go to bed. Routines in a school and in the classroom provide the environment for learning to take place. The paper is…

  11. Dose profile study on computerized tomography scanning of skull with simulator object; Estudo do perfil de dose em varreduras de TC de cranio com objeto simulador

    Mourao, A.P., E-mail: aprata@des.cefetmg.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Engenharia Hospitalar; Alonso, Thessa C.; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: alonso@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvata@@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    This work presents a comparison among the dose profiles in scanning of computerized tomography of a simulator object of PMMA in its periphery region. To obtain the deposited dose at the PMMA thermoluminescent dosemeters were used positioned at the interior of PMMA simulated object longitudinal to periphery and at the center of cylinder (positions denominated North, South, East, West and Center). Eight scanning were performed of simulator object using the routine protocol for skull in eight different services of radiodiagnostic by TC

  12. Problems and Solutions of Popularization of Accounting Computerization

    Lu, Kan; Fu, YingLi; Gu, CaiDong; Zhang, Liang

    With the integration of China's economy and international markets, accounting computerization, which conducts accounting and accounting control by taking advantage of computer, has become a major component sector of accounting modernization and the main content of accounting reform. The popularization of accounting computerization is beyond question. Only this popularization can meet the requirement of knowledge economy for accounting information. It is the need to deepen accounting reform, to further enhance the level of accounting work and to achieve China's modernization of science and technology as well. This paper discusses problems and relevant solutions in the popularization process of accounting computerization so as to carry out this popularization better.

  13. Computerized mouse pupil size measurement for pupillary light reflex analysis.

    Lu, Wei; Tan, Jinglu; Zhang, Keqing; Lei, Bo


    Accurate measurement of pupil size is essential for pupillary light reflex (PLR) analysis in clinical diagnosis and vision research. Low pupil-iris contrast, corneal reflection, artifacts and noises in infrared eye imaging pose challenges for automated pupil detection and measurement. This paper describes a computerized method for pupil detection or identification. After segmentation by a region-growing algorithm, pupils are detected by an iterative randomized Hough transform (IRHT) with an elliptical model. The IRHT iteratively suppresses the effects of extraneous structures and noise, yielding reliable measurements. Experimental results with 72 images showed a mean absolute difference of 3.84% between computerized and manual measurements. The inter-run variation for the computerized method (1.24%) was much smaller than the inter-observer variation for the manual method (7.45%), suggesting a higher level of consistency of the former. The computerized method could facilitate PLR analysis and other non-invasive functional tests that require pupil size measurements.

  14. Computerized adaptive testing--ready for ambulatory monitoring?

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Fischer, Felix


    Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have abundant theoretical advantages over established static instruments, which could improve ambulatory monitoring of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). However, an empirical demonstration of their practical benefits is warranted....

  15. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 COMPUTERIZED FACILITIES ...


    30, 2013. COMPUTERIZED FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN ... School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Addis Ababa ... layout while algorithms such as CORELAP are used to build new ..... Facilities Planning: Layout Optimization.

  16. Computerized Staffing and Scheduling of PRN Nursing Personnel

    Veranth, Martha M; Cheson, Christine


    A computerized system developed at LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah for staffing and scheduling PRN nursing personnel is described. Pre- and post-implementation staffing and scheduling activities are compared.

  17. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)


    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  18. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul


    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program.

  19. Computerized ionospheric tomography with the IRI model

    Arikan, Orhan; Arikan, Feza; Erol, Cemil B.

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) is a method to estimate ionospheric electron density distribution by using the global positioning system (GPS) signals recorded by the GPS receivers. Ionospheric electron density is a function of latitude, longitude, height and time. A general approach in CIT is to represent the ionosphere as a linear combination of basis functions. In this study, the model of the ionosphere is obtained from the IRI in latitude and height only. The goal is to determine the best representing basis function from the set of Squeezed Legendre polynomials, truncated Legendre polynomials, Haar Wavelets and singular value decomposition (SVD). The reconstruction algorithms used in this study can be listed as total least squares (TLS), regularized least squares, algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and a hybrid algorithm where the reconstruction from the TLS algorithm is used as the initial estimate for the ART. The error performance of the reconstruction algorithms are compared with respect to the electron density generated by the IRI-2001 model. In the investigated scenario, the measurements are obtained from the IRI-2001 as the line integral of the electron density profiles, imitating the total electron content estimated from GPS measurements. It has been observed that the minimum error between the reconstructed and model ionospheres depends on both the reconstruction algorithm and the basis functions where the best results have been obtained for the basis functions from the model itself through SVD.

  20. Computerized ionospheric tomography based on geosynchronous SAR

    Hu, Cheng; Tian, Ye; Dong, Xichao; Wang, Rui; Long, Teng


    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an emerging technique to construct the three-dimensional (3-D) image of ionosphere. The current studies are all based on the Low Earth Orbit synthetic aperture radar (LEO SAR) which is limited by long repeat period and small coverage. In this paper, a novel ionospheric 3-D CIT technique based on geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) is put forward. First, several influences of complex atmospheric environment on GEO SAR focusing are detailedly analyzed, including background ionosphere and multiple scattering effects (induced by turbulent ionosphere), tropospheric effects, and random noises. Then the corresponding GEO SAR signal model is constructed with consideration of the temporal-variant background ionosphere within the GEO SAR long integration time (typically 100 s to 1000 s level). Concurrently, an accurate total electron content (TEC) retrieval method based on GEO SAR data is put forward through subband division in range and subaperture division in azimuth, obtaining variant TEC value with respect to the azimuth time. The processing steps of GEO SAR CIT are given and discussed. Owing to the short repeat period and large coverage area, GEO SAR CIT has potentials of covering the specific space continuously and completely and resultantly has excellent real-time performance. Finally, the TEC retrieval and GEO SAR CIT construction are performed by employing a numerical study based on the meteorological data. The feasibility and correctness of the proposed methods are verified.