WorldWideScience

Sample records for roughly weighted simple

  1. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Sloan J. [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Hobler, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.hobler@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30348 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  2. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  3. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield - especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the "density gradient model") which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target's atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient - leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  4. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  5. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  6. A rough set approach for determining weights of decision makers in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Du, Ping-An; Wang, Yong; Liang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present a novel approach for determining the weights of decision makers (DMs) based on rough group decision in multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. First, we construct a rough group decision matrix from all DMs' decision matrixes on the basis of rough set theory. After that, we derive a positive ideal solution (PIS) founded on the average matrix of rough group decision, and negative ideal solutions (NISs) founded on the lower and upper limit matrixes of rough group decision. Then, we obtain the weight of each group member and priority order of alternatives by using relative closeness method, which depends on the distances from each individual group member' decision to the PIS and NISs. Through comparisons with existing methods and an on-line business manager selection example, the proposed method show that it can provide more insights into the subjectivity and vagueness of DMs' evaluations and selections.

  7. Crop Evaluation System Optimization: Attribute Weights Determination Based on Rough Sets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is mainly a continuation of our previous study, which is about a crop evaluation system development that is based on grey relational analysis. In that system, the attribute weight determination affects the evaluation result directly. Attribute weight is usually ascertained by decision-makers experience knowledge. In this paper, we utilize rough sets theory to calculate attribute significance and then combine it with weight given by decision-maker. This method is a comprehensive consideration of subjective experience knowledge and objective situation; thus it can acquire much more ideal results. Finally, based on this method, we improve the system based on ASP.NET technology.

  8. Contact area of rough spheres: Large scale simulations and simple scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastewka, Lars; Robbins, Mark O.

    2016-05-01

    We use molecular simulations to study the nonadhesive and adhesive atomic-scale contact of rough spheres with radii ranging from nanometers to micrometers over more than ten orders of magnitude in applied normal load. At the lowest loads, the interfacial mechanics is governed by the contact mechanics of the first asperity that touches. The dependence of contact area on normal force becomes linear at intermediate loads and crosses over to Hertzian at the largest loads. By combining theories for the limiting cases of nominally flat rough surfaces and smooth spheres, we provide parameter-free analytical expressions for contact area over the whole range of loads. Our results establish a range of validity for common approximations that neglect curvature or roughness in modeling objects on scales from atomic force microscope tips to ball bearings.

  9. Contact area of rough spheres: Large scale simulations and simple scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastewka, Lars, E-mail: lars.pastewka@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials & MicroTribology Center muTC, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engelbert-Arnold-Straße 4, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Robbins, Mark O., E-mail: mr@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2016-05-30

    We use molecular simulations to study the nonadhesive and adhesive atomic-scale contact of rough spheres with radii ranging from nanometers to micrometers over more than ten orders of magnitude in applied normal load. At the lowest loads, the interfacial mechanics is governed by the contact mechanics of the first asperity that touches. The dependence of contact area on normal force becomes linear at intermediate loads and crosses over to Hertzian at the largest loads. By combining theories for the limiting cases of nominally flat rough surfaces and smooth spheres, we provide parameter-free analytical expressions for contact area over the whole range of loads. Our results establish a range of validity for common approximations that neglect curvature or roughness in modeling objects on scales from atomic force microscope tips to ball bearings.

  10. Implementasi Perbandingan Metode Simple Additive Weighting Dengan Weighted Sum Model Dalam Pemilihan Siswa Berprestasi

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, M. Fajrul Falah

    2015-01-01

    Good Performance Student Selection Program of MIN Tanjung Sari aims to increase students interest in learning. The selection is based on determined criterion. To assist the selection process, then a decision support system is needed. The method used is Simple Additive Weighting and Weighted Sum Model. In this research the results of both methods performed will be tested with the three periods of good performance students data possessed by MIN Tanjung Sari Medan Selayang. This s...

  11. Fractional multilinear integrals with rough kernels on generalized weighted Morrey spaces

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    Akbulut Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the boundedness of fractional multilinear integral operators with rough kernels TΩ,αA1,A2,…,Ak,$T_{\\Omega ,\\alpha }^{{A_1},{A_2}, \\ldots ,{A_k}},$ which is a generalization of the higher-order commutator of the rough fractional integral on the generalized weighted Morrey spaces Mp,ϕ (w. We find the sufficient conditions on the pair (ϕ1, ϕ2 with w ∈ Ap,q which ensures the boundedness of the operators TΩ,αA1,A2,…,Ak,$T_{\\Omega ,\\alpha }^{{A_1},{A_2}, \\ldots ,{A_k}},$ from Mp,φ1wptoMp,φ2wq${M_{p,{\\varphi _1}}}\\left( {{w^p}} \\right\\,{\\rm{to}}\\,{M_{p,{\\varphi _2}}}\\left( {{w^q}} \\right$ for 1 < p < q < ∞. In all cases the conditions for the boundedness of the operator TΩ,αA1,A2,…,Ak,$T_{\\Omega ,\\alpha }^{{A_1},{A_2}, \\ldots ,{A_k}},$ are given in terms of Zygmund-type integral inequalities on (ϕ1, ϕ2 and w, which do not assume any assumption on monotonicity of ϕ1 (x,r, ϕ2(x, r in r.

  12. A PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Porting, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratories......, which did not result in any DNA band. A total of 32 out of the 36 rough presumptive isolates were positive in the PCR. All but one isolate were also identified as Salmonella by the two biochemical methods. All 80 Salmonella strains were also tested in the two multiplex serogroup tests based on PCR beads....... The sensitivity of the BAX Salmonella PCR test was assessed by testing a total of 80 Salmonella isolates, covering most serogroups, which correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting in one 800-bp band in the sample tubes. The specificity of the PCR was assessed using 20 non-Salmonella strains...

  13. Evaluation of Road Performance Based on International Roughness Index and Falling Weight Deflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin; Setyawan, A.; Yulianto, B.

    2018-03-01

    Assessment to the performance of road pavement is deemed necessary to improve the management quality of road maintenance and rehabilitation. This research to evaluate the road base on functional and structural and recommendations handling done. Assessing the pavement performance is conducted with functional and structural evaluation. Functional evaluation of pavement is based on the value of IRI (International Roughness Index) which among others is derived from reading NAASRA for analysis and recommended road handling. Meanwhile, structural evaluation of pavement is done by analyzing deflection value based on FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) data resulting in SN (Structural Number) value. The analysis will result in SN eff (Structural Number Effective) and SN f (Structural Number Future) value obtained from comparing SN eff to SN f value that leads to SCI (Structural Condition Index) value. SCI value implies the possible recommendation for handling pavement. The study done to Simpang Tuan-Batas Kota Jambi road segment was based on functional analysis. The study indicated that the road segment split into 12 segments in which segment 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were of regular maintenance, segment 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 belonged to periodic maintenance, and segment 6 was of rehabilitation. The structural analysis resulted in 8 segments consisting of segment 1 and 2 recommended for regular maintenance, segment 3, 4, 5, and 7 for functional overlay, and 6 and 8 were of structural overlay.

  14. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  15. Access Selection Algorithm of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks for Smart Distribution Grid Based on Entropy-Weight and Rough Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Min; Qu, Qinqin; Chen, Cheng; Tian, Li; Zeng, Lingkang

    2017-11-01

    To improve the reliability of communication service in smart distribution grid (SDG), an access selection algorithm based on dynamic network status and different service types for heterogeneous wireless networks was proposed. The network performance index values were obtained in real time by multimode terminal and the variation trend of index values was analyzed by the growth matrix. The index weights were calculated by entropy-weight and then modified by rough set to get the final weights. Combining the grey relational analysis to sort the candidate networks, and the optimum communication network is selected. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can implement dynamically access selection in heterogeneous wireless networks of SDG effectively and reduce the network blocking probability.

  16. Healthy habits: efficacy of simple advice on weight control based on a habit-formation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, P; Chipperfield, A; Wardle, J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a simple weight loss intervention, based on principles of habit formation. An exploratory trial in which overweight and obese adults were randomized either to a habit-based intervention condition (with two subgroups given weekly vs monthly weighing; n=33, n=36) or to a waiting-list control condition (n=35) over 8 weeks. Intervention participants were followed up for 8 months. A total of 104 adults (35 men, 69 women) with an average BMI of 30.9 kg m(-2). Intervention participants were given a leaflet containing advice on habit formation and simple recommendations for eating and activity behaviours promoting negative energy balance, together with a self-monitoring checklist. Weight change over 8 weeks in the intervention condition compared with the control condition and weight loss maintenance over 32 weeks in the intervention condition. At 8 weeks, people in the intervention condition had lost significantly more weight (mean=2.0 kg) than those in the control condition (0.4 kg), with no difference between weekly and monthly weighing subgroups. At 32 weeks, those who remained in the study had lost an average of 3.8 kg, with 54% losing 5% or more of their body weight. An intention-to-treat analysis (based on last-observation-carried-forward) reduced this to 2.6 kg, with 26% achieving a 5% weight loss. This easily disseminable, low-cost, simple intervention produced clinically significant weight loss. In limited resource settings it has potential as a tool for obesity management.

  17. A Simple Thermoplastic Substrate Containing Hierarchical Silica Lamellae for High-Molecular-Weight DNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Burke, Jeffrey M; Gleitsman, Kristin; Friedrich, Sarah M; Liu, Kelvin J; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2016-12-01

    An inexpensive, magnetic thermoplastic nanomaterial is developed utilizing a hierarchical layering of micro- and nanoscale silica lamellae to create a high-surface-area and low-shear substrate capable of capturing vast amounts of ultrahigh-molecular-weight DNA. Extraction is performed via a simple 45 min process and is capable of achieving binding capacities up to 1 000 000 times greater than silica microparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The effect of coatings and coating weight by two types of PCC on barrier and optical properties and roughness of paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rouzbeh asadi khansari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the use of PCC, and the impact of its coating weight on paper coating. In this study, two base papers from Mazandaran Wood and Paper Industries (APC and NS, and two coating compositions with the solid content of 25% containing PCC filler (100 parts, PVA binder (14 parts and dispersant (1 part were used. The first composition included PCC B102 for opacity increment, and the second one PCC 9020 for the improvement of brightness. Two rod RDS14 and RDS30 were used for different coating weights. After coating, the treated samples were dried in room conditions at air temperature of 25◦C and relative humidity of 54%. Physical and optical properties of control and treated samples such as air resistance, thickness, Cobb60, brightness, yellowness, opacity and roughness were determined. In comparison to the control group, all the treated samples showed improvement in brightness, opacity, yellowness and air resistance. By the two different formulations and two rods, paper roughness was increased, and the increment of water absorption was due to capillary development in coating texture. The analysis of variances showed that the usage of PCC 9020 had considerable effect on roughness of papers. In NS papers, change of PCC caused significant difference in brightness and roughness, but in APC papers did not. The change of coating rod in APC papers had significant effect on water absorption, brightness and opacity but did not show in NS.

  19. Friction force microscopy: a simple technique for identifying graphene on rough substrates and mapping the orientation of graphene grains on copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, A J; Wilson, N R; Phillips, M

    2013-01-01

    At a single atom thick, it is challenging to distinguish graphene from its substrate using conventional techniques. In this paper we show that friction force microscopy (FFM) is a simple and quick technique for identifying graphene on a range of samples, from growth substrates to rough insulators. We show that FFM is particularly effective for characterizing graphene grown on copper where it can correlate the graphene growth to the three-dimensional surface topography. Atomic lattice stick–slip friction is readily resolved and enables the crystallographic orientation of the graphene to be mapped nondestructively, reproducibly and at high resolution. We expect FFM to be similarly effective for studying graphene growth on other metal/locally crystalline substrates, including SiC, and for studying growth of other two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride. (paper)

  20. A simple technique for measuring buoyant weight increment of entire, transplanted coral colonies in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herler, Jürgen; Dirnwöber, Markus

    2011-10-31

    Estimating the impacts of global and local threats on coral reefs requires monitoring reef health and measuring coral growth and calcification rates at different time scales. This has traditionally been mostly performed in short-term experimental studies in which coral fragments were grown in the laboratory or in the field but measured ex situ. Practical techniques in which growth and measurements are performed over the long term in situ are rare. Apart from photographic approaches, weight increment measurements have also been applied. Past buoyant weight measurements under water involved a complicated and little-used apparatus. We introduce a new method that combines previous field and laboratory techniques to measure the buoyant weight of entire, transplanted corals under water. This method uses an electronic balance fitted into an acrylic glass underwater housing and placed atop of an acrylic glass cube. Within this cube, corals transplanted onto artificial bases can be attached to the balance and weighed at predetermined intervals while they continue growth in the field. We also provide a set of simple equations for the volume and weight determinations required to calculate net growth rates. The new technique is highly accurate: low error of weight determinations due to variation of coral density (corals. We outline a transplantation technique for properly preparing corals for such long-term in situ experiments and measurements.

  1. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN UNTUK PENILAIAN KINERJA KARYAWAN DENGAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE ' WEIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyu Utari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In determining the Best Employees in SI'MK AMKOM Purwokerto several. factors into the assessment. This assessment is based on performance assessmenl,' namely communication with studenls, attention to students, ease of providingconsulting, ease of providing solulions, altitude and appearance. For efficiency andeffectivity of the appropriate decision-making is needed.This study aims to develop a decision support system that has the bestemployee selection analysis capabilities using lhe Simple Additive weighting method(SAW. This decision support system to help make an assessment of each employee, 'make changes to the criteria, and changes in weight values. It is useful to facilitate thedecision makers on issues relatbd to the seleclion of the best employees, so will theemployees get the most feasible given lhe reward or award as the best employee

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (SAW METHODE IN DETERMINING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT’S INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prind Triajeng Pungkasanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia has set a regulation about curriculum applied in education field named Kurikulum 2013. One of the subsections in the Kurikulum 2013 regulates all requirements of majoring in high school. High school students determine their major based on Kurrikulum 2013 as they are on the 10th grade. The purpose of the majoring in education is to allow children development based on their skills and interests, because before, majoring have been done based on scores obtained. The main problem is the majoring requirements considered are admission test score and Junior High School National Test score. Both scores are not sufficient enough to determine the students major therefore academic aptitude test score is required. In term of weighting, the school has not been imposed the weighting system so the scores obtained is the average of admission test score and national test score. Based on the issue above, a solution required to solve the issue using a method. Method used in this research is Simple Additive Weighting (SAW, wherein this methode is looking for the weighted sum of performance rate on every alternative of atributes. This research provides the information about which potential students is suitable to enter the science major and social major so this results can be used as consideration of school decisions.

  3. PENERAPAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING DALAM PEMILIHAN TABLET PC UNTUK PEMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Yudha Prayogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak — Teknologi berkembang secara terus-menerus menyebabkan sumber daya manusia juga harus berkembang untuk mengikutinya. Banyak produk – produk teknologi baru bermunculan yang diiringi dengan persaingan antara vendor raksasa teknologi dalam memasarkan produknya. Mulai dari ponsel yang dulunya hanya dimiliki oleh para eksekutif dan pebisnis kini dapat dimiliki oleh semua orang dari latar belakang apa saja, dari yang tua sampai yang muda. Setelah ponsel, muncul gadget baru bernama tablet. Ukurannya yang lebih besar dari ponsel membuat gadget ini memiliki ciri khas tersendiri. Setelah itu ada lagi phablet yang merupakan gabungan antara phone dan tablet. Namun kebutuhan manusia yang semakin banyak membuat para vendor teknologi harus memikirkan produk baru yang mampu mengimbangi kebutuhan manusia dengan baik. Tablet PC merupakan salah satu dari jawaban itu. Namun karena banyaknya produk di pasaran membuat pembeli bingung yang mana yang cocok untuk keperluannya, khususnya para pemula. Hanya dengan membaca info produk melalui majalah atau internet kadang tidak cukup untuk menemukan produk mana yang cocok untuk mereka gunakan. Dengan memanfaatkan konsep Sistem Pengambilan Keputusan  dengan metode Simple Additive Weighting  (SAW dan menggunakan aplikasi Mirosoft Visual Studio 2008 serta database MS Access 2007 dapat diimplementasikan untuk membuat analisa sistem dengan merancang aplikasi untuk menentukan Tablet PC yang cocok untuk digunakan oleh para pemula Keywords :  Sistem Pendukung Keputusan, Simple Additive Weighting, Tablet PC, Mirosoft Visual Studio 2008, MS Access 2007

  4. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Evaluasi Pemilihan Pemenang Pengadaan Aset dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW

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    Fajar Nugraha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Procurement of assets by auction requires a decision support in selecting the winning bidder so that decision makers can pick and choose the winner of the auction. This study aims to develop a Decision Support System (DSS, which serves as an aid in decision mak ing in the process  of  evaluating  the  winning  bidder  acquisitions.  In order to  achieve  the  purpose  of  SPK  well  then helped  by  using  one  of  the methods in decision-making that is the method of Simple Additive weighting method (SAW to evaluate alternatives in the provision of asset  based  decision-making  criteria.  This  method  has  the  advantage  criteria  (benefits  and  cost  criteria  (cost.  Criteria  advantage (benefit is used when considering the aspects of decision making maximum profit. While the cost criteria (cost is the inver se of the attributes of an advantage, in this draft decision will be looking  for a minimal fee. The results may support the decision on the selection of an alternative evaluation of acquisitions winners based on predetermined criteria.Keywords: Acquisitions; Decision support systems; Simple additive weighting

  5. Fuzzy Simple Additive Weighting Method in the Decision Making of Human Resource Recruitment

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    Budi Prasetiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Company is one of the jobs that was founded to reduce unemployment. The progress of a company is determined by the human resources that exist within the company. So, the selection of workers will join the company need to be selected first. The hardest thing in making a selection factor is the effort to eliminate the subjectivity of the personnel manager so that every choice made is objective based on the criteria expected by the company. To help determine who is accepted as an employee in the company, we need a method that can provide a valid decision. Therefore, we use Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Simple Additive Weighting method (SAW to decide to make in human resource recruitment. This method was chosen because it can provide the best alternative from several alternatives. In this case, the alternative is that the applicants or candidates. This research was conducted by finding the weight values for each attribute. Then do the ranking process that determines the optimal alternative to the best applicants who qualify as employees of the company. Based on calculations by the SAW obtained the two highest ranking results are A5 (alternative 5 and A1 (alternative 1, to obtain two candidates received.

  6. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  7. PENERAPAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING DALAM PEMILIHAN TABLET PC UNTUK PEMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Yudha Prayogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi berkembang secara terus-menerus menyebabkan sumber daya manusia juga harus berkembang untuk mengikutinya. Banyak produk – produk teknologi baru bermunculan yang diiringi dengan persaingan antara vendor raksasa teknologi dalam memasarkan produknya. Mulai dari ponsel yang dulunya hanya dimiliki oleh para eksekutif dan pebisnis kini dapat dimiliki oleh semua orang dari latar belakang apa saja, dari yang tua sampai yang muda. Setelah ponsel, muncul gadget baru bernama tablet. Ukurannya yang lebih besar dari ponsel membuat gadget ini memiliki ciri khas tersendiri. Setelah itu ada lagi phablet yang merupakan gabungan antara phone dan tablet. Namun kebutuhan manusia yang semakin banyak membuat para vendor teknologi harus memikirkan produk baru yang mampu mengimbangi kebutuhan manusia dengan baik. Tablet PC merupakan salah satu dari jawaban itu. Namun karena banyaknya produk di pasaran membuat pembeli bingung yang mana yang cocok untuk keperluannya, khususnya para pemula. Hanya dengan membaca info produk melalui majalah atau internet kadang tidak cukup untuk menemukan produk mana yang cocok untuk mereka gunakan. Dengan memanfaatkan konsep Sistem Pengambilan Keputusan dengan metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW dan menggunakan aplikasi Mirosoft Visual Studio 2008 serta database MS Access 2007 dapat diimplementasikan untuk membuat analisa sistem dengan merancang aplikasi untuk menentukan Tablet PC yang cocok untuk digunakan oleh para pemula

  8. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  9. Age, growth and length-weight relationship of the rough skate, Raja radula (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyans: Rajidae, from the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Kadri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the length distribution, sex ratio, length-weight relationship, age and growth of Raja radula in the Gulf of Gabes. Methods: The age and growth characteristic of the rough skate (Raja radula inhabiting in the Gulf of Gabes (Central Mediterranean Sea was determined. A total of 1 250 specimens were sampled. According to the marginal increment band its growth was annual. Results: The growth parameters were derived by using the von-Bertalanffy method and were separately evaluated as follows: TL∞=97.2 cm, K= 0.15 y -1 , to= 0.35, and W∞= 5.28 kg, and TL∞= 76.4 cm, K = 0.22 y -1 , to= 0.16, and W∞= 3.77 kg, for females and males respetively. The maximum age was 12 years for females and 10 years for males. Conclusions: Results from this research will provide a starting point to develop a management plan for the rough skate in the Gulf of Gabes. Further investigations are necessary to quantify the impact of the existing regulations on the population dynamics and recruitment patterns of this species in the region.

  10. MEMBANGUN SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN BIRO PERJALANAN HAJI DAN UMRAH DI YOGYAKARTA MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landung Sudarmana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biro  perjalanan  haji  dan  umrah  adalah  suatu  bentuk  perusahaan  jasa  yang  bertujuan  untuk membantu calon jama’ah dalam melaksanakan ibadah haji dan umrah. Dalam prosesnya, perusahaan biro perjalanan haji dan umrah akan memberikan penawaran berupa paket perjalanan ibadah haji maupun umrah yang dapat dipilih sendiri oleh calon jama’ah. Banyaknya biro perjalanan haji dan umrah di Yogyakarta menuntut keselektifan calon jama’ah dalam memilih biro perjalanan haji dan umrah yang akan digunakan, agar terhindar dari biro jasa yang tidak profesional yang dapat menimbulkan kerugian bagi calon jama’ah di kemudian hari, seperti penipuan, jama’ah haji ilegal maupun sarana dan prasarana yang tidak layak selama melaksanakan ibadah haji dan umrah. Namun untuk mensurvei satu persatu biro jasa perjalanan haji dan umrah yang ada di Yogyakarta membutuhkan waktu dan tenaga yang tidak sedikit, hal inilah yang menyebabkan kecenderungan calon jama’ah malas untuk melakukannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah sistem yang dapat memberikan rekomendasi bagi calon jama’ah dalam memilih biro perjalanan haji dan umrah di Yogyakarta secara online. Sistem ini dirancang berbasis web menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP dan MySql sebagai database engine dengan Simple  Additive  Weighting  sebagai  metode  untuk  mencari  alternatif  terbaik  bedasarkan  kriteria- kriteria yang telah ditentukan. Sistem pendukung keputusan ini memiliki tiga hak akses yang berbeda yaitu admin, biro haji dan calon jama’ah haji dan dapat diakses secara online. Admin memiliki hak untuk mengelola seluruh data yaitu data profil biro, data peket perjalanan, data kriteria, data subkriteria dan data rating kecocokan. Biro haji memiliki hak mengelola datanya sendiri dengan cara login dahulu. Calon jama’ah memilki hak melakukan perekomendasian dan melihat informasi profil biro yang sudah terdaftar dalam sistem. Sistem ini telah berjalan dengan baik

  11. Simple traits among diaspore weight/number, plant height and an ability to vegetative propagation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 12 (2008), s. 1563-1569 ISSN 1672-9072 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : comparison * lateral spread * reproduction * seed production * seed weight * strategy * trade-off Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.859, year: 2008

  12. A simple algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of straight skeletons of monotone polygonal chains and use them to devise an algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons. Our algorithm runs in O(nlog⁡n) time and O(n) space, where n denotes the number of vertices of the polygon. PMID:25648376

  13. A simple algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We study the characteristics of straight skeletons of monotone polygonal chains and use them to devise an algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons. Our algorithm runs in [Formula: see text] time and [Formula: see text] space, where n denotes the number of vertices of the polygon.

  14. Rough Finite State Automata and Rough Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulprakasam, R.; Perumal, R.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Dare, V. R.

    2018-04-01

    Sumita Basu [1, 2] recently introduced the concept of a rough finite state (semi)automaton, rough grammar and rough languages. Motivated by the work of [1, 2], in this paper, we investigate some closure properties of rough regular languages and establish the equivalence between the classes of rough languages generated by rough grammar and the classes of rough regular languages accepted by rough finite automaton.

  15. Simple Extraction and Molecular Weight Characterization of Fucoidan From Indonesian Sargassum SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Junaidi, Lukman

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan is a complex polysaccharide compounds found in brown algae. Fucoidan exhibits various biological properties for disease prevention. There are various methods used to extract fucoidan from brown algae, such as using ethanol, acetone, HCl and microwave. This research aims to extract and characterize fucoidan from Sargassum sp. using simple methods with the variables on extracting solutions, temperature and time of extraction. Extraction solution used were water and HCl. Ttemperature us...

  16. Decision support system of e-book provider selection for library using Simple Additive Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptayani, P. I.; Dewi, K. C.

    2018-01-01

    Each library has its own criteria and differences in the importance of each criterion in choosing an e-book provider for them. The large number of providers and the different importance levels of each criterion make the problem of determining the e-book provider to be complex and take a considerable time in decision making. The aim of this study was to implement Decision support system (DSS) to assist the library in selecting the best e-book provider based on their preferences. The way of DSS works is by comparing the importance of each criterion and the condition of each alternative decision. SAW is one of DSS method that is quite simple, fast and widely used. This study used 9 criteria and 18 provider to demonstrate how SAW work in this study. With the DSS, then the decision-making time can be shortened and the calculation results can be more accurate than manual calculations.

  17. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5–10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. The numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... to an extent that prohibits both investigation of and application to very large networks. In an attempt to find a numerically less expensive way of constructing a metric with a comparable performance increase, we propose a local, self-organizing iteration scheme and find two surprisingly simple and efficient...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...

  18. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Evaluasi Pemilihan Pemenang Pengadaan Aset dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW)

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar Nugraha; Bayu Surarso; Beta Noranita

    2014-01-01

    Procurement of assets by auction requires a decision support in selecting the winning bidder so that decision makers can pick and choose the winner of the auction. This study aims to develop a Decision Support System (DSS), which serves as an aid in decision mak ing in the process  of  evaluating  the  winning  bidder  acquisitions.  In order to  achieve  the  purpose  of  SPK  well  then helped  by  using  one  of  the methods in decision-making that is the method of Simple Additive weightin...

  19. a Simple Spatially Weighted Measure of Temporal Stability for Data with Limited Temporal Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piburn, J.; Stewart, R.; Morton, A.

    2017-10-01

    Identifying erratic or unstable time-series is an area of interest to many fields. Recently, there have been successful developments towards this goal. These new developed methodologies however come from domains where it is typical to have several thousand or more temporal observations. This creates a challenge when attempting to apply these methodologies to time-series with much fewer temporal observations such as for socio-cultural understanding, a domain where a typical time series of interest might only consist of 20-30 annual observations. Most existing methodologies simply cannot say anything interesting with so few data points, yet researchers are still tasked to work within in the confines of the data. Recently a method for characterizing instability in a time series with limitedtemporal observations was published. This method, Attribute Stability Index (ASI), uses an approximate entropy based method tocharacterize a time series' instability. In this paper we propose an explicitly spatially weighted extension of the Attribute StabilityIndex. By including a mechanism to account for spatial autocorrelation, this work represents a novel approach for the characterizationof space-time instability. As a case study we explore national youth male unemployment across the world from 1991-2014.

  20. Perancangan Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Seleksi Penerimaan Karyawan Dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW (Studi Kasus Toko Markas Hobby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadi Rosadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection process for new employees at the Markas Hobby is still done manually, the application file new candidates will be evaluated by comparing the file contents with the specified criteria. Selection of the files that meet the criteria then continued with the interview process. The series of processes followed by a series written the tests, including psychological tests, tests of academic potential and so on. Statements this thesis aims to build a Decision Support System Selection Recruitment of new uses Simple Additive weighting method (SAW. This method was chosen because it can determine the weight values for each attribute, and then proceed with the ranking process that will select the best alternative from several alternatives, In this case, the alternative is entitled to be accepted as a new employee in accordance with criteria specified. In developing this application writer use the method of RUP (Rational Unified Process, with Descriptive Research Methodology and Action Research Methodology. While the system implementation using PHP programming language and MySQL as the database. The decision support system may help section Recruitment in making decisions for the recruitment process at Markas Hobby more easily and quickly.

  1. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan

    2006-01-01

    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  2. A simple method for detecting tumor in T2-weighted MRI brain images. An image-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Phooi-Yee; Ozawa, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a decision support system which uses a computer-based procedure to detect tumor blocks or lesions in digitized medical images. The authors developed a simple method with a low computation effort to detect tumors on T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain images, focusing on the connection between the spatial pixel value and tumor properties from four different perspectives: cases having minuscule differences between two images using a fixed block-based method, tumor shape and size using the edge and binary images, tumor properties based on texture values using spatial pixel intensity distribution controlled by a global discriminate value, and the occurrence of content-specific tumor pixel for threshold images. Measurements of the following medical datasets were performed: different time interval images, and different brain disease images on single and multiple slice images. Experimental results have revealed that our proposed technique incurred an overall error smaller than those in other proposed methods. In particular, the proposed method allowed decrements of false alarm and missed alarm errors, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed technique. In this paper, we also present a prototype system, known as PCB, to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods by actual experiments, comparing the detection accuracy and system performance. (author)

  3. Pharmaceutical supply chain risk assessment in Iran using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Olfat, Laya; Hosseini, Alireza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Alaeddini, Mahdi; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical supply chain is a significant component of the health system in supplying medicines, particularly in countries where main drugs are provided by local pharmaceutical companies. No previous studies exist assessing risks and disruptions in pharmaceutical companies while assessing the pharmaceutical supply chain. Any risks affecting the pharmaceutical companies could disrupt supply medicines and health system efficiency. The goal of this study was the risk assessment in pharmaceutical industry in Iran considering process's priority, hazard and probability of risks. The study was carried out in 4 phases; risk identification through literature review, risk identification in Iranian pharmaceutical companies through interview with experts, risk analysis through a questionnaire and consultation with experts using group analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and rating scale (RS) and risk evaluation of simple additive weighting (SAW) method. In total, 86 main risks were identified in the pharmaceutical supply chain with perspective of pharmaceutical companies classified in 11 classes. The majority of risks described in this study were related to the financial and economic category. Also financial management was found to be the most important factor for consideration. Although pharmaceutical industry and supply chain were affected by current political conditions in Iran during the study time, but half of total risks in the pharmaceutical supply chain were found to be internal risks which could be fixed by companies, internally. Likewise, political status and related risks forced companies to focus more on financial and supply management resulting in less attention to quality management.

  4. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-04-04

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors.

  5. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose‐weighted correction method for LET effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth‐dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high‐bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L‐shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth‐dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth‐output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose‐weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L‐shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors. PACS number: 87.56.‐v

  6. A simple weighted scoring system to guide surgical decision-making in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Chia; Chen, Tzu-Ping; Yeh, Chi-Hsiao; Huang, Pin-Fu; Wang, Yao-Chang; Yin, Shun-Ying

    2016-11-01

    The selection of ideal candidates for surgical intervention among patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion remains challenging. In this retrospective study, we sought to identify the main predictors of surgical treatment and devise a simple scoring system to guide surgical decision-making. Between 2005 and 2014, we identified 276 patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. Patients in the training set (n=201) were divided into two groups according to their treatment modality (non-surgery vs. surgery). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we devised a scoring system to guide surgical decision-making. The score was subsequently validated in an independent set of 75 patients. A white blood cell count >13,500/µL, pleuritic pain, loculations, and split pleura sign were identified as independent predictors of surgical treatment. A weighted score based on these factors was devised, as follows: white blood cell count >13,500/µL (one point), pleuritic pain (one point), loculations (two points), and split pleura sign (three points). A score >4 was associated with a surgical approach with a sensitivity of 93.4%, a specificity of 82.4%, and an area under curve (AUC) of 0.879 (95% confidence interval: 0.828-0.930). In the validation set, a sensitivity of 94.3% and a specificity of 79.6% were found (AUC=0.869). The proposed scoring system reliably identifies patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion who are candidates for surgery. Pending independent external validation, our score may inform the appropriate use of surgical interventions in this clinical setting.

  7. [A cohort study on the correlation between birth weight, simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qi; Tan, Jing; Liu, Zhao-hui; Liu, Rong-kun; Yang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    To determine the correlation between birth weight and simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence. A vertical sectional survey on 193 children aged 7 - 11 years was performed in 1996. A questionnaire consisting of items on environmental factors and lifestyle, physical examination and biochemical assessment was conducted at baseline and the 9th year of follow-up. The incidence of obesity and over-weight in childhood in high (6.1%) and low birth-weight group (5.6%) was higher than that in normal birth-weight group (2.8%), but did not reach statistic significance; The levels of body mass index in adolescence in high and low birth-weight group were significantly higher than that in normal birth-weight group (P = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively), and the incidence of obesity and over-weight in adolescence was significantly higher in high (33.3%) and low birth-weight group (38.9%) than that in normal birth-weight group (16.2%, P = 0.025 and 0.020, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure between different birth weight groups (all, P > 0.05). Intrauterine growth is linked to physical growth during childhood and adolescence. Nutritional guidance in pregnant phase may help to control the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescent.

  8. A simple idea for reducing the cost and weight of plaster-cast orthoses Uma ideia simples para diminuir custo e peso das talas gessadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Esmanhotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reduce the cost and weight of plaster molded orthosis (increasing patient comfort, keeping the same resistance. METHODS: 22 plaster orthosis were analysed, 11 with conventional shape and 11 with pyramidal shape. It was compared, in theory (mathematcally and practice, the change of weight (and consequently cost and flexion resistance between conventional shape and pyramidal shape. RESULTS: Theorical analysis: weight and cost decrease of 26.7%-38.9%, according to the layers disposition of the cast. Laboratorial analysis: cast´s weight decrease of 34.5% (p = 0.000005 and resistance increase of 26.7% (p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: plaster molded orthosis made in a pyramidal shape, have a statistically significant decrease of weight (and consequently cost and statistically significant increase of resistance if compared with traditional shape. OBJETIVO: Diminuir o custo e o peso (aumentando o conforto para o paciente das talas gessadas, mantendo resistência semelhante. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 22 talas de gesso, 11 com formato convencional e 11 com formato piramidal. Foi feita comparação, teórica (matemática e prática, entre as talas convencionais e as piramidais quanto à mudança de peso (e consequentemente de custo e à resistência à flexão. RESULTADOS: Análise matemática – diminuição peso e custo entre 26,7% e 38,9%, variando conforme a disposição das camadas da tala. Análise prática – diminuição do peso em 34,5% (p = 0,000005 e resistência aumentada em 26,7% (p = 0,03. CONCLUSÃO: A tala gessada com formato piramidal apresenta diminuição estatisticamente significativa de peso (e consequentemente de custo, com aumento estatisticamente significativo da resistência, se comparada à tala de formato convencional.

  9. Effects of protein versus simple sugar intake on weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome (according to the National Institutes of Health criteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim-Karakas, Sidika E; Almario, Rogelio U; Cunningham, Wendy

    2009-07-01

    To compare the effects of protein vs. simple sugars on weight loss, body composition, and metabolic and endocrine parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 2-month, free-living, randomized, single-blinded study. University PCOS clinic. Thirty-three patients with PCOS. To achieve a final energy reduction of 450 kcal/day, first the daily energy intake was reduced by 700 kcal; then a 240-kcal supplement containing either whey protein or simple sugars was added. Changes in weight, fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin, plasma lipoproteins, and sex steroids. Twenty-four subjects (13 in the simple sugars group and 11 in the protein group) completed the study. The protein group lost more weight (-3.3 +/- 0.8 kg vs. -1.1 +/- 0.6 kg) and more fat mass (-3.1 +/- 0.9 kg vs. -0.5 +/- 0.6 kg) and had larger decreases in serum cholesterol (-33.0 +/- 8.4 mg/dL vs. -2.3 +/- 6.8 mg/dL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-4.5 +/- 1.3 mg/dL vs. -0.4 +/- 1.3 mg/dL), and apoprotein B (-20 +/- 5 mg/dL vs. 3 +/- 5 mg/dL). In patients with PCOS, a hypocaloric diet supplemented with protein reduced body weight, fat mass, serum cholesterol, and apoprotein B more than the diet supplemented with simple sugars.

  10. Computer simulations of a rough sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyklema, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is described on rough hard spheres with a continuously variable roughness parameter, including the limits of smooth and completely rough spheres. A system of 500 particles is simulated with a homogeneous mass distribution at 8 different densities and for 5 different values of the roughness parameter. For these 40 physically different situations the intermediate scattering function for 6 values of the wave number, the orientational correlation functions and the velocity autocorrelation functions have been calculated. A comparison has been made with a neutron scattering experiment on neopentane and agreement was good for an intermediate value of the roughness parameter. Some often made approximations in neutron scattering experiments are also checked. The influence of the variable roughness parameter on the correlation functions has been investigated and three simple stochastic models studied to describe the orientational correlation function which shows the most pronounced dependence on the roughness. (Auth.)

  11. The push-off test: development of a simple, reliable test of upper extremity weight-bearing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; Michlovitz, Susan L; Rafuse, Richard; Wells-Rowsell, Christina; Wong, Owen; Bisbee, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) is a novel and simple measure of upper extremity weight-bearing that can be measured with a grip dynamometer. There are no published studies on the validity and reliability of the POT. The relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation and impairment measures remain an unexplored realm. The primary purpose of this study is to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the POT. The secondary purpose is to estimate the relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures. A convenience sample of 22 patients with wrist or elbow injuries were tested for POT, wrist/elbow range of motion (ROM), isometric wrist extension strength (WES) and grip strength; and completed two self-report activity/participation questionnaires: Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and the Hand (DASH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-26). POT's inter and intra-rater reliability and construct validity was tested. Pearson's correlations were run between the impairment measures and self-report questionnaires to look into the relationship amongst them. The POT demonstrated high inter-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.97; 95% C.I. 0.93-0.99; ICC unaffected = 0.85; 95% C.I. 0.68-0.94) and intra-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.96; 95% C.I. 0.92-0.97; ICC unaffected = 0.92; 95% C.I. 0.85-0.97). The POT was correlated moderately with the DASH (r = -0.47; p = 0.03). While examining the relationship between upper extremity self-reported activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures the strongest correlation was between the DASH and the POT (r = -0.47; p = 0.03) and none of the correlations with the other physical impairment measures reached significance. At-work disability demonstrated insignificant correlations with physical impairments. The POT test provides a reliable and easily

  12. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de

  13. WAIST-HIP RATIO AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS SIMPLE MEASURES OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist Circumference (WC were used to identify people at health risk both from being overweight and having visceral fat distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the association of WHR and WC in measuring the abdominal obesity, cardiovascular risk and weight management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study involved 200 medical students (102 boys and 98 girls in the age group of 18-23 years (mean age 20.43 ± 8.9 years of Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab. WHR was divided into three groups in females- ≤0.80, 0.81-0.85 and >0.86 and males- ≤0.90, 0.90-1.0 and >1.0. WC was also divided into three groups in females- 88 cm and males- 102 cm. RESULTS The results of measurement of Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR of females were ≤0.80 (2%, 0.81-85 (10% and >0.86 (88% and males ≤90 (82%, 0.90-1.0 (15% and >1.0 (3%. Waist Circumference (WC of females was 88 cm (19% and males 102 cm (4%. CONCLUSION WHR is a better predictor of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD than WC. WHR and WC are measures of abdominal obesity and should be incorporated in weight management. WHR 0.81-0.86 in girls and 0.90-1.0 in males have moderate health risk, while >0.86 in females and >1.0 in males have high health risk. Men with WC ≥94 cm and women ≥80 cm should gain no further weight while men with WC ≥102 cm and women with ≥88cm should reduce their weight to avoid cardiovascular risks. Waist circumference is another alternative.

  14. Combined reading of contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging by using a simple sum score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Anja [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Dietzel, Matthias [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Kaiser, Clemens G. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Baltzer, Pascal A. [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), General Hospital Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    To improve specificity of breast MRI by integrating Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values with contrast enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) using a simple sum score. Retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients referred to breast MRI at 1.5 T for further workup of breast lesions. Reading results of CE-MRI were dichotomized into score 1 (suspicious) or 0 (benign). Lesion's ADC-values (in *10-3 mm2/s) were assigned two different scores: ADC{sub 2}: likely malignant (score +1, ADC ≤ 1), indeterminate (score 0, ADC >1- ≤ 1.4) and likely benign (score -1, ADC > 1.4) and ADC{sub 1}: indeterminate (score 0, ADC ≤ 1.4) and likely benign (score -1, ADC > 1.4). Final added CE-MRI and ADC scores >0 were considered suspicious. Reference standard was histology and imaging follow-up of >24 months. Diagnostic parameters were compared using McNemar tests. A total of 150 lesions (73 malignant) were investigated. Reading of CE-MRI showed a sensitivity of 100 % (73/73) and a specificity of 81.8 % (63/77). Additional integration of ADC scores increased specificity (ADC2/ADC1, P = 0.008/0.001) without causing false negative results. Using a simple sum score, ADC-values can be integrated with CE-MRI of the breast, improving specificity. The best approach is using one threshold to exclude cancer. (orig.)

  15. Improved hybridization of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) algorithm with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiwani, B. E.; Zarlis, M.; Efendi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the improvement of hybridization algorithm of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS) in selecting the best bank chief inspector based on several qualitative and quantitative criteria with various priorities. To improve the performance of the above research, FAHP algorithm hybridization with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW) algorithm was adopted, which applied FAHP algorithm to the weighting process and SAW for the ranking process to determine the promotion of employee at a government institution. The result of improvement of the average value of Efficiency Rate (ER) is 85.24%, which means that this research has succeeded in improving the previous research that is equal to 77.82%. Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Fuzzy AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, FMADM-SAW.

  16. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM PEMBERIAN BONUS TAHUNAN PADA KARYAWAN BERDASARKAN KINERJA KARYAWAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (STUDY KASUS : STMIK PRINGSEWU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Zulkifli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bonuses is one method that is widely used as a form of tribute to workers whose performance so far can be considered satisfactory by the company. So is the case with STMIK Pringsewu that rewards Her staff as a token of appreciation for its performance over the years. However, the annual bonus is only given to employees who are considered berprestasit. It required a decision support system (DSS or decesion support system that can take into account all the criteria that support and to help facilitate the decision making process. This decision support system using Simple Additive Wighting (SAW. The issue of decision support is basically a form of election of the various alternative actions that may be selected include discipline or the number of absences in a year, length of employment, crafts, and work in a year that the process through specific mechanisms, in hopes of generating a best decision. Employees who got the votes of 100% working receive an annual bonus that is the departure of the hajj, work evaluation 87.5% earn an annual bonus that is the departure of Umrah, and the assessment work 75% earn an annual bonus that is the departure of the general allowance.

  17. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  18. Incorporation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data into a simple mathematical model of tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuegwu, N C; Colvin, D C; Loveless, M E; Gore, J C; Yankeelov, T E; Xu, L

    2012-01-01

    We build on previous work to show how serial diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) data can be used to estimate proliferation rates in a rat model of brain cancer. Thirteen rats were inoculated intracranially with 9L tumor cells; eight rats were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and five rats were untreated controls. All animals underwent DW-MRI immediately before, one day and three days after treatment. Values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated from the DW-MRI data and then used to estimate the number of cells in each voxel and also for whole tumor regions of interest. The data from the first two imaging time points were then used to estimate the proliferation rate of each tumor. The proliferation rates were used to predict the number of tumor cells at day three, and this was correlated with the corresponding experimental data. The voxel-by-voxel analysis yielded Pearson's correlation coefficients ranging from −0.06 to 0.65, whereas the region of interest analysis provided Pearson's and concordance correlation coefficients of 0.88 and 0.80, respectively. Additionally, the ratio of positive to negative proliferation values was used to separate the treated and control animals (p <0.05) at an earlier point than the mean ADC values. These results further illustrate how quantitative measurements of tumor state obtained non-invasively by imaging can be incorporated into mathematical models that predict tumor growth. (paper)

  19. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  20. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  1. Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.

  2. A quantitative discussion on the assessment of power supply technologies: DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) as complementary methods for the “Grammar”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakouri, Hamed G.; Nabaee, Mahdis; Aliakbarisani, Sajad

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment, and the limited resources of them have forced more intensive use of other energy sources. In absence of sufficient economically feasible renewable energies, nuclear power may play essential role in this field. Recently, the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power and fossil fuels regarding their efficiencies have been attracted researchers' interest. This paper discusses on the findings from “A Grammar for assessing the performance of power supply systems: comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy” (Diaz-Maurin F, Giampietro M. 2013). Although the “Grammar” is a very valuable approach, it can be accomplished by using helpful quantitative methods. In this discussion, we apply quantitative decision-making approaches to compare the same fossil fuel (coal) power plants with nuclear power plants. Economic variables are also taken into consideration. The DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) are the methods applied. Results confirm the results of the reference paper in most cases and show that the fossil fuel power plants with CCS (carbon capture and storage) are slightly more efficient than nuclear power plants. However, selection of input and output variables is disputable. Assuming job creation as a desired output can change the ranking results. - Highlights: • A numeric decision making approach is proposed to facilitate assessment of technologies introduced as a “Grammar”. • Two different methods are chosen (SAW and DEA) since the results obtained for ranking may differ with different methods. • We propose to use the original fractional objective function of DEA with equal weightings applied for the attributes. • Proper combinations of both input and output attributes including economic variables are discussed. • The attributes for assessment of the technologies differ from different viewpoints. Labor force and costs are simple

  3. Differentiation between simple cyst and hepatic hemangioma utilizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with gradient-echo (b-FFE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burim, Carolina Valente; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Pecci Neto, Luiz; Torlai, Fabiola Goda; Tiferes, Dario Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to establish the role of MRI T2-weighted sequences in the differentiation between simple cysts and hepatic hemangiomas. Materials and methods: a double-blinded, prospective, observational, cross sectional study evaluated 52 patients with 91 hepatic lesions (34 simple cysts and 57 hemangiomas) submitted to abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. The combined analysis of all sequences was considered as the golden-standard. TSE sequences with long echo trains and b-FFE sequences were subjectively analyzed by two independent observers for differentiating cysts from hemangiomas. The kappa test (κ) was utilized in the analysis of the methods accuracy and inter- and intra-observer agreement (p * ). Results: cysts and hemangiomas dimensions ranged respectively between 0.5 and 6.5 cm (mean 1.89 cm), and 0.8 and 11 cm (mean = 2.62 cm). The analysis of the sequences with long-TE and the golden-standard demonstrated a non-statistically significant agreement (k: 0.00-0.10). The agreement between the evaluation of the b-FFE sequence and the golden-standard ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.71) to almost perfect (κ: 0.86) for both observers. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for the b-FFE sequence ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.70) to almost perfect (κ: 0.85-0.91). Conclusion: T2-weighted images acquired with the b-FFE technique present a high accuracy and reproducibility in the differentiation between cysts and hepatic hemangiomas. (author)

  4. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN MENENTUKAN LOKASI CAFE BARU SUNCAFE SEBAGAI DESTINASI WISATA KULINER DI KABUPATEN PRINGSEWU MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hidayat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available District Pringsewu is growing districts that continue to make the development of various sectors, one of the tourism sector. Culinary tourism in the District Pringsewu growing quite rapidly, has a lot of standing places that sell a lot of food choices, from street vendors to modern eating places like cafes. Many cafe in the district of Pringsewu would be a separate issue in determining the appropriate location for the new cafe location Suncafe, for it needed a system that could help determine the location of a new cafe. The criteria used in making this decision support system include building area, spacious parking, accessibility, security, distance to the city center, the price of the location, and comfort. Decision support system is made using a simple additive weighting method (SAW is looking for a weighted sum of the performance of each alternative. While the implementation of the program for decision support system is made by using Delphi 7. Obtained big 3 ranking the final results to determine the location of a new cafe, namely 1. Subdistrict of Pagelaran with a value of 80, 2. Subdistrict of Gadingrejo with a value of 79, and 3. Subdistrict of Adiluwih with a value of 78.55.

  5. Investigation of surface roughness influence on hyperbolic metamaterial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kozik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to introduce simple model of surface roughness which does not involve objects with complicated shapes and could help to reduce computational costs. We described and proved numerically that the influence of surface roughness at the interfaces in metal-dielectric composite materials could be described by proper selection of refractive index of dielectric layers. Our calculations show that this model works for roughness with RMS value about 1 nm and below.

  6. Generalized rough sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, E.A.; Kozae, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The process of analyzing data under uncertainty is a main goal for many real life problems. Statistical analysis for such data is an interested area for research. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method concerning the generalization and modification of the rough set theory introduced early by Pawlak [Int. J. Comput. Inform. Sci. 11 (1982) 314

  7. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN UNTUK PEMILIHAN JURUSAN MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY MULTIPLE ATRIBUTE DECISION MAKING DENGAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING STUDI KASUS PADA SMA ISLAM SULTAN AGUNG 1 SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Novita Handayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems that occur between major discrepancy with talent and competence are often experienced by high school students, therefore the role of decision support system for the selection of major is needed, so that teachers and students can assist in providing the appropriate department. The data collection process begins with the system requirements, system design, system creation process and the testing process. System design starts from designing the Unified Modeling Language (UML, Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD and the design of the table. The process of ranking the major alternative use traditional methods of Simple Additive Weighting (SAW, which consists of a criteria subjects value, the value of attendance, the value of talent, values of Psikotest and quota of class. The final result in the form of majors recommendation from the calculation of the most high-ranking criteria. Recommended majors are expected to be the right advice for decision makers to make decisions majors, where the results showed that with this system have recommended majors conformity with the competence and talents of students by 74%.

  8. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  9. Why do rough surfaces appear glossy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Chantler, Mike J; Siebert, J Paul; Dong, Junyu

    2014-05-01

    The majority of work on the perception of gloss has been performed using smooth surfaces (e.g., spheres). Previous studies that have employed more complex surfaces reported that increasing mesoscale roughness increases perceived gloss [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010), Curr. Biol.22, 1909 (2012)]. We show that the use of realistic rendering conditions is important and that, in contrast to [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010)], after a certain point increasing roughness further actually reduces glossiness. We investigate five image statistics of estimated highlights and show that for our stimuli, one in particular, which we term "percentage of highlight area," is highly correlated with perceived gloss. We investigate a simple model that explains the unimodal, nonmonotonic relationship between mesoscale roughness and percentage highlight area.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saris, W H; Astrup, A; Prentice, A M; Zunft, H J; Formiguera, X; Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Raben, A; Poppitt, S D; Seppelt, B; Johnston, S; Vasilaras, T H; Keogh, G F

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates. Randomized controlled multicentre trial (CARMEN), in which subjects were allocated for 6 months either to a seasonal control group (no intervention) or to one of three experimental groups: a control diet group (dietary intervention typical of the average national intake); a low-fat high simple carbohydrate group; or a low-fat high complex carbohydrate group. Three hundred and ninety eight moderately obese adults. The change in body weight was the primary outcome; changes in body composition and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Body weight loss in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate and low-fat high complex carbohydrate groups was 0.9 kg (P Fat mass changed by -1.3kg (Plow-fat high simple carbohydrate, low-fat high complex carbohydrate and control diet groups, respectively. Changes in blood lipids did not differ significantly between the dietary treatment groups. Our findings suggest that reduction of fat intake results in a modest but significant reduction in body weight and body fatness. The concomitant increase in either simple or complex carbohydrates did not indicate significant differences in weight change. No adverse effects on blood lipids were observed. These findings underline the importance of this dietary change and its potential impact on the public health implications of obesity.

  11. The Selection of Wagons for the Internal Transport of a Logistics Company: A Novel Approach Based on Rough BWM and Rough SAW Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Stević

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rationalization of logistics activities and processes is very important in the business and efficiency of every company. In this respect, transportation as a subsystem of logistics, whether internal or external, is potentially a huge area for achieving significant savings. In this paper, the emphasis is placed upon the internal transport logistics of a paper manufacturing company. It is necessary to rationalize the movement of vehicles in the company’s internal transport, that is, for the majority of the transport to be transferred to rail transport, because the company already has an industrial track installed in its premises. To do this, it is necessary to purchase at least two used wagons. The problem is formulated as a multi-criteria decision model with eight criteria and eight alternatives. The paper presents a new approach based on a combination of the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method and rough numbers, which is used for ranking the potential solutions and selecting the most suitable one. The rough Best–Worst Method (BWM was used to determine the weight values of the criteria. The results obtained using a combination of these two methods in their rough form were verified by means of a sensitivity analysis consisting of a change in the weight criteria and comparison with the following methods in their conventional and rough forms: the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Technique for Ordering Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and MultiAttributive Border Approximation area Comparison (MABAC. The results show very high stability of the model and ranks that are the same or similar in different scenarios.

  12. Dissolution of minerals with rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Aarão Reis, Fábio D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We study dissolution of minerals with initial rough surfaces using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and a scaling approach. We consider a simple cubic lattice structure, a thermally activated rate of detachment of a molecule (site), and rough surface configurations produced by fractional Brownian motion algorithm. First we revisit the problem of dissolution of initial flat surfaces, in which the dissolution rate rF reaches an approximately constant value at short times and is controlled by detachment of step edge sites. For initial rough surfaces, the dissolution rate r at short times is much larger than rF ; after dissolution of some hundreds of molecular layers, r decreases by some orders of magnitude across several time decades. Meanwhile, the surface evolves through configurations of decreasing energy, beginning with dissolution of isolated sites, then formation of terraces with disordered boundaries, their growth, and final smoothing. A crossover time to a smooth configuration is defined when r = 1.5rF ; the surface retreat at the crossover is approximately 3 times the initial roughness and is temperature-independent, while the crossover time is proportional to the initial roughness and is controlled by step-edge site detachment. The initial dissolution process is described by the so-called rough rates, which are measured for fixed ratios between the surface retreat and the initial roughness. The temperature dependence of the rough rates indicates control by kink site detachment; in general, it suggests that rough rates are controlled by the weakest microscopic bonds during the nucleation and formation of the lowest energy configurations of the crystalline surface. Our results are related to recent laboratory studies which show enhanced dissolution in polished calcite surfaces. In the application to calcite dissolution in alkaline environment, the minimal values of recently measured dissolution rate spectra give rF ∼10-9 mol/(m2 s), and the calculated rate

  13. Development of Decision-making Support System to Determine the Feasibility of the Job Training Industry Using Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisah Riski Zubaeti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The activities of the job training is an activity that must be implemented at Vocational Secondary School. The lack of utilization of technology on such activities in Vocational Secondary School,  so the data management of the job training become less effective and efficient. Therefore, it is necessary the information system for manage the data on the job training and produces the decision support of the decent industry of the job training as a result of the evaluation of the job training. This research has a goal to produce decision support system to determine the feasibility of the job training industry (SPK-KTP, measure the feasibility of the system, and produce a decision support using a Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method. The information system can help the school to manage the administration on the job training, recap the daily journal, recap the reports in pursuit, and provide decision support the job training of decent industry used in the next period. SPK-KTP uses SAW method to produce decision support the job training of decent industry. SPK-KTP is the web-based information system which it is developed using the programming language PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor. This information system uses The Waterfall Model as its system development method. The steps of The Waterfall Model consists of Analysis, Design, Code, and Test. SPK-KTP has done testing to an expert of the information system with value 90,7%, an expert of the substance of the job training with value  91,6%, supervising teachers with value 83,3%, and learners with value 90,6%. Based on the result, so SPK-KTP is very decent to use.

  14. Simple measurements on diffusion-weighted MR imaging for assessment of complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Pei-Qiang; Wu, Yao-Pan; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Wu, Pei-Hong [Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); An, Xin [Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Medical Oncology, Guangzhou (China); Qiu, Xue; Kong, Ling-Heng; Liu, Guo-Chen; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong [Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-15

    To determine diagnostic performance of simple measurements on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for assessment of complete tumour response (CR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by signal intensity (SI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Sixty-five patients with LARC who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and subsequent surgery were included. Patients underwent pre-CRT and post-CRT 3.0 T MRI. Regions of interest of the highest brightness SI were included in the tumour volume on post-CRT DWI to calculate the SI{sub lesion}, rSI, ADC{sub lesion} and rADC; diagnostic performance was compared by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In order to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of the current strategy, the same procedure was reproduced in 80 patients with LARC at 1.5 T MRI. Areas under the ROC curve for identification of a CR, based on SI{sub lesion}, rSI, ADC{sub lesion}, and rADC, respectively, were 0.86, 0.94, 0.66, and 0.71 at 3.0 T MRI, and 0.92, 0.91, 0.64, and 0.61 at 1.5 T MRI. Post-CRT DWI SI{sub lesion} and rSI provided high diagnostic performance in assessing CR and were significantly more accurate than ADC{sub lesion}, and rADC at 3.0 T MRI and 1.5 T MRI. (orig.)

  15. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  16. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  17. Notions of Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ishfaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [-3]Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough NS theory to graphs and present a new kind of graph structure, rough neutrosophic digraphs. We present certain operations, including lexicographic products, strong products, rejection and tensor products on rough neutrosophic digraphs. We investigate some of their properties. We also present an application of a rough neutrosophic digraph in decision-making.

  18. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  19. Roughness Effects on Fretting Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tongyan; Abdel Wahab, Magd

    2017-05-01

    Fretting is a small oscillatory relative motion between two normal loaded contact surfaces. It may cause fretting fatigue, fretting wear and/or fretting corrosion damage depending on various fretting couples and working conditions. Fretting fatigue usually occurs at partial slip condition, and results in catastrophic failure at the stress levels below the fatigue limit of the material. Many parameters may affect fretting behaviour, including the applied normal load and displacement, material properties, roughness of the contact surfaces, frequency, etc. Since fretting damage is undesirable due to contacting, the effect of rough contact surfaces on fretting damage has been studied by many researchers. Experimental method on this topic is usually focusing on rough surface effects by finishing treatment and random rough surface effects in order to increase fretting fatigue life. However, most of numerical models on roughness are based on random surface. This paper reviewed both experimental and numerical methodology on the rough surface effects on fretting fatigue.

  20. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  1. Quantized Ultracold Neutrons in Rough Waveguides: GRANIT Experiments and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply our general theory of transport in systems with random rough boundaries to gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides as in GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble. We consider waveguides with roughness in both two and one dimensions (2D and 1D. In the biased diffusion approximation the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states can be easily expressed via each other irrespective of the system parameters. The calculation of the exit neutron count reduces to evaluation of a single constant which contains a complicated integral of the correlation function of surface roughness. In the case of 1D roughness (random grating this constant is calculated analytically for common types of the correlation functions. The results obey simple scaling relations which are slightly different in 1D and 2D. We predict the exit neutron count for the new GRANIT cell.

  2. The contact sport of rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpick, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Describing the way two surfaces touch and make contact may seem simple, but it is not. Fully describing the elastic deformation of ideally smooth contacting bodies, under even low applied pressure, involves second-order partial differential equations and fourth-rank elastic constant tensors. For more realistic rough surfaces, the problem becomes a multiscale exercise in surface-height statistics, even before including complex phenomena such as adhesion, plasticity, and fracture. A recent research competition, the “Contact Mechanics Challenge” (1), was designed to test various approximate methods for solving this problem. A hypothetical rough surface was generated, and the community was invited to model contact with this surface with competing theories for the calculation of properties, including contact area and pressure. A supercomputer-generated numerical solution was kept secret until competition entries were received. The comparison of results (2) provides insights into the relative merits of competing models and even experimental approaches to the problem.

  3. [The kangaroo mothers' programme: a simple and cost-effective alternative for protecting the premature newborn or low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazo-Medina, Jenny P; Ospina-Diaz, Juan M; Ariza-Riaño, Nelly E

    2012-06-01

    Describing the efficacy and achievements of the kangaroo mothers' programme (KMP) regarding preterm or low-birth-weight babies' health and development in Hospital San Rafael in Tunja from November 2007 to December 2009. This was a retrospective observational cohort study; 374 infants born prematurely or having low-birth-weight were included to assess household socio-demographic factors, maternal and obstetric history, delivery characteristics and complications and follow-up until 40 weeks post-conception age. There was a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy (17.5 %) and in women older than 35 years (12.6 %), unwanted pregnancy (40.6 %), low quality and poor availability of food in families, complications such as preeclampsia, infection and premature rupture of membranes, 1,969 grams average birth weight, 2,742.9 grams average weight on discharge and 22 grams average weight gain per day. It was found that KMP methodology substantially improved the mothers' psychological aspects and health status and the newborns' prognosis and led to stabilising body temperature and weight gain rate while decreasing risks of complications and nosocomial infection. It also lowered health care costs and shortened hospital stay.

  4. An Interactive Signed Distance Approach for Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Based on Simple Additive Weighting Method with Incomplete Preference Information Defined by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Interval type-2 fuzzy sets (T2FSs) with interval membership grades are suitable for dealing with imprecision or uncertainties in many real-world problems. In the Interval type-2 fuzzy context, the aim of this paper is to develop an interactive signed distance-based simple additive weighting (SAW) method for solving multiple criteria group decision-making problems with linguistic ratings and incomplete preference information. This paper first formulates a group decision-making problem with unc...

  5. Variations in roughness predictions (flume experiments)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Daniëlle; Blom, Astrid; van der Klis, H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Makaske, A.; Wolfert, H.P.; van Os, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Data of flume experiments with bed forms are used to analyze and compare different roughness predictors. In this study, the hydraulic roughness consists of grain roughness and form roughness. We predict the grain roughness by means of the size of the sediment. The form roughness is predicted by

  6. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  7. Bankruptcy Prediction with Rough Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bankruptcy prediction problem can be considered an or dinal classification problem. The classical theory of Rough Sets describes objects by discrete attributes, and does not take into account the order- ing of the attributes values. This paper proposes a modification of the Rough Set

  8. Generalizing roughness: experiments with flow-oriented roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano

    2015-04-01

    Surface texture analysis applied to High Resolution Digital Terrain Models (HRDTMs) improves the capability to characterize fine-scale morphology and permits the derivation of useful morphometric indexes. An important indicator to be taken into account in surface texture analysis is surface roughness, which can have a discriminant role in the detection of different geomorphic processes and factors. The evaluation of surface roughness is generally performed considering it as an isotropic surface parameter (e.g., Cavalli, 2008; Grohmann, 2011). However, surface texture has often an anisotropic character, which means that surface roughness could change according to the considered direction. In some applications, for example involving surface flow processes, the anisotropy of roughness should be taken into account (e.g., Trevisani, 2012; Smith, 2014). Accordingly, we test the application of a flow-oriented directional measure of roughness, computed considering surface gravity-driven flow. For the calculation of flow-oriented roughness we use both classical variogram-based roughness (e.g., Herzfeld,1996; Atkinson, 2000) as well as an ad-hoc developed robust modification of variogram (i.e. MAD, Trevisani, 2014). The presented approach, based on a D8 algorithm, shows the potential impact of considering directionality in the calculation of roughness indexes. The use of flow-oriented roughness could improve the definition of effective proxies of impedance to flow. Preliminary results on the integration of directional roughness operators with morphometric-based models, are promising and can be extended to more complex approaches. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Cavalli, M. & Marchi, L. 2008, "Characterization of the surface morphology of an alpine alluvial fan using airborne LiDAR", Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 323-333. Grohmann, C

  9. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feidenhans’l, Nikolaj A; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, Morten H; Petersen, Jan C; Pilný, Lukáš; Bissacco, Giuliano; Taboryski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler. For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal instruments, if the common bandwidth is applied. Likewise, a correlation is observed when determining the Aq value with the BRDF and the rBRDF instruments.Furthermore, we show that it is possible to determine the Rq value from the Aq value, by applying a simple transfer function derived from the instrument comparisons. The presented method is validated for surfaces with predominantly 1D roughness, i.e. consisting of parallel grooves of various periods, and a reflectance similar to stainless steel. The Rq values are predicted with an accuracy of 38% at the 95% confidence interval. (paper)

  10. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  11. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  12. Stochastic control with rough paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  13. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  14. Information Measures of Roughness of Knowledge and Rough Sets for Incomplete Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ji-ye; QU Kai-she

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address information measures of roughness of knowledge and rough sets for incomplete information systems. The definition of rough entropy of knowledge and its important properties are given. In particular, the relationship between rough entropy of knowledge and the Hartley measure of uncertainty is established. We show that rough entropy of knowledge decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives an information interpretation for roughness of knowledge. Based on rough entropy of knowledge and roughness of rough set. a definition of rough entropy of rough set is proposed, and we show that rough entropy of rough set decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives more accurate measure for roughness of rough set.

  15. Does Surface Roughness Amplify Wetting?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 18 (2014), s. 184703 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density functional theory * wetting * roughness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014

  16. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...

  17. Fuzzy Rough Ring and Its Prop erties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bi-jun; FU Yan-ling

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theories of fuzzy rough ring and its properties. The fuzzy approximation space generated by fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were proposed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model. The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were analyzed and the consistency between approximation operators and the binary operation of ring was discussed.

  18. Multiscale Analysis of the Roughness Effect on Lubricated Rough Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci , Ibrahim; MEZGHANI , Sabeur; YOUSFI , Mohammed; El Mansori , Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...

  19. Geometrical properties of rough metallic surfaces and their implication in electromagnetic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Chicon, R.; Ortuno, M.; Abellan, J.

    1987-01-01

    We analyze the geometrical properties and their implications in the effective surface resistance and wall losses of rough metallic surfaces. The power spectrum and the autocorrelation function are calculated for a simple model that adequately represent the rough surface. The roughness parameters are obtained through average values of the roughness and its derivative. We calculate the density profile, directly related to the depth-dependent effective conductivity. The data from the profilometer are corrected to take into account the finite size of the tip. (author)

  20. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  2. Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2002-01-01

    The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

  3. Towards predictive models for transitionally rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahaman-Elena, Nabil; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We analyze and model the previously presented decomposition for flow variables in DNS of turbulence over transitionally rough surfaces. The flow is decomposed into two contributions: one produced by the overlying turbulence, which has no footprint of the surface texture, and one induced by the roughness, which is essentially the time-averaged flow around the surface obstacles, but modulated in amplitude by the first component. The roughness-induced component closely resembles the laminar steady flow around the roughness elements at the same non-dimensional roughness size. For small - yet transitionally rough - textures, the roughness-free component is essentially the same as over a smooth wall. Based on these findings, we propose predictive models for the onset of the transitionally rough regime. Project supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  4. Rough set classification based on quantum logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.

  5. Radiosensitivity of the rough-skinned newt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.L.; Lappenbusch, W.L.

    1974-01-01

    Newts were collected locally and maintained unfed at 10 0 C both before and after irradiation. Whole-body exposures ranging up to 80 kR were given with 250 kVp x rays, 300 kVp x rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The mean survival time-exposure curve was sigmoid, following the typical appearance of such curves for mammalian species. A dose-independent region extending from roughly 700 to 5,000 R was evident. A variety of skin lesions and depigmentation effects were noted at exposures above 250 R, whose time of appearance decreased with increasing dose. A total of 832 newts were used in this phase of the study. Assuming that hematopoietic damage was primarily responsible for deaths below 700-800 R, additional studies of hematopoiesis were initiated. The effect of a 650 R-exposure on liver weight, spleen weight and concentration of circulating red blood cells for 1 1 / 2 months post-irradiation was assessed. The results indicate a progressive state of anemia. This was further substantiated by a study of 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells at intervals up to one month for five exposures ranging up to 1000 R. (U.S.)

  6. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  7. Effects of surface roughness and film thickness on the adhesion of a bioinspired nanofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z. L.; Chen, S. H.

    2011-05-01

    Inspired by the gecko's climbing ability, adhesion between an elastic nanofilm with finite length and a rough substrate with sinusoidal roughness is studied in the present paper, considering the effects of substrate roughness and film thickness. It demonstrates that the normal adhesion force of the nanofilm on a rough substrate depends significantly on the geometrical parameters of the substrate. When the film length is larger than the wavelength of the sinusoidal roughness of the substrate, the normal adhesion force decreases with increasing surface roughness, while the normal adhesion force initially decreases then increases if the wavelength of roughness is larger than the film length. This finding is qualitatively consistent with a previously interesting experimental observation in which the adhesion force of the gecko spatula is found to reduce significantly at an intermediate roughness. Furthermore, it is inferred that the gecko may achieve an optimal spatula thickness not only to follow rough surfaces, but also to saturate the adhesion force. The results in this paper may be helpful for understanding how geckos overcome the influence of natural surface roughness and possess such adhesion to support their weights.

  8. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...

  9. Software testing in roughness calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y L; Hsieh, P F; Fu, W E

    2005-01-01

    A test method to determine the function quality provided by the software for roughness measurement is presented in this study. The function quality of the software requirements should be part of and assessed through the entire life cycle of the software package. The specific function, or output accuracy, is crucial for the analysis of the experimental data. For scientific applications, however, commercial software is usually embedded with specific instrument, which is used for measurement or analysis during the manufacture process. In general, the error ratio caused by the software would be more apparent especially when dealing with relatively small quantities, like the measurements in the nanometer-scale range. The model of 'using a data generator' proposed by NPL of UK was applied in this study. An example of the roughness software is tested and analyzed by the above mentioned process. After selecting the 'reference results', the 'reference data' was generated by a programmable 'data generator'. The filter function of 0.8 mm long cutoff value, defined in ISO 11562 was tested with 66 sinusoid data at different wavelengths. Test results from commercial software and CMS written program were compared to the theoretical data calculated from ISO standards. As for the filter function in this software, the result showed a significant disagreement between the reference and test results. The short cutoff feature for filtering at the high frequencies does not function properly, while the long cutoff feature has the maximum difference in the filtering ratio, which is more than 70% between the wavelength of 300 μm and 500 μm. Conclusively, the commercial software needs to be tested more extensively for specific application by appropriate design of reference dataset to ensure its function quality

  10. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  11. Numerical analysis of the effect of surface roughness on mechanical fields in polycrystalline aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Yoann; Basseville, Stéphanie; Curtit, François; Stéphan, Jean-Michel; Cailletaud, Georges

    2018-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study of the influence of surface roughness on local stress and strain fields in polycrystalline aggregates. Finite element computations are performed with a crystal plasticity model on a 316L stainless steel polycrystalline material element with different roughness states on its free surface. The subsequent analysis of the plastic strain localization patterns shows that surface roughness strongly affects the plastic strain localization induced by crystallography. Nevertheless, this effect mainly takes place at the surface and vanishes under the first layer of grains, which implies the existence of a critical perturbed depth. A statistical analysis based on the plastic strain distribution obtained for different roughness levels provides a simple rule to define the size of the affected zone depending on the rough surface parameters.

  12. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  13. Response of neutral boundary-layers to changes of roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    1990-01-01

    boundary layer where again the drag laws can be used to estimate the surface wind. To study this problem, data have been sampled for two years from four 30-m meteorological masts placed from 0 to 30 km inland from the North Sea coast of Jutland in Denmark. The present analysis is limited to neutral......When air blows across a change in surface roughness, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops within which the wind adapts to the new surface. This process is well described for short fetches, > 1 km. However, few data exist for large fetches on how the IBL grows to become a new equilibrium...... stratification, and the surface roughness is the main parameter. The analysis of wind data and two simple models, a surface layer and a planetary boundary layer (PBL) model, are described. Results from both models are discussed and compared with data analysis. Model parameters have been evaluated and the model...

  14. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  15. Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop

  16. Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangji Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.

  17. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben Adriaan; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander Gerard; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by

  18. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  19. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  20. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  1. Rough Neutrosophic Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Based on Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents rough netrosophic multiattribute decision making based on grey relational analysis. While the concept of neutrosophic sets is a powerful logic to deal with indeterminate and inconsistent data, the theory of rough neutrosophic sets is also a powerful mathematical tool to deal with incompleteness. The rating of all alternatives is expressed with the upper and lower approximation operator and the pair of neutrosophic sets which are characterized by truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree, and falsitymembership degree. Weight of each attribute is partially known to decision maker. We extend the neutrosophic grey relational analysis method to rough neutrosophic grey relational analysis method and apply it to multiattribute decision making problem. Information entropy method is used to obtain the partially known attribute weights. Accumulated geometric operator is defined to transform rough neutrosophic number (neutrosophic pair to single valued neutrosophic number. Neutrosophic grey relational coefficient is determined by using Hamming distance between each alternative to ideal rough neutrosophic estimates reliability solution and the ideal rough neutrosophic estimates un-reliability solution. Then rough neutrosophic relational degree is defined to determine the ranking order of all alternatives. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  2. Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.

  3. Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1978-01-01

    The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent...... numerical results from higher-order closure models, it is found that, even at a downwind distance such that the internal boundary layer has grown to the full height of the planetary boundary layers, the surface stress still considerably exceeds the equilibrium value...

  4. Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).

  5. Skin friction measurements of systematically-varied roughness: Probing the role of roughness amplitude and skewness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Julio; Flack, Karen; Schultz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Real-world engineering systems which feature either external or internal wall-bounded turbulent flow are routinely affected by surface roughness. This gives rise to performance degradation in the form of increased drag or head loss. However, at present there is no reliable means to predict these performance losses based upon the roughness topography alone. This work takes a systematic approach by generating random surface roughness in which the surface statistics are closely controlled. Skin friction and roughness function results will be presented for two groups of these rough surfaces. The first group is Gaussian (i.e. zero skewness) in which the root-mean-square roughness height (krms) is varied. The second group has a fixed krms, and the skewness is varied from approximately -1 to +1. The effect of the roughness amplitude and skewness on the skin friction will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of these parameters on the roughness function in the transitionally-rough flow regime. For example, the role these parameters play in the monotonic or inflectional nature of the roughness function will be addressed. Future research into the details of the turbulence structure over these rough surfaces will also be outlined. Research funded by U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  6. Interfacial layering and capillary roughness in immiscible liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Pontikis, V

    2010-08-21

    The capillary roughness and the atomic density profiles of extended interfaces between immiscible liquids are determined as a function of the interface area by using molecular dynamics and Lennard-Jones (12-6) potentials. We found that with increasing area, the interface roughness diverges logarithmically, thus fitting the theoretical mean-field prediction. In systems small enough for the interfacial roughness not to blur the structural details, atomic density profiles across the fluid interface are layered with correlation length in the range of molecular correlations in liquids. On increasing the system size, the amplitude of the thermally excited position fluctuations of the interface increases, thus causing layering to rapidly vanish, if density profiles are computed without special care. In this work, we present and validate a simple method, operating in the direct space, for extracting from molecular dynamics trajectories the "intrinsic" structure of a fluid interface that is the local density profile of the interface cleaned from capillary wave effects. Estimated values of interfacial properties such as the tension, the intrinsic width, and the lower wavelength limit of position fluctuations are in agreement with results collected from the literature.

  7. Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.

  8. Relative roughness controls on incipient sediment motion in steep channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Fuller, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    results are consistent with a simple force balance model that considers the effect of relative roughness on flow hydraulics and particle buoyancy, and neglects grain bridging and particle wedging. Together, our results indicate that heightened critical Shields number on steep planar beds is fundamentally due to the increase in relative roughness with increasing slope at the onset of sediment motion.

  9. Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.

  10. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  11. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  12. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  13. Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an

  14. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone

  15. How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joanne M; Müller, R Dietmar; Roest, Walter R; Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H F

    2008-12-18

    Seafloor roughness varies considerably across the world's ocean basins and is fundamental to controlling the circulation and mixing of heat in the ocean and dissipating eddy kinetic energy. Models derived from analyses of active mid-ocean ridges suggest that ocean floor roughness depends on seafloor spreading rates, with rougher basement forming below a half-spreading rate threshold of 30-35 mm yr(-1) (refs 4, 5), as well as on the local interaction of mid-ocean ridges with mantle plumes or cold-spots. Here we present a global analysis of marine gravity-derived roughness, sediment thickness, seafloor isochrons and palaeo-spreading rates of Cretaceous to Cenozoic ridge flanks. Our analysis reveals that, after eliminating effects related to spreading rate and sediment thickness, residual roughness anomalies of 5-20 mGal remain over large swaths of ocean floor. We found that the roughness as a function of palaeo-spreading directions and isochron orientations indicates that most of the observed excess roughness is not related to spreading obliquity, as this effect is restricted to relatively rare occurrences of very high obliquity angles (>45 degrees ). Cretaceous Atlantic ocean floor, formed over mantle previously overlain by the Pangaea supercontinent, displays anomalously low roughness away from mantle plumes and is independent of spreading rates. We attribute this observation to a sub-Pangaean supercontinental mantle temperature anomaly leading to slightly thicker than normal Late Jurassic and Cretaceous Atlantic crust, reduced brittle fracturing and smoother basement relief. In contrast, ocean crust formed above Pacific superswells, probably reflecting metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, is not associated with basement roughness anomalies. These results highlight a fundamental difference in the nature of large-scale mantle upwellings below supercontinents and superoceans, and their impact on oceanic crustal

  16. Role of surface roughness in superlubricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglino, U; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state

  17. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  18. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  19. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  20. Development of nano-roughness calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2012-01-01

    At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ruđer Bošković Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)

  1. A Rough Set Approach for Customer Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Dhandayudam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Customer segmentation is a process that divides a business's total customers into groups according to their diversity of purchasing behavior and characteristics. The data mining clustering technique can be used to accomplish this customer segmentation. This technique clusters the customers in such a way that the customers in one group behave similarly when compared to the customers in other groups. The customer related data are categorical in nature. However, the clustering algorithms for categorical data are few and are unable to handle uncertainty. Rough set theory (RST is a mathematical approach that handles uncertainty and is capable of discovering knowledge from a database. This paper proposes a new clustering technique called MADO (Minimum Average Dissimilarity between Objects for categorical data based on elements of RST. The proposed algorithm is compared with other RST based clustering algorithms, such as MMR (Min-Min Roughness, MMeR (Min Mean Roughness, SDR (Standard Deviation Roughness, SSDR (Standard deviation of Standard Deviation Roughness, and MADE (Maximal Attributes DEpendency. The results show that for the real customer data considered, the MADO algorithm achieves clusters with higher cohesion, lower coupling, and less computational complexity when compared to the above mentioned algorithms. The proposed algorithm has also been tested on a synthetic data set to prove that it is also suitable for high dimensional data.

  2. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.

    2017-03-28

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

  3. Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1978-08-01

    Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de

  4. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun

    2015-01-08

    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  5. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.

  6. Diffuse neutron scattering signatures of rough films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Lujan, M. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of diffuse neutron scattering from thin films are calculated from a perturbation expansion based on the distorted-wave Born approximation. Diffuse fringes can be categorised into three types: those that occur at constant values of the incident or scattered neutron wavevectors, and those for which the neutron wavevector transfer perpendicular to the film is constant. The variation of intensity along these fringes can be used to deduce the spectrum of surface roughness for the film and the degree of correlation between the film's rough surfaces

  7. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  8. Influence of Roughness-Induced Slip on Colloid Transport: Experimental and Modelling Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, J. A.; Johnson, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    A limitation of classic colloid filtration theory is that it applies only to smooth surfaces, yet most natural surfaces present some degree of nano- to micro-scale roughness. A large volume of research has been dedicated to understanding the effects of roughness on particle attachment at the nano-scale since these interactions dictate field scale transport behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that roughness imposes a finite slip vector at the surface that causes particles to experience higher near-surface velocities than would be expected over a smooth surface. Slip near a rough surface can affect two primary mechanisms of particle attenuation: 1) interception of the surface (finding a landing spot) and 2) arrest on the surface (sticking the landing). However, a clear designation on how slip affects particle transport near rough surfaces is missing. The goal of this study was to provide a guide for the height of the slip layer and contact surface in reference to the mean-plane for rough surfaces. Direct observation was used to measure near-surface velocities of particles translating near surfaces of varying roughness spanning three orders of magnitude. The influence of roughness on particle transport was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling with rough surfaces measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CFD and experimental results were used to calibrate a Lagrangian particle transport model that utilizes simple modifications to the flow field for a smooth surface using statistically based roughness parameters. Advantages of the Lagrangian model are significantly decreased computation times and applicability to a wide range of natural surfaces without explicitly simulating individual asperities. The results suggest that the no-slip boundary should be placed at the bottom of the maximum asperity valleys, and that the contact surface should be placed at the root mean square (RMS) roughness above the mean plane. Collector

  9. a Predictive Model of Permeability for Fractal-Based Rough Rock Fractures during Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Jiang, Yujing; Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Zhenyu

    This study investigates the roles of fracture roughness, normal stress and shear displacement on the fluid flow characteristics through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine fractal rock fractures, whose surfaces are generated using the modified successive random additions (SRA) algorithm. A series of numerical shear-flow tests under different normal stresses were conducted on rough rock fractures to calculate the evolutions of fracture aperture and permeability. The results show that the rough surfaces of fractal-based fractures can be described using the scaling parameter Hurst exponent (H), in which H = 3 - Df, where Df is the fractal dimension of 3D single fractures. The joint roughness coefficient (JRC) distribution of fracture profiles follows a Gauss function with a negative linear relationship between H and average JRC. The frequency curves of aperture distributions change from sharp to flat with increasing shear displacement, indicating a more anisotropic and heterogeneous flow pattern. Both the mean aperture and permeability of fracture increase with the increment of surface roughness and decrement of normal stress. At the beginning of shear, the permeability increases remarkably and then gradually becomes steady. A predictive model of permeability using the mean mechanical aperture is proposed and the validity is verified by comparisons with the experimental results reported in literature. The proposed model provides a simple method to approximate permeability of fractal-based rough rock fractures during shear using fracture aperture distribution that can be easily obtained from digitized fracture surface information.

  10. Diferenciação entre cisto simples e hemangioma hepático utilizando seqüência de ressonância magnética ponderada em T2 com técnica gradiente-eco (B-FFE Differentiation between simple cyst and hepatic hemangioma utilizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with gradient-echo (b-FFE technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valente Burim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer o valor das seqüências ponderadas em T2 para diferenciar cistos simples de hemangiomas hepáticos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, transversal e duplo-cego em 52 pacientes com 91 lesões hepáticas (34 cistos simples e 57 hemangiomas submetidos a ressonância magnética de abdome. A análise conjunta de todas as seqüências realizadas foi considerada o padrão-ouro. Dois observadores independentes avaliaram, subjetivamente, as seqüências TSE com TE longo e B-FFE, procurando diferenciar cistos de hemangiomas. Foram calculadas a eficácia das seqüências e a concordância interobservador e intra-observador por meio do teste kappa (κ (p OBJECTIVE: To establish the role of MRI T2-weighted sequences in the differentiation between simple cysts and hepatic hemangiomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A double-blinded, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study evaluated 52 patients with 91 hepatic lesions (34 simple cysts and 57 hemangiomas submitted to abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. The combined analysis of all sequences was considered as the golden-standard. TSE sequences with long echo trains and b-FFE sequences were subjectively analyzed by two independent observers for differentiating cysts from hemangiomas. The kappa test (κ was utilized in the analysis of the methods accuracy and inter- and intra-observer agreement (p < 0.05*. RESULTS: Cysts and hemangiomas dimensions ranged respectively between 0.5 and 6.5 cm (mean = 1.89 cm, and 0.8 and 11 cm (mean = 2.62 cm. The analysis of the sequences with long-TE and the golden-standard demonstrated a non-statistically significant agreement (κ: 0.00-0.10. The agreement between the evaluation of the b-FFE sequence and the golden-standard ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.71 to almost perfect (κ: 0.86 for both observers. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for the b-FFE sequence ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.70 to almost perfect (κ

  11. Inclined inheritance of interface roughness in semiconductor superlattices as characterized by x-ray reciprocal space mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidbauer, M.; Opitz, R.; Wiebach, Th.; Koehler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The inclined inheritance of interface roughness is investigated for an AlASGaAs superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a vicinal (001) GaAs substrate. As a consequence of vertical correlation of the roughness of subsequent interfaces the diffusely scattered x-ray intensity is bunched into resonant diffuse scattering (RDS) sheets in reciprocal space. Inclined inheritance leads to corresponding shearing of the RDS sheets. A simple model for the evaluation of inclined roughness inheritance in three dimensions is presented, where the sheared RDS sheets are modeled by anisotropic sheared ellipsoids. From measurements at different azimuthal sample orientations the two angles characterizing the inclined inheritance of interface roughness can be determined accurately. At the present sample the inheritance of interface roughness approximately follows the direction of step flow during growth. The results show that a three-dimensional analysis of diffuse scattering is necessary for a correct evaluation and interpretation

  12. Potential roughness near lithographically fabricated atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Andersson, L. M.; Wildermuth, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Potential roughness has been reported to severely impair experiments in magnetic microtraps. We show that these obstacles can be overcome as we measure disorder potentials that are reduced by two orders of magnitude near lithographically patterned high-quality gold layers on semiconductor atom chip...

  13. Rough flows and homogenization in stochastic turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, I.; Catellier, R.

    2016-01-01

    We provide in this work a tool-kit for the study of homogenisation of random ordinary differential equations, under the form of a friendly-user black box based on the tehcnology of rough flows. We illustrate the use of this setting on the example of stochastic turbulence.

  14. Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluat...

  15. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  16. Microscopic Holography for flow over rough plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Our objective is to measure the near wall flow structures in a turbulent channel flow over a rough wall. In-line microscopic holographic PIV can resolve the 3-D flow field in a small sample volume, but recording holograms through a rough surface is a challenge. To solve this problem, we match the refractive indices of the fluid with that of the wall. Proof of concept tests involve an acrylic plate containing uniformly distributed, closely packed 0.45mm high pyramids with slope angle of 22^^o located within a concentrated sodium iodide solution. Holograms recorded by a 4864 x 3248 pixel digital camera at 10X magnification provide a field of view of 3.47mm x 2.32mm and pixel resolution of 0.714 μm. Due to index matching, reconstructed seed particles can be clearly seen over the entire volume, with only faint traces with the rough wall that can be removed. Planned experiments will be performed in a 20 x 5 cm rectangular channel with the top and bottom plates having the same roughness as the sample plate.

  17. Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai

    2011-01-01

    The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

  18. Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian, and we will show that they share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in $N$. The intrinsic properties thus obtained may hence serve as roughly invariant descriptors for the original metric space $X$....

  19. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s"−"1. In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s"−"1 (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties. (paper)

  20. Roughness-induced streaming in turbulent wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    -averaged streaming characteristics induced by bottom roughness variations are systematically assessed. The effects of variable roughness ratio, gradual roughness transitions, as well as changing flow orientation in plan are all considered. As part of the latter, roughness-induced secondary flows are predicted...

  1. Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0

  2. More on neutrosophic soft rough sets and its modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Marei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce and discuss anew mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties, which is a combination of neutrosophic sets, soft sets and rough sets, namely neutrosophic soft rough set model. Also, its modification is introduced. Some of their properties are studied and supported with proved propositions and many counter examples. Some of rough relations are redefined as a neutrosophic soft rough relations. Comparisons among traditional rough model, suggested neutrosophic soft rough model and its modification, by using their properties and accuracy measures are introduced. Finally, we illustrate that, classical rough set model can be viewed as a special case of suggested models in this paper.

  3. Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm

    2016-11-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Surface Roughness in a Microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob; Byun, Sung Jun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) results for a laminar flow in a microchannel with rough surface are presented. The surface roughness is modeled as an array of rectangular modules placed on the top and bottom surface of a parallel-plate channel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, and roughness size are presented in terms of the Poiseuille number. The roughness distribution characterized by the ratio of the roughness height to the spacing between the modules has a negligible effect on the flow and friction factors. Finally, a significant increase in the Poiseuille number is observed when the surface roughness is considered, and the effects of roughness on the microflow field mainly depend on the surface roughness.

  5. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  6. Rough case-based reasoning system for continues casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenbin; Lei, Zhufeng

    2018-04-01

    The continuous casting occupies a pivotal position in the iron and steel industry. The rough set theory and the CBR (case based reasoning, CBR) were combined in the research and implementation for the quality assurance of continuous casting billet to improve the efficiency and accuracy in determining the processing parameters. According to the continuous casting case, the object-oriented method was applied to express the continuous casting cases. The weights of the attributes were calculated by the algorithm which was based on the rough set theory and the retrieval mechanism for the continuous casting cases was designed. Some cases were adopted to test the retrieval mechanism, by analyzing the results, the law of the influence of the retrieval attributes on determining the processing parameters was revealed. A comprehensive evaluation model was established by using the attribute recognition theory. According to the features of the defects, different methods were adopted to describe the quality condition of the continuous casting billet. By using the system, the knowledge was not only inherited but also applied to adjust the processing parameters through the case based reasoning method as to assure the quality of the continuous casting and improve the intelligent level of the continuous casting.

  7. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  8. The Dynamic Evaluation of Enterprise's Strategy Based on Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒江; 陈继祥

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents dynamic evaluation of enterprise's strategy which is suitable for dealing with the complex and dynamic problems of strategic evaluation. Rough Set Theory is a powerful mathematical tool to handle vagueness and uncertainty of dynamic evaluation. By the application of Rough Set Theory, this paper computes the significance and weights of each evaluation criterion and helps to lay evaluation emphasis on the main and effective criteria. From the reduced decision table,evaluators can get decision rules Which direct them to give judgment or suggestion of strategy. The whole evaluation process is decided by data, so the results are certain and reasonable.

  9. Anomalous roughness of turbulent interfaces with system size dependent local roughness exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Matamoros, Daniel Morales

    2005-01-01

    In a system far from equilibrium the system size can play the role of control parameter that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system. Accordingly, the kinetic roughness of interfaces in systems far from equilibrium may depend on the system size. To get an insight into this problem, we performed a detailed study of rough interfaces formed in paper combustion experiments. Using paper sheets of different width λ, we found that the turbulent flame fronts display anomalous multi-scaling characterized by non-universal global roughness exponent α and by the system size dependent spectrum of local roughness exponents, ζ q (λ)=ζ 1 (1)q -ω λ φ q =0.93q -0.15 . The structure factor of turbulent flame fronts also exhibits unconventional scaling dependence on λ. These results are expected to apply to a broad range of far from equilibrium systems when the kinetic energy fluctuations exceed a certain critical value.

  10. Generalized rough sets hybrid structure and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    The book introduces the concept of “generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets”. It presents the basic properties of these sets and also, investigates an application of generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making with respect to interval of degree of preference. The concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets” is discussed and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough set based multi criteria group decision making scheme is presented, which refines the primary evaluation of the whole expert group and enables us to select the optimal object in a most reliable manner. The book also details concept of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type 2. It presents the basic properties of these sets. The book also introduces the concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft topological space (IVIFS topological space)” together with intuitionistic fuzzy soft open sets (IVIFS open sets) and intuitionistic fuzzy soft cl...

  11. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  12. Offshore Wind Power at Rough Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne

    2013-01-01

    This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. Howeve......, the study has also revealed the need for new maintenance models including a shift from breakdown and preventive maintenances and towards more predictive maintenance to reduce the cost of energy for offshore wind energy installations in the future.......This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. However...

  13. Prediction of Ductile Fracture Surface Roughness Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, Alan; Tvergaard, Viggo; Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    . Ductile crack growth in a thin strip under mode I, overall plane strain, small scale yielding conditions is analyzed. Although overall plane strain loading conditions are prescribed, full 3D analyses are carried out to permit modeling of the three dimensional material microstructure and of the resulting......Experimental observations have shown that the roughness of fracture surfaces exhibit certain characteristic scaling properties. Here, calculations are carried out to explore the extent to which a ductile damage/fracture constitutive relation can be used to model fracture surface roughness scaling...... three dimensional stress and deformation states that develop in the fracture process region. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progressively cavitating plastic solid is used to model the material. Two populations of second phase particles are represented: large inclusions with low...

  14. Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Ingve; Larsen, Åge G.; Andreassen, Erik; Ommundsen, Espen; Nord-Varhaug, Katrin

    2005-12-01

    Gloss is a quantity used in the optical industry to quantify and categorize materials according to how well they scatter light specularly. With the aid of phase perturbation theory, we derive an approximate expression for this quantity for a one-dimensional randomly rough surface. It is demonstrated that gloss depends in an exponential way on two dimensionless quantities that are associated with the surface randomness: the root-mean-square roughness times the perpendicular momentum transfer for the specular direction, and a correlation function dependent factor times a lateral momentum variable associated with the collection angle. Rigorous Monte Carlo simulations are used to access the quality of this approximation, and good agreement is observed over large regions of parameter space.

  15. A two-scale roughness model for the gloss of coated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, N. J.

    2008-08-01

    A model for gloss is developed for surfaces with two-scale random roughness where one scale lies in the wavelength region (microroughness) and the other in the geometrical optics limit (macroroughness). A number of important industrial materials such as coated and printed paper and some paints exhibit such two-scale rough surfaces. Scalar Kirchhoff theory is used to describe scattering in the wavelength region and a facet model used for roughness features much greater than the wavelength. Simple analytical expressions are presented for the gloss of surfaces with Gaussian, modified and intermediate Lorentzian distributions of surface slopes, valid for gloss at high angle of incidence. In the model, gloss depends only on refractive index, rms microroughness amplitude and the FWHM of the surface slope distribution, all of which may be obtained experimentally. Model predictions are compared with experimental results for a range of coated papers and gloss standards, and found to be in fair agreement within model limitations.

  16. Sparseness and Roughness of Foreign Exchange Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, N.; Ausloos, M.

    An accurate multiaffine analysis of 23 foreign currency exchange rates has been performed. The roughness exponent H1 which characterizes the excursion of the exchange rate has been numerically measured. The degree of intermittency C1 has been also estimated. In the (H1,C1) phase diagram, the currency exchange rates are dispersed in a wide region around the Brownian motion value (H1=0.5,C1=0) and have a significantly intermittent component (C1≠0).

  17. Rough surface scattering simulations using graphics cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Poruba, Ales; Necas, David; Ohlidal, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present results of rough surface scattering calculations using a graphical processing unit implementation of the Finite Difference in Time Domain algorithm. Numerical results are compared to real measurements and computational performance is compared to computer processor implementation of the same algorithm. As a basis for computations, atomic force microscope measurements of surface morphology are used. It is shown that the graphical processing unit capabilities can be used to speedup presented computationally demanding algorithms without loss of precision.

  18. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2004), the influence of variable roughness reaches its maximum at the height of local 0z and vanishes at the so- called blending height (Wieringa...the distribution of visibility restrictors such as low clouds, fog, haze, dust, and pollutants . An improved understanding of ABL structure...R. D., B. H. Lynn, A. Boone, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 2001: The influence of soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land-breeze circulations on

  19. Analysis of accuracy in photogrammetric roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowicz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Marcin; Pluymakers, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Regarding permeability, one of the most important features of shale gas reservoirs is the effective aperture of cracks opened during hydraulic fracturing, both propped and unpropped. In a propped fracture, the aperture is controlled mostly by proppant size and its embedment, and fracture surface roughness only has a minor influence. In contrast, in an unpropped fracture aperture is controlled by the fracture roughness and the wall displacement. To measure fracture surface roughness, we have used the photogrammetric method since it is time- and cost-efficient. To estimate the accuracy of this method we compare the photogrammetric measurements with reference measurements taken with a White Light Interferometer (WLI). Our photogrammetric setup is based on high resolution 50 Mpx camera combined with a focus stacking technique. The first step for photogrammetric measurements is to determine the optimal camera positions and lighting. We compare multiple scans of one sample, taken with different settings of lighting and camera positions, with the reference WLI measurement. The second step is to perform measurements of all studied fractures with the parameters that produced the best results in the first step. To compare photogrammetric and WLI measurements we regrid both data sets onto a regular 10 μm grid and determined the best fit, followed by a calculation of the difference between the measurements. The first results of the comparison show that for 90 % of measured points the absolute vertical distance between WLI and photogrammetry is less than 10 μm, while the mean absolute vertical distance is 5 μm. This proves that our setup can be used for fracture roughness measurements in shales.

  20. The characteristic function of rough Heston models

    OpenAIRE

    Euch, Omar El; Rosenbaum, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that rough volatility models, where the volatility is driven by a fractional Brownian motion with small Hurst parameter, provide very relevant dynamics in order to reproduce the behavior of both historical and implied volatilities. However, due to the non-Markovian nature of the fractional Brownian motion, they raise new issues when it comes to derivatives pricing. Using an original link between nearly unstable Hawkes processes and fractional volatility models, we c...

  1. Radiative transfer model for contaminated rough slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, François; Douté, Sylvain; Schmidt, Frédéric; Schmitt, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    We present a semi-analytical model to simulate the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a rough slab layer containing impurities. This model has been optimized for fast computation in order to analyze massive hyperspectral data by a Bayesian approach. We designed it for planetary surface ice studies but it could be used for other purposes. It estimates the bidirectional reflectance of a rough slab of material containing inclusions, overlaying an optically thick media (semi-infinite media or stratified media, for instance granular material). The inclusions are assumed to be close to spherical and constituted of any type of material other than the ice matrix. It can be any other type of ice, mineral, or even bubbles defined by their optical constants. We assume a low roughness and we consider the geometrical optics conditions. This model is thus applicable for inclusions larger than the considered wavelength. The scattering on the inclusions is assumed to be isotropic. This model has a fast computation implementation and thus is suitable for high-resolution hyperspectral data analysis.

  2. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  3. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  4. Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  5. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  6. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  7. The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, James W.

    1980-03-01

    Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements

  8. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-07-21

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  9. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Cong; Ye, Ziran; Gao, Yibo; Xie, Jiao; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  10. The Brain and Spinal Injury Center score: a novel, simple, and reproducible method for assessing the severity of acute cervical spinal cord injury with axial T2-weighted MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Jason F; Whetstone, William D; Readdy, William J; Ferguson, Adam R; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Saigal, Rajiv; Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Beattie, Michael S; Mabray, Marc C; Pan, Jonathan Z; Manley, Geoffrey T; Dhall, Sanjay S

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies that have evaluated the prognostic value of abnormal changes in signals on T2-weighted MRI scans of an injured spinal cord have focused on the longitudinal extent of this signal abnormality in the sagittal plane. Although the transverse extent of injury and the degree of spared spinal cord white matter have been shown to be important for predicting outcomes in preclinical animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI), surprisingly little is known about the prognostic value of altered T2 relaxivity in humans in the axial plane. The authors undertook a retrospective chart review of 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria of this study and presented to the authors' Level I trauma center with an acute blunt traumatic cervical SCI. Within 48 hours of admission, all patients underwent MRI examination, which included axial and sagittal T2 images. Neurological symptoms, evaluated with the grades according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS), at the time of admission and at hospital discharge were correlated with MRI findings. Five distinct patterns of intramedullary spinal cord T2 signal abnormality were defined in the axial plane at the injury epicenter. These patterns were assigned ordinal values ranging from 0 to 4, referred to as the Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) scores, which encompassed the spectrum of SCI severity. The BASIC score strongly correlated with neurological symptoms at the time of both hospital admission and discharge. It also distinguished patients initially presenting with complete injury who improved by at least one AIS grade by the time of discharge from those whose injury did not improve. The authors' proposed score was rapid to apply and showed excellent interrater reliability. The authors describe a novel 5-point ordinal MRI score for classifying acute SCIs on the basis of axial T2-weighted imaging. The proposed BASIC score stratifies the SCIs according to the extent of transverse T2

  11. Inner-outer interactions in a rough wall turbulent boundary layer over hemispherical roughness using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-11-01

    Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.

  12. Impact of roughness, wettability and hydrodynamic conditions on the incrustation on stainless steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, Wojciech; Lemanowicz, Marcin; Al-Rashed, Mohsen H.; Nakonieczny, Damian; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Wójcik, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steel plates (X5CrNi18-10) with different roughness and wettability were prepared. • Incrustation of MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O under laminar flow (Re = 59–178) was investigated. • Influence of surface properties and fluid velocity on incrustation was found. • Wettability and surface roughness cannot be considered separately. • Analysis of heat transfer and incrustation time-lapse videos are presented. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the stainless steel surface roughness and wettability on incrustation of MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O from aqueous solutions and resulting heat transfer resistance. The experiments were done for laminar flow (Re = 59–178) which is characteristic for regions of apparatus where fouling usually begin. A series of steel plates (X5CrNi18-10) were prepared and used as a heat transfer surfaces. Their properties, i.e. roughness, wettability and elementary composition of surfaces were determined. The experiments were done using specially designed flow cell equipped with Peltier element. Each incrustation measurement lasted for two hours, during which heat transfer resistance was measured as a function of time. After the experiments the mass of crystalline deposit was weighted. It was proved that wettability as well as surface roughness cannot be considered separately in the case of incrustation phenomenon. The knowledge of surface roughness is insufficient due to the fact, that it is possible to obtain surfaces with similar roughness but substantially different wettability for the same material.

  13. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Palacios, Maria L; Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey's contrast tests. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration.

  14. Dewetting of thin polymer film on rough substrate: II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, Pylyp; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the dewetting process developed for a model of substrate-film interaction forces was examined by an experimental investigation of the dewetting process of thin polystyrene (PS) films on chemically etched silicon substrates. In the dependence on PS films thickness and silicon roughness, various situations of dewetting were observed as follows: (i) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is much larger than the critical spinodal wavelength of a film, then spinodal dewetting of the film is observed; (ii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is larger in comparison with film thickness, then the dewetting due to substrate roughness is observed and the dewetted film patterns repeat the rough substrate structure; (iii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is small in comparison with the film thickness, then spinodal dewetting proceeds

  15. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughnessroughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  16. Effect of Polysiloxanes on Roughness and Durability of Basalt Fibres–Reinforced Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Barnat-Hunek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of roughness and the way it affects the adhesion properties and surface free energy (SFE of polysiloxanes hydrophobised basalt fibres–reinforced cement mortars were determined in this article. The physical properties of mortars were investigated in the experimental part, which also explored the impact of hydrophobisation and basalt fibres (BF addition on SFE, frost resistance, contact angle (CA, and roughness. A device capable of calculating all parameters was used to indicate the surface roughness and 3D topography. Prior to and after conducting surface and weight hydrophobisation, the contact angle of mortars was specified. Subsequently, it was used for carrying out SFE calculation by means of Neumann’s method, enabling us to characterize the adhesion properties and wettability of mortars. The research indicated that the surface roughness was substantially decreased, in turn raising the frost resistance. The corrosion resistance drops when the surface roughness, water absorption, and number of fibres in the mortar increase. The SEM images presenting the structure of polysiloxane coating and mortars were provided.

  17. Roughness characterization of the galling of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

  18. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  19. Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    -focus instrument, and a confocal microscope. Using stylus measurements as reference, parameter settings on the optical instruments were optimised and residual noise reduced by low pass filtering. Traceability of optical measurements could be established with expanded measuring uncertainties (k=2) of 4......An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....

  20. Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, F G; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a

  1. Surface correlations of hydrodynamic drag for transitionally rough engineering surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Manan; Busse, Angela; Sandham, Neil

    2017-02-01

    Rough surfaces are usually characterised by a single equivalent sand-grain roughness height scale that typically needs to be determined from laboratory experiments. Recently, this method has been complemented by a direct numerical simulation approach, whereby representative surfaces can be scanned and the roughness effects computed over a range of Reynolds number. This development raises the prospect over the coming years of having enough data for different types of rough surfaces to be able to relate surface characteristics to roughness effects, such as the roughness function that quantifies the downward displacement of the logarithmic law of the wall. In the present contribution, we use simulation data for 17 irregular surfaces at the same friction Reynolds number, for which they are in the transitionally rough regime. All surfaces are scaled to the same physical roughness height. Mean streamwise velocity profiles show a wide range of roughness function values, while the velocity defect profiles show a good collapse. Profile peaks of the turbulent kinetic energy also vary depending on the surface. We then consider which surface properties are important and how new properties can be incorporated into an empirical model, the accuracy of which can then be tested. Optimised models with several roughness parameters are systematically developed for the roughness function and profile peak turbulent kinetic energy. In determining the roughness function, besides the known parameters of solidity (or frontal area ratio) and skewness, it is shown that the streamwise correlation length and the root-mean-square roughness height are also significant. The peak turbulent kinetic energy is determined by the skewness and root-mean-square roughness height, along with the mean forward-facing surface angle and spanwise effective slope. The results suggest feasibility of relating rough-wall flow properties (throughout the range from hydrodynamically smooth to fully rough) to surface

  2. Radiosensitivity of the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.L.; Lappenbusch, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    Newts were collected locally and maintained unfed at 10 0 C both before and after irradiation. Whole-body exposures ranging up to 80 kR were given with 250 kVp x-rays, 300 kVp x-rays and 60 Co gamma-rays. The mean survival time-exposure curve was sigmoid, following the typical appearance of such curves for mammalian species. A dose-independent region extending from roughly 700 R to 5000 R was evident. A variety of skin lesions and depigmentation effects were noted at exposures above 250 R, whose time of appearance decreased with increasing dose. A total of 832 newts were used in this phase of the study. Assuming that hematopoietic damage was primarily responsible for deaths below 700 to 800 R, additional studies of hematopoiesis were initiated. The effect of a 650 R-exposure on liver weight, spleen weight and concentration of circulating red blood cells for 1 1 / 2 months postirradiation was assessed. The results indicate a progressive state of anemia. This was further substantiated by a study of 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells at intervals up to 1 month for five exposures ranging up to 1000 R

  3. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre J. [CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, 2500 chemin de Polytechnique, Quebec, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  4. Urban roughness mapping validation techniques and some first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, M; Mestayer, PG

    1998-01-01

    Because of measuring problems related to evaluation of urban roughness parameters, a new approach using a roughness mapping tool has been tested: evaluation of roughness length z(o) and zero displacement z(d) from cadastral databases. Special attention needs to be given to the validation of the

  5. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  6. Rough sets applied in sublattices and ideals of lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ameri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of rough hyperlattice. In this regards we introduce rough sublattice and rough ideals of lattices. We will proceed by obtaining lower and upper approximations in these lattices.

  7. Use of roughness maps in visualisation of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    monohydrate, theophylline anhydrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. The roughness determinations were made by a laser profilometer. The new matrix method gives detailed roughness maps, which are able to show local variations in surface roughness values and provide an illustrative picture...

  8. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  9. Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Georg; Ślęzak, Dominik; Yao, Yiyu

    2012-01-01

    Introduced in the early 1980s, Rough Set Theory has become an important part of soft computing in the last 25 years. This book provides a practical, context-based analysis of rough set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets.

  10. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  11. Crossing simple resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances

  12. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  13. Rough viscoelastic sliding contact: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, G.; Putignano, C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show how the numerical theory introduced by the authors [Carbone and Putignano, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 61, 1822 (2013), 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.03.005] can be effectively employed to study the contact between viscoelastic rough solids. The huge numerical complexity is successfully faced up by employing the adaptive nonuniform mesh developed by the authors in Putignano et al. [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 60, 973 (2012), 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.01.006]. Results mark the importance of accounting for viscoelastic effects to correctly simulate the sliding rough contact. In detail, attention is, first, paid to evaluate the viscoelastic dissipation, i.e., the viscoelastic friction. Fixed the sliding speed and the normal load, friction is completely determined. Furthermore, since the methodology employed in the work allows to study contact between real materials, a comparison between experimental outcomes and numerical prediction in terms of viscoelastic friction is shown. The good agreement seems to validate—at least partially—the presented methodology. Finally, it is shown that viscoelasticity entails not only the dissipative effects previously outlined, but is also strictly related to the anisotropy of the contact solution. Indeed, a marked anisotropy is present in the contact region, which results stretched in the direction perpendicular to the sliding speed. In the paper, the anisotropy of the deformed surface and of the contact area is investigated and quantified.

  14. Study on intelligence fault diagnosis method for nuclear power plant equipment based on rough set and fuzzy neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongkuo; Xia Hong; Xie Chunli; Chen Zhihui; Chen Hongxia

    2007-01-01

    Rough set theory and fuzzy neural network are combined, to take full advantages of the two of them. Based on the reduction technology to knowledge of Rough set method, and by drawing the simple rule from a large number of initial data, the fuzzy neural network was set up, which was with better topological structure, improved study speed, accurate judgment, strong fault-tolerant ability, and more practical. In order to test the validity of the method, the inverted U-tubes break accident of Steam Generator and etc are used as examples, and many simulation experiments are performed. The test result shows that it is feasible to incorporate the fault intelligence diagnosis method based on rough set and fuzzy neural network in the nuclear power plant equipment, and the method is simple and convenience, with small calculation amount and reliable result. (authors)

  15. Roughness as classicality indicator of a quantum state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Humberto C. F.; Almeida, Alexandre C. L.; Amaral, Barbara; Oliveira, Adélcio C.

    2018-03-01

    We define a new quantifier of classicality for a quantum state, the Roughness, which is given by the L2 (R2) distance between Wigner and Husimi functions. We show that the Roughness is bounded and therefore it is a useful tool for comparison between different quantum states for single bosonic systems. The state classification via the Roughness is not binary, but rather it is continuous in the interval [ 0 , 1 ], being the state more classic as the Roughness approaches to zero, and more quantum when it is closer to the unity. The Roughness is maximum for Fock states when its number of photons is arbitrarily large, and also for squeezed states at the maximum compression limit. On the other hand, the Roughness approaches its minimum value for thermal states at infinite temperature and, more generally, for infinite entropy states. The Roughness of a coherent state is slightly below one half, so we may say that it is more a classical state than a quantum one. Another important result is that the Roughness performs well for discriminating both pure and mixed states. Since the Roughness measures the inherent quantumness of a state, we propose another function, the Dynamic Distance Measure (DDM), which is suitable for measure how much quantum is a dynamics. Using DDM, we studied the quartic oscillator, and we observed that there is a certain complementarity between dynamics and state, i.e. when dynamics becomes more quantum, the Roughness of the state decreases, while the Roughness grows as the dynamics becomes less quantum.

  16. Effect of Blade Roughness on Transition and Wind Turbine Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Robert S. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); White, E. B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The real-world effect of accumulated surface roughness on wind-turbine power production is not well understood. To isolate specific blade roughness features and test their effect, field measurements of turbine-blade roughness were made and simulated on a NACA 633-418 airfoil in a wind tunnel. Insect roughness, paint chips, and erosion were characterized then manufactured. In the tests, these roughness configurations were recreated as distributed roughness, a forward-facing step, and an eroded leading edge. Distributed roughness was tested in three heights and five densities. Chord Reynolds number was varied between 0:8 to 4:8 × 106. Measurements included lift, drag, pitching moment, and boundary-layer transition location. Results indicate minimal effect from paint-chip roughness. As distributed roughness height and density increase, the lift-curve slope, maximum lift, and lift-to-drag ratio decrease. As Reynolds number increases, natural transition is replaced by bypass transition. The critical roughness Reynolds number varies between 178 to 318, within the historical range. At a chord Reynolds number of 3:2 × 106, the maximum lift-to-drag ratio decreases 40% for 140 μm roughness, corresponding to a 2.3% loss in annual energy production. Simulated performance loss compares well to measured performance loss of an in-service wind turbine.

  17. Skin friction measurements of mathematically generated roughness in the transitionally- to fully-rough regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Engineering systems are affected by surface roughness which cause an increase in drag leading to significant performance penalties. One important question is how to predict frictional drag purely based upon surface topography. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, this has proven to be challenging. The present work takes a systematic approach by generating surface roughness in which surfaces parameters, such as rms , skewness, can be controlled. Surfaces were produced using the random Fourier modes method with enforced power-law spectral slopes. The surfaces were manufactured using high resolution 3D-printing. In this study three surfaces with constant amplitude and varying slope, P, were investigated (P = - 0 . 5 , - 1 . 0 , - 1 . 5). Skin-friction measurements were conducted in a high Reynolds number turbulent channel flow facility, covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, from hydraulic-smooth to fully-rough regimes. Results show that some long wavelength roughness scales do not contribute significantly to the frictional drag, thus highlighting the need for filtering in the calculation of surface statistics. Upon high-pass filtering, it was found that krms is highly correlated with the measured ks.

  18. Influence of surface roughness of a desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation study, using the current GLAS climate GCM, was carried out to examine the influence of low bulk aerodynamic drag parameter in the deserts. The results illustrate the importance of yet another feedback effect of a desert on itself, that is produced by the reduction in surface roughness height of land once the vegetation dies and desert forms. Apart from affecting the moisture convergence, low bulk transport coefficients of a desert lead to enhanced longwave cooling and sinking which together reduce precipitation by Charney's (1975) mechanism. Thus, this effect, together with albedo and soil moisture influence, perpetuate a desert condition through its geophysical feedback effect. The study further suggests that man made deserts is a viable hypothesis.

  19. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.

    1983-01-01

    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  20. Urban Aerodynamic Roughness Length Mapping Using Multitemporal SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness is very important to urban meteorological and climate studies. Radar remote sensing is considered to be an effective means for aerodynamic roughness retrieval because radar backscattering is sensitive to the surface roughness and geometric structure of a given target. In this paper, a methodology for aerodynamic roughness length estimation using SAR data in urban areas is introduced. The scale and orientation characteristics of backscattering of various targets in urban areas were firstly extracted and analyzed, which showed great potential of SAR data for urban roughness elements characterization. Then the ground truth aerodynamic roughness was calculated from wind gradient data acquired by the meteorological tower using fitting and iterative method. And then the optimal dimension of the upwind sector for the aerodynamic roughness calculation was determined through a correlation analysis between backscattering extracted from SAR data at various upwind sector areas and the aerodynamic roughness calculated from the meteorological tower data. Finally a quantitative relationship was set up to retrieve the aerodynamic roughness length from SAR data. Experiments based on ALOS PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed data from 2006 to 2011 prove that the proposed methodology can provide accurate roughness length estimations for the spatial and temporal analysis of urban surface.

  1. Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Kim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge, and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated. Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth, and over a certain range it appears to remain constant. Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that, although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge, there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values. For this reason, uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables. On average, a 20% increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity, but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach. Finally, the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined. A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation, but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%. Conversely, the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.

  2. Tracer dispersion in two-dimensional rough fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazer, G; Koplik, J

    2001-05-01

    Tracer diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion in two-dimensional fractures with self-affine roughness are studied by analytic and numerical methods. Numerical simulations were performed via the lattice-Boltzmann approach, using a boundary condition for tracer particles that improves the accuracy of the method. The reduction in the diffusive transport, due to the fractal geometry of the fracture surfaces, is analyzed for different fracture apertures. In the limit of small aperture fluctuations we derive the correction to the diffusive coefficient in terms of the tortuosity, which accounts for the irregular geometry of the fractures. Dispersion is studied when the two fracture surfaces are simply displaced normally to the mean fracture plane and when there is a lateral shift as well. Numerical results are analyzed using the Lambda parameter, related to convective transport within the fracture, and simple arguments based on lubrication approximation. At very low Péclet number, in the case where fracture surfaces are laterally shifted, we show using several different methods that convective transport reduces dispersion.

  3. Effect of drop volume and surface statistics on the superhydrophobicity of randomly rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a simple theoretical approach is developed with the aim of evaluating shape, interfacial pressure, apparent contact angle and contact area of liquid drops gently deposed on randomly rough surfaces. This method can be useful to characterize the superhydrophobic properties of rough substrates, and to investigate the contact behavior of impacting drops. We assume that (i) the size of the apparent liquid-solid contact area is much larger than the micromorphology of the substrate, and (ii) a composite interface is always formed at the microscale. Results show apparent contact angle and liquid-solid area fraction are slightly influenced by the drop volume only at relatively high values of the root mean square roughness h rms, whereas the effect of volume is practically negligible at small h rms. The main statistical quantity affecting the superhydrophobic properties is found to be the Wenzel roughness parameter r W, which depends on the average slope of the surface heights. Moreover, transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel one is observed when r W reduces below a certain critical value, and theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the present method can be conveniently exploited to evaluate the occurrence of pinning phenomena in the case of impacting drops, as the Wenzel critical pressure for liquid penetration gives an estimation of the maximum impact pressure tolerated by the surface without pinning occurring.

  4. Roughness modification of surfaces treated by a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrascu, N; Apetroaei, N; Popa, G

    2002-01-01

    Local modifications of surface roughness are very important in many applications, as this surface property is able to generate new mechano-physical characteristics of a large category of materials. Roughness is one of the most important parameters used to characterize and control the surface morphology, and techniques that allow modifying and controlling the surface roughness present increasing interest. In this respect we propose the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as a simple and low cost method that can be used to induce controlled roughness on various surfaces in the nanoscale range. DBD is produced in helium, at atmospheric pressure, by a pulsed high voltage, 28 kV peak to peak, 13.5 kHz frequency and 40 W power. This type of discharge is a source of energy capable of modifying the physico-chemical properties of the surfaces without affecting their bulk properties. The discharge is characterized by means of electrical probes and, in order to analyse the heat transfer rate from the discharge to the tre...

  5. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  6. Evaluation of the roughness of a crystal surface by X-ray scattering. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Jimpei

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between the intensity distributions of the crystal truncation rod (CTR) scattering and the surface roughness of a crystal is discussed by developing a kinematic theory for the CTR scattering so as to reflect the two-dimensional aspect of the surface. The intensity of the CTR scattering elongated from a Bragg point is shown to be reduced by a factor vertical strokeΓ(q)vertical stroke 2 for a surface possessing some roughness, where Γ(q) is defined by a simple Fourier summation of γ p , the relative area with the same step height p on a surface, i.e. Γ(q) = Σ ∞ p=o γ p exp (2πipq), with Σ p γ p = 1, q being the distance in reciprocal space from the Bragg point along the CTR scattering. A pair-correlation function between the steps can, therefore, be obtained by a simple Fourier integral of the roughness damping factor vertical strokeΓ(q)vertical stroke 2 . For the case where γ p has a Gaussian distribution around the average step height, vertical strokeΓ(q)vertical stroke 2 is approximated by the well known Debye-Waller-like factor, exp (K- 4π 2 (Δp 2 )q 2 ), where (Δp 2 ) is the mean square deviation of step height in units of the lattice spacing. The intensity formulae proposed so far by several authors are also discussed on the basis of the above factor. (orig.)

  7. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  8. Multi-scale analysis of the roughness effect on lubricated rough contact

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRCI, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...

  9. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams

  10. Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak

    2010-01-01

    The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.

  11. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  12. Turbulent flow with suction in smooth and rough pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Andre.

    1977-11-01

    It concerns an experimental study of turbulent flow inside a pipe with rough and porous wall and suction applied through it. The first part recall the basic knowledge concerning the turbulent flow with roughness. In second part statistical equations of fluid wall stress are written in the case of a permeable rough wall, in order to underline the respective role played by viscosity and pressure terms. In the third part the dynamic equilibrium of the flow is experimentally undertaken in the smooth and rough range with and without wall suction. Some empirical formulae are proposed for the mean velocity profiles in the inertial range and for friction velocity with suction. In the case of the sand roughness used, it does not seem that critical Reynolds number of transition from smooth to rough range is varied [fr

  13. Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.

  14. Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow with roughness elements whose idealized shape model barnacles that cause hydrodynamic drag in many applications. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 79%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and other recent models. The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  15. Irregular wall roughness in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Pieter; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Many wall bounded flows in nature, engineering and transport are affected by surface roughness. Often, this has adverse effects, e.g. drag increase leading to higher energy costs. A major difficulty is the infinite number of roughness geometries, which makes it impossible to systematically investigate all possibilities. Here we present Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the transitionally rough regime, in which both viscous and pressure forces contribute to the total wall stress. We investigate the effect of the mean roughness height and the effective slope on the roughness function, ΔU+ . Also, we present simulations of varying Ta (Re) numbers for a constant mean roughness height (kmean+). Alongside, we show the behavior of the large scale structures (e.g. plume ejection, Taylor rolls) and flow structures in the vicinity of the wall.

  16. Turbulence modifications in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall with spanwise-alternating roughness strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. L.; Kevin, Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modifications over a rough wall with spanwise-varying roughness are investigated at a moderate Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 2000 (or Reθ ≈ 6400), using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hotwire anemometry. The rough wall is comprised of spanwise-alternating longitudinal sandpaper strips of two different roughness heights. The ratio of high- and low-roughness heights is 8, and the ratio of high- and low-roughness strip width is 0.5. PIV measurements are conducted in a wall-parallel plane located in the logarithmic region, while hotwire measurements are made throughout the entire boundary layer in a cross-stream plane. In a time-average sense, large-scale counter-rotating roll-modes are observed in the cross-stream plane over the rough wall, with downwash and upwash common-flows displayed over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Meanwhile, elevated and reduced streamwise velocities occur over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Significant modifications in the distributions of mean vorticities and Reynolds stresses are observed, exhibiting features of spatial preference. Furthermore, spatial correlations and conditional average analyses are performed to examine the alterations of turbulence structures over the rough wall, revealing that the time-invariant structures observed are resultant from the time-average process of instantaneous turbulent events that occur mostly and preferentially in space.

  17. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  18. ANALISA PENERIMAAN DOSEN BARU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN SAW (SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutriana Hidayati

    2016-11-01

    The calculation of the value of selection acceptance of new lecturers with perangkingan method based on three aspects which have been set, getting the order rengking with the highest value is 32.5 in the applicant 1 (P1 as the first rank, and as a potential new lecturers will be accepted on Faculty of Information Technology and Communication.

  19. Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.

  20. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  1. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Novotny

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.

  2. Estimation of fracture roughness from the acoustic borehole televiewer image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Soek; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2000-12-01

    Estimation of fracture roughness - as one of the basic hydraulic fracture parameters - is very important in assessing ground water flow described by using discrete fracture network modeling. Former manual estimation of the roughness for each fracture surface of drill cores is above all a tedious, time-consuming work and will often cause some ambiguities of roughness interpretation partly due to the subjective judgements of observers, and partly due to the measuring procedure itself. However, recently, indebt to the highly reliable Televiewer data for the fracture discrimination, it has led to a guess to develop a relationship between the traditional roughness method based on a linear profiles and the method from the Televiewer image based on a ellipsoidal profile. Hence, the aim of this work is to develop an automatic evaluation algorithm for measuring the roughness from the Televiewer images. A highly reliable software named 'FRAFA' has been developed and realized to the extent that its utility merits. In the developing procedure, various problems - such as the examination of a new base line(ellipsoidal) for measuring the unevenness of fracture, the elimination of overlapping fracture signatures or noise, the wavelet estimation according to the type of fractures and the digitalization of roughness etc. - were considered. With these consideration in mind, the newly devised algorithm for the estimation of roughness curves showed a great potential not only for avoiding ambiguities of roughness interpretation but also for the judgement of roughness classification

  3. Estimating deep seafloor interface and volume roughness parameters using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.

    composite roughness model, including water-sediment interface roughness and sediment volume roughness parameters the data was modeled. The model effectively uses the near normal incidence angle backscatter to determine the seafloor interface roughness...

  4. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y B; Piao, W Y; Xu, J B

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements

  5. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y. B.; Piao, W. Y.; Xu, J. B.

    2007-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements.

  6. An approximate JKR solution for a general contact, including rough contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present note, we suggest a simple closed form approximate solution to the adhesive contact problem under the so-called JKR regime. The derivation is based on generalizing the original JKR energetic derivation assuming calculation of the strain energy in adhesiveless contact, and unloading at constant contact area. The underlying assumption is that the contact area distributions are the same as under adhesiveless conditions (for an appropriately increased normal load), so that in general the stress intensity factors will not be exactly equal at all contact edges. The solution is simply that the indentation is δ =δ1 -√{ 2 wA‧ /P″ } where w is surface energy, δ1 is the adhesiveless indentation, A‧ is the first derivative of contact area and P‧‧ the second derivative of the load with respect to δ1. The solution only requires macroscopic quantities, and not very elaborate local distributions, and is exact in many configurations like axisymmetric contacts, but also sinusoidal waves contact and correctly predicts some features of an ideal asperity model used as a test case and not as a real description of a rough contact problem. The solution permits therefore an estimate of the full solution for elastic rough solids with Gaussian multiple scales of roughness, which so far was lacking, using known adhesiveless simple results. The result turns out to depend only on rms amplitude and slopes of the surface, and as in the fractal limit, slopes would grow without limit, tends to the adhesiveless result - although in this limit the JKR model is inappropriate. The solution would also go to adhesiveless result for large rms amplitude of roughness hrms, irrespective of the small scale details, and in agreement with common sense, well known experiments and previous models by the author.

  7. The effects of surface roughness on low haze ultrathin nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanniah, Vinod [Chemical and Materials Engineering, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Tru Vue, Inc. 9400 West, 55th St, McCook, IL 60525 (United States); Grulke, Eric A., E-mail: eric.grulke@uky.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Druffel, Thad [Vision Dynamics LLC, 1950 Production Court, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States); Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Control of surface roughness in optical applications can have a large impact on haze. This work compares surface roughness and haze for self-assembled experimental surface structures as well as simulated surface structures for ultrathin nanocomposite films. Ultrathin nanocomposite films were synthesized from an acrylate monomer as the continuous phase with monodisperse or bidisperse mixtures of silica nanoparticles as the dispersed phase. An in-house spin coating deposition technique was used to make thin nanocomposite films on hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (polycarbonate) substrates. Manipulating the size ratios of the silica nanoparticle mixtures generated multimodal height distributions, varied the average surface roughness (σ) and changed lateral height–height correlations (a). For the simulated surfaces, roughness was estimated from their morphologies, and haze was calculated using simplified Rayleigh scattering theory. Experimental data for haze and morphologies of nanocomposite films corresponded well to these properties for simulated tipped pyramid surfaces. A correlation based on simple Rayleigh scattering theory described our experimental data well, but the exponent on the parameter, σ/λ (λ is the wavelength of incident light), does not have the expected value of 2. A scalar scattering model and a prior Monte Carlo simulation estimated haze values similar to those of our experimental samples. - Highlights: • Bidisperse nanoparticle mixtures created structured surfaces on thin films. • Monodisperse discrete phases created unimodal structure distributions. • Bidisperse discrete phases created multimodal structure distributions. • Multimodal structures had maximum heights ≤ 1.5 D{sub large} over our variable range. • Simplified Rayleigh scattering theory linked roughness to haze and contact angle.

  8. Fabricating Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Surfaces with Multiscale Roughness Using Airbrush and Electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Milaji, Karam N.

    Examples of superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature such as self-cleaning property of lotus leaf and walking on water ability of water strider have led to an extensive investigation in this area over the past few decades. When a water droplet rests on a textured surface, it may either form a liquid-solid-vapor composite interface by which the liquid droplet partially sits on air pockets or it may wet the surface in which the water replaces the trapped air depending on the surface roughness and the surface chemistry. Super water repellent surfaces have numerous applications in our daily life such as drag reduction, anti-icing, anti-fogging, energy conservation, noise reduction, and self-cleaning. In fact, the same concept could be applied in designing and producing surfaces that repel organic contaminations (e.g. low surface tension liquids). However, superoleophobic surfaces are more challenging to fabricate than superhydrophobic surfaces since the combination of multiscale roughness with re-entrant or overhang structure and surface chemistry must be provided. In this study, simple, cost-effective and potentially scalable techniques, i.e., airbrush and electrospray, were employed for the sake of making superhydrophobic and superoleophobic coatings with random and patterned multiscale surface roughness. Different types of silicon dioxide were utilized in this work to in order to study and to characterize the effect of surface morphology and surface roughness on surface wettability. The experimental findings indicated that super liquid repellent surfaces with high apparent contact angles and extremely low sliding angles were successfully fabricated by combining re-entrant structure, multiscale surface roughness, and low surface energy obtained from chemically treating the fabricated surfaces. In addition to that, the experimental observations regarding producing textured surfaces in mask-assisted electrospray were further validated by simulating the actual working

  9. A methodology for including wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Pucciarelli, A.; Borroni, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for taking into account wall roughness in low-Reynolds k-ε models is presented. • The model is subjected to a first validation to show its potential in general applications. • The application of the model in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids is also discussed. - Abstract: A model accounting for wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models is described in the present paper. In particular, the introduction in the transport equations of k and ε of additional source terms related to roughness, based on simple assumptions and dimensional relationships, is proposed. An objective of the present paper, in addition to obtaining more realistic predictions of wall friction, is the application of the proposed model to the study of heat transfer to supercritical fluids. A first validation of the model is reported. The model shows the capability of predicting, at least qualitatively, some of the most important trends observed when dealing with rough pipes in very different flow conditions. Qualitative comparisons with some DNS data available in literature are also performed. Further analyses provided promising results concerning the ability of the model in reproducing the trend of friction factor when varying the flow conditions, though improvements are necessary for achieving better quantitative accuracy. First applications of the model in simulating heat transfer to supercritical fluids are also described, showing the capability of the model to affect the predictions of these heat transfer phenomena, in particular in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical conditions. A more extended application of the model to relevant deteriorated heat transfer conditions will clarify the usefulness of this modelling methodology in improving predictions of these difficult phenomena. Whatever the possible success in this particular application that motivated its development, this approach suggests a general methodology for accounting

  10. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  11. Simple WZW currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1990-08-01

    A complete classification of simple currents of WZW theory is obtained. The proof is based on an analysis of the quantum dimensions of the primary fields. Simple currents are precisely the primaries with unit quantum dimension; for WZW theories explicit formulae for the quantum dimensions can be derived so that an identification of the fields with unit quantum dimension is possible. (author). 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  12. Fuzzy multi-project rough-cut capacity planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masmoudi, Malek; Hans, Elias W.; Leus, Roel; Hait, Alain; Sotskov, Yuri N.; Werner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the incorporation of uncertainty into multi-project rough-cut capacity planning. We use fuzzy sets to model uncertainties, adhering to the so-called possibilistic approach. We refer to the resulting proactive planning environment as Fuzzy Rough Cut Capacity Planning (FRCCP).

  13. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2016-02-13

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughnessroughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  14. Heat transfer and pressure drop in microchannels with random roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelevic, N.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface roughness on heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena within a microchannel has been investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The surface roughness has been generated by using Gaussian function. Gaussian function is an efficient and convenient method to create surface

  15. Assessing of channel roughness and temperature variations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing of channel roughness and temperature variations on wastewater quality parameters using numerical modeling. ... According to the obtained results, nitrate (NO3) has a decreasing trend when the Manning Roughness Coefficient (N) is higher than 0.04 along the channel, but is reduced when “N” is less than 0.04.

  16. Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Kat, de R.

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane

  17. Surface roughness effects on heat transfer in Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    A cell theory for viscous flow with rough surfaces is applied to two basic illustrative heat transfer problems which occur in Couette flow. Couette flow between one adiabatic surface and one isothermal surface exhibits roughness effects on the adiabatic wall temperature. Two types of rough cell adiabatic surfaces are studied: (1) perfectly insulating (the temperature gradient vanishes at the boundary of each cell); (2) average insulating (each cell may gain or lose heat but the total heat flow at the wall is zero). The results for the roughness on a surface in motion are postulated to occur because of fluid entrainment in the asperities on the moving surface. The symmetry of the roughness effects on thermal-viscous dissipation is discussed in detail. Explicit effects of the roughness on each surface, including combinations of roughness values, are presented to enable the case where the two surfaces may be from different materials to be studied. The fluid bulk temperature rise is also calculated for Couette flow with two ideal adiabatic surfaces. The effect of roughness on thermal-viscous dissipation concurs with the viscous hydrodynamic effect. The results are illustrated by an application to lubrication. (Auth.)

  18. A Meta-Analysis: Acoustic Measurement of Roughness and Breathiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    v. Latoszek, Ben Barsties; Maryn, Youri; Gerrits, Ellen; De Bodt, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last 5 decades, many acoustic measures have been created to measure roughness and breathiness. The aim of this study is to present a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients (r) between auditory-perceptual judgment of roughness and breathiness and various acoustic measures in both sustained vowels and continuous speech. Method:…

  19. Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj

    2015-11-01

    The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.

  20. Model of rough bed for numerical simulation of saltation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 366-385 ISSN 1964-8189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718; GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : saltation * bed load transport * rough bed * armoured bed * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2015

  1. PhysarumSoft: An update based on rough set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andrew; Pancerz, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    PhysarumSoft is a software tool consisting of two modules developed for programming Physarum machines and simulating Physarum games, respectively. The paper briefly discusses what has been added since the last version released in 2015. New elements in both modules are based on rough set theory. Rough sets are used to model behaviour of Physarum machines and to describe strategy games.

  2. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  3. Roughness of grain boundaries in partly recrystallized aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    cold rolled aluminum samples. The results show that particle pinning is not the main reason accounting for recrystallization boundary roughness in the present samples. The roughness is however shown to relate to the deformation microstructure and possible effects of migration rate are discussed...

  4. Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman

    2005-01-01

    Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...

  5. The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.

  6. Selective enhancement of Selényi rings induced by the cross-correlation between the interfaces of a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banon, J.-P.; Hetland, Ø. S.; Simonsen, I.

    2018-02-01

    By the use of both perturbative and non-perturbative solutions of the reduced Rayleigh equation, we present a detailed study of the scattering of light from two-dimensional weakly rough dielectric films. It is shown that for several rough film configurations, Selényi interference rings exist in the diffusely scattered light. For film systems supported by dielectric substrates where only one of the two interfaces of the film is weakly rough and the other planar, Selényi interference rings are observed at angular positions that can be determined from simple phase arguments. For such single-rough-interface films, we find and explain by a single scattering model that the contrast in the interference patterns is better when the top interface of the film (the interface facing the incident light) is rough than when the bottom interface is rough. When both film interfaces are rough, Selényi interference rings exist but a potential cross-correlation of the two rough interfaces of the film can be used to selectively enhance some of the interference rings while others are attenuated and might even disappear. This feature may in principle be used in determining the correlation properties of interfaces of films that otherwise would be difficult to access.

  7. An intermittency model for predicting roughness induced transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuan; Durbin, Paul

    2014-11-01

    An extended model for roughness-induced transition is proposed based on an intermittency transport equation for RANS modeling formulated in local variables. To predict roughness effects in the fully turbulent boundary layer, published boundary conditions for k and ω are used, which depend on the equivalent sand grain roughness height, and account for the effective displacement of wall distance origin. Similarly in our approach, wall distance in the transition model for smooth surfaces is modified by an effective origin, which depends on roughness. Flat plate test cases are computed to show that the proposed model is able to predict the transition onset in agreement with a data correlation of transition location versus roughness height, Reynolds number, and inlet turbulence intensity. Experimental data for a turbine cascade are compared with the predicted results to validate the applicability of the proposed model. Supported by NSF Award Number 1228195.

  8. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinský, P., E-mail: malinsky@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V., E-mail: hnatowicz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Macková, A., E-mail: mackova@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-15

    A fast code for the simulation of common RBS spectra including surface roughness effects has been written and tested on virtual samples comprising either a rough layer deposited on a smooth substrate or smooth layer deposited on a rough substrate and simulated at different geometries. The sample surface or interface relief has been described by a polyline and the simulated RBS spectrum has been obtained as the sum of many particular spectra from randomly chosen particle trajectories. The code includes several procedures generating virtual samples with random and regular (periodical) roughness. The shape of the RBS spectra has been found to change strongly with increasing sample roughness and an increasing angle of the incoming ion beam.

  9. Roughness Sensitivity Comparisons of Wind Turbine Blade Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Benjamin J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; White, Edward B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2017-10-01

    One explanation for wind turbine power degradation is insect roughness. Historical studies on insect-induced power degradation have used simulation methods which are either un- representative of actual insect roughness or too costly or time-consuming to be applied to wide-scale testing. Furthermore, the role of airfoil geometry in determining the relations between insect impingement locations and roughness sensitivity has not been studied. To link the effects of airfoil geometry, insect impingement locations, and roughness sensitivity, a simulation code was written to determine representative insect collection patterns for different airfoil shapes. Insect collection pattern data was then used to simulate roughness on an NREL S814 airfoil that was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 1.6 x 106 and 4.0 x 106. Results are compared to previous tests of a NACA 633 -418 airfoil. Increasing roughness height and density results in decreased maximum lift, lift curve slope, and lift-to-drag ratio. Increasing roughness height, density, or Reynolds number results in earlier bypass transition, with critical roughness Reynolds numbers lying within the historical range. Increased roughness sensitivity on the 25% thick NREL S814 is observed compared to the 18% thick NACA 63 3 -418. Blade-element-momentum analysis was used to calculate annual energy production losses of 4.9% and 6.8% for a NACA 633 -418 turbine and an NREL S814 turbine, respectively, operating with 200 μm roughness. These compare well to historical field measurements.

  10. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  11. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  12. The role of the roughness spectral breadth in elastic contact of rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastrebov, Vladislav A.; Anciaux, Guillaume; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    We study frictionless and non-adhesive contact between elastic half-spaces with self-affine surfaces. Using a recently suggested corrective technique, we ensure an unprecedented accuracy in computation of the true contact area evolution under increasing pressure. This accuracy enables us to draw conclusions on the role of the surface's spectrum breadth (Nayak parameter) in the contact area evolution. We show that for a given normalized pressure, the contact area decreases logarithmically with the Nayak parameter. By linking the Nayak parameter with the Hurst exponent (or fractal dimension), we show the effect of the latter on the true contact area. This effect, undetectable for surfaces with poor spectral content, is quite strong for surfaces with rich spectra. Numerical results are compared with analytical models and other available numerical results. A phenomenological equation for the contact area growth is suggested with coefficients depending on the Nayak parameter. Using this equation, the pressure-dependent friction coefficient is deduced based on the adhesive theory of friction. Some observations on Persson's model of rough contact, whose prediction does not depend on Nayak parameter, are reported. Overall, the paper provides a unifying picture of rough elastic contact and clarifies discrepancies between preceding results.

  13. Decreasing the amplitude deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yu

    2008-12-01

    A new approach for decreasing the amplitude characteristic deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements is presented in this paper. According to Central Limit Theorem, many different Guassian approximation filters could be constructed. By using first-order Butterworth filter and moving average filter to approximate Guassian filter, their directions of amplitude deviation are opposite, and their locations of extreme value are close. So the linear combination of them could reduce the amplitude deviation greatly. The maximum amplitude deviation is only about 0.11% through paralleling them. The algorithm of this new method is simple and its efficiency is high.

  14. Enhancement in the photodetection of ZnO nanowires by introducing surface-roughness-induced traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woojin; Jo, Gunho; Hong, Woong-Ki; Yoon, Jongwon; Choe, Minhyeok; Ji, Yongsung; Kim, Geunjin; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Kwanghee; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Wang, Deli

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the enhanced photoresponse of ZnO nanowire transistors that was introduced with surface-roughness-induced traps by a simple chemical treatment with isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The enhanced photoresponse of IPA-treated ZnO nanowire devices is attributed to an increase in adsorbed oxygen on IPA-induced surface traps. The results of this study revealed that IPA-treated ZnO nanowire devices displayed higher photocurrent gains and faster photoswitching speed than transistors containing unmodified ZnO nanowires. Thus, chemical treatment with IPA can be a useful method for improving the photoresponse of ZnO nanowire devices.

  15. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  16. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x–y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments

  17. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  18. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LUNAR ROUGHNESS FROM MULTI - SOURCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lunar terrain can show its collision and volcanic history. The lunar surface roughness can give a deep indication of the effects of lunar surface magma, sedimentation and uplift. This paper aims to get different information from the roughness through different data sources. Besides introducing the classical Root-mean-square height method and Morphological Surface Roughness (MSR algorithm, this paper takes the area of the Jurassic mountain uplift in the Sinus Iridum and the Plato Crater area as experimental areas. And then make the comparison and contrast of the lunar roughness derived from LRO's DEM and CE-2 DOM. The experimental results show that the roughness obtained by the traditional roughness calculation method reflect the ups and downs of the topography, while the results obtained by morphological surface roughness algorithm show the smoothness of the lunar surface. So, we can first use the surface fluctuation situation derived from RMSH to select the landing area range which ensures the lands are gentle. Then the morphological results determine whether the landing area is suitable for the detector walking and observing. The results obtained at two different scales provide a more complete evaluation system for selecting the landing site of the lunar probe.

  20. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  1. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  2. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  3. Association "Les Simples"

    OpenAIRE

    Thouzery, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fondée par les producteurs du Syndicat Inter-Massifs pour la Production et l’Économie des Simples (S.I.M.P.L.E.S), l’association base son action sur la recherche et le maintien d’une production de qualité (herboristerie et préparations à base de plantes) qui prend en compte le respect de l’environnement et la pérennité des petits producteurs en zone de montagne. Actions de formation Stages de découverte de la flore médicinale sauvage, Stages de culture et transformation des plantes médicinale...

  4. A simple electron multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L; Akjouj, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Al-Wahsh, H; Zielinski, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple multiplexing device made of two atomic chains coupled by two other transition metal atoms. We show that this simple atomic device can transfer electrons at a given energy from one wire to the other, leaving all other electron states unaffected. Closed-form relations between the transmission coefficients and the inter-atomic distances are given to optimize the desired directional electron ejection. Such devices can be adsorbed on insulating substrates and characterized by current surface technologies. (letter to the editor)

  5. Stick–slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of gecko ‘frictional-adhesion’ adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick–slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick–slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick–slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems. PMID:25589569

  6. Removal of iron and manganese using biological roughing up flow filtration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Virginia Alejandra; María Ingallinella, Ana; Sanguinetti, Graciela

    2005-11-01

    The removal of iron and manganese from groundwater using biological treatment methods is almost unknown in Latin America. Biological systems used in Europe are based on the process of double rapid biofiltration during which dissolved oxygen and pH need to be strictly controlled in order to limit abiotic iron oxidation. The performance of roughing filter technology in a biological treatment process for the removal of iron and manganese, without the use of chemical agents and under natural pH conditions was studied. Two pilot plants, using two different natural groundwaters, were operated with the following treatment line: aeration, up flow roughing filtration and final filtration (either slow or rapid). Iron and manganese removal efficiencies were found to be between 85% and 95%. The high solid retention capability of the roughing filter means that it is possible to remove iron and manganese simultaneously by biotic and abiotic mechanisms. This system combines simple, low-cost operation and maintenance with high iron and manganese removal efficiencies, thus constituting a technology which is particularly suited to small waterworks.

  7. Stick-slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-03-06

    The discovery and understanding of gecko 'frictional-adhesion' adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick-slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick-slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick-slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct transfer of multilayer graphene grown on a rough metal surface using PDMS adhesion engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Youngbok; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Ahn, Chi Won; Lee, Wonhee

    2016-09-01

    The direct transfer of graphene using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping has advantages such as a ‘pick-and-place’ capability and no chemical residue problems. However, it is not easy to apply direct PDMS stamping to graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition on rough, grainy metal surfaces due to poor contact between the PDMS and graphene. In this study, graphene consisting of a mixture of monolayers and multiple layers grown on a rough Ni surface was directly transferred without the use of an adhesive layer. Liquid PDMS was cured on graphene to effect a conformal contact with the graphene. A fast release of graphene from substrate was achieved by carrying out wet-etching-assisted mechanical peeling. We also carried out a thermal post-curing of PDMS to control the level of adhesion between PDMS and graphene and hence facilitate a damage-free release of the graphene. Characterization of the transferred graphene by micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and optical microscopy showed neither cracks nor contamination from the transfer. This technique allows a fast and simple transfer of graphene, even for multilayer graphene grown on a rough surface.

  9. EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaed S. Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations. 

  10. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.; Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C d is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  11. Effects of capillary condensation in adhesion between rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizeng; Qian, Jin; Gao, Huajian

    2009-10-06

    Experiments on the effects of humidity in adhesion between rough surfaces have shown that the adhesion energy remains constant below a critical relative humidity (RHcr) and then abruptly jumps to a higher value at RHcr before approaching its upper limit at 100% relative humidity. A model based on a hierarchical rough surface topography is proposed, which quantitatively explains the experimental observations and predicts two threshold RH values, RHcr and RHdry, which define three adhesion regimes: (1) RHRHcr, water menisci freely form and spread along the interface between the rough surfaces.

  12. On the computation of the turbulent flow near rough surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, S. K.; Jaychibekov, N. Zh.; Shalabayeva, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    One of the problems in constructing mathematical models of turbulence is a description of the flows near a rough surface. An experimental study of such flows is also difficult because of the impossibility of measuring "inside" the roughness. The theoretical calculation is difficult because of the lack of equations describing the flow in this zone. In this paper, a new turbulence model based on the differential equation of turbulent viscosity balance was used to describe a turbulent flow near a rough surface. The difference between the new turbulence model and the previously known consists in the choice of constants and functions that determine the generation, dissipation and diffusion of viscosity.

  13. Convective heat transfer from rough surfaces with two-dimensional ribs - transitional and laminar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Meyer, L.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of friction factor and heat transfer coefficients for two rods of 18.9 mm 0.D. with two-dimensional roughness, each in two different outer smooth tubes have been performed in turbulent and laminar flow. The turbulent flow results indicate that the flow was not thermally fully established, the isothermal data however agree reasonably well with our previously obtained general correlation. Laminar flow results can be correlated best when the Reynolds and Greatz numbers are evaluated at the temperature average between the temperature of the inner rod surface and of the outer smooth surface of the annulus, the average being weighted over the two surfaces. (orig.) [de

  14. Echo signal from rough planar interfaces influence of roughness, angle, range and transducer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P.C.; Jacobsen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The received electrical signal from a pulse-echo system insonifying a planar acoustical interface was measured for varying degrees of rms roughness (0-0.16 mm), angle of incidence (typically +/-7°) and range to the transducer. A planar and a focused 5 MHz transducer was used. When insonifying...... a smooth interface, the normalized spectrum of the received signals for a planar transducer exhibits an increasing number of nulls with increased angle of insonification, as predicted from numerical modeling while the dependence on insonification angle for the focused transducer was smaller and the null...... pattern was much less distinct. For the planar transducer and for the focused transducer with the interface located at the geometrical point of focus, the energy of the received signal as a function of incident angle was approximately Gaussian with maximum at 0°. For the smooth interface, the -3 dB width...

  15. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  16. A Simple Tiltmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, M. G.; Harrison, D. R.; Edwards, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bubble vial with external aluminum-foil electrodes is sensing element for simple indicating tiltmeter. To measure bubble displacement, bridge circuit detects difference in capacitance between two sensing electrodes and reference electrode. Tiltmeter was developed for experiment on forecasting seismic events by changes in Earth's magnetic field.

  17. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  18. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  19. Simple mathematical fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, R; Faella, O

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical fireworks are reproduced in two dimensions by means of simple notions in kinematics and Newtonian mechanics. Extension of the analysis in three dimensions is proposed and the geometric figures the falling tiny particles make on the ground after explosion are determined. (paper)

  20. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  1. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  2. Solvent effect on polystyrene surface roughness on top of QCM sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakti, Setyawan P., E-mail: sakti@ub.ac.id; Rahmawati, Eka; Robiandi, Fadli [Advanced System and Material Technology, Laboratory of Instrumentation and Measurement Department of Physics, Brawijaya University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) has been used as a basis for many chemical sensors and biosensor. Its sensitivity to mass change which can detect a mass change on its surface down to sub ng/cm2 is one of its interesting aspects. Another interesting feature is its ability to work in liquid environment. However, there are many aspects which influence QCM sensor properties in contact with liquid. One of the aspects is surface roughness of the matrix layer where on top of it a biological sensitive layer will be immobilized. One of matrix layers in the immobilizing biological sensitive layer was polystyrene. Polystyrene was coated on the QCM sensor by using the spin coating method. During the coating process, polystyrene was solved using non-polar solvent. It is known that the physical and chemical properties of the solvent affect a transition process from soluble polymer becoming rigid polymer layer. In this work, we show that polystyrene solved in chloroform has a higher surface roughness compare to one solved in toluene, xylene, or tetrahydrofuran. Surface roughness of the polystyrene coating were measured using a non-contact profilometer. However, we also found that there is no difference on the electrical impedance of the QCM sensor coated with polystyrene resulted from differing solvent when the sensor was in contact with air and water. Thus, all of the mentioned solvent can be used to solve the polystyrene as a coating material for QCM sensor without affecting the electrical performance of the sensor, but the choice of the solution can be used as a simple method to control the difference roughness of the polystyrene coating.

  3. Rough Mirror as a Quantum State Selector: Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Lamy, F.; Meyerovich, A. E.; Escobar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report analysis of rough mirrors used as the gravitational state selectors in neutron beam and similar experiments. The key to mirror properties is its roughness correlation function (CF) which is extracted from the precision optical scanning measurements of the surface profile. To identify CF in the presence of fluctuation-driven fat tails, we perform numerical experiments with computer-generated random surfaces with the known CF. These numerical experiments provide a reliable identification procedure which we apply to the actual rough mirror. The extracted CF allows us to make predictions for ongoing GRANIT experiments. We also propose a radically new design for rough mirrors based on Monte Carlo simulations for the 1D Ising model. The implementation of this design provides a controlled environment with predictable scattering properties

  4. Impact of nighttime paving operations on asphalt roughness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between nighttime construction scheduling and future road quality in terms of roughness was investigated. Research was three-phased: interviews with local leaders in paving, on-site observations, and historical data analyses. Intervi...

  5. Matroidal Structure of Generalized Rough Sets Based on Tolerance Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    of the generalized rough set based on the tolerance relation. The matroid can also induce a new relation. We investigate the connection between the original tolerance relation and the induced relation.

  6. Turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Hiromu; Wada, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshinobu.

    1990-01-01

    This second paper describes an application of the generalized turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, which is developed in the previous paper, to the finite-width journal bearings. In the numerical analysis, the nonlinear equations for the modified turbulence coefficients are simplified to save a computation time within a satisfactory accuracy under the assumption that the shear flow is superior to the pressure flow in the turbulent lubrication films. The numerical results of pressure distribution, Sommerfeld number, attitude angle, friction coefficient and flow rate for the Reynolds number of Re=2000, 5000 and 10000 are indicated in graphic form for various values of relative roughness, and the effects of surface roughness on these static performance characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of the journal bearings with homogeneous rough surface are obtained experimentally for a wide range of Sommerfeld number, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results. (author)

  7. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.; Pullin, D. I.; Cheng, W.

    2017-01-01

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows

  8. Study of the relationship between non-dimensional roughness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    4National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention,. Science and Technology .... trum S(f,θ) is commonly expressed as the product ..... rough flow must be satisfied according to Toba et al. (1990). ... development; J. Phys.

  9. Optimization of surface roughness in CNC end milling using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... In this study, minimization of surface roughness has been investigated by integrating design of experiment method, Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm ...

  10. The Simulation Realization of Pavement Roughness in the Time Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, H. L.; He, L.; An, D.

    2017-10-01

    As the needs for the dynamic study on the vehicle-pavement system and the simulated vibration table test, how to simulate the pavement roughness actually is important guarantee for whether calculation and test can reflect the actual situation or not. Using the power spectral density function, the simulation of pavement roughness can be realized by Fourier inverse transform. The main idea of this method was that the spectrum amplitude and random phase were obtained separately according to the power spectrum, and then the simulation of pavement roughness was obtained in the time domain through the Fourier inverse transform (IFFT). In the process, the sampling interval (Δl) was 0.1m, and the sampling points(N) was 4096, which satisfied the accuracy requirements. Using this method, the simulate results of pavement roughness (A~H grades) were obtain in the time domain.

  11. Empirical model for estimating the surface roughness of machined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical model for estimating the surface roughness of machined ... as well as surface finish is one of the most critical quality measure in mechanical products. ... various cutting speed have been developed using regression analysis software.

  12. Scattering of Rossby and Poincare waves off rough lateral boundaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Prahalad, Y.S.; Sengupta, D.

    Unified treatment of wave scattering from a rough boundary, which was originally developed by Nakayama et al. is presented. The stationary nature of the boundary process is used to show that the wave field is also stationary, and therefore can...

  13. Empirical model for estimating the surface roughness of machined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    one of the most critical quality measure in mechanical products. In the ... Keywords: cutting speed, centre lathe, empirical model, surface roughness, Mean absolute percentage deviation ... The factors considered were work piece properties.

  14. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  15. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  16. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper the focus is on quantification of the pavement roughness effects on the calculated structural pavement life and the effects of surfacing maintenance on the moving dynamic tyre loads generated by vehicles. A simplified method for calculating... the moving dynamic tyre load population is used together with standard pavement response analysis methods to quantify the effects of pavement surfacing maintenance on roughness and structural pavement life. This method can be used as a pavement management...

  17. Purity and surface roughness of vacuum deposited aluminium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N G; Arsenio, T P [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Patnaik, B K [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assuncao, F C.R.; de Souza, A M [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the purity, surface roughness and grain size of vacuum-deposited aluminium films, using an intermetallic crucible and a continuous feed of pure aluminium wire. The grain size and roughness were studied by electron difraction, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope. Purity was determined by X-ray fluorescence produced by proton bombardment in the Van de Graaff accelerator and by X-ray and optical emission spectrometry.

  18. ANFIS Modeling of the Surface Roughness in Grinding Process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Baseri; G. Alinejad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of surface roughness in grinding process. The Used data have been generated from experimental observations when the wheel has been dressed using a rotary diamond disc dresser. The input parameters of model are dressing speed ratio, dressing depth and dresser cross-feed rate and output parameter is surface roughness. In the experimental procedure the grinding conditions...

  19. Surface roughness influences on the behaviour of flow inside microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, M. H.; Castro, C. S.; Garcia, D. A.; Henrique, J. S.

    2018-03-01

    This work discusses influence of the surface roughness on the behavior of liquids flowing inside microchannels. By measuring the flow profile using the micro-PIV technique, the flow of water inside two rectangular microchannels of different wall roughness and in a circular smooth microchannel was studied. Comparisons were made among the experimental results, showing that a metrological approach concerning surface characteristics of microdevices is required to ensure reliability of the measurements for flow analyses in microfluidic processes.

  20. The surface roughness effect on the performance of supersonic ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, D. V.; Aronson, K. E.; Mazzelli, F.; Milazzo, A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation results of the surface roughness influence on gas-dynamic processes inside flow parts of a supersonic ejector. These simulations are performed using two commercial CFD solvers (Star- CCM+ and Fluent). The results are compared to each other and verified by a full-scale experiment in terms of global flow parameters (the entrainment ratio: the ratio between secondary to primary mass flow rate - ER hereafter) and local flow parameters distribution (the static pressure distribution along the mixing chamber and diffuser walls). A detailed comparative study of the employed methods and approaches in both CFD packages is carried out in order to estimate the roughness effect on the logarithmic law velocity distribution inside the boundary layer. Influence of the surface roughness is compared with the influence of the backpressure (static pressure at the ejector outlet). It has been found out that increasing either the ejector backpressure or the surface roughness height, the shock position displaces upstream. Moreover, the numerical simulation results of an ejector with rough walls in the both CFD solvers are well quantitatively agreed with each other in terms of the mean ER and well qualitatively agree in terms of the local flow parameters distribution. It is found out that in the case of exceeding the "critical roughness height" for the given boundary conditions and ejector's geometry, the ejector switches to the "off-design" mode and its performance decreases considerably.

  1. The influence of roughness and obstacle on wind power map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Ab Wahab; Mohd Fadhil Abas; Mohd Hafiz Ismail

    2006-01-01

    In the development of wind energy in Malaysia, the need for wind power map of Peninsular Malaysia has aroused. The map is needed to help in determining the potential areas where low wind speed wind turbines could operate optimally. In establishing the wind power map the effects of roughness and obstacles have been investigated. Wind data from 24 meteorological stations around the country have been utilized in conjunction with the respective local roughness and obstacles. Two sets of wind power maps have been developed i.e. the wind power maps with and without roughness and obstacles. These two sets of wind power maps exhibit great significant amount of difference in the wind power values especially in the inland areas where the wind power map without roughness and obstacles gives much lower values than those with roughness and obstacles. This paper outlines the process of establishing the two sets of wind power map as well as discussing the influence of roughness and obstacles based on the results obtained

  2. AN AUTOMATED ROAD ROUGHNESS DETECTION FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  3. An Automated Road Roughness Detection from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Angelats, E.

    2017-05-01

    Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  4. Near-field flow structures about subcritical surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Charles J.; Drews, Scott D.; Goldstein, David B.

    2014-12-01

    Laminar flow over a periodic array of cylindrical surface roughness elements is simulated with an immersed boundary spectral method both to validate the method for subsequent studies and to examine how persistent streamwise vortices are introduced by a low Reynolds number roughness element. Direct comparisons are made with prior studies at a roughness-based Reynolds number Rek (=U(k) k/ν) of 205 and a diameter to spanwise spacing ratio d/λ of 1/3. Downstream velocity contours match present and past experiments very well. The shear layer developed over the top of the roughness element produces the downstream velocity deficit. Upstream of the roughness element, the vortex topology is found to be consistent with juncture flow experiments, creating three cores along the recirculation line. Streamtraces stemming from these upstream cores, however, have unexpectedly little effect on the downstream flowfield as lateral divergence of the boundary layer quickly dissipates their vorticity. Long physical relaxation time of the recirculating wake behind the roughness remains a prominent issue for simulating this type of flowfield.

  5. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  6. A rough multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new continuous-time mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility, and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, roughness, and our approach explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based model and a rough model. Further, through the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating – and making inference on – the degree of roughness. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial for accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model on recent data from six European energy exchanges and find statistical evidence of roughness in five out of six markets. As an application of our model, we show how, in these five markets, a rough component improves short term forecasting of the prices. - Highlights: • Statistical modeling of electricity spot prices • Multi-factor decomposition • Roughness • Electricity price forecasting

  7. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  8. Electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids: the influence of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alessio; Fajardo, Oscar Y; Kornyshev, Alexei A; Urbakh, Michael; Bresme, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    The properties of ionic liquids can be modified by applying an external electrostatic potential, providing a route to control their performance in nanolubrication applications. Most computational studies to date have focused on the investigation of smooth surfaces. Real surfaces are generally inhomogeneous and feature roughness of different length scales. We report here a study of the possible effects that surface roughness may have on electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids, performed here by means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In order to advance our understanding of the interplay of friction and substrate structure we investigate coarse grained models of ionic liquids confined in model surfaces with nanometer roughness. The friction is shown to depend on the roughness of the substrate and the direction of shear. For the investigated systems, the friction coefficient is found to increase with roughness. These results are in contrast with previous studies, where roughness induced reduction of friction was reported, and they highlight the strong sensitivity of the friction process to the structure of the surfaces. The friction force features a maximum at a specific surface charge density. This behaviour is reminiscent of the one reported in ionic liquids confined by flat surfaces, showing the generality of this physical effect in confined ionic liquids. We find that an increase of the substrate-liquid dispersion interactions shifts the maximum to lower surface charges. This effect opens a route to control electrotunable friction phenomena by tuning both the electrostatic potential and the composition of the confining surfaces.

  9. Study the Relationship between Pavement Surface Distress and Roughness Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubaraki Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pavement sections from the highway connected Jeddah to Jazan were selected and analyzed to investigate the relationship between International Roughness Index (IRI and pavement damage including; cracking, rutting, and raveling. The Ministry of Transport (MOT of Saudi Arabia has been collecting pavement condition data using the Road Surface Tester (RST vehicle. The MOT measures Roughness, Rutting (RUT, Cracking (CRA, raveling (RAV. Roughness measurements are calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index (IRI. The IRI is calculated over equally spaced intervals along the road profile. Roughness measurements are performed at speed between at 80 kilometers per hour. Thus RST vehicle has been used to evaluate highways across the country. The paper shows three relationships including; cracking (CRA verses roughness (IRI, rutting (RUT verses IRI, and raveling (RAV verses IRI. Also, the paper developed two models namely; model relates IRI to the three distress under study, and model relates IRI to ride quality. The results of the analysis claim at 95% confidence that a significant relationship exist between IRI and cracking, and raveling. It’s also shown that rutting did not show significant relationship to IRI values. That’s leads to conclude that the distresses types: cracking and raveling may possibly be described as ride quality distresses at different level of significant. Rutting distress described as non-ride quality type’s distresses.

  10. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Larson, Ronald G; Solomon, Michael J

    2017-10-13

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  11. Multipoint contact modeling of nanoparticle manipulation on rough surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakeri, M., E-mail: m.zakeri@tabrizu.ac.ir; Faraji, J.; Kharazmi, M. [University of Tabriz, School of Engineering Emerging Technologies (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based 2-D pushing of nano/microparticles investigated on rough substrate by assuming a multipoint contact model. First, a new contact model was extracted and presented based on the geometrical profiles of Rumpf, Rabinovich and George models and the contact mechanics theories of JKR and Schwartz, to model the adhesion forces and the deformations in the multipoint contact of rough surfaces. The geometry of a rough surface was defined by two main parameters of asperity height (size of roughness) and asperity wavelength (compactness of asperities distribution). Then, the dynamic behaviors of nano/microparticles with radiuses in range of 50–500 nm studied during their pushing on rough substrate with a hexagonal or square arrangement of asperities. Dynamic behavior of particles were simulated and compared by assuming multipoint and single-point contact schemes. The simulation results show that the assumption of multipoint contact has a considerable influence on determining the critical manipulation force. Additionally, the assumption of smooth surfaces or single-point contact leads to large error in the obtained results. According to the results of previous research, it anticipated that a particles with the radius less than about 550 nm start to slide on smooth substrate; but by using multipoint contact model, the predicted behavior changed, and particles with radii of smaller than 400 nm begin to slide on rough substrate for different height of asperities, at first.

  12. Mapping gullies, dunes, lava fields, and landslides via surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Pfeifer, Norbert; Landtwing, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Gully erosion is a widespread and significant process involved in soil and land degradation. Mapping gullies helps to quantify past, and anticipate future, soil losses. Digital terrain models offer promising data for automatically detecting and mapping gullies especially in vegetated areas, although methods vary widely measures of local terrain roughness are the most varied and debated among these methods. Rarely do studies test the performance of roughness metrics for mapping gullies, limiting their applicability to small training areas. To this end, we systematically explored how local terrain roughness derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data can aid in the unsupervised detection of gullies over a large area. We also tested expanding this method for other landforms diagnostic of similarly abrupt land-surface changes, including lava fields, dunes, and landslides, as well as investigating the influence of different roughness thresholds, resolutions of kernels, and input data resolution, and comparing our method with previously published roughness algorithms. Our results show that total curvature is a suitable metric for recognising analysed gullies and lava fields from LiDAR data, with comparable success to that of more sophisticated roughness metrics. Tested dunes or landslides remain difficult to distinguish from the surrounding landscape, partly because they are not easily defined in terms of their topographic signature.

  13. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  14. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  15. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  16. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  17. Polyhedral Computations for the Simple Graph Partitioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each containing no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we present a branch-and-cut algorithm for the problem that ...

  18. When the going gets rough – studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Crawford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2–3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3–6 µm asperities, producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5–562.5 µm asperities. Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable.

  19. Determination of forest road surface roughness by Kinect depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marinello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roughness is a dynamic property of the gravel road surface that affects safety, ride comfort as well as vehicle tyre life and maintenance costs. A rapid survey of gravel road condition is fundamental for an effective maintenance planning and definition of the intervention priorities.Different non-contact techniques such as laser scanning, ultrasonic sensors and photogrammetry have recently been proposed to reconstruct three-dimensional topography of road surface and allow extraction of roughness metrics. The application of Microsoft Kinect™ depth camera is proposed and discussed here for collection of 3D data sets from gravel roads, to be implemented in order to allow quantification of surface roughness.The objectives are to: i verify the applicability of the Kinect sensor for characterization of different forest roads, ii identify the appropriateness and potential of different roughness parameters and iii analyse the correlation with vibrations recoded by 3-axis accelerometers installed on different vehicles. The test took advantage of the implementation of the Kinect depth camera for surface roughness determination of 4 different forest gravel roads and one well-maintained asphalt road as reference. Different vehicles (mountain bike, off-road motorcycle, ATV vehicle, 4WD car and compact crossover were included in the experiment in order to verify the vibration intensity when travelling on different road surface conditions. Correlations between the extracted roughness parameters and vibration levels of the tested vehicles were then verified. Coefficients of determination of between 0.76 and 0.97 were detected between average surface roughness and standard deviation of relative accelerations, with higher values in the case of lighter vehicles.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Electrical Contact Conductance of Rough Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Murashov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century to the present time, efforts have been made to develop a model of the electrical contact conductance. The development of micro- and nanotechnologies make contact conductance problem more essential. To conduct borrowing from a welldeveloped thermal contact conductance models on the basis of thermal and electrical conductivity analogy is often not possible due to a number of fundamental differences. While some 3Dmodels of rough bodies deformation have been developed in one way or another, a 3D-model of the electrical conductance through rough bodies contact is still not. A spatial model of electrical contact of rough bodies is proposed, allows one to calculate the electrical contact conductance as a function of the contact pressure. Representative elements of the bodies are parallelepipeds with deterministic roughness on the contacting surfaces. First the non-linear elastic-plastic deformation of rough surface under external pressure is solved using the finite element software ANSYS. Then the solution of electrostatic problem goes on the same finite element mesh. Aluminum AD1 is used as the material of the contacting bodies with properties that account for cold work hardening of the surface. The numerical model is built within the continuum mechanics and nanoscale effects are not taken into account. The electrical contact conductance was calculated on the basis of the concept of electrical resistance of the model as the sum of the electrical resistances of the contacting bodies and the contact itself. It was assumed that there is no air in the gap between the bodies. The dependence of the electrical contact conductance on the contact pressure is calculated as well as voltage and current density distributions in the contact bodies. It is determined that the multi-asperity contact mode, adequate to real roughness, is achieved at pressures higher than 3MPa, while results within the single contact spot are

  1. Lunar terrain mapping and relative-roughness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; McCauley, John F.; Holm, Esther A.

    1971-01-01

    Terrain maps of the equatorial zone (long 70° E.-70° W. and lat 10° N-10° S.) were prepared at scales of 1:2,000,000 and 1:1,000,000 to classify lunar terrain with respect to roughness and to provide a basis for selecting sites for Surveyor and Apollo landings as well as for Ranger and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The techniques that were developed as a result of this effort can be applied to future planetary exploration. By using the best available earth-based observational data and photographs 1:1,000,000-scale and U.S. Geological Survey lunar geologic maps and U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center LAC charts, lunar terrain was described by qualitative and quantitative methods and divided into four fundamental classes: maria, terrae, craters, and linear features. Some 35 subdivisions were defined and mapped throughout the equatorial zone, and, in addition, most of the map units were illustrated by photographs. The terrain types were analyzed quantitatively to characterize and order their relative-roughness characteristics. Approximately 150,000 east-west slope measurements made by a photometric technique (photoclinometry) in 51 sample areas indicate that algebraic slope-frequency distributions are Gaussian, and so arithmetic means and standard deviations accurately describe the distribution functions. The algebraic slope-component frequency distributions are particularly useful for rapidly determining relative roughness of terrain. The statistical parameters that best describe relative roughness are the absolute arithmetic mean, the algebraic standard deviation, and the percentage of slope reversal. Statistically derived relative-relief parameters are desirable supplementary measures of relative roughness in the terrae. Extrapolation of relative roughness for the maria was demonstrated using Ranger VII slope-component data and regional maria slope data, as well as the data reported here. It appears that, for some morphologically homogeneous

  2. Unbiased roughness measurements: the key to better etch performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Andrew; Mack, Chris; Sirard, Stephen; Liang, Chen-wei; Yang, Liu; Jiang, Justin; Shamma, Nader; Wise, Rich; Yu, Jengyi; Hymes, Diane

    2018-03-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) has become an increasingly critical metric to enable Moore's Law scaling. Stochastic variations, as characterized for lines by line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER), are dominant factors in EPE and known to increase with the introduction of EUV lithography. However, despite recommendations from ITRS, NIST, and SEMI standards, the industry has not agreed upon a methodology to quantify these properties. Thus, differing methodologies applied to the same image often result in different roughness measurements and conclusions. To standardize LWR and LER measurements, Fractilia has developed an unbiased measurement that uses a raw unfiltered line scan to subtract out image noise and distortions. By using Fractilia's inverse linescan model (FILM) to guide development, we will highlight the key influences of roughness metrology on plasma-based resist smoothing processes. Test wafers were deposited to represent a 5 nm node EUV logic stack. The patterning stack consists of a core Si target layer with spin-on carbon (SOC) as the hardmask and spin-on glass (SOG) as the cap. Next, these wafers were exposed through an ASML NXE 3350B EUV scanner with an advanced chemically amplified resist (CAR). Afterwards, these wafers were etched through a variety of plasma-based resist smoothing techniques using a Lam Kiyo conductor etch system. Dense line and space patterns on the etched samples were imaged through advanced Hitachi CDSEMs and the LER and LWR were measured through both Fractilia and an industry standard roughness measurement software. By employing Fractilia to guide plasma-based etch development, we demonstrate that Fractilia produces accurate roughness measurements on resist in contrast to an industry standard measurement software. These results highlight the importance of subtracting out SEM image noise to obtain quicker developmental cycle times and lower target layer roughness.

  3. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with low roughness on Ti–6Al–4V substrates via anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yuze; Sun, Yuwen, E-mail: ywsun@dlut.edu.cn; Guo, Dongming

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • A facile and efficient method for fabricating low-roughness superhydrophobic titanium alloy surfaces is successfully developed. • Formation mechanism of micro-scale pore structures built by a novel anodic oxidation is carefully analyzed. • The prepared superhydrophobic surface possesses good durability and abrasion resistance. - Abstract: The combination of suitable micro-scale structures and low surface energy modification plays a vital role in fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on hydrophilic metal substrates. This work proposes a simple, facile and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic titanium alloy surfaces with low surface roughness. Complex micro-pore structures are generated on titanium alloy surfaces by anodic oxidation in the NaOH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixed solution. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) is used to reduce the surface energy of the electrochemically oxidized surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Zygogpi-xp6 (ZYGO) and contact angle measurements are performed to determine the morphological features, chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability. The formation mechanism of micro-scale rough structures, wettability of the superhydrophobic surfaces and the relationship between reaction time with wettability and roughness of the superhydrophobic surfaces are also analyzed in detail. The as-prepared titanium alloy surfaces not only show low roughness Ra = 0.669 μm and good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 158.5° ± 1.9° as well as a water tilting angle of 5.3° ± 1.1°, but also possess good long-term stability and abrasion resistance.

  4. Aerodynamic roughness length estimation from very high-resolution imaging LIDAR observations over the Heihe basin in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Colin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Roughness length of land surfaces is an essential variable for the parameterisation of momentum and heat exchanges. The growing interest in the estimation of the surface turbulent flux parameterisation from passive remote sensing leads to an increasing development of models, and the common use of simple semi-empirical formulations to estimate surface roughness. Over complex surface land cover, these approaches would benefit from the combined use of passive remote sensing and land surface structure measurements from Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR techniques. Following early studies based on LIDAR profile data, this paper explores the use of imaging LIDAR measurements for the estimation of the aerodynamic roughness length over a heterogeneous landscape of the Heihe river basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. The point cloud obtained from multiple flight passes over an irrigated farmland area were used to separate the land surface topography and the vegetation canopy into a Digital Elevation Model (DEM and a Digital Surface Model (DSM respectively. These two models were then incorporated in two approaches: (i a strictly geometrical approach based on the calculation of the plan surface density and the frontal surface density to derive a geometrical surface roughness; (ii a more aerodynamic approach where both the DEM and DSM are introduced in a Computational Fluid Dynamics model (CFD. The inversion of the resulting 3-D wind field leads to a fine representation of the aerodynamic surface roughness. Examples of the use of these three approaches are presented for various wind directions together with a cross-comparison of results on heterogeneous land cover and complex roughness element structures.

  5. Dimensional analysis made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own. (paper)

  6. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  7. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  8. ASP made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  9. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  10. Improvement of Reactor Fuel Element Heat Transfer by Surface Roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.; Larsson, A.E.

    1967-04-01

    In heat exchangers with a limited surface temperature such as reactor fuel elements, rough heat transfer surfaces may give lower pumping power than smooth. To obtain data for choice of the most advantageous roughness for the superheater elements in the Marviken reactor, measurements were made of heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with a smooth or rough test rod in a smooth adiabatic shroud. 24 different roughness geometries were tested. The results were transformed to rod cluster geometry by the method of W B Hall, and correlated by the friction and heat transfer similarity laws as suggested by D F Dipprey and R H Sabersky with RMS errors of 12.5 % in the friction factor and 8.1 % in the Stanton number. The relation between the Stanton number and the friction factor could be described by a relation of the type suggested by W Nunner, with a mean error of 3.1 % and an RMS error of 11.6 %. Application of the results to fuel element calculations is discussed, and the great gains in economy which can be obtained with rough surfaces are demonstrated by two examples

  11. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  12. Time-dependent behavior of rough discontinuities under shearing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Mingrong; Ding, Wenqi; Jang, Boan; Zhang, Qingzhao

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of rocks are generally controlled by their discontinuities. In this study, the time-dependent behavior of rough artificial joints under shearing conditions was investigated. Based on Barton’s standard profile lines, samples with artificial joint surfaces were prepared and used to conduct the shear and creep tests. The test results showed that the shear strength of discontinuity was linearly related to roughness, and subsequently an empirical equation was established. The long-term strength of discontinuity can be identified using the inflection point of the isocreep-rate curve, and it was linearly related to roughness. Furthermore, the ratio of long-term and instantaneous strength decreased with the increase of roughness. The shear-stiffness coefficient increased with the increase of shear rate, and the influence of shear rate on the shear stiffness coefficient decreased with the decrease of roughness. Further study of the mechanism revealed that these results could be attributed to the different time-dependent behavior of intact and joint rocks.

  13. Improvement of Reactor Fuel Element Heat Transfer by Surface Roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B; Larsson, A E

    1967-04-15

    In heat exchangers with a limited surface temperature such as reactor fuel elements, rough heat transfer surfaces may give lower pumping power than smooth. To obtain data for choice of the most advantageous roughness for the superheater elements in the Marviken reactor, measurements were made of heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with a smooth or rough test rod in a smooth adiabatic shroud. 24 different roughness geometries were tested. The results were transformed to rod cluster geometry by the method of W B Hall, and correlated by the friction and heat transfer similarity laws as suggested by D F Dipprey and R H Sabersky with RMS errors of 12.5 % in the friction factor and 8.1 % in the Stanton number. The relation between the Stanton number and the friction factor could be described by a relation of the type suggested by W Nunner, with a mean error of 3.1 % and an RMS error of 11.6 %. Application of the results to fuel element calculations is discussed, and the great gains in economy which can be obtained with rough surfaces are demonstrated by two examples.

  14. Investigation and modelling of rubber stationary friction on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal, A; Klueppel, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents novel aspects regarding the physically motivated modelling of rubber stationary sliding friction on rough surfaces. The description of dynamic contact is treated within the framework of a generalized Greenwood-Williamson theory for rigid/soft frictional pairings. Due to the self-affinity of rough surfaces, both hysteresis and adhesion friction components arise from a multi-scale excitation of surface roughness. Beside a complete analytical formulation of contact parameters, the morphology of macrotexture is considered via the introduction of a second scaling range at large length scales which mostly contribute to hysteresis friction. Moreover, adhesion friction is related to the real area of contact combined with the kinetics of interfacial peeling effects. Friction experiments carried out with different rubbers on rough granite and asphalt point out the relevance of hysteresis and adhesion friction concepts on rough surfaces. The two scaling ranges approach significantly improves the description of wet and dry friction behaviour within the range of low sliding velocity. In addition, material and surface effects are predicted and understood on a physical basis. The applicability of such modelling is of high interest for materials developers and road constructors regarding the prediction of wet grip performance of tyres on road tracks

  15. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Surface Roughness for CNC Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness is often considered the main purpose in contemporary computer numerical controlled (CNC machining industry. Most existing optimization researches for CNC finish turning were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, the cutting depth, feed rate, speed, and tool nose runoff with low, medium, and high level are considered to optimize the surface roughness for finish turning based on L9(34 orthogonal array. Additionally, nine fuzzy control rules using triangle membership function with respective to five linguistic grades for surface roughness are constructed. Considering four input and twenty output intervals, the defuzzification using center of gravity is then completed. Thus, the optimum general fuzzy linguistic parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment result showed that the surface roughness from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters is significantly advanced compared to that from the benchmark. This paper certainly proposes a general optimization scheme using orthogonal array fuzzy linguistic approach to the surface roughness for CNC turning with profound insight.

  16. Roughness analysis of graphite surfaces of casting elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieczorowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper profilometric measurements of graphite casting elements were described. Basic topics necessary to assess roughness of their surfaces and influence of asperities on various properties related to manufacturing and use were discussed. Stylus profilometer technique of surface irregularities measurements including its limits resulting from pickup geometry and its contact with measured object were ana-lyzed. Working principle of tactile profilometer and phenomena taking place during movement of a probe on a measured surface were shown. One of the important aspects is a flight phenomenon, which means movement of a pickup without contact with a surface during inspection resulting from too high scanning speed. results of comparison research for graphite elements of new and used mould and pin composing a set were presented. Using some surface roughness, waviness and primary profile parameters (arithmetical mean of roughness profile heights Ra, biggest roughness profile height Rz, maximum primary profile height Pt as well as maximum waviness profile height Wt a possibility of using surface asperities parameters as a measure of wear of chill graphite elements was proved. The most often applied parameter is Ra, but with a help of parameters from W and P family it was shown, that big changes occur not only for roughness but also for other components of surface irregularities.

  17. Investigation and modelling of rubber stationary friction on rough surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gal, A; Klueppel, M [Deutsches Institut fuer Kautschuktechnologie, Eupener Strasse 33, D-30519 Hannover (Germany)

    2008-01-09

    This paper presents novel aspects regarding the physically motivated modelling of rubber stationary sliding friction on rough surfaces. The description of dynamic contact is treated within the framework of a generalized Greenwood-Williamson theory for rigid/soft frictional pairings. Due to the self-affinity of rough surfaces, both hysteresis and adhesion friction components arise from a multi-scale excitation of surface roughness. Beside a complete analytical formulation of contact parameters, the morphology of macrotexture is considered via the introduction of a second scaling range at large length scales which mostly contribute to hysteresis friction. Moreover, adhesion friction is related to the real area of contact combined with the kinetics of interfacial peeling effects. Friction experiments carried out with different rubbers on rough granite and asphalt point out the relevance of hysteresis and adhesion friction concepts on rough surfaces. The two scaling ranges approach significantly improves the description of wet and dry friction behaviour within the range of low sliding velocity. In addition, material and surface effects are predicted and understood on a physical basis. The applicability of such modelling is of high interest for materials developers and road constructors regarding the prediction of wet grip performance of tyres on road tracks.

  18. Flu Diagnosis System Using Jaccard Index and Rough Set Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Riswan; Azah Samsudin, Noor; Mat Deris, Mustafa; Guan Ting, Yip

    2018-04-01

    Jaccard index and rough set approaches have been frequently implemented in decision support systems with various domain applications. Both approaches are appropriate to be considered for categorical data analysis. This paper presents the applications of sets operations for flu diagnosis systems based on two different approaches, such as, Jaccard index and rough set. These two different approaches are established using set operations concept, namely intersection and subset. The step-by-step procedure is demonstrated from each approach in diagnosing flu system. The similarity and dissimilarity indexes between conditional symptoms and decision are measured using Jaccard approach. Additionally, the rough set is used to build decision support rules. Moreover, the decision support rules are established using redundant data analysis and elimination of unclassified elements. A number data sets is considered to attempt the step-by-step procedure from each approach. The result has shown that rough set can be used to support Jaccard approaches in establishing decision support rules. Additionally, Jaccard index is better approach for investigating the worst condition of patients. While, the definitely and possibly patients with or without flu can be determined using rough set approach. The rules may improve the performance of medical diagnosis systems. Therefore, inexperienced doctors and patients are easier in preliminary flu diagnosis.

  19. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  20. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2017-04-01

    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  1. Simple stochastic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic simulations may be used to describe changes with time of a reaction system in a way that explicitly accounts for the fact that molecules show a significant degree of randomness in their dynamic behavior. The stochastic approach is almost invariably used when small numbers of molecules or molecular assemblies are involved because this randomness leads to significant deviations from the predictions of the conventional deterministic (or continuous) approach to the simulation of biochemical kinetics. Advances in computational methods over the three decades that have elapsed since the publication of Daniel Gillespie's seminal paper in 1977 (J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340-2361) have allowed researchers to produce highly sophisticated models of complex biological systems. However, these models are frequently highly specific for the particular application and their description often involves mathematical treatments inaccessible to the nonspecialist. For anyone completely new to the field to apply such techniques in their own work might seem at first sight to be a rather intimidating prospect. However, the fundamental principles underlying the approach are in essence rather simple, and the aim of this article is to provide an entry point to the field for a newcomer. It focuses mainly on these general principles, both kinetic and computational, which tend to be not particularly well covered in specialist literature, and shows that interesting information may even be obtained using very simple operations in a conventional spreadsheet.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Manning's roughness Coefficients in Non-vegetated Canals for Irrigation and Drainage Network of Moghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Nasseri

    2017-03-01

    software’s of SPSS and Minitab were used in statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: Roughness coefficients averaged 0.06. Results revealed that RC varied from 0.014 to 0.050 (and more than for 90 to 40% probabilities in non-vegetated canals. Also, flow velocity, hydraulic radius, cross section area, wetted perimeter and roughness coefficient were lognormal in distributions. Results also showed that flow regimes were turbulent and with increase in Reynolds numbers, roughness coefficients decrease. Sensitivity analysis of flow rate to roughness coefficient showed that with increase as 200 and 300 percent in roughness coefficients, flow rates were 0.50 and 0.33 of flow rate from average roughness coefficient. Moreover, A simple regression model was developed based on effective variables (viz. flow velocity and canal slope on roughness coefficient by omitting non-effective variables in non-vegetated canals. Developed model was as follows: (2 R2=0.99 The variables of the model were previously introduced earlier. The coefficient of determination (R2 shows that more than 99% variations in RC could be explained by flow velocity and canal slope. Conclusion: Roughness coefficient in the earth non-vegetated canals was successfully and precisely evaluated for irrigation and drainage network of Moghan (in North-west of Iran by statistical methods. Roughness coefficients averaged 0.06. The sensitivity of canal discharge to roughness coefficient was significant. It is recommended to select and apply actual values of this coefficient in engineering or computing purposes. By omitting non-effective variables in roughness coefficient in non-vegetated canals, a simple regression model with R2 of 0.99 was developed based on effective variables. In this study, the role of vegetation in channel for roughness coefficient was not evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that the effect of different vegetation on roughness coefficient tobe evaluated with models such as hydrodynamic and zero-inertia.

  3. Optical measurement of microroughness of pigment coatings on rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, N. J.

    2009-02-01

    The optical determination of rms roughness at the sub-wavelength scale by measurement of specular intensity as a function of wavelength or angle of incidence is well known. The method is normally used for specimens that are macroscopically flat. However, important industrial materials such as coated paper and paint consist of microscopically rough pigment coatings on a macroscopically rough substrate. Numerical modelling is used to assess the applicability and limitations of optical measurement of microroughness for such materials. Experimental results are presented for a range of paints on substrates of various macroroughness. Model and data are in fair agreement and show that the presence of substrate macroroughness always leads to an underestimation of microroughness. Generally, optical measurements of microroughness are only comparable for substrates of similar macroroughness and a limiting value exists above which measurements may not be meaningful.

  4. Multifrequency passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloscia, S.; Pampaloni, P.; Chiarantini, L.; Coppo, P.; Gagliani, S.; Luzi, G.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy achievable in the surface soil moisture measurement of rough bare and vegetated soils, typical of the Italian landscape, has been investigated by using microwave experimental data collected by means of a multi-band sensor package (L, X, Ka and infrared bands). The thickness of soil that mainly affects the emission at the three microwave frequencies has been assessed. The sensitivity of L band emission to the moisture content of a soil layer about 5 cm thick has been confirmed, as well as the attenuation effect due to the surface roughness and presence of vegetation. A correction criterion based on the sensitivity to roughness and crop parameters of the highest frequencies (X and Ka bands) is proposed in order to increase the precision in soil moisture measurements

  5. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echouchene, F. [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Belmabrouk, H., E-mail: frchouchene@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M. [LMFA UMR CNRS 5509, Universite de Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, INSA de Lyon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C{sub d} is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  6. Characterisation of surface roughness for ultra-precision freeform surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huifen; Cheung, C F; Lee, W B; To, S; Jiang, X Q

    2005-01-01

    Ultra-precision freeform surfaces are widely used in many advanced optics applications which demand for having surface roughness down to nanometer range. Although a lot of research work has been reported on the study of surface generation, reconstruction and surface characterization such as MOTIF and fractal analysis, most of them are focused on axial symmetric surfaces such as aspheric surfaces. Relative little research work has been found in the characterization of surface roughness in ultra-precision freeform surfaces. In this paper, a novel Robust Gaussian Filtering (RGF) method is proposed for the characterisation of surface roughness for ultra-precision freeform surfaces with known mathematic model or a cloud of discrete points. A series of computer simulation and measurement experiments were conducted to verify the capability of the proposed method. The experimental results were found to agree well with the theoretical results

  7. Scattering from a PEC Slightly Rough Surface in Chiral Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Akhtar Qureshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of left circularly polarized wave from a perfectly electric conducting (PEC rough surface in isotropic chiral media is investigated. Since a slightly rough interface is assumed, the solution is obtained using perturbation method. Zeroth-order term corresponds to solution for a flat interface which helps in making a comparison with the results reported in the literature. First-order term gives the contribution from the surface perturbations, and it is used to define incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients for a Gaussian rough surface. Higher order solution is obtained in a recursive manner. Numerical results are reported for different values of chirality, correlation length, and rms height of the surface. Diffraction efficiency is defined for a sinusoidal grating.

  8. Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi

    2013-01-01

    Surface roughness or texture is the most visible property of any object, including injection molded plastic parts. Roughness of the injection molding (IM) tool cavity directly affects not only appearance and perception of quality, but often also the function of all manufactured plastic parts. So...... called “optically smooth” plastic surfaces is one example, where low roughness of a tool cavity is desirable. Such tool surfaces can be very expensive to fabricate using conventional means, such as abrasive diamond polishing or diamond turning. We present a novel process to coat machined metal parts...... are reduced 10 and 3 times respectively. We completed more than 10,000 injection molding cycles without detectable degradation of the HSQ coating. This result opens new possibilities for molding of affordable plastic parts with perfect surface finish....

  9. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  10. Qualitative internal surface roughness classification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizi Zohari; Mohd Hanif Saad

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes a novel new nondestructive method of qualitative internal surface roughness classification for pipes utilizing Acoustic Emission (AE) signal. Two different flowrate are introduced in a pipe obstructed using normally available components (e.g.: valve). The AE signal at suitable location from the obstruction are obtained and the peak amplitudes, RMS amplitude and energy of the AE signal are obtained. A dimensionless number, the Bangi Number, AB, is then calculated as a ratio of the AE parameters (peak amplitude, RMS amplitude or energy) in low flowrate measurement compared to the AE parameters in high flowrate measurement. It was observed that the Bangi Number, AB obtained can then be used to successfully discriminate between rough and smooth internal surface roughness. (author)

  11. Response Ant Colony Optimization of End Milling Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. Abd Alla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products (more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using milling mould aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6 with Response Ant Colony Optimization (RACO. The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. The main objectives to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables (cutting speed, feedrate, axial depth and radial depth. The first order model indicates that the feedrate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness.

  12. THE EFFECT OF OPACIFIERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OFCERAMIC GLAZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarjahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface smoothness of ceramic glazes is always an important characteristic of ceramic glazes as a point of surface engineering studies. Surface roughness affects chemical resistivity, glossiness and stainabiliy of glazes. In fact, less surface roughness improves cleanability of the surface by the least usage amount of detergents. In this investigation, surface topography of two common opaque glazes, zirconia and titania-based, has been investigated. Crystallinity of the surface has been studied from SEM images, and comparison of EDS elemental results with phase analysis results of XRD. Surface roughness profile measured by Marsurf M300, shows that titania-based glaze is almost 24% percentage more smooth than zirconia based glaze. Surface smoothness is in relation with crystallinity of glaze surface, crystal type and crystal distribution in amorphous matrix phase

  13. Optical measurement of microroughness of pigment coatings on rough substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, N J

    2009-01-01

    The optical determination of rms roughness at the sub-wavelength scale by measurement of specular intensity as a function of wavelength or angle of incidence is well known. The method is normally used for specimens that are macroscopically flat. However, important industrial materials such as coated paper and paint consist of microscopically rough pigment coatings on a macroscopically rough substrate. Numerical modelling is used to assess the applicability and limitations of optical measurement of microroughness for such materials. Experimental results are presented for a range of paints on substrates of various macroroughness. Model and data are in fair agreement and show that the presence of substrate macroroughness always leads to an underestimation of microroughness. Generally, optical measurements of microroughness are only comparable for substrates of similar macroroughness and a limiting value exists above which measurements may not be meaningful

  14. The effect of sidewall roughness on line edge roughness in top-down scanning electron microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduin, T.; Lokhorst, S. R.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated in a numerical study the determination of sidewall roughness (SWR) from top down scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. In a typical metrology application, top-down SEM images are acquired in a (critical-dimension) SEM and the roughness is analyzed. However, the true size, shape and roughness characteristics of resist features are not fully investigated in the analysis of top-down SEM images. In reality, rough resist features are complex three-dimensional structures and the characterization naturally extends to the analysis of SWR. In this study we randomly generate images of rough lines and spaces, where the lines are made of PMMA on a silicon substrate. The lines that we study have a length of 2 µm, a width of 32nm and a height of 32 nm. The SWR is modeled by using the power spectral density (PSD) function of Palasantzas, which characterizes roughness by the standard deviation σ, correlation length ξ and roughness exponent α . The actual roughness is generated by application of the method of Thorsos in two dimensions. The images are constructed by using a home-built program for simulating electron-specimen interactions. The program that we have developed is optimized for complex arbitrary geometries and large number of incident low energy primary electrons by using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. The program uses the dielectric function model for inelastic scattering events and has an implementation specifically for low energy electrons. A satisfactory comparison is made between the secondary electron yields from the home-built program and another program found in literature. In order to reduce the risk of shrinkage, we use a beam energy of 300 eV and a spot size of 3 nm. Each pixel is exposed with 20 electrons on average (≍ 276 µC/cm2), following the Poisson distribution to account for illumination shot noise. We have assumed that the detection of electrons is perfect and does not introduce additional noise. We measure line edge

  15. Effect of Ground Surface Roughness on Atmospheric Dispersion and Dry Deposition of Cs-137 in the UAE Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungyeop; Beeley, Philip A. [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Sungyeop; Chang, Soonheung; Lee, Kunjai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The site of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the UAE has several unique characteristics as a NPP on the desert environment near coastal region. Those characteristics are represented like below: · Arid ground surface · Low ground surface roughness length · Relatively simple (flat) terrain · Extremely low precipitation · Intense solar radiation and high temperature in day time · Sea breeze · Relatively high humidity of atmosphere · Etc. From the review of this desert environment in the UAE, low ground surface roughness is regarded as one of definitively different characteristics from that of other NPP sites. In this context, surface roughness is selected as independent variables for the sensitivity analyses in this research. Another important reason of this selection is that this parameters is less dependent on the day and night change than other parameters. With ground level concentration, dry deposition rate has been chosen as a dependent variable to be considered rather than wet deposition because UAE shows almost zero rainfall especially in summer. Lower ground level concentration of Cs-137 near the site and extremely lower dry deposition of Cs-137 are predicted in the UAE environment because of the lower ground surface roughness of the desert.

  16. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    We investigate “dual headquarters involvement”, i.e. corporate and divisional headquarters’ simultaneous involvement in subsidiaries’ innovation development projects. Analyses draw on 85 innovation projects in 23 multibusiness firms and reveal that cross-divisional innovation importance, i.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross......-divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple...

  17. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  18. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  19. SIMPLE for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Azmi; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Saidi Rajab

    2004-01-01

    The first thing industrial radiographers have to do before commencing radiography works is to determine manually the amount of correct exposure that the film need to be exposed in order to obtain the right density. The amount of exposure depends on many variables such as type of radioisotope, type of film, nature of test-object and its orientation, and specific arrangement related to object location and configuration. In many cases radiography works are rejected because of radiographs fail to meet certain reference criteria as defined in the applicable standard. One of the main reasons of radiograph rejection is due to inadequate exposure received by the films. SIMPLE is a software specially developed to facilitate the calculation of gamma-radiography exposure. By using this software and knowing radiographic parameters to be encountered during the work, it is expected that human error will be minimized, thus enhancing the quality and productivity of NDT jobs. (Author)

  20. Molecular genetics made simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  1. Molecular genetics made simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh.; Girolami, Francesca; Sanoudou, Despina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients. PMID:25610837

  2. Helly-type theorems for roughly convexlike sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Thanh An

    2005-04-01

    For a given positive real number of γ, a subset M of an n-dimensional Euclidean space is said to be roughly convexlike (with the roughness degree γ) if x 0 , x 1 is an element of M and parallel x 1 - x 0 parallel > γ imply ]x 0 , x 1 [intersection M ≠ 0. In this paper, we present Helly-type theorems for such sets then solve an open question about sets of constant width raised by Buchman and Valentine and Sallee (author)

  3. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd. Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsu, K C [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y M [Institute of Electronics Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, 1 Nan-Tai Street, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D{sub ts}) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D{sub ts}, root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved.

  4. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y S; Hsu, K C; Huang, Y M

    2006-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D ts ) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D ts , root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved

  5. Additional Smooth and Rough Water Trials of SKI-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ADDITIONAL SMOOTH AND ROUGH WATER TRIALS OF FINAL SKI- CAT S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR() I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMUr...Identif by bloc membe) ’ " -Further tests of SKI- CAT were made in smooth and rough water. Smooth water results confirmed the performance results of...reductions in the accelerations and motions of SKI- CAT over against the head seasreut DD , +A ,3 1473 EDITION OF I NOVS IS OBSOLETE UNCIbSJFIED SIME 0102-014

  6. Characterization of hypersonic roughness-induced boundary-layer transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirtey, S. C.; Chazot, O.; Walpot, L.

    2011-02-01

    The flow-field structure in the vicinity and in the wake of an isolated 3D roughness element has been studied. Different experimental techniques have been coupled and supported by CFD simulation for a good understanding of the flow-field topology. The results have shown strong flow-field similarities for different roughness elements. A model describing the flow structure and interaction mechanisms has been proposed. This model is in good agreement with experimental and CFD results as well as the literature.

  7. Movements of a Sphere Moving Over Smooth and Rough Inclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    1992-01-01

    The steady movements of a sphere over a rough incline in air, and over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid were studied theoretically and experimentally. The principle of energy conservation was used to analyze the translation velocities, rolling resistances, and drag coefficients of a sphere moving over the inclines. The rolling resistance to the movement of a sphere from the rough incline was presumed to be caused by collisions and frictional slidings. A varnished wooden board was placed on the bottom of an experimental tilting flume to form a smooth incline and a layer of spheres identical to the sphere moving over them was placed on the smooth wooden board to form a rough incline. Spheres used in the experiments were glass spheres, steel spheres, and golf balls. Experiments show that a sphere moving over a rough incline with negligible fluid drag in air can reach a constant translation velocity. This constant velocity was found to be proportional to the bed inclination (between 11 ^circ and 21^circ) and the square root of the sphere's diameter, but seemingly independent of the sphere's specific gravity. Two empirical coefficients in the theoretical expression of the sphere's translation velocity were determined by experiments. The collision and friction parts of the shear stress exerted on the interface between the moving sphere and rough incline were determined. The ratio of collision to friction parts appears to increase with increase in the bed inclination. These two parts seem to be of the same order of magnitude. The rolling resistances and the relations between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for a sphere moving over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid, such as water or salad oil, were determined by a regression analysis based on experimental data. It was found that the drag coefficient for a sphere over the rough incline is larger than that for a sphere over the smooth incline, and both of which are much larger than that for a sphere in free

  8. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  9. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  10. The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair UHMWPE/TiN-coated stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispert, M P; Serro, A P; Colaço, R; Pires, E; Saramago, B

    2008-01-01

    The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/TiN coated stainless steel was investigated. Standard and polished TiN coated stainless steel pins were tested against either standard or smooth UHMWPE disks. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution in HBSS were used as lubricants. Friction and wear were determined using a pin-on-disk apparatus and the wear mechanisms were investigated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that the decrease in the roughness led to a reduction of the friction coefficient and of the wear rate of UHMWPE. However, the most important effect was achieved through the decrease in the roughness of the hard TiN counterface while keeping the standard UHMWPE surface. If BSA was added to HBSS, a strong decrease of both the friction coefficient and the polymeric wear was observed independently of the roughness of both the TiN and the polyethylene surfaces. Abrasive and fatigue wear mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  11. The influence of glancing angle deposited nano-rough platinum surfaces on the adsorption of fibrinogen and the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Chevallier, J; Besenbacher, F; Pennisi, C P; Yoshida, K; Skeldal, S; Andreasen, P; Zachar, V

    2009-01-01

    We have used the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method as a simple and fast method to generate nano-rough surfaces for protein adsorption experiments and cell assays. The surface roughness and the detailed geometrical surface morphology of the thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the GLAD deposition angle approaches grazing incidence, sharp and whisker-like columnar protrusions are formed. Smaller and less sharp surface features appear for the thin films synthesized at higher deposition angles. By changing the GLAD deposition angle together with the total amount of mass deposited per area on the respective surfaces, the size of the surface features can be varied on the nanoscale. Using the GLAD topographies as model surfaces, we have investigated the influence of the nano-roughness on fibrinogen adsorption and on the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts. It is found that fibrinogen, an important blood protein, preferentially adheres on the whisker-like nano-rough substrates in comparison to a flat surface. Furthermore, the proliferation of the human fibroblasts is significantly reduced on the nano-rough substrates. These results demonstrate that the GLAD technique can be used to fabricate nano-rough surface morphologies that significantly influence both protein and cellular adhesion to surfaces and are therefore well suited for biological assays.

  12. Optical detection of ultrasound from optically rough surfaces using a custom CMOS sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achamfuo-Yeboah, S O; Light, R A; Sharpies, S D

    2015-01-01

    The optical detection of ultrasound from optically rough surfaces is severely limited when using a conventional interferometric or optical beam deflection (OBD) setup because the detected light is speckled. This means that complicated and expensive setups are required to detect ultrasound optically on rough surfaces. We present a CMOS integrated circuit that can detect laser ultrasound in the presence of speckle. The detector circuit is based on the simple knife edge detector. It is self-adapting and is fast, inxepensive, compact and robust. The CMOS circuit is implemented as a widefield array of 32×32 pixels. At each pixel the received light is compared with an adjacent pixel in order to determine the local light gradient. The result of this comparison is stored and used to connect each pixel to the positive or negative gradient output as appropriate (similar to a balanced knife edge detector). The perturbation of the surface due to ultrasound preserves the speckle distribution whilst deflecting it. The spatial disturbance of the speckle pattern due to the ultrasound is detected by considering each pair of pixels as a knife edge detector. The sensor can adapt itself to match the received optical speckle pattern in less than 0.1 μs, and then detect the ultrasound within 0.5 μs of adaptation. This makes it possible to repeatedly detect ultrasound from optically rough surfaces very quickly. The detector is capable of independent operation controlled by a local microcontroller, or it may be connected to a computer for more sophisticated configuration and control. We present the theory of its operation and discuss results validating the concept and operation of the device. We also present preliminary results from an improved design which grants a higher bandwidth, allowing for optical detection of higher frequency ultrasound

  13. The improvement of surface roughness for OAP aluminum mirrors: from terahertz to ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jilong; Yu, Qian; Shao, Yajun; Wang, Dong; Yi, Zhong; Wang, Shanshan

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum reflector, especially OAP (Off-Axis Parabolic) reflector, has been widely used in terahertz and infrared systems for its low cost, lightweight, good machinability, small size, simple structure, and having the same thermal expansion and contraction with the system structure which makes it have a wide temperature adaptability. Thorlabs, Daheng and other large optical components companies even have Aluminum OAP sold on shelf. Most of the precision Aluminum OAP is fabricated by SPDT (single point diamond turing). Affected by intermittent shock, the roughness of aluminum OAP mirrors through conventional single-point diamond lathes is around 7 nm which limits the scope of application for aluminum mirrors, like in the high power density terahertz/infrared systems and visible/UV optical systems. In this paper, a continuous process frock is proposed, which effectively reduces the influence of turning impact on the mirror roughness. Using this process, an off-axis parabolic aluminum reflector with an effective diameter of 50 mm, off-axis angle of 90 degree is fabricated, and the performances are validated. Measurement by VEECO NT1100 optical profiler with 20× objects, the surface roughness achieves 2.3 nm, and the surface figure error is within λ/7 RMS (λ= 632.8 nm) tested by FISB Aμ Phase laser interferometer with the help of a standard flat mirror. All these technical specifications are close to the traditional glass-based reflectors, and make it possible for using Aluminum reflectors in the higher LIDT (laser induced damage threshold) systems and even for the micro sensor of ionospheric for vacuum ultraviolet micro nano satellites.

  14. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  15. Influence of roughness parameters on coefficient of friction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 33, Part 3, June 2008, pp. ... Surface texture and thus roughness parameters influence coefficient of friction during sliding. ..... tural irregularities and complexities of the natural system, fractal is widely used to explain the natural ...

  16. Application of function-oriented roughness parameters using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Klauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical measuring instruments are widely used for the functional characterization of surface topography. However, due to the interaction of the surface with the incident light, effects occur that can influence the measured topography height values and the obtained surface texture parameters. Therefore, we describe a systematic investigation of the influences of optical surface topography measurement on the acquisition of function-oriented roughness parameters. The same evaluation areas of varying cylinder liners which represent a typical application of function-oriented roughness parameters were measured with a confocal microscope and a stylus instrument. Functional surface texture parameters as given in the standards ISO 13565–2, ISO 13565–3 and ISO 25178–2 were evaluated for both measurement methods and compared. The transmission of specific surface features was described and a correlation analysis for the surface topographies obtained with the different measurement methods and their resulting functional roughness parameters was carried out. Keywords: Functional surface characterization, Optical metrology, Topography measurement, Roughness

  17. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  18. Benchmarking performance measurement and lean manufacturing in the rough mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; D. Earl Kline; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    Lean manufacturing represents a set of tools and a stepwise strategy for achieving smooth, predictable product flow, maximum product flexibility, and minimum system waste. While lean manufacturing principles have been successfully applied to some components of the secondary wood products value stream (e.g., moulding, turning, assembly, and finishing), the rough mill is...

  19. Multifractal scaling analysis of autopoisoning reactions over a rough surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Ajay; Yan, Ching-Cher Sanders; Lee, S.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Decay type diffusion-limited reactions (DLR) over a rough surface generated by a random deposition model were performed. To study the effect of the decay profile on the reaction probability distribution (RPD), multifractal scaling analysis has been carried out. The dynamics of these autopoisoning reactions are controlled by the two parameters in the decay function, namely, the initial sticking probability (P ini ) of every site and the decay rate (m). The smaller the decay rate, the narrower is the range of α values in the α-f(α) multifractal spectrum. The results are compared with the earlier work of DLR over a surface of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). We also considered here the autopoisoning reactions over a smooth surface for comparing our results, which show clearly how the roughness affects the chemical reactions. The q-τ(q) multifractal curves for the smooth surface are linear whereas those for the rough surface are nonlinear. The range of α values in the case of a rough surface is wider than that of the smooth surface

  20. Sustainability of road roughness measurements in countries with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research project was carried out to establish a sustainable procedure for road roughness measurement applicable in developing countries. Out of many devices in use today, a vehicle mounted bump integrator (VMBI) was selected for the reasons that: a) the equipment is available in most developing countries and it has ...

  1. Evaluation of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) as rootstock for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lakesh.Sharma

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... rootstock for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under in vitro conditions ... INTRODUCTION. Around the world, citrus is one of the .... to summarize the general effect of different concentrations of NaCl on rough lemon on the ...

  2. Oblique roughness replication in strained SiGe/Si multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holy, V.; Darhuber, A.A.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Nützel, J.-F.; Abstreiter, G.

    1998-01-01

    The replication of the interface roughness in SiGe/Si multilayers grown on miscut Si(001) substrates has been studied by means of x-ray reflectivity reciprocal space mapping. The interface profiles were found to be highly correlated and the direction of the maximal replication was inclined with

  3. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range

  4. Scales of form roughness on riverbanks with different riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Langendoen, E. J.; Ursic, M.; Abad, J. D.; Garcia, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Riverbanks often include topographic irregularities that occur over a range of scales and that are produced by interactions among erosional processes, vegetation, and the geotechnical properties of the banks and floodplains. Irregularity of the bank surface can increase form drag, affecting the overall flow resistance, near-bank shear stresses, and patterns of sediment transport. Understanding how dominant scales of form roughness influence the near-bank flow structure, and thus the shear stress partitioning, is vital for the development of accurate predictive morphodynamic models. In this paper, the scales of bank roughness are examined for two meander bends of a large alluvial river with differing riparian vegetation on the Wabash River near Grayville, Illinois. Detailed measurements of bank topography were obtained using terrestrial LiDAR during low flow events and a multibeam echo sounder (MBES) during bankfull events. These measurements yielded high spatial resolution maps (~5-10 cm) that were used to analyze scales of roughness at different elevations along the banks during both subaerial and subaqueous conditions. The results of these analyses provide insight into the influence of riparian vegetation on form roughness and patterns of near-bank flow structure as documented using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP).

  5. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  6. Heat transfer and friction on smooth and rough test rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, W.M.P.; Hoogland, H.; Deijman, P.

    1977-06-01

    Results are reported on heat transfer and pressure drop tests on one smooth and nine rough test rods in an annular geometry. The wall roughness consisted of transversal ribs with various roughness pitches, rib heights and rib widths. The tests were performed with air as coolant under a wide range of experimental conditions: 10 5 5 , 1.1 2. Special attention has been given to the effect of variation of the physical coolant properties over the flow cross section. This effect could be described by the power function (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b))sup(-0.3l) in additional systematic variation of the heat transfer could be recognized, dependent on the coolant temperature level. The experimental results were correlated by the equation St = C(Tsub(in)) Resup(-0.2) Prsup(-0.6) (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b)sup(-0.31). Values of C(Tsub(in)) are given in tabular form. The thermal entrance effect has been measured on various test rods. A substantial reduction of the heat transfer coefficient was almost constant along the rough test rods

  7. Modeling of interface roughness in thermoelectric composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gather, F; Heiliger, C; Klar, P J

    2011-01-01

    We use a network model to calculate the influence of the mesoscopic interface structure on the thermoelectric properties of superlattice structures consisting of alternating layers of materials A and B. The thermoelectric figure of merit of such a composite material depends on the layer thickness, if interface resistances are accounted for, and can be increased by proper interface design. In general, interface roughness reduces the figure of merit, again compared to the case of ideal interfaces. However, the strength of this reduction depends strongly on the type of interface roughness. Smooth atomic surface diffusion leading to alloying of materials A and B causes the largest reduction of the figure of merit. Consequently, in real structures, it is important not only to minimize interface roughness, but also to control the type of roughness. Although the microscopic effects of interfaces are only empirically accounted for, using a network model can yield useful information about the dependence of the macroscopic transport coefficients on the mesoscopic disorder in structured thermoelectric materials.

  8. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.

  9. Impact of human error on lumber yield in rough mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Rough sawn, kiln-dried lumber contains characteristics such as knots and bark pockets that are considered by most people to be defects. When using boards to produce furniture components, these defects are removed to produce clear, defect-free parts. Currently, human operators identify and locate the unusable board areas containing defects. Errors in determining a...

  10. Modeling and analysis for surface roughness and material removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cutting parameters considered were tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and cutting environment (dry, wet and cooled) on the surface roughness and material removal ... A second order mathematical model in terms of cutting parameters is also developed using regression modeling.

  11. Influence of Surface Roughness of Stainless steel on Microbial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, D.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gram, L.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation is of growing interest in the food processing industry where bacteria can survive on surfaces and resist cleaning and disinfection. The condition of the surfaces (eg lack of cracks) and their general roughness is assumed to be important for the hygienic...

  12. Dynamics of wetting on smooth and rough surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazabat, A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of spreading of non-volatile liquids on smooth and on rough surfaces was investigated. The radius of the wetted spot was found to agree with recently proposed scaling laws (t 1/10 for capillarity driven andt 1/8 for gravity driven spreading) when the surface was smooth. However, the

  13. Peptostreptococcus micros smooth and rough genotypes in periodontitis and gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, BHA; Loos, BG; van der Velden, U; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Craandijk, J; Bulthuis, HM; Hutter, J; Varoufaki, AS; van Steenbergen, TJM

    Background: Two genotypes can be distinguished within the species Peptostreptococcus micros: a smooth (Sm) and a rough (Rg) type. To date no systematic study has been performed on the prevalence and proportion of both types in untreated periodontitis patients and subjects without destructive

  14. Squeeze film between porous rough elliptical plates | Deheri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roughness of the bearing surface is described by a stochastic random variable with non zero mean, variance and skew ness. The associated Reynolds' equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions. Results for bearing performance characteristics such as load carrying capacity and response time for different ...

  15. Estimation of scattering from a moist rough surface with spheroidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    less than 5⋅5% of the magnetic wavelength. We empha- size that the surface deviation is responsible for scattering at a given electromagnetic wavelength. 2. Theoretical consideration (basic theory). We consider a horizontally rough surface with slight per- centage of moisture (2–4⋅5%) with spheroidal dust parti- cles.

  16. Modelling dune evolution and dynamic roughness in rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries

    2008-01-01

    Accurate river flow models are essential tools for water managers, but these hydraulic simulation models often lack a proper description of dynamic roughness due to hysteresis effects in dune evolution. To incorporate the effects of dune evolution directly into the resistance coefficients of

  17. Differential equations driven by rough paths with jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friz, Peter K.; Zhang, Huilin

    2018-05-01

    We develop the rough path counterpart of Itô stochastic integration and differential equations driven by general semimartingales. This significantly enlarges the classes of (Itô/forward) stochastic differential equations treatable with pathwise methods. A number of applications are discussed.

  18. Calibrating the Truax Rough Rider seed drill for restoration plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren St. John; Brent Cornforth; Boyd Simonson; Dan Ogle; Derek Tilley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a step-by-step approach to calibrating the Truax Rough Rider range drill, a relatively new, state-of-the-art rangeland drill. To achieve the desired outcome of a seeding project, an important step following proper weed control and seedbed preparation is the calibration of the seeding equipment to ensure the recommended...

  19. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  20. Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Fractal characteristics of fracture roughness and aperture data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Boernge, J.

    1991-05-01

    In this study mathematical expressions are developed for the characteristics of apertures between rough surfaces. It has shown that the correlation between the opposite surfaces influences the aperture properties and different models are presented for these different surface correlations. Fracture and apertures profiles measured from intact fractures are evaluated and it is found that they qualitatively follow the mathematically predicted trends

  2. Surface roughness of orthodontic band cements with different compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Hélène van de Sande

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated comparatively the surface roughness of four orthodontic band cements after storage in various solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight standardized cylinders were made from 4 materials: zinc phosphate cement (ZP, compomer (C, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and resin cement (RC. Specimens were stored for 24 h in deionized water and immersed in saline (pH 7.0 or 0.1 M lactic acid solution (pH 4.0 for 15 days. Surface roughness readings were taken with a profilometer (Surfcorder SE1200 before and after the storage period. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (comparison among cements and storage solutions or paired t-test (comparison before and after the storage period at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The values for average surface roughness were statistically different (pRMGIC>C>R (p0.05. Compared to the current threshold (0.2 µm related to biofilm accumulation, both RC and C remained below the threshold, even after acidic challenge by immersion in lactic acid solution. CONCLUSIONS: Storage time and immersion in lactic acid solution increased the surface roughness of the majority of the tested cements. RC presented the smoothest surface and it was not influenced by storage conditions.

  3. Surface roughness and morphologic changes of zirconia: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-6 W/20 Hz presented significantly effect in surface roughness changes of zirconia than other surface treatments. Key words:Erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser, scanning electron .... ZrO2, (f) After sintering ZrO2 in letter “e”, (g) 2 W laser irridiation pre-sintered ZrO2, (h) After ..... Acta Odontol Scand.

  4. Influence of surface roughness on streptococcal adhesion forces to composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    OBJECTIVE: To determine streptococcal adhesion forces with composite resins with different surface roughness. METHODS: Polishing and grinding were applied to obtain smooth (roughness 20 nm), moderately rough (150 nm) and rough (350 nm) surfaces of two orthodontic, light-cured composites. Adhesion

  5. Comparative Ebulliometry: a Simple, Reliable Technique for Accurate Measurement of the Number Average Molecular Weight of Macromolecules. Preliminary Studies on Heavy Crude Fractions Ébulliométrie comparative : technique simple et fiable pour déterminer précisément la masse molaire moyenne en nombre des macromolécules. Etudes préliminaires sur des fractions lourdes de bruts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the authors present a comparison of the major techniques for the measurement of the molecular weight of macromolecules. The bibliographic results are gathered in several tables. In the second part, a comparative ebulliometer for the measurement of the number average molecular weight (Mn of heavy crude oil fractions is described. The high efficiency of the apparatus is demonstrated with a preliminary study of atmospheric distillation residues and resins. The measurement of molecular weights up to 2000 g/mol is possible in less than 4 hours with an uncertainty of about 2%. Cet article comprend deux parties. Dans la première, les auteurs présentent une comparaison entre les principales techniques de détermination de la masse molaire de macromolécules. Les résultats de l'étude bibliographique sont rassemblés dans plusieurs tableaux. La seconde partie décrit un ébulliomètre comparatif conçu pour la mesure de la masse molaire moyenne en nombre (Mn des fractions lourdes des bruts. Une illustration de l'efficacité de cet appareil est indiquée avec l'étude préliminaire de résidus de distillation atmosphérique et de résines. En particulier, la mesure de masses molaires pouvant atteindre 2000 g/mol est possible en moins de 4 heures avec une incertitude expérimentale de l'ordre de 2 %.

  6. Simple map in action-angle coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Olivia; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-07-01

    A simple map [A. Punjabi, A. Verma, and A. Boozer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992)] is the simplest map that has the topology of divertor tokamaks [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. Here, action-angle coordinates, the safety factor, and the equilibrium generating function for the simple map are calculated analytically. The simple map in action-angle coordinates is derived from canonical transformations. This map cannot be integrated across the separatrix surface because of the singularity in the safety factor there. The stochastic broadening of the ideal separatrix surface in action-angle representation is calculated by adding a perturbation to the simple map equilibrium generating function. This perturbation represents the spatial noise and field errors typical of the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] tokamak. The stationary Fourier modes of the perturbation have poloidal and toroidal mode numbers (m,n,)={(3,1),(4,1),(6,2),(7,2),(8,2),(9,3),(10,3),(11,3)} with amplitude δ =0.8×10-5. Near the X-point, about 0.12% of toroidal magnetic flux inside the separatrix, and about 0.06% of the poloidal flux inside the separatrix is lost. When the distance from the O-point to the X-point is 1m, the width of stochastic layer near the X-point is about 1.4cm. The average value of the action on the last good surface is 0.19072 compared to the action value of 3/5π on the separatrix. The average width of stochastic layer in action coordinate is 2.7×10-4, while the average area of the stochastic layer in action-angle phase space is 1.69017×10-3. On average, about 0.14% of action or toroidal flux inside the ideal separatrix is lost due to broadening. Roughly five times more toroidal flux is lost in the simple map than in DIII-D for the same perturbation [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, A. Boozer, and T. Evans, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 52, 124 (2007)].

  7. Simple map in action-angle coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerwin, Olivia; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-01-01

    A simple map [A. Punjabi, A. Verma, and A. Boozer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992)] is the simplest map that has the topology of divertor tokamaks [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. Here, action-angle coordinates, the safety factor, and the equilibrium generating function for the simple map are calculated analytically. The simple map in action-angle coordinates is derived from canonical transformations. This map cannot be integrated across the separatrix surface because of the singularity in the safety factor there. The stochastic broadening of the ideal separatrix surface in action-angle representation is calculated by adding a perturbation to the simple map equilibrium generating function. This perturbation represents the spatial noise and field errors typical of the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] tokamak. The stationary Fourier modes of the perturbation have poloidal and toroidal mode numbers (m,n,)=((3,1),(4,1),(6,2),(7,2),(8,2),(9,3),(10,3),(11,3)) with amplitude δ=0.8x10 -5 . Near the X-point, about 0.12% of toroidal magnetic flux inside the separatrix, and about 0.06% of the poloidal flux inside the separatrix is lost. When the distance from the O-point to the X-point is 1 m, the width of stochastic layer near the X-point is about 1.4 cm. The average value of the action on the last good surface is 0.19072 compared to the action value of 3/5π on the separatrix. The average width of stochastic layer in action coordinate is 2.7x10 -4 , while the average area of the stochastic layer in action-angle phase space is 1.69017x10 -3 . On average, about 0.14% of action or toroidal flux inside the ideal separatrix is lost due to broadening. Roughly five times more toroidal flux is lost in the simple map than in DIII-D for the same perturbation [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, A. Boozer, and T. Evans, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 52, 124 (2007)].

  8. Quasispecies made simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  9. A simple scaler timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.; Kalavathy, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    In any nuclear reactor, the start-up channels monitor the neutron flux during the start-up operation and give the alarm signals for safety purposes. Normally, a fission chamber is used as a detector to detect the low level neutron fluxes. The output of the detector after amplification and discrimination is shaped in a pulse shaper to provide constant width, constant height pulses for further processing in rate meters. The shaped pulses also go to a scaler timer, where they are counted for fixed time intervals and the accumulated counts displayed. The scaler timer described in this paper uses LSIs to get at a simple, compact and reliable unit. The design is centered around two LSIs. MOS Counter Timebase LSI type MK 5009P (U1) is used to generate the gating pulses. A 1 MHz crystal is used to generate the system clock. A 4 bit address selects the desired gating intervals of 1 or 10 or 100 seconds. In fact, MK 5009 is a very versatile LSI in a 16 pin DIP package, consisting of a MOS oscillator and divider chain. It is binary encoded for frequency division selection ranging from 1 to 36 x 10. With an input frequency of 1 MHz, MK 5009 provides the time periods of 1 μs to 100 seconds, one minute, ten minute and one hour periods. (author)

  10. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, R A; Islamy, M R F; Khairurrijal; Munir, M M; Latief, H; Irsyam, M

    2016-01-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM. (paper)

  11. Investigation of the range of validity of the pairwise summation method applied to the calculation of the surface roughness correction to the van der Waals force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso, André; Burnham, Nancy A.

    2016-09-01

    It has long been recognized that stochastic surface roughness can considerably change the van der Waals (vdW) force between interacting surfaces and particles. However, few analytical expressions for the vdW force between rough surfaces have been presented in the literature. Because they have been derived using perturbative methods or the proximity force approximation the expressions are valid when the roughness correction is small and for a limited range of roughness parameters and surface separation. In this work, a nonperturbative approach, the effective density method (EDM) is proposed to circumvent some of these limitations. The method simplifies the calculations of the roughness correction based on pairwise summation (PWS), and allows us to derive simple expressions for the vdW force and energy between two semispaces covered with stochastic rough surfaces. Because the range of applicability of PWS and, therefore, of our results, are not known a priori, we compare the predictions based on the EDM with those based on the multilayer effective medium model, whose range of validity can be defined more properly and which is valid when the roughness correction is comparatively large. We conclude that the PWS can be used for roughness characterized by a correlation length of the order of its rms amplitude, when this amplitude is of the order of or smaller than a few nanometers, and only for typically insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, diamond, and certain glasses, polymers and ceramics. The results are relevant for the correct modeling of systems where the vdW force can play a significant role such as micro and nanodevices, for the calculation of the tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy, and in problems involving adhesion.

  12. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  13. Characterization of simple wireless neurostimulators and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Daniel W; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A single diode with a wireless power source and electrodes can act as an implantable stimulator or sensor. We have built such devices using RF and ultrasound power coupling. These simple devices could drastically reduce the size, weight, and cost of implants for applications where efficiency is not critical. However, a shortcoming has been a lack of control: any movement of the external power source would change the power coupling, thereby changing the stimulation current or modulating the sensor response. To correct for changes in power and signal coupling, we propose to use harmonic signals from the device. The diode acts as a frequency multiplier, and the harmonics it emits contain information about the drive level and bias. A simplified model suggests that estimation of power, electrode bias, and electrode resistance is possible from information contained in radiated harmonics even in the presence of significant noise. We also built a simple RF-powered stimulator with an onboard voltage limiter.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of open channel flow over smooth-to-rough and rough-to-smooth step changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Amirreza; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are reported for open channel flow over streamwise-alternating patches of smooth and fully rough walls. Owing to the streamwise periodicity, the flow configuration is composed of a step change from smooth to rough, and a step change from rough to smooth. The friction Reynolds number varies from 443 over the smooth patch to 715 over the rough patch. The flow is thoroughly studied by mean and fluctuation profiles, and spectrograms. The detailed flow from DNS reveals discrepancies of up to 50% among the various definitions of the internal-layer thickness, with apparent power-law exponents differing by up to 60%. The definition based on the logarithmic slope of the velocity profile, as proposed by Chamorro et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol., vol. 130, 2009, pp. 29-41), is most consistent with the physical notion of the internal layer; this is supported by the defect similarity based on this internal-layer thickness, and the streamwise homogeneity of the dissipation length-scale within this internal layer. The statistics inside this internal-layer, and the growth of the internal layer itself, are minimally affected by the streamwise periodicity when the patch length is at least six times the channel height.

  15. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data Collection and Analysis. The measurements of length (cm), weight (g) and the condition factor of individual fish sampled were recorded. The relationship between length and weight of the fish was examined by simple linear regression using WINKS software. The variations in the length-weight represented by 'b' were.

  16. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  17. Study of Surface Roughness and Cutting force in machining for 6068 Aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, D.; Kaushik Yanamundra, Krishna; Krishnan, Gokul; Perisamy, C.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites, in particular, Aluminium Hybrid Composites are gaining increasing attention for applications in air and land because of their superior strength to weight ratio, density and high temperature resistance. Aluminium alloys are being used for a wide range of applications in Aerospace and Automobile industries, to name a few. The Aluminium Alloy 6068 has been used as the specimen. It is mainly composed of Aluminium (93.22 - 97.6 %), Magnesium (0.60 - 1.2 %), Silicon (0.60 - 1.4 %) and Bismuth (0.60 - 1.1 %). Aluminium 6068 is widely used for manufacturing aircraft structures, fuselages and wings. It is also extensively used in fabricating automobile parts such as wheel spacers. In this study, tests for the measurement of surface roughness and cutting force has been carried out on the specimen, the results evaluated and conclusions are drawn. Also the simulation of the same is carried out in a commercial FE software – ABAQUS.

  18. Analysis of surface roughness effects on heat transfer in micro-conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.; Kleinstreuer, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Modern heat rejection systems, such as micro-heat sinks, are attractive because of their potential for high performance at small size and low weight. However, the impact of microscale effects on heat transfer have to be considered and quantitatively analyzed in order to gain physical insight and accurate Nusselt number data. The relative surface roughness (SR) was selected as a key microscale parameter, represented by a porous medium layer (PML) model. Assuming steady laminar fully developed liquid flow in microchannels and microtubes, the SR effects in terms of PML thermal conductivity ratio and Darcy number on the dimensionless temperature profile and Nusselt number were analyzed. In summary, the PML characteristics, especially the SR-number and conductivity ratio k{sub m}/k{sub f}, greatly affect the heat transfer performance where the Nusselt number can be either higher or lower than the conventional value. The PML influence is less pronounced in microtubes than in parallel-plate microchannels. (author)

  19. Optical scatterometry system for detecting specific line edge roughness of resist gratings subjected to detector noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yen-Min; Li, Jia-Han; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Fu-Min; Shen, Yu-Tian; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Shieh, Jason J; Chen, Alek C

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier scatterometry model was used to measure the ZEP 520A electron beam resist lines with specific line edge roughness (LER). By obtaining the pupils via an objective lens, the angle-resolved diffraction spectrum was collected efficiently without additional mechanical scanning. The concavity of the pupil was considered as the weight function in specimen recognition. A series of white noises was examined in the model, and the tolerant white noise levels for different system numerical apertures (NAs) were reported. Our numerical results show that the scatterometry model of a higher NA can identify a target with a higher white noise level. Moreover, the fabricated ZEP 520A electron beam resist gratings with LER were measured by using our model, and the fitting results were matched with scanning electron microscope measurements. (paper)

  20. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhoef

    1997-01-01

    occurring in the d-data across 16 selected canopies can be explained, whereas the analogous value for the z0-data (24 datapoints available is 81%. This makes the R94 model, with only two coefficients and its relatively simple equations, a useful universal tool for predicting z0 and d values for all kinds of canopies. For comparison, a similar fitting exercise is made using simple linear equations based on obstacle height only (e.g. Brutsaert, 1982 and another formula involving canopy height as well as roughness density (Lettau, 1969. The fitted Brutsaert equations explain 98% and 62% of the variance in the d and z0-data, respectively. Lettau's equation for prediction of z0 performs unsatisfactorily (r2 values <0, even after fitting of the coefficient and so it is concluded that the drag partition model is definitely the most effective for prediction of the momentum roughness lengths for a wide rang of canopy densities.

  1. Numerical simulation of electroosmotic flow in rough microchannels using the lattice Poisson-Nernst-Planck methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Reza; Soloklou, Mohsen Nasiri; Hadidi, Hooman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, coupled Lattice Boltzmann method is applied to solve the dynamic model for an electroosmotic flow and investigate the effects of roughness in a 2-D flat microchannel. In the present model, the Poisson equation is solved for the electrical potential, the Nernst- Planck equation is solved for the ion concentration. In the analysis of electroosmotic flows, when the electric double layers fully overlap or the convective effects are not negligible, the Nernst-Planck equation must be used to find the ionic distribution throughout the microchannel. The effects of surface roughness height, roughness interval spacing and roughness surface potential on flow conditions are investigated for two different configurations of the roughness, when the EDL layers fully overlap through the microchannel. The results show that in both arrangements of roughness in homogeneously charged rough channels, the flow rate decreases by increasing the roughness height. A discrepancy in the mass flow rate is observed when the roughness height is about 0.15 of the channel width, which its average is higher for the asymmetric configuration and this difference grows by increasing the roughness height. In the symmetric roughness arrangement, the mass flow rate increases until the roughness interval space is almost 1.5 times the roughness width and it decreases for higher values of the roughness interval space. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, when the roughness surface potential ψr is less than channel surface potential ψs , the net charge density increases by getting far from the roughness surface, while in the opposite situation, when ψs is more than ψr , the net charge density decreases from roughness surface to the microchannel middle center. Increasing the roughness surface potential induces stronger electric driving force on the fluid which results in larger velocities in the flow.

  2. b-tree facets for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2004-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...... defining property of the inequalities. Udgivelsesdato: JUN...

  3. Thriving rough sets 10th anniversary : honoring professor Zdzisław Pawlak's life and legacy & 35 years of rough sets

    CERN Document Server

    Skowron, Andrzej; Yao, Yiyu; Ślęzak, Dominik; Polkowski, Lech

    2017-01-01

    This special book is dedicated to the memory of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak, the father of rough set theory, in order to commemorate both the 10th anniversary of his passing and 35 years of rough set theory. The book consists of 20 chapters distributed into four sections, which focus in turn on a historical review of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak and rough set theory; a review of the theory of rough sets; the state of the art of rough set theory; and major developments in rough set based data mining approaches. Apart from Professor Pawlak’s contributions to rough set theory, other areas he was interested in are also included. Moreover, recent theoretical studies and advances in applications are also presented. The book will offer a useful guide for researchers in Knowledge Engineering and Data Mining by suggesting new approaches to solving the problems they encounter.

  4. Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation.

  5. Capillary-induced crack healing between surfaces of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylemez, Emrecan; de Boer, Maarten P

    2014-10-07

    Capillary forces are important in nature (granular materials, insect locomotion) and in technology (disk drives, adhesion). Although well studied in equilibrium state, the dynamics of capillary formation merit further investigation. Here, we show that microcantilever crack healing experiments are a viable experimental technique for investigating the influence of capillary nucleation on crack healing between rough surfaces. The average crack healing velocity, v̅, between clean hydrophilic polycrystalline silicon surfaces of nanoscale roughness is measured. A plot of v̅ versus energy release rate, G, reveals log-linear behavior, while the slope |d[log(v̅)]/dG| decreases with increasing relative humidity. A simplified interface model that accounts for the nucleation time of water bridges by an activated process is developed to gain insight into the crack healing trends. This methodology enables us to gain insight into capillary bridge dynamics, with a goal of attaining a predictive capability for this important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability failure mechanism.

  6. Asperity interaction in adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Prasanta; Banerjee, Atanu

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces considering the effect of asperity interaction is the subject of this investigation. The micro-contact model of asperity interactions developed by Zhao and Chang (2001 Trans. ASME: J. Tribol. 123 857-64) is combined with the elastic plastic adhesive contact model developed by Chang et al (1988 Trans. ASME: J. Tribol. 110 50-6) to consider the asperity interaction and elastic-plastic deformation in the presence of surface forces simultaneously. The well-established elastic adhesion index and plasticity index are used to consider the different contact conditions. Results show that asperity interaction influences the load-separation behaviour in elastic-plastic adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces significantly and, in general, adhesion is reduced due to asperity interactions

  7. Survey of surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Colbert, J.; Church, E.L.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements of surface roughness were made on a large number of grazing incidence mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The measurements were made with a WYKO optical profiler using a 2.5X and a 10X objective and analyzed with our PROFILE code to generate an average periodogram representation for each surface. The data is presented in the form of representative profiles with all of the periodogram curves arranged according to figure type. Analysis of the periodograms allows one to compute bandwidth-limited values for RMS roughness and slope, to provide valuable feedback information to manufacturers regarding compliance with specifications, and to predict the performance of the optic at x-ray wavelengths

  8. Thickness and roughness measurements of nano thin films by interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzalipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the standard optical interference fringes approach, by measuring shift of the interference fringes due to step edge of thin film on substrate, thickness of the layer has already been measured. In order to improve the measurement precision of this popular method, the interference fringes intensity curve was extracted and analyzed before and after the step preparation. By this method, one can measure a few nanometers films thickness. In addition, using the interference fringes intensity curve and its fluctuations, the roughness of surface is measured within a few nanometers accuracy. Comparison of our results with some direct methods of thickness and roughness measurements, i.e. using surface profilemeter and atomic force microscopy confirms the accuracy of the suggested improvements.

  9. Stability analysis of rough surfaces in adhesive normal contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Valentine; Bleyer, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with adhesive frictionless normal contact between one elastic flat solid and one stiff solid with rough surface. After computation of the equilibrium solution of the energy minimization principle and respecting the contact constraints, we aim at studying the stability of this equilibrium solution. This study of stability implies solving an eigenvalue problem with inequality constraints. To achieve this goal, we propose a proximal algorithm which enables qualifying the solution as stable or unstable and that gives the instability modes. This method has a low computational cost since no linear system inversion is required and is also suitable for parallel implementation. Illustrations are given for the Hertzian contact and for rough contact.

  10. Generation of nano roughness on fibrous materials by atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulyk, I; Scapinello, M; Stefan, M

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma technology finds novel applications in textile industry. It eliminates the usage of water and of hazard liquid chemicals, making production much more eco-friendly and economically convenient. Due to chemical effects of atmospheric plasma, it permits to optimize dyeing and laminating affinity of fabrics, as well as anti-microbial treatments. Other important applications such as increase of mechanical resistance of fiber sleeves and of yarns, anti-pilling properties of fabrics and anti-shrinking property of wool fabrics were studied in this work. These results could be attributed to the generation of nano roughness on fibers surface by atmospheric plasma. Nano roughness generation is extensively studied at different conditions. Alternative explanations for the important practical results on textile materials and discussed.

  11. Investigation on Surface Roughness of Inconel 718 in Photochemical Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin D. Misal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on estimating the optimal machining parameters required for photochemical machining (PCM of an Inconel 718 and effects of these parameters on surface topology. An experimental analysis was carried out to identify optimal values of parameters using ferric chloride (FeCl3 as an etchant. The parameters considered in this analysis are concentration of etchant, etching time, and etchant temperature. The experimental analysis shows that etching performance as well as surface topology improved by appropriate selection of etching process parameters. Temperature of the etchant found to be dominant parameter in the PCM of Inconel 718 for surface roughness. At optimal etching conditions, surface roughness was found to be 0.201 μm.

  12. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  13. Compact terahertz spectrometer based on disordered rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Jiang, Bing; Ge, Jia-cheng; Zhu, Yong-yuan; Li, Xing-ao; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a compact spectrometer based on disordered rough surfaces for operation in the terahertz band is presented. The proposed spectrometer consists of three components, which are used for dispersion, modulation and detection respectively. The disordered rough surfaces, which are acted as the dispersion component, are modulated by the modulation component. Different scattering intensities are captured by the detection component with different extent of modulation. With a calibration measurement process, one can reconstruct the spectra of the probe terahertz beam by solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. A Tikhonov regularization approach has been implemented to improve the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction. The reported broadband, compact, high-resolution terahertz spectrometer is well suited for portable terahertz spectroscopy applications.

  14. Simulations of roughness initiation and growth on railway rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X.; Thompson, D. J.; Jones, C. J. C.; Xie, G.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Allen, P.; Hsu, S. S.

    2006-06-01

    A model for the prediction of the initiation and growth of roughness on the rail is presented. The vertical interaction between a train and the track is calculated as a time history for single or multiple wheels moving on periodically supported rails, using a wavenumber-based approach. This vertical dynamic wheel/rail force arises from the varying stiffness due to discrete supports (i.e. parametric excitation) and the roughness excitation on the railhead. The tangential contact problem between the wheel and rail is modelled using an unsteady two-dimensional approach and also using the three-dimensional contact model, FASTSIM. This enables the slip and stick regions in the contact patch to be identified from the input geometry and creepage between the wheel and rail. The long-term wear growth is then predicted by applying repeated passages of the vehicle wheelsets, as part of an iterative solution.

  15. Inertia of rough and vicinal surfaces of helium-4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrit, J.; Legros, P.; Poitrenaud, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the inertia of rough and vicinal of 4 He crystals. We have measured the transmission coefficient of ultrasonic waves at frequencies 10, 30, 50 and 70 MHz, across the liquid-solid interface. The experiments are carried out at temperatures ranging between 0.4 and 1.0 K for four crystallographic orientations. Two important phenomena are put to evidence for the first time. We have found the first experimental evidence that the inertia of rough surfaces depends on temperature. For vicinal surfaces, we have shown the strong increase of the inertia as the tilt angle decreases. Our experimental results agree very well with the theoretical predictions

  16. Nanoscale roughness contact in a slider-disk interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Liu, Bo; Yu, Shengkai; Zhou, Weidong

    2009-07-15

    The nanoscale roughness contact between molecularly smooth surfaces of a slider-disk interface in a hard disk drive is analyzed, and the lubricant behavior at very high shear rate is presented. A new contact model is developed to study the nanoscale roughness contact behavior by classifying various forms of contact into slider-lubricant contact, slider-disk elastic contact and plastic contact. The contact pressure and the contact probabilities of the three types of contact are investigated. The new contact model is employed to explain and provide insight to an interesting experimental result found in a thermal protrusion slider. The protrusion budget for head surfing in the lubricant, which is the ideal state for contact recording, is also discussed.

  17. Nanoscale roughness contact in a slider-disk interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Wei; Liu Bo; Yu Shengkai; Zhou Weidong

    2009-01-01

    The nanoscale roughness contact between molecularly smooth surfaces of a slider-disk interface in a hard disk drive is analyzed, and the lubricant behavior at very high shear rate is presented. A new contact model is developed to study the nanoscale roughness contact behavior by classifying various forms of contact into slider-lubricant contact, slider-disk elastic contact and plastic contact. The contact pressure and the contact probabilities of the three types of contact are investigated. The new contact model is employed to explain and provide insight to an interesting experimental result found in a thermal protrusion slider. The protrusion budget for head surfing in the lubricant, which is the ideal state for contact recording, is also discussed.

  18. Optimal Weighting for Exam Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ganzfried

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A problem faced by many instructors is that of designing exams that accurately assess the abilities of the students. Typically, these exams are prepared several days in advance, and generic question scores are used based on rough approximation of the question difficulty and length. For example, for a recent class taught by the author, there were 30 multiple choice questions worth 3 points, 15 true/false with explanation questions worth 4 points, and 5 analytical exercises worth 10 points. We describe a novel framework where algorithms from machine learning are used to modify the exam question weights in order to optimize the exam scores, using the overall final score as a proxy for a student’s true ability. We show that significant error reduction can be obtained by our approach over standard weighting schemes, i.e., for the final and midterm exam, the mean absolute error for prediction decreases by 90.58% and 97.70% for linear regression approach respectively resulting in better estimation. We make several new observations regarding the properties of the “good” and “bad” exam questions that can have impact on the design of improved future evaluation methods.

  19. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights.

  20. Benefit of Doubt Approach to Case Weighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Jesper; Bogetoft, Peter

    The implementation of an efficient and reliable case weighting system (CWS) is currently considered essential for running an efficient judiciary. However, traditional models for establishing case weights are time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, since such case weights are often viewed...... as indications of the relative " importance " of different types of court cases, they are bound to raise controversy. The most elaborate weighting system is likely to have its critics who question whether the established weights are fair. To address these issues, we suggest a new " benefit of the doubt...... between 150 and 250 minutes, or as simple ordinal rankings, e.g., case type B requires more time than case type A. The use of partial weight information and a benefit of the doubt approach reduces the need for detailed time-studies and prolonged " negotiations " among stakeholders. Moreover, most...

  1. Variable precision rough set for multiple decision attribute analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai; Kin; Keung

    2008-01-01

    A variable precision rough set (VPRS) model is used to solve the multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem with multiple conflicting decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. By introducing confidence measures and a β-reduct, the VPRS model can rationally solve the conflicting decision analysis problem with multiple decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. For illustration, a medical diagnosis example is utilized to show the feasibility of the VPRS model in solving the MADA...

  2. Rough terrain motion planning for actively reconfigurable mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Michael

    2015-02-05

    In the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and the nuclear meltdown at the power plant of Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, reconfigurable robots like the iRobot Packbot were deployed. Instead of humans, the robots were used to investigate contaminated areas. Other incidents are the two major earthquakes in Northern Italy in May 2012. Besides many casualties, a large number of historical buildings was severely damaged. Due to the imminent danger of collapse, it was too dangerous for rescue personnel to enter many of the buildings. Therefore, the sites were inspected by reconfigurable robots, which are able to traverse the rubble and debris of the partially destroyed buildings. This thesis develops a navigation system enabling wheeled and tracked robots to safely traverse rough terrain and challenging structures. It consists of a planning mechanism and a controller. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the contribution to motion planning. The planning scheme employs a hierarchical approach to motion planning for actively reconfigurable robots in rough environments. Using a map of the environment the algorithm estimates the traversability under the consideration of uncertainties. Based on this analysis, an initial path search determines an approximate solution with respect to the robot's operating limits.Subsequently, a detailed planning step refines the initial path where it is required. The refinement step considers the robot's actuators and stability in addition to the quantities of the first search. Determining the robot-terrain interaction is very important in rough terrain. This thesis presents two path refinement approaches: a deterministic and a randomized approach. The experimental evaluation investigates the separate components of the planning scheme, the robot-terrain interaction for instance.In simulation as well as in real world experiments the evaluation demonstrates the necessity of such a planning algorithm in rough terrain and it provides

  3. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  4. Rough terrain motion planning for actively reconfigurable mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and the nuclear meltdown at the power plant of Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, reconfigurable robots like the iRobot Packbot were deployed. Instead of humans, the robots were used to investigate contaminated areas. Other incidents are the two major earthquakes in Northern Italy in May 2012. Besides many casualties, a large number of historical buildings was severely damaged. Due to the imminent danger of collapse, it was too dangerous for rescue personnel to enter many of the buildings. Therefore, the sites were inspected by reconfigurable robots, which are able to traverse the rubble and debris of the partially destroyed buildings. This thesis develops a navigation system enabling wheeled and tracked robots to safely traverse rough terrain and challenging structures. It consists of a planning mechanism and a controller. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the contribution to motion planning. The planning scheme employs a hierarchical approach to motion planning for actively reconfigurable robots in rough environments. Using a map of the environment the algorithm estimates the traversability under the consideration of uncertainties. Based on this analysis, an initial path search determines an approximate solution with respect to the robot's operating limits.Subsequently, a detailed planning step refines the initial path where it is required. The refinement step considers the robot's actuators and stability in addition to the quantities of the first search. Determining the robot-terrain interaction is very important in rough terrain. This thesis presents two path refinement approaches: a deterministic and a randomized approach. The experimental evaluation investigates the separate components of the planning scheme, the robot-terrain interaction for instance.In simulation as well as in real world experiments the evaluation demonstrates the necessity of such a planning algorithm in rough terrain and it provides

  5. Optimization of surface roughness parameters in dry turning

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Mahdavinejad; H. Sharifi Bidgoli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The precision of machine tools on one hand and the input setup parameters on the other hand, are strongly influenced in main output machining parameters such as stock removal, toll wear ratio and surface roughnes.Design/methodology/approach: There are a lot of input parameters which are effective in the variations of these output parameters. In CNC machines, the optimization of machining process in order to predict surface roughness is very important.Findings: From this point of view...

  6. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface that acts as a natural energy capture mechanism. This patterning is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. Increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test how this roughness effects LEV formation, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Images were captured of the LEV generated when the plate was towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. These images were used to determine the XY velocity of the particles using a technique called Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Codes written in MATLAB were used to track and measure the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding for this research project was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (REU Supplement CBET 1628600 under CBET 1335848).

  7. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Surface Roughness for CNC Turning

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Tian-Syung

    2010-01-01

    Surface roughness is often considered the main purpose in contemporary computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining industry. Most existing optimization researches for CNC finish turning were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, the cutting depth, feed rate, speed, and tool nose runoff with low, medium, and...

  8. Statistics of zero crossings in rough interfaces with fractional elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorategui, Arturo L.; Lecomte, Vivien; Kolton, Alejandro B.

    2018-04-01

    We study numerically the distribution of zero crossings in one-dimensional elastic interfaces described by an overdamped Langevin dynamics with periodic boundary conditions. We model the elastic forces with a Riesz-Feller fractional Laplacian of order z =1 +2 ζ , such that the interfaces spontaneously relax, with a dynamical exponent z , to a self-affine geometry with roughness exponent ζ . By continuously increasing from ζ =-1 /2 (macroscopically flat interface described by independent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes [Phys. Rev. 36, 823 (1930), 10.1103/PhysRev.36.823]) to ζ =3 /2 (super-rough Mullins-Herring interface), three different regimes are identified: (I) -1 /2 value in the system size, or decays as a power-law towards (II) a subextensive or (III) an intensive value. In the steady state, the distribution of intervals between zeros changes from an exponential decay in (I) to a power-law decay P (ℓ ) ˜ℓ-γ in (II) and (III). While in (II) γ =1 -θ with θ =1 -ζ the steady-state persistence exponent, in (III) we obtain γ =3 -2 ζ , different from the exponent γ =1 expected from the prediction θ =0 for infinite super-rough interfaces with ζ >1 . The effect on P (ℓ ) of short-scale smoothening is also analyzed numerically and analytically. A tight relation between the mean interval, the mean width of the interface, and the density of zeros is also reported. The results drawn from our analysis of rough interfaces subject to particular boundary conditions or constraints, along with discretization effects, are relevant for the practical analysis of zeros in interface imaging experiments or in numerical analysis.

  9. Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110291/abstract

  10. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malinský, Petr; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Macková, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 371, MAR (2016), s. 101-105 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : computer simulation * Rutherford backscattering * surface roughness Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  11. Kinetic theory of a rarefied gas of rough spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    A Kinetic theory for the rarefied gas consisting of rough-spherical molecules is developed, in which a macroscopic state is characterized by the 29 scalar fields of density, velocity, pressure tensor, temperature, translational heat flux, rotational heat flux, spin and spin flux. The relations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier are obtained by the use of an iteration method akin to the Maxwellian procedure. (author) [pt

  12. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  14. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  15. Scanning electron microscopy and roughness study of dental composite degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Cortez, Louise Ribeiro; Zarur, Raquel de Oliveira; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the use of mouthwashes, consumption of soft drinks, as well as the type of light curing unit (LCU), would change the surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of a nanofilled composite resin (Z350® 3M ESPE). Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: Halogen LCU, group 1, saliva (control); group 2, Pepsi Twist®; group 3, Listerine®; group 4, Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, group 5, saliva; group 6, Pepsi Twist®; group 7, Listerine®; group 8, Colgate Plax®. Ra values were measured at baseline, and after 7 and 14 days. One specimen of each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis after 14 days. The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc test. All the treatments resulted in morphological changes in composite resin surface, and the most significant change was in Pepsi Twist® groups. The samples of G6 had the greatest increase in Ra. The immersion of nanofilled resin in mouthwashes with alcohol and soft drink increases the surface roughness. Polymerization by halogen LCU (reduced light intensity) associated with alcohol contained mouthwash resulted in significant roughness on the composite.

  16. Atmospheric stability analysis over statically and dynamically rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Emina; Metzger, Meredith; Singha, Arindam; Sadr, Reza

    2011-11-01

    The ratio of buoyancy flux to turbulent kinetic energy production in the atmospheric surface layer is investigated experimentally for air flow over two types of surfaces characterized by static and dynamic roughness. In this study, ``static'' refers to the time-invariant nature of naturally-occurring roughness over a mud/salt playa; while, ``dynamic'' refers to the behavior of water waves along an air-water interface. In both cases, time-resolved measurements of the momentum and heat fluxes were acquired from synchronized 3D sonic anemometers mounted on a vertical tower. Field campaigns were conducted at two sites, representing the ``statically'' and ``dynamically'' rough surfaces, respectively: (1) the SLTEST facility in Utah's western desert, and (2) the new Doha airport in Qatar under construction along the coast of the Persian Gulf. Note, at site 2, anemometers were located directly above the water by extension from a tower secured to the end of a 1 km-long pier. Comparisons of the Monin-Obukhov length, flux Richardson number, and gradient Richardson number are presented, and discussed in the context of the observed evolution of the turbulent spectra in response to diurnal variations of atmospheric stability. Supported by the Qatar National Research Fund.

  17. UNCERTAINTY HANDLING IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT USING HIERARCHICAL ROUGH SET GRANULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sheikhian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is one of the main concerns in geospatial data analysis. It affects different parts of decision making based on such data. In this paper, a new methodology to handle uncertainty for multi-criteria decision making problems is proposed. It integrates hierarchical rough granulation and rule extraction to build an accurate classifier. Rough granulation provides information granules with a detailed quality assessment. The granules are the basis for the rule extraction in granular computing, which applies quality measures on the rules to obtain the best set of classification rules. The proposed methodology is applied to assess seismic physical vulnerability in Tehran. Six effective criteria reflecting building age, height and material, topographic slope and earthquake intensity of the North Tehran fault have been tested. The criteria were discretized and the data set was granulated using a hierarchical rough method, where the best describing granules are determined according to the quality measures. The granules are fed into the granular computing algorithm resulting in classification rules that provide the highest prediction quality. This detailed uncertainty management resulted in 84% accuracy in prediction in a training data set. It was applied next to the whole study area to obtain the seismic vulnerability map of Tehran. A sensitivity analysis proved that earthquake intensity is the most effective criterion in the seismic vulnerability assessment of Tehran.

  18. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface. This patterning is an important natural flow control mechanism that is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. The increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test this theory, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) captured images of the LEV generated by the plate when towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. Codes written in MatLab were used to automatically track and determine the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding provided by NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 and CBET 1628600.

  19. Combined Radar-Radiometer Surface Soil Moisture and Roughness Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Ruzbeh; Cosh, Michael H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Entekhabi, Dara; Moghaddam, Mahta

    2017-01-01

    A robust physics-based combined radar-radiometer, or Active-Passive, surface soil moisture and roughness estimation methodology is presented. Soil moisture and roughness retrieval is performed via optimization, i.e., minimization, of a joint objective function which constrains similar resolution radar and radiometer observations simultaneously. A data-driven and noise-dependent regularization term has also been developed to automatically regularize and balance corresponding radar and radiometer contributions to achieve optimal soil moisture retrievals. It is shown that in order to compensate for measurement and observation noise, as well as forward model inaccuracies, in combined radar-radiometer estimation surface roughness can be considered a free parameter. Extensive Monte-Carlo numerical simulations and assessment using field data have been performed to both evaluate the algorithms performance and to demonstrate soil moisture estimation. Unbiased root mean squared errors (RMSE) range from 0.18 to 0.03 cm3cm3 for two different land cover types of corn and soybean. In summary, in the context of soil moisture retrieval, the importance of consistent forward emission and scattering development is discussed and presented.

  20. Capillary adhesion between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    I study how the contact area and the work of adhesion between two elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces depend on the relative humidity. The surfaces are assumed to be hydrophilic, and capillary bridges form at the interface between the solids. For elastically hard solids with relatively smooth surfaces, the area of real contact and therefore also the sliding friction are maximal when there is just enough liquid to fill out the interfacial space between the solids, which typically occurs for d K ∼3h rms , where d K is the height of the capillary bridge and h rms the root-mean-square roughness of the (combined) surface roughness profile. For elastically soft solids, the area of real contact is maximal for very low humidity (i.e. small d K ), where the capillary bridges are able to pull the solids into nearly complete contact. In both cases, the work of adhesion is maximal (and equal to 2γcosθ, where γ is the liquid surface tension and θ the liquid-solid contact angle) when d K >> h rms , corresponding to high relative humidity

  1. Roughness influence on human blood drop spreading and splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona; Buntsma, Naomi; Brutin, David

    2017-11-01

    The impact behaviour of complex fluid droplets is a topic that has been extensively studied but with much debate. The Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) community is encountering this scientific problem with daily practical cases since they use bloodstains as evidence in crime scene reconstruction. We aim to provide fundamental explanations in the study of blood drip stains by investigating the influence of surface roughness and wettability on the splashing limit of droplets of blood, a non-Newtonian colloidal fluid. Droplets of blood impacting perpendicularly different surfaces at different velocities were recorded. The recordings were analysed as well as the surfaces characteristics in order to find an empirical solution since we found that roughness plays a major role in the threshold of the splashing/non-splashing behaviour of blood compared to the wettability. Moreover it appears that roughness alters the deformation of the drip stains. These observations are key in characterising features of drip stains with the impacting conditions, which would answer some forensic issues.

  2. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  3. Granular computing in decision approximation an application of rough mereology

    CERN Document Server

    Polkowski, Lech

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a study in knowledge discovery in data with knowledge understood as a set of relations among objects and their properties. Relations in this case are implicative decision rules and the paradigm in which they are induced is that of computing with granules defined by rough inclusions, the latter introduced and studied  within rough mereology, the fuzzified version of mereology. In this book basic classes of rough inclusions are defined and based on them methods for inducing granular structures from data are highlighted. The resulting granular structures are subjected to classifying algorithms, notably k—nearest  neighbors and bayesian classifiers. Experimental results are given in detail both in tabular and visualized form for fourteen data sets from UCI data repository. A striking feature of granular classifiers obtained by this approach is that preserving the accuracy of them on original data, they reduce  substantially the size of the granulated data set as well as the set of granular...

  4. Effect of geometric base roughness on size segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric roughness at boundaries has a profound impact on the dynamics of granular flows. For a bumpy base made of fixed particles, two major factors have been separately studied in the literature, namely, the size and spatial distribution of base particles. A recent work (Jing et al. 2016 has proposed a roughness indicator Ra, which combines both factors for any arbitrary bumpy base comprising equally-sized spheres. It is shown in mono-disperse flows that as Ra increases, a transition occurs from slip (Ra 0.62 conditions. This work focuses on such a phase transition in bi-disperse flows, in which Ra can be a function of time. As size segregation takes place, large particles migrate away from the bottom, leading to a variation of size ratio between flow- and base-particles. As a result, base roughness Ra evolves with the progress of segregation. Consistent with the slip/non-slip transition in mono-disperse flows, basal sliding arises at low values of Ra and the development of segregation might be affected; when Ra increases to a certain level (Ra > 0.62, non-slip condition is respected. This work extends the validity of Ra to bi-disperse flows, which can be used to understand the geometric boundary effect during segregation.

  5. SIMPL Systems, or: Can We Design Cryptographic Hardware without Secret Key Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rührmair, Ulrich

    This paper discusses a new cryptographic primitive termed SIMPL system. Roughly speaking, a SIMPL system is a special type of Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) which possesses a binary description that allows its (slow) public simulation and prediction. Besides this public key like functionality, SIMPL systems have another advantage: No secret information is, or needs to be, contained in SIMPL systems in order to enable cryptographic protocols - neither in the form of a standard binary key, nor as secret information hidden in random, analog features, as it is the case for PUFs. The cryptographic security of SIMPLs instead rests on (i) a physical assumption on their unclonability, and (ii) a computational assumption regarding the complexity of simulating their output. This novel property makes SIMPL systems potentially immune against many known hardware and software attacks, including malware, side channel, invasive, or modeling attacks.

  6. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  7. a simple a simple excitation control excitation control excitation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    field voltages determined follow a simple quadratic relationship that offer a very simple control scheme, dependent on only the stator current. Keywords: saturated reactances, no-load field voltage, excitation control, synchronous generators. 1. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. The commonest generator in use today is ...

  8. Is simple nephrectomy truly simple? Comparison with the radical alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S S; O'Brien, M Frank; Kunni, I M; Phelan, E; Conroy, R; Thornhill, J A; Grainger, R

    2011-03-01

    The Oxford English dictionary defines the term "simple" as "easily done" and "uncomplicated". We tested the validity of this terminology in relation to open nephrectomy surgery. Retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing open, simple (n = 89) or radical (n = 126) nephrectomy in a single university-affiliated institution between 1998 and 2002. Operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), operative complications (OC) and length of stay in hospital (LOS) were analysed. Statistical analysis employed Fisher's exact test and Stata Release 8.2. Simple nephrectomy was associated with shorter OT (mean 126 vs. 144 min; p = 0.002), reduced EBL (mean 729 vs. 859 cc; p = 0.472), lower OC (9 vs. 17%; 0.087), and more brief LOS (mean 6 vs. 8 days; p < 0.001). All parameters suggest favourable outcome for the simple nephrectomy group, supporting the use of this terminology. This implies "simple" nephrectomies are truly easier to perform with less complication than their radical counterpart.

  9. Mars radar clutter and surface roughness characteristics from MARSIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Whitten, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    Radar sounder studies of icy, sedimentary, and volcanic settings can be affected by reflections from surface topography surrounding the sensor nadir location. These off-nadir ;clutter; returns appear at similar time delays to subsurface echoes and complicate geologic interpretation. Additionally, broadening of the radar echo in delay by surface returns sets a limit on the detectability of subsurface interfaces. We use MARSIS 4 MHz data to study variations in the nadir and off-nadir clutter echoes, from about 300 km to 1000 km altitude, R, for a wide range of surface roughness. This analysis uses a new method of characterizing ionospheric attenuation to merge observations over a range of solar zenith angle and date. Mirror-like reflections should scale as R-2, but the observed 4 MHz nadir echoes often decline by a somewhat smaller power-law factor because MARSIS on-board processing increases the number of summed pulses with altitude. Prior predictions of the contributions from clutter suggest a steeper decline with R than the nadir echoes, but in very rough areas the ratio of off-nadir returns to nadir echoes shows instead an increase of about R1/2 with altitude. This is likely due in part to an increase in backscatter from the surface as the radar incidence angle at some round-trip time delay declines with increasing R. It is possible that nadir and clutter echo properties in other planetary sounding observations, including RIME and REASON flyby data for Europa, will vary in the same way with altitude, but there may be differences in the nature and scale of target roughness (e.g., icy versus rocky surfaces). We present global maps of the ionosphere- and altitude-corrected nadir echo strength, and of a ;clutter; parameter based on the ratio of off-nadir to nadir echoes. The clutter map offers a view of surface roughness at ∼75 m length scale, bridging the spatial-scale gap between SHARAD roughness estimates and MOLA-derived parameters.

  10. Electromagnetic Scattering Characteristics of Fractal Rough Coated Objects in the Terahertz Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hua

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the physical optics method, the scattering characteristics of fractal rough surface coated objects are studied in the terahertz (THz range herein. A blunt model based on fractal rough surfaces is built. The surface current is calculated according to the Fresnel reflection coefficient, and the Radar Cross Section (RCS of the rough coated target is obtained. The RCS of rough and smooth surface targets are compared. Numerical results for a rough coated blunt cone model are provided, and discussed from the perspective of different frequencies and coating thickness values. The results show that the surface roughness of the target has a significant effect on scattering in the terahertz range.

  11. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  12. A novel collagen film with micro-rough surface structure for corneal epithelial repair fabricated by freeze drying technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Ren, Li; Wang, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Collagen film with micro-rough surface is fabricated by freeze drying technique. • The film has suitable water uptake capability and toughness performance. • The film has good optical performance. • Human corneal epithelial cells studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the film. - Abstract: Corneal epithelial defect is a common disease and keratoplasty is a common treatment method. A collagen film with micro-rough surface was fabricated through a simple freeze drying technique in this study. Compared with the air-dried collagen film (AD-Col), this freeze-dried collagen film (FD-Col) has a more suitable water uptake capability (about 85.5%) and toughness performance. Both of the two films have good optical properties and the luminousness of them is higher than 80%. Besides, the adhesion and proliferation rate of human corneal epithelial cells on the micro-rough surface of FD-Col film is higher than that on the smooth surface of AD-Col film. The results indicate that this FD-Col film may have potential applications for corneal epithelial repair

  13. Influence of Selective Laser Melting Processing Parameters of Co-Cr-W Powders on the Roughness of Exterior Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, M. A.; Baciu, E. R.; Bejinariu, C.; Toma, S. L.; Danila, A.; Baciu, C.

    2018-06-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) represents an Additive Manufacturing method widely used in medical practice, mainly in dental medicine. The powder of 59% Co, 25% Cr, 2.5% W alloy (Starbond CoS Powder 55, S&S Scheftner C, Germany) was processed (SLM) on a Realizer SLM 50 device (SLM Solution, Germany). After laser processing and simple sanding with Al2O3 or two-phase sanding (Al2O3 and glass balls), measurements of surface roughness were conducted. This paper presents the influences exercised by laser power (P = 60 W, 80 W and 100 W), the scanning speed (vscan = 333 mm/s, 500 mm/s and 1000 mm/s) and exposure time (te = 20 µs, 40 µs and 60 µs) on the roughness of surfaces obtained by SLM processing. Based on the experimental results obtained for roughness (Ra), some recommendations regarding the choice of favorable combinations among the values of technological parameters under study in order to obtain the surface quality necessary for subsequent applications of the processed parts (SLM) have been made.

  14. A novel collagen film with micro-rough surface structure for corneal epithelial repair fabricated by freeze drying technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Li, E-mail: psliren@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Collagen film with micro-rough surface is fabricated by freeze drying technique. • The film has suitable water uptake capability and toughness performance. • The film has good optical performance. • Human corneal epithelial cells studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the film. - Abstract: Corneal epithelial defect is a common disease and keratoplasty is a common treatment method. A collagen film with micro-rough surface was fabricated through a simple freeze drying technique in this study. Compared with the air-dried collagen film (AD-Col), this freeze-dried collagen film (FD-Col) has a more suitable water uptake capability (about 85.5%) and toughness performance. Both of the two films have good optical properties and the luminousness of them is higher than 80%. Besides, the adhesion and proliferation rate of human corneal epithelial cells on the micro-rough surface of FD-Col film is higher than that on the smooth surface of AD-Col film. The results indicate that this FD-Col film may have potential applications for corneal epithelial repair.

  15. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  16. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  17. Structure and growth of weighted networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccaboni, Massimo [Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Schiavo, Stefano [Department of Economics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)], E-mail: massimo.riccaboni@unitn.it, E-mail: stefano.schiavo@unitn.it

    2010-02-15

    We develop a simple theoretical framework for the evolution of weighted networks that is consistent with a number of stylized features of real-world data. In our framework, the Barabasi-Albert model of network evolution is extended by assuming that link weights evolve according to a geometric Brownian motion. Our model is verified by means of simulations and real-world trade data. We show that the model correctly predicts the intensity and growth distribution of links, the size-variance relationship of the growth of link weights, the relationship between the degree and strength of nodes, and the scale-free structure of the network.

  18. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  19. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic variability among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare if simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers could correctly identify peanut genotypes with difference in specific leaf weight (SLW) and relative water content (RWC). Four peanut genotypes and two water regimes (FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were arranged in factorial ...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000, provides physical roughness maps of vegetation canopies in the...