Rotational instability in a linear theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekdahl, C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Gribble, R.F.; McKenna, K.F.; Miller, G.; Siemon, R.E.
1980-01-01
The m=1 ''wobble'' instability of the plasma column in a 5-m linear theta pinch has been studied using an axial array of orthogonally viewing position detectors to resolve the wavelength and frequency of the column motion. The experimental results are compared with recent theoretical predictions that include finite Larmor orbit effects. The frequency and wavelength characteristics at saturation agree with the predicted dispersion relation for a plasma rotating faster than the diamagnetic drift speed. Measurements of the magnetic fields at the ends of the pinch establish the existence of currents flowing in such a way that they short out the radial electric fields in the plasma column. The magnitude of rotation, the observed delay in the onset of m=1 motion, and the magnitude of end-shorting currents can all be understood in terms of the torsional Alfven waves that communicate to the central plasma column the information that the ends have been shorted. The same waves are responsible for the torque which rotates the plasma and leads to the observed m=1 instability. Observations of the plasma in the presence of solid end plugs indicate a stabilization of high-m number modes and a reduction of the m=1 amplitude
Mechanism of viscosity effect on magnetic island rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Konovalov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pustovitov, V.D. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tsypin, V.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, SP (Brazil)
2000-04-01
It is shown that plasma viscosity does not influence the magnetic island rotation directly. Nevertheless, it leads to nonstationarity of the plasma velocity. This nonstationarity is the reason of the viscosity effect on island rotation. (author)
Nuclear viscosity of hot rotating 240Cf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaw, N. P.; Dioszegi, I.; Mazumdar, I.; Buda, A.; Morton, C. R.; Velkovska, J.; Beene, J. R.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L.; Thoennessen, M.
2000-01-01
The absolute γ-ray/fission multiplicities from hot rotating 240 Cf, populated at seven bombarding energies using the reaction 32 S+ 208 Pb, are reported. Statistical model calculations including nuclear dissipation have been performed to extract the dependence of the nuclear viscosity on temperature and/or nuclear deformation. The extracted nuclear dissipation coefficient is found to be independent of temperature. Large dissipation during the saddle to scission path provides a good fit to the γ-ray spectra. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Bubble Pinch-Off in a Rotating Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergmann, Raymond; Andersen, Anders Peter; van der Meer, Devaraj
2009-01-01
We create air bubbles at the tip of a "bathtub vortex" which reaches to a finite depth. The bathtub vortex is formed by letting water drain through a small hole at the bottom of a rotating cylindrical container. The tip of the needlelike surface dip is unstable at high rotation rates and releases...... bubbles which are carried down by the flow. Using high-speed imaging we find that the minimal neck radius of the unstable tip decreases in time as a power law with an exponent close to 1/3. This exponent was found by Gordillo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 194501 (2005)] to govern gas flow driven pinch...
Rotational and spin viscosities of water: Application to nanofluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Bruus, Henrik; Todd, B.D.
2010-01-01
In this paper we evaluate the rotational viscosity and the two spin viscosities for liquid water using equilibrium molecular dynamics. Water is modeled via the flexible SPC/Fw model where the Coulomb interactions are calculated via the Wolf method which enables the long simulation times required....... We find that the rotational viscosity is independent of the temperature in the range from 284 to 319 K. The two spin viscosities, on the other hand, decrease with increasing temperature and are found to be two orders of magnitude larger than that estimated by Bonthuis et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103...
END effects on the n = 2 rotational instability in the reversed field theta-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aso, Y.; Wu, Ch.; Himeno, S.; Hirano, K.
1981-07-01
It is observed that n = 2 rotational mode which appears in the field reversed configuration created by a theta-pinch can be stabilized if the ejected plasmas from the ends are guided out to the far ends of the apparatus by long axial solenoidal fields. This is understood from the fact that endshorting becomes no longer possible before the ejecting plasma tips reach to the ends. Measurement of plasma rotations just outside the separatrix suggests that both preferential diffusion loss and endshorting play a very important role for the n = 2 mode. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.; LaMar, M.M.
1987-01-01
We discuss the use of rotating-cylinder viscometers to determine absolute shear viscosities of classical fluids and of helium II in the context of past and current knowledge of the stability and flow of these fluids between concentric cylinders. We identify a problem in measuring the absolute viscosity when the inner cylinder is rotating and the outer cylinder is at rest. We conclude by discussing the design of viscometers for absolute viscosity measurements in helium I and helium II
Impact of viscosity variation and micro rotation on oblique transport of Cu-water fluid.
Tabassum, Rabil; Mehmood, R; Nadeem, S
2017-09-01
This study inspects the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on Oblique flow of micropolar nanofluid. Fluid viscosity is considered as an exponential function of temperature. Governing equations are converted into dimensionless forms with aid of suitable transformations. Outcomes of the study are shown in graphical form and discussed in detail. Results revealed that viscosity parameter has pronounced effects on velocity profiles, temperature distribution, micro-rotation, streamlines, shear stress and heat flux. It is found that viscosity parameter enhances the temperature distribution, tangential velocity profile, normal component of micro-rotation and shear stress at the wall while it has decreasing effect on tangential component of micro-rotation and local heat flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Viscosity estimation utilizing flow velocity field measurements in a rotating magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.
2008-01-01
The importance of viscosity in determining plasma flow structures has been widely recognized. In laboratory plasmas, however, viscosity measurements have been seldom performed so far. In this paper we present and discuss an estimation method of effective plasma kinematic viscosity utilizing flow velocity field measurements. Imposing steady and axisymmetric conditions, we derive the expression for radial flow velocity from the azimuthal component of the ion fluid equation. The expression contains kinematic viscosity, vorticity of azimuthal rotation and its derivative, collision frequency, azimuthal flow velocity and ion cyclotron frequency. Therefore all quantities except the viscosity are given provided that the flow field can be measured. We applied this method to a rotating magnetized argon plasma produced by the Hyper-I device. The flow velocity field measurements were carried out using a directional Langmuir probe installed in a tilting motor drive unit. The inward ion flow in radial direction, which is not driven in collisionless inviscid plasmas, was clearly observed. As a result, we found the anomalous viscosity, the value of which is two orders of magnitude larger than the classical one. (author)
Jiang, Zhou; Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi
2018-04-01
A fully developed spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow has been numerically investigated utilizing large-eddy simulation. Our focus is to assess the performances of the dynamic variants of eddy viscosity models, including dynamic Vreman's model (DVM), dynamic wall adapting local eddy viscosity (DWALE) model, dynamic σ (Dσ ) model, and the dynamic volumetric strain-stretching (DVSS) model, in this canonical flow. The results with dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used as references. Our results show that the DVM has a wrong asymptotic behavior in the near wall region, while the other three models can correctly predict it. In the high rotation case, the DWALE can get reliable mean velocity profile, but the turbulence intensities in the wall-normal and spanwise directions show clear deviations from DNS data. DVSS exhibits poor predictions on both the mean velocity profile and turbulence intensities. In all three cases, Dσ performs the best.
A model for the neoclassical toroidal viscosity effect on Edge plasma toroidal rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miron, I.G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Euratom-MEdC Association, Bucharest (Romania)
2013-11-15
A semianalytic expression for the edge plasma angular toroidal rotation frequency that includes the neoclassical toroidal viscosity braking influence is obtained. Based on the model presented in a previous paper [I.G. Miron, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 53, 214 (2013)], the less destabilizing error field spectrum is found in order to minimize the nonlinear effect of the NTV on the toroidal rotation of the edge of the plasma. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.
2016-02-19
A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.
Basu, Rajratan; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James
2016-05-01
The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, Rajratan; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James
2016-01-01
The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basu, Rajratan, E-mail: basu@usna.edu; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James [Soft Matter and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, The United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402 (United States)
2016-05-14
The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.
Lee, Seung-Chul; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Heo, Jeongyun; Jeong, Chan-Uk; Lee, Gyeong-Hui; Kim, Sehoon; Yoon, Woojin; Yun, Hoseop; Park, Sung O; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Park, Sung-Ha; Kwon, O-Pil
2018-02-26
A series of fluorescent molecular rotors obtained by introducing two rotational groups ("rotators"), which exhibit different rotational and electron-donating abilities, are discussed. Whereas the control molecular rotor, PH, includes a single rotator (the widely used phenyl group), the PO molecular rotors consist of two rotators (a phenyl group and an alkoxy group), which exhibit simultaneous strongly electron-donating and easy rotational abilities. Compared with the control rotor PH, PO molecular rotors exhibited one order of magnitude higher quantum yield (fluorescence intensity) and simultaneously exhibited significantly higher fluorescence contrast. These properties are directly related to the strong electron-donating ability and low energy barrier of rotation of the alkoxy group, as confirmed by dynamic fluorescence experiments and quantum chemical calculations. The PO molecular rotors exhibited two fluorescence relaxation pathways, whereas the PH molecular rotor exhibited a single fluorescence relaxation pathway. Cellular fluorescence imaging with PO molecular rotors for mapping cellular viscosity was successfully demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.
2013-04-01
A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.
Resonance parallel viscosity in the banana regime in poloidally rotating tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K.C.; Hsu, C.T.; Dominguez, N.
1994-01-01
Parallel viscosity in the banana regime in a poloidally (ExB) rotating tokamak plasma is calculated to include the effects of orbit squeezing and to allow the poloidal ExB Mach number M p to have a value of order unity. Here, E is the electric field and B is the magnetic field. The effects of orbit squeezing not only modify the size of the particle orbit, but also change the fraction of poloidally trapped particles. Resonance between the particle parallel (to B) speed u and the poloidal component of the ExB velocity can only occur for those particles with energy (v/v t ) 2 >M 2 p (with v the particle speed and v t the thermal speed). Thus, the resonance parallel plasma viscosity in the banana regime decreases exponentially with M 2 p when M 2 p ≥1, and has a local maximum of M 2 p ∼1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Shweta; Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2015-01-01
The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability
... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...
Modeling of asphalt-rubber rotational viscosity by statistical analysis and neural networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciano Pivoto Specht
2007-03-01
Full Text Available It is of a great importance to know binders' viscosity in order to perform handling, mixing, application processes and asphalt mixes compaction in highway surfacing. This paper presents the results of viscosity measurement in asphalt-rubber binders prepared in laboratory. The binders were prepared varying the rubber content, rubber particle size, duration and temperature of mixture, all following a statistical design plan. The statistical analysis and artificial neural networks were used to create mathematical models for prediction of the binders viscosity. The comparison between experimental data and simulated results with the generated models showed best performance of the neural networks analysis in contrast to the statistic models. The results indicated that the rubber content and duration of mixture have major influence on the observed viscosity for the considered interval of parameters variation.
Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.
2012-10-01
A new ITER-relevant non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) were generated and their rotation sustained by rotating magnetic perturbations. In particular, stable modes of toroidal mode number n=8 and 10 and unstable modes of n=1 were used in this experiment. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the RWMs were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude (in the case of unstable modes, the observed oscillation was superimposed to the mode growth). This behavior was used to infer the amplitude and toroidal phase of n=1, 8 and 10 EFs. The method was first tested against known, deliberately applied EFs, and then against actual intrinsic EFs. Applying equal and opposite corrections resulted in longer discharges and more uniform mode rotation, indicating good EF compensation. The results agree with a simple theoretical model. Extensions to tearing modes, to the non-uniform plasma response to rotating perturbations, and to tokamaks, including ITER, will be discussed.
The effect of rotational viscosity on the memory effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaur, S.; Thakur, A.K.; Chauhan, R.; Bawa, S.S.; Biradar, A.M.
2004-01-01
Memory effect in deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) is not a new phenomenon. Although it was reported 12 years ago yet its exact physical behavior is not explained. It has been thought by various researchers all over the world that it might be a transient memory effect. In the present study, it has been observed and predicted that memory effect is of long duration and shows remarkable dependencies on the voltage and frequency of the driving electrical pulse, which is entirely different from the memory effect in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC). The memory effect in SSFLC is primarily due to surface effect but in DHFLC, its ultra-short pitch plays a dominant role. So, it has been observed that the memory effect in DHFLC is due to its high viscosity and inter/intra layer dipolar interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.
1998-01-01
We show that the large negative radial electric fields which are measured in front of the separatrix in H-mode discharges are easily explainable on the basis of the rigorous 'revisited' neoclassical theory, including finite Larmor radii and inertia effects that was published earlier (Rogister A 1994 Phys. Plasmas 1 619); the same theory naturally leads to sub-neoclassical energy transport and novel particle pinch terms. The calculation has so far been developed only in the high collisionality regime: step sizes comparable to gradient-scale sizes are therefore not required to explain observed properties! Based on the analysis, we conclude that the radial electric field profile develops a well in front of the separatrix when the plasma is unable to sustain ambipolar flows otherwise. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahariea Dănuț
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine a viscositytemperature relationship for SAE 10W-60 engine oil. The rheological properties of this engine oil, for a temperature range of 20÷60 °C, were obtained with RheolabQC rotational rheometer. For the first reference temperature of 40 °C, the experimental result was obtained with a relative error of 1.29%. The temperature-dependent viscosity was modelled, comparatively, with the Arrhenius and the 3rd degree polynomial models. Comparing the graphs of the fits with prediction bounds for 95% confidence level, as well as the goodness-of-fit statistics, the preliminary conclusion was that the 3rd degree polynomial could be the best fit model. However, the fit model should be used also for extrapolation, for the second reference temperature of 100 °C. This new approach changes the fit models order, the Arrhenius equation becoming the best fit model, because of the completely failed to predict the extrapolated value with the polynomial model.
Comparison of parallel viscosity with neoclassical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, K.; Nakajima, N.
1996-04-01
Toroidal rotation profiles are measured with charge exchange spectroscopy for the plasma heated with tangential NBI in CHS heliotron/torsatron device to estimate parallel viscosity. The parallel viscosity derived from the toroidal rotation velocity shows good agreement with the neoclassical parallel viscosity plus the perpendicular viscosity. (μ perpendicular = 2 m 2 /s). (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.S. Bhadauria
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mantovani
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of symmetric circulations of a rotating baroclinic flow, forced by a steady thermal wind and dissipated by Laplacian friction. The analysis is performed with numerical time-integration. Symmetric flows, vertically bound by horizontal walls and subject to either periodic or vertical wall lateral boundary conditions, are investigated in the region of parameter-space where unstable small amplitude modes evolve into stable stationary nonlinear solutions. The distribution of solutions in parameter-space is analysed up to the threshold of chaotic behaviour and the physical nature of the nonlinear interaction operating on the finite amplitude unstable modes is investigated. In particular, analysis of time-dependent energy-conversions allows understanding of the physical mechanisms operating from the initial phase of linear instability to the finite amplitude stable state. Vertical shear of the basic flow is shown to play a direct role in injecting energy into symmetric flow since the stage of linear growth. Dissipation proves essential not only in limiting the energy of linearly unstable modes, but also in selecting their dominant space-scales in the finite amplitude stage.
Introduction to Pinch Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rokni, Masoud
? How to put energy efficiency and other targets like reducing emissions, increasing plant capacities, improve product qualities etc, into a one coherent strategic plan for the overall site? All these questions and more can be answered with a full understanding of Pinch Technology and an awareness...... of the available tools for applying it in a practical way. The aim here is to provide the basic knowledge of pinch technology concept and how it can be applied across a wide range of process industries. The pinch technology was proposed firstly for optimization of heat exchangers and therefore it is introduced...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffer, M.J.
1997-08-01
A stabilized pinch configuration is described, consisting of a D-shaped plasma cross section wrapped tightly around a guiding axis. The open-quotes helical-Dclose quotes geometry produces a very large axial (toroidal) transform of magnetic line direction that reverses the pitch of the magnetic lines without the need of azimuthal (poloidal) plasma current. Thus, there is no need of a open-quotes dynamoclose quotes process and its associated fluctuations. The resulting configuration has the high magnetic shear and pitch reversal of the reversed field pinch (RFP). (Pitch = P = qR, where R = major radius). A helical-D pinch might demonstrate good confinement at q << 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan'kov, V.V.
1991-01-01
Although pinches, unlike tokamaks, have not occupied a central position in fusion research, their structural simplicity and the wealth of physical processes associated with plasma foci have maintained a steady interest. The development of Z-pinches, including plasma foci, micropinches, and dense Z-pinches, is reviewed. Attention is focused on theoretical as opposed to experimental questions, and on recent work rather than the basic results now found in textbooks. Finally, Soviet work is discussed more fully than work done abroad, and applications to controlled fusion are emphasized
Direction of Impurity Pinch and Auxiliary Heating in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angioni, C.; Peeters, A.G.
2006-01-01
A mechanism of particle pinch for trace impurities in tokamak plasmas, arising from the effect of parallel velocity fluctuations in the presence of a turbulent electrostatic potential, is identified analytically by means of a reduced fluid model and verified numerically with a gyrokinetic code for the first time. The direction of such a pinch reverses as a function of the direction of rotation of the turbulence in agreement with the impurity pinch reversal observed in some experiments when moving from dominant auxiliary ion heating to dominant auxiliary electron heating
Current redistribution and generation of kinetic energy in the stagnated Z pinch.
Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Papp, D; Astanovitskiy, A L; Talbot, B R; Chittenden, J P; Niasse, N
2013-07-01
The structure of magnetic fields was investigated in stagnated wire-array Z pinches using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The distribution of current in the pinch and trailing material was reconstructed. A significant part of current can switch from the main pinch to the trailing plasma preheated by x-ray radiation of the pinch. Secondary implosions of trailing plasma generate kinetic energy and provide enhanced heating and radiation of plasma at stagnation. Hot spots in wire-array Z pinches also provide enhanced radiation of the Z pinch. A collapse of a single hot spot radiates 1%-3% of x-ray energy of the Z pinch with a total contribution of hot spots of 10%-30%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan'kov, V.V.
1991-01-01
The development of Z-pinches, including plasma foci, micropinches and dense Z-pinches are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the physics of sausage instability development. Theoretical questions are discussed in more detail that the experimental ones, recent works - to a fuller extent than the fundamental pioneer ones which are included in the textbooks. The Soviet works are given a greater coverage as compared to the foreign ones. An emphasis is made on the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shlachter, J.S.; Hammel, J.E.; Scudder, D.W.
1985-01-01
Early researchers recogniZed the desirable features of the linear Z-pinch configuration as a magnetic fusion scheme. In particular, a Z-pinch reactor might not require auxiliary heating or external field coils, and could constitute an uncomplicated, high plasma β geometry. The simple Z pinch, however, exhibited gross MHD instabilities that disrupted the plasma, and the linear Z pinch was abandoned in favor of more stable configurations. Recent advances in pulsed-power technology and an appreciation of the dynamic behavior of an ohmically heated Z pinch have led to a reexamination of the Z pinch as a workable fusion concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tetsu, Miyamoto
1999-01-01
The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)
Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B.E.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C.B.; Goetz, J.A.; Holly, D.J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J.D.
2013-01-01
An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio. (paper)
Torus C-I field reversed theta-pinch at UNICAMP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machida, M.; Collares, M.P.; Honda, R.Y.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Scheid, V.H.B.
1984-01-01
The influence of multipole fields (octopole and quadrupole) on supressing the n=2 rotational instability, field reconnection, particle loss effects is studied, and the viability of transforming the theta-pinch from Campinas, Brazil (100Kv, 55Kj) to the field reversed theta-pinch with plasma translation program is analyzed. (E.G.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
1958-07-01
In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.
1975-01-01
The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)
Staged theta pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.
1976-01-01
Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.
1958-01-01
Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally
''Turbulent Equipartition'' Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.D.; Rewaldt, G.
2008-01-01
The mode-independent part of magnetic curvature driven turbulent convective (TuroCo) pinch of the angular momentum density (Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,072302 (2007)) which was originally derived from the gyrokinetic equation, can be interpreted in terms of the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. It is shown that the previous results can be obtained from the local conservation of 'magnetically weighted angular momentum density', nm i U # parallel# R/B 2 , and its homogenization due to turbulent flows. It is also demonstrated that the magnetic curvature modification of the parallel acceleration in the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in the laboratory frame, which was shown to be responsible for the TEP part of the TurCo pinch of angular momentum density in the previous work, is closely related to the Coriolis drift coupling to the perturbed electric field. In addition, the origin of the diffusive flux in the rotating frame is highlighted. Finally, it is illustrated that there should be a difference in scalings between the momentum pinch originated from inherently toroidal effects and that coming from other mechanisms which exist in a simpler geometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, D.
1998-06-01
In the past thirty-six months, great progress has been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA-II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have the potential to drive high-yield ICF reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. In this paper, the recent technical progress with Z-pinches will be described, and a technical strategy for achieving high-yield ICF with z-pinches will be presented
Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge
Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.
2006-01-01
The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent
Numerical studies of the linear theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brackbill, J.U.; Menzel, M.T.; Barnes, D.C.
1975-01-01
Aspects of several physical problems associated with linear theta pinches were studied using recently developed numerical methods for the solution of the nonlinear equations for time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic flow in two- and three-dimensions. The problems studied include the propagation of end-loss produced rarefaction waves, the flow produced in a proposed injection experiment geometry, and the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of instabilities in rotating plasmas, all in linear geometries. The studies illustrate how numerical computations aid in flow visualization, and how the small amplitude behavior and nonlinear fate of plasmas in unstable equilibria can be connected through the numerical solution of the dynamical equations. (auth)
Linking natural microstructures with numerical modeling of pinch-and-swell structures
Peters, Max; Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus
2016-04-01
For a variety of geological problems, the change from homogeneous to localized deformation and the establishment of steady-state conditions are equally important. Here, we show that pinch-and-swell structures are ideal candidates for the study of the switch in deformation style and mechanism during ductile creep. We present an interdisciplinary approach to the onset of pinch-and-swell structures and to the flow conditions during pre- to post-localization stages in ductile rocks. For this reason, naturally boudinaged calcite veins, embedded in a calc-mylonite, and their microfabrics were investigated quantitatively. Remnants of slightly deformed calcite hosts build up the swells, showing twinning and minor dislocation glide as crystal plastic deformation mechanisms which are accompanied by subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR). Towards the pinches, we find a gradient of severe grain size reduction through progressive SGR, developing a characteristic dislocation creep crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Along this gradient, the finest recrystallized calcite grains appear randomly oriented, expressed by a "smearing-out" of the CPO and missing systematics of misorientation angles in the most extended areas. We interpret this microstructure as a switch from dislocation dominated creep to grain boundary sliding processes. Further, we show that the onset of boudinage is independent on both the original orientation and grain size of calcite hosts. We implemented these microstructural observations into a layered elasto-visco-plastic finite element framework, tracing variations in grain size (Peters et al., 2015). We base the microstructural evolution on thermo-mechanical-chemical principles and end-member flow laws (Herwegh et al., 2014). The simulated pinch-and-swell structures indicate that low strain rates in the swells favor dislocation creep, whereas accelerated rates provoke continuous grain size reduction allowing strain accommodation by diffusion creep
Plasma dynamics in a staged pinch device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattak, N.A.D.; Ahmed, Z.; Mirza, A.M.; Murtaza, G.
1998-01-01
Plasma parameters in fiber initiated fast and dense theta-pinch plasma driven by an annular finite-thickness gas-puff Z-pinch are studied. The imploding gas-puff Z-pinch plasma traps an axial magnetic field B/sub z/, compressing it to large values (of the order of several megagauss) in an extremely short time. The rapidly changing magnetic flux of this field induces an azimuthal current on the surface of the coaxially placed fiber, with a rise time an order of magnitude shorter than the applied Z-pinch current. The shorter rise time of the current stabilizes the pinch against sausage mode of MHD instabilities. Our numerical results demonstrate that for a relatively thick gas-puff layer, the compression occurs before the current saturates. At the peak compression the fuel densities of the order of 10/sup 25/ cm/sup -3/ and temperature above 10 keV can be achieved on a time scale of 0.1 nanoseconds, yielding the Lawson Criterion parameters n tau is approximately equal to 10/sup 14/ sec cm/sup -3/ for D-T fuel. The snow-plow effect incorporated in our model exercise a strong influence on the onset and growth rate of sausage and Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) modes of instabilities. Imposing a rotational velocity on the outer thin gas-puff plasma can control the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Numerical results indicate that the choice of the spin velocity is critical. Large values of the spin velocity, though provide stabilization against the R-T instability at the final stage of compression, however, it adversely reduce the plasma parameters so essential to achieve controlled fusion. Our analysis, therefore, suggests that a judicious choice of the spin velocity is necessary to obtain the desired temperature and density, especially when we seed D-T fiber plasma with a small fraction of high-Z Kr impurity to initiate the radiative collapse. (author)
Development of an effective pinch bar
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Ottermann, RW
2003-02-01
Full Text Available . ....................................10 Figure 3-3: Layout of lightweight pinch bar extruded fibreglass tube. ..................................11 Figure 3-4: XDM lightweight pinch bar with manufactured glass fibre bar. ..........................12 Figure 3-5: XDM lightweight pinch... bar with extruded glass fibre tube. ................................12 Figure 3-6: Stiffness of a 2.8m lightweight pinch bar with an extruded glass fibre tube and a 25mm steel pinch bar...
Non ideal instabilities in field reversed O-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santiago, M.A.M.; Gomes, A.S.
1987-01-01
Rotational instabilities and resistive tearing modes are the most striking modes observed in high temperature θ-pinches with zero orversed bias field. The configurations which have the effect of a rigid rotation of the plasma column are studied. Some recent experimental data indicate that an m=2 mode appears after the rotation reaches a critical value. It is shown that the growth rate of the m=2 mode may be greater than that of the m=1 resistive kink mode, depending on the experimental conditions. The result are applied to several experimental data in the literature. (author) [pt
Reversed field pinch diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, P.G.
1986-01-01
The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP
Compressibility Effects in the Dynamics of the Reversed-Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2008-01-01
We study the reversed-field pinch through the numerical solution of the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. Two cases are investigated: In the first case the pressure is derived from an adiabatic condition, and in the second case the pressure equation includes heating terms due to resistivity and viscosity. In the adiabatic case a single helicity state is observed, and the reversed-field pinch configuration is formed for short time intervals and is finally lost. In the nonadiabatic case the system reaches a multiple helicity state, and the reversal parameter remains negative for a longer time. The results show the importance of compressibility in determining the large scale dynamics of the system
Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids
Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.
2018-05-01
The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
York, T.M.; Klevans, E.H.
1979-02-01
Experimental and analytical studies of end loss from a linear theta pinch have been carried out. Analysis of reduced data on loss from a 25 cm long theta pinch has indicated: rotation at the end of pinch collapse, which appears to persist; ejection of the plasma in two modes, the first of which includes reversed, trapped fields; unique patterns of radial and axial variation of electron density in the end loss flow; substantial inaccuracies in plasma properties indicated by spectroscopy as compared to Thomson scattering. Studies of loss in a 50 cm long pinch with 50 eV, 2 x 10 16 cm -3 plasma are underway
The stability of Z-pinches with equilibrium flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howell, D.F.
1999-01-01
According to Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory the Z-pinch is an inherently unstable magnetic configuration. However it is possible that there exist regimes of operation whereby the predicted instabilities may be reduced or even eliminated. We must look to effects normally ignored in the Ideal MHD model in order to predict such regimes. In this thesis various non-ideal effects will be studied, namely the inclusion of equilibrium flow and finite Larmor radius effects. Astrophysical jets, for example those seen to be emitted from active galactic nuclei, are seen to persist for a greater time than suggested by Ideal MHD before the onset of instabilities. It is postulated that one of the contributing factors to this enhanced stability is the presence of a sheared axial flow. In this thesis we study the stability properties of the Z-pinch where flow is present in the equilibrium. It is found that a sheared axial flow generally has a stabilising effect, the degree of which is determined by the equilibrium and flow profiles, but that absolute stability cannot be achieved due to the onset of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The effect of adding rotation has also been studied. It is found that adding rotation changes the equilibrium density profiles from the static case, and that it always has a destabilising effect. Another postulated method of stabilising the Z-pinch is by increasing the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to the pinch radius, and it is seen to have a stabilising effect for some equilibria in the collisionless regime. In this thesis we study the effects of increasing the Larmor radius in the collisional regime using the Hall fluid model. It is found that for free boundary modes the stability properties are unchanged for experimentally realistic values of the Larmor radius, but for fixed boundary modes a small stabilising effect is noted for some equilibria. (author)
Stacey, W. M.; Groebner, R. J.
2009-11-01
Momentum balance requires that the radial particle flux satisfy a pinch-diffusion relationship. The pinch can be evaluated in terms of measurable quantities (rotation velocities, Er, etc.) by the use of momentum and particle balance [1,2], the radial particle flux can be determined by momentum balance, and then the diffusion coefficient can be evaluated from the pinch diffusion relation using the measured density gradient. Applications to several DIII-D H-mode plasmas are presented. 6pt [1] W.M. Stacey, Contr. Plasma Phys. 48, 94 (2008). [2] W.M. Stacey and R.J. Groebner, Phys. Plasmas 15, 012503 (2008).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glavic, P.; Kravanja, Z.; Homsak, M.
1990-01-01
Pinch technology has proven to be a powerful tool for designing new processes and retrofitting old ones. But, until recently, it was thought to pertain only to heat exchanger networks, separators and power devices (such as heat engines and heat pumps). Regarded as process background, reactors have been left out of heat integrations. Their structure, however, can be changed and, within limits, their parameters modified to better exploit energy. In a pinch-designed plant, heat is transferred between the hot and cold process streams so efficiently that the plant's utility requirements (heat sources and sinks) are minimal. The design procedure is discussed. It involves two steps: finding a nearly optimal process structure by means of an analysis of process-temperature-vs.- enthalpy diagrams, and then optimizing the structure by means of grid diagrams or a computerized procedure
Eigenvalue pinching on spinc manifolds
Roos, Saskia
2017-02-01
We derive various pinching results for small Dirac eigenvalues using the classification of spinc and spin manifolds admitting nontrivial Killing spinors. For this, we introduce a notion of convergence for spinc manifolds which involves a general study on convergence of Riemannian manifolds with a principal S1-bundle. We also analyze the relation between the regularity of the Riemannian metric and the regularity of the curvature of the associated principal S1-bundle on spinc manifolds with Killing spinors.
Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SPIELMAN,RICK B.
2000-01-01
Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.
Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SPIELMAN, RICK B.
2000-01-01
Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999
High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)
2014-12-15
The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and
Magnetic field compression using pinch-plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Veno, I.
1987-01-01
In a previous report, the method for ultra-high magnetic field compression by using the pinchplasma was discussed. It is summarized as follows. The experiment is performed with the Mather-type plasma focus device tau/sub 1/4/ = 2 μs, I=880 kA at V=20 kV). An initial DC magnetic field is fed by an electromagnet embedded in the inner electrode. The axial component of the magnetic field diverges from the maximum field of 1 kG on the surface of the inner electrode. The density profile deduced from a Mach-Zehnder interferogram with a 2-ns N/sub 2/-laser shows a density dip lasting for 30 ns along the axes. Using the measured density of 8 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, the temperature of 1.5 keV and the pressure balance relation, the magnitude of the trapped magnetic field is estimated to be 1.0 MG. The magnitude of the compressed magnetic field is also measured by Faraday rotation in a single-mode quartz fiber and a magnetic pickup soil. A protective polyethylene tube (3-mm o.d.) is used along the central axis through the inner electrode and the discharge chamber. The peak value of the compressed field range from 150 to 190 kG. No signal of the magnetic field appears up to the instance of the maximum pinch
1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang
2016-01-01
Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness...
Phenomenological modeling of argon Z-pinch implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Coulter, M.C.
1992-01-01
The authors investigate some of the effects of plasma turbulence on the K-shell emission dynamics of argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled phenomenologically using multipliers for these quantities in the MHD calculations. The choice of multipliers was made by benchmarking a 1-D MHD simulation of a Physics International Inc. argon gas puff experiment against the inferred densities and temperatures achieved in the experiment. These multipliers were then used to study the parametric dependence of the K-shell emission on the energy input to the argon plasma for a fixed mass loading. Comparisons between turbulent and non-turbulent argon implosions are made
Lower pinch radius limit in EXTRAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1989-01-01
In an Extrap pinch there is a superimposed magnetic octupole field which forms a magnetic separatrix with the field generated by the pinch current. Earlier experiments have shown that the octupole field has a stabilizing influence on the plasma. Regardless of the details of this stabilizing mechanism, it is expected that the influence of the octupole field should become negligible for a sufficiently small ratio between the characteristic pinch and separatrix radii. In other words, there should exist a lower limit of this ratio below which the system approaches the state of an ordinary unstabilized Z-pinch. The present paper presents an extended version of an earlier theoretical model of this lower limit, and its relation to the corresponding critical ratio between the external conductor and pinch currents. This ratio is found to vary substantially with the plasma parameters. (authors)
Plasma sheath dynamics in pinch discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansour, A.A.Abd-Fattah
1995-01-01
The main interest of the study was to understand the dynamic and to determine the plasma parameters in the 3.5 meter θ-pinch discharge. The 3.5 meter thetatron plasma device has been reconstructed and developed which consist of four capacitor banks: a) Main pinch capacitor bank, (θ-pinch bank) consists of 40 capacitors connected in parallel each of 1.5 μ F., with maximum energy equal to 48 k Joule. b) Preionization capacitor bank (z-pinch) consists of capacitors connected in series each of 1.5μ F., with maximum energy to 0.94 k Joule. c) Bias field bank consists of 4 capacitors connected in parallel each of 38μ F., with maximum energy equal to 4.46 k Joule. d) Screw pinch capacitor bank consists of 5 capacitors connected in parallel each of 1.5μ F., with maximum energy equal to 6 k Joule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindemuth, I.R.
1989-01-01
One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs
A simplified MHD model of capillary Z-Pinch compared with experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shapolov, A.A.; Kiss, M.; Kukhlevsky, S.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs (Hungary)
2016-11-15
The most accurate models of the capillary Z-pinches used for excitation of soft X-ray lasers and photolithography XUV sources currently are based on the magnetohydrodynamics theory (MHD). The output of MHD-based models greatly depends on details in the mathematical description, such as initial and boundary conditions, approximations of plasma parameters, etc. Small experimental groups who develop soft X-ray/XUV sources often use the simplest Z-pinch models for analysis of their experimental results, despite of these models are inconsistent with the MHD equations. In the present study, keeping only the essential terms in the MHD equations, we obtained a simplified MHD model of cylindrically symmetric capillary Z-pinch. The model gives accurate results compared to experiments with argon plasmas, and provides simple analysis of temporal evolution of main plasma parameters. The results clarify the influence of viscosity, heat flux and approximations of plasma conductivity on the dynamics of capillary Z-pinch plasmas. The model can be useful for researchers, especially experimentalists, who develop the soft X-ray/XUV sources. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor
2003-01-01
A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K
Upper pinch radius limit in EXTRAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1989-12-01
A simple static equilibrium model of the Z-pinch is considered where a hot plasma core is surrounded by a cold-mantle (gas blanket). The pinch radius, defined as the radial extension of the fully ionized plasma core, is uniquely determined by the plasma particle. momentum and heat balance equations. In Extrap configurations an octupole field is introduced which imposes a magnetic separatrix on Z-pinch geometry. This makes the conditions for Extrap equilibrium 'overdetermined' when the characteristic pinch radium given by the plasma parameters tends to exceed the characteristic radius of the magnetic separatrix. In this case no conventional pinch equilibrium can exist, and part of the current which is forced into the plasma discharge by external sources must be channelled outside of the separatrix, i.e. into the surrounding support structure of the Extrap conductors and the vessel walls. A possibly existing bootstrap current in the plasma boundary layer is further expected to be 'scraped off' in this case. The present paper gives some illustrations of the marginal case of this upper pinch radius limit, in a state where the pinch current is antiparallel to the external rod currents which generate the octupole field. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovberg, R.H.
1988-01-01
The plasma Z-Pinch occupies a unique position in the history of controlled fusion research as the first confinement and heating scheme to be tried experimentally. In contrast to the sophistication of programs being conducted today, in which extensive theoretical and experimental forces are in close collaboration, early pinch experiments were designed on quite elementary theoretical grounds. Indeed, these systems and the results from them provided the focus for much of the rapid development of theoretical plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics during the 1950's. In comparison to present programs, these early experiments had the considerable advantage of small size and minimal managerial encumbrance. After nearly three decades of abandonment because of difficulties with MHD instabilities, the Z-pinch is arising once again in a new incarnation characterized by microscopic size and time scales, and very high density. Uniquely in the history of the pinch, the new experimental surprises seem encouraging, rather than discouraging, to the goal of thermonuclear fusion
Viscosity of melts in the sodium borosilicate system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tait, J.C.; Mandolesi, D.L.; Rummens, H.E.C.
1984-01-01
The viscosities of a series of glasses in the sodium borosilicate system (5-35Na 2 O, 5-35B 2 O 3 , 45-80SiO 2 mol%) have been determined between 950 and 1500 deg C, using a rotating bob viscometer. A simplex lattice experimental design was used to define a series of compositions suitable for numerical analysis of the data. The viscosity data were fitted using the Fulcher equation for each composition. Nonlinear regression analysis of the viscosities at constant temperatures gave expressions for the variation in viscosity as a function of composition. The results are displayed as isoviscosity contours on the Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 composition diagram. The viscosity behaviour as a function of composition is discussed in terms of structural bonding in the melt. (author)
Shear Viscosity of Hot QED at Finite Chemical Potential from Kubo Formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Hui; Hou Defu; Li Jiarong
2008-01-01
Within the framework of finite temperature feld theory this paper discusses the shear viscosity of hot QED plasma through Kubo formula at one-loop skeleton diagram level with a finite chemical potential. The effective widths (damping rates) are introduced to regulate the pinch singularities and then gives a reliable estimation of the shear viscous coefficient. The finite chemical potential contributes positively compared to the pure temperature case. The result agrees with that from the kinetics theory qualitatively
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
RYUTOV,D.D.; DERZON,MARK S.; MATZEN,M. KEITH
1999-10-25
The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizing the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 36 figures and more than 300 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryutov, D.D.; Derzon, M.S.; Matzen, M.K.
1998-07-01
The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizes the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z-pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 52 figures and nearly 300 references
Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity
DIBĎÁK, Tomáš
2012-01-01
This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...
Effects of compressibility and heating in magnetohydrodynamics simulations of a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2009-01-01
The reversed field pinch is studied using numerical simulations of the compressible magnetohydrodynamics equations. Contrary to what has been done in previous works, the hypotheses of constant density and vanishing pressure are not used. Two cases are investigated. In the first case the pressure is derived from an adiabatic condition and in the second case the pressure equation includes heating terms due to resistivity and viscosity. The evolution of the reversal parameter and the production of single helicity or multiple helicity states are different in the two cases. The simulations show that the results are affected by compressibility and are very sensitive to hypotheses on heat production.
Plasma and current structures in dynamical pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butov, I.Ya.; Matveev, Yu.V.
1981-01-01
Dynamics of plasma layers and current structure in aZ-pinch device has been experimentally investigated. It is found that shaping of a main current envelope is ended with its explosion-like expansion, the pinch decaying after compression to separated current filaments. It is also shown that filling of a region outside the pinch with plasma and currents alternating in directions occurs owing to interaction of current loops (inductions) formed in a magnetic piston during its compression with reflected shock wave. Current circulating in the loops sometimes exceeds 1.5-2 times the current of discharge circuit. The phenomena noted appear during development of superheat instability and can be realized, for example, in theta-pinches, plasma focuses, tokamaks. The experiments were carried out at the Dynamic Zeta-pinch device at an energy reserse of up to 15 kJ (V 0 =24 kV) in a capacitor bank. Half-period of the discharge current is 9 μs; Isub(max)=3.5x10sup(5) A. Back current guide surrounding a china chamber of 28 cm diameter and 50 cm length is made in the form of a hollow cylinder. Initial chamber vacuum is 10 -6 torr [ru
Dynamic viscosity of polymer solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterlin, A
1982-03-01
The dynamic viscosity investigation of solutions of long chain polymers in very viscous solvents has definitely shown the existence of the low and high frequency plateau with the gradual transition between them. In both extreme cases the extrapolation of the measured Newtonian viscosities of the plateaus to the infinite dilution yields the limiting intrinsic viscosities. Such a behavior is expected from the dynamic intrinsic viscosity of the necklace model of the linear polymer with finite internal viscosity. The plateau at low frequency shows up in any model of polymer solution. This work shows the constant dynamic intrinsic viscosity in both extreme cases is well reproducible by the necklace model with the internal viscosity acting only between the beads on the same link. 20 references.
Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanov, Vladimir V. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
2016-08-17
plasma will be studied to estimate its contribution to the Doppler broadening of x-ray lines. Development of “necks” and “hot spots” will be studied with high-resolution UV diagnostics, an x-ray streak camera, and x-ray spectroscopy. Laser initiation of hot spots in Z pinches will be tested. A Faraday rotation diagnostic at 266 nm will be applied to 1-10 MG magnetic fields. For magnetic fields B>20 MG, suggested in micropinches, Cotton-Mouton and cutoff diagnostics will be applied. A picosecond optical Kerr shutter will be tested to increase a sensitivity of UV methods for application at multi-MA Z pinches. The proposal is based on the experimental capability of NTF. The Zebra generator produces 1-1.7 MA Z-pinches with electron plasma density of 10^{20}-10^{21}cm^{-3}, electron temperature of 0.5-1 keV, and magnetic fields >10 MG. The Leopard laser was upgraded to energy of 90-J at 0.8 ns. This regime will be used for laser initiation of hot spots. A further upgrade to energy of 250-J is suggested for laser-Z-pinch interaction. A picosecond regime will be used for optical gating. A 10-TW Tomcat laser at NTF is available for the high energy UV laser probing of the Z-pinch. Two graduate students will develop new optical and x-ray diagnostics, carry out experiments, and process experimental data. Other students will be involved in the design and fabrication of loads, supporting regular optical and x-ray diagnostics, and data processing. The new plasma diagnostics may be applied to HEDP experiments at NTF and other multi-MA generators. The feasibility of the research plan is based on the experience of the scientific team in Z-pinch plasma physics, laser physics, development of new plasma diagnostics, and the experimental capability of NTF. The experimental group of Dr. V. V. Ivanov (UNR) collaborates with a group for Z pinch MHD modeling of Dr. J. P. Chittenden (Imperial College, London), and theoretical group of Dr. D. D. Ryutov (LLNL). The
Kim, Bom Soo
2018-05-01
We discuss the contribution of magnetic Skyrmions to the Hall viscosity and propose a simple way to identify it in experiments. The topological Skyrmion charge density has a distinct signature in the electric Hall conductivity that is identified in existing experimental data. In an electrically neutral system, the Skyrmion charge density is directly related to the thermal Hall conductivity. These results are direct consequences of the field theory Ward identities, which relate various physical quantities based on symmetries and have been previously applied to quantum Hall systems.
Plasma focus - dense Z pinch and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Shozo
1986-02-01
''Workshop on the possibility of Z-pinch as a intense pulse light source'' in 1983 and ''Research meeting on plasma focus and Z-pinch'' in 1984 were held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University under a collaborating research program. Research activities reported at the meetings on plasma focus, dense Z-pinch, and related phenomena are summerized. (author)
Reversed field pinch ignition requirements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.
1991-01-01
Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs
Measurements of high-current electron beams from X pinches and wire array Z pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Bell, K. S.; Hammer, D. A.; Agafonov, A. V.; Romanova, V. M.; Mingaleev, A. R.
2008-01-01
Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch cross point to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups are discussed. Results of computer simulation of electron beam propagation from the pinch to the Faraday cup give limits for the measured current for beams having different energy spreads. The beam is partially neutralized as it propagates from the X pinch to a diagnostic system, but within a Faraday cup diagnostic, space charge effects can be very important. Experimental results show evidence of such effects.
Engineering prototypes for theta-pinch devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansborough, L.D.; Hammer, C.F.; Hanks, K.W.; McDonald, T.E.; Nunnally, W.C.
1975-01-01
Past, present, and future engineering prototypes for theta-pinch plasma-physics devices at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are discussed. Engineering prototypes are designed to test and evaluate all components under system conditions expected on actual plasma-physics experimental devices. The importance of engineering prototype development increases as the size and complexity of the plasma-physics device increases. Past experiences with the Scyllac prototype and the Staged Theta-Pinch prototype are discussed and evaluated. The design of the proposed Staged Scyllac prototype and the Large Staged Scyllac implosion prototype assembly are discussed
The thermo magnetic instability in hot viscose plasmas
Haghani, A.; Khosravi, A.; Khesali, A.
2017-10-01
Magnetic Rotational Instability (MRI) can not performed well in accretion disks with strong magnetic field. Studies have indicated a new type of instability called thermomagnetic instability (TMI) in systems where Nernst coefficient and gradient temperature were considered. Nernst coefficient would appear if Boltzman equation could be expanded through ω_{Be} (cyclotron frequency). However, the growth rate of this instability was two magnitude orders below MRI growth (Ωk), which could not act the same as MRI. Therefor, a higher growth rate of unstable modes was needed. In this paper, rotating viscid hot plasma with strong magnetic filed was studied. Firstly, a constant alpha viscosity was studied and then a temperature sensitive viscosity. The results showed that the temperature sensitive viscosity would be able to increase the growth rate of TMI modes significantly, hence capable of acting similar to MRI.
Characterization of laser-cut copper foil X-pinches
Collins, G. W.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Wei, M. S.; Reed, C. T.; Forsman, A. C.; Beg, F. N.
2016-10-01
Quantitative data analyses of laser-cut Cu foil X-pinch experiments on the 150 ns quarter-period, ˜250 kA GenASIS driver are presented. Three different foil designs are tested to determine the effects of initial structure on pinch outcome. Foil X-pinch data are also presented alongside the results from wire X-pinches with comparable mass. The X-ray flux and temporal profile of the emission from foil X-pinches differed significantly from that of wire X-pinches, with all emission from the foil X-pinches confined to a ˜3 ns period as opposed to the delayed, long-lasting electron beam emission common in wire X-pinches. Spectroscopic data show K-shell as well as significant L-shell emission from both foil and wire X-pinches. Fits to synthetic spectra using the SCRAM code suggest that pinching foil X's produced a ˜1 keV, ne ≥ 1023 cm-3 plasma. The spectral data combined with the improved reliability of the source timing, flux, and location indicate that foil X-pinches generate a reproducible, K-shell point-projection radiography source that can be easily modified and tailored to suit backlighting needs across a variety of applications.
A summary of the Berkeley and Livermore pinch programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colgate, Stirling A [University of California Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)
1958-07-01
In order to progress toward practical thermonuclear devices, the principal objective must be to prolong containment times by improving the electrical conductivity of the plasma. Those pinch configurations which are grossly unstable are, of course, unsuitable for practical thermonuclear work. Therefore our purely dynamic experiments are conducted only to study basic shock heating and instability mechanisms. Our basic evaluation of progress in pinch-type experiments is the reduction of the dissipation rate of the magnetic fields. The present pessimistic viewpoint is that most of the pinch devices that depend upon high current density within the plasma are beset with an enhanced dissipation rate which is disastrous to pinch containment. This dissipation is derived either from an electron plasma current instability or from hydromagnetic turbulence. Both have been predicted in theory and observed in experiment. Studies have been presented for the following cases: linear and toroidal pinch experiments; sheet pinch devices of modest size; homopolar geometry; shock heating and screw dynamic pinch.
Radiation hydrodynamics of z-pinch plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.
1993-01-01
Over the years there has been a sustained interest in and fascination with Z-pinch plasmas. Whether the interest is in radiation source development, fusion plasmas, or basic research there exits an extensive bibliography of literature promulgating and perpetuating a variety of claims regarding the performance of Z-pinch plasmas. In this paper an attempt will be made to present a coherent picture of the documented and commonly held views for a class of Z-pinch plasmas concerned primarily with soft x-ray radiation source development. Many of the issues and findings are common to Z-pinch plasmas in general but the attention here will be focused on gas puffs and multiple wire arrays. The role and importance of radiation on the dynamics and the interplay between the radiation and the dynamics will also be presented and discussed. A number of comparisons with experimental results will be made with 0-, 1-, and 2-D numerical simulations for several pulsed power drivers ranging in current from several mega-amps to 10's of mega-amps for a variety of risetimes and load materials
Self-stabilized pinch (SSP) concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Hirano, Keiichi.
1985-01-01
Self-Stabilized pinch (SSP) consept is revealed. SSP providcs many attractive features for application to a fusion reactor. Design studies for high temperature plasma production are carried out. Use of adiabatic compression leads to a remarkable reduction of required power source. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, A.G.; Chandler, G.I.; Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Lillberg, J.W.; Machalek, M.D.; Seibel, F.T.
1976-01-01
Scylla IV-P is a flexible, linear theta pinch designed to investigate high-density linear concepts, end-stoppering, alternate heating methods, and plasma injection techniques relevant to a pure fusion reactor and/or a fusion-fission hybrid system. The construction and experimental arrangement of the device are briefly described
Plasma behaviour in large reversed-field pinches and reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, J.P.; Bodin, H.A.B.; Carolan, P.G.; Johnston, J.W.; Newton, A.A.; Roberts, K.V.; Robinson, D.C.; Watts, M.R.C.; Piotrowicz, V.A.
1981-01-01
Recent analytic and numerical results on large reversed-field-pinch (RFP) systems and RFP reactors are presented. Predictions are made of the plasma behaviour in Eta Beta II, HBTXIA (under construction) and RFX (planned). The setting-up phase of an RFP is studied by using turbulence theory in transport equilibrium calculations, and estimates are made of the volt-seconds consumption for four different modes of field control. A prescription is given for a dynamo producing self-reversal which yields finite-β configurations. Residual instabilities of these equilibria may be resistive pressure-driven g-modes, and a new study of these modes that includes parallel viscosity indicates stability for anti β approximately 10%. The sustainment phase of the RFP is examined with tokamak scaling laws assumed for the energy confinement time. Temperatures in excess of 1keV are predicted for currents of 2MA in RFX. An operating cycle for a pulsed RFP reactor including gas puffing to reach ignition is proposed following a study of the energy replacement time for an Ohmically heated plasma. The scaling of the reactor parameters with minor radius is also investigated. (author)
Phenomenological modeling of turbulence in Z-pinch implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thornhill, J.W.; Whitney, K.G.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.
1994-01-01
A phenomenological investigation into the effects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on the initial stagnation dynamics of aluminum wire array and argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions is performed. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled by using multipliers for these quantities in one-dimensional (1-D) MHD calculations. The major effect of these increases is to soften the 1-D implosions by decreasing the densities that are achieved on axis at stagnation. As a consequence, a set of multipliers can be found that reasonably duplicates the average electron temperatures, ion densities, and mass of the K-shell emission region that were measured at stagnation for a variety of Physics International aluminum wire array and argon gas puff experiments. It is determined that the dependence of these measured quantities on the multipliers is weak once a level of enhancement is reached, where agreement between calculations and experiments is attained. The scaling of K-shell yield with load mass for a fixed implosion velocity is then reexamined, and the minimum load mass needed to efficiently produce K-shell emission by thermalization of kinetic energy is calculated for aluminum and argon using this phenomenological soft implosion modeling. The results show an upward shift in the minimum mass by a factor of 6 when compared to the original nonturbulent hard implosion calculations
Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iman Dianat
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.
Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael
1999-01-01
The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves....... The experiments show a significant increase in extensional viscosity with increasing pressure....
The viscosity of dimethyl ether
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen
2007-01-01
and NOx traps are installed. The most significant problem encountered when engines are fuelled with DME is that the injection equipment breaks down prematurely due to extensive wear. This tribology issue can be explained by the very low lubricity and viscosity of DME. Recently, laboratory methods have...... appeared capable of measuring these properties of DME. The development of this is rendered difficult because DME has to be pressurised to remain in the liquid state and it dissolves most of the commercially available elastomers. This paper deals fundamentally with the measurement of the viscosity of DME...... and extends the discussion to the difficulty of viscosity establishing of very thin fluids. The main issue here is that it is not easy to calibrate the viscometers in the very low viscosity range corresponding to about one-fifth of that of water. The result is that the low viscosity is measured at high...
Capillary waves with surface viscosity
Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele
2017-11-01
Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.
Liner of a thermonuclear pulse THETA-pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranov, G.A.; Izotov, E.N.; Karasev, B.G.; Komin, A.V.; Krivosheev, M.V.; Levashov, A.D.
1975-01-01
Some possible constructive solutions to the problem of fabrication of the theta-pinch reactor liner by the method of centrifugal casting in a casting mould are considered. A scheme for liner manufacturing is presented, which includes the following elements: 1) a casting mould of dielectric material presenting a hollow cylinder of 4 m in diam., 3 m in length and 12 t in weight, which rotates at 8 rps in the reactor chamber; 2) a system for heat protection of the casting mould; the volume heat of the mould is suggested to remove by gaseous helium flowing under pressure along axial cooling channels of 5 mm in diam.; the channels are evenly distributed throughout the thickness of the mould shell; 3) a system for preparation and supply of a liquid metal to the casting mould, the metal is being supplied into the casting mould from its both ends at a rate of 1.7 t of the melt per second; 4) a system for rotation of the mould, which comprises two gas turbines mounted on both ends of the mould and two main stop-radial slip supports with gas lubrication
Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.
Poredos, P; Zizek, B
1996-03-01
Increased blood and plasma viscosity has been described in patients with coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, the relation of viscosity to the extent of arterial wall deterioration--the most important determinant of clinical manifestation and prognosis of the disease--is not well known. Therefore, the authors studied plasma viscosity as one of the major determinants of blood viscosity in patients with different stages of arterial disease of lower limbs (according to Fontaine) and its relation to the presence of some risk factors of atherosclerosis. The study encompassed four groups of subjects: 19 healthy volunteers (group A), 18 patients with intermittent claudication up to 200 m (stage II; group B), 15 patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs (stage III and IV; group C), and 16 patients with recanalization procedures on peripheral arteries. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein without stasis for the determination of plasma viscosity (with a rotational capillary microviscometer, PAAR), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and glucose concentrations. In patients with recanalization procedure local plasma viscosity was also determined from blood samples taken from a vein on the dorsum of the foot. Plasma viscosity was most significantly elevated in the patients with critical ischemia (1.78 mPa.sec) and was significantly higher than in the claudicants (1.68 mPa.sec), and the claudicants also had significantly higher viscosity than the controls (1.58 mPa.sec). In patients in whom a recanalization procedure was performed, no differences in systemic and local plasma viscosity were detected, neither before nor after recanalization of the diseased artery. In all groups plasma viscosity was correlated with fibrinogen concentration (r=0.70, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol concentration (r=0.24, P < 0.05), but in group C (critical ischemia) plasma viscosity was most closely linked to the concentration of alpha-2
Parametric dependences of momentum pinch and Prandtl number in JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Salmi, A.; Angioni, C.
2011-01-01
Several parametric scans have been performed to study momentum transport on JET. A neutral beam injection modulation technique has been applied to separate the diffusive and convective momentum transport terms. The magnitude of the inward momentum pinch depends strongly on the inverse density...... gradient length, with an experimental scaling for the pinch number being -Rvpinch/χφ = 1.2R/Ln +1.4. There is no dependence of the pinch number on collisionality, whereas the pinch seems to depend weakly on q-profile, the pinch number decreasing with increasing q. The Prandtl number was not found to depend...... either on R/Ln, collisionality or on q. The gyro-kinetic simulations show qualitatively similar dependence of the pinch number on R/Ln, but the dependence is weaker in the simulations. Gyro-kinetic simulations do not find any clear parametric dependence in the Prandtl number, in agreement...
LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1979-01-01
The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show that over half the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson-scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced, indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport is needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low-temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given. (author)
LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1978-01-01
The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show over half of the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport are needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given
Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.
1979-01-01
A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table
Pinching Solutions of Slender Cylindrical Jets
1993-06-01
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681.2This research was supported in part by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cientifico y Tecnologico (FONDE...concentrate on inviscid irrotational flows of liquid jets. A review article has been written by Bogy [2]. Of relevance is also the work of Chandrasekhar...equations become elliptic and allow the possibility of admissible pinching solutions described in this article . It is interesting to find that for jets
ZAPP: Z-pinch atomic physics program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reed, K.
1983-01-01
High-density and high-temperature plasmas have been produced in a z-pinch with a hollow gas puff. A number of interesting atomic-physics phenomena occur in these plasmas and some of these phenomena provide important diagnostic information for characterizing the plasmas. We have been interested in collisions of high-energy electrons with highly stripped ions in these plasmas. Such collisions may produce a population inversion which could result in stimulated emission in the x-ray regime
Turbulent transport in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, J.P.; Roberts, K.V.
1976-01-01
MHD stability of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) relies on reversal of the toroidal field component in the outer plasma region. Interest in this configuration comes from its potential economic advantages as a thermonuclear reactor, since compared to a Tokamak the RFP supports a higher value of β, the ratio between plasma and total magnetic pressure. Results of computations on the time-evolution of the RFP using a 1D MHD model are reported. (orig./GG) [de
On the instability increments of a stationary pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bud'ko, A.B.
1989-01-01
The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained
X-ray backlighting of two-wire Z-pinch plasma using X-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, Zhao; Xiao-Bing, Zou; Ran, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Wang
2010-01-01
Two 50-μm Mo wires in parallel used as a Z-pinch load are electrically exploded with a pulsed current rising to 275 kA in 125 ns and their explosion processes are backlighted using an X-pinch as an x-ray source. The backlighting images show clearly the processes similar to those occurring in the initial stages of a cylindrical wire-array Z-pinch, including the electric explosion of single wires characterised by the dense wire cores surrounded by a low-density coronal plasma, the expansion of the exploding wire, the sausage instability (m = 0) in the coronal plasma around each wire, the motion of the coronal plasma as well as the wire core toward the current centroid, the formation of the precursor plasma column with a twist structure something like that of higher mode instability, especially the kink instability (m = 1). (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)
Reversed-field pinch experiments in EXTRAP T2R with a resistive shell boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmberg, J.-A.; Cecconello, M.; Brunsell, P.R.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.
2003-01-01
The EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch has a resistive shell with a magnetic penetration time of 6 ms. This time is intermediate between the dynamo/relaxation cycle time scale (<2ms) and the pulse length (∼20ms). The resonant tearing modes do not wall-lock. They rotate with angular phase velocities in the range of 20 to 600 krad/s. As a result of the rotation the radial component of the perturbations at the shell from the resonant modes is suppressed. Non-resonant (resistive-wall) kink modes are unstable and their linear growth rates have been measured. The measured growth rates follow the trend expected from theoretical estimates for a range of equilibrium parameters. Furthermore, when the resonant modes are rotating, the loop voltage and confinement parameters have values comparable to those of a conducting shell RFP. The poloidal beta is around 10% for a range of current and density. (author)
High-density fusion and the Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Munger, R.H.
1975-01-01
The formation of a Z-pinch in dense gas is investigated using numerical modeling in one and two dimensions. Hot, dense Z-pinches are calculated with n approximately 2 x 10 21 cm 3 and T = 10 keV. Relaxation by sausage instability of an unstable pinch profile to a marginally stable one is calculated along with end losses in 2 dimensions to show that, if plasma is confined for N = 50 to 200 sound transits across the radius a, pinches with length L = Na are of interest for fusion power. A conceptual, ''no-wall'' fusion reactor is discussed. (author)
On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches
Svirsky, E. B.
2018-01-01
The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.
Viscosity of particle laden films
Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence
2017-06-01
We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.
Linear studies of resistive interchange modes in a cylindrical reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.; O'Neill, N.J.; Killeen, J.; Bonugli, R.J.; Ellis, M.J.
1986-01-01
Resistive interchange modes in a cylindrical reversed field pinch are studied using a one-dimensional, linear, compressible initial value code. Separate equations for the electron and ion temperature perturbations are solved. Hall terms and the thermal force vector are included in Ohm's law. Anisotropic thermal conductivity and viscosity are included in the code model. Calculations are carried out for various values of poloidal and toroidal mode number, Lundquist number, Suydam parameter, Hall parameter, thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc., with respect to uniform density equilibria known to be stable to tearing modes. It is shown that in the cold ion limit sufficiently large Hall terms cause all modes that are tested to become stable. However for T/sub i/ = T/sub e/ and ignoring the effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity, there is a critical value of the ratio of Alfven to ion cyclotron frequency above which the ''even'' mode not only dominates the ''odd'' mode but is likely to have a growth rate significantly larger than that of the odd mode in the absence of Hall terms. Inclusion of a classical tensor thermal conductivity, while having little effect on the odd mode in the absence of Hall terms, does stabilize the even mode for sufficiently large Hall parameter. Inclusion of a classical tensor viscosity reduces the growth rate of (but does not necessarily stabilize) the odd mode. Inclusion of Hall and thermal force terms, tensor thermal conductivity and tensor viscosity causes all modes that are tested to stabilize. Results are compared to other contemporary studies
Velocity-space particle loss in field-reversed theta pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiao, M.Y.
1983-01-01
A field-reversed theta pinch (FRTP) is a compact device for magnetic fusion. It has attracted much attention in recent years since encouraging experimental results have been obtained. However, the definite causes for the observed particle loss rate and plasma rotation are not well known. In this work, we study the velocity-space particle loss (VSPL), i.e., particle loss due to the existence of a loss region in velocity space, in FRTP's in order to have a better understanding about the characteristics of this device
Dynamics of deformation and pinch-off of a migrating compound droplet in a tube
Borthakur, Manash Pratim; Biswas, Gautam; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar
2018-04-01
A computational fluid dynamic investigation has been carried out to study the dynamics of a moving compound droplet inside a tube. The motions associated with such a droplet is uncovered by solving the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations in which the spatiotemporal evolution of a pair of twin-deformable interfaces has been tracked employing the volume-of-fluid approach. The deformations at the interfaces and their subsequent dynamics are found to be stimulated by the subtle interplay between the capillary and viscous forces. The simulations uncover that when a compound drop composed of concentric inner and outer interfaces migrates inside a tube, initially in the unsteady domain of evolution, the inner drop shifts away from the concentric position to reach a morphology of constant eccentricity at the steady state. The coupled motions of the droplets in the unsteady regime causes a continuous deformation of the inner and outer interfaces to obtain a configuration with a (an) prolate (oblate) shaped outer (inner) interface. The magnitudes of capillary number and viscosity ratio are found to have significant influence on the temporal evolution of the interfacial deformations as well as the eccentricity of the droplets. Further, the simulations uncover that, following the asymmetric deformation of the interfaces, the migrating compound droplet can undergo an uncommon breakup stimulated by a rather irregular pinch-off of the outer shell. The breakup is found to initiate with the thinning of the outer shell followed by the pinch-off. Interestingly, the kinetics of the thinning of outer shell is found to follow two distinct power-law regimes—a swiftly thinning stage at the onset followed by a rate limiting stage before pinch-off, which eventually leads to the uncommon breakup of the migrating compound droplets.
Stabilization of thin shell modes by a rotating secondary wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gimblett, C.G.
1989-01-01
A simple model is developed to investigate if and under what circumstances the thin shell instabilities of a Reverse Field Pinch can be stabilized by a rotating secondary wall. The principles may be applicable to reactor designs that utilize a flowing liquid blanket (author)
Viscosity of diluted suspensions of vegetal particles in water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szydłowska Adriana
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Viscosity and rheological behaviour of sewage as well as sludge are essential while designing apparatuses and operations employed in the sewage treatment process and its processing. With reference to these substances, the bio-suspensions samples of three size fractions ((i 150÷212 μm, (ii 106÷150 μm and (iii below106 μm of dry grass in water with solid volume fraction 8%, 10% and 11% were prepared. After twenty four hours prior to their preparation time, the suspension samples underwent rheometeric measurements with the use of a rotational rheometer with coaxial cylinders. On the basis of the obtained results, flow curves were plotted and described with both the power model and Herschel-Bulkley model. Moreover, the viscosity of the studied substances was determined that allowed to conclude that the studied bio-suspensions display features of viscoelastic fluids. The experimentally established viscosity was compared to the calculated one according to Manley and Manson equation, recommended in the literature. It occurred that the measured viscosity values substantially exceed the calculation viscosity values, even by 105 times. The observations suggest that it stems from water imbibition of fibrous vegetal particles, which causes their swelling and decreases the amount of liquid phase in the suspension.
Dynamic viscosity study of barley malt and chicory concentrates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. O. Magomedov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find optimal conditions for dispersing and subsequent dehydration of liquid food environments in the nozzle spray drying chamber through the study of dynamic changes in viscosity according to temperature, velocities gradients and dry residue content. The objects of study were roasted chicory and malt barley concentrates with dry residue content of 20, 40, 60 and 80%. Research of dynamic viscosity were carried out at the measuring complex based on the rotational viscometer Rheotest II, analog-to-digital converter, module Laurent and a personal computer with a unique software that allows to record in real time (not only on a tape recorder, but also in the form of graphic files the behavior of the viscosity characteristics of concentrates. Registration of changes of dynamic viscosity was carried out at a shear rate gradient from 1,0 с -1 to 27,0 с -1 and the products temperature thermostating : 35, 55, 75˚ C. The research results are presented in the form of graphic dependences of effective viscosity on shear rate and flow curves (dependencies of shear stresses on the velocity gradient, which defined flow regimes, the optimal modes of dispersion concentrates into spray dryer chambers in obtaining of powdered semi-finished products and instanting were found: dry residue content - 40 %, concentrate temperature - 75 ˚C, velocity gradient in the air channel of the nozzle at least 20 c-1
Pinched flow fractionation of microbubbles for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment
Versluis, Michel; Kok, Maarten; Segers, Tim
2014-11-01
An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains a wide size distribution of encapsulated microbubbles (typically 1-10 μm in diameter) that resonate to the driving ultrasound field by the intrinsic relationship between bubble size and ultrasound frequency. Medical transducers, however, operate in a narrow frequency range, which severely limits the number of bubbles that contribute to the echo signal. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution of the bubble suspension. Here, we present a novel, low-cost, lab-on-a-chip method for the sorting of contrast microbubbles by size, based on a microfluidic separation technique known as pinched flow fractionation (PFF). We show by experimental and numerical investigation that the inclusion of particle rotation is essential for an accurate physical description of the sorting behavior of the larger bubbles. Successful sorting of a bubble suspension with a narrow size distribution (3.0 +/- 0.6 μm) has been achieved with a PFF microdevice. This sorting technique can be easily parallelized, and may lead to a significant improvement in the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced medical ultrasound. This work is supported by NanoNextNL, a micro and nanotechnology consortium of the Government of the Netherlands and 130 partners.
Filamentation instability of a self-pinched hollow electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhm, H.S.; Hughes, T.P.
1986-01-01
Filamentation stability properties of a self-pinched hollow electron beam propagating through a collisional plasma channel are investigated within the framework of linearized Vlasov--Maxwell equations, assuming that the beam is thin and that the equilibrium and perturbed space-charge fields are neutralized by background plasma. It is further assumed that the perturbations are well tuned with kβ/sub b/c+lω/sub b/ and satisfy la 0 , where l and k are the azimuthal and axial wavenumbers, β/sub b/c and ω/sub b/ are the axial velocity and the rotational frequency of the beam, and 2a and R 0 are the thickness and mean radius of the beam. From the stability analysis, two distinctive unstable mechanisms are identified: the return-current driven instability and the resistively driven instability. It is also found that high-l-mode perturbations are easily stabilized by a spread in the canonical angular momentum. Making use of a linearized particle-in-cell code, numerical simulations are performed. The agreement between the analytical results and those of simulations is excellent
Kinetic description of linear theta-pinch equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batchelor, D.B.; Davidson, R.C.
1975-01-01
Equilibrium properties of linear theta-pinch plasmas are studied within the framework of the steady-state (o/x=0) Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out for an infinitely long plasma column aligned parallel to an externally applied axial magnetic field Bsub(z)sup(ext)esub(z). Equilibrium properties are calculated for the class of rigid-rotor Vlasov equilibria, in which the th component distribution function (Hsub(perpendicular), Psub(theta), upsilonsub(z) depends on perpendicular energy H and canonical angular momentum Psub(theta), exclusively through the linear combination Hsub(perpendicular)-ωsub(j)Psub(theta), where ω;=const.=angular velocity of mean rotation. General equilibrium relations that pertain to the entire class of rigid-rotor Vlasov equilibria are discussed; and specific examples of sharp- and diffuse-boundary equilibrium configurations are considered. Rigid-rotor density and magnetic field profiles are compared with experimentally observed profiles. A general prescription is given for determining the functional dependence of the equilibrium distribution function on Hsub(perpendicular)-ωsub(j)Psub(theta) in circumstances, where the density profile or magnetic field profile is specified. (author)
Investigation on the pinch point position in heat exchangers
Pan, Lisheng; Shi, Weixiu
2016-06-01
The pinch point is important for analyzing heat transfer in thermodynamic cycles. With the aim to reveal the importance of determining the accurate pinch point, the research on the pinch point position is carried out by theoretical method. The results show that the pinch point position depends on the parameters of the heat transfer fluids and the major fluid properties. In most cases, the pinch point locates at the bubble point for the evaporator and the dew point for the condenser. However, the pinch point shifts to the supercooled liquid state in the near critical conditions for the evaporator. Similarly, it shifts to the superheated vapor state with the condensing temperature approaching the critical temperature for the condenser. It even can shift to the working fluid entrance of the evaporator or the supercritical heater when the heat source fluid temperature is very high compared with the absorbing heat temperature. A wrong position for the pinch point may generate serious mistake. In brief, the pinch point should be founded by the iterative method in all conditions rather than taking for granted.
Deuterated fibre Z-pinch on the S-300 generator
Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Bakshaev, Yu L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Danko, S. A.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.; Ivanov, M. I.; Cai, Hongchun
2006-01-01
Dense Z-pinch experiments were carried out on the S-300 generator (3.5 MA, 100 ns, 0.15 Omega) at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. The experiments were performed at a peak current of 2 MA with a rise time of about 100 ns. The Z-pinch was formed from a deuterated polyethylene fibre of 100 mu m
Self-pinched lithium beam transport experiments on SABRE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, D.L.; Olson, C.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Shokir, I.; Cuneo, M.E.; Menge, P.R.; Johnston, R.R.; Welch, D.R.
1996-01-01
Self-pinched transport of ion beams has many advantages for ion-driven ICF applications involving high yield and energy production. The authors are currently preparing for a self-pinched lithium beam transport experiment on the SABRE accelerator. There are three transport elements that must eventually be demonstrated: (1) efficient lithium beam generation and ballistic transport to a focus at the self-pinched transport channel entrance; (2) self-pinched transport in the channel, requiring optimized injection conditions and gas breakdown; and (3) self-pinched transport of the equilibrated beam from the channel into free space, with associated aiming and stability considerations. In the present experiment, a hollow annular lithium beam from an applied-B extraction ion diode will be focused to small radius (r ≤ 2 cm) in a 60 cm long ballistic focus section containing argon gas at a pressure of a few Torr. The self-pinched transport channel will contain a low pressure background gas of 10--40 mTorr argon to allow sufficient net current to confine the beam for long distance transport. IPROP simulations are in progress to optimize the design of the ballistic and self-pinched transport sections. Progress on preparation of this lithium self-pinched transport experiment, including a discussion of transport system design, important gas breakdown issues, and diagnostics, will be presented
Capillary Thinning and Pinch-off Dynamics and Printability of Polyelectrolyte Solutions
Sharma, Vivek; Jimenez, Leidy N.; Dinic, Jelena; Parsi, Nikila
Biological macromolecules like proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, and many industrial polymers, are classified together as polyelectrolytes for in solution, the repeat units in their backbone are decorated with disassociated, charge-bearing ionic groups, surrounded by counter-ions. In diverse applications like inkjet printing, sprayable cosmetics and insecticides, paints and coatings that involve formation of fluid columns or sheets that undergo progressive thinning and pinch-off into drops, the dominant flow within the necking filament is extensional in nature. The extensional rheology response of the charged macromolecular solutions is not as well understood as that of their uncharged counterparts. Here focus on the characterization of capillary thinning and pinch-off dynamics, extensional rheology and printability of two model systems: sodium (polystyrene sulfonate) and poly(acrylic acid) by using dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry technique. Both the measured extensional relaxation times and the extensional viscosity values show salt- and polymer concentration-dependent behavior that is not expected or anticipated from the typical shear rheology response.
Steinhaus, Ben; Shen, Amy; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna
2006-11-01
We investigate the effects of fluid elasticity and channel geometry on polymeric droplet pinch-off by performing systematic experiments using viscoelastic polymer solutions which possess practically shear rate-independent viscosity (Boger fluids). Four different geometric sizes (width and depth are scaled up proportionally at the ratio of 0.5, 1, 2, 20) are used to study the effect of the length scale, which in turn influences the ratio of elastic to viscous forces as well as the Rayleigh time scale associated with the interfacial instability of a cylindrical column of liquid. We observe a power law relationship between the dimensionless (scaled with respect to the Rayleigh time scale) capillary pinch-off time, T, and the elasticity number, E, defined as the ratio of the fluid relaxation time to the time scale of viscous diffusion. In general, T increases dramatically with increasing E. The inhibition of ``bead-on-a-string'' formation is observed for flows with effective Deborah number, De, defined as the ratio of the fluid relaxation time to the Rayleigh time scale becomes greater than 10. For sufficiently large values of De, the Rayleigh instability may be modified substantially by fluid elasticity.
A study of reversed field pinch experiments using a new programming mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kita, Y.
1979-08-01
A new mode of external-field programming for setting up a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is tested in STP-1. It involves creating an initial plasma with a screw pinch followed by external-field reversal. The program is done carefully so as to satisfy the equilibrium relation with respect to the minor radius throughout the setting-up phase. Increase of the trapped flux in the plasma by a factor of two is consequently attained, as compared with previous usual programming mode. Actually, at a plasma current of 58 kA, a stable operation time of 13 μsec is achieved with a density of 3.5 x 10 15 cm -3 and a temperature of 20 eV. After 13 μsec stable operation time, the plasma is suddenly crashed down by a violent MHD instability. One dimensional stability analysis based on ideal MHD model is applied to the experimental results. It is found that the instability is m = 1 resistive tearing mode under the influence of viscosity. Using the new programming high current operation at 110 kA is done and results in higher plasma temperature and density of 40 eV and 4.5 x 10 15 cm -3 , respectively. The duration of stable discharge, however, is limited to about 10 μsec, in spite of the expected longer confinement time at the higher temperature. (author)
Effects of density asymmetries on heavy-impurity transport in a rotating tokamak-plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanelli, M.; Ottaviani, M.
1997-12-01
The transport equations of heavy trace-impurities in a Tokamak plasma with strong toroidal rotation have been studied analytically in the collisional regime. It is found that the poloidal asymmetry of the impurity-density, which occurs because of the rotation, brings about a large enhancement of the diffusivity and indeed of the pinch velocity above the conventional Pfirsh-Schlueter values. (author)
Initial reversed-field pinch experiments on ZT-40 and recent advances in RFP theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1980-01-01
The ZT-40 reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been operated in several modes: (1) without reversed toroidal field, (2) with self reversal, and (3) with aided reversal. An analytic ohmic heating and ignition model both confirm and provide guidance for transport codes. Nondissipative formation schemes have been analyzed and ideal MHD stable evolution and burn scenarios have been found. Particle and fluid simulations have produced qualitative agreement with respect to the nonlinear behavior of m = 0 resistive g-modes. Helical ohmic reversed field states are produced by a 2-D dynamical simulation, and nonlinear analytic work describes the final state. A fast resistive MHD code for linear stability has clarified the relations between several kinds of resistive instabilities. Ballooning modes and g-modes in systems with arbitrary magnetic shear including resistivity and viscosity, have been studied in a unified treatment with growth rate vs wavenumber showing the existence of important cutoffs
Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on force of finger pinch
Odagaki, Masato; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu
2009-04-01
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to explore many aspects of brain function, and to treat neurological disorders. Cortical motor neuronal activation by TMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) produces efferent signals that pass through the corticospinal tracts. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are observed in muscles innervated by the stimulated motor cortex. TMS can cause a silent period (SP) following MEP in voluntary electromyography (EMG). The present study examined the effects of TMS eliciting MEP and SP on the force of pinching using two fingers. Subjects pinched a wooden block with the thumb and index finger. TMS was applied to M1 during the pinch task. EMG of first dorsal interosseous muscles and pinch forces were measured. Force output increased after the TMS, and then oscillated. The results indicated that the motor control system to keep isotonic forces of the muscles participated in the finger pinch was disrupted by the TMS.
Influence of pinches on magnetic reconnection in turbulent space plasmas
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey
A generally accepted scenario of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas is the breakage of magnetic field lines in X-points. In laboratory, reconnection is widely studied in pinches, current channels embedded into twisted magnetic fields. No model of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas considers both null-points and pinches as peers. We have performed a particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional configuration where null-points are present nitially, and Z-pinches are formed during the simulation. The X-points are relatively stable, and no substantial energy dissipation is associated with them. On contrary, turbulent magnetic reconnection in the pinches causes the magnetic energy to decay at a rate of approximately 1.5 percent per ion gyro period. Current channels and twisted magnetic fields are ubiquitous in turbulent space plasmas, so pinches can be responsible for the observed high magnetic reconnection rates.
Integration thermal processes through Pinch technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rios H, Carlos Mario; Grisales Rincon, Rogelio; Cardona, Carlos Ariel
2004-01-01
This paper presents the techniques of heat integration used for process optimization, their fortresses and weaknesses during the implementation in several specific process are also discussed. It is focused to the pinch technology, explaining algorithms for method applications in the industry. The paper provides the concepts and models involved in different types of commercial software applying this method for energy cost reduction, both in design of new plants and improve of old ones. As complement to benefits of the energy cost reduction it is analysed other favorable aspects of process integration, as the emissions waste reduction and the combined heat end power systems
The Magpie dense z-pinch project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chittenden, J.; Choi, P.; Mitchell, I.; Dangor, A.E.; Haines, M.G.
1990-01-01
The authors present a design study on the Mega Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE), a project currently under construction at Imperial College London, to study radiative collapse of a dense Z-pinch plasma created from a 20 um diameter cryogenic hydrogen fiber. The 2 TW generator is composed of four individual 2.4 MV Marx banks of the HERMES III type design with a maximum stored energy of 336 kJ. They drive four 5 ohm Pulse Forming Lines which are combined into a single 1.25 MA in 150 ns to a 150 nH load
MHD simulations of molybdenum X-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenkov, G.V.; Stepnevski, V.
2002-01-01
One investigates into compression of molybdenum X-pinches applying numerical MHD-models with parabolic and conical initial geometry. The second model describing plasma axial motion in greater detail offers a real geometry of a discharge and is applicable to loads characterized by higher masses in contrast to the first one. Both models enabled to describe all basic phases of compression including origination of a minidiode, occurrence of a narrow neck, microexplosion of a hot point and origination of shock waves followed by sausage instability [ru
Electron temperature measurement in Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerusov, A.V.; Orlov, M.M.; Terent'ev, A.R.; Khrabrov, V.A.
1987-01-01
Measurement of temperature of emitting plasma sheath in noncylindrical Z-pinch in neon at the stage of convergence to the axis, based on comparing the intensity of spectral lines belonging to Ne1, Ne2, is performed. Line intensity relation dependence was determined using calculations according to emitting-collision model. Spectra were recorded by electron-optical converter and relative intensity was determined by subsequent photometry of photolayer. Cylindric symmetrical MHD-calculations during which temperature and the observed line intensity relation were determined, are conducted
Confinement dynamics in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.
1988-01-01
The study of basic transport and confinement dynamics is central to the development of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as a confinement concept. Thus, the goal of RFP research is to understand the connection between processes that sustain the RFP configuration and related transport/confinement properties. Recently, new insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation of RFP electron and ion physics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and strongly coupled role in RFP sustainment and confinement dynamics. In this paper, we summarize the results of these studies on the ZT-40M experiment. 8 refs
Reversed-Field Pinch plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miley, G.H.; Nebel, R.A.; Moses, R.W.
1979-01-01
The stability of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is strongly dependent on the plasma profile and the confining sheared magnetic field. Magnetic diffusion and thermal transport produce changing conditions of stability. Despite the limited understanding of RFP transport, modelling is important to predict general trends and to study possible field programming options. To study the ZT-40 experiment and to predict the performance of future RFP reactors, a one-dimensional transport code has been developed. This code includes a linear, ideal MHD stability check based on an energy principle. The transport section integrates plasma profiles forward in time while the stability section periodically checks the stability of the evolving plasma profile
Interchange stability of noncircular reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skinner, D.A.; Prager, S.C.; Todd, A.M.M.
1987-08-01
Interchange (Mercier) stability of toroidal reversed-field-pinch plasmas with noncircular cross-section is evaluated numerically. Marginally stable pressure profiles and beta values are produced. Most shapes, such as indented or vertically elongated, reduce stability by making the net magnetic curvature of the poloidal-field-dominated plasmas yet worse than that of the circle. Horizontally elongated plasmas slightly enhance stability beyond that of the circle as a result of increased shear produced by toroidicity. Such shear enhancement by the toroidal shift of magnetic surfaces might be exploited for future, more comprehensive studies
Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai
2010-01-01
Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.
Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, Heidi E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2018-01-31
Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modify viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.
Bulk viscosity and cosmological evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beesham, A.
1996-01-01
In a recent interesting paper, Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera (Nuovo Cimento B, 109(1994) 1317) have derived several solutions with bulk viscosity in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. They also discussed the properties of these solutions. In this paper the authors relate the solutions of Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera by simple transformations to previous solutions published in the literature, showing that all the solutions can be derived from the known existing ones. Drawbacks to these approaches of studying bulk viscosity are pointed out, and better approaches indicated
Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter
2010-01-01
, temperature, and chain length dependencies of the reciprocal and real-space viscosity kernels are presented. We find that the density has a major effect on the shape of the kernel. The temperature range and chain lengths considered here have by contrast less impact on the overall normalized shape. Functional...... forms that fit the wave-vector-dependent kernel data over a large density and wave-vector range have also been tested. Finally, a structural normalization of the kernels in physical space is considered. Overall, the real-space viscosity kernel has a width of roughly 3–6 atomic diameters, which means...
Methods of viscosity measurements in sealed ampoules
Mazuruk, Konstantin
1999-07-01
Viscosity of semiconductors and metallic melts is usually measured by oscillating cup method. This method utilizes the melts contained in vacuum sealed silica ampoules, thus the problems related to volatility, contamination, and high temperature and pressure can be alleviate. In a typical design, the time required for a single measurement is of the order of one hour. In order to reduce this time to a minute range, a high resolution angular detection system is implemented in our design of the viscometer. Furthermore, an electromagnet generating a rotational magnetic field (RMF) is incorporated into the apparatus. This magnetic field can be used to remotely and nonintrusively measure the electrical conductivity of the melt. It can also be used to induce a well controlled rotational flow in the system. The transient behavior of this flow can potentially yield of the fluid. Based on RMF implementation, two novel viscometry methods are proposed in this work: a) the transient torque method, b) the resonance method. A unified theoretical approach to the three methods is presented along with the initial test result of the constructed apparatus. Advantages of each of the method are discussed.
Engineering feasibility evaluation of a peristaltic pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boicourt, G.P.
1977-04-01
A recent proposal for reducing the end loss of a linear theta pinch is to produce moving magnetic mirrors at the coil ends. The concept entails the sequential pulsing of an axially arranged series of two-turn coaxial coils. The electrical design of such a system presents some unique problems. Ideally, the individual pulse circuits should be completely independent. This would facilitate the design by eliminating interactive effects. In practice, the circuits must be interconnected through isolating inductors to enable the production of a uniform biasing magnetic field. Moreover, the coils must be located physically close together. This produces strong magnetic coupling between the pulse circuits, which can seriously affect the shape and speed of the inward-moving magnetic-mirror field. Possible systems were modeled for the NET-2 circuit analysis code. The models took account of the inductive coupling between the individual circuits in the model. The results show that an increasing magnetic mirror can be produced provided the radius of the theta pinch is not too great compared to the intercoil spacing. The peristaltic field can be maintained for several cycles in the inner coils. The voltage hold-off requirements on the pulse circuit switches are found to be severe, but not impossible to meet
Moderately reverberant learning ultrasonic pinch panel.
Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre
2013-10-01
Tactile sensing is widely used in human-computer interfaces. However, mechanical integration of touch technologies is often perceived as difficult by engineers because it often limits the freedom of style or form factor requested by designers. Recent work in active ultrasonic touch technologies has made it possible to transform thin glass plates, metallic sheets, or plastic shells into interactive surfaces. The method is based on a learning process of touch-induced, amplitude-disturbed diffraction patterns. This paper proposes, first, an evolution in the design with multiple dipole transducers that improves touch sensitivity or maximum panel size by a factor of ten, and improves robustness and usability in moderately reverberant panels, and second, defines a set of acoustic variables in the signal processing for the evaluation of sensitivity and radiating features. For proof of concept purposes, the design and process are applied to 3.2- and 6-mm-thick glass plates with variable damping conditions. Transducers are bonded to only one short side of the rectangular substrates. Measurements show that the highly sensitive free lateral sides are perfectly adapted for pinch-touch and pinch-slide interactions. The advantage of relative versus absolute touch disturbance measurement is discussed, together with tolerance to abutting contaminants.
Material testing in a linear theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alani, R.; Azodi, H.; Naraghi, M.; Safaii, B.; Torabi-Fard, A.
1983-01-01
The interaction of stainless steel 316 and Inconel 625 alloys has been investigated with a thermonuclear-like plasma, n = 10 16 cm -3 and Tsub(i) = 1 keV, generated in the Alvand I linear theta pinch. The average power flux is 10 7 W/cm 2 and the interaction time nearly one μs. A theoretical analysis based on the formation of an observed impurity layer near the material, has been used to determine the properties of the impurity layer and the extent of the damage on the material. Although arcing has been observed, the dominant damage mechanism has been assessed to be due to evaporation. Exposure to single shots has produced very heavily defective areas and even surface cracks on the SS 316 sample, but no cracks were observed on Inconel 625 after exposure to even 18 shots. On the basis of temperature rise and evaporation a comparison is made among materials exposed to plasmas of a theta pinch, shock tube, present generation tokamak and an anticipated tokamak reactor. (orig.)
Electrostatic turbulence in the Z pinch corona
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, R.E.
1994-01-01
The microstability of electrostatic waves in the periphery of a Z pinch is formulated and resolved for a new class of Vlasov meta-equilibria admitting self-similar solutions in the electron gyrokinetic limit. These equilibria are subject to strong radial motions, and a mild deviation from charge neutrality arises to maintain ion acceleration close to that of the magnetized electrons. A unique class of profiles in density, axial current, temperature, and drift speed defines these equilibria. They are characterized by (i) the interior pinch current, (ii) the interior number density, (iii) the parallel and perpendicular temperatures, (iv) the exterior axial electric field value at the initial time, and (v) the radial ion acceleration relative to that of the electrons. Unstable ion sound waves arise in this medium by coupling radial and axial free energy to azimuthal longitudinal oscillations. The waves grow only for a limited range of radial or axial Exb/B drift speeds and electron temperatures. The growth rate, which can be as large as 0.115ω pi , is found to scale proportional to plasma frequency over the density range from 10 12 to 10 18 ions cm -3
Processes governing pinch formation in diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaugrund, A.E.; Cooperstein, G.; Goldstein, S.A.
1975-01-01
The process of pinch formation in large aspect ratio diodes has been studied by means of streak photography and time-resolved x-ray detectors. A tight pinch is formed at the anode center by a collapsing thin hollow electron beam. The collapse velocity depends, among other things, on the type of material in the top 1 μm layer of the anode. In a tentative model it is assumed that an anode plasma is at least partially created from gases released from the surface layer of the anode by the heating action of the beam. These gases are ionized by primary, backscattered, and secondary electrons. Ions emitted from this plasma modify the electron trajectories in the diode leading to a radial collapse of the hollow electron beam. The observed monotonic dependence of the collapse velocity on the atomic number of the anode material can be explained by the smooth dependence on Z of both the specific heat and the electron backscatter coefficient. In the case of high-Z anodes the ion expansion time appears to be the factor limiting the collapse velocity. Detailed experimental data are presented
An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soto, L.; Pavez, C.; Moreno, J.; Pavez, C.; Barbaglia, M.; Clausse, A.
2004-01-01
As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra miniature device has been designed and constructed (nano focus NF: 5 nF, 5-10 kV, 5-10 kA, 60-250 mJ, 16 ns time to peak current). Sub-millimetric anode radius covered by a coaxial insulator were used for experiments in hydrogen. Evidence of pinch was observed in electrical signals in discharges operating at 60 mJ. A single-frame image converter camera (4 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The dynamics observed from the photographs is consistent with: a) formation of a plasma sheath close to the insulator surface, b) fast axial motion of the plasma sheath, c) radial compression over the anode, and d) finally the plasma is detached from the anode in the axial direction. The total time since stage a) to d) was observed to be about 30 ns. X ray and neutron emission is being studied. Neutron yield of the order of 10 3 neutrons per shot is expected for discharges operating in deuterium at 10 kA. (authors)
Analysis of pinching in deterministic particle separation
Risbud, Sumedh; Luo, Mingxiang; Frechette, Joelle; Drazer, German
2011-11-01
We investigate the problem of spherical particles vertically settling parallel to Y-axis (under gravity), through a pinching gap created by an obstacle (spherical or cylindrical, center at the origin) and a wall (normal to X axis), to uncover the physics governing microfluidic separation techniques such as deterministic lateral displacement and pinched flow fractionation: (1) theoretically, by linearly superimposing the resistances offered by the wall and the obstacle separately, (2) computationally, using the lattice Boltzmann method for particulate systems and (3) experimentally, by conducting macroscopic experiments. Both, theory and simulations, show that for a given initial separation between the particle centre and the Y-axis, presence of a wall pushes the particles closer to the obstacle, than its absence. Experimentally, this is expected to result in an early onset of the short-range repulsive forces caused by solid-solid contact. We indeed observe such an early onset, which we quantify by measuring the asymmetry in the trajectories of the spherical particles around the obstacle. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant Nos. CBET- 0731032, CMMI-0748094, and CBET-0954840.
Viscosity of particle laden films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timounay Yousra
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.
Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.
2012-01-01
We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...
Fission hindrance and nuclear viscosity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
is in exact conformity with all the previous measurements [7,10–13]. The CASCADE calculations (solid lines in figure 1) used in this first level of analysis do not include any viscosity or temperature-dependent nuclear level density parameter a. The γ and particle decay are calculated using the standard prescriptions as ...
Linear pinch driven by a moving compact torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.
1984-01-01
In principle, a Z-pinch of sufficiently large aspect ratio can provide arbitrarily high magnetic field intensity for the confinement of plasma. In practice, however, achievable field intensities and timescales are limited by parasitic inductances, pulse driver power, current, voltage, and voltage standoff of nearby insulating surfaces or surrounding gas. Further, instabilities may dominate to prevent high fields (kink mode) or enhance them (sausage mode) but in a nonuniform and uncontrollable way. In this paper we discuss an approach to producing a high-field-intensity pinch using a moving compact torus. The moving torus can serve as a very high power driver and may be used to compress a pre-established pinch field, switch on an accelerating pinch field, or may itself be reconfigured to form an intense pinch. In any case, the high energy, high energy density, and high velocity possible with an accelerated compact torus can provide extremely high power to overcome, by a number of orders of magnitude, the limitations to pinch formation described earlier. In this paper we will consider in detail pinches formed by reconfiguration of the compact torus
Progress on z-pinch inertial fusion energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, C.; Rochau, G.; Matzen, M.K.
2005-01-01
The goal of z-pinch inertial fusion energy (IFE) is to extend the single-shot z-pinch inertial confinement fusion (ICF) results on Z to a repetitive-shot z-pinch power plant concept for the economical production of electricity. Z produces up to 1.8 MJ of x-rays at powers as high as 230 TW. Recent target experiments on Z have demonstrated capsule implosion convergence ratios of 14-21 with a double-pinch driven target, and DD neutron yields up to 8x10exp10 with a dynamic hohlraum target. For z-pinch IFE, a power plant concept is discussed that uses high-yield IFE targets (3 GJ) with a low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz). The concept includes a repetitive driver at 0.1 Hz, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the driver to the target, high-yield targets, and a thick-liquid wall chamber. Recent funding by a U.S. Congressional initiative for $4M for FY04 is supporting research on RTLs, repetitive pulsed power drivers, shock mitigation, full RTL cycle planned experiments, high-yield IFE targets, and z-pinch power plant technologies. Recent results of research in all of these areas are discussed, and a Road Map for Z-Pinch IFE is presented. (author)
Kinematic viscosity of liquid Al-Cu alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konstantinova, N Yu; Popel, P S
2008-01-01
Temperature dependences of kinematic viscosity n of liquid Al 100-x -Cu x alloys (x = 0.0, 10.0, 17.1, 25.0, 32.2, 40.0 and 50.0 at.%) were measured. A technique based on registration of the period and the decrement of damping of rotating oscillations of a cylindrical crucible with a melt was used. Viscosity was calculated in low viscous liquids approximation. Measurements were carried out in vacuum in crucibles of BeO with a temperature step of 30 deg. C and isothermal expositions of 10 to 15 minutes during both heating up to 1100-1250 deg. C and subsequent cooling. We have discovered branching of heating and cooling curves v(T) (hysteresis of viscosity) below temperatures depending on the copper content: 950 deg. C at 10 and 17.1 at.% Cu, 1050 deg. C at 25 and 40 at.% Cu, 850 deg. C at 32.2 at.% Cu. For samples with 10 and 17.1 at.% Cu the cooling curve 'returns' to the heating one near 700 deg. C. An abnormally high spreading of results at repeated decrement measurements was fixed at heating of the alloy containing 50 at.% Cu above 1000 deg. C. During subsequent cooling the effect disappeared. Isotherms of kinematic viscosity have been fitted for several temperatures
Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Hagenson, R.L.; Copenhaver, C.; Werley, K.A.
1986-01-01
The unique confinement properties of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media power cycle driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) with a power density and mass approaching values characteristic of pressurized-water fission rectors. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. After describing the main physics and technology issues for this base-case reactor, directions for future study are suggested
Pinching parameters for open (super) strings
Playle, Sam; Sciuto, Stefano
2018-02-01
We present an approach to the parametrization of (super) Schottky space obtained by sewing together three-punctured discs with strips. Different cubic ribbon graphs classify distinct sets of pinching parameters; we show how they are mapped onto each other. The parametrization is particularly well-suited to describing the region within (super) moduli space where open bosonic or Neveu-Schwarz string propagators become very long and thin, which dominates the IR behaviour of string theories. We show how worldsheet objects such as the Green's function converge to graph theoretic objects such as the Symanzik polynomials in the α ' → 0 limit, allowing us to see how string theory reproduces the sum over Feynman graphs. The (super) string measure takes on a simple and elegant form when expressed in terms of these parameters.
Energy required to pinch a DNA plectoneme
Barde, Céline; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel
2018-03-01
DNA supercoiling plays an important role from a biological point of view. One of its consequences at the supramolecular level is the formation of DNA superhelices named plectonemes. Normally separated by a distance on the order of 10 nm, the two opposite double strands of a DNA plectoneme must be brought closer if a protein or protein complex implicated in genetic regulation is to be bound simultaneously to both strands, as if the plectoneme was locally pinched. We propose an analytic calculation of the energetic barrier, of elastic nature, required to bring closer the two loci situated on the opposed double strands. We examine how this energy barrier scales with the DNA supercoiling. For physically relevant values of elastic parameters and of supercoiling density, we show that the energy barrier is in the kBT range under physiological conditions, thus demonstrating that the limiting step to loci encounter is more likely the preceding plectoneme slithering bringing the two loci side by side.
New bifocal pinch experiment SPEED 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raacke, J.; Berntien, U.; Decker, G.; Kies, W.; Roewekamp, P.
1996-01-01
The SPEED 3 compact plasma focus device will be used as a soft x-ray source for various practical applications. It exploits a bifocal configuration with a plane insulator, very short accelerator and a hollow inner electrode. The discharge is driven by eight parallel two-stage Marx modules, capable of delivering up to 1.25 MA of current with the rise time of 0.3 s. The key parts of the device, the plasma diagnostic systems used, and the processes in the discharge are described in the paper. Framing camera pictures of a typical discharge are shown for illustration. The results of preliminary experiments are discussed, dealing almost exclusively with the discharge inaction, sheath and pinch formation. (J.U.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 2 refs
New bifocal pinch experiment SPEED 3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raacke, J; Berntien, U; Decker, G; Kies, W; Roewekamp, P [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik
1997-12-31
The SPEED 3 compact plasma focus device will be used as a soft x-ray source for various practical applications. It exploits a bifocal configuration with a plane insulator, very short accelerator and a hollow inner electrode. The discharge is driven by eight parallel two-stage Marx modules, capable of delivering up to 1.25 MA of current with the rise time of 0.3 s. The key parts of the device, the plasma diagnostic systems used, and the processes in the discharge are described in the paper. Framing camera pictures of a typical discharge are shown for illustration. The results of preliminary experiments are discussed, dealing almost exclusively with the discharge inaction, sheath and pinch formation. (J.U.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 2 refs.
Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W.
2015-01-01
Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ R /τ V ≫ 1, where τ R and τ V represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ R /τ V ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large
Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W., E-mail: zwma@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2015-12-15
Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≫ 1, where τ{sub R} and τ{sub V} represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slutz, Stephen A.; Olson, Craig L.; Rochau, Gary E.; Dezon, Mark S.; Peterson, P.F.; Degroot, J.S.; Jensen, N.; Miller, G.
2000-01-01
The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the most powerful multi-module synchronized pulsed-power accelerator in the world. Rapid development of z-pinch loads on Z has led to outstanding progress in the last few years, resulting in radiative powers of up to 280 TW in 4 ns and a total radiated x-ray energy of 1.8 MJ. The present goal is to demonstrate single-shot, high-yield fusion capsules. Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology, which should be well suited for Inertial Fusion Energy, but a rep-rated capability is needed. Recent developments have led to a viable conceptual approach for a rep-rated z-pinch power plant for IFE. This concept exploits the advantages of going to high yield (a few GJ) at low rep-rate (approximately 0.1 Hz), and using a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to provide the necessary standoff between the fusion target and the power plant chamber. In this approach, a portion of the transmission line near the capsule is replaced after each shot. The RTL should be constructed of materials that can easily be separated from the liquid coolant stream and refabricated for a subsequent shots. One possibility is that most of the RTL is formed by casting FLiBe, a salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium, which is an attractive choice for the reactor coolant, with chemically compatible lead or tin on the surface to provide conductivity. The authors estimate that fusion yields greater than 1 GJ will be required for efficient generation of electricity. Calculations indicate that the first wall will have an acceptable lifetime with these high yields if blast mitigation techniques are used. Furthermore, yields above 5 GJ may allow the use of a compact blanket direct conversion scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaber, W.H.; Beshara, A.B.; El-Bialy, A.B.; Masoud, M.M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C., Atomic Energy Authority, Enshass (Egypt)
2004-07-01
A ramp Z-pinch discharge is designed and built in order to increase the pinch ratio and obtain a maximum contraction, and to increase the temperature. The discharge chamber is a cylindrical Pyrex tube of 25 cm long, 18.5 cm, 20 cm inner and outer diameter and two circular Aluminum plates of radius 15 cm separated by 21 cm are inserted into the tube. The tube is filled with He gas at 0.1 mbar. Two capacitor banks are used, the first bank 30 {mu}F and the second fast bank 1.3 {mu}F. The charging voltage was 8 kV for both banks. The discharge current and voltage of each bank are measured by potential divider and Rogowski coil respectively. Also the plasma inductance and resistance are obtained for each case. The plasma inductance has its peak value 300 nH at 4 {mu}s, while the plasma resistance has it minimum 8 m{omega} at the same time in the case of conventional discharge (single bank). In the case of ramp discharge, the inductance has two peaks 440 nH, 380 nH at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively, while the resistance has two minimum 4 m{omega}, 20 m{omega} at at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively. The temperature has been measure spectroscopically by using relative continuum intensity ratio method. The temperature has its peak value 38 eV at 4 {mu}s for single bank case, while it larger peak value 55 eV for ramp case. (orig.)
Second viscosity effects in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potupa, A.S.
1978-01-01
The object of the investigation is to draw attention to two important aspects in the choice of a substance model, namely an allowance for the viscosity and behaviour of the metrics at the later stages of cosmological evolution. It is shown that in homogeneous cosmological models taking into account the viscosity there are solutions which realize interpolation between the Fridman and steady-state regimes. In a closed model a solution is obtained which corresponds to the ''curvature compensation'' regime with an unboundedly increasing radius. The problem of compensation of singularity at t → o is discussed as well as the choice of the equations of state for the early (hadron) stages of cosmological evolution in connection with the hydrodynamic theory of multiple hadron production
Spectroscopic studies on di-pophyrin rotor as micro-viscosity sensor
Doan, H.; Raut, S.; Kimbal, J.; Gryczynski, Z.; Dzyuba, S.; Balaz, M.
2015-03-01
In typical biological systems the fluid compartment makes up more than 70% percent of the system weight. A variety of mass and signal transportation as well as intermolecular interactions are often governed by viscosity. It is important to be able to measure/estimate viscosity and detect the changes in viscosity upon various stimulations. Understanding the influence of changes in viscosity is crucial and development of the molecular systems that sensitive to micro-viscosity is a goal of many researches. Molecular rotors have been considered the potential target since they present enhanced sensitivity to local viscosity that can strongly restrict molecular rotation. To understand the mechanics of rotor interaction with the environment we have been studied conjugated pophyrin-dimer rotor (DP) that emit in the near IR. Our goal is to investigate the photo physical properties such as absorption, transition moment orientation, emission and excitation, polarization anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime in various mediums of different viscosities from ethanol to poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) matrices. The results imply the influences of the medium's viscosity on the two distinct confirmations: planar and twisted conformations of DP. Linear dichroism from polarized absorption in PVA matrices shows various orientations of transition moments. Excitation anisotropy shows similar transition splitting between two conformations. Time resolved intensity decay at two different observations confirms the two different emission states and furthermore the communication between the two states in the form of energy transfer upon excitation.
The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors
Nonlinear stage of a Z-pinch instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garanin, S.F.; Chernyshev, Y.D.
1987-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability is analyzed for a Z-pinch with a fully developed skin effect in the current. Two-dimensional numerical calculations carried out on the sausage instability show that its occurrence leads to a stage describable by a self-similar solution when the length of the neck is fixed and the plasma compression is isentropic. At a perturbation wavelength small in comparison with the pinch radius, this stage is preceded by a stage which reduces to a nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The dynamics of the motion of magnetic field ''bubbles'' and of plasma ''jets'' is analyzed in this case. The plasma jets emerging from the pinch do not block the pinch from the current source
Effect of viscosity on learned satiation
Mars, M.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Gosses, A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C.de
2009-01-01
A higher viscosity of a food leads to a longer orosensory stimulation. This may facilitate the learned association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. In the current study we investigated the effect of viscosity on learned satiation. In two intervention groups a low viscosity (LV)
Determining the resistance of X-pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Shen; Zhu Xin-Lei; Zhang Ran; Luo Hai-Yun; Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Xue Chuang; Ning Cheng; Ding Ning; Shu Xiao-Jian
2013-01-01
The current and the voltage of an X-pinch were measured. The inductance of the X-pinch was assumed to be a constant and estimated by the calculation of the magnetic field based on the well-known Biot—Savart's Law. The voltage of the inductance was calculated with L · di/dt and subtracted from the measured voltage of the X-pinch. Then, the resistance of the X-pinch was determined and the following results were obtained. At the start of the current flow the resistance of the exploding wires is several tens of Ohms, one order of magnitude, higher than the metallic resistance of the wires at room temperature, and then it falls quickly to about 1 Ω, which reflects the physical processes occurring in the electrically exploding wires, i.e., a current transition from the highly resistive wire core to the highly conductive plasma. It was shown that the inductive contribution to the voltage of the X-pinch is less than the resistive contribution. For the wires we used, the wires' material and diameter have no strong influence on the resistance of the X-pinch, which may be explained by the fact that the current flows through the plasma rather than through the metallic wire itself. As a result, the current is almost equally divided between two parallel X-pinches even though the diameter and material of the wires used for these two X-pinches are significantly different. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Impact of PINCH expression on survival in colorectal cancer patients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lööf, Jasmine; Rosell, Johan; Bratthäll, Charlotte; Doré, Siv; Starkhammar, Hans; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Feng
2011-01-01
The adaptor protein PINCH is overexpressed in the stroma of several types of cancer, and is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. In this study we further investigate the relationship of PINCH and survival regarding the response to chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 251 primary adenocarcinomas, 149 samples of adjacent normal mucosa, 57 samples of distant normal mucosa and 75 lymph node metastases were used for immunohistochemical staining. Stromal staining for PINCH increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour to metastasis. Strong staining in adjacent normal mucosa was related to worse survival independently of sex, age, tumour location, differentiation and stage (p = 0.044, HR, 1.60, 95% CI, 1.01-2.52). PINCH staining at the invasive margin tended to be related to survival (p = 0.051). In poorly differentiated tumours PINCH staining at the invasive margin was related to survival independently of sex, age and stage (p = 0.013, HR, 1.90, 95% CI, 1.14-3.16), while in better differentiated tumours it was not. In patients with weak staining, adjuvant chemotherapy was related to survival (p = 0.010, 0.013 and 0.013 in entire tumour area, invasive margin and inner tumour area, respectively), but not in patients with strong staining. However, in the multivariate analysis no such relationship was seen. PINCH staining in normal adjacent mucosa was related to survival. Further, PINCH staining at the tumour invasive margin was related to survival in poorly differentiated tumours but not in better differentiated tumours, indicating that the impact of PINCH on prognosis was dependent on differentiation status
Experimental study of the neck formation in an X pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artyomov, A P; Chaikovsky, S A; Fedunin, A V; Labetskaya, N A; Rousskikh, A G; Zhigalin, A S; Oreshkin, V I
2014-01-01
X-pinch experiments have been performed on a compact 250 kA, 180 ns pulsed power generator specially designed for this purpose at the Institute of High Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia). The X pinches were composed of two molybdenum wires of diameter 25 μm making an angle of 36° with the z-axis. The X-pinch dynamics was recorded with a 3 ns exposure time using an HSFC Pro four-frame camera. Axial plasma jets propagating toward both the anode and the cathode were observed. The jets became noticeable within 10 ns after the onset of current flow, which approximately corresponded to the time at which the electrical explosion of the X-pinch wires occurred. The velocity of the anode-directed jet reached 10 7 cm/s, which was about 1.5 times the velocity of the cathode-directed jet. These high jet velocities are inconsistent with the plasma temperature resulting from the wire explosion. Hence, these jets seem to develop due to implosion of the light plasma layer stripped by magnetic forces from the wire surface, and the increase in their velocities is perhaps due to cumulative effects taking place at the X-pinch axis. The X-pinch neck formed as a rule above the initial wire cross point (closer to the anode). In this region, the plasma diameter gradually increased with time and then drastically decreased 10-15 ns prior to the x-ray pulse. Immediately before the x-ray pulse, in the (250-300 μm long) plasma neck, a lower scale constriction developed, forming a h ot spot . It has been confirmed that the anode-directed plasma jet could take some part of the X-pinch wire current because of the evident jet pinching in the anode region. This process seems to determine the neck length
Pinch grafting for chronic venous leg ulcers in general practice
Steele, Keith
1985-01-01
Twenty-five patients with chronic venous leg ulcers were treated in general practice by pinch grafting. Fifteen of the ulcers (60%) were completely healed one year after grafting. Prior to grafting 19 patients (76%) complained of daily pain in the ulcer. These patients experienced complete relief from pain after grafting. Pinch grafting is a simple, safe and effective therapy when applied in a domiciliary environment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Güran, Ö.D.
2009-01-01
Recent results in the theory of turbulent momentum transport and the origins of intrinsic rotation are summarized. Special attention is focused on aspects of momentum transport critical to intrinsic rotation, namely the residual stress and the edge toroidal flow velocity pinch. Novel results...
Pinch-off Scaling Law of Soap Bubbles
Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin
2014-11-01
Three common interfacial phenomena that occur daily are liquid drops in gas, gas bubbles in liquid and thin-film bubbles. One aspect that has been studied for these phenomena is the formation or pinch-off of the drop/bubble from the liquid/gas threads. In contrast to the formation of liquid drops in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, thin-film bubble pinch-off has not been well documented. Having thin-film interfaces may alter the pinch-off process due to the limiting factor of the film thickness. We observed the pinch-off of one common thin-film bubble, soap bubbles, in order to characterize its pinch-off behavior. We achieved this by constructing an experimental model replicating the process of a human producing soap bubbles. Using high-speed videography and image processing, we determined that the minimal neck radius scaled with the time left till pinch-off, and that the scaling law exponent was 2/3, similar to that of liquid drops in gas.
Experiments on screw-pinch plasmas with elongated cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassing, H.W.
1989-01-01
In this thesis experiments are described carried out with SPICA II, a toroidal screw-pinch plasma device. this device is the last one in a series of plasma machines of the toroidal screw-pinch differing from its predecessor in its race-track shaped section. In devices of the type toroidal screw-pinch stable confinement is possible of plasmas with larger β values than in a tokamak discharge. In a pinch the plasma is screwed up, during the formation, in such a way that in a relatively small volume a plasma is formated with a high pressure. During the screwing up the plasma is heated by shock heating as well as adiabatic compression. With the modified snowplow model the density and temperature after the formation can be calculated, starting from the initial conditions. When all ions arrive into the plasma column, the density in the column is determined by the volume compression. First purpose of the experiments was to find a stable discharge. Subsequently discharges have been made with a high as possible β in order to investigate at which maximum β it is possible to confine screw-pinch plasmas stably. When these had been found, the nature and importance could be investigated of the processes following which the screw-pinch plasma looses its energy. (author), 75 res.; 95 figs.; 8 tabs
Sausage mode of a high density Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, N.; Rostoker, N.
1983-01-01
In Z-pinch experiments at Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., growth rates have been measured by observing optical emission along the pinch axis. Growth rates estimated by means of the usual model of a pinch involving an incompressible fluid and a surface current are too large by a factor of 2-4. X-ray pinhole photographs generally have the appearance of a series of beads that would be expected from instability of the sausage mode. In some cases, particularly the implosion of large diameter wire arrays with BLACKJACK 5, the beads disappear and only the kink instability is apparent. Generalizing the pinch model to include compressibility does not significantly alter the predictions. A further generalization to include distributed current has therefore been considered. It seems likely that the current can penetrate significantly during the lifetime of the pinch. We consider a model of the pinch that is initially an infinite cylinder. For the sausage mode, stability is determined by a simple second order differential equation together with the boundary condition that follows from the wave number and the frequency of the instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.
2005-01-01
The results from the ZaP experiment are consistent with the theoretical predictions of sheared flow stabilization. Z pinches with a sheared flow are generated in the ZaP experiment using a coaxial accelerator coupled to an assembly region. The current sheet in the accelerator initially acts as a snowplow. As the Z pinch forms, plasma formation in the accelerator transits to a deflagration process. The plasma exits the accelerator and maintains the flow in the Z pinch. During the quiescent period in the magnetic mode activity at z=0 cm, a stable Z pinch is seen on the axis of the assembly region. The evolution of the axial velocity profile shows a large velocity shear is measured at the edge of the Z pinch during the quiescent period. The velocity shear is above the theoretical threshold. As the velocity shear decreases towards 0.1kV A , the predicted stability threshold, the quiescent period ends. The present understanding of the ZaP experiment shows that it may be possible for the Z pinch to operate in a steady state if the deflagration process can be maintained by constantly supplying neutral gas or plasma to the accelerator
Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of expanded rubidium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaheri, Ali Hossein Mohammad; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K
2003-01-01
First three non-vanishing sum rules for the bulk and longitudinal stress auto-correlation functions have been evaluated for liquid Rb at six thermodynamic states along the liquid-vapour coexistence curve. The Mori memory function formalism and the frequency sum rules have been used to calculate bulk and longitudinal viscosities. The results thus obtained for the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity have been compared with experimental and other theoretical predictions wherever available. The values of the bulk viscosity have been found to be more than the corresponding values of the shear viscosity for all six thermodynamic states investigated here
Childs, Peter R N
2010-01-01
Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...
Lee, William H K.
2016-01-01
Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.
Continuous mixer, process and use in a pumping plant for a high viscosity fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cholet, H.
1993-03-12
The invention concerns a novel continuous mixer comprising a rotary shaft carrying two or more vanes for mixing two or more fluids of different viscosities supplied at the inlet of the mixer body and for providing, at the mixer body outlet, a mixture of viscosity lower than that of the more or most viscous fluid. Preferentially, the vane profile is such that, without fluid circulation, rotation of the vanes produces a reaction force parallel to the rotational axis and in the same direction as the resulting flow or does not produce a reaction force of significant magnitude parallel to the rotational axis. The mixer shaft is connected to a pump shaft which is rotated by hydraulic motor driven by pressurized fluid injection. The mixer is used especially for facilitating viscous crude oil pumping from directional wells including horizontal or inclined portions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Y.; Maejima, Y.; Zollino, G.
2001-01-01
Confinement characteristics of the TPE series reversed field pinch (RFP) machines, TPE-1RM15, TPE-1RM20 and TPE-1RM20mod, at Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) are summarized. Especially data are synthesized in respect to the effects of the different boundary structures of the machines, where shell proximity and overlapped poloidal shell gaps by the multi-layered shell structure are featured. Comparison of the experimental results is shown in terms of the characteristics of magnetic fluctuations, global confinement properties in general, operation capability of the improved confinement in high pinch parameter (Q) discharges and locked mode events. Linear growth rate of the unstable modes as a function of the shell distance is numerically simulated. Understandings of RFP plasma physics have also made progress by the most recent intensive experiments on correlation studies between fast electrons and dynamo activities and measurement of the plasma and mode rotation. TPE-1RM20mod was shutdown in December 1996 and new RFP experiment has started in TPE-RX from March 1998. The new machine also succeeds the concept of the shell configuration of the TPE-1RM20. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smylie, D E; Brazhkin, Vadim V; Palmer, Andrew
2009-01-01
Estimates vary widely as to the viscosity of Earth's outer fluid core. Directly observed viscosity is usually orders of magnitude higher than the values extrapolated from high-pressure high-temperature laboratory experiments, which are close to those for liquid iron at atmospheric pressure. It turned out that this discrepancy can be removed by extrapolating via the widely known Arrhenius activation model modified by lifting the commonly used assumption of pressure-independent activation volume (which is possible due to the discovery that at high pressures the activation volume increases strongly with pressure, resulting in 10 2 Pa s at the top of the fluid core, and in 10 11 Pa s at its bottom). There are of course many uncertainties affecting this extrapolation process. This paper reviews two viscosity determination methods, one for the top and the other for the bottom of the outer core, the former of which relies on the decay of free core nutations and yields 2371 ± 1530 Pa s, while the other relies on the reduction in the rotational splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of the solid inner core oscillations and yields an average of 1.247 ± 0.035 Pa s. Encouraged by the good performance of the Arrhenius extrapolation, a differential form of the Arrhenius activation model is used to interpolate along the melting temperature curve and to find the viscosity profile across the entire outer core. The viscosity variation is found to be nearly log-linear between the measured boundary values. (methodological notes)
Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field
Duan, Shuchao; Xie, Weiping; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding
2018-04-01
In this paper, we analyze theoretically the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field. Slab configurations of finite thickness are treated both with and without using the Wenzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Regardless of the slab thickness, the directional rotation of the driving magnetic field contributes to suppressing these instabilities. The two factors of the finite thickness and directional rotation of the magnetic field cooperate to enhance suppression, with the finite thickness playing a role only when the orientation of the magnetic field is time varying. The suppression becomes stronger as the driving magnetic field rotates faster, and all modes are suppressed, in contrast to the case of a non-rotating magnetic field, for which the vertical mode cannot be suppressed. This implies that the dynamically alternate configuration of a Theta-pinch and a Z-pinch may be applicable to the concept of Theta-Z liner inertial fusion.
Solar polar rotation and its effect on heliospheric neutral fluxes
Sokol, J. M.; Grzedzielski, S.; Bzowski, M.
2016-12-01
The magnetic field in the solar polar corona exhibit a regular "ray-like" structure associated with large polar coronal holes during solar minimum. The solar rotation twists the magnetic field lines of the expanding fast solar wind over the poles. The twist induces a toroidal component of the polar magnetic field which results in magnetic forces directed towards the rotation axis. That is tantamount to a (weak) zeta pinch, known also in other astrophysical contexts (e.g. AGN plasmas). The pinch compresses the polar solar corona plasma and a cone-like enhancement in the solar wind density forms along the rotation axis. Though the effect is likely very dynamic, a time independent description is used here to get an order-of-magnitude estimate. The weak pinch is treated as a 1st order perturbation to the zero-order radial flow. The obtained density enhancement may affect the near and far heliosphere, modifying the charge-exchange and electron impact ionization rates of neutral atoms in interplanetary space. The charge exchange is the most effective ionization process for hydrogen and oxygen atoms, and electron impact ionization is a significant loss reaction for the helium atoms at close distances to the Sun. The change in the polar density due to the solar polar corona rotation could be of importance in the inner heliosphere for low energy atoms. We will present the influence of this effect on interstellar neutral gas distribution and H ENA fluxes observed by IBEX.
Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability
Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa
1989-06-01
The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.
Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden))
1989-06-01
The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. The incompressible FLR MHD model is used; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2rdp/dr+m{sup 2}B{sup 2}/{mu}{sub 0}{ge}0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the LFR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but no absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths {lambda}/{alpha}{le}1, where {alpha} denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit ''N''{sub max}=5x10{sup 18}m{sup -1} is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10{sup 20} m{sup -1}. (author).
Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.
1989-01-01
The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. The incompressible FLR MHD model is used; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2rdp/dr+m 2 B 2 /μ 0 ≥0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the LFR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but no absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths λ/α≤1, where α denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit ''N'' max =5x10 18 m -1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10 20 m -1 . (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakakita, Hajime; Craig, Darren; Anderson, Jay K.; Chapman, Brett E.; Den-Hartog, Daniel J.; Prager, Stewart C.; Biewer, Ted M.; Terry, Stephen D.
2003-01-01
We report on passive measurements of impurity ion velocities during the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. During PPCD, the electron temperature increased and a sudden reduction of magnetic fluctuations was observed. For this change, we have studied whether plasma velocity is affected. Plasma rotation is observed to decrease during PPCD. From measurements of line intensities for several impurities at 10 poloidal chords, it is found that the impurity line emission shifts outward. The ion temperature of impurities is reasonably connected to that measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from core to edge. (author)
Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity
Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver
2016-11-01
Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
Viscosity of ring polymer melts
Pasquino, Rossana
2013-10-15
We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Viscosity of ring polymer melts
Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris
2013-01-01
We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Reversed field pinch reactor study 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollis, A.A.; Mitchell, J.T.D.
1977-12-01
This report, the third of a series on the Reversed Field Pinch Reactor, describes a preliminary concept of the engineering design and layout of this pulsed toroidal reactor, which uses the stable plasma behaviour first observed in ZETA. The basic parameters of the 600 MW(e) reactor are taken from a companion study by Hancox and Spears. The plasma volume is 1.75m minor radius and 16m major radius surrounded by a 1.8m blanket-shield region - with the blanket divided into 14 removable segments for servicing. The magnetic confinement system consists of 28 toroidal field coils situated just outside the blanket and inside the poloidal and vertical field coils and all coils have normal copper conductors. The requirement to incorporate a conducting shell at the front of the blanket to provide a short-time plasma stability has a marked effect on the design. It sets the size of the blanket segment and the scale of the servicing operations, limits the breeding gain and complicates the blanket cooling and its integration with the heat engine. An extensive study will be required to confirm the overall reactor potential of the concept. (author)
Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Cort, G.E.
1979-08-01
A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a Reversed-Field Pinch (FRP) configuration is presented. A 50% atomic mixture of deuterium and tritium (DT) is ohmically heated to ignition by currents flowing in the toroidal plasma; this plasma current also inherently produces the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having a major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and burns at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a fuel burnup of approx. 50%. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented coolant tubes carrying a mixture of high-pressure steam and water. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket would be used to drive a turbine directly. Low-pressure helium containing trace amounts of oxygen is circulated through the packed Li 2 O bed to extract the tritium. A 20-mm-thick copper first wall serves as a neutron multiplier, acts as a tritium barrier, and supports image currents to provide plasma stabilization on a 0.1-s timescale; external windings provide stability for longer times
Scaling laws for spherical pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, D.P.; Palleschi, V.; Vaselli, M.
1991-01-01
In spherical pinch (SP) experiments, the plasma heated at the center of a cell to reach ignition temperature is confined by imploding shock waves for a time long enough to satisfy the Lawson criterion for plasma fusion. In earlier theoretical studies, the expansion of the central plasma either is neglected or is assumed to be radially uniform. The energy is considered to be deposited instantaneously at the center of the cell and the nonlinear heat conduction equation is solved to study the temporal evolution of the central plasma. Incorporating the ignition condition for the average temperature of the expanding fireball, and its confinement by imploding convergent shock waves, which may be fired from the periphery of the cell with some time delay, the scaling laws for satisfying the Lawson criterion are investigated in detail. The relevant calculations indicate that the cumulative effects of the convergent shock waves in the vicinity of the center of the cell play an important role in these scaling laws. (author)
Pinch technique for Schwinger-Dyson equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis
2007-01-01
In the context of scalar QED we derive the pinch technique self-energies and vertices directly from the Schwinger-Dyson equations. After reviewing the perturbative construction, we discuss in detail the general methodology and the basic field-theoretic ingredients necessary for the completion of this task. The construction requires the simultaneous treatment of the equations governing the scalar self-energy and the fundamental interaction vertices. The resulting non-trivial rearrangement of terms generates dynamically the Schwinger-Dyson equations for the corresponding Green's functions of the background field method. The proof relies on the extensive use of the all-order Ward-identities satisfied by the full vertices of the theory and by the one-particle-irreducible kernels appearing in the usual skeleton expansion. The Ward identities for these latter quantities are derived formally, and several subtleties related to the structure of the multiparticle kernels are addressed. The general strategy for the generalization of the method in a non-Abelian context is briefly outlined, and some of the technical difficulties are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derzon, Mark S.
2000-01-01
The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, ,is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Honestly - this is true. There does seem to be something going on here; I just don't know what. Apparently some experimenters get energy out of a process many call cold fission but no one seems to know what it is, or how to do it reliably. It is not getting much attention from the mainline physics community. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article 1 will point out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and may one day generate electrical power for mankind
Reversed-field pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) configuration is described. The plasma is ohmically ignited by toroidal plasma currents which also inherently provide the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and undergoes a transient, unrefueled burn at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a DT burnup of approx. 50%. The 5-s dwell period between burn pulses for plasma quench and refueling allows steady-state operation of all thermal systems outside the first wall; no auxiliary thermal capacity is required. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented water/steam coolant tubes. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket directly drives a turbine that produces electrical power at an efficiency of 30%. A borated-water shield is located immediately outside the thermal blanket to protect the superconducting magnet coils. Both the superconducting poloidal and toroidal field coils are energized by homopolar motor/generators. Accounting for all major energy sinks yields a cost-optimized system with a recirculating power fraction of 0.17; the power output is 750 MWe
Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Schnurr, N.M.; Copenhaver, C.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.
1986-01-01
The unique confinement properties of the poloidal-field-dominated Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media (i.e., two separate coolants) power cycle that would be driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) having a power density and mass approaching pressurized-water-fission reactor values. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. A general rationale outlining the need for improved fusion concepts is given, followed by a description of the RFP principle, a detailed systems and trade-off analysis, and a conceptual FPC design for the ∝ 20-MW/m 2 (neutrons) compact RFP reactor, CRFPR(20). Key FPC components are quantified, and full power-balance, thermal, and mechanical FPC integrations are given. (orig.)
Reduced viscosity for flagella moving in a solution of long polymer chains
Zhang, Yuchen; Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo M.
2018-02-01
The bacterial flagellum thickness is smaller than the radius of gyration of long polymer chain molecules. The flow velocity gradient over the length of polymer chains can be nonuniform and continuum models of polymeric liquids break in this limit. In this work, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to study a rotating helical flagellum in a polymer solution and overcome this limitation. As the polymer size increases, the viscosity experienced by the flagellum asymptotically reduces to the solvent viscosity. The contribution of polymer molecules to the local viscosity in a solution of long polymer chains decreases with the inverse of polymer size to the power 1/2. The difference in viscosity experienced by the bacterial cell body and flagella can predict the nonmonotonic swimming speed of bacteria in polymer solutions.
Shimokawa, Y; Matsuura, Y; Hirano, T; Sakai, K
2016-12-01
Utilizing a graphite-disk probe attached with a thin aluminum disk, we have developed a friction-free viscosity measurement system. The probe is levitated above a NdFeB magnet because of diamagnetic effect and rotated by an electromagnetically induced torque. The probe is absolutely free form mechanical friction, and therefore, the accurate measurements of the viscosity of gases can be achieved. To demonstrate the accuracy and sensitivity of our method, we measured the viscosity of 8 kinds of gases and its temperature change from 278 K to 318 K, and we confirmed a good agreement between the obtained values and literature values. This paper demonstrates that our method has the ability to measure the fluid viscosity in the order of μPa ⋅ s.
Shimokawa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Hirano, T.; Sakai, K.
2016-12-01
Utilizing a graphite-disk probe attached with a thin aluminum disk, we have developed a friction-free viscosity measurement system. The probe is levitated above a NdFeB magnet because of diamagnetic effect and rotated by an electromagnetically induced torque. The probe is absolutely free form mechanical friction, and therefore, the accurate measurements of the viscosity of gases can be achieved. To demonstrate the accuracy and sensitivity of our method, we measured the viscosity of 8 kinds of gases and its temperature change from 278 K to 318 K, and we confirmed a good agreement between the obtained values and literature values. This paper demonstrates that our method has the ability to measure the fluid viscosity in the order of μPa ṡ s.
On viscosity measurements of nanofluids in micro and mini tube flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egan, V M; Walsh, P A; Walsh, E J
2009-01-01
This study presents measurements on the relative viscosity of Al 2 O 3 nanofluids, obtained using capillary and rotational viscometers. Suspension volume concentrations between 0.3% and 6.3% were considered and all exhibited Newtonian behaviour. This paper questions previously published data (Jang et al 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 243112) which show effective viscosity measurements of nanofluids to be strongly dependent on the tube dimension used in a microscale capillary viscometer. Hence, tubes of diameter 337 μm and 1017 μm were employed but no effect on relative viscosity was observed as all measurements compared favourably. Additionally, all viscosity measurements were found to correlate well using classical models when aggregate size was considered in calculating volume concentration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norzita Yacob; Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud
2011-01-01
Molecular weight of chitosan can be determined by different techniques such as Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Static Light Scattering (SLS) and intrinsic viscosity measurement. Determination of molecular weight by intrinsic viscosity measurement is a simple method for characterization of chitosan. Different concentrations of chitosan were prepared and measurement was done at room temperature. The flow time data was used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolating the reduced viscosity to zero concentration. The value of intrinsic viscosity was then recalculated into the viscosity-average molecular weight using Mark-Houwink equation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosquist, K.
1980-01-01
Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)
VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maja eBoric
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.
Scaling of X pinches from 1 MA to 6 MA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Wenger, David Franklin; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.
2010-01-01
This final report for Project 117863 summarizes progress made toward understanding how X-pinch load designs scale to high currents. The X-pinch load geometry was conceived in 1982 as a method to study the formation and properties of bright x-ray spots in z-pinch plasmas. X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA currents were found to have source sizes of 1 micron, temperatures >1 keV, lifetimes of 10-100 ps, and densities >0.1 times solid density. These conditions are believed to result from the direct magnetic compression of matter. Physical models that capture the behavior of 0.2 MA X pinches predict more extreme parameters at currents >1 MA. This project developed load designs for up to 6 MA on the SATURN facility and attempted to measure the resulting plasma parameters. Source sizes of 5-8 microns were observed in some cases along with evidence for high temperatures (several keV) and short time durations (<500 ps).
Hybrid Z-Θ Pinches with fused capacitor banks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandey, R.; Gersten, M.; Loter, N.; Rauch, J.; Rostoker, N.; Thompson, W.; Ware, K.
1987-01-01
The Hybrid Z-Θ Pinch circuit equations in the thin shell model were reexamined to see what advantages can be obtained by using a fused, high-energy (>--1MJ) bank driver. The DNA ACE facility at MLI utilizes a 36 μF capacitor band which can be charged to 120 kV to provide 250 kJ of stored energy. This configuration appears to be very appropriate to test the performance of a hybrid-stabilized fused-bank driven pinch. The circuit analyses suggest that the energy transfer efficiency from the bank to a pinched plasma can be increased from less than 1%, for a nonfused bank, to about 10% for a fused configuration. In the applicable region of parameter space, the Hybrid Pinch does not increase the efficiency of energy transfer into the plasma over that obtainable from a Z-pinch. The additional stability may allow larger initial radii to be used with concomitant improved coupling into radiation above 1 keV
Acoustic bubble enhanced pinched flow fractionation for microparticle separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng
2015-01-01
Pinched flow fractionation is a simple method for separating micron-sized particles by size, but has certain intrinsic limitations, e.g. requirement of a pinched segment similar to particle size and limited separation distance. In this paper, we developed an acoustic bubble enhanced pinched flow fractionation (PFF) method for microparticle separation. The proposed technique utilized microbubble streaming flows to overcome the limitations of conventional PFF. Our device has demonstrated separation of different sized microparticles (diameters 10 and 2 μm) with a larger pinched segment (60 μm) and at different buffer/particle solution flow rate ratios (5–25). The separation distances between particles are larger (as much as twice as large) than those achieved with conventional PFF. In addition, the separation position and distance can be adjusted by changing the driving voltage. The robust performance is due to the unique features of the flow field inside the pinched segment. We investigated several factors, including flow rate ratio, total flow rate and driving voltage, that affect the separation performance. (paper)
Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, Abhishek [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, Ranganathan, E-mail: ranganathan.kumar@ucf.edu [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)
2012-10-01
The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.
Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan
2012-01-01
The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iver Brevik
2012-11-01
Full Text Available A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shownthat, based on a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found forquantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions mayincorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition inthe cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided.
Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2006-01-01
The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....
VISCOSITY TEST OF VEHICLE ENGINE OILS
Rita Prasetyowati
2016-01-01
This study aims to determine the value of the kinematic viscosity lubricants motorcycle that has been used at various temperatures and the use of distance. This study also aims to remedy mengtahui how the value of the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant car that has been used in a wide range of temperature variation and distance usage. Viscosity liquid, in this case is the lubricants, can be determined using the Redwood viscometer By using Redwood viscometer, can be measured flow time requir...
Modified one-dimensional snowplow-model for the description of plasmadynamics in belt-pinch HECTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konle, W.
1979-03-01
In a Belt-Pinch device a hot, high-β-plasma is produced by the method of fast shock-compression. For this heating method the radial equilibrium depends upon the time evolution of the fast rising magnetic fields outside the plasma. A simple mathematical model for plasma compression and relaxation toward radial equilibrium in the case β = 1 including the external electric circuit is presented in this paper. The numerical solution for different experimental parameters leads to information on values of these parameters for reaching a radial equilibrium. For the plasma compression a snowplow-bounce-model is used which gives the initial values for the equations of the relaxation phase. In this phase the plasma is described by three thin sheaths containing the total mass of the plasma, whose motions are damped by viscosity terms. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 HIS
Experimental studies of an Extrap Z-Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.
1983-01-01
Experimental studies of the formation, equilibrium and stability of a linear Extrap Z-pinch are reported on. The Z-pinch discharge is generated between electrodes along the Z-axis of a linear octupole field produced by currents in four Z-directed rods. The combined discharge current and rod currents produce a magnetic field having a separatrix with four null X-points which define the corners of a square shaped region where the high beta plasma discharge is contained. Bounding the pinch discharge with a separatrix produces equilibria which are stable against global kink modes for the 50-μsec duration of the discharge which corresponds to about 100 Alfven transit times. The equilibria, with line densities of about 3 x 10 18 m - 1 , are consistent in magnitude and scaling with the Bennet relation. (Author)
Self-similar oscillations of the Extrap pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tendler, M.
1987-11-01
The method of the dynamic stabilization is invoked to explain the enhanced stability of a Z-pinch in EXTRAP configuration. The oscillatory motion is assumed to be forced on EXTRAP due to self-similar oscillations of a Z-pinch. Using a scaling for the net energy loss with plasma density and temperature typical for divertor configurations, a new analytic, self-similar solution of the fluid equations is presented. Strongly unharmonic oscillations of the plasma parameters in the pinch arise. These results are used in a discussion on the stability of EXTRAP, considered as a system with a time dependent internal magnetic field. The effect of the dynamic stabilization is considered by taking estimates. (author)
Mechanism of hot spots formation in magnetic Z-pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubes, P; Kravarik, J [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Elektrotechnicka; Kolacek, K; Krejci, A [Akademie Ved Ceske Republiky, Prague (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu; Paduch, M; Tomaszewski, K [Inst. of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)
1997-12-31
The evolution of neon implosion of low energy discharge (4 kJ, 40 kV, 150 kA, 1.1 {mu}s) was studied using X-ray, schlieren and high speed electrooptical visible gated Quadro camera diagnostics. The geometry, the helical structure of pinched column, two steps of pinching and X-ray emission were studied. The diameters, electron density and temperature of the hot spots were determined. The hypothesis of axial component of magnetic field generation, of helical shape of magnetic and electric field lines, of the possibility of the release of magnetic energy and of the acceleration of the keV electrons and ions due to voltage induction during the second pinching of the column are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 5 refs.
Magnetostatic Analysis of a Pinch Mode Magnetorheological Valve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gołdasz Janusz
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The study deals with the pinch mode of magnetorheological (MR fluids’ operation and its application in MR valves. By applying the principle in MR valves a highly non-uniform magnetic field can be generated in flow channels in such a way to solidify the portion of the material that is the nearest to the flow channel’s walls. This is in contrary to well-known MR flow mode valves. The authors investigate a basic pinch mode valve in several fundamental configurations, and then examine their magnetic circuits through magnetostatic finite-element (FE analysis. Flux density contour maps are revealed and basic performance figures calculated and analysed. The FE analysis results yield confidence in that the performance of MR pinch mode devices can be effectively controlled through electromagnetic means.
Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C
2009-03-15
Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.
The experimental viscosity and calculated relative viscosity of liquid In-Sn allcoys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, A.Q.; Guo, L.J.; Liu, C.S.; Jia, E.G.; Zhu, Z.G.
2007-01-01
The experimental measured viscosity of liquid pure Sn, In 20 Sn 80 and In 80 Sn 20 alloys was studied, and to make a comparison, the calculated relative viscosity based on the pair distribution functions, g(r), has also been studied. There is one peak in each experimental viscosity and calculated relative-viscosity curve of liquid pure Sn about 1000 deg. C. One valley appears in each experimental viscosity and calculated viscosity curve of liquid In 20 Sn 80 alloy about 700 deg. C. There is no abnormal behavior on In 80 Sn 20 alloy. The behavior of experimental viscosity and calculated relative viscosity is coincident with each other. Those results conformed that the temperature-induced structure anomalies reported before did take place
The calculation of viscosity of liquid n-decane and n-hexadecane by the Green-Kubo method
Cui, S. T.; Cummings, P. T.; Cochran, H. D.
This short commentary presents the result of long molecular dynamics simulation calculations of the shear viscosity of liquid n-decane and n-hexadecane using the Green-Kubo integration method. The relaxation time of the stress-stress correlation function is compared with those of rotation and diffusion. The rotational and diffusional relaxation times, which are easy to calculate, provide useful guides for the required simulation time in viscosity calculations. Also, the computational time required for viscosity calculations of these systems by the Green-Kubo method is compared with the time required for previous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics calculations of the same systems. The method of choice for a particular calculation is determined largely by the properties of interest, since the efficiencies of the two methods are comparable for calculation of the zero strain rate viscosity.
Microrheometric upconversion-based techniques for intracellular viscosity measurements
Rodríguez-Sevilla, Paloma; Zhang, Yuhai; de Sousa, Nuno; Marqués, Manuel I.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Jaque, Daniel; Liu, Xiaogang; Haro-González, Patricia
2017-08-01
Rheological parameters (viscosity, creep compliance and elasticity) play an important role in cell function and viability. For this reason different strategies have been developed for their study. In this work, two new microrheometric techniques are presented. Both methods take advantage of the analysis of the polarized emission of an upconverting particle to determine its orientation inside the optical trap. Upconverting particles are optical materials that are able to convert infrared radiation into visible light. Their usefulness has been further boosted by the recent demonstration of their three-dimensional control and tracking by single beam infrared optical traps. In this work it is demonstrated that optical torques are responsible of the stable orientation of the upconverting particle inside the trap. Moreover, numerical calculations and experimental data allowed to use the rotation dynamics of the optically trapped upconverting particle for environmental sensing. In particular, the cytoplasm viscosity could be measured by using the rotation time and thermal fluctuations of an intracellular optically trapped upconverting particle, by means of the two previously mentioned microrheometric techniques.
Experimental density and viscosity measurements of di(2ethylhexyl)sebacate at high pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paredes, Xavier; Fandino, Olivia; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Comunas, Maria J.P.; Fernandez, Josefa
2012-01-01
Highlights: → We measure viscosities for di(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate from (298.15 to 398.15) K and up to 60 MPa. → We measure densities for DEHS from (298.15 to 373.15) K and from (0.1 to 60) MPa. → The reported and lit. data were used in a viscosity correlation from (273 to 491) K and up to 1.1 GPa. → This correlation could be used in industrial equipment that operate at high pressures. - Abstract: Experimental densities and dynamic viscosities of di(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DEHS) are the object of study in this work. DEHS could be a useful industrial reference fluid for moderately high viscosity at high pressures as it is often used as a pressure transmitting fluid. At atmospheric pressure the density and viscosity measurements have been performed in a rotational SVM 3000 Stabinger viscometer from (273.15 to 373.15) K, whereas from (0.1 to 60) MPa and from (298.15 to 398.15) K an automated Anton Paar DMA HPM vibrating-tube densimeter, and a high-pressure rolling-ball viscometer were used. Several Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann type equations were used to fit the experimental values of viscosity to the pressure and temperature. The measured viscosity data have been used together with previous data found in the literature to establish a correlation of the viscosity surface η(T, p) of DEHS, covering a temperature range from (273 to 491) K and pressure up to 1.1 GPa. This correlation could be used in industrial equipment like viscometers and other devices that operate at high pressures. Our viscosity data have also been fitted as a function of temperature and volume to the thermodynamic scaling model of Roland et al. [C.M. Roland, S. Bair, R. Casalini, J. Chem. Phys. 125 (2006) 124508].
Computer modeling of a small neon gas-puff pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ullschmied, J.
1996-01-01
The macroscopic dynamics of a cylindrical gas-puff pinch and conditions of radiation plasma collapse are studied by using a one-dimensional ('mechanical') computer model. Besides the Joule plasma heating, compressional heating, magnetic field freezing in a plasma and recombination losses, also the real temperature- and density-dependences of radiation plasma loss are taken into account. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data taken from a small neon-puff z-pinch experiment operated at the Institute of Plasma Physics in Prague. (author). 7 figs., 11 refs
Pinched hysteresis behavior in a PID-controlled resistor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Carrasco-Aguilar
2018-06-01
Full Text Available A current-controlled grounded resistor that exhibits a frequency-dependent pinched hysteresis loop is described. A mathematical model describing this behavior is derived and validated numerically, which has the form of a Proportional Integral-Derivative (PID controller. The proposed topology is build by using AD844 commercially available active device configured as second-generation current conveyor and experimental tests are compared with numerical simulations, showing a good agreement among them. Moreover, the proposed PID-controlled resistor can be reconfigured in order to be used in future applications such as programmable analog circuits. Keyword: Pinched hysteresis, Current conveyors, Nonlinear resistor, Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller
Seeded perturbations in wire array Z-Pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, Allen Conrad; Fedin, Dmitry; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Ouart, Nicholas D.; LePell, Paul David; Safronova, Alla S.; Shrestha, I.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Jones, B.; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Yilmaz, M. Faith; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher; Pokala, S.; Nalajala, V.
2005-01-01
Controlled seeding of perturbations is employed to study the evolution of wire array z-pinch implosion instabilities which strongly impact x-ray production when the 3D plasma stagnates on axis. Wires modulated in radius exhibit locally enhanced magnetic field and imploding bubble formation at discontinuities in wire radius due to the perturbed current path. Wires coated with localized spectroscopic dopants are used to track turbulent material flow. Experiments and MHD modeling offer insight into the behavior of z-pinch instabilities.
Mechanism of neutron generation in Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikhrev, V.V.
1986-01-01
The review of experimental and theoretical investigations in a mechanism of neutron generation in Z-pinches is presented. Special attention is paid to the thermonuclear mechanism of neutron generation occuring due to the formation of high-temperature plasma regions in Z-pinch sausage-type instabilities. This mechanism is shown to be predominant in charges with the neutron yield more than 10 9 per a charge. Experimental data, which are considered to be contradicting to thermonuclear nature of neutron radiation, are explained
Numerical investigations of Z-pinch plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan Yaoyong; Guo Yonghui; Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici
2004-01-01
A two-dimensional, radiation magneto-hydrodynamics model is applied to the simulation of Z-pinch plasma sausage instability. Different implosion mechanisms in the cases of the existence and the non-existence of instability are analyzed, and the effects of various initial density perturbation levels on the x-ray power and energy are investigated. Numerical results show that x-ray energy output is not susceptive to sausage instabilities in a certain extent but x-ray power versus time is evidently dependent on the instabilities. In addition, this paper also studies the effects of numerical treatment of extreme low density in Z-pinch simulations on numerical results
MHD turbulence models for the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gimblett, C.G.; Watkins, M.L.
1976-01-01
A kinematic model which describes the effect of isotropic, non-mirror symmetric turbulence on a mean magnetic field is used to examine the temporal behaviour of magnetic field in high beta pinch experiments. Solutions to the model can indicate the formation of a steady-state, force-free configuration that corresponds to the state of lowest magnetic energy and the reversal of the toroidal magnetic field at the plasma boundary in accordance with experimental observations on toroidal pinches such as ZETA and HBTX. This model neglects both the dynamic interaction between fluid and field and the associated anisotropy. These effects are examined in a further model. (author)
Simplified scaling model for the THETA-pinch
Ewing, K. J.; Thomson, D. B.
1982-02-01
A simple ID scaing model for the fast Theta pinch was developed and written as a code that would be flexible, inexpensive in computer time, and readily available for use with the Los Alamos explosive-driven high magnetic field program. The simplified model uses three successive separate stages: (1) a snowplow-like radial implosion, (2) an idealized resistive annihilation of reverse bias field, and (3) an adiabatic compression stage of a Beta = 1 plasma for which ideal pressure balance is assumed to hold. The code uses one adjustable fitting constant whose value was first determined by comparison with results from the Los Alamos Scylla III, Scyllacita, and Scylla IA Theta pinches.
Architecture of petawatt-class z-pinch accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stygar, William A.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Ives, H.C.; Headley, D.I.; Wagoner, Tim C.; Porter, John Larry Jr.
2006-01-01
We have developed an accelerator architecture that can serve as the basis of the design of petawatt-class z-pinch drivers. The architecture has been applied to the design of two z-pinch accelerators, each of which can be contained within a 104-m-diameter cylindrical tank. One accelerator is driven by slow (∼1 (micro)s) Marx generators, which are a mature technology but which necessitate significant pulse compression to achieve the short pulses ( 4 capacitors, store 98 MJ, and erect to 5 MV; (ii) 600 water-dielectric triplate intermediate-store transmission lines, which also serve as pulse-forming lines; (iii) 600 5-MV laser-triggered gas switches; (iv) three monolithic radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, with triplate geometries and exponential impedance profiles; (v) a 6-level 5.5-m-diameter 15-MV vacuum insulator stack; (vi) six magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs); and (vii) a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute that adds the output currents of the six MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a z-pinch load. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 52 MA to a 10-mm-length z pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 57 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. The LTD-driven accelerator includes monolithic radial transformers and a MITL system similar to those described above, but does not include intermediate-store transmission lines, multimegavolt gas switches, or a laser trigger system. Instead, this accelerator is driven by 210 LTD modules that include a total of 1 x 10 6 capacitors and 5 x 10 5 200-kV electrically triggered gas switches. The LTD accelerator stores 182 MJ and produces a peak electrical power of 1000 TW. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 68 MA to a pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 75 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. Conceptually straightforward upgrades to these designs would deliver even higher pinch currents and faster implosions
Energy transfer efficiency measurements in a theta-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalcanti, G.H.; Luna, F.R.T.; Trigueiros, A.G.
1993-01-01
An increase in energy transfer efficiency of the capacitor bank to the plasma was obtained when the electrical system of a theta-pinch was changed so that the ratio of total inductance to coil inductance was switched of 1/6 to 1/2. A further increase about 20% was obtained for 16/1 ratio. The measurements were made through the current discharge decay, and the spectral analysis of the emitted light from theta-pinch shows a correspondent efficiency increase. (author)
Explosive instabilities of reaction-diffusion equations including pinch effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelmsson, H.
1992-01-01
Particular solutions of reaction-diffusion equations for temperature are obtained for explosively unstable situations. As a result of the interplay between inertial, diffusion, pinch and source processes certain 'bell-shaped' distributions may grow explosively in time with preserved shape of the spatial distribution. The effect of the pinch, which requires a density inhomogeneity, is found to diminish the effect of diffusion, or inversely to support the inertial and source processes in creating the explosion. The results may be described in terms of elliptic integrals or. more simply, by means of expansions in the spatial coordinate. An application is the temperature evolution of a burning fusion plasma. (au) (18 refs.)
Cryogenic deuterium Z-pinch and wire array Z-pinch studies at Imperial College
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haines, M.G.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Beg, N.F.
2001-01-01
Z-pinch experiments using cryogenic deuterium fibre loads have been carried out on the MAGPIE generator at currents up to 1.4MA. M=0 instabilities in the corona caused plasma expansion and disruption before the plasma could enter the collisionless Large ion Larmor radius regime. For the last 12 months we have studied Aluminium wire array implosions using laser probing, optical streaks and gated X-ray images. Plasma from the wires in accelerated to the axis as radial plasma streams with uncorrelated m=0 instabilities superimposed. Later in the discharge a global Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability develops. Single and double aluminium and tungsten wire shots were conducted at 150kA. 2-D and 3-D simulations and a heuristic model of wire arrays will be presented along with theories on the combined MHD/R-T instability and sheared axial flow generation by large ion Larmor radius effects. (author)
Cryogenic deuterium Z-pinch and wire array Z-pinch studies at imperial college
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haines, M.G.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Beg, F.N.
1999-01-01
Z-pinch experiments using cryogenic deuterium fibre loads have been carried out on the MAGPIE generator at currents up to 1.4MA. M=0 instabilities in the corona caused plasma expansion and disruption before the plasma could enter the collisionless Large ion Larmor radius regime. For the last 12 months we have studied Aluminium wire array implosions using laser probing, optical streaks and gated X-ray images. Plasma from the wires in accelerated to the axis as radial plasma streams with uncorrelated m=0 instabilities superimposed. Later in the discharge a global Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability develops. Single and double aluminium and tungsten wire shots were conducted at 150kA. 2-D and 3-D simulations and a heuristic model of wire arrays will be presented along with theories on the combined MHD/R-T instability and sheared axial flow generation by large ion Larmor radius effects. (author)
On the bulk viscosity of relativistic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.
1978-01-01
An expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient in terms of the trace of the hydrodynamic energy-stress tensor is derived from the Kubo formula. This, along with a field-theoretic model of an interacting system of scalar particles, suggests that at high temperatures the bulk viscosity tends to zero, contrary to the often quoted resuls of Iso, Mori and Namiki. (author)
Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.
1987-01-01
A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt
The Friction Theory for Viscosity Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2001-01-01
, in the case when experimental information is available a more accurate modeling can be obtained by means of a simple tuning procedure. A tuned f-theory general model can deliver highly accurate viscosity modeling above the saturation pressure and good prediction of the liquid-phase viscosity at pressures......In this work the one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) general models have been extended to the viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. It is demonstrated that these simple models, which take advantage of the repulsive and attractive pressure terms of cubic equations of state...... such as the SRK, PR and PRSV, can provide accurate viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. In the case of light reservoir oils, whose properties are close to those of normal alkanes, the one-parameter f-theory general models can predict the viscosity of these fluids with good accuracy. Yet...
Chang Y.K.; Martinez-Bustos F.; Park T.S.; Kokini J.L.
1999-01-01
The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norzita Yacob; Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud; Nurul Aizam Idayu Mat Sani; Nor Akma Samsuddin; Norafifah Ahmad Fabillah
2013-01-01
Determination of molecular weight by intrinsic viscosity measurement is a simple method for characterization of chitosan. To study the effect of radiation on molecular weight, chitosan was first irradiated using electron beam at different doses prior to measurement. Different concentrations of chitosan were prepared and measurement was done at room temperature. The flow time data was used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolating the reduced viscosity to zero concentration. The value of intrinsic viscosity was then recalculated into the viscosity-average molecular weight using Mark-Houwink equation. (Author)
Lekner, John
2008-01-01
Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noe, C.
1984-01-01
Products to dry are introduced inside a rotating tube placed in an oven, the cross section of the tube is an arc of spiral. During clockwise rotation of the tube products are maintained inside and mixed, during anticlockwise products are removed. Application is made to drying of radioactive wastes [fr
Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.
1988-01-01
Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology
Rotating Polygons on a Fluid Surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Tomas; Jansson, Thomas; Haspang, Martin
spontaneously and the surface can take the shape of a rigidly rotating polygon. With water we have observed polygons with up to 6 corners. The rotation speed of the polygons does not coincide with that of the plate, but it is often mode-locked, such that the polygon rotates by one corner for each complete...... and R. Miraghaie, ”Symmetry breaking in free-surface cylinder flows”, J. Fluid Mech., 502, 99 (2004)). The polygons occur at much larger Reynolds numbers, for water around 500.000. Correspondingly, the dependence on viscosity is rather small....
Viscosity Measurements of "FeO"-SiO2 Slag in Equilibrium with Metallic Fe
Chen, Mao; Raghunath, Sreekanth; Zhao, Baojun
2013-06-01
The current study delivered the measurements of viscosities in the system "FeO"-SiO2 in equilibrium with metallic Fe in the composition range between 15 and 40 wt pct SiO2. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 1473 K to 1773 K (1200 °C to 1500 °C) using a rotational spindle technique. An analysis of the quenched sample by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) after the viscosity measurement enables the composition and microstructure of the slag to be directly linked with the viscosity. The current results are compared with available literature data. The significant discrepancies of the viscosity measurements in this system have been clarified. The possible reasons affecting the accuracy of the viscosity measurement have been discussed. The activation energies derived from the experimental data have a sharp increase at about 33 wt pct SiO2, which corresponds to the composition of fayalite (Fe2SiO4). The modified quasi-chemical model was constructed in the system "FeO"-SiO2 to describe the current viscosity data.
Toroidal equilibrium in an iron-core reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.
1984-04-01
An analytical theory of toroidal equilibrium in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch is obtained, including effects of iron cores and resistive shell. The iron cores alter the form of the equilibrium condition and cause the equilibrium to be unstable on the shell resistive time scale
More efficient mushroom canning through pinch and exergy analysis
Paudel, Ekaraj; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.; Westerik, Nieke; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dewi, Belinda P.C.; Boom, Remko M.
2017-01-01
Conventional production of canned mushrooms involves multiple processing steps as vacuum hydration, blanching, sterilization, etc. that are intensive in energy and water usage. We analyzed the current mushroom processing technique plus three alternative scenarios via pinch and exergy analysis.
Pinch analysis for bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimoto, S.; Yanagida, T.; Nakaiwa, M.; Tatsumi, H.; Minowa, T.
2011-01-01
Bioethanol produced from carbon neutral and renewable biomass resources is an attractive process for the mitigation of greenhouse gases from vehicle exhaust. This study investigated energy utilization during bioethanol production from lignocellulose while avoiding competition with food production from corn and considering the potential mitigation of greenhouse gases. Process design and simulations were performed for bioethanol production using concentrated sulfuric acid. Mass and heat balances were obtained by process simulations, and the heat recovery ratio was determined by pinch analysis. An energy saving of 38% was achieved. However, energy supply and demand were not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. Therefore, a heat pump was used to improve the temperature range of efficient energy supply and demand. Results showed that the energy required for the process could be supplied by heat released during the process. Additionally, the power required was supplied by surplus power generated during the process. Thus, pinch analysis was used to improve the energy efficiency of the process. - Highlights: → Effective energy utilization of bioethanol production was studied by using pinch analysis. → It was found that energy was not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. → Use of a heat pump was considered to improve the ineffective utilization. → Then, remarkable energy savings could be achieved by it. → Pinch analysis effectively improved the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production.
Investigation of plasma turbulence in a theta-pinch-discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lins, G.
1980-01-01
This thesis is concerned with investigations of plasma turbulence in a 3 KJ Theta-Pinch during implosion by high-frequency Stark-effect and Thomson scattering. The next points are modifications of electron-distribution function by ionization in low preionizized turbulent plasma and energy losses by particle flow and heat flow at the ends. (HT)
Diffusion-driven steady states of the Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1988-01-01
Steady states of a Z-pinch where no electric field is imposed along the pinch axis by external means are investigated. In this case, diffusion-driven states become possible when imposed volume sources of particles and heat drive a radial diffusion velocity that, in its turn, generates the electric plasma current. The particle sources can be from pellet injection or a neutral gas blanket, and the heat sources provided by thermonuclear reactions or auxiliary heating. The present analysis and associated kinetic considerations indicate that steady diffusion-driven operation should become possible for certain classes of plasma profiles, without running into singularity problems at the pinch axis. Such operation leads to higher axial currents in a Z-pinch without an axial magnetic field than in a tokamaklike case under similar plasma conditions. The technical difficulty in realizing a volume distribution of particle sinks introduces certain constraints on the plasma and current profiles. This fact has to be taken into account in a stability analysis. Neoclassical or anomalous diffusion will increase the diffusion velocity of the plasma but is not expected to affect the main physical features of the present results
Investigation of the preionization in the high voltage belt pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Protz, R.
1975-07-01
The production of plasmas is investigated which are necessary for shock wave experiments. By optimization of a two-stage pre-ionization, an ignition can be initiated down to 0.5 m of Hg deuterium. The plasma is diagnosed with a 90 0 multichannel laser light scattering in the belt-pinch. (GG/LH) [de
Overview of quasi single helicity experiments in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.; Marrelli, L.; Spizzo, G.
2003-01-01
We report the results of an experimental and theoretical project dedicated to the study of Quasi Single Helicity Reversed Field Pinch plasmas. The project has involved several RFP devices and numerical codes. It appears that QSH spectra are a feature common to all the experiments. (author)
Flow effects on the stability of z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shumlak, U.; Hartman, C.W.
1996-01-01
The effect of an axial flow on the m = 1 kink instability in z-pinches is studied numerically by reducing the linearized ideal MHD equations to a one-dimensional eigenvalue equation for the radial displacement. The derivation of the displacement equation for equilibria with axial flows will be presented. A diffuse z-pinch equilibrium is chosen that is made marginally stable to the m = 0 sausage mode by tailoring the pressure profile. The principle result reveals that a sheared axial flow does stabilize the kink mode when the shear exceeds a threshold value. Additionally, the m = 0 sausage mode is driven from marginal stability into the stable regime which suggests that the equilibrium pressure profile control can be relaxed. Fast z-pinches such as liner implosions are plagued by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which destroys the liner and disrupts the current path before the liner arrives on axis. A sheared axial flow in a liner may quench the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the same way that it quenches MHD instabilities in a diffuse z-pinch. Simulation results will be presented showing the effect of a sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a fast liner implosion
Migration of plasma points in the Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afonin, V.I.
1995-01-01
The paper deals with the generation of a spontaneous magnetic field in Z-pinch sausage-type instability plasma and the effect of magnetic field on sausage-type instability movement. The presented evaluations of spontaneous magnetic fields and their role in the migration of plasma points are in a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. 8 refs
Liquid conductor model of instabilities in a pinched discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dattnery, A; Lehnert, B [Dept. of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundquist, S [Swedish State Power Board (Sweden)
1958-07-01
The pinched gas discharge experiments seem to have been handicapped by the great speed with which the instability develops as well as by the light coming from impurities instead of the main body of pinched gas. In the present work a liquid conductor is used in order to study the structure of the instabilities. The study of a pinch was made with and without the axial magnetic field. In cases with a magnetic field, the currents and fields were chosen so as to give a longitudinal magnetic field equal to or three times the azimuthal field at the boundary of the mercury stream. The study of the results shows that in the case without an external magnetic field there is a similarity between the behavior of the pinch in a stream of mercury and in an ionized gas column. The stabilizing action of the surface tension is small and the instabilities develop easily. The case with an external magnetic field is more complicated. The magnetic lines of force are not frozen into the medium; they can 'escape' from the medium. In this case the magnetic field has no stabilizing effect. The influence of conducting walls around the mercury column will be studied in forthcoming experiments.
Draws on a relativistic pinch with a longitudinal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trubnikov, B.A.
1991-01-01
The problems of draws on a relativistic pinch with longitudinal magnetic field are discussed. The absence of collisions promoting the energy exchange between different degrees of particle freedom is assumed. The calculations are conducted using the ideal relativistic anisotropic magnetic hydrodynamics equations. The spectrum of particles accelerated in the draws, is determined
Linear Transformer Drivers for Z-pinch Based Propulsion
Adams, Robert; Seidler, William; Giddens, Patrick; Fabisinski, Leo; Cassibry, Jason
2017-01-01
The MSFC/UAH team has been developing of a novel power management and distribution system called a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). LTD's hold the promise of dramatically reducing the required mass to drive a z-pinch by replacing the capacitor banks which constitute half the mass of the entire system. The MSFC?UAH tea, is developing this technology in hope of integrating it with the Pulsed Fission Fusion (PuFF) propulsion concept. High-Voltage pulsed power systems used for Z-Pinch experimentation have in the past largely been based on Marx Generators. Marx generators deliver the voltage and current required for the Z-Pinch, but suffer from two significant drawbacks when applied to a flight system: they are very massive, consisting of high-voltage capacitor banks insulated in oil-filled tanks and they do not lend themselves to rapid pulsing. The overall goal of Phase 2 is to demonstrate the construction of a higher voltage stack from a number of cavities each of the design proven in Phase 1 and to characterize and understand the techniques for designing the stack. The overall goal of Phase 3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a higher energy cavity from a number of smaller LTD stacks, to characterize and understand the way in which the constituent stacks combine, and to extend this demonstration LTD to serve as the basis for a 64 kJ pulse generator for Z-Pinch experiments.
Finite Larmor radius effects on Z-pinch stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.
1987-10-01
The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m=1 small axial wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the Incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model which consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD 2rdp/dr+m 2 B 2 /μ 0 >=0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density becomes singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall terms have a damping, however not stabilizing, effect, in agreement with earlier work. Specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m=1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths λ/a max =3-5x10 18 m -1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10 20 m -1 . (authors)
Collapse of Z-pinch necks for inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan'kov, V.V.
1989-01-01
The ignition is possible under the condition of collapring z-pinch neck up to the diameter 10 -4 cm. The current pulse with duration 10 -7 s and 10 7 A must be applied to a cylinder of condensed D-T mixture in order to obtain the parameter ρr≥0.4 g/cm 2 . 22 refs
Parametric dependences of momentum pinch and Prandtl number in JET
Tala, T.; Salmi, A.; Angioni, C.; Casson, F. J.; Corrigan, G.; Ferreira, J.; Giroud, C.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, V.; Peeters, A.G.; Solomon, W. M.; Strintzi, D.; Tsalas, M.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Zastrow, K. D.
2011-01-01
Several parametric scans have been performed to study momentum transport on JET. A neutral beam injection modulation technique has been applied to separate the diffusive and convective momentum transport terms. The magnitude of the inward momentum pinch depends strongly on the inverse density
On finite larmor radius stabilization of Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.
1982-12-01
Finite Larmor radius stabilization of Z-pinches is discussed. Stability criteria can be derived for a class of equilibria having constant mass and current density. The internal modes can be stabilized provided the line density not exceed a critical value of the order of 10 18 ions/m. (Author)
Radiative collapse of a Bennett-relaxed z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.
1989-01-01
The global evolution of a z-pinch has been studied with the assumption of a relaxed state consisting of ions and electrons, each in a rigidly drifting isothermal Maxwellian distribution. This speculative approach has the pragmatic feature of possessing phenomenologically useful global parameters such as drift velocity and temperature that vary in accordance with global physical quantities such as energy and entropy. The plasma gains energy from a time-dependent electric field by means of Poynting's vector. Coulomb collisions between electrons and ions is calculated with a Fokker-Planck treatment analogous to that used by Dreicer to calculate runaways. For a variety of initial conditions and time-independent applied electric fields, the pinch evolution always culminates in a time-independent (attractor) state whose current is the Pease-Braginskii current and whose final radius is proportional to (line density)/sup 3/4//(electric field)/sup 1/2/. Before the final state is attained, the pinch may bounce toward and away from a highly collapsed state. For the case of a Bennett pinch, the classical limit of the resistivity is attained when the line density is much greater than 4πm/sub e//e 2 μ/sub o/; i.e., 3.55 /times/ 10 14 m/sup /minus/1/. 6 refs., 2 figs
Instability study during implosion in the Tupa Theta-Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayama, M.E.; Boeckelmann, H.K.
1986-01-01
The importance of instabilities which occur during plasma heating in a Theta Pinch, in the implosion phase, is analysed. The plasma diagnostic was done by ultrafast photography and diamagnetic probe. The implosion time and the current layer thickness were calculated using a hybrid code for plasma simulation. The theoretical data were compared with the experimental ones. (M.C.K.) [pt
Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1987-05-01
A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)
Electrical insulators for the theta-pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clinard, F.W. Jr.
1976-01-01
The five major applications for electrical insulators in the Reference Theta Pinch Reactor are as follows: (1) first-wall insulator, (2) blanket intersegment insulator, (3) graphite encapsulating insulator, (4) implosion coil insulator, and (5) compression coil insulator. Insulator design proposals and some preliminary test results are given for each application
The physics of reversed-field pinch profile sustainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moses, R.W.
1985-01-01
A description of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is given. There is experimental evidence that indicates that an RFP dynamo effect sustains field reversal in steady state. Three sustainment mechanisms are reviewed: the MHD model, the tangled discharge model, and the kinetic dynamo model. The relationship of these models to each another is discussed briefly
Classical transport in a non-circular z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, G.
1987-05-01
A method is devised, in which particle and heat fluxes are found by solving the heat balance equation self-consistently for specified profiles. The procedure is applied to an equilibrium which corresponds to a non-circular z-pinch. (author)
Architecture of petawatt-class z-pinch accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. A. Stygar
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We have developed an accelerator architecture that can serve as the basis of the design of petawatt-class z-pinch drivers. The architecture has been applied to the design of two z-pinch accelerators, each of which can be contained within a 104-m-diameter cylindrical tank. One accelerator is driven by slow (∼1 μs Marx generators, which are a mature technology but which necessitate significant pulse compression to achieve the short pulses (≪1 μs required to drive z pinches. The other is powered by linear transformer drivers (LTDs, which are less mature but produce much shorter pulses than conventional Marxes. Consequently, an LTD-driven accelerator promises to be (at a given pinch current and implosion time more efficient and reliable. The Marx-driven accelerator produces a peak electrical power of 500 TW and includes the following components: (i 300 Marx generators that comprise a total of 1.8×10^{4} capacitors, store 98 MJ, and erect to 5 MV; (ii 600 water-dielectric triplate intermediate-store transmission lines, which also serve as pulse-forming lines; (iii 600 5-MV laser-triggered gas switches; (iv three monolithic radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, with triplate geometries and exponential impedance profiles; (v a 6-level 5.5-m-diameter 15-MV vacuum insulator stack; (vi six magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs; and (vii a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute that adds the output currents of the six MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a z-pinch load. The accelerator delivers an effective peak current of 52 MA to a 10-mm-length z pinch that implodes in 95 ns, and 57 MA to a pinch that implodes in 120 ns. The LTD-driven accelerator includes monolithic radial transformers and a MITL system similar to those described above, but does not include intermediate-store transmission lines, multimegavolt gas switches, or a laser trigger system. Instead, this accelerator is driven by 210
Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vojtěch Kumbár
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.
Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics
Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.
2015-11-01
In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.
Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.
Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric
2015-01-01
To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Pinch modes in the SPEED2 plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kies, W.; Decker, G.; Berntien, U.; Glushkov, D.A.; Sidelnikov, Yu.V.; Koshelev, K.N.; Simanovskij, D.M.; Bobashev, S.V.
2001-01-01
Deuterium discharges in the SPEED2 plasma focus (80 kJ, 200 kV, 2 MA, 400 ns) have been found unexpectedly stable within the operational regime as a neutron source. Only at higher filling pressures (above 6 mbar) sometimes m=0 instabilities appeared in the pinch column, especially in discharges of lower efficiency (moderate dynamics and neutron yield). Enhancing the electromagnetic radiation by doping these discharges with heavy gases (e.g. neon, argon) distinctly two pinch modes are produced, the micropinch mode (MPM) or the stable column mode (SCM), with a transition regime where the initial SCM is followed by the MPM. Micropinches are local radiative collapses initiated by m=0 instabilities of low-energy-density pinch plasmas. These instabilities and the successive micropinches can be suppressed by kinetic deuterons produced during dynamical compression of high-energy-density deuterium plasma sheaths. Depending on the relaxation of this fast deuteron component the pinch column can be stabilized for several tens of nanoseconds. While the short-lived (appr.1 ns) micropinches erratically appear as point-like successive flashes along the pinch axis with temperatures about 1 keV and about solid density the reproducible SCM, optimized with respect to the compression ratio, forms a powerful linear radiation source of temperatures and densities similar to the MPM. The SCM needs powerful (fast) drivers in order to use the kinetic ion stabilization, but not necessarily MA currents as available from the SPEED2 driver. This opens the possibility to establish the SCM also in compact experiments like SPEED3 (8 kJ, 80 kV, 0.8 MA, 300 ns) or even SPEED4 (2 kJ, 40 kV 250 kA, 300 ns). (author)
Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoyos, Carlos; Kim, Bom Soo; Oz, Yaron
2014-01-01
We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent
Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.
2002-06-01
Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)
Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins
Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.
1978-01-01
A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.
Laboratory Tests for Dispersive Soil Viscosity Determining
Ter-Martirosyan, Z. G.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. Z.; Sobolev, E. S.
2017-11-01
There are several widespread methods for soil viscosity determining now. The standard shear test device and torsion test apparatus are the most commonly used installations to do that. However, the application of them has a number of disadvantages. Therefore, the specialists of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering proposed a new device to determine the disperse soil viscosity on the basis of a stabilometer with the B-type camera (viscosimeter). The paper considers the construction of a viscosimeter and the technique for determining soil viscosity inside this tool as well as some experimental verification results of its work.
Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S
2004-01-01
The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry
Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes
Mallavajula, Rajesh K.
2013-11-06
We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence
Kaushal, R
2002-01-01
Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.
Experiment and model for the viscosities of MEA-PEG400, DEA-PEG400 and MDEA-PEG400 aqueous solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Dong; Zhang, Pan; Du, LeiXia; Dai, Jing
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The viscosities of the amine-PEG400 aqueous solutions were measured. • The experiments were modeled satisfactorily by using the Weiland equation. • The effect of mass fractions of amine and PEG400 on the viscosity was illustrated. • The temperature dependence of the viscosity was demonstrated. - Abstract: The viscosities (η) of poly(ethylene oxide)400 (PEG400), monoethanolamine (MEA)-PEG400, diethanolamine (DEA)-PEG400 and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-PEG400 aqueous solutions were measured by using the NDJ-5S digital rotational viscometer. A thermodynamic equation was used to model the viscosities and the calculated results are satisfactory. The effects of temperature, mass fractions of amines and PEG400 on the viscosities were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and calculations
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-07-01
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.
Reversed-field pinch experiments in EXTRAP T2R with a resistive shell boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.
2002-01-01
The EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch is operated with a resistive shell with a magnetic penetration time of 6 ms. This time is intermediate between the dynamo/relaxation cycle time scale (<1 ms) and the pulse length (= 20 ms). The internally-resonant tearing modes do not wall lock and exhibit natural rotation with velocities in the range of 20 to 600 krad/s. Under these conditions the radial component of the tearing mode perturbation at the shell is suppressed. Therefore the linear growth rates of the unstable, non-resonant, ideal (resistive-wall) kink modes can be observed even at very low amplitudes (0.01% of the equilibrium field). Both internally-non-resonant and externally non-resonant RW mode types are observed. The growth rates have been measured for a range of equilibrium current profile parameters and are compared with theoretical estimates. Previous observations and simulations for the resistive-shell RFP have shown an increased loop voltage associated with altered dynamo dynamics. When the tearing modes are rotating, the loop voltage and confinement parameters have values comparable to those of a conducting-shell RFP. (author)
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-01-01
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of t d ≅10τ w is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system
Viscosity effect in Landau's hydrodynamical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, T.F.; Phua, K.K.; Nanyang Univ., Singapore
1979-01-01
The Bose-Einstein distribution is used to investigate Landau's hydrodynamical model with viscosity. In case the viscosity dependence on the temperature is T 3 , the correction to the multiplicity behaves like I/E and is found to be negligible for the pp data. A discussion is presented on a possibility of reconciling E 1 / 2 and logE dependence of the multiplicity law. (orig.)
Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon
2013-01-01
Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump. To demonstrate the proposed method, a twin-shaped microfluidic device, which is composed of two half-circular chambers, two side channels with multiple indicating channels, and one bridge channel, was carefully designed. Based on the microfluidic device, three sequential flow controls were applied to identify viscosity and flow rate of blood, with label-free and sensorless detection. The half-circular chamber was employed to achieve mechanical membrane compliance for flow stabilization in the microfluidic device. To quantify the effect of flow stabilization on flow fluctuations, a formula of pulsation index (PI) was analytically derived using a discrete fluidic circuit model. Using the PI formula, the time constant contributed by the half-circular chamber is estimated to be 8 s. Furthermore, flow fluctuations resulting from the peristaltic pumps are completely removed, especially under periodic flow conditions within short periods (T viscosity with respect to varying flow rate conditions [(a) known blood flow rate via a syringe pump, (b) unknown blood flow rate via a peristaltic pump]. As a result, the flow rate and viscosity of blood can be simultaneously measured with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to identify the viscosity of rat blood, which circulates in a complex fluidic network. These observations confirm that the proposed method can be used for
A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongdong Su
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM.
Viscosity properties of sodium borophosphate glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaylord, S.; Tincher, B.; Petit, L.; Richardson, K.
2009-01-01
The viscosity behavior of (1 - x)NaPO 3 -xNa 2 B 4 O 7 glasses (x = 0.05-0.20) have been measured as a function of temperature using beam-bending and parallel-plate viscometry. The viscosity was found to shift to higher temperatures with increasing sodium borate content. The kinetic fragility parameter, m, estimated from the viscosity curve, decreases from 52 to 33 when x increases from 0.05 to 0.20 indicating that the glass network transforms from fragile to strong with the addition of Na 2 B 4 O 7 . The decrease in fragility with increasing x is due to the progressive depolymerization of the phosphate network by the preferred four-coordinated boron atoms present in the low alkali borate glasses. As confirmed by Raman spectroscopy increasing alkali borate leads to enhanced B-O-P linkages realized with the accompanying transition from solely four-coordinated boron (in BO 4 units) to mixed BO 4 /BO 3 structures. The glass viscosity characteristics of the investigated glasses were compared to those of P-SF67 and N-FK5 commercial glasses from SCHOTT. We showed that the dependence of the viscosity of P-SF67 was similar to the investigated glasses due to similar phosphate network organization confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, whereas N-FK5 exhibited a very different viscosity curve and fragility parameter due to its highly coordinated silicate network
Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Irie, Yoshiya
2018-03-01
A viscosity model with an exponential profile described by temperature (T) and pressure (P) distributions and constant activation energy (E_{{{um}}}^{{*}} for the upper mantle and E_{{{lm}}}^* for the lower mantle) and volume (V_{{{um}}}^{{*}} and V_{{{lm}}}^*) is employed in inferring the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle from observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We first construct standard viscosity models with an average upper-mantle viscosity ({\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}}) of 2 × 1020 Pa s, a typical value for the oceanic upper-mantle viscosity, satisfying the observationally derived three GIA-related observables, GIA-induced rate of change of the degree-two zonal harmonic of the geopotential, {\\dot{J}_2}, and differential relative sea level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf in Australia and for RSL changes at 6 kyr BP for Karumba and Halifax Bay in Australia. Standard viscosity models inferred from three GIA-related observables are characterized by a viscosity of ˜1023 Pa s in the deep mantle for an assumed viscosity at 670 km depth, ηlm(670), of (1 - 50) × 1021 Pa s. Postglacial RSL changes at Southport, Bermuda and Everglades in the intermediate region of the North American ice sheet, largely dependent on its gross melting history, have a crucial potential for inference of a viscosity jump at 670 km depth. The analyses of these RSL changes based on the viscosity models with {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} ≥ 2 × 1020 Pa s and lower-mantle viscosity structures for the standard models yield permissible {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values, although there is a trade-off between the viscosity and ice history models. Our preferred {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values are ˜(7 - 9) × 1020 and ˜1022 Pa s, respectively, and the {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} is higher than that for the typical value of oceanic upper mantle, which may reflect a moderate laterally heterogeneous upper
Pinch instabilities in Taylor-Couette flow.
Shalybkov, Dima
2006-01-01
The linear stability of the dissipative Taylor-Couette flow with an azimuthal magnetic field is considered. Unlike ideal flows, the magnetic field is a fixed function of a radius with two parameters only: a ratio of inner to outer cylinder radii, eta, and a ratio of the magnetic field values on outer and inner cylinders, muB. The magnetic field with 0rotation. The unstable modes are located into some interval of the axial wave numbers for the flow stable without magnetic field. The interval length is zero for a critical Hartmann number and increases with an increasing Hartmann number. The critical Hartmann numbers and length of the unstable axial wave number intervals are the same for every rotation law. There are the critical Hartmann numbers for m=0 sausage and m=1 kink modes only. The sausage mode is the most unstable mode close to Ha=0 point and the kink mode is the most unstable mode close to the critical Hartmann number. The transition from the sausage instability to the kink instability depends on the Prandtl number Pm and this happens close to one-half of the critical Hartmann number for Pm=1 and close to the critical Hartmann number for Pm=10(-5). The critical Hartmann numbers are smaller for kink modes. The flow stability does not depend on magnetic Prandtl numbers for m=0 mode. The same is true for critical Hartmann numbers for both m=0 and m=1 modes. The typical value of the magnetic field destabilizing the liquid metal Taylor-Couette flow is approximately 10(2) G.
Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles: A numerical simulation method
Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsuoka, Takaaki
1994-02-01
The recently developed simulation method, named as the particle simulation method (PSM), is extended to predict the viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles. In this method a rodlike particle is modeled by bonded spheres. Each bond has three types of springs for stretching, bending, and twisting deformation. The rod model can therefore deform by changing the bond distance, bond angle, and torsion angle between paired spheres. The rod model can represent a variety of rigidity by modifying the bond parameters related to Young's modulus and the shear modulus of the real particle. The time evolution of each constituent sphere of the rod model is followed by molecular-dynamics-type approach. The intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of rodlike particles is derived from calculating an increased energy dissipation for each sphere of the rod model in a viscous fluid. With and without deformation of the particle, the motion of the rodlike particle was numerically simulated in a three-dimensional simple shear flow at a low particle Reynolds number and without Brownian motion of particles. The intrinsic viscosity of the suspension of rodlike particles was investigated on orientation angle, rotation orbit, deformation, and aspect ratio of the particle. For the rigid rodlike particle, the simulated rotation orbit compared extremely well with theoretical one which was obtained for a rigid ellipsoidal particle by use of Jeffery's equation. The simulated dependence of the intrinsic viscosity on various factors was also identical with that of theories for suspensions of rigid rodlike particles. For the flexible rodlike particle, the rotation orbit could be obtained by the particle simulation method and it was also cleared that the intrinsic viscosity decreased as occurring of recoverable deformation of the rodlike particle induced by flow.
Doelker, E
2010-10-01
The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monographs for the water-soluble cellulose ethers require viscosity determination, either in the "Tests" section or in the non-mandatory "Functionality-related characteristics" section. Although the derivatives are chemically closely related and used for similar applications, the viscosity tests strongly differ. Some monographs generically speak of the rotating viscometer method (2.2.10) and a fixed shear rate (e.g. 10 s-1), which would necessitate an absolute measuring system, while others recommend the capillary viscometer method for product grades of less than 600 mPa∙s and the rotating viscometer method and given operating conditions for grades of higher nominal viscosity. Viscometer methods also differ between the United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary (USP/NF) and the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) monographs. In addition, for some cellulose ethers the tests sometimes diverge from one pharmacopoeia to the other, although the three compendiums are in a harmonisation process. But the main issue is that the viscometer methods originally employed by the product manufacturers are often not those described in the corresponding monographs and generally vary from one manufacturer to the other. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether such a situation could invalidate the present pharmacopoeial requirements. 2 per cent solutions of several viscosity grades of hydroxyethylcellulose, hypromellose and methylcellulose were prepared and their (apparent) viscosity determined using both relative and absolute viscometer methods. The viscometer method used not only affects the measured viscosity but experimental values generally do not correspond to the product nominal viscosities. It emerges that, in contrast to Newtonian solutions (i.e. those of grades of up to ca. 50 mPa∙s nominal viscosity), some of the viscometer methods currently specified in the monographs are not able unambiguously to characterise the
Fabrication and Testing of Viscosity Measuring Instrument (Viscometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. B. HASSAN
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication and testing of a simple and portable viscometer for the measurement of bulk viscosity of different Newtonian fluids. It is aimed at making available the instrument in local markets and consequently reducing or eliminating the prohibitive cost of importation. The method employed is the use of a D.C motor to rotate a disc having holes for infra-red light to pass through and fall on a photo-diode thus undergoing amplification and this signal being translated on a moving-coil meter as a deflection. The motor speed is kept constant but varies with changes in viscosity of the fluid during stirring, which alter signals being read on the meter. The faster is revolution per minute of the disc, the less the deflection on the meter and vise-versa. From the results of tests conducted on various sample fluids using data on standard Newtonian fluids as reliable guide the efficiency of the viscometer was 76.5%.
Phase space analysis for anisotropic universe with nonlinear bulk viscosity
Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia
2018-06-01
In this paper, we discuss phase space analysis of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model by taking a noninteracting mixture of dust like and viscous radiation like fluid whose viscous pressure satisfies a nonlinear version of the Israel-Stewart transport equation. An autonomous system of equations is established by defining normalized dimensionless variables. In order to investigate stability of the system, we evaluate corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. We also compute power-law scale factor whose behavior indicates different phases of the universe model. It is found that our analysis does not provide a complete immune from fine-tuning because the exponentially expanding solution occurs only for a particular range of parameters. We conclude that stable solutions exist in the presence of nonlinear model for bulk viscosity with different choices of the constant parameter m for anisotropic universe.
Developments of sausages in a z-pinch with short-wave perturbation of a boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikhrev, V.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.
1989-01-01
A numeric simulation of sausage evolution in z-pinch during short-wave excitation of the boundary of plasma column pinch is carried out. The simulation has shown that due to nonlinear development of sausages in a pinch plasma colomn the cavities filled with a magnetic field in a rarefied pinch plasma are formed. Simultaneously compact column of tense plasma whose temperature is much higher than the average temperature of pinch plasma column are formed on the pinch axis. In the region of inlet in the cavity plasma is radially directed due to ponderomotoric force 1/2 x jB up to velocities greatly increasing the thermal velocity of ions in a plasma column
Kinetic simulation of neutron production in a deuterium z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostrom, C.; Stygar, William A.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale Robert; Clark, R.E.; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Rose, David V.
2010-01-01
We have found computationally that, at sufficiently high currents, half of the neutrons produced by a deuterium z pinch are thermonuclear in origin. Early experiments below 1-MA current found that essentially all of the neutrons produced by a deuterium pinch are not thermonuclear, but are initiated by an instability that creates beam-target neutrons. Many subsequent authors have supported this result while others have claimed that pinch neutrons are thermonuclear. To resolve this issue, we have conducted fully kinetic, collisional, and electromagnetic simulations of the complete time evolution of a deuterium pinch. We find that at 1-MA pinch currents, most of the neutrons are, indeed, beam-target in origin. At much higher current, half of the neutrons are thermonuclear and half are beam-target driven by instabilities that produce a power law fall off in the ion energy distribution function at large energy. The implications for fusion energy production with such pinches are discussed.
Proposal for the ZT-40 reversed-field Z-pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Machalek, M.D.
1977-08-01
A next-generation, toroidal, reversed-field Z-pinch experiment to be constructed at LASL is proposed. On the basis of encouraging ZT-I and ZT-S experimental results, a larger device with a 40-cm bore and a 114-cm major radius is proposed, to extend the confinement time by about an order of magnitude. The new experiment will explore the physics of programming reversed-field pinches in a size range unexplored by previous reversed-field pinch experiments. Model reversed-field pinch reactor calculations show that, if stability is assumed, small fusion reactors are possible if the pinch current density is high. A basic aim will be to delineate the plasma and current density ranges in which stable reversed-field pinches can be produced. Improved vacuum techniques will be used to overcome the radiation losses that probably kept electron temperatures low in the earlier, smaller experiments
D-D fusion experiments using fast z pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.
1994-01-01
The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides us with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I 2 and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast ( 2 fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia's Saturn facility generating up to 3 x 10 12 D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, we intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garg, A.B.; Rout, R.K.; Shyam, A.; Srinivasan, M.
1993-01-01
X ray emission from an X pinch, a point x-ray source has been studied using a pin-hole camera by a 30 kV, 7.2 μ F capacitor bank. The wires of different material like W, Mo, Cu, S.S.(stainless steel) and Ti were used. Molybdenum pinch gives the most intense x-rays and stainless steel gives the minimum intensity x-rays for same bank energy (∼ 3.2 kJ). Point x-ray source of size (≤ 0.5 mm) was observed using pin hole camera. The size of the source is limited by the size of the pin hole camera. The peak current in the load is approximately 150 kA. The point x-ray source could be useful in many fields like micro lithography, medicine and to study the basic physics of high Z plasmas. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, H.B.; Hilko, B.; Panarella, E.
1994-01-01
The spherical pinch (SP) concept is an outgrowth of the inertial confinement model (ICF). Unlike the ICF where instabilities, especially the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, have been studied extensively, the instability study of the spherical pinch has just begun. The Raleigh-Taylor instability is investigated for the first time in the SP in the present work. By using the simple condition for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability ∇p · ∇p < O (density and pressure gradients have opposite direction), we have qualitatively identified the regions for development of instabilities in the SP. It is found that the explosion phase (central discharge) is stable and instabilities take place in the imploding phase. However, the growth rate for the instability is not in exponential form, and the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not prevent the main shock wave from converging to the center of the sphere
Characterisation of Plasma Filled Rod Pinch electron beam diode operation
MacDonald, James; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy
2016-10-01
The plasma filled rod pinch diode (aka PFRP) offers a small radiographic spot size and a high brightness source. It operates in a very similar to plasma opening switches and dense plasma focus devices - with a plasma prefill, supplied via a number of simple coaxial plasma guns, being snowploughed along a thin rod cathode, before detaching at the end. The aim of this study is to model the PFRP and understand the factors that affect its performance, potentially improving future output. Given the dependence on the PFRP on the prefill, we are making detailed measurements of the density (1015-1018 cm-3), velocity, ionisation and temperature of the plasma emitted from a plasma gun/set of plasma guns. This will then be used to provide initial conditions to the Gorgon 3D MHD code, and the dynamics of the entire rod pinch process studied.
Production of ion beam by conical pinched electron beam diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsukawa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.
1982-01-01
Some properties of the ion beam produced by pinched electron beam diode having conical shape electrodes and organic insulator anode was studied. Ion energy is about 200keV and the peak diode current is about 30 kA. At 11cm from the diode apex, not the geometrical focus point, concentrated ion beam was obtained. Its density is more than 500A/cm 2 . The mean ion current density within the radius of 1.6cm around the axis from conical diode is two or three times that from an usual pinched electron beam diode with flat parallel electrodes of same dimension and impedance under the same conditions. (author)
On the equilibrium of a linear Extrap pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1982-01-01
The equilibrium is studied of a pinched linear plasma column of 'Extrap' type which is confined in a purely transverse magnetic field, partly arising from currents in a set of external conductor rods being introduced for stabilizing purposes. The axial and transverse losses are separated in a simplified theoretical model for which stability is assumed as a working hypothesis and anomalous transport as well as impurity radiation are neglected. Then, the reduction of the axial heat transport by the magnetic field will have a substantial effect on the over-all heat balance, thus leading to high temperatures at large axial lengths of the plasma column. Conditions near ignition should become possible at technically realistic linear dimensions and pinch currents. (orig.)
A heuristic model of the wire array z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haines, M.G.
1998-01-01
Recent experimental results at the Sandia National Laboratory have shown that the X-ray power increases as the number of wires n employed is increased, with a sharper increase in power when the wire gap is below a critical value. This paper proposes a model that can not only explain these phenomena, but also shows how the initial perturbations that lead to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability scale as n -1/2 . The model predicts the shell thickness at merger of the expanding separate wires which will mainly determine the final pinch radius. The largest amplitude Rayleigh-Taylor mode at the pinch time is also found, in reasonable agreement with experiment
The belt-shaped screw-pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bustraan, M.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.; Lievense, K.
1981-12-01
The belt-shaped screw pinch is a pulsed toroidal plasma with an elongated cross-section. Force-free currents in an outer plasma envelope of low density allow beta to rise to high values in the order of 50%. This is a potential possibility to develop an economically attractive reactor. The physical requirements of its realization are described: formation, heating and ignition of a very small amount of the fuel to be burnt in one pulse by the fields generated by normal or superconducting coils. Then follows injection of the greater part of the fuel by D-T pellets and consequent plasma heating and expansion by nuclear reactions without undue disturbing of the plasma current configuration. Technical requirements include an insulating first wall and fast rising magnetic fields produced by superconducting coils. This reactor system is compared with the tokamak and the reversed-field pinch system
Seeded perturbations in wire array z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, Allen Conrad; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Safronova, Alla S.; Maxwell, J.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Jones, Brent Manley; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher
2004-01-01
The impact of 3D structure on wire array z-pinch dynamics is a topic of current interest, and has been studied by the controlled seeding of wire perturbations. First, Al wires were etched at Sandia, creating 20% radial perturbations with variable axial wavelength. Observations of magnetic bubble formation in the etched regions during experiments on the MAGPIE accelerator are discussed and compared to 3D MHD modeling. Second, thin NaF coatings of 1 mm axial extent were deposited on Al wires and fielded on the Zebra accelerator. Little or no axial transport of the NaF spectroscopic dopant was observed in spatially resolved K-shell spectra, which places constraints on particle diffusivity in dense z-pinch plasmas. Finally, technology development for seeding perturbations is discussed
On the dynamics of cylindrical z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, L.S.
1984-01-01
The stationary configurations of cylindrical plasma flow in the framework of two-liquid relativistic electromagnetic gas dynamics (REMG)) and nonlinear radial oscillations of the plasma cylinder with longitudinal current in the framework of classical monoliquid MGD are considered. It is shown that at sufficiently high conductivity Z-pinch is stable relative to one-dimensional radial perturbations and its motion represents respectively nonlinear radial oscillations. In case of a rather low conductivity or low particle concentration there is in cross section a stability also in relation to the development of sausage type instability. The performed investigations of cylindrical equilibrium and radial oscillations give a qualitative representation on plasma behaviour in Z-pinch at the initial stage of it compression and expansion as well as on motion in an average plane of the developing sausage type instability
Dense X-pinch plasmas for x-ray microlithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalantar, D.H.; Hammer, D.A.; Qi, N.; Mittal, K.C.
1990-01-01
The authors report experimental results from a study of the radiation emission from aluminum and magnesium x-pinch experiments. The single cross x-pinch, driven by the 0.5 TW, 40ns pulse width Lion accelerator, consists of 2-8 fine wires stretched between the output electrodes of Lion so as to touch at a single point. The wires were twisted up to 360 degrees at the crossing point. The number and size of Al and Mg wires were varied in order to optimize the K-shell line radiation. Diagnostics used for the experiments included pinhole photography, streak imaging, filtered photoconducting diodes and x-ray crystal spectroscopy. The source size and distribution are determined through x-ray pinhole photographs. The radiation energy spectrum is determined by x-ray spectroscopy and attenuation through filters. Energy intensities were obtained from the filtered photoconducting diodes
Recent studies of Reversed-Field Pinch reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-01-01
The reactor prognoses of a class of confinement scheme that relies primarily on self-fields induced by axial currents flowing within a plasma column are presented. The primary focus has been placed on the toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). At the limit of very large current densities is the gas-embedded Dense Z-Pinch (DZP), a small-radius, linear device. Past conventional RFP reactor designs are reviewed. The extention of these conventional RFP reactors to DD advanced-fuel operation is described. The implications are summarized of operating higher-density, compact RFPs as reactors, wherein the current density rather than physical dimensions are scaled. Lastly, the application of very high current densities supported in a sub-millimeter linear current channel, as embodied in the DZP reactor, is reviewed
D-D fusion experiments using fast Z pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.
1998-03-01
The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides the authors with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I 2 and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast ( 2 fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia's Saturn facility generating up to 3 x 10 12 D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, the authors intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices
Tungsten Z-Pinch Long Implosions on the Saturn Generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DOUGLAS, MELISSA R.; DEENEY, Christopher; SPIELMAN, RICK B.; COVERDALE, CHRISTINE A.; RODERICK, N.F.; HAINES, M.G.
1999-01-01
Recent success on the Saturn and Z accelerators at Sandia National Laboratories have demonstrated the ability to scale z-pinch parameters to increasingly larger current pulsed power facilities. Next generation machines will require even larger currents (>20 MA), placing further demands on pulsed power technology. To this end, experiments have been carried out on Saturn operating in a long pulse mode, investigating the potential of lower voltages and longer implosion times while still maintaining pinch fidelity. High wire number, 25 mm diameter tungsten arrays were imploded with implosion times ranging from 130 to 240 ns. The results were comparable to those observed in the Saturn short pulse mode, with risetimes on the order of 4.5 to 6.5 ns. Experimental data will be presented, along with two dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations used to explain and reproduce the experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs
Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helander, P.; Simakov, A. N.
2008-01-01
It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field
Dickey, Jean O.
1995-01-01
The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.
Necessary stability condition for field-reversed theta pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cary, J.R.
1981-03-01
Toroidal systems of arbitrary cross section without toroidal magnetic field are analyzed via the double adiabatic fluid equations. Such systems are shown to be unstable if there exists one closed field line on which the average of kapparB 2 is positive, where kappa is the curvature. A similar criterion is derived for linear systems and is applied to a noncircular z-pinch
Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong
2006-01-01
Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW
Global properties of ohmically heated reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.A.
The simultaneous requirements of power balance and pressure balance have been considered. The treatment generalizes the Pease-Braginskii pinch current limit by including toroidal magnetic field, anomalous resistivity, nonradiative losses, and time-dependent fields. The rise of the temperature to a state of power balance proves to be amenable to a very simple and unified description. Finally, the practical parameter windows implied by the joint action of power balance and pressure balance are displayed
Self-similar oscillations of a Z pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felber, F.S.
1982-01-01
A new analytic, self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics describes cylindrically symmetric plasmas conducting constant current. The solution indicates that an adiabatic Z pinch oscillates radially with a period typically of the order of a few acoustic transit times. A stability analysis, which shows the growth rate of the sausage instability to be a saturating function of wavenumber, suggests that the oscillations are observable
Prospects for fusion applications of reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.
1985-01-01
The applicability of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) as a source of fusion neutrons for use in developing key fusion nuclear technologies is examined. This Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would emphasize high neutron wall loading, small plasma volume, low fusion and driver powers, and steady-state operation. Both parametric tradeoffs based on present-day physics understanding and a conceptual design based on an approx.1-MW/m 2 (neutron) driven operation are reported. 10 refs
BATCH PROCESS INTEGRATION OF APPLYING TECHNOLOGY OF ACID CARMINIC PINCH
Erazo E., Raymundo; Cárdenas R., Jorge L.; Woolcott H., Juan C.
2014-01-01
This work was developed in order to implement the PINCH technology integration batch process for carminic acid. The method used consisted of the application of the concepts of bottle necks total process (OPB) together with part-time models (TAM) and time fractionated! (TSM). The drying operation is identified as the rate limiting step of the process identifying it as an OPB plant capacity. The extraction yield was 95% w / p carminic acid with an energy savings of approximately 60% of the...
Electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vikhrev, V.V.; Baronova, E.O. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Research Center
1997-12-31
Numerical modelling of the process of electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges are presented. The proposed model represents the electron beam generation under turbulent plasma conditions. Strong current distribution inhomogeneity in the plasma column and the zigzag drift current motion through the plasma have accounted for the adequate generation process investigation. Electron beam is generated near the maximum of compression and it is not related with the current break effect. (author)
A reversed-field theta-pinch plasma machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasojima, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sasao, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Noboru; Tanaka, Toshihide
1984-01-01
Mitsubishi Electric has constructed a reversed-field theta-pinch machine at its Central Research Laboratory and initiated a series of plasma diagnostics and control studies for development of nuclear-fusion technology. Although the device has a linear configuration, a stable high-temperature, high-density toroidal plasma can be generated. The article describes the overall structure, vacuum system, power-supply system, and diagnostics and control system of the plasma machine. (author)
Preliminary study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in wire-array Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Kaihui; Feng Kaiming; Li Qiang; Gao Chunming
2000-01-01
It is important to research into the MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability developed in Z-pinch implosion. A snowplough model of the single wire Z-pinch is presented. The perturbation amplitude of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the wire-array Z-pinch is analyzed quantitatively. Sheared axial flow is put forward to mitigate and reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. And other approaches used to mitigate MHD instability in such a super-fast process are explored
Effects of boundary conditions on temperature and density in an EXTRAP Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.; Karlsson, P.
1985-08-01
Using the fluid equations, we examine transport in an Extrap configuration by carrying out calculations incorporating model profiles for the density and temperature. The goal of this analysis is to examine the scaling of the pinch equilibrium plasma density, temperature and radius with parameters that are characteristic for Extrap Z-pinches. These parameters include the discharge current, the neutral hydrogen filling density, an oxygen impurity fractional concentration and the condition at the pinch boundary. An Extrap Z-pinch is a pinch discharge where the current channel has a characteristic non-circular cross-section achieved by bounding the discharge by a magnetic separatrix produced when a vacuum octupole magnetic field, generated by currents in external conductors, combines with the self-magnetic field produced by the discharge current. The pinch boundary is changed from a plasma-vacuum boundary to an interface between a high-beta pinch plasma and a low-beta plasma contained in the vacuum magnetic field. The energy that is lost from the pinch region sustains this boundary layer. The introduction of a separatrix boundary around the pinch with four X-point nulls deteriorates the containment of the pinch somewhat. However the presence of the warm, low-beta plasma scrape-off layer, which provides a boundary condition on the pinch, tends to counteract the negative effects of the poorer confinement. Thus the equilibrium parameters that characterize the pinch may not be severely deteriorated by the introduction of the separatrix when the entire configuration, including the scrape-off layer, is considered. (author)
X-ray sources by Z-pinch for inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akiyama, Hidenori; Katsuki, Sunao; Lisitsyn, Igor
1999-01-01
Inertial confinement nuclear fusion driven by X-ray from Z-pinch plasmas has been developed. Recently, extremely high X-ray power (290 TW) and energy (1.8 MJ) were produced in fast Z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator (Sandia National Laboratories). Wire arrays are used to produce the initial plasma. The X-ray from Z-pinch plasmas produced by pulsed power has great potential as a driver of inertial confinement nuclear fusion. (author)
Determination of plasma Z-pinch effect by intrinsic stimulated emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue, J.T.; Liang, J.M.
1977-01-01
The plasma Z-pinch behavior has been observed in a relatively small-bore diameter tube and low bank voltage discharge system. The instant of the occurrence of the laser line at 4880 A coincides with the plasma pinch time calculated by using a one-fluid snow-plow model. A determination of plasma pinch parameters by measuring the intrinsic stimulated emission of the ions is described
The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project - Final Technical Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shumlak, Uri [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Nelson, Brian A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2013-12-31
The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project is a project to extend the performance of the flow Z-pinch experiment at the University of Washington to investigate and isolate the relevant physics of the stabilizing effect of plasma flow. Experimental plasmas have exhibited an enhanced stability under certain operating parameters which generate a flow state (axial flows in Z-pinches and VH mode in tokamaks). Flow has also been suggested as the stabilizing mechanism in astrophysical jets.
Effect of Polyvinyl Siloxane Viscosity on Accuracy of Dental Implant Impressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Ghahremanloo
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of dental implant impressions obtained by a combination of different impression techniques and viscosities of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS.Materials and Methods: Four parallel fixtures were placed between mental foramina in a master model of lower dental arch. Three different viscosities (putty/light body, medium body/light body, and monophase: heavy body and direct and indirect techniques (six groups were used, and seven impressions were obtained from each group (n=42. To measure the accuracy of impressions, drift, horizontal, and vertical angles of the implants, as well as the hex rotation of the implants in casts were evaluated using a digitizer device (1μm accuracy, in comparison with master arch. Data were analyzed using five-factor two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test.Results: The accuracy of impressions was assessed and the results showed that direct technique was not significantly different from indirect technique (P>0.05. Also, there were no significant differences between the mentioned viscosities except for the horizontal angle (P=0.006.Conclusions: Viscosity of impression materials is of high significance for the accuracy of dental impressions.Keywords: Dental Materials; Dental Implants; Dental Impression Technique; Viscosity; Vinyl Polysiloxane; Dimensional Measurement Accuracy
Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws
Guermond, J. L.
2010-09-17
A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.
Theory of the high-frequency limiting viscosity of a dilute polymer solution. Pt. 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doi, M; Nakajima, H; Wada, Y
1976-06-01
High-frequency limiting viscosities of dilute polymer solutions are calculated on the basis of the author's previous theory for (1) necklace model of a chain with constant bond length and bond angle under a hindering rotational potential, and (2) broken rod model consisting of N rods with equal length connected by universal joints. Exact treatment is possible for a once-broken rod model, but the Monte Carlo method is used in the other calculations.
Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws
Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.
2010-01-01
A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.
Reconsideration of the m=0 Z-pinch stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.; Coppins, M.
1993-01-01
Possible paths for obtaining linear stability against the m=0 mode in the Z-pinch are studied. Using a generalized energy principle, the necessary and sufficient Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) m=0 stability criterion is derived. This criterion is less restrictive than that of ideal MHD, although it also requires the boundary plasma pressure to be finite. It is shown that the edge pressure cannot be stably upheld by a surface current. By instead assuming a finite pressure external gas, it is found that an edge pressure to on-axis pressure ratio of 0.5 is required for stability of a constant current density profile. A parabolic current density profile lowers the limit to the value 0.17. The growth rates are shown to be monotonically decreasing as a function of the external gas pressure. Detailed derivations of the boundary conditions are also given. The results aid in clarifying the experimental stability of four major Z-pinch experiments. Finite Larmor radius stabilization is hence required to maintain stability in future fibre pinch experiments in vacuum, implying line densities less than 10 19 m -1 . (author). 28 refs, 10 figs
Nonlinear tearing modes in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.
1989-01-01
Finite-amplitude islands, which are the saturated states of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch, are calculated. These states are bifurcated noncylindrical equilibrium states. With σ(r) (σequivalentj x B/B 2 ) nonuniform across the plasma, as is consistent with experiment, a variety of m = 1 and m = 0 bifurcated equilibria are possible, instead of just the m = 1 helix calculated for uniform σ(r) by Taylor [in Pulsed High Beta Plasmas, edited by D. Evans (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), p. 59]. Assuming the magnetic field lines in the reversed field pinch are weakly stochastic, the growth time of an unstable tearing mode is on the inertial time scale, as in the Taylor model, in constrast to growth on the resistive time scale predicted from nonlinear tearing mode theory when magnetic surfaces exist. The dependence of the saturated island width on radius of a conducting shell is investigated. Islands in the reversed field pinch often have magnetic wells in the island interior, which may result in improved confinement in the island regions
X-Pinch soft x-ray source for microlithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glidden, S.C.; Hammer, D.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Qi, N.
1993-01-01
The x-pinch soft x-ray source is described for application in submicron resolution lithography. Experiments have been performed to characterize the radiation emitted from magnesium wire x-pinch plasmas using an 80 ns, ≤500 kA pulse. Yields of 14.2 J averaged over three independent calibrated diagnostics at 445 kA have been measured in magnesium K-shell radiation (predominantly 8.4 angstrom to 9.4 angstrom or 1.5 keV to 1.3 keV) from a submillimeter source, with as little as 5-10% of the yield below the 6.74 angstrom silicon absorption edge. A new ≤700 kA, 100 ns pulser being used for x-pinch physics experiments is described. The design of a 40 pulse per second pulsed power system and wire loading mechanism for exposing a resist in 1 second at a distance 40 cm is presented
Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, X. D., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Huang, X. B., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Zhou, S. T., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Zhang, S. Q., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Dan, J. K., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Li, J., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Cai, H. C., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, K. L., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Ouyang, K., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Xu, Q., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Duan, S. C., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Chen, G. H., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, M., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Feng, S. P., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Yang, L. B., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Xie, W. P., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Deng, J. J., E-mail: amosrxd@163.com [Key Lab of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)
2014-12-15
The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.
Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lash, J.S.
1999-07-01
The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility.
Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lash, J.S.
1999-01-01
The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility
Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.
Pinch Related Research At Institute For Plasma Research, India
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shyam, Anurag
2006-01-01
Several pinch related experiment, their drivers and related diagnostics are being developed in our laboratory. The first set of experiments is to investigate various aspects of magnetized target fusion (MTF/MAGO). To drive the liner, in Z or theta pinch configuration, a 1.2 MJ, 3.6 MA capacitor bank is developed. For liner diagnostics flash radiography, VISAR and pyrometery are being developed. To produce magnetized (target) plasma a 120 kJ, 3 MA and several other banks are developed. Hot magnetized Plasma will be diagnosed by optical schlieren, interferometery and X-Ray spectrometry. A terra-watt system consisting of a Marx bank and water line delivering 800 kA at 1.6 MV will be commissioned, soon. The device will be used to study different pinch (wire array) configurations for production of electro-magnetic radiations. Smaller pulsed power systems, consisting of 1MV/500 kV Marx bank/tesla transformer and than water or solid state (cables) pulse forming network (coax) are also being developed for capillary discharge and other experiments. Two plasma foci experiments are also being conducted. The effort is produce a repetitively operating compact plasma focus
Meier, G.; Gapinski, J.; Ratajczyk, M.; Lettinga, M. P.; Hirtz, K.; Banachowicz, E.; Patkowski, A.
2018-03-01
The Stokes-Einstein relation allows us to calculate apparent viscosity experienced by tracers in complex media on the basis of measured self-diffusion coefficients. Such defined nano-viscosity values can be obtained through single particle techniques, like fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and particle tracking (PT). In order to perform such measurements, as functions of pressure and temperature, a new sample cell was designed and is described in this work. We show that this cell in combination with a long working distance objective of the confocal microscope can be used for successful FCS, PT, and confocal imaging experiments in broad pressure (0.1-100 MPa) and temperature ranges. The temperature and pressure dependent nano-viscosity of a van der Waals liquid obtained from the translational diffusion coefficient measured in this cell by means of FCS obeys the same scaling as the rotational relaxation and macro-viscosity of the system.
Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.
2013-01-01
The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)
Metal Wire-array Load for Z-pinch Used as X-ray Source
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1999-01-01
<正> The inertial confinement fusion （ICF） has evident minatory applications becasuse ICF ignites the fusion fuel with high energy media. As a method of ICF, Z-pinch has obtained evidently increased X-ray power PX-ray and energy EX-ray. The scientists have noticed this promising achievement. The Z-accelerator which is an operating Z-pinch device in Sandia national laboratory （SNL） in USA achieved 290 TW Px-ray in 1997 and the energy and defense departments of USA will finance SNL for a larger Z-pinch device. The early Z-pinch aimed to obtain high tempera
Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.
2018-03-01
At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.
A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch
McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.
2017-10-01
We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.
Developing models for simulation of pinched-beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion. Revision 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, J.K.; Mark, J.W.K.; Sharp, W.M.; Yu, S.S.
1984-01-01
For heavy-ion fusion energy applications, Mark and Yu have derived hydrodynamic models for numerical simulation of energetic pinched-beams including self-pinches and external-current pinches. These pinched-beams are applicable to beam propagation in fusion chambers and to the US High Temperature Experiment. The closure of the Mark-Yu model is obtained with adiabatic assumptions mathematically analogous to those of Chew, Goldberger, and Low for MHD. Features of this hydrodynamic beam model are compared with a kinetic treatment
Bruyn, De P.; Chen, Dongju; Moldenaers, P.; Cardinaels, R.M.
2014-01-01
The effects of geometrical confinement and viscosity ratio on droplet coalescence in shear flow are experimentally investigated by means of a counter rotating parallel plate device, equipped with a microscope. The ratio of droplet diameter to gap spacing is varied between 0.03 and 0.33 to study both
Viscosity Measurements of SiO2-"FeO"-MgO System in Equilibrium with Metallic Fe
Chen, Mao; Raghunath, Sreekanth; Zhao, Baojun
2014-01-01
The present study delivers the measurements of viscosities in the SiO2-"FeO"-MgO system in equilibrium with metallic Fe. The rotational spindle technique was used for the measurements at the temperature range of 1523 K to 1773 K (1250 °C to 1500 °C). Molybdenum crucibles and spindles were employed in all measurements. The viscosity measurements were carried out at 31 to 47 mol pct SiO2 and up to 18.8 mol pct MgO. Analysis of the quenched sample by Electron probe X-ray microanalysis after the viscosity measurement enables the composition and microstructure of the slag to be directly linked with the viscosity. The replacement of "FeO" by MgO was found to increase viscosity and activation energy of the SiO2-"FeO"-MgO slags. The modified Quasi-chemical Viscosity Model was further optimized in this system based on the current viscosity measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mineev, Vladimir N; Funtikov, Aleksandr I
2004-01-01
A review is given of experimental and calculated data on the viscosity of iron-based melts on the melting curve. The interest in these data originates in the division of opinion on whether viscosity increases rather moderately or considerably in the high-pressure range. This disagreement is especially pronounced in the interpretation of the values of molten iron and its compounds in the environment of the earth's outer core. The conclusion on a substantial rise in viscosity mostly follows from the universal law, proposed by Brazhkin and Lyapin [1], of viscosity changing along the metal melting curve in the high-pressure range. The review analyzes available experimental and computational data, including the most recent ones. Data on viscosity of metals under shock wave compression in the megabar pressure range are also discussed. It is shown that data on viscosity of metal melts point to a small increase of viscosity on the melting curve. Specifics are discussed of the phase diagram of iron made more complex by the presence of several phase transitions and by the uncertainty in the position of the melting curve in the high-pressure range. Inaccuracies that arise in extrapolating the results of viscosity measurements to the pressure range corresponding to the earth's core environment are pointed out. (reviews of topical problems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, A.; Ashida, H.; Okamoto, M.; Hirano, K.
1981-03-01
Two dimentional fluid simulation code ''TOPICS'' is developed for the STP-2, the shock heated screw pinch at Nagoya. It involves the effects of impurity ions and neutral atoms. In order to estimate the radiation losses, the impurity continuity equations with ionizations and recombinations are solved simultaneously with the plasma fluid equations. The results are compared with the coronal equilibrium model. It is found that the coronal equilibrium model underestimates the radiation losses from shock heated pinch plasmas in its initial dynamic phase. The present calculations including impurities and neutrals show the importance of the radiation losses from the plasma of the STP-2. Introducing the anomalous resistivity caused by the ion acoustic instability, the observed magnetic field penetration is explained fairly well. (author)
The comparative analysis of the different mechanisms of toroidal rotation in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabot, R [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-07-01
The toroidal plasma rotation appears as one the possible mechanism for suppression of plasma turbulence. Several mechanisms are believed to contribute to the toroidal plasma rotation. The results of numerical simulation of the toroidal rotation on JET are presented, where are taken into consideration the following effects: the neoclassical viscosity due to banana and ripple trapped particles, the anomalous viscosity due to plasma turbulence, the momentum input by NBI (neutron beam injection) and ion momentum loss near the separatrix due to prompt ion losses. The NBI appeared to be the principal source of toroidal plasma rotation. 6 refs., 2 figs.
Self-pinched transport of intense ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottinger, P.F.; Neri, J.M.; Stephanakis, S.J.
1999-01-01
Electron beams with substantial net currents have been routinely propagated in the self-pinched mode for the past two decades. However, as the physics of gas breakdown and beam neutralization is different for ion beams, previous predictions indicated insufficient net current for pinching so that ion beam self-pinched transport (SPT) was assumed impossible. Nevertheless, recent numerical simulations using the IPROP code have suggested that ion SPT is possible. These results have prompted initial experiments to investigate SPT of ion beams. A 100-kA, 1.2-MeV, 3-cm-radius proton beam, generated on the Gamble II pulsed-power accelerator at NRL, has been injected into helium in the 30- to 250-mTorr regime to study this phenomenon. Evidence of self-pinched ion beam transport was observed in the 35- to 80-mTorr SPT pressure window predicted by IPROP. Measured signals from a time- and space-resolved scattered proton diagnostic and a time-integrated Li(Cu) nuclear activation diagnostic, both of which measure protons striking a 10-cm diameter target 50 cm into the transport region, are significantly larger in this pressure window than expected for ballistic transport. These results are consistent with significant self-magnetic fields and self-pinching of the ion beam. On the other hand, time-integrated signals from these same two diagnostics are consistent with ballistic transport at pressures above and below the SPT window. Interferometric electron line-density measurements, acquired during beam injection into the helium gas, show insignificant ionization below 35 mTorr, a rapidly rising ionization fraction with pressure in the SPT window, and a plateau in ionization fraction at about 2% for pressures above 80 mTorr. These and other results are consistent with the physical picture for SPT. IPROP simulations, which closely model the Gamble II experimental conditions, produce results that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The advantages of SPT for
The Viscosity of Organic Liquid Mixtures
Len, C. W.; Trusler, J. P. M.; Vesovic, V.; Wakeham, W. A.
2006-01-01
The paper reports measurements of the viscosity and density of two heavy hydrocarbon mixtures, Dutrex and Arab Light Flashed Distillate (ALFD), and of their mixtures with hydrogen. The measurements have been carried out with a vibrating-wire device over a range of temperatures from 399 to 547 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. Measurements have also been carried out on systems in which hydrogen at different concentrations has been dissolved in the liquids. The measurements have an estimated uncertainty of ±5% for viscosity and ±2% for density and represent the first results on these prototypical heavy hydrocarbons. The results reveal that the addition of hydrogen reduces both the density and viscosity of the original hydrocarbon mixture at a particular temperature and pressure.
Viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys
Vidyaev, Dmitriy; Boretsky, Evgeny; Verkhorubov, Dmitriy
2018-03-01
The measurement of dynamic viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys has been performed using low-frequency vibrational viscometer at five temperatures in the range 313-353 K and four gallium-based dilute alloy compositions containing 0-1.15 at.% Li. It was found that the viscosity of the considered alloys increases with decreasing temperature and increasing lithium concentration in the above ranges. It was shown that dependence of the viscosity of Ga-Li alloys in the investigated temperature range has been described by Arrhenius equation. For this equation the activation energy of viscous flow and pre-exponential factor were calculated. This study helped to determine the conditions of the alkali metals separating process in gallam-exchange systems.
Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ban, Heng [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-02-09
Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.
Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ban, Heng
2015-01-01
Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.
Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity
Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2018-02-01
This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.
Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure
Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini
1987-01-01
Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.
Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2011-05-01
A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity.
Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R; Heyes, David M; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C
2018-02-28
This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.
Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements
Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing
1992-01-01
A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.
Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws
Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan
2011-01-01
A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Rotation and solvation of ammonium ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perrin, C.L.; Gipe, R.K.
1987-01-01
From nitrogen-15 spin-lattice relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser enhancements, the rotational correlations time tau/sub c/ for 15 NH 4 + was determined in s series of solvents. Values of tau/sub c/ range from 0.46 to 20 picoseconds. The solvent dependent of tau/sub c/ cannot be explained in terms of solvent polarity, molecular dipole moment, solvent basicity, solvent dielectric relaxation, or solvent viscosity. The rapid rotation and the variation with solvent can be accounted for by a model that involves hydrogen bonding of an NH proton to more than one solvent molecule in a disordered solvation environment. 25 references, 1 table
Equilibrium and stability of a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssen, P.A.E.M.
1979-01-01
The author considers the equilibrium and stability of a rotating plasma. The kinetic equations for ions and electrons supplemented with the Maxwell equations and the appropriate boundary conditions are used. Two different models for the rotating plasma are considered: the equilibrium of a 'fast' rotating plasma (Magneto Hydrodynamic ordering) and the stability of a slowly rotating, 'weakly' unstable plasma (Finite Larmor Radius ordering). A striking difference between these orderings is the fact that, regarding the stability of the plasma, for a F.L.R. plasma viscosity effects due to the finite Larmor radius are important, whereas in a M.H.D. plasma they are negligible (at least to the required order). (Auth.)
Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.
2010-01-01
Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d≥6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.
Frassinetti, L.; Sun, Y.; Fridström, R.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Liang, Y.; Drake, J. R.
2015-09-01
The non-resonant magnetic perturbation (MP) braking is studied in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) and the experimental braking torque is compared with the torque expected by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The EXTRAP T2R active coils can apply magnetic perturbations with a single harmonic, either resonant or non-resonant. The non-resonant MP produces velocity braking with an experimental torque that affects a large part of the core region. The experimental torque is clearly related to the plasma displacement, consistent with a quadratic dependence as expected by the NTV theory. The work show a good qualitative agreement between the experimental torque in a RFP machine and NTV torque concerning both the torque density radial profile and the dependence on the non-resonant MP harmonic.
Gluon gas viscosity in nonperturbative region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il'in, S.V.; Mogilevskij, O.A.; Smolyanskij, S.A.; Zinov'ev, G.M.
1992-01-01
Using the Green-Kubo-type formulae and the cutoff model motivated by Monte Carlo lattice gluodynamics simulations we find the temperature behaviour of shear viscosity of gluon gas in the region of deconfinement phase transition. 22 refs.; 1 fig. (author)
Bulk viscosity in 2SC quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark G; Schmitt, Andreas
2007-01-01
The bulk viscosity of three-flavour colour-superconducting quark matter originating from the nonleptonic process u + s ↔ u + d is computed. It is assumed that up and down quarks form Cooper pairs while the strange quark remains unpaired (2SC phase). A general derivation of the rate of strangeness production is presented, involving contributions from a multitude of different subprocesses, including subprocesses that involve different numbers of gapped quarks as well as creation and annihilation of particles in the condensate. The rate is then used to compute the bulk viscosity as a function of the temperature, for an external oscillation frequency typical of a compact star r-mode. We find that, for temperatures far below the critical temperature T c for 2SC pairing, the bulk viscosity of colour-superconducting quark matter is suppressed relative to that of unpaired quark matter, but for T ∼> T c /30 the colour-superconducting quark matter has a higher bulk viscosity. This is potentially relevant for the suppression of r-mode instabilities early in the life of a compact star
Jet collimation by turbulent viscosity. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henriksen, R.N.
1987-01-01
In this paper it is assumed that the subscale turbulent eddies induced in an ambient medium by the emergence of a (already collimated) jet from a galactic nucleus (VLBI jet) are the source of the viscosity which causes material to be entrained into the large-scale (VLA) jet. New analytic solutions are derived by a generalization of the self-similar Ansatz used in the Landau-Squires solution to include variable density and viscosity. It is shown that such a process of viscous collimation of the VLA jets can account for the observed collimation-luminosity correlation, the magnetic flux, and the inferred mass flux of these jets. Order of magnitude comparisons of velocity and density fields with recently observed emission-line flow regions near radio jets are made. All of the viscosity-dependent observational checks imply roughly the same plausible value for the eddy viscosity. It is emphasized that storing the initial VLBI jet energy in the intermediate scales occupied by the turbulent eddies allows this energy to be largely undetected. 35 references
On the measurement of magnetic viscosity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serletis, C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)
2012-08-15
This work is an investigation of the experimental method used for measuring the magnetic viscosity in a hard ferromagnetic material, i.e. the recording of the magnetization under constant applied field and temperature, after the material has been magnetically saturated. It investigates how the experimental results are affected by the initial conditions of the method (saturation field, field change rate and field oscillation prior to its stabilization), and by minor variations of field and temperature during the recording. Based on the arising conclusions and the use of a more complex fitting function of measurements, the accuracy and repeatability of experimental results is improved. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic viscosity is affected by initial measurement conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minor field deviations prior to its stabilization cause large changes in viscosity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viscosity is strongly dependent on the field change rate from saturation to the measurement field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small changes in field and temperature during the experiment can lead to false measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Errors in measurements can be eliminated through the use of a proper fitting function.
Effect of Viscosity on Liquid Curtain Stability
Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Francis, Lorraine; Carvalho, Marcio; Dow Chemical Company Collaboration; PUC Rio Collaboration; University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Collaboration
2016-11-01
The effect of viscosity on the stability of Newtonian liquid curtains was explored by high-speed visualization. Glycerol/water solutions with viscosity ranging from 19.1 to 210 mPa.s were used as coating liquids. The experimental set-up used a slide die delivery and steel tube edge guides. The velocity along curtain at different positions was measured by tracking small particles at different flow conditions. The measurements revealed that away from edge guides, velocity is well described by free fall effect. However, close to edge guides, liquid moves slower, revealing formation of a viscous boundary layer. The size of boundary layer and velocity near edge guides are strong function of viscosity. The critical condition was determined by examining flow rate below which curtain broke. Curtain failure was initiated by growth of a hole within liquid curtain, close to edge guides. Visualization results showed that the hole forms in a circular shape then becomes elliptical as it grows faster in vertical direction compared to horizontal direction. As viscosity rises, minimum flow rate for destabilization of curtain increased, indicating connection between interaction with edge guides and curtain stability. We would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Dow Chemical Company.
Sensor for Viscosity and Shear Strength Measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dillon, J.; Moore, J.E. Jr.; Ebadian, M.A.; Jones, W.K.
1998-01-01
Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. The work for this project will be performed in three phases. The first phase, carried out in FY96, involved (1) an evaluation of acoustic and other methods for viscosity measurement; (2) measurement of the parameters of slurries over the range of percent solids found in tanks and transport systems; (3) a comparison of physical properties (e.g., viscosity and density) to percent solids found composition; and (4) the design of a prototype sensor. The second phase (FY97) will involve the fabrication of a prototype hybrid sensor to measure the viscosity and mechanical properties of slurries in remote, high-radiation environments. Two different viscometer designs are being investigated in this study: a magnetostrictive pulse wave guide viscometer; an oscillating cylinder viscometer. In FY97, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), which has printed circuit, thick film, thin film, and co-fired ceramic fabrication capability, will fabricate five probes for demonstration after technology selection and evaluation
Role of viscosity in nonlinear effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petrov, G V; Peshkin, M A; Polyakov, Ye Ye
1980-01-01
Data are presented on laboratory experiments for filtering of gases of liquids in clay, slightly permeable core samples. A method is proposed for processing the results of experiments which makes it possible to isolate the effect of viscosity of the fluid on the defined quantity of maximum pressure differential.
Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R
Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.
2006-11-01
Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.
Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, P.R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.; Rachlew, E.
2006-01-01
Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size
Recent developments in linear theta-pinch research: experiment and theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKenna, K.F.; Bartsch, R.R.; Commisso, R.J.
1978-01-01
High energy plasmas offusion interest can be generated in linear theta pinches. However, end losses present a fundamental limitation on the plasma containment time. This paper discusses recent progress in end-loss and end-stoppering experiments and in the theoretical understanding of linear theta-pinch physics
Nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombant, D.; Mosher, D.
1989-01-01
In this paper, a 2d envelope model is described for the nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches. Numerical solutions for various cases of interest are provided which lay the foundation for a quantitative model of nonthermal neutron emission in dense Z-pinches by determining the induced electric fields associated with the development of the instability
Experiments on the ZT-S reversed-field pinch, August--December 1978
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.R.
1979-06-01
During the latter half of 1978 the ZT-S reversed-field pinch was used to explore the utility of pitch-programming techniques in setting up stable diffuse pinch profiles. Several experimental observations relating to this goal are presented
High-energy electron acceleration in the gas-puff Z-pinch plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takasugi, Keiichi, E-mail: takasugi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Institute of Quantum Science, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Miyazaki, Takanori [Institute of Quantum Science, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308, Japan and Dept. Innovation Systems Eng., Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Nishio, Mineyuki [Anan National College of Technology, 265 Aoki, Minobayashi, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan)
2014-12-15
The characteristics of hard x-ray generation were examined in the gas-puff z-pinch experiment. The experiment on reversing the voltage was conducted. In both of the positive and negative discharges, the x-ray was generated only from the anode surface, so it was considered that the electrons were accelerated by the induced electromagnetic force at the pinch time.
Modelling high density phenomena in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chittenden, J.P.
1990-09-01
The application of hydrogen fibre Z-pinches to the study of the radiative collapse phenomenon is studied computationally. Two areas of difficulty, the formation of a fully ionized pinch from a cryogenic fibre and the processes leading to collapse termination, are addressed in detail. A zero-D model based on the energy equation highlights the importance of particle end losses and changes in the Coulomb logarithm upon collapse initiation and termination. A 1-D Lagrangian resistive MHD code shows the importance of the changing radial profile shapes, particularly in delaying collapse termination. A 1-D, three fluid MHD code is developed to model the ionization of the fibre by thermal conduction from a high temperature surface corona to the cold core. Rate equations for collisional ionization, 3-body recombination and equilibration are solved in tandem with fluid equations for the electrons, ions and neutrals. Continuum lowering is found to assist ionization at the corona-core interface. The high density plasma phenomena responsible for radiative collapse termination are identified as the self-trapping of radiation and free electron degeneracy. A radiation transport model and computational analogues for the effects of degeneracy upon the equation of state, transport coefficients and opacity are implemented in the 1-D, single fluid model. As opacity increases the emergent spectrum is observed to become increasingly Planckian and a fall off in radiative cooling at small radii and low frequencies occurs giving rise to collapse termination. Electron degeneracy terminates radiative collapse by supplementing the radial pressure gradient until the electromagnetic pinch force is balanced. Collapse termination is found to be a hybrid process of opacity and degeneracy effects across a wide range of line densities with opacity dominant at large line densities but with electron degeneracy becoming increasingly important at lower line densities. (author)
Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru
1995-01-01
Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature. (author)
Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.
2002-01-01
Observations of resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell (τw=6 ms) reversed field pinch are described. A nonresonant mode (m=1,n=-10) with the same handedness as the internal field grows nearly exponentially with an average growth time of about 2.6 ms (less than 1/2 of the shell time) consistent with linear stability theory. The externally nonresonant unstable modes (m=1,n>0), predicted by linear stability theory, are observed to have only low amplitudes (in the normal low-Θ operation mode of the device). The radial field of the dominant internally resonant tearing modes (m=1,n=-15 to n=-12) remain low due to spontaneous fast mode rotation, corresponding to angular phase velocities up to 280 krad/s. Phase aligned mode structures are observed to rotate toroidally with an average angular velocity of 40 krad/s, in the opposite direction of the plasma current. Toward the end of the discharge, the radial field of the internally resonant modes grows as the modes slow down and become wall-locked, in agreement with nonlinear computations. Fast rotation of the internally resonant modes has been observed only recently and is attributed to a change of the front-end system (vacuum vessel, shell, and TF coil) of the device.
Z-pinch driven hohlraums design for the 100 nanoseconds current time scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamann, F.
2003-12-01
This work estimates Z-pinch driven hohlraums capabilities to obtain high temperatures (>200 eV). Simple models are proposed to calculate the performances offered by currents of 5 to 100 MA in 100 ns. The one dimensional physics of the Z-pinch at the length scale of its thickness and the hydrodynamics instabilities are studied. Then the enhancement of hohlraums performances with double nested Z-pinches or the use of an axial magnetic field is analysed. Z-pinch direct drive approach for inertial confinement fusion is finally considered. All the presented results are based on theoretical and 2D numerical approach and on the analysis of experimental results which were obtained on the american 'Z' generator. Annexes recall radiation MHD equations and check their validity for Z-pinch implosion. (author)
Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE
Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team
2016-10-01
Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.
Experimental study of the 'NOVA' Z-pinch equipment working as vacuum-gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acuna, H.; Bernal, L.; Cortazar, D.; Iglesias, G.; Pouzo, J.
1990-01-01
The Z-pinch device 'NOVA' (2 kjoule, 10 kV, 250 kA) is operated as a vacuum gap. The plasma is generated in high vacuum (10 -5 mb) by the material let loose from the copper electrodes. Many strong compressions (micro pinches) are produced in the pinch column over the first quarter of the current period. This is detected by the observable pulses in the dI/dt signal. Hard X-rays generated in coincidence with the micro pinches are detected using a scintillator-photomultiplier system. This work studies the plasma evolution, by taking pictures of the pinch with obturation times of about 15 ns, temporally correlated with the dI/dt signal. Instabilities of types m=0 and m=1 are observed. (Author). 3 refs., 6 figs
Development of sausage-type instability in a Z-pinch plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikhrev, V.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.
1993-01-01
The development of sausage-type instabilities in an initially homogeneous Z-pinch plasma column has been investigated by means of numerical modelling. It is shown that in the presence of short-wave perturbations of a Z-pinch boundary and a rarefied plasma surrounding the pinch, cavities filled with a rarefied plasma and with a magnetic field are formed in the plasma column. As a result of this cavity growth, small columns of dense plasma form on the axis in the Z-pinch which have a temperature substantially higher than the average plasma temperature in the plasma column. When deuterium is present in the pinch, these dense high temperature bunches can become a source of intensive neutron radiation. (author). 24 refs, 7 figs
High current density toroidal pinch discharges with weak toroidal fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, P.; Brzozowski, J.; Drake, J.R.; Hellblom, G.; Kaellne, E.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.
1990-01-01
Toroidal discharges in the ultralow q regime (ULQ) have been studied in the rebuilt Extrap TI device. ULQ discharges are sustained for pulse lengths exceeding 1 ms, which corresponds to more than 10 resistiv shell times. Values for the safety factor at the vacuum vessel wall are between rational values: 1/(n+1) -2 . The magnetic fluctuation level increases during the transition between rational values of q(a). For very low values of q(a), the loop voltage increases and the toroidal field development in the discharge exhibits the characteristic behaviour of the setting-up phase of a field reversed pinch. (author) 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab
3-dimensional simulation of dynamo effect of reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koide, Shinji.
1990-09-01
A non-linear numerical simulation of the dynamo effect of a reversed field pinch (RFP) with finite beta is presented. It is shown that the m=-1, n=(9,10,11,....,19) modes cause the dynamo effect and sustain the field reversed configuration. The role of the m=0 modes on the dynamo effect is carefully examined. Our simulation shows that the magnetic field fluctuation level scales as S -0.2 or S -0.3 in the range of 10 3 5 , while Nebel, Caramana and Schnack obtained the fluctuation level is independent of S for a pressureless RFP plasma. (author)
Electron temperature diagnostics in the RFX reversed field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartiromo, R.; Carraro, L.; Marrelli, L.; Murari, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Puiatti, M.E.; Scarin, P.; Valisa, M.; Franz, P.; Martin, P.; Zabeo, L.
2000-01-01
The paper presents an integrated approach to the problem of electron temperature diagnostics of the plasma in a reversed field pinch. Three different methods, sampling different portions of the electron distribution function, are adopted, namely Thomson scattering, soft X-ray spectroscopy by pulse-height analysis and filtered soft X-ray intensity ratio. A careful analysis of the different sources of systematic errors is performed and a novel statistical approach is adopted to mutually validate the three independent measurements. A satisfactory agreement is obtained over a large range of experimental conditions, indicating that in the plasma core the energy distribution function is well represented by a maxwellian. (author)
Optimization of gas target production for Z-pinch implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semushin, S.; Etlicher, B.; Rouille, C.
1996-01-01
Optimization of shell parameters for further imploding in a Z-pinch has been done. The nozzle shape was selected with the help of two-dimensional gas dynamics computer simulation. The influence of the electrode configuration was taken into account during the optimization. Two types of nozzle are presented. The advanced design with three gaseous shells may use different gases. The other design is based on aluminium vapor jet. The designs were tested by interferometry. The resulting mass distributions are analyzed by a real experiment and by means of 2D MHD computer simulations. The new nozzles provide smaller zippering, higher radiation power and better reproducible results. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs
Conical pinched electron beam diode for intense ion beam source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsukawa, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Yoshiro
1982-01-01
For the purpose of improvement of the pinched electron beam diode, the production of an ion beam by a diode with electrodes in a conical shape was studied at low voltage operation (--200 kV). The ion beam is emitted from a small region of the diode apex. The mean ion beam current density near the axis at 12 cm from the diode apex is two or three times that from an usual flat parallel diode with the same dimension and impedance. The brightness and the power brightness at the otigin are 450 MA/cm 2 sr and 0.12 TW/cm 2 sr respectively. (author)
Ion current reduction in pinched electron beam diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintenz, J.P.; Poukey, J.W.
1977-01-01
A new version of a particle-in-cell diode code has been written which permits the accurate treatment of higher-current diodes with greater physical dimensions. Using this code, we have studied ways to reduce the ion current in large-aspect-ratio pinched electron beam diodes. In particular, we find that allowing the ions to reflex in such diodes lowers the ion to electron current ratio considerably. In a 3-MV R/d=24 case this ratio was lowered by a factor of 6--8 compared with the corresponding nonreflexing-ion diode, while still producing a superpinched electron beam
Spectroscopical studies of impurities in the belt pinch HECTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singethan, J.
1981-04-01
In this paper UV-line-intensity measurements of impurities are presented, which have been performed in the belt-pinch HECTOR. From the line-intensities impurity concentrations and information on the radiation losses is be obtained. At temperatures below 100 eV, the energy loss due to line emission of oxygen and carbon impurities is one of the most important electron energy loss mechanisms. Thus the measurement and calculation of the radiation losses is of particular relevance. Furthermore the electron temperature time dependence can be obtained by comparing the line intensity time dependence with the solution of the respective rate equations. (orig./HT) [de
Energy Conversion in Imploding Z-Pinch Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, V.I.; Gregorian, L.; Davara, G.; Kroupp, E.; Bernshtam, V.A.; Ralchenko, Yu. V.; Starobinets, A.; Maron, Y.
2002-01-01
Due to important applications, Z-pinches became a subject of extensive studies. In these studies, main attention is directed towards improvement in efficiency of electric energy conversion into high-power radiation burst. At present, knowledge available on physics of Z-pinch operation, plasma motion, atomic kinetics, and energy conversion is mainly knowledge of numerical simulation results. We believe further progress require (i) experimental determination of spatial distribution and time history of thermodynamic parameters and magnetic field, as well as (ii) utilization of this data for experiment-based calculation of r,t-distribution of driving forces, mass and energy fluxes, and local energy deposition rates due to each of contributing mechanisms, what provides an insight into a process of conversion of stored electric energy into radiation burst. Moreover, experimentally determined r, t-distribution of parameters may serve for verification of computer programs developed for simulation of Z-pinch operation and optimization of radiation output. Within this research program we performed detailed spectroscopic study of plasmas imploding in modest-size (25 kV, 5 kJ, 1.2 μs quaterperiod) gas-puff Z-pinch. This facility has reasonably high repetition rate and provides good reproducibility of results. Consistent with plasma ionization degree in the implosion period, measurements are performed in UV-visible spectral range. Observation of spectral lines emitted at various azimuthal angles f showed no dependence on f. Dependence on axial coordinate z is found to be weak in near-anode half of the anode-cathode gap. Based on these observations and restricting the measurements to near-anode half of the gap, an evolution of parameters is studied in time and radial coordinate r only. In present talk we report on determination of radial component of plasma hydrodynamic velocity u r (r,t), magnetic field B ζ (r,t), electron density n e (r,t), density of ions in various
Field reversed theta pinch TC-I UNICAMP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honda, R.Y.; Machida, M.; Aramaki, E.A.; Porto, P.; Berni, L.A.
1990-01-01
Field reversed configuration TC-I device is 16 cm diameter, 1 meter long with two mirror coils and 30 kJ field reversed theta pinch working for over two years at University of Campinas. Its implosion dynamics and field reversal parameters have been studied using flux excluded loops, internal magnetic probe, visible spectroscopy, photodiode array and image converter camera. The vacuum vessel is a pyrex tube of 14,5 cm diameter pumped with a liquid nitrogen cooled diffusion pump to a base pressure of 6 x 10 -7 Torr. The schematic view of the machine and experimental set up are shown. (Author)
Reactor advantages of the belt pinch and liquid metal walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotschenreuther, M.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J.; Rappaport, H.; Zheng Linjin; Dorland, B.; Miller, R.; Turnbull, A.
2001-01-01
MHD stability of highly elongated tokamaks (termed a belt pinch) are considered for high bootstrap fraction cases. By employing high triangularity or indentation, and invoking wall stabilization, and β can be increased by a factor of roughly 3 by increasing κ from 2 to 4. Axisymmetric stability up to κ=4 tolerable by employing a shell which conforms more closely to the boundary than in present experiments. Engineering difficulties with a close fitting shell in a reactor environment may be overcome by employing a liquid lithium alloy shell. Rapid metal flows can lead to potentially deleterious plasma shifts and damping of the flow. (author)
Energy confinement in a high-current reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, Z.G.; Lee, G.S.; Diamond, P.H.
1985-07-01
The ion temperature gradient driven (eta/sub i/) mode is proposed as a candidate for the cause of anomalous transport in high current reversed field pinches. A 'four-field' fluid model is derived to describe the coupled nonlinear evolution of resistive interchange and eta/sub i/ modes. A renormalized theory is discussed, and the saturation level of the fluctuations is analytically estimated. Transport scalings are obtained, and their implications discussed. In particular, these results indicate that pellet injection is a potentially viable mechanism for improving energy confinement in a high temperature RFP
Asymmetric flux generation and its relaxation in reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arimoto, H.; Masamune, S.; Nagata, A.
1985-02-01
The toroidally asymmetric flux enhancement [''dynamo effect''] and the axisymmetrization of the enhanced fluxes that follows in the setting up phase of Reversed Field Pinch are investigated on the STP-3[M] device. A rapid increase in the toroidal flux generated by the dynamo effect is first observed near the poloidal and toroidal current feeders. Then, this inhomogeneity of the flux propagates toroidally towards the plasma current. The axisymmetrization of the flux is attained just after the maximum of plasma current. The MHD activities decrease significantly after this axisymmetrization and the quiescent period is obtained. (author)
Behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuoka, A.; Sato, K.I.; Arimoto, H.; Yamada, S.; Nagata, A.; Murata, H.
1986-01-01
By using Langmuir probes installed behind limiters, time behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) are investigated. They are strongly affected by the confined RFP plasma and are divided into three phases (the initial phase before setting up the RFP configuration, the current rising phase, and the quiescent phase), which are just the same as those of the confined RFP plasma. Typical behaviour of the peripheral plasma have relations to the pump out phenomena and of the toroidal flux generation. (author)
Model of emittance growth in a self-pinched beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.
1979-01-01
A semi-phenomenological formula is proposed for the change of emittance of a self-pinched beam which is not matched to its equilibrium radius. Near equilibrium this formula, coupled with an envelope equation, yields the damped sausage oscillations observed in simulation and experiments. For a beam which is injected cold (no transverse velocity spread), the formula coincides with the analytically calculated initial growth of emittance. The basic theory is developed here and used to compute the linear damping rate for several current profiles. The resultant non-linear increase in equilibrium quantities is also calculated in lowest order of the degree of mismatch
CHANG, Y. K.; MARTINEZ-BUSTOS, F.; PARK, T. S.; KOKINI, J .L.
1999-01-01
The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...
Resistive Wall Mode Stability and Control in the Reversed Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadikin, Dmitriy
2006-03-01
Control of MHD instabilities using a conducting wall together with external magnetic fields is an important route to improved performance and reliability in fusion devices. Active control of MHD modes is of interest for both the Advanced Tokamak and the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) configurations. A wide range of unstable, current driven MHD modes is present in the RFP. An ideally conducting wall facing the plasma can in principle provide stabilization to these modes. However, a real, resistive wall characterized by a wall field diffusion time, cannot stabilize the ideal MHD modes unless they rotate with Alfvenic velocity, which is usually not the case. With a resistive wall, the ideal modes are converted into resistive wall modes (RWM) with growth rates comparable to the inverse wall time. Resistive wall modes have been studied in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell RFP device. Growth rates have been measured and found in agreement with linear MHD stability calculations. An advanced system for active control has been developed and installed on the EXTRAP T2R device. The system includes an array of 128 active saddle coils, fully covering the torus surface. Experiments on EXTRAP T2R have for the first time demonstrated simultaneous active suppression of multiple independent RWMs. In experiments with a partial array, coupling of different modes due to the limited number of feedback coils has been observed, in agreement with theory. Different feedback strategies, such as the intelligent shell, the rotating shell, and mode control have been studied. Further, feedback operation with different types of magnetic field sensors, measuring either the radial or the toroidal field components have been compared
Momentum transport during reconnection events in the MST reversed field pinch
Kuritsyn, Alexey
2008-11-01
During reconnection events in the MST reversed field pinch momentum parallel to the magnetic field is observed to be suddenly transported from the core to the edge. This occurs simultaneous with a surge in multiple resistive tearing instabilities. From measurements of the plasma flow and the forces arising from tearing instability (Maxwell and Reynolds stresses) we have established that tearing instabilities induce strong momentum transport. Comparison with nonlinear MHD computation of tearing fluctuations supports this conclusion, although it also indicates that effects beyond single-fluid MHD are likely to be important. The radial profile of the parallel velocity is reconstructed from a combination of diagnostics: Rutherford scattering of injected neutral atoms (for majority ions), charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (for minority ions), and Mach probes (for edge majority ion flow). Maxwell stress has been measured previously in the core by laser Faraday rotation, and both stresses are measured in the edge with probes. A surprising observation is that both the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are each ten times larger than needed to account for the observed momentum transport (i.e., larger than the inertial and viscous terms in the momentum balance equation). However, they are oppositely directed such that their difference is approximately equal to the rate of change of plasma momentum. The large magnitude of the individual stresses is not predicted by MHD theory; the Maxwell stress also produces a Hall dynamo effect, implying that a two-fluid theory might be necessary for a complete description of momentum transport. To test further the relation between momentum transport and tearing fluctuations, momentum transport was measured perturbatively, by altering plasma rotation with inserted biased electrodes. Biasing is applied in plasmas with large tearing activity and improved confinement plasmas in which tearing activity is reduced by inductive current profile
Heavy impurity confinement in hybrid operation scenario plasmas with a rotating 1/1 continuous mode
Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Nicolas, T.; Cooper, W. A.; Garbet, X.; Pfefferlé, D.
2017-12-01
In future tokamaks like ITER with tungsten walls, it is imperative to control tungsten accumulation in the core of operational plasmas, especially since tungsten accumulation can lead to radiative collapse and disruption. We investigate the behavior of tungsten trace impurities in a JET-like hybrid scenario with both axisymmetric and saturated 1/1 ideal helical core in the presence of strong plasma rotation. For this purpose, we obtain the equilibria from VMEC and use VENUS-LEVIS, a guiding-center orbit-following code, to follow heavy impurity particles. In this work, VENUS-LEVIS has been modified to account for strong plasma flows with associated neoclassical effects arising from such flows. We find that the combination of helical core and plasma rotation augments the standard neoclassical inward pinch compared to axisymmetry, and leads to a strong inward pinch of impurities towards the magnetic axis despite the strong outward diffusion provided by the centrifugal force, as frequently observed in experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bliss, David Emery; Vesey, Roger Alan; Rambo, Patrick K.; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Hanson, David L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Afeyan, Bedros B.; Smith, Ian Craig; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Bennett, Guy R.; Campbell, Robert B.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan
2005-01-01
Over the last several years, rapid progress has been made evaluating the double-z-pinch indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) high-yield target concept (Hammer et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2129). We have demonstrated efficient coupling of radiation from two wire-array-driven primary hohlraums to a secondary hohlraum that is large enough to drive a high yield ICF capsule. The secondary hohlraum is irradiated from two sides by z-pinches to produce low odd-mode radiation asymmetry. This double-pinch source is driven from a single electrical power feed (Cuneo et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 215004) on the 20 MA Z accelerator. The double z-pinch has imploded ICF capsules with even-mode radiation symmetry of 3.1 ± 1.4% and to high capsule radial convergence ratios of 14-21 (Bennett et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 245002; Bennett et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 3717; Vesey et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 1854). Advances in wire-array physics at 20 MA are improving our understanding of z-pinch power scaling with increasing drive current. Techniques for shaping the z-pinch radiation pulse necessary for low adiabat capsule compression have also been demonstrated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, J; Hort, N; Kainer, K U; Gröbner, J; Schmid-Fetzer, R
2014-01-01
Viscosity is an important rheological property of metals in casting because it controls the rate of transport of liquid metals, which may lead to casting defects such as hot tearing and porosity. The measurement methods and numerical models of the viscosity of liquid and semi-solid state metals that have been published to date are reviewed in this paper. Most experimental measurements have been performed with rotational and oscillatory viscometers, which offer advantages at low viscosities in particular. Besides these two traditional methods for measuring viscosities, a couple of studies also introduced the technique of isothermal compression for alloys in the semi-solid state, and even an optical basicity method for the viscosity of slags. As to numerical models, most published results show that the viscosity of liquid and semi-solid state metals can be described by the Arrhenius, Andrade, Kaptay or Budai–Bemkő–Kaptay equations. In addition, there are some alternative models, such as the power model and the isothermal stress–strain model. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Dong; Li, Zhixin; Liu, Feng
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The viscosities of the carbonated AMP-PZ aqueous solutions were measured. • The experiments were modeled satisfactorily by using the Weiland equation. • The influence of the mass fractions of amines on the viscosity was illustrated. • The temperature and CO 2 loading dependences of the viscosity were demonstrated. -- Abstract: The viscosities (η) of carbonated 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)-piperazine (PZ) aqueous solutions were measured by using a NDJ-1 rotational viscometer, with temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 323.15 K. The total mass fraction of amines ranged from 0.3 to 0.4. The mass fraction of PZ ranged from 0.05 to 0.10. The Weiland equation was used to correlate the viscosities of both CO 2 -unloaded and CO 2 -loaded aqueous solutions and the calculated results agreed well with the experiments. The effects of temperature, mass fractions of amines and CO 2 loading (α) on the viscosities of carbonated aqueous solutions were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasqualini, D.; Martin, P.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.; Spizzo, G.
2006-01-01
The MHD instabilities that sustain the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration tend to phase-lock together and also to wall-lock, forming a bulging of the plasma column, called 'locked mode'. This phenomenon is of particular interest, since the locked mode causes a larger plasma resistivity, plasma cooling, and, in some cases, anomalous discharge termination. Up to now, studies of the locked mode have been focused on m=1 modes (being m the poloidal mode number). In this Letter we show that m=0 modes also play a role, based on the cross-check between magnetic spectra and toroidally resolved D α array measurements. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.
1986-01-01
Employing nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics methods the effects of two energy loss mechanisms on viscosity, stress, and granular-temperature in assemblies of nearly rigid, inelastic frictional disks undergoing steady-state shearing are calculated. Energy introduced into the system through forced shearing is dissipated by inelastic normal forces or through frictional sliding during collisions resulting in a natural steady-state kinetic energy density (granular-temperature) that depends on the density and shear rate of the assembly and on the friction and inelasticity properties of the disks. The calculations show that both the mean deviatoric particle velocity and the effective viscosity of a system of particles with fixed friction and restitution coefficients increase almost linearly with strain rate. Particles with a velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution show a less rapid increase in both deviatoric velocity and viscosity as strain rate increases. Particles with highly dissipative interactions result in anisotropic pressure and velocity distributions in the assembly, particularly at low densities. At very high densities the pressure also becomes anisotropic due to high contact forces perpendicular to the shearing direction. The mean rotational velocity of the frictional disks is nearly equal to one-half the shear rate. The calculated ratio of shear stress to normal stress varies significantly with density while the ratio of shear stress to total pressure shows much less variation. The inclusion of surface friction (and thus particle rotation) decreases shear stress at low density but increases shear stress under steady shearing at higher densities
Effect of Polyvinyl Siloxane Viscosity on Accuracy of Dental Implant Impressions.
Ghahremanloo, Ahmad; Seifi, Mahdieh; Ghanbarzade, Jalil; Abrisham, Seyyed Mohammad; Javan, Rashid Abdolah
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of dental implant impressions obtained by a combination of different impression techniques and viscosities of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS). Four parallel fixtures were placed between mental foramina in a master model of lower dental arch. Three different viscosities (putty/light body, medium body/light body, and monophase: heavy body) and direct and indirect techniques (six groups) were used, and seven impressions were obtained from each group (n=42). To measure the accuracy of impressions, drift, horizontal, and vertical angles of the implants, as well as the hex rotation of the implants in casts were evaluated using a digitizer device (1μm accuracy), in comparison with master arch. Data were analyzed using five-factor two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. The accuracy of impressions was assessed and the results showed that direct technique was not significantly different from indirect technique (P>0.05). Also, there were no significant differences between the mentioned viscosities except for the horizontal angle (P=0.006). Viscosity of impression materials is of high significance for the accuracy of dental impressions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaltkaya, S.
2005-01-01
Viscosity is one of the most important parameter in rheological and tribological properties of fluids. The objective of this study is to obtain the viscosity values from the simultaneous refractive-index measurements of lubricants, simply by dipping the fiber-optic probe into the oil to be measured. Due to the fact that these parameters are temperature dependent, within the interval under consideration, oil heated up steadily while measuring the viscosity and refractive index at the same time. The refractive index sensor, the digital viscometer and the thermometer were connected to a PC via an analog to digital converter and the values were acquired at the same time. The fiber optic refractive index sensor has been designed in our laboratory. By utilising Fresnel's fundamental reflection law, the intensity of reflected light from boundary surface (optic fiber core-motor oil) was measured at 660 nm wavelength and then refractive index of the oil was calculated. The derived refractive index values were converted viscosity values that acquired by using the calibration equation. The viscometer, used during the study, was the rotational Brookfield type
Effect of Water Glass Modification on Its Viscosity and Wettability of Quartz Grains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kmita
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a modifier for water glass. The method of thermal generation of metal oxide nanoparticleswas adapted and used in the research. Nanoparticles of ZnO from the thermal decomposition of basic zinc carbonate were used. A methodfor the modifier introduction was developed, and the effect of modifier content and organic solvent type on the physico-chemicalproperties of binder (viscosity and quartz wettability was determined. Binder viscosity was examined from the flow curves plotted with the help of a RHEOTEST 2 rotational rheometer equipped with proper software. Quartz wettability was determined examining timerelated changes in the value of the contact angle in a quartz-binder system, until full stabilisation of the angle value has been achieved.Binder modification was carried out on sodium water glass designated as R"145". The water glass modifiers were suspensions of ZnOnanoparticles in propanol and methanol at a fixed concentration of c = 0.3 M and with the size of nanoparticles comprised in a range of. Water glass modification with the suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in methanol and propanol showed the effect ofmodifier on the water glass viscosity and quartz wettability. This effect depends on the type of alcohol used. The ZnO suspension inpropanol (alcohol with a longer hydrocarbon chain affects more strongly the viscosity of binder and quartz wettability than the methanol suspension.
Effect of Water Glass Modification on Its Viscosity and Wettability of Quartz Grains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kmita A.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a modifier for water glass. The method of thermal generation of metal oxide nanoparticles was adapted and used in the research. Nanoparticles of ZnO from the thermal decomposition of basic zinc carbonate were used. A method for the modifier introduction was developed, and the effect of modifier content and organic solvent type on the physico-chemical properties of binder (viscosity and quartz wettability was determined. Binder viscosity was examined from the flow curves plotted with the help of a RHEOTEST 2 rotational rheometer equipped with proper software. Quartz wettability was determined examining timerelated changes in the value of the contact angle in a quartz-binder system, until full stabilisation of the angle value has been achieved. Binder modification was carried out on sodium water glass designated as R"145". The water glass modifiers were suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol and methanol at a fixed concentration of c = 0.3 M and with the size of nanoparticles comprised in a range of . Water glass modification with the suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in methanol and propanol showed the effect of modifier on the water glass viscosity and quartz wettability. This effect depends on the type of alcohol used. The ZnO suspension in propanol (alcohol with a longer hydrocarbon chain affects more strongly the viscosity of binder and quartz wettability than the methanol suspension
Evaluation of Relative Blood Viscosity During Menstruation in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
ABSTRACT. The changes in blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate before ... higher (6.78±0.18mm/hr) during the menstrual phase than during the premenstrual phase ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.
Viscose kink and drift-kink modes in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhajlovskij, A.B.
1988-01-01
Intristic kink modes in a tokamak are theoretically investigated taking account of longitudinal viscosity of ions and electrons and drift effect. It is marked that dispersion equation of investigated modes coinsides in form with that for ballooning modes. It is shown that five types of intrinsic kink instability may be distinguished in disregard of viscosity and drift effects. Effect of stabilizing quasiideal viscose kink and viscose resistive kink modes by finite Larmuir ion radius is investigated. A branch of viscose reclosure mode which instability is due to electron viscosity is pointed out. A series of other viscose and drift-kink tokamak modes is considered. Both general disperse equations of the above-mentioned kink instability varieties, taking account of viscose and drift ones, and disperse equations of separate branches are presented
Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br
2010-07-01
Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)
A reactor study on a belt-shaped screw pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bustraan, M.; Franken, W.M.P.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.
1979-10-01
A previous study on a screw-pinch reactor with circular cross section (ECN-16 (1977) or Rijnhuizen report 77-101) has been extended to a belt configuration which allows to raise β to 0.5. The present study starts from the main assumptions and principal constraints of the previous work, but some technical aspects are treated more realistically. More attention has been paid to the modular construction, the non-uniform distribution of the wall loading, the thermo-hydraulics, the design of and the losses in the coil systems, and the energy storage and electric transmission systems. A potential use of the first wall of the blanket as part of the implosion coil system is suggested. Finally, a conceptual design of a reactor, with a cost estimate is given. Numerical results are given of parameter variations around the values for the reference reactor. The belt screw-pinch reactor with resistive coils turns out to be uneconomical because of its low net efficiency and its high capital costs. The application of superconducting coils to reduce the ohmic losses turns out to be a non-viable alternative. A more promising way to improve the energy balance seems to be the alternative scheme of fuel injection during the burn
Study of gas-puff Z-pinches on COBRA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, N.; Rosenberg, E. W.; Gourdain, P. A.; Grouchy, P. W. L. de; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.; Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Potter, W. M.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A. D.; Evans, M.; Greenly, J. B.; Hoyt, C. L.; Pikuz, S. A.; Schrafel, P. C. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kroupp, E.; Fisher, A.; Maron, Y. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2014-11-15
Gas-puff Z-pinch experiments were conducted on the 1 MA, 200 ns pulse duration Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) pulsed power generator in order to achieve an understanding of the dynamics and instability development in the imploding and stagnating plasma. The triple-nozzle gas-puff valve, pre-ionizer, and load hardware are described. Specific diagnostics for the gas-puff experiments, including a Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence system for measuring the radial neutral density profiles along with a Laser Shearing Interferometer and Laser Wavefront Analyzer for electron density measurements, are also described. The results of a series of experiments using two annular argon (Ar) and/or neon (Ne) gas shells (puff-on-puff) with or without an on- (or near-) axis wire are presented. For all of these experiments, plenum pressures were adjusted to hold the radial mass density profile as similar as possible. Initial implosion stability studies were performed using various combinations of the heavier (Ar) and lighter (Ne) gasses. Implosions with Ne in the outer shell and Ar in the inner were more stable than the opposite arrangement. Current waveforms can be adjusted on COBRA and it was found that the particular shape of the 200 ns current pulse affected on the duration and diameter of the stagnated pinched column and the x-ray yield.
Necking down of sausages in current-carrying plasma pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trubnikov, B.A.; Zhdanov, S.K.
1986-01-01
The evolution of long-wave perturbations is shown to be equivalent, for various unstable media, to the dynamics of a gas with a negative adiabatic index γ. This evolution is described (for various values at N) by the quasi-Chaplygin system of equations Several examples of such media are considered, including a ''Chaplygin gas'' (N = 3), drops on a ceiling or ''solitons which have broken'' (N = 0), necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch with a skin effect, for both incompressible and compressible models (N = 2), and the breakup of liquid jets into drops (N = 3/2). A principle for selecting evolutionary solutions corresponding to the absence of perturbations in the limit t → -∞ is formulated. In the cases N = 0 and N = 2, a hodograph transformation reduces system (1) to a magnetostatic equation (ΔA)/sub phi/ = -(4π/c)j/sub phi/ and all the instability modes are equivalent to multipoles of circular currents which are localized on a circle. Exact solutions are given for periodic and isolated (localized) perturbations. The breakup of a medium into distinct blobs, in particular, the rupture of necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch, is demonstrated
Anode plasma dynamics in the self-magnetic-pinch diode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nichelle Bruner
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The self-magnetic-pinch diode is being developed as an intense electron beam source for pulsed-power-driven x-ray radiography. In high-power operation, the beam electrons desorb contaminants from the anode surface from which positive ions are drawn to the cathode. The counterstreaming electrons and ions establish an equilibrium current. It has long been recognized, however, that expanding electrode plasmas can disrupt this equilibrium and cause rapid reduction of the diode impedance and the radiation pulse. Recently developed numerical techniques, which enable simultaneous modeling of particle currents with 10^{13} cm^{-3} densities to plasmas of near solid density, are applied to a model of the self-magnetic-pinch diode which includes the formation and evolution of anode surface plasmas. Two mechanisms are shown to cause rapid impedance loss, anode plasma expansion into the anode-cathode (A-K gap, and increased ion space-charge near the cathode surface. The former mechanism dominates for shorter A-K gaps, while the latter dominates for longer gaps. Model results qualitatively reproduce the time-dependent impedances measured for this diode.
Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callahan, Debbie; Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Nikroo, A.; Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward
2004-01-01
Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence (1). Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR
Confinement in TPE-RX reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Y.; Bolzonella, T.; Canton, A.
2001-01-01
Characteristics of the confinement properties of a reversed field pinch (RFP), the TPE-RX (R/a=1.72/0.45 m, R and a are major and minor radii), are presented for the plasma current, I p of 0.2-0.4 MA. TPE-RX has been operational since 1998, and I p =0.5 MA and duration time of up to 0.1 s have been obtained separately. It is found that I p /N (=12x10 -14 Am, N is the line density) is higher than those of other RFPs and poloidal beta, β p , and energy confinement time, τ E , are 5-10% and 0.5-1 ms, respectively, which are comparable with those of other RFPs of comparable sizes (RFX and MST). Pulsed poloidal current drive has recently been tested and the result has shown a twofold improvement of β p and τ E . The improvement is discussed in terms of the dynamic trajectories in the F-Θ plane, where F and Θ are reversal and pinch parameters, respectively. The global confinement properties are compared between the locked and non-locked discharges, which yields a better understanding of the mode-locking phenomena in RFP plasmas. (author)
Caldera resurgence driven by magma viscosity contrasts.
Galetto, Federico; Acocella, Valerio; Caricchi, Luca
2017-11-24
Calderas are impressive volcanic depressions commonly produced by major eruptions. Equally impressive is the uplift of the caldera floor that may follow, dubbed caldera resurgence, resulting from magma accumulation and accompanied by minor eruptions. Why magma accumulates, driving resurgence instead of feeding large eruptions, is one of the least understood processes in volcanology. Here we use thermal and experimental models to define the conditions promoting resurgence. Thermal modelling suggests that a magma reservoir develops a growing transition zone with relatively low viscosity contrast with respect to any newly injected magma. Experiments show that this viscosity contrast provides a rheological barrier, impeding the propagation through dikes of the new injected magma, which stagnates and promotes resurgence. In explaining resurgence and its related features, we provide the theoretical background to account for the transition from magma eruption to accumulation, which is essential not only to develop resurgence, but also large magma reservoirs.
Shear viscosity, cavitation and hydrodynamics at LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Sreekanth, V.
2011-01-01
We study evolution of quark-gluon matter in the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within the frame work of relativistic second-order viscous hydrodynamics. In particular, by using the various prescriptions of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity to the entropy ratio, we show that the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic fluid becomes invalid due to the phenomenon of cavitation. For most of the initial conditions relevant for LHC, the cavitation sets in very early stage. The cavitation in this case is entirely driven by the large values of shear viscosity. Moreover we also demonstrate that the conformal terms used in equations of the relativistic dissipative hydrodynamic can influence the cavitation time.
Pendulum Underwater - An Approach for Quantifying Viscosity
Leme, José Costa; Oliveira, Agostinho
2017-12-01
The purpose of the experiment presented in this paper is to quantify the viscosity of a liquid. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, in the bloodstream, in the lubrication of engine parts, and in many other situations. In the present paper, the authors explore the oscillations of a physical pendulum in the form of a long and lightweight wire that carries a ball at its lower end, which is totally immersed in water, so as to determine the water viscosity. The system used represents a viscous damped pendulum and we tried different theoretical models to describe it. The experimental part of the present paper is based on a very simple and low-cost image capturing apparatus that can easily be replicated in a physics classroom. Data on the pendulum's amplitude as a function of time were acquired using digital video analysis with the open source software Tracker.
Viscosity, ion mobility, and the lambda transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodstein, D.L.
1977-01-01
A model is presented of the lambda transition in superfluid helium in which fluctuations near the transition are approximated by distinct regions of normal fluid and superfluid. The macroscopic viscosity of such a medium is computed. The ion mobility is also computed, taking into account a region of normal fluid around the ion induced by electrostriction. The results are, for the viscosity, eta/sub lambda/ - eta approx. t/sup 0.67/ and for the mobility μ - μ/sub lambda/ approx. t/sup 0.92/, both in excellent agreement with recent experiments. The model suggests that the lambda transition itself is the point at which superfluid regions become macroscopically connected
An empirical model for the melt viscosity of polymer blends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrescu, V.
1981-01-01
On the basis of experimental data for blends of polyethylene with different polymers an empirical equation is proposed to describe the dependence of melt viscosity of blends on component viscosities and composition. The model ensures the continuity of viscosity vs. composition curves throughout the whole composition range, the possibility of obtaining extremum values higher or lower than the viscosities of components, allows the calculation of flow curves of blends from the flow curves of components and their volume fractions. (orig.)
Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2003-01-01
Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...
Measurement of viscosity of slush at high shear rates
小林, 俊一; 川村, 公之; 津川, 圭一; 和泉, 薫; Kobayashi, Shun'ichi; Kawamura, Kimiyuki; Tugawa, Keiichi; Izumi, Kaoru
1988-01-01
Measurements of viscosity of slush were carried out using a method of flow along an inclined smooth surface in a 0℃cold room. The method was used to get the values of viscosity under high shear rates (25 and 75s^). From our experiments two important results were obtained: 1) the viscosity of slush decreases with increasing shear rates; 2) The fluid behavior is pseudoplastic that the values of non-Newtonian index of viscosity were less than unity.
Alternative derivation of the parallel ion viscosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravenec, R.V.; Berk, H.L.; Hammer, J.H.
1982-01-01
A set of double-adiabatic fluid equations with additional collisional relaxation between the ion temperatures parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field are shown to reduce to a set involving a single temperature and a parallel viscosity. This result is applied to a recently published paper [R. V. Bravenec, A. J. Lichtenberg, M. A. Leiberman, and H. L. Berk, Phys. Fluids 24, 1320 (1981)] on viscous flow in a multiple-mirror configuration
Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays
Jurgelāne, I; Vecstaudža, J; Stepanova, V; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L
2012-01-01
Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...
A bulk viscosity driven inflationary model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waga, I.; Falcao, R.C.; Chanda, R.
1985-01-01
Bulk viscosity associated with the production of heavy particles during the GUT phase transition can lead to exponential or 'generalized' inflation. The condition of inflation proposed is independent of the details of the phase transition and remains unaltered in presence of a cosmological constant. Such mechanism avoids the extreme supercooling and reheating needed in the usual inflationary models. The standard baryongenesis mechanism can be maintained. (Author) [pt
Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states
Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.
2014-03-01
Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.
Viscosity characteristics of selected volcanic rock melts
Hobiger, Manuel; Sonder, Ingo; Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd
2011-02-01
A basic experimental study of the behavior of magma rheology was carried out on remelted volcanic rocks using wide gap viscometry. The complex composition of magmatic melts leads to complicated rheologic behavior which cannot be described with one simple model. Therefore, measurement procedures which are able to quantify non-Newtonian behavior have to be employed. Furthermore, the experimental apparatus must be able to deal with inhomogeneities of magmatic melts. We measured the viscosity of a set of materials representing a broad range of volcanic processes. For the lower viscous melts (low-silica compositions), non-Newtonian behavior is observed, whereas the high-silica melts show Newtonian behavior in the measured temperature and shear rate range (T = 1423 K - 1623 K, γ˙ = 10 - 2 s - 1 - 20 s - 1 ). The non-Newtonian materials show power-law behavior. The measured viscosities η and power-law indexes m lie in the intervals 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 210 3 Pa s, 0.71 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Grímsvötn basalt), 0.9 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 350 Pa s, 0.61 ≤ m ≤ 0.93 (Hohenstoffeln olivine-melilitite), and 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 1.510 4 Pa s, 0.55 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Sommata basalt). Measured viscosities of the Newtonian high-silica melts lie in the range 10 4 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 310 5 Pa s.
Turbulent viscosity optimized by data assimilation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Leredde
Full Text Available As an alternative approach to classical turbulence modelling using a first or second order closure, the data assimilation method of optimal control is applied to estimate a time and space-dependent turbulent viscosity in a three-dimensional oceanic circulation model. The optimal control method, described for a 3-D primitive equation model, involves the minimization of a cost function that quantifies the discrepancies between the simulations and the observations. An iterative algorithm is obtained via the adjoint model resolution. In a first experiment, a k + L model is used to simulate the one-dimensional development of inertial oscillations resulting from a wind stress at the sea surface and with the presence of a halocline. These results are used as synthetic observations to be assimilated. The turbulent viscosity is then recovered without the k + L closure, even with sparse and noisy observations. The problems of controllability and of the dimensions of the control are then discussed. A second experiment consists of a two-dimensional schematic simulation. A 2-D turbulent viscosity field is estimated from data on the initial and final states of a coastal upwelling event.
Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modelling · Oceanography: physical (turbulence · diffusion · and mixing processes
RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa
2014-06-01
The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.
Plasma rotation under a driven radial current in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.
1999-01-01
The neoclassical behaviour of plasma rotation under a driven radial electrical current is studied in a tokamak geometry. An ambipolar radial electric field develops instantly in such a way that the driven current is balanced by a return current j p in the plasma. The j p x B torque pushes the plasma into a new rotation state both toroidally and poloidally. An anomalous toroidal viscosity is needed to avoid an extreme toroidal rotation speed. It is shown that the poloidal rotation relaxes to a new equilibrium speed, which is in general smaller than the E x B poloidal speed, and that the timescale for the relaxation of poloidal rotation is the same as that of toroidal rotation generation, which is usually much longer than the ion-ion collision time. (author)
Development of a Z-pinch-driven ICF hohlraum concept on Z
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuneo, M.E.; Porter, J.L. Jr.; Vesey, R.A.
1999-01-01
Recent development of high power z-pinches (> 150 MW) on the Z driver has permitted the study of high-temperature, radiation-driven hohlraums. Three complementary, Z-pinch source-hohlraum-ICF capsule configurations are being developed to harness the x-ray output of these Z-pinch's. These are the dynamic-hohlraum, static-wall hohlraum, and Z-pinch-driven hohlraum concepts. Each has different potential strengths and concerns. In this paper, the authors report on the first experiments with the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum (ZPDH) concept. A high-yield ICF capsule design for this concept appears feasible, when driven by z-pinches from a 60 MA-class driver. Initial experiments characterize the behavior of the spoke array on Z-pinch performance and x-ray transmission, and the uniformity of radiation flux incident on a foam capsule in the secondary, for a single-sided drive. Measurements of x-ray wall re-emission power and spectrum, radiation temperatures, spoke-plasma location, and drive uniformity will be presented and compared with 0-D energetics, 2-D Lasnex rad-hydro, and 3-D radiosity calculations of energy transport and drive uniformity
Development of a Z-pinch-driven ICF hohlraum concept on Z
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuneo, M E; Porter, Jr, J L; Vesey, R A [and others
1999-07-01
Recent development of high power z-pinches (> 150 MW) on the Z driver has permitted the study of high-temperature, radiation-driven hohlraums. Three complementary, Z-pinch source-hohlraum-ICF capsule configurations are being developed to harness the x-ray output of these Z-pinch's. These are the dynamic-hohlraum, static-wall hohlraum, and Z-pinch-driven hohlraum concepts. Each has different potential strengths and concerns. In this paper, the authors report on the first experiments with the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum (ZPDH) concept. A high-yield ICF capsule design for this concept appears feasible, when driven by z-pinches from a 60 MA-class driver. Initial experiments characterize the behavior of the spoke array on Z-pinch performance and x-ray transmission, and the uniformity of radiation flux incident on a foam capsule in the secondary, for a single-sided drive. Measurements of x-ray wall re-emission power and spectrum, radiation temperatures, spoke-plasma location, and drive uniformity will be presented and compared with 0-D energetics, 2-D Lasnex rad-hydro, and 3-D radiosity calculations of energy transport and drive uniformity.
A Reactor Development Scenario for the FUZE Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch
McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.
2016-10-01
We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and a development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device have demonstrated stable operation for 40 us at 150 kA total discharge current (with 100 kA in the pinch) for pinches that are 1cm in diameter and 100 cm long. Scaling calculations show that achieving stabilization for a pulse of 100 usec, for discharge current 1.5 MA, in a shortened pinch 50 cm, results in a pinch diameter of 200 um and a reactor plant Q 5 for reasonable assumptions of the various system efficiencies. We propose several key intermediate performance levels in order to justify further development. These include achieving operation at pinch currents of 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1 keV, 700 kA where fusion power exceeds pinch input power, and 1 MA where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPAe ALPHA Program and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697801.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Lee, Chew Tin; Sam, Kah Chiin; Tan, Sie Ting
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A novel method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) is presented. • WAMPA aims to identify waste management strategies based on specific target. • WAMPA is capable to examine the capacity of waste management strategies through graphical representation. - Abstract: Improper waste management happened in most of the developing country where inadequate disposal of waste in landfill is commonly practiced. Apart from disposal, MSW can turn into valuable product through recycling, energy recovery, and biological recovery action as suggested in the hierarchy of waste management. This study presents a method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) to examine the implication of a dual-objective – landfill and GHG emission reduction target in sustainable waste management. WAMPA is capable to identify the capacity of each waste processing strategy through graphical representation. A general methodology of WAMPA is presented through a demonstration of a SWM case followed by a detailed representation of WAMPA for five waste types. Application of the WAMPA is then applied on a case study for sustainable waste management planning from year 2015 to 2035. Three waste management strategies are incorporated into the case study – landfill, Waste-to-Energy (WtE), and reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R). The results show a 13.5% of total GHG emission reduction and 54.6% of total reduction of landfill are achieved. The major contributor of GHG emission which are from food waste (landfill emission) and plastic (WtE emission) is reduced.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Z.R.; Guo, S.C.
2011-01-01
The cylindrical MHD model integrated with a feedback system is applied to the study of resistive wall mode (RWM) in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The model takes into account the compressibility, longitudinal flow, viscosity and resistive wall with a finite thickness. The study, via both analytical and numerical analyses, provides a physical understanding on the following subjects: firstly, on the nature of the instability spectrum of the RWM observed in RFP plasmas; specifically, the growth rates of the two groups of the RWMs (internally non-resonant and externally non-resonant) have opposite dependence on the variation of the field reversal. Secondly, on the response of the unstable plasmas to the feedback control in RFPs, the mode behaviour in plasmas under the feedback is clarified and discussed in detail. Finally, the linear solutions of time evolution of RWM instability in various feedback scenarios are given. The effects of the wall proximity, the sensor location and the system response time are discussed, respectively.
Cui, S. T.
The stress-stress correlation function and the viscosity of a united-atom model of liquid decane are studied by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation using two different formalisms for the stress tensor: the atomic and the molecular formalisms. The atomic and molecular correlation functions show dramatic difference in short-time behaviour. The integrals of the two correlation functions, however, become identical after a short transient period whichis significantly shorter than the rotational relaxation time of the molecule. Both reach the same plateau value in a time period corresponding to this relaxation time. These results provide a convenient guide for the choice of the upper integral time limit in calculating the viscosity by the Green-Kubo formula.
Viscosity of magnetic fluids must be modified in calculations of dynamic susceptibility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.ru
2017-06-01
The frequency dependences of dynamic susceptibility were measured for a series of magnetic fluid samples with the same dispersed composition at different temperatures. Coincidence of normalized dynamic susceptibility curves plotted for different concentrations was obtained only after introducing correction for the value of dynamic viscosity of the magnetic fluid. The value of the correction coefficient doesn’t depend on temperature and is the universal function of the hydrodynamic concentration of particles. - Highlights: • Dynamic susceptibility was measured at different temperatures and concentrations. • Coincidence of curves requires a correction of value of viscosity in calculations. • This correction is function of the hydrodynamic concentration of particles. • With this function the rotation of particles are described correctly.
Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.
2017-09-01
The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.
ANALYSIS OF POWER GRIP AND PINCH GRIP AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zakariya M P
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Grip and pinch strength are commonly employed indices of strength used in hand evaluations. Pinch grip and power grip strengths are used as indices of strength in hand therapy assessments. For all professions grip strength is an important criterion to be successful in their profession. Such phenomena may be explained by differences in nature of work, working environment, and objects workers handle. Method: 200 healthy subjects, satisfying the selection criteria were included and assessed with standardized procedure for power grip and pinch grip (lateral pinch, pad-pad, and tip-tip strength. They were divided in four groups, 50 group each according to profession i.e. medical surgeons, dentist, physiotherapists and nurses. Results: The mean power grip strength shows highly significant difference between medical vs. dental (p>0.01 and medical vs. physiotherapy group (p> 0.05 .The mean lateral pinch strength shows there is highly significant difference (p< 0.001 between dental vs. nursing profession and dental vs. physiotherapy group. No significant difference among other groups. The mean pad-pad pinch strength shows there is significant difference between dental vs. nursing (p< 0.05 and dental vs physiotherapy group (p< 0.05. The mean Tip-Tip pinch strength shows there is significant difference between dental vs nursing profession(p< 0.05 and dental vs. physiotherapy(p< 0.05. No significant different among other groups. Conclusion: Surgeons have highest power grip strength followed by Nursing, Physiotherapy and Dental professionals. Dentists have the maximum pinch strength in all three positions, followed by Surgeons, Nurses and Physiotherapists. Surgeons have maximum pinch strength next to Dentists.
The role of viscosity in TATB hot spot ignition
Fried, Laurence E.; Zepeda-Ruis, Luis; Howard, W. Michael; Najjar, Fady; Reaugh, John E.
2012-03-01
The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse is closest to the viscous limit.
The belt-screw-pinch reactor and other high-beta systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bustraan, M.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.
1981-01-01
In a screw-pinch reactor the expenditure for plasma implosion and compression can be reduced and the reacting volume and burn time can be enlarged. This is possible by pinch ignition of only a few percent of the fuel. Fusion energy then ignites injected fuel pellets and expands the plasma. The magnitude of the pulsed magnetic fields is such as to make the application of superconducting coils feasible. An economical reactor model is described. A comparison is made with tokamak and reversed field pinch reactor designs. (author)
The belt pinch - a high-β tokamak with non-circular cross-section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruber, O.; Peiry, J.M.; Wilhelm, R.
1975-10-01
The stability behaviour of non-circular plasma cross-sections is discussed on the basis of present known theory. Then the technical arrangement and the preionization of the Belt Pinch is described. The following section deals with the establishment of the non-circular equilibrium and summarizes the essential plasma paramters and the used diagnostic methods. The stability properties of the Belt Pinch, lead to a critical q-value. Finnaly, supporting experiments for the future Belt Pinch programm are presented. (orig./GG) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, H.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.
1994-01-01
Radial particle transport has been experimentally studied in the low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron device CHS. A non-diffusive outward particle flow (inverse pinch) is observed in the magnetic configuration with the magnetic axis shifted outward, while an inward pinch, like in tokamaks, is observed with the magnetic axis shifted inward. This change in the direction of anomalous particle flow is not due to the reversal of temperature gradient nor the radial electric field. The observation suggests that the particle pinch velocity is sensitive to the magnetic field structure. (author)
Electron-Cloud Pinch Dynamics in Presence of Lattice Magnet Fields
Franchetti, G
2011-01-01
The pinch of the electron cloud due to a passing proton bunch was extensively studied in a field free region and in a dipolar magnetic field. For the latter study, a strong field approximation helped to formulate the equations of motion and to understand the complex electron pinch dynamics, which exhibited some similarities with the field-free situation. Here we extend the analysis to the case of electron pinch in quadrupoles and in sextupoles. We discuss the limits of validity for the strong field approximation and we evaluate the relative magnitude of the peak tune shift along the bunch expected for the different fields.
Investigation of layered Z-pinches on ANGARA-5-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Branitskij, A V; Grabovskij, E V; Zakharov, S V; Zurin, M V; Nedoseev, S L; Olejnik, G M; Smirnov, V P; Frolov, I N [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)
1997-12-31
Experimental results of layered Z-pinch investigations on Angara-5-1 are presented. The level of current was 3-4 MA through a load with a 70-90 ns rise time. The initial-to-final radius ratio increased from 10-15 for a conventional single pinch, up to 30-50 for the double layered design. A power flux of about 8-12 TW/cm{sup 2} was achieved with front rise time about 3 ns. The final pinch diameter was down to 0.5-1 mm. (author). 4 figs., 1 ref.
Experimental study of CF4 conical theta pinch plasma expanding into vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrow, P.D.; Nasiruddin, A.M.
1989-01-01
Langmuir probe, photodiode, and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) measurements have been made on a pulsed CF 4 conical theta pinch plasma. A cloud of CF 4 gas was puffed into a conical theta pinch coil, converted to plasma, and propelled into the vacuum region ahead of the expanding gas cloud. At a position 67 cm away from the conical theta pinch coil, the plasma arrived in separate packets that were about 20 μs in duration. The average drift velocity of these packets corresponded to an energy of about 3 eV. The OMA measurements showed that the second packet contained neutral atomic fluorine as well as charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Othman Inayatullah; Nordin Jamaludin; Fauziah Mat
2009-04-01
Acoustic emission technique has been developed through years of monitoring and diagnosis of bearing, but it is still new in the diagnosis and monitoring of lubrication oil to bearings drive. The propagation of acoustic emission signal is generated when the signal piston on the cylinder liner lubricating oil which is a par. The signal is analyzed in time domain to obtain the parameters of root mean squared, amplitude, energy and courtesy. Lubricant viscosity will undergo changes due to temperature, pressure and useful. This study focuses on the appropriate parameters for the diagnosis and monitoring of lubricating oil viscosity. Studies were conducted at a constant rotational speed and temperature, but use a different age. The results showed that the energy parameter is the best parameter used in this monitoring. However, this parameter cannot be used directly and it should be analyzed using mathematical formulas. This mathematical formula is a relationship between acoustic emission energy with the viscosity of lubricating oil. (author)
Performance improvement of centrifugal compressor stage with pinched geometry or vaned diffuser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaatinen, A.
2009-07-01
Centrifugal compressors are widely used for example in refrigeration processes, the oil and gas industry, superchargers, and waste water treatment. In this work, five different vaneless diffusers and six different vaned diffusers are investigated numerically. The vaneless diffusers vary only by their diffuser width, so that four of the geometries have pinch implemented to them. Pinch means a decrease in the diffuser width. Four of the vaned diffusers have the same vane turning angle and a different number of vanes, and two have different vane turning angles. The flow solver used to solve the flow fields is Finfo, which is a Navier-Stokes solver. All the cases are modeled Chien's k-epsilon turbulence model. All five vaneless diffusers and three vaned diffusers are investigated also experimentally. For each construction, the compressor operating map is measured according to relevant standards. In addition to this, the flow fields before and after the diffuser are measured with static and total pressure, flow angle and total temperature measurements k-omega SST turbulence model. The simulation results indicate that it is possible to improve the efficiency with the pinch, and according to the numerical results, the two best geometries are the ones with most pinch at the shroud. These geometries have approximately 4 percentage points higher effciency than the unpinched vaneless diffusers. The hub pinch does not seem to have any major benefits. In general, the pinches make the flow fields before and after the diffuser more uniform. The pinch also seems to improve the impeller effciency. This is down to two reasons. The major reason is that the pinch decreases the size of slow flow and possible backflow region located near the shroud after the impeller. Secondly, the pinches decrease the flow velocity in the tip clearance, leading to a smaller tip leakage flow and therefore slightly better impeller efficiency. Also some of the vaned diffusers improve the efficiency
Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process
Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.
2000-03-01
Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.
First-order finite-Larmor-radius fluid modeling of tearing and relaxation in a plasma pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
King, J. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Suite A Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [Department of Engineering-Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Mirnov, V. V. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2012-05-15
Drift and Hall effects on magnetic tearing, island evolution, and relaxation in pinch configurations are investigated using a non-reduced first-order finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) fluid model with the nonideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with rotation, open discussion (NIMROD) code [C.R. Sovinec and J. R. King, J. Comput. Phys. 229, 5803 (2010)]. An unexpected result with a uniform pressure profile is a drift effect that reduces the growth rate when the ion sound gyroradius ({rho}{sub s}) is smaller than the tearing-layer width. This drift is present only with warm-ion FLR modeling, and analytics show that it arises from {nabla}B and poloidal curvature represented in the Braginskii gyroviscous stress. Nonlinear single-helicity computations with experimentally relevant {rho}{sub s} values show that the warm-ion gyroviscous effects reduce saturated-island widths. Computations with multiple nonlinearly interacting tearing fluctuations find that m = 1 core-resonant-fluctuation amplitudes are reduced by a factor of two relative to single-fluid modeling by the warm-ion effects. These reduced core-resonant-fluctuation amplitudes compare favorably to edge coil measurements in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)]. The computations demonstrate that fluctuations induce both MHD- and Hall-dynamo emfs during relaxation events. The presence of a Hall-dynamo emf implies a fluctuation-induced Maxwell stress, and the simulation results show net transport of parallel momentum. The computed magnitude of force densities from the Maxwell and competing Reynolds stresses, and changes in the parallel flow profile, are qualitatively and semi-quantitatively similar to measurements during relaxation in MST.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DERZON, MARK S.
2000-01-01
The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article the author points out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and how it may one day generate electrical power for mankind
Dynamical determination of ohmic states of a cylindrical pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnack, D.D.
1980-04-01
The dual problems of generation and sustainment of the reversed axial field are studied. It is shown that, if a cylindrical plasma is initially in an axisymmetric state with a sufficient degree of paramagnetism, field reversal can be attained by mode activity of a single helicity. The initial paramagnetism may be due to the method of pinch formation, as in fast experiments, or to a gradual altering of the pitch profile resulting from a succession of instabilities. Furthermore, if the total current is kept constant and energy loss and resistivity profiles are included in an ad hoc manner, one finds that the final steady state of the helical instability can be maintained for long times against resistive diffusion without the need for further unstable activity. These states, which possess zero order flow and possibly reversed axial field, represent steady equilibria which simultaneously satisfy force balance and Ohm's law, and are termed Ohmic states
Oscillating field current drive for reversed field pinch discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Baker, D.A.
1984-06-01
Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), also known as F-THETA pumping, is a steady-state current-drive technique proposed for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Unlike other current-drive techniques, which employ high-technology, invasive, and power intensive schemes using radio frequency or neutral particle injection, F-THETA pumping entails driving the toroidal and poloidal magnetic field circuits with low-frequency (audio) oscillating voltage sources. Current drive by this technique is a consequence of the strong nonlinear plasma coupling in the RFP. Because of its low frequency and efficient plasma coupling, F-THETA pumping shows excellent promise as a reactor-relevant current-drive technique. A conceptual and computational study of this concept, including its experimental and reactor relevance, is explored in this paper
Physics considerations of the Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) configuration is described. The plasma is ohmically ignited by toroidal plasma currents which also inherently provide the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and undergoes a transient, unrefueled burn at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a DT burnup of approx. 50%. Accounting for all major energy sinks yields a cost-optimized system with a recirculating power fraction of 0.17; the power output is 750 MWe
Measurements of VUV lines on dense Z-pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertschinger, G.
1980-01-01
The transition n = 1 to n = 2 has the most simple structure of all hydrogen transitions and the corresponding spectralline Ly-α is therefore very appropriate to reveal discrepancies between theory and experiment. In this work mainly the Ly-α spectral line of neutral hydrogen has been studied. The electron density of the Z-pinch amounts to 1.5 x 10 24 m -3 with an electron temperature of about 1.2 x 10 5 K. In this parameter range the plasma can still be studied with spectroscopic methods in the visible spectral region. Based on a space and time resolved measurement of the continuous emission spectra the plasma parameters can be determined independent of line broadening. (orig./HT) [de
Dynamic Variability of Isometric Action Tremor in Precision Pinching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim Eakin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Evolutionary development of isometric force impulse frequencies, power, and the directional concordance of changes in oscillatory tremor during performance of a two-digit force regulation task was examined. Analyses compared a patient group having tremor confounding volitional force regulation with a control group having no neuropathological diagnosis. Dependent variables for tremor varied temporally and spatially, both within individual trials and across trials, across individuals, across groups, and between digits. Particularly striking findings were magnitude increases during approaches to cue markers and shifts in the concordance phase from pinching toward rigid sway patterns as the magnitude increased. Magnitudes were significantly different among trace line segments of the task and were characterized by differences in relative force required and by the task progress with respect to cue markers for beginning, reversing force change direction, or task termination. The main systematic differences occurred during cue marker approach and were independent of trial sequence order.
LTPF: a linear theta-pinch neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, W.R.
1975-07-01
The linear theta pinch is optimized with respect to maximum neutron current on a sample located between the discharge tube and the compression coil wall. Emphasis throughout is placed on physics and technology considerations which govern the choice of parameters. Technological demands are (hopefully) kept to a minimum. Two ''point designs'' are developed which are distinguished by their compressional magnetic field (i.e., coil current) wave-forms: one is sinusoidal and continuous, the other trapezoidal and pulsed intermittently. Both point designs give an average neutron current of approximately 5 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /s. Both devices are characterized by short lengths (approximately 1 m), rapid cycling (2 to 30 kHz), and magnetic mirrors (2 to 5:1) at the ends. A crucial item is the power supply, which is discussed in detail. (U.S.)
The stability of the High-Density Z-Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glasser, A.H.; Nebel, R.A.
1989-01-01
Fiber-initiated High Density Z-Pinches at Los Alamos, NRL, and Karlsruhe have shown anomalously good stability. Kink modes are never seen, and sausage modes are at least delayed until late in the discharge. The success of these devices in reaching fusion conditions may depend on maintaining and understanding this anomalous stability. We have developed two numerical methods to study the stability in the regime where fluid theory is valid. While our methods are applicable to all modes, we will describe them only for the m = 0 sausage mode. The appearance of sausage modes late in the discharge and the total absence of kink modes suggest that an understanding of sausage modes is more urgent, and it is also simpler. 14 refs., 8 figs
The stability of the high-density z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glasser, A.H.; Nebel, R.A.
1989-01-01
Fiber-initiated High Density Z-Pinches at Los Alamos, NRL, and Karlsruhe have shown anomalously good stability. Kink modes are never seen, and sausage modes are at least delayed until late in the discharge. The success of these devices in reaching fusion conditions may depend on maintaining and understanding this anomalous stability. We have developed two numerical methods to study the stability in the regime where fluid theory is valid. While our methods are applicable to all modes, we will describe them only for the m=0 sausage mode. The appearance of sausage modes late in the discharge and the total absence of kink modes suggest that an understanding of sausage modes is more urgent, and it is also simpler
Advanced-fuel reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-10-01
The utilization of deuterium-based fuels offers the potential advantages of greater flexibility in blanket design, significantly reduced tritium inventory, potential reduction in radioactivity level, and utilization of an inexhaustible fuel supply. The conventional DT-fueled Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) designs are reviewed, and the recent extension of these devices to advanced-fuel (catalyzed-DD) operation is presented. Attractive and economically competitive DD/RFPR systems are identified having power densities and plasma parameters comparable to the DT systems. Converting an RFP reactor from DT to DD primarily requires increasing the magnetic field levels a factor of two, still requiring only modest magnet coil fields (less than or equal to 4 T). When compared to the mainline tokamak, the unique advantages of the RFP (e.g., high beta, low fields at the coils, high ohmic-heating power densities, unrestricted aspect ratio) are particularly apparent for the utilization of advanced fuels
Divertor design for the TITAN reversed-field-pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooke, P.I.H.; Bathke, C.G.; Blanchard, J.P.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.P.; Hasan, M.Z.; Orient, G.; Sharafat, S.; Werley, K.A.
1987-01-01
The design of the toroidal-field divertor for the TITAN high-power-density reversed-field-pinch reactor is described. The heat flux on the divertor target is limited to acceptable levels (≤ 10 MW/m 2 ) for liquid-lithium cooling by use of an open divertor geometry, strong radiation from the core and edge plasma, and careful shaping of the target surface. The divertor coils are based on the Integrated-Blanket-Coil approach to minimize the loss in breeding-blanket coverage due to the divertor. A tungsten-rhenium armour plate, chosen for reasons of sputtering resistance, and good thermal and mechanical properties, protects the vanadium-alloy coolant tubes
Cost estimation for a theta-pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coultas, T.A.; Cook, J.M.; Crnkovich, P.; Dauzvardis, P.
1976-02-01
A simulation of a theta-pinch fusion power plant has been completed to the point where economic feasibility can be examined. A PL/I cost subprogram is presented for interfacing with the computer code TPFPP. This code is then used to obtain a first approximation of the costs for the reactor. Independent geometrical and plant design parameters are varied over a wide range, with simultaneous variation of magnetic field, minor first wall radius, and plasma maximum compression. The study indicates that the plant energy balance must be favorable, availability must be high, and major component costs must be low to achieve economical results. Although costing uncertainties remain, it is clear that development of easy and rapid replacement methods for reactor components is essential and that new staging concepts to reduce the implosion energy requirement must be pursued
Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D
2004-12-10
With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.
Imploding to equilibrium of helically symmetric theta pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharky, N.N.
1978-01-01
The time-dependent, single-fluid, dissipative magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved in helical coordinates (r,phi), where phi = THETA-kz, k = 2π/L and L is the periodicity length in the z-direction. The two-dimensional numerical calculations simulate theta pinches which have an l = 1 helical field added to them. Given the applied magnetic fields and the initial state of the plasma, we study the time evolution of the system. The plasma is found to experience two kinds of oscillations, occurring on different time scales. These are the radial compression oscillations, and the slower helical oscillations of the plasma column. The plasma motion is followed until these oscillations disappear and an equilibrium is nearly reached. Hence given the amplitude and the rise time of the applied magnetic fields, the calculations allow one to relate the initial state of a cold, homogeneous plasma to its final equilibrium state where it is heated and compressed
Magnetohydrodynamic effects of current profile control in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sovinec, C.R.; Prager, S.C.
1999-01-01
Linear and non-linear MHD computations are used to investigate reversed field pinch configurations with magnetic fluctuations reduced through current profile control. Simulations with reduced ohmic drive and moderate auxiliary current drive, represented generically with an electron force term, applied locally in radius near the plasma edge show magnetic fluctuation energies that are orders of magnitude smaller than those in simulations without profile control. The core of the improved configurations has reduced magnetic shear and closed flux surfaces in some cases, and reversal is sustained through the auxiliary current drive. Modes resonant near the edge may become unstable with auxiliary drive, but their saturation levels can be controlled. The space of auxiliary drive parameters is explored, and the ill effects of deviating far from optimal conditions is demonstrated in non-linear simulations. (author)
Catalyzed deuterium fueled reversed-field pinch reactor assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrott, D.
1985-01-01
This study is part of a Department of Energy supported alternate fusion fuels program at Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of this portion of the study is to perform an assessment of a conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR) that is fueled by the catalyzed-deuterium (Cat-d) fuel cycle with respect to physics, technology, safety, and cost. The Cat-d CRFPR is compared to a d-t fueled fusion reactor with respect to several issues in this study. The comparison includes cost, reactor performance, and technology requirements for a Cat-d fueled CRFPR and a comparable cost-optimized d-t fueled conceptual design developed by LANL
A vented pump limiter for the reversed field pinch RFX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonato, P.
1998-01-01
The reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma performance, as in the Tokamak, is strongly correlated with the edge neutral particle control. The drawbacks of the conventional magnetic divertors and throat limiters on the RFP plasma have slackened the application of an active particle control system in existing devices. An advanced solution, based on the idea of the 'vented pump limiter' experimented on Tore Supra, has been conceived for RFX. This type of pump limiter is very attractive for a RFP. In this paper, the design of a 'vented limiter' prototype for RFX is presented. Up to six modules of this limiter can be installed at the equatorial plane of RFX, allowing a particle exhaust efficiency comparable with a divertor or a throat limiter working in a Tokamak. Finally, the optimization of this concept for the next step RFP device is presented. (orig.)
Laser--plasma interaction in a theta-pinch geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armstrong, W.T.
1978-06-01
Prompt stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) is studied in an experiment wherein a high power, pulsed CO 2 laser irradiates an independently produced, theta-pinch plasma. SBS does not significantly affect laser heating of the plasma. Measurements of density profiles and temperature histories permitted examination of laser refraction, local heating and net absorption. Refractive containment of the CO 2 laser beam by an on-axis density minimum was observed at early times during the laser pulse. However, refractive containment was lost at late times due to the diffusive loss of the density minimum. Classical modeling of the expected heating required ''bleached'' absorption to account for the observed heating. A plasma absorptivity of approximately 46% was inferred from calorimetry measurements at 250 mtorr fill pressure. These results confirm that classical heating and refraction dominated the laser-plasma interaction
Ohmic heating of the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.
1980-04-01
Simple analytic expressions are found for the global heating rate and the time needed to achieve global power balance with radiation and other losses, in useful agreement with large RFP transport codes. A simple condition is noted, which insures that the heating can be accomplished before appreciable resistive evolution occurs in the pinch profile. The product of poloidal beta, β/sub theta/, and toroidal current, I, that characterizes a condition of global power balance is derived subject to the above-mentioned condition without making key assumptions used by earlier investigators. First, a perfectly steady state (with local power balance) is not assumed, nor is it appropriate to do so. Secondly, the cross-field resistivity is not required to be classical. Since the value of (β/sub theta/ I) plays a fundamental role in determining the kind of device one requires, the foundations of this value are important
Pinches and micropinches in the SPEED 2 plasma focus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roewekamp, P; Decker, G; Kies, W; Lucas, B; Schmitz, F; Ziethen, G [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik; Simanovskij, D M; Bobashev, S V [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst.
1997-12-31
The discharges in the SPEED 2 Plasma Focus as well as other pinch plasmas generated in a plasma focus configuration exhibit two different modes. The micropinch mode is experimentally investigated in detail and well theoretically modelled. Therefore its characteristics e.g. temperature, density, life time and energy output are well known. Nevertheless the micropinches appear very erratic in space and time and their optimization and application is rather difficult. In contrast to this the column mode is not equally well understood yet. Its remarkable features are the unexpectedly high stability (also if the critical current for radiative collapse is exceeded) and its reproducibility, which are important for applications in soft x-ray microscopy or lithography. (J.U.). 6 figs., 9 refs.
Turbulent transport in the MST reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rempel, T.D.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Zita, E.J.
1991-11-01
Measurements of edge turbulence and the associated transport are ongoing in the Madison Symmetric Torus (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.52 m) reversed-field pinch using magnetic and electrostatic probes. Magnetic fluctuations are dominated by m = 1 and n ∼ 2R/a tearing modes. Particle losses induced by magnetic field fluctuations have been found to be ambipolar ( parallel B r > = O). Electrostatic fluctuations are broadband and turbulent, with mode widths δm ∼ 3--7 and δn ∼70--150. Particle, parallel current, and energy transport arising from coherent motion with the fluctuating ExB drift has been measured. Particle transport via this channel is comparable to the total particle loss from MST. Energy transport (from phi >/B o ) due to electrostatic fluctuations is relatively small, and parallel current transport (from parallel E chi >/B o ) may be small as well
Interferometry and MHD turbulence measurements in toroidal pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutt, T.L.; Evans, D.E.; Wilcock, P.D.
1976-01-01
A 10.6 micron interferometer produced 2 to 3 good quality fringes in the HBTX plasma. There is substantial agreement in the electron densities determined by interferometry and by Thomson scattering, but since the former is an absolute measurement and is systematically lower than the Thomson scattering values, the latter may be too great by about 35%. In RF Pinches, turbulence associated with the instability deflects the beam and corrupts the interferogram. However, if the intensity fluctuations induced in this beam by the turbulence, are measured, as is done in the second experiment performed in the FRSX plasma with a HCN laser, the frequency spectrum of the turbulence can be deduced. In this plasma, rms fluctuations in the density were measured by this means to be 20%, and the dominant frequency of the fluctuations multiplied by the tube diameter was approximately Alfven speed, favouring an interpretation of the gross turbulence in this plasma in terms of Alfen waves. (U.K.)
Simulation of the implosion of a theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busnardo Neto, J.; Leite Neto, J.P.; Jesus Paes, A.C. de
1982-01-01
A two-fluid model was used to simulate the implosion of a theta-pinch, with initial densities varying from 10 12 to 10 16 cm -3 . The gases used were hydrogen, helium, neon and argon; initial temperatures of 2 eV and total ionization were assumed. For hydrogen the anomalous resistivity is dominant everywhere when the density is low (ν sub(eff) - ω sub(pi)). For high densities both resistivities are not high enough to allow diffusion of the magnetic field during the time of the implosion (ν sub(eff) approximatelly 0.3 ω sub(pi)). For heavier gases a surprisingly high value of the anomalous resistivity was found, due to the greater mass, (ν sub(eff) approximatelly 10-12 ω sub(pi)). (Author) [pt
Physics of reversed-field pinch profile sustainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moses, R.W.
1984-01-01
A description of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is given, emphasizing the necessity of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or kinetic process to sustain field reversal. Three sustainment mechanisms are reviewed: the MHD dynamo, the tangled discharge model, and nonlocal resistivity. A slab model of steady (ohmic) states is described. A relationship between ohmic state wave numbers and the minimum amplitude of nonsymmetric field components is given. If ohmic states are the sole source of the sustainment process, their wave lengths are probably much longer than the minor diameter of the plasma. Otherwise field asymmetries would exceed those observed in experiments. It is noted that internal field data are still limited, restricting the generality of our comments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serov Anatoly
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The torque of the rotational resistance in the Ku-Etta multi-cylinder system rotating in the direction towards each other is measured. The experiments were carried out for three values of the kinematic viscosity of the working fluid that fills the multicylinder system: water at a temperature of 24 °C (viscosity 0.9 cSt, an aqueous solution of glycerol at 20 °C and 41 °C (2.5 cSt and 5.2 cSt. An attempt is made to investigate the features of a viscous flow in the multicolor Couette flow system from the analysis of the energy spectra of the moment of resistance to rotation of cylinders.
Instability heating of solid-fiber Z pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riley, R.A. Jr.
1994-02-01
The Los Alamos High Density Z Pinch-II (HDZP-II) facility is used to study the dynamics of z-pinch plasmas generated from solid fibers of deuterated polyethylene CD 2 with a range in radii of 3--60 μm. HDZP-II is a pulsed-power generator that delivers a current that rises to 700 kA in 100 ns through an inductive load. A multiframe circular schlieren records the evolution of the shape and size of the plasma on seven images taken at 10-ns intervals. These circular-schlieren images show very strong m=0 instability at the onset of current and a rapid radial expansion of the plasma. No higher-order instabilities are observed. An interferometer is used to infer the electron density and electron line density, giving a measure of the fraction of plasma contained within the outline of the circular-schlieren image at one time during the multiframe sequence. A three-channel x-ray crystal-reflection spectrometer provides the time-resolved, spatially-averaged electron temperature. The magnitude of the x-ray emission at these energies also gives qualitative information about the electron temperature and density at late times. A lower bound on the ion temperature is inferred from the particle pressure needed to balance the magnetic field pressure. The ion temperature rose above that of the electrons, strongly suggesting an additional heating term that puts energy directly into the ions. An ion heating term is proposed to explain the observed rapid radial expansion and elevated ion temperatures. This heating term is based on the assumption that the observed m=0 instabilities reconnect, enclosing magnetic flux which degenerates into turbulence in the plasma. A 0-D simulation is developed to investigate the relevance of different physical models to the data presented
Instability heating of solid-fiber Z pinches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riley, Jr., Ronald Alan [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
1994-02-01
The Los Alamos High Density Z Pinch-II (HDZP-II) facility is used to study the dynamics of z-pinch plasmas generated from solid fibers of deuterated polyethylene CD_{2} with a range in radii of 3--60 μm. HDZP-II is a pulsed-power generator that delivers a current that rises to 700 kA in 100 ns through an inductive load. A multiframe circular schlieren records the evolution of the shape and size of the plasma on seven images taken at 10-ns intervals. These circular-schlieren images show very strong m=0 instability at the onset of current and a rapid radial expansion of the plasma. No higher-order instabilities are observed. An interferometer is used to infer the electron density and electron line density, giving a measure of the fraction of plasma contained within the outline of the circular-schlieren image at one time during the multiframe sequence. A three-channel x-ray crystal-reflection spectrometer provides the time-resolved, spatially-averaged electron temperature. The magnitude of the x-ray emission at these energies also gives qualitative information about the electron temperature and density at late times. A lower bound on the ion temperature is inferred from the particle pressure needed to balance the magnetic field pressure. The ion temperature rose above that of the electrons, strongly suggesting an additional heating term that puts energy directly into the ions. An ion heating term is proposed to explain the observed rapid radial expansion and elevated ion temperatures. This heating term is based on the assumption that the observed m=0 instabilities reconnect, enclosing magnetic flux which degenerates into turbulence in the plasma. A 0-D simulation is developed to investigate the relevance of different physical models to the data presented.
Magnetoacoustic heating and FCT-equilibria in the belt pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erckmann, V.
1983-02-01
In the HECTOR belt pinch of high β plasma is produced by magnetic compression in a Tokamak geometry. After compresseion the initial β value can be varied between 0.2 and 0.8. During 5 μs the plasma is further heated by a fast magnetoacoustic wave with a frequency near the first harmonic of the ion cyclotronfrequency. For the first time the β-value of a pinch plasma could be increased further from 0.34 after compression to 0.46 at the end of the rf-heating cycle. By proper selection of the final β-value the region for resonance absorption of the heating wave can be shifted. Strong heating (200 MW) has been observed in the cases, where the resonance region has been located in the center of the plasma. In deuterium discharges an increase in ion temperature is observed during the heating process, whereas the electrons are energetically decoupled, showing no temperature increase. Strong plasma losses are found in the 200 MW range after the rf-heating process. The dominant mechanisms are charge exchange collisions with neutral gas atoms. During rf-heating and the subsequent cooling phase the magnetic flux is frozen due to the high conductivity of the plasma. The observed equilibria could be identified as flux conserving Tokamak (FCT) equilibria. Based on a two-dimensional code the time-evolution of the equilibria has been calculated. The q-profiles are time-independent, with increasing β the magnetic axis of the plasma is shifted towards the outer boundary of the torus, and finally the linear relation between β and βsub(pol), which is characteristic for low-β-equilibria, is no longer valid. Thus for the first time the existence of FCT-equilibria at high β has been demonstrated experimentally together with a qualitative agreement with FCT-theory. (orig./AH) [de
Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research
Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony
2017-01-01
Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.
From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2010-12-16
This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Viscosity in the edge of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stacey, W.M.
1993-05-01
A fluid representation of viscosity has been incorporated into a set of fluid equations that are maximally ordered in the ''short-radial-gradient-scale-length'' (srgsl) ordering that is appropriate for the edge of tokamak plasmas. The srgsl ordering raises viscous drifts and other viscous terms to leading order and fundamentally alters the character of the fluid equations. A leasing order viscous drift is identified. Viscous-driven radial particle and energy fluxes in the scrape-off layer and divertor channel are estimated to have an order unity effect in reducing radial peaking of energy fluxes transported along the field lines to divertor collector plates
On the measurement of magnetic viscosity
Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.
2012-08-01
This work is an investigation of the experimental method used for measuring the magnetic viscosity in a hard ferromagnetic material, i.e. the recording of the magnetization under constant applied field and temperature, after the material has been magnetically saturated. It investigates how the experimental results are affected by the initial conditions of the method (saturation field, field change rate and field oscillation prior to its stabilization), and by minor variations of field and temperature during the recording. Based on the arising conclusions and the use of a more complex fitting function of measurements, the accuracy and repeatability of experimental results is improved.
Viscosity of many-component glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrma, Pavel R.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Schweiger, Michael J.
2009-01-01
The effect of composition on the viscosity of multicomponent glasses was expressed as a function of temperature and composition for three composition regions containing various subsets of Al2O3, B2O3, Bi2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, F, Fe2O3, K2O, Li2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, NiO, P2O5, SiO2, UO2, and ZrO2. Limits of applicability of the composition models are discussed
Viscosity calculations at molecular dynamics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirova, E M; Norman, G E
2015-01-01
Viscosity and diffusion are chosen as an example to demonstrate the universality of diagnostics methods in the molecular dynamics method. To emphasize the universality, three diverse systems are investigated, which differ from each other drastically: liquids with embedded atom method and pairwise interatomic interaction potentials and dusty plasma with a unique multiparametric interparticle interaction potential. Both the Einstein-Helfand and Green-Kubo relations are used. Such a particular process as glass transition is analysed at the simulation of the aluminium melt. The effect of the dust particle charge fluctuation is considered. The results are compared with the experimental data. (paper)
Observation of Cocurrent Toroidal Rotation in the EAST Tokamak with Lower-Hybrid Current Drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Yuejiang; Xu Guosheng; Wang Fudi; Wang Mao; Fu Jia; Li Yingying; Zhang Wei; Zhang Wei; Chang Jiafeng; Lv Bo; Qian Jinping; Shan Jiafang; Liu Fukun; Ding Siye; Wan Baonian; Lee, Sang-Gon; Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth
2011-01-01
Lower-hybrid waves have been shown to induce a cocurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 40 km/s in the L-mode plasma core region and 20 km/s in the edge of the EAST tokamak. This modification of toroidal rotation develops on different time scales. For the edge, the time scale is no more than 100 ms, but for the core the time scale is around 1 s. A simple model based on turbulent equipartition and thermoelectric pinch predicts the experimental results.
On the stabilization of toroidal pinches by finite larmor radius effects and toroidal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, R.; Weiland, J.
1989-01-01
The radial eigenvalue problem for internal modes in a large aspect ratio toriodal pinch has been solved. A particularly stable regime for a weak but nonzero toroidal magnetic field has been found. (31 refs.)
Statistical theory of field fluctuations in a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.
1982-01-01
A statistical description of three-dimensional, incompressible turbulence in an ideal, current-bearing, bounded magnetofluid is given both analytically and numerically. Our results are then compared with existing data taken from reversed-field pinch experiments
A tentative opinion of modeling plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Ning
2002-01-01
Numerous experiments in both single wire and in wire arrays have attracted much attention. For the wire array Z-pinch implosions the plasma formation in the metallic wire Z pinches is a key question. By means of analyzing a number of single-wire and multi-wire experiments, two models to describe the behavior of a wire array Z-pinch in initial phase are suggested. In this phase each wire carries a rising current and behaves independently in a way similar to that found in single wire Z-pinch experiments in which a comparable current in one wire is employed. Based on one- or/and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory, one model is used to simulate the electrical explosion stage of the metallic wire, another is used to simulate the wire-plasma formation stage
Experimental studies of the argon-puff Z-pinch implosion process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xianbin; Yang Libing; Gu Yuanchao; Deng Jianjun; Zhou Rongguo; Zou Jie; Zhou Shaotong; Zhang Siqun; Chen Guanghua; Chang Lihua; Li Fengping; Ouyang Kai; Li Jun; Yang Liang; Wang Xiong; Zhang Zhaohui
2006-01-01
A preliminary experiment for studying the argon-puff Z-pinch implosion process has been performed on the Yang accelerator. The ten-frame nanosecond temporal and spatial gated camera, visible high-speed scanning camera, differential laser interferometer, X-ray time integration pinhole camera and X-ray power system have been used to investigated the evolution of the argon-puff Z-pinch. Some typical results of argon-puff Z-pinch during implosion and pinch phase, including the 'zipper' effect, necking phenomenon, sausage instability, temperature changes and the effect of load current rise time, are given and analyzed as examples, and some relevant conclusions are drawn. (authors)
X-Pinch And Its Applications In X-ray Radiograph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Liu Rui; Zhao Tong; Zeng Naigong; Zhao Yongchao; Du Yanqiang
2009-01-01
An X-pinch device and the related diagnostics of x-ray emission from X-pinch were briefly described. The time-resolved x-ray measurements with photoconducting diodes show that the x-ray pulse usually consists of two subnanosecond peaks with a time interval of about 0.5 ns. Being consistent with these two peaks of the x-ray pulse, two point x-ray sources of size ranging from 100 μm to 5 μm and depending on cut-off x-ray photon energy were usually observed on the pinhole pictures. The x-pinch was used as x-ray source for backlighting of the electrical explosion of single wire and the evolution of X-pinch, and for phase-contrast imaging of soft biological objects such as a small shrimp and a mosquito.
Dynamical analysis of surface-insulated planar wire array Z-pinches
Li, Yang; Sheng, Liang; Hei, Dongwei; Li, Xingwen; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Qiu, Aici
2018-05-01
The ablation and implosion dynamics of planar wire array Z-pinches with and without surface insulation are compared and discussed in this paper. This paper first presents a phenomenological model named the ablation and cascade snowplow implosion (ACSI) model, which accounts for the ablation and implosion phases of a planar wire array Z-pinch in a single simulation. The comparison between experimental data and simulation results shows that the ACSI model could give a fairly good description about the dynamical characteristics of planar wire array Z-pinches. Surface insulation introduces notable differences in the ablation phase of planar wire array Z-pinches. The ablation phase is divided into two stages: insulation layer ablation and tungsten wire ablation. The two-stage ablation process of insulated wires is simulated in the ACSI model by updating the formulas describing the ablation process.
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