Quantum hydrodynamics in the rotating reference frame
Trukhanova, Mariya Iv
2016-01-01
In this paper we apply quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) to study the quantum evolution of a system of spinning particles and particles that have the electric dipole moments EDM in the rotating reference frame. The method presented is based on the many-particle microscopic Schrodinger equation in the rotating reference frame. Fundamental QHD equations for charged or neutral spinning and EDM-bearing particles were shaped due to this method and contain the spin-dependent inertial force field. The polarization dynamics in systems of neutral particles in the rotating frame is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves, the dipole-inertial waves. We have analyzed elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized fluids placed into an external electric field in 2D and 3D cases. We predict the novel type of 2D dipole-inertial wave and 3D - polarization wave modified by rotation in systems of particles with dipole-dipole interactions.
The Dirac oscillator in a rotating frame of reference
Strange, P.; Ryder, L. H.
2016-10-01
The Dirac equation in a rotating frame of reference is derived from first principles within a linear approximation. This equation is employed to exhibit an equivalence between a particle in a Dirac oscillator potential and a free particle in a rotating frame of reference. A zero-point contribution to the energy of the particle, resulting from its spin, is also noted.
Disambiguation of Mental Rotation by Spatial Frames of Reference
Nobuhiko Asakura
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that our ability to imagine object rotations is limited and associated with spatial reference frames; performance is poor unless the axis of rotation is aligned with the object-intrinsic frame or with the environmental frame. Here, we report an active effect of these reference frames on the process of mental rotation: they can disambiguate object rotations when the axis of rotation is ambiguous. Using novel mental rotation stimuli, in which the rotational axes between pairs of objects can be defined with respect to multiple frames of reference, we demonstrate that the vertical axis is preferentially used for imagined object rotations over the object-intrinsic axis for an efficient minimum rotation. In contrast, the object-intrinsic axis can play a decisive role when the vertical axis is absent as a way of resolving the ambiguity of rotational motion. When interpreted in conjunction with recent advances in the Bayesian framework for motion perception, our results suggest that these spatial frames of reference are incorporated into an internal model of object rotations, thereby shaping our ability to imagine the transformation of an object's spatial structure.
Jerk and Hyperjerk in a Rotating Frame of Reference
Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina
2015-01-01
Jerk is the derivative of acceleration with respect to time and then it is the third order derivative of the position vector. Hyperjerks are the n-th order derivatives with n>3. This paper describes the relations, for jerks and hyperjerks, between the quantities measured in an inertial frame of reference and those observed in a rotating frame. These relations can be interesting for teaching purposes.
External Aerodynamics Simulations in a Rotating Frame of Reference
Filomena Cariglino
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a tool integrated in the UNS3D code, proprietary of Alenia Aermacchi, for the simulation of external aerodynamic flow in a rotating reference frame, with the main objective of predicting propeller-aircraft integration effects. The equations in a rotating frame of reference have been formulated in terms of the absolute velocity components; in this way, the artificial dissipation needed for convergence is lessened, as the Coriolis source term is only introduced in the momentum equation. An Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress turbulence model is used. The first assessment of effectiveness of this method is made computing stability derivatives of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Finally, steady Navier-Stokes and Euler simulations of a four-blade single-rotating propeller are presented, demonstrating the efficiency of the chosen approach in terms of computational cost.
CHEN Tong; WU Ning; YU Yue
2011-01-01
We have developed a path integral formalism of the quantum mechanics in the rotating frame of reference, and proposed a path integral description of spin degrees of freedom, which is connected to the Schwinger bosons realization of the angular momenta. We
The axisymmetric jet in a rotating reference frame
Lawrie, A G W; Scott, J F; Godeferd, F; Cambon, C [LMFA, Ecole Centrale de Lyon (France); Duran-Matute, M; Flor, J-B [LEGI, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Danaila, L, E-mail: andrew.lawrie@ec-lyon.fr [CORIA, Universite de Rouen (France)
2011-12-22
The axisymmetric jet is a geometrically simple, statistically stationary example of inhomogenous turbulence. Considering conservation of volume and momentum, Morton et al. (1956) offered a prediction of jet development, characterised solely by an unknown, constant entrainment coefficient. The presence of background rotation complicates the kinematics of the entrainment, and without special treatment, the jet suffers a helical instability. Here, we present one technique which stabilises the axisymmetric jet, yet preserves its desirable turbulent properties. The jet offers a steady-state flow in which there is an axial variation of local Rossby number, and after decay along the axis to a critical value, cones of inertial waves emerge. In this paper, we demonstrate these features using our numerical software MOBILE, offer our solution to stabilise the jet, and explain the mechanisms involved.
Hybrid state‐space time integration in a rotating frame of reference
Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre
2011-01-01
A time integration algorithm is developed for the equations of motion of a flexible body in a rotating frame of reference. The equations are formulated in a hybrid state‐space, formed by the local displacement components and the global velocity components. In the spatial discretization the local ...
Capitaine, N.
After recalling the present knowledge in Earth rotation and the precision which is presently achieved on the Earth Rotation parameters (ERP) by the new techniques such as VLBI or satellite and lunar laser ranging, this paper investigates what will be the scientific implications of the re-reduction of the existing astrometric data which will be performed by the IAU Working Group "Earth Rotation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame". One of the main advantages of such a re-reduction over previous reductions is to refer to a much better realization of the optical Celestial Reference System as well as to an improved realization of the Terrestrial Reference System using corrections for the deviation of the vertical and for plate motions. An other advantage of the planned re-reduction is to use very long series of observations as compared to similar series obtained by the new techniques.
Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations
Klink, W.H., E-mail: william-klink@uiowa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wickramasekara, S., E-mail: wickrama@grinnell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States)
2013-09-15
This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is presented. •The Galilei group is generalized to infinite dimensional Galilean line group. •Loop prolongations of Galilean line group contain central extensions of Galilei group. •Unitary representations of the loops are constructed. •These representations lead to terms in the Hamiltonian corresponding to fictitious forces, including centrifugal and Coriolis
Flow of a Dusty Gas with Suspended Particles in a Rotating Frame of Reference
P. Mitra
1981-01-01
Full Text Available The solution is given for the problem on the motion of a dusty gas under a rotating system of co-ordinates. The gas containing a uniform distribution of dust particles, occupies the infinite space above a rigid plane boundary. The motion of the dusty gas is induced by the motion of the plate moving with a velocity which decreases exponentially with time in a rotating frame of reference such that the plate and the gas are in a state of rigid body rotation about an axis normal to the plate. The velocity fields for the dusty gas, and the dust particles along and normal to the direction of motion of the plate are obtained in closed forms. Finally, some velocity distributions are calculated with particular reference to the effect of rotation at different times, and it is found that with the increase of the value of the rotation parameter omega, the velocity of the dusty gas along the direction of motion of the plate gradually increases while the velocity of the dust particle along the same direction gradually decreases.
Van Enk, S J
2004-01-01
We define a new quantity called refbit, which allows one to quantify the resource of sharing a reference frame in quantum communication protocols. By considering various protocols we find relations between refbits and other resources such as cbits, ebits, cobits, and qubits. We also consider the same resources in encoded, reference-frame independent, form. This allows one to rephrase and unify previous work on phase references, reference frames, and superselection rules.
Frames of Reference in the Classroom
Grossman, Joshua
2012-01-01
The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…
Sagnac effect in an off-center rotating ring frame of reference
Schwartz, Eyal
2017-01-01
Interference resides deeply in our understanding of the wave properties of light. In this paper, the century famous Sagnac effect is demonstrated to be independent of the rotation axis position, using a rotating ring optical fiber in a straightforward laboratory experiment. A simple theoretical explanation for this result is given for any arbitrary closed loop interferometer. The level of this discussion should be suitable for undergraduate physics or engineering courses where electromagnetic theory and optics are discussed. The experiment described utilizes basic and important aspects in modern optics which every science student should acquire.
无
2008-01-01
This paper proposes an adaptive rotor current controller for doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), which consists of a proportional (P) controller and two harmonic resonant (R) controllers implemented in the rotor rotating reference frame. The two resonant controllers are tuned at slip frequencies ωslip+ and ωslip-, respectively. As a result, the positive- and negative-sequence components of the rotor current are fully regulated by the PR controller without involving the positive- and negative-sequence decomposition, which in effect improves the fault ride-through (FRT) capability of the DFIG-based wind power generation system during the period of large transient grid voltage unbalance. Correctness of the theoretical analysis and feasibility of the proposed unbalanced control scheme are validated by simulation on a 1.5-MW DFIG wind power generation system.
Transient hydromagnetic reactive Couette flow and heat transfer in a rotating frame of reference
S. Das
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the study of a transient hydromagnetic Couette flow and heat transfer of a reactive viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two infinitely long horizontal parallel plates when one of the plate is set into uniform accelerated motion in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field under Arrhenius reaction rate. The transient momentum equations are solved analytically using the Laplace transform technique and the velocity field and shear stresses are obtained in a unified closed form. The energy equation is tackled numerically using MATLAB. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plates are presented in graphical form and discussed in detail. Our results reveal that the combined effects of magnetic field, rotation, exothermic reaction and variable thermal conductivity have significant impact on the hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer.
Li, W.; Ni, W.
1979-07-01
To the second order in metric and the first order in equations of motion in the local coordinates of an accelerated rotating observer, the inertial effects and gravitational effects are simply additive. To look into the coupled inertial and gravitational effects, we derive the third-order expansion of the metric and the second-order expansion of the equations of motion in local coordinates. Besides purely gravitational (purely curvature) effects, the equations of motion contain, in this order, the following coupled inertial and gravitational effects: redshift corrections to electric, magnetic, and double-magnetic type curvature forces; velocity-induced special relativistic corrections; and electric, magnetic, and double-magnetic type coupled inertial and gravitational forces. An example is provided with a static observer in the Schwarzchild spacetime.
Pellizzer, Giuseppe; Ba, Maryse Badan; Zanello, Adriano; Merlo, Marco C. G.
2009-01-01
Neural resources subserving spatial processing in either egocentric or allocentric reference frames are, at least partly, dissociated. However, it is unclear whether these two types of representations are independent or whether they interact. We investigated this question using a learning transfer paradigm. The experiment and material were…
Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames
Malkin, Zinovy
2016-01-01
The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered. The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparison and the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical {\\it Gaia} Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) and the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3), obtained from VLBI observations. Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System) at micro-arcsecond level accuracy. Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial task due to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands. In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented. Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed. The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio s...
Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames
Zinovy Malkin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered.The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparisonand the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical it Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRFand the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3, obtained from VLBI observations.Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System at micro-arcsecond level accuracy.Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial taskdue to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands.In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented.Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed.The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20$^m$ rather than to 18$^m$ as currently plannedfor the GCRF--ICRF link.In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.
Reference frame for Product Configuration
Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur
2011-01-01
on configuration systems in the shape of anecdotal reporting on the development of information systems that perhaps support the configuration task – perhaps not. Consequently, the definition of configuration has become ambiguous as different research groups defines configuration differently. This paper propose...... a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...
Common Frame of Reference and social justice
Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.
2009-01-01
The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and democracy
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2013-11-07
We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct.
Frame-Dragging from Charged Rotating Body
Dubey, Anuj Kumar
2016-01-01
In the present paper, we have considered the three parameters: mass, charge and rotation to discuss their combined effect on frame dragging for a charged rotating body. If we consider the ray of light which is emitted radially outward from a rotating body then the frame dragging shows a periodic nature with respect to coordinate $\\phi$ (azimuthal angle). It has been found that the value of frame dragging obtains a maximum at, $ \\phi =\\frac{\\pi}{2}$ and a minimum at $ \\phi =\\frac{3 \\pi}{2}$.
Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames
Ghanbari, Saeed
2016-01-01
The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…
Space VLBI and the Radio Reference Frame
Charlot, P.
2009-08-01
The current radio reference frame is defined by the VLBI positions of several hundreds of extragalactic sources measured with sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. We discuss whether space VLBI can be used to improve the accuracy of the frame, either directly by conducting absolute astrometric observations using space VLBI baselines, or in an indirect way by making available VLBI images of the reference frame sources with increased angular resolution. The VSOP-2 project, in its present state, is found to have the necessary capabilities for accurate absolute astrometry although there may be limitations due to scheduling constraints. Space VLBI images are essential for pinpointing accurately a stable reference feature within the extended structure of each source. In this respect, the VSOP-2 project may have a significant impact on the definition of the radio reference frame if targeting such reference frame sources on a regular basis.
Relativistic formulation and reference frame
Klioner, Sergei A.
2004-01-01
After a short review of experimental foundations of metric theories of gravity, the choice of general relativity as a theory to be used for the routine modeling of Gaia observations is justified. General principles of relativistic modeling of astronomical observations are then sketched and compared to the corresponding Newtonian principles. The fundamental reference system -- Barycentric Celestial Reference System, which has been chosen to be the relativistic reference system underlying the f...
Overall properties of the Gaia DR1 reference frame
Liu, N.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, J.-C.; Ding, C.-Y.
2017-03-01
Aims: The first Gaia data release (Gaia DR1) provides 2191 ICRF2 sources with their positions in the auxiliary quasar solution and five astrometric parameters - positions, parallaxes, and proper motions - for stars in common between the Tycho-2 catalogue and Gaia in the joint Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution (TGAS). We aim to analyze the overall properties of Gaia DR1 reference frame. Methods: We compare quasar positions of the auxiliary quasar solution with ICRF2 sources using different samples and evaluate the influence on the Gaia DR1 reference frame owing to the Galactic aberration effect over the J2000.0-J2015.0 period. Then we estimate the global rotation between TGAS with Tycho-2 proper motion systems to investigate the property of the Gaia DR1 reference frame. Finally, the Galactic kinematics analysis using the K-M giant proper motions is performed to understand the property of Gaia DR1 reference frame. Results: The positional comparison between the auxiliary quasar solution and ICRF2 shows negligible orientation and validates the declination bias of -0.1mas in Gaia quasar positions with respect to ICRF2. Galactic aberration effect is thought to cause an offset 0.01mas of the Z axis direction of Gaia DR1 reference frame. The global rotation between TGAS and Tycho-2 proper motion systems, obtained by different samples, shows a much smaller value than the claimed value 0.24mas yr-1. For the Galactic kinematics analysis of the TGAS K-M giants, we find possible non-zero Galactic rotation components beyond the classical Oort constants: the rigid part ωYG = -0.38±0.15mas yr-1 and the differential part ω^primeYG = -0.29±0.19mas yr-1 around the YG axis of Galactic coordinates, which indicates possible residual rotation in Gaia DR1 reference frame or problems in the current Galactic kinematical model. Conclusions: The Gaia DR1 reference frame is well aligned to ICRF2, and the possible influence of the Galactic aberration effect should be taken into consideration
Concepts in Geodetic Reference Frames.
1979-10-01
Heiskanen and Moritz, 1967, sec. 2-21). However, such an empirically determined mean earth ellipsoid would not be suitable as a reference ellipsoid...magnitude of V/c 2 ? The gravity potential W at the surface of the earth is approximately W = 6.3 x 107 mIs - Z cf. the value U0 given in ( Heiskanen and...addition theorem for Legendre polynomials ( Heiskanen and Moritz, 1967, p. 33) gives Pz (cos z) = Pz (cosW) P2 (cos 8) + + l/3[R1 (6, hG)R,(e.) + s21(6, hG
Visual performance fields: frames of reference.
Corbett, Jennifer E; Carrasco, Marisa
2011-01-01
Performance in most visual discrimination tasks is better along the horizontal than the vertical meridian (Horizontal-Vertical Anisotropy, HVA), and along the lower than the upper vertical meridian (Vertical Meridian Asymmetry, VMA), with intermediate performance at intercardinal locations. As these inhomogeneities are prevalent throughout visual tasks, it is important to understand the perceptual consequences of dissociating spatial reference frames. In all studies of performance fields so far, allocentric environmental references and egocentric observer reference frames were aligned. Here we quantified the effects of manipulating head-centric and retinotopic coordinates on the shape of visual performance fields. When observers viewed briefly presented radial arrays of Gabors and discriminated the tilt of a target relative to homogeneously oriented distractors, performance fields shifted with head tilt (Experiment 1), and fixation (Experiment 2). These results show that performance fields shift in-line with egocentric referents, corresponding to the retinal location of the stimulus.
Frames of Reference in the Classroom
Grossman, Joshua
2012-12-01
The classic film "Frames of Reference"1,2 effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating—all with respect to the Earth frame. The film is a classic for good reason, but today it does have a couple of drawbacks: 1) The film by nature only accommodates passive learning. It does not give students the opportunity to try any of the experiments themselves. 2) The dated style of the 50-year-old film can distract students from the physics content. I present here a simple setup that can recreate many of the movies demonstrations in the classroom. The demonstrations can be used to supplement the movie or in its place, if desired. All of the materials except perhaps the inexpensive web camera should likely be available already in most teaching laboratories. Unlike previously described activities, these experiments do not require travel to another location3 or an involved setup.4,5
An Autonomous Reference Frame for Relativistic GNSS
Kostić, Uroš; Carloni, Sante; Delva, Pacôme; Gomboc, Andreja
2014-01-01
Current GNSS systems rely on global reference frames which are fixed to the Earth (via the ground stations) so their precision and stability in time are limited by our knowledge of the Earth dynamics. These drawbacks could be avoided by giving to the constellation of satellites the possibility of constituting by itself a primary and autonomous positioning system, without any a priori realization of a terrestrial reference frame. Our work shows that it is possible to construct such a system, an Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, via emission coordinates. Here we present the idea of the Autonomous Basis of Coordinates and its implementation in the perturbed space-time of Earth, where the motion of satellites, light propagation, and gravitational perturbations are treated in the formalism of general relativity.
Aligning Reference Frames Using Quantum States
Bagán, E; Muñoz-Tàpia, R
2001-01-01
We analyze the problem of sending, in a single transmission, the information required to specify an orthogonal trihedron or reference frame through a quantum channel made out of N elementary spins. We analytically obtain the optimal strategy, i.e., the best encoding state and the best measurement. For large N, we show that the average error goes to zero linearly in 1/N. Finally, we discus the construction of finite optimal measurements.
Frames of reference in spatial language acquisition.
Shusterman, Anna; Li, Peggy
2016-08-01
Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms. Children interpreted ambiguous spatial terms as having environment-based meanings akin to north and south, and they readily learned and generalized north-south meanings. These studies provide the first direct evidence that children invoke geocentric representations in spatial language acquisition. However, the studies leave unanswered how children ultimately acquire "left" and "right." In Part II, with three more experiments, we investigated why children struggle to master body-based frame-of-reference words. Children successfully learned "left" and "right" when the novel words were systematically introduced on their own bodies and extended these words to novel (intrinsic and relative) uses; however, they had difficulty learning to talk about the left and right sides of a doll. This difficulty was paralleled in identifying the left and right sides of the doll in a non-linguistic memory task. In contrast, children had no difficulties learning to label the front and back sides of a doll. These studies begin to paint a detailed account of the acquisition of spatial terms in English, and provide insights into the origins of diverse spatial reference frames in the world's languages.
Sébastien Viel
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to test how gravitational information would affect the choice of stable reference frame used to control posture and voluntary movement, we have analysed the forearm stabilisation during sit to stand movement under microgravity condition obtained during parabolic flights. In this study, we hypothesised that in response to the transient loss of graviceptive information, the postural adaptation might involve the use of several strategies of segmental stabilisation, depending on the subject's perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field. More precisely, we expected a continuum of postural strategies across subjects with 1 at one extreme the maintaining of an egocentric reference frame and 2 at the other the re-activation of childhood strategies consisting in adopting an egocentric reference frame. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To check this point, a forearm stabilisation task combined with a sit to stand movement was performed with eyes closed by 11 subjects during parabolic flight campaigns. Kinematic data were collected during 1-g and 0-g periods. The postural adaptation to microgravity's constraint may be described as a continuum of strategies ranging from the use of an exo- to an egocentric reference frame for segmental stabilisation. At one extremity, the subjects used systematically an exocentric frame to control each of their body segments independently, as under normogravity conditions. At the other, the segmental stabilisation strategies consist in systematically adopting an egocentric reference frame to control their forearm's stabilisation. A strong correlation between the mode of segmental stabilisation used and the perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field of the subjects was reported. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show different subjects' typologies from those that use the forearm orientation in a mainly exocentric reference frame to
Eckart frame vibration-rotation Hamiltonians: Contravariant metric tensor
Pesonen, Janne, E-mail: janne.pesonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55 (A.I. Virtasen aukio 1), Helsinki FIN-00014 (Finland)
2014-02-21
Eckart frame is a unique embedding in the theory of molecular vibrations and rotations. It is defined by the condition that the Coriolis coupling of the reference structure of the molecule is zero for every choice of the shape coordinates. It is far from trivial to set up Eckart kinetic energy operators (KEOs), when the shape of the molecule is described by curvilinear coordinates. In order to obtain the KEO, one needs to set up the corresponding contravariant metric tensor. Here, I derive explicitly the Eckart frame rotational measuring vectors. Their inner products with themselves give the rotational elements, and their inner products with the vibrational measuring vectors (which, in the absence of constraints, are the mass-weighted gradients of the shape coordinates) give the Coriolis elements of the contravariant metric tensor. The vibrational elements are given as the inner products of the vibrational measuring vectors with themselves, and these elements do not depend on the choice of the body-frame. The present approach has the advantage that it does not depend on any particular choice of the shape coordinates, but it can be used in conjunction with all shape coordinates. Furthermore, it does not involve evaluation of covariant metric tensors, chain rules of derivation, or numerical differentiation, and it can be easily modified if there are constraints on the shape of the molecule. Both the planar and non-planar reference structures are accounted for. The present method is particular suitable for numerical work. Its computational implementation is outlined in an example, where I discuss how to evaluate vibration-rotation energies and eigenfunctions of a general N-atomic molecule, the shape of which is described by a set of local polyspherical coordinates.
Natural frequencies of rotating disk-like structures submerged viewed from the stationary frame
Presas, Alexandre; Valentin, David; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Seidel, Ulrich; Weber, Wilhelm
2016-11-01
To understand the effect of rotation in the dynamic response of pump-turbine runners, simplified models such as disk-like structures can be used. In previous researches the natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating disk-like structures submerged and confined have been analysed from the rotating frame. Nevertheless to measure these parameters experimentally from the rotating point of view can be a difficult task, since sensors have to withstand with large forces and dynamic loads. In this paper the dynamic response of rotating disk-like structures is analysed from the stationary frame. For this purpose an experimental test rig has been used. It consists on a disk confined that rotates inside a tank. The disk is excited with a PZT attached on it and the response is measured from both rotating frame (with miniature accelerometers) and from the stationary frame (with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer). In this way the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the rotating structure can be determined from the stationary reference frame. The transmission from the rotating to the stationary frame is compared for the case that the rotating structure rotates in a low density medium (air) and in a high density medium (water).
Numerical study for MHD peristaltic flow in a rotating frame.
Hayat, T; Zahir, Hina; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, A
2016-12-01
The aim of present investigation is to model and analyze the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic transport of Prandtl fluid in a channel with flexible walls. The whole system consisting of fluid and channel are in a rotating frame of reference with uniform angular velocity. Viscous dissipation in thermal equation is not ignored. The channel boundaries satisfy the convective conditions in terms of temperature. The arising complicated problems are reduced in solvable form using large wavelength and small Reynolds number assumptions. Numerical solution for axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient are presented. Main emphasis is given to the outcome of rotation and material parameters of Prandtl fluid on the physical quantities of interest.
Reference frame independent quantum key distribution
Laing, Anthony; Rarity, John G; O'Brien, Jeremy L
2010-01-01
We describe a quantum key distribution protocol based on pairs of entangled qubits that generates a secure key between two partners in an environment of unknown and slowly varying reference frame. A direction of particle delivery is required, but the phases between the computational basis states need not be known or fixed. The protocol can simplify the operation of existing setups and has immediate applications to emerging scenarios such as earth-to-satellite links and the use of integrated photonic waveguides. We compute the asymptotic secret key rate for a two-qubit source, which coincides with the rate of the six-state protocol for white noise. We give the generalization of the protocol to higher-dimensional systems and detail a scheme for physical implementation in the three dimensional qutrit case.
The Michelson-Morley experiment in an accelerated reference frame
Crossley, Dennis
2010-01-01
We analyze the Michelson-Morley experiment in a reference frame moving with constant proper acceleration. Interestingly, we find an expected fringe shift which depends not only on the interferometer's rate of acceleration, but also on its speed relative to a preferred absolute reference frame. While it has been repeatedly shown that no experiment performed in an inertial reference frame can detect that frame's absolute speed, the analysis in this paper suggests that by considering experiments in accelerated reference frames it may be possible to measure absolute speed after all.
A Rotating-Frame Perspective on High-Harmonic Generation of Circularly Polarized Light
Reich, Daniel M
2016-01-01
We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and static magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond cur...
Xie, Yi
2009-01-01
We construct a set of reference frames for description of the orbital and rotational motion of the Moon. We use a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two parameters of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism and utilize the concepts of the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat. The primary reference frame has the origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes are going to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to distant quasars. The secondary reference frame has the origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is local with its spatial axes spreading out to the orbits of Venus and Mars and not rotating dynamically in the sense that both the Coriolis and centripetal forces acting on a free-falling test particle, moving with respect to the EMB frame, are excluded. Two other local frames, the geocentric (GRF) an...
Turbulent drag in a rotating frame
Campagne, Antoine; Gallet, Basile; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Moisy, Frédéric
2016-01-01
What is the turbulent drag force experienced by an object moving in a rotating fluid? This open and fundamental question can be addressed by measuring the torque needed to drive an impeller at constant angular velocity $\\omega$ in a water tank mounted on a platform rotating at a rate $\\Omega$. We report a dramatic reduction in drag as $\\Omega$ increases, down to values as low as $12$\\% of the non-rotating drag. At small Rossby number $Ro = \\omega/\\Omega$, the decrease in drag coefficient $K$ follows the approximate scaling law $K \\sim Ro$, which is predicted in the framework of nonlinear inertial wave interactions and weak-turbulence theory. However, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements indicate that this drag reduction rather originates from a weakening of the turbulence intensity in line with the two-dimensionalization of the large-scale flow.
Marneweck, Michelle; Knelange, Elisabeth; Lee-Miller, Trevor; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M
2015-01-01
Studies have shown that internal representations of manipulations of objects with asymmetric mass distributions that are generated within a specific orientation are not generalizable to novel orientations, i.e., subjects fail to prevent object roll on their first grasp-lift attempt of the object following 180° object rotation. This suggests that representations of these manipulations are specific to the reference frame in which they are formed. However, it is unknown whether that reference frame is specific to the hand, the body, or both, because rotating the object 180° modifies the relation between object and body as well as object and hand. An alternative, untested explanation for the above failure to generalize learned manipulations is that any rotation will disrupt grasp performance, regardless if the reference frame in which the manipulation was learned is maintained or modified. We examined the effect of rotations that (1) maintain and (2) modify relations between object and body, and object and hand, on the generalizability of learned two-digit manipulation of an object with an asymmetric mass distribution. Following rotations that maintained the relation between object and body and object and hand (e.g., rotating the object and subject 180°), subjects continued to use appropriate digit placement and load force distributions, thus generating sufficient compensatory moments to minimize object roll. In contrast, following rotations that modified the relation between (1) object and hand (e.g. rotating the hand around to the opposite object side), (2) object and body (e.g. rotating subject and hand 180°), or (3) both (e.g. rotating the subject 180°), subjects used the same, yet inappropriate digit placement and load force distribution, as those used prior to the rotation. Consequently, the compensatory moments were insufficient to prevent large object rolls. These findings suggest that representations of learned manipulation of objects with asymmetric mass
Michelle Marneweck
Full Text Available Studies have shown that internal representations of manipulations of objects with asymmetric mass distributions that are generated within a specific orientation are not generalizable to novel orientations, i.e., subjects fail to prevent object roll on their first grasp-lift attempt of the object following 180° object rotation. This suggests that representations of these manipulations are specific to the reference frame in which they are formed. However, it is unknown whether that reference frame is specific to the hand, the body, or both, because rotating the object 180° modifies the relation between object and body as well as object and hand. An alternative, untested explanation for the above failure to generalize learned manipulations is that any rotation will disrupt grasp performance, regardless if the reference frame in which the manipulation was learned is maintained or modified. We examined the effect of rotations that (1 maintain and (2 modify relations between object and body, and object and hand, on the generalizability of learned two-digit manipulation of an object with an asymmetric mass distribution. Following rotations that maintained the relation between object and body and object and hand (e.g., rotating the object and subject 180°, subjects continued to use appropriate digit placement and load force distributions, thus generating sufficient compensatory moments to minimize object roll. In contrast, following rotations that modified the relation between (1 object and hand (e.g. rotating the hand around to the opposite object side, (2 object and body (e.g. rotating subject and hand 180°, or (3 both (e.g. rotating the subject 180°, subjects used the same, yet inappropriate digit placement and load force distribution, as those used prior to the rotation. Consequently, the compensatory moments were insufficient to prevent large object rolls. These findings suggest that representations of learned manipulation of objects with
Target rotation parameter estimation for ISAR imaging via frame processing
Xuezhi Wang; Yajing Huang; Weiping Yang; Bill Moran
2016-01-01
Frame processing method offers a model-based approach to Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging. It also provides a way to estimate the rotation rate of a non-cooperative target from radar returns via the frame operator properties. In this paper, the relationship between the best achievable ISAR image and the reconstructed image from radar returns was derived in the framework of Finite Frame Processing theory. We show that image defocusing caused by the use of an incorrect target rotation rate is interpreted under the FP method as a frame operator mismatch problem which causes energy dispersion. The unknown target rotation rate may be computed by optimizing the frame operator via a prominent point. Consequently, a prominent intensity maximization method in FP framework was proposed to estimate the underlying target rotation rate from radar returns. In addition, an image filtering technique was implemented to assist searching for a prominent point in practice. The proposed method is justified via a simulation analysis on the performance of FP imaging versus target rotation rate error. Effectiveness of the proposed method is also confirmed from real ISAR data experiments.
Gulshani, Parviz
2016-01-01
We derive in a simple manner and from first principles the Inglis semi-classical phenomenological cranking model for nuclear collective rotation. The derivation transforms the nuclear Schrodinger equation (instead of the Hamiltonian) to a rotating frame using a product wavefunction and imposing no constraints on either the wavefunction or the nucleon motion. The difference from Inglis model is that the frame rotation is driven by the motions of the nucleons and not externally. Consequently, the transformed Schrodinger equation is time-reversal invariant, and the total angular momentum is the sum of those of the intrinsic system and rotating frame. In this article, we choose the rotation of the frame to be given by a combination of rigid and irrotational flows. The dynamic angular velocity of the rotating frame is determined by the angular momentum of the frame and by a moment of inertia that is determined by the nature of the flow combination. The intrinsic-system and rotating-frame angular momenta emerge to ...
Dynamics of a Quantum Reference Frame
Poulin, D; Poulin, David; Yard, Jon
2006-01-01
We analyze a quantum mechanical gyroscope, which is modeled as a large spin and used as a reference against which to measure the angular momenta of spin-1/2 particles. These measurements induce a back-action on the reference which is the central focus of our study. We begin by deriving explicit expressions for the quantum channel representing the back-action. Then, we analyze the dynamics incurred by the reference when it is used to sequentially measure particles drawn from a fixed ensemble. We prove that the reference thermalizes with the measured particles and find that generically, the thermal state is reached in time which scales linearly with the size of the reference. This contrasts a recent conclusion of Bartlett et al. that this takes a quadratic amount of time when the particles are completely unpolarized. We now understand their result in terms of a simple physical principle based on symmetries and conservation laws. Finally, we initiate the study of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the reference. He...
About Lorentz-M{\\o}ller-Nelson transformation to rigid noninertial frame of reference
Voytik, Vitaliy V
2012-01-01
With a special Lorentz-M{\\o}ller-Nelson (LMN) transformation found transformation of velocity from the laboratory system S to an arbitrary rigid progressively moving reference frame s. Set the physical meaning of the parameter $\\mathbf{v}(t)$ in the appropriate LMN transformation. For small distances, and their proper smooth motion without jerks suggested the reverse special LMN transformation. The main consequences of this transformation is considered, namely, a) the desync in moving frame of reference s of proper clocks of the pre-synchronized in the laboratory frame S and b) the Lorentz contraction of proper rulers frame s in the frame S. The applicability of the reverse LMN transformation for real frames with maximum rigidity is established. Equations for the rotation matrix is obtained. It is shown that the intrinsic rotation of the axes s, considered with respect to S is not rigid. Found the direct and inverse transformation of affine velocity S in the comoving but not rotating frame of s. It is shown t...
Rotating saddle trap: A Coriolis force in an inertial frame
Kirillov, Oleg N
2015-01-01
Particles in rotating saddle potentials exhibit precessional motion which, up to now, has been explained by explicit computation. We show that this precession is due to a hidden Coriolis-like force which, unlike the standard Coriolis force, is present in the inertial frame. We do so by finding a hodograph-like "guiding center" transformation using the method of normal form.
Future National Reference Frames for the United States
Stone, W. A.
2015-12-01
The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." NSRS is the nation's system of latitude, longitude, elevation, and related geophysical and geodetic models and tools, which provides a consistent spatial reference framework for the broad spectrum of geoscientific applications and other positioning-related requirements. Technological developments - notably Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - and user accuracy requirements necessitate that NGS endeavor to modernize the NSRS. Preparations are underway by NGS for a comprehensive NSRS makeover, to be completed in 2022 and delivered through a new generation of horizontal and vertical datums (reference frames), featuring unprecedented accuracy, repeatability, and efficiency of access. This evolution is outlined in the "National Geodetic Survey Ten-Year Strategic Plan, 2013-2023." This presentation will outline the motivation for this effort and the history, current status and planned evolution of NSRS. Fundamental to the delivery of the future reference frame paradigm are new geometric and geopotential (elevation) frameworks. The new geometric reference frame, realized through GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), will replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and will provide the nationwide framework for determination of latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height. Designed to complement the new geometric reference frame, a corresponding geopotential reference frame - based on a national gravimetric geoid and replacing the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) - will be developed and co-released. The gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential reference frame will be built in part from airborne gravimetric data collected in
METRIC OF ACCELERATING AND ROTATING REFERENCE SYSTEMS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY
Trunev A. P.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Metric describing the accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity on time has been proposed. It is established that the curvature tensor in such metrics is zero, which corresponds to movement in the flat spaces. It is shown that the motion of test bodies in the metric accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity is similarly to the classical motion in non-inertial reference frame. Consequently, there exist a metric in general relativity, in which the Coriolis theorem and classic velocity-addition formula are true. This means that classical mechanics is accurate rather than approximate model in general relativity. A theory of potential in non-inertial reference systems in general relativity is considered. The numerical model of wave propagation in non-inertial reference frames in the case when potential depending of one, two and three spatial dimensions has been developed. It is shown in numerical experiment that the acceleration of the reference system leads to retardation effects, as well as to a violation of the symmetry of the wave front, indicating that there is local change of wave speed
Newton-Cartan Gravity in Noninertial Reference Frames
Rodriguez, Leo; Wickramasekara, Sujeev
2014-01-01
We study properties of Newton-Cartan gravity under transformations into all noninertial, nonrelativistic reference frames. The set of these transformations has the structure of an infinite dimensional Lie group, called the Galilean line group, which contains as a subgroup the Galilei group. We show that the fictitious forces of noninertial reference frames are naturally encoded in the Cartan connection transformed under the Galilean line group. These noninertial forces, which are coordinate effects, do not contribute to the Ricci tensor which describes the curvature of Newtonian spacetime. We show that only the $00$-component of the Ricci tensor is non-zero and equal to ($4\\pi$ times) the matter density in any inertial or noninetial reference frame and that it leads to what may be called Newtonian ADM mass. While the Ricci field equation and Gauss law are both fulfilled by the same physical matter density in inertial and linearly accelerating reference frames, there appears a discrepancy between the two in ro...
Public-key cryptography based on bounded quantum reference frames
Ioannou, Lawrence M.; Mosca, Michele
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that the framework of bounded quantum reference frames has application to building quantum-public-key cryptographic protocols and proving their security. Thus, the framework we introduce can be seen as a public-key analogue of the framework of Bartlett et al. (Phys. Rev. A 70, 032307), where a private shared reference frame is shown to have cryptographic application. The protocol we present in this paper is an identification scheme, which, like a digital signature scheme, is a ...
VLBI terrestrial reference frame contributions to ITRF2008
Böckmann, Sarah; Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.
2010-03-01
In late 2008, the Product Center for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) issued a call for contributions to the next realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System, ITRF2008. The official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) to ITRF2008 consists of session-wise datum-free normal equations of altogether 4,539 daily Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions from 1979.7 to 2009.0 including data of 115 different VLBI sites. It is the result of a combination of individual series of session-wise datum-free normal equations provided by seven analysis centers (ACs) of the IVS. All series are completely reprocessed following homogeneous analysis options according to the IERS Conventions 2003 and IVS Analysis Conventions. Altogether, nine IVS ACs analyzed the full history of VLBI observations with four different software packages. Unfortunately, the contributions of two ACs, Institute of Applied Astronomy (IAA) and Geoscience Australia (AUS), had to be excluded from the combination process. This was mostly done because the IAA series exhibits a clear scale offset while the solution computed from normal equations contained in the AUS SINEX files yielded unreliable results. Based on the experience gathered since the combination efforts for ITRF2005, some discrepancies between the individual series were discovered and overcome. Thus, the consistency of the individual VLBI solutions has improved considerably. The agreement in terms of WRMS of the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) horizontal components is 1 mm, of the height component 2 mm. Comparisons between ITRF2005 and the combined TRF solution for ITRF2008 yielded systematic height differences of up to 5 mm with a zonal signature. These differences can be related to a pole tide correction referenced to a zero mean pole used by four of five IVS ACs in the ITRF2005
Rotation change in the orientation of the centre-of-figure frame caused by large earthquakes
Zhou, Jiangcun; Sun, Wenke; Jin, Shuanggen; Sun, Heping; Xu, Jianqiao
2016-08-01
A method to estimate the rotation change in the orientation of the centre-of-figure (CF) frame caused by earthquakes is proposed for the first time. This method involves using the point dislocation theory based on a spherical, non-rotating, perfectly elastic and isotropic (SNREI) Earth. The rotation change in the orientation is related solely to the toroidal displacements of degree one induced by the vertical dip slip dislocation, and the spheroidal displacements induced by an earthquake have no contribution. The effects of two recent large earthquakes, the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, are studied. Results showed that the Sumatra and Tohoku-Oki earthquakes both caused the CF frame to rotate by at least tens of μas (micro-arc-second). Although the visible co-seismic displacements are identified and removed from the coordinate time-series, the rotation change due to the unidentified ones and errors in removal is non-negligible. Therefore, the rotation change in the orientation of the CF frame due to seismic deformation should be taken into account in the future in reference frame and geodesy applications.
The Gaia reference frame amid quasar variability and proper motion patterns in the data
Bachchan, R K; Lindegren, L
2015-01-01
Gaia's very accurate astrometric measurements will allow the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to be improved by a few orders of magnitude in the optical. Several sets of quasars are used to define a kinematically stable non-rotating reference frame with the barycentre of the Solar System as its origin. Gaia will also observe a large number of galaxies which could obtain accurate positions and proper motions although they are not point-like. The optical stability of the quasars is critical and we investigate how accurately the reference frame can be recovered. Various proper motion patterns are also present in the data, the best known is caused by the acceleration of the Solar System Barycentre, presumably, towards the Galactic centre. We review some other less-well-known effects that are not part of standard astrometric models. We model quasars and galaxies using realistic sky distributions, magnitudes and redshifts. Position variability is introduced using a Markov chain model. The reference fr...
Asynchronous reference frame agreement in a quantum network
Islam, Tanvirul; Wehner, Stephanie
2016-03-01
An efficient implementation of many multiparty protocols for quantum networks requires that all the nodes in the network share a common reference frame. Establishing such a reference frame from scratch is especially challenging in an asynchronous network where network links might have arbitrary delays and the nodes do not share synchronised clocks. In this work, we study the problem of establishing a common reference frame in an asynchronous network of n nodes of which at most t are affected by arbitrary unknown error, and the identities of the faulty nodes are not known. We present a protocol that allows all the correctly functioning nodes to agree on a common reference frame as long as the network graph is complete and not more than t\\lt n/4 nodes are faulty. As the protocol is asynchronous, it can be used with some assumptions to synchronise clocks over a network. Also, the protocol has the appealing property that it allows any existing two-node asynchronous protocol for reference frame agreement to be lifted to a robust protocol for an asynchronous quantum network.
Reference frames in virtual spatial navigation are viewpoint dependent
Ágoston eTörök
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Spatial navigation in the mammalian brain relies on a cognitive map of the environment. Such cognitive maps enable us, for example, to take the optimal route from a given location to a known target. The formation of these maps is naturally influenced by our perception of the environment, meaning it is dependent on factors such as our viewpoint and choice of reference frame. Yet, it is unknown how these factors influence the construction of cognitive maps. Here, we evaluated how various combinations of viewpoints and reference frames affect subjects’ performance when they navigated in a bounded virtual environment without landmarks. We measured both their path length and time efficiency and found that (i ground perspective was associated with egocentric frame of reference, (ii aerial perspective was associated with allocentric frame of reference, (iii there was no appreciable performance difference between first and third person egocentric viewing positions and (iv while none of these effects were dependent on gender, males tended to perform better in general. Our study provides evidence that there are inherent associations between visual perspectives and cognitive reference frames. This result has implications about the mechanisms of path integration in the human brain and may also inspire designs of virtual reality applications. Lastly, we demonstrated the effective use of a tablet PC and spatial navigation tasks for studying spatial and cognitive aspects of human memory.
Relativistic quantum information theory and quantum reference frames
Palmer, Matthew C
2013-01-01
This thesis is a compilation of research in relativistic quantum information theory, and research in quantum reference frames. The research in the former category provides a fundamental construction of quantum information theory of localised qubits in curved spacetimes. For example, this concerns quantum experiments on free-space photons and electrons in the vicinity of the Earth. From field theory a description of localised qubits that traverse classical trajectories in curved spacetimes is obtained, for photons and massive spin-1/2 fermions. The equations governing the evolution of the two-dimensional quantum state and its absolute phase are determined. Quantum information theory of these qubits is then developed. The Stern-Gerlach measurement formalism for massive spin-1/2 fermions is also derived from field theory. In the latter category of research, the process of changing reference frames is considered for the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. As part of this process, it is shown that...
Visual Target Localization, the Effect of Allocentric Audiovisual Reference Frame
David Hartnagel
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Visual allocentric references frames (contextual cues affect visual space perception (Diedrichsen et al., 2004; Walter et al., 2006. On the other hand, experiments have shown a change of visual perception induced by binaural stimuli (Chandler, 1961; Carlile et al., 2001. In the present study we investigate the effect of visual and audiovisual allocentred reference frame on visual localization and straight ahead pointing. Participant faced a black part-spherical screen (92cm radius. The head was maintained aligned with the body. Participant wore headphone and a glove with motion capture markers. A red laser point was displayed straight ahead as fixation point. The visual target was a 100ms green laser point. After a short delay, the green laser reappeared and participant had to localize target with a trackball. Straight ahead blind pointing was required before and after series of 48 trials. Visual part of the bimodal allocentred reference frame was provided by a vertical red laser line (15° left or 15° right, auditory part was provided by 3D sound. Five conditions were tested, no-reference, visual reference (left/right, audiovisual reference (left/right. Results show that the significant effect of bimodal audiovisual reference is not different from the visual reference one.
Perception of space by multiple intrinsic frames of reference.
Yanlong Sun
Full Text Available It has been documented that when memorizing a physical space, the person's mental representation of that space is biased with distortion and segmentation. Two experiments reported here suggest that distortion and segmentation arise due to a hierarchical organization of the spatial representation. The spatial relations associated with salient landmarks are more strongly encoded and easier to recall than those associated with non-salient landmarks. In the presence of multiple salient landmarks, multiple intrinsic frames of reference are formed and spatial relations are anchored to each individual frame of reference. Multiple such representations may co-exist and interactively determine a person's spatial performance.
Shephard, G. E.; Bunge, H.; Schuberth, B. S.; Müller, D.; Talsma, A.; Moder, C.
2010-12-01
Several absolute reference frames for Cretaceous-Tertiary plate tectonic reconstructions have been proposed over the last decade. They include reference frames based on hotspot tracks displaying age progression, and assuming either fixed or moving hotspots, as well as palaeomagnetically-based reference frames, a subduction reference frame and hybrid reference frames. All these alternative reference frames imply a particular history of the location of subduction zones through time, the associated subduction history, and the evolution of mantle heterogeneity via the mixing of subducted slab material with the mantle. Therefore it is possible to evaluate the observed distribution of subducted slab material in the mantle versus that predicted by a forward geodynamic model in which the plate kinematic history given by a particular absolute plate is coupled with a mantle convection model. We present a comparison of five alternative absolute plate motion models in terms of their consequences for global deep mantle structure by utilizing the 3-D spherical finite element mantle convection code TERRA, coupled with the global plate tectonic reconstruction software GPlates. We impose global palaeo-plate boundaries and plate velocities back to 140 Ma as surface boundary conditions for each absolute rotation model and forward model the associated subduction history. The correlation of seismic tomography with the predicted present-day mantle structure from each of plate models is then assessed using well-imaged slabs. We will present and discuss a comparison of geodynamically predicted mantle heterogeneity and seismic tomography to infer the robustness of each absolute reference frame through time, thus providing additional constraints for the integration of plate tectonics and mantle dynamics.
Developing a Frame of Reference for understanding configuration systems
2008-01-01
This paper uses the theory of technical systems to develop a frame of reference of product configuration systems. Following a definition of the configuration task, product model and product configuration system the theory of technical systems are presented. Configuration systems are then related...
Developing a Frame of Reference for understanding configuration systems
2008-01-01
This paper uses the theory of technical systems to develop a frame of reference of product configuration systems. Following a definition of the configuration task, product model and product configuration system the theory of technical systems are presented. Configuration systems are then related ...
The nature and purposes of the Common Frame of Reference
Beale, H.
2008-01-01
In this paper, I explain what I, as one of the 'academic researchers', understand to be the purposes of the Common Frame of Reference (CFR), and why I think it deserves support from academic and practising lawyers and businesspeople across Europe.
Energy and momentum of rotating frames in tetrad gravity
Gamal G L Nashed
2011-01-01
Within the framework of the tetrad formulation of general relativity theory,we compute the total energy and momentum of four rotating frames using the gravitational energy-momentum 3-form.We show how the effect of inertia always makes the total energy divergent.We use a natural regularization method to obtain physical values for the total energy of the system and show how it works on a number of explicit examples.We also show by calculation that inertia has no effect on the momentum components.
Pilot-wave hydrodynamics in a rotating frame: Exotic orbits
Oza, Anand U.; Wind-Willassen, Øistein; Harris, Daniel M.;
2014-01-01
, stable circular orbits give way to wobbling orbits, which are succeeded in turn by instabilities of the orbital center characterized by steady drifting then discrete leaping. In the limit of large vibrational forcing, the walker’s trajectory becomes chaotic, but its statistical behavior reflects...... the influence of the unstable orbital solutions. The study results in a complete regime diagram that summarizes the dependence of the walker’s behavior on the system parameters. Our predictions compare favorably to the experimental observations of Harris and Bush [“Droplets walking in a rotating frame: from...... quantized orbits to multi-modal statistics,” J. Fluid Mech. 739, 444–464 (2014)]....
Object-centered reference frames in depth as revealed by induced motion.
Léveillé, Jasmin; Myers, Emma; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash
2014-03-11
An object-centric reference frame is a spatial representation in which objects or their parts are coded relative to others. The existence of object-centric representations is supported by the phenomenon of induced motion, in which the motion of an inducer frame in a particular direction induces motion in the opposite direction in a target dot. We report on an experiment made with an induced motion display where a degree of slant is imparted to the inducer frame using either perspective or binocular disparity depth cues. Critically, the inducer frame oscillates perpendicularly to the line of sight, rather than moving in depth. Participants matched the perceived induced motion of the target dot in depth using a 3D rotatable rod. Although the frame did not move in depth, we found that subjects perceived the dot as moving in depth, either along the slanted frame or against it, when depth was given by perspective and disparity, respectively. The presence of induced motion is thus not only due to the competition among populations of planar motion filters, but rather incorporates 3D scene constraints. We also discuss this finding in the context of the uncertainty related to various depth cues, and to the locality of representation of reference frames.
Pilot-wave hydrodynamics in a rotating frame: Exotic orbits
Oza, Anand U.; Harris, Daniel M.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.; Bush, John W. M., E-mail: bush@math.mit.edu [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wind-Willassen, Øistein [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)
2014-08-15
We present the results of a numerical investigation of droplets walking on a rotating vibrating fluid bath. The drop's trajectory is described by an integro-differential equation, which is simulated numerically in various parameter regimes. As the forcing acceleration is progressively increased, stable circular orbits give way to wobbling orbits, which are succeeded in turn by instabilities of the orbital center characterized by steady drifting then discrete leaping. In the limit of large vibrational forcing, the walker's trajectory becomes chaotic, but its statistical behavior reflects the influence of the unstable orbital solutions. The study results in a complete regime diagram that summarizes the dependence of the walker's behavior on the system parameters. Our predictions compare favorably to the experimental observations of Harris and Bush [“Droplets walking in a rotating frame: from quantized orbits to multimodal statistics,” J. Fluid Mech. 739, 444–464 (2014)].
Zhu, Sheng-Yuan; Mueller, Ivan I.
1983-03-01
First, the paper is devoted to the effects of adopting new definitive precession and equinox corrections on the terrestrial reference frame: The effect on polar motion is a diurnal periodic term with an amplitude increasing linearly in time; on UT1 it is a linear term. Second, general principles are given the use of which can determine the effects of small rotations (such as precession, nutation or equinox corrections) of the frame of a Conventional Inertial Reference System (CIS) on the frame of the Conventional Terrestrial Reference System (CTS). Next, seven CTS options are presented, one of which is necessary to accommodate such rotations (corrections). The last of these options requiring no changes in the origin of terrestrial longitudes and in UT1 is advocated; this option would be maintained by eventually referencing the Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time to a fixed point on the equator, instead of to the mean equinox of date, the current practice. Accommodating possible future changes in the astronomical nutation is discussed in the last section. The Appendix deals with the effects of differences which may exist between the various CTS's and CIS's (inherent in the various observational techniques) on earth rotation parameters (ERP) and how these differences can be determined. It is shown that the CTS differences can be determined from observations made at the same site, while the CIS differences by comparing the ERP's determined by the different techniques during the same time period.
Selection of spatial reference frames depends on task's demands
Greeshma Sharma
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Spatial reference frames (SRF are the means of representing spatial relations or locations either in an egocentric coordinate system (centred on navigator or in an allocentric coordinate system (Centred on object. It is necessary to understand when and how spatial representation switches between allocentric and egocentric reference frames in context to spatial tasks. The objective of this study was to explore if the elementary spatial representation does exist, whether it would remain consistent or change under the influence of a task's demand. Also, we explored how the SRF would assist if the environment is enriched with landmarks, having multiple routes for wayfinding. The results showed that the switching of SRF depends not only on the default representation but also on a task's demand. They also demonstrated that participants who were using allocentric representation performed better in the presence of landmarks.
Using radio stars to link ICRF and GCRF reference frames
Malkin, Zinovy
2016-01-01
One of the possible strategies for linking the optical Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) to the VLBI-based International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is using radio stars in a manner similar to that used for linking HIPPARCOS Celestial Reference System (HCRF) to ICRF. A reachable precision of the orientation angles between GCRF and ICRF frames was estimated through Monte Carlo simulation. Supposing the radio stars position uncertainty obtained by VLBI in the range of 0.1 to 4 mas, and Gaia position uncertainty in the range of 0.055 to 0.4 mas, depending in the first place on the brightness of radio star in radio and optics and number of VLBI observations, the orientation angles uncertainty will be 0.02 to 0.66 mas for 46 radio stars used, and 0.01 to 0.39 mas for 138 radio stars used. Properly organized VLBI observing program on radio stars observations can allow to tie GCRF to ICRF with the accuracy better than 0.1 mas.
The Role of Spatial Memory and Frames of Reference in the Precision of Angular Path Integration
Arthur, Joeanna C.; Philbeck, John W.; Kleene, Nicholas J.; Chichka, David
2012-01-01
Angular path integration refers to the ability to maintain an estimate of self-location after a rotational displacement by integrating internally-generated (idiothetic) self-motion signals over time. Previous work has found that non-sensory inputs, namely spatial memory, can play a powerful role in angular path integration (Arthur et al., 2007, 2009). Here we investigated the conditions under which spatial memory facilitates angular path integration. We hypothesized that the benefit of spatial memory is particularly likely in spatial updating tasks in which one’s self-location estimate is referenced to external space. To test this idea, we administered passive, nonvisual body rotations (ranging 40° – 140°) about the yaw axis and asked participants to use verbal reports or open-loop manual pointing to indicate the magnitude of the rotation. Prior to some trials, previews of the surrounding environment were given. We found that when participants adopted an egocentric frame of reference, the previously-observed benefit of previews on within-subject response precision was not manifested, regardless of whether remembered spatial frameworks were derived from vision or spatial language. We conclude that the powerful effect of spatial memory is dependent on one’s frame of reference during self-motion updating. PMID:22885073
The role of spatial memory and frames of reference in the precision of angular path integration.
Arthur, Joeanna C; Philbeck, John W; Kleene, Nicholas J; Chichka, David
2012-09-01
Angular path integration refers to the ability to maintain an estimate of self-location after a rotational displacement by integrating internally-generated (idiothetic) self-motion signals over time. Previous work has found that non-sensory inputs, namely spatial memory, can play a powerful role in angular path integration (Arthur et al., 2007, 2009). Here we investigated the conditions under which spatial memory facilitates angular path integration. We hypothesized that the benefit of spatial memory is particularly likely in spatial updating tasks in which one's self-location estimate is referenced to external space. To test this idea, we administered passive, non-visual body rotations (ranging 40°-140°) about the yaw axis and asked participants to use verbal reports or open-loop manual pointing to indicate the magnitude of the rotation. Prior to some trials, previews of the surrounding environment were given. We found that when participants adopted an egocentric frame of reference, the previously-observed benefit of previews on within-subject response precision was not manifested, regardless of whether remembered spatial frameworks were derived from vision or spatial language. We conclude that the powerful effect of spatial memory is dependent on one's frame of reference during self-motion updating.
Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Ferrándiz, José M.; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald
2016-08-01
Precise transformation between the celestial reference frames (CRF) and terrestrial reference frames (TRF) is needed for many purposes in Earth and space sciences. According to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) recommendations, the accuracy of positions and stability of reference frames should reach 1 mm and 0.1 mm year^{-1} , and thus, the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) should be estimated with similar accuracy. Different realizations of TRFs, based on the combination of solutions from four different space geodetic techniques, and CRFs, based on a single technique only (VLBI, Very Long Baseline Interferometry), might cause a slow degradation of the consistency among EOP, CRFs, and TRFs (e.g., because of differences in geometry, orientation and scale) and a misalignment of the current conventional EOP series, IERS 08 C04. We empirically assess the consistency among the conventional reference frames and EOP by analyzing the record of VLBI sessions since 1990 with varied settings to reflect the impact of changing frames or other processing strategies on the EOP estimates. Our tests show that the EOP estimates are insensitive to CRF changes, but sensitive to TRF variations and unmodeled geophysical signals at the GGOS level. The differences between the conventional IERS 08 C04 and other EOP series computed with distinct TRF settings exhibit biases and even non-negligible trends in the cases where no differential rotations should appear, e.g., a drift of about 20 μ as year^{-1 } in y_{pol } when the VLBI-only frame VTRF2008 is used. Likewise, different strategies on station position modeling originate scatters larger than 150 μ as in the terrestrial pole coordinates.
Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Ferrándiz, José M.; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald
2017-02-01
Precise transformation between the celestial reference frames (CRF) and terrestrial reference frames (TRF) is needed for many purposes in Earth and space sciences. According to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) recommendations, the accuracy of positions and stability of reference frames should reach 1 mm and 0.1 mm year^{-1}, and thus, the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) should be estimated with similar accuracy. Different realizations of TRFs, based on the combination of solutions from four different space geodetic techniques, and CRFs, based on a single technique only (VLBI, Very Long Baseline Interferometry), might cause a slow degradation of the consistency among EOP, CRFs, and TRFs (e.g., because of differences in geometry, orientation and scale) and a misalignment of the current conventional EOP series, IERS 08 C04. We empirically assess the consistency among the conventional reference frames and EOP by analyzing the record of VLBI sessions since 1990 with varied settings to reflect the impact of changing frames or other processing strategies on the EOP estimates. Our tests show that the EOP estimates are insensitive to CRF changes, but sensitive to TRF variations and unmodeled geophysical signals at the GGOS level. The differences between the conventional IERS 08 C04 and other EOP series computed with distinct TRF settings exhibit biases and even non-negligible trends in the cases where no differential rotations should appear, e.g., a drift of about 20 μ as year^{-1 }in y_{pol } when the VLBI-only frame VTRF2008 is used. Likewise, different strategies on station position modeling originate scatters larger than 150 μ as in the terrestrial pole coordinates.
The Cosmological Constant Problem and Quantum Spacetime Reference Frame
Luo, M J
2015-01-01
This paper is a generalization of earlier papers [ Nucl. Phys. B 884, 344 (2014) (arXiv:1312.2759) and JHEP 6, 63 (2015) (arXiv:1401.2488) ]. Since space and time should be put on an equal footing, we generalize the idea of quantum clock time to a quantum spacetime reference frame via a physical realization of a reference system by quantum rulers and clocks. Omitting the internal degrees of freedoms (e.g. spin) of the physical rulers and clocks, only considering their metric properties, the spacetime reference frame is described by a bosonic non-linear sigma model. We study the quantum behavior of the system under given approximations, and obtain (1) a cosmological constant $(2/\\pi)\\rho_{c}$ ($\\rho_{c}$ the critical density) very close to current observational value; (2) an Einstein-Hilbert term in the quantum effective action; (3) the ratio of variance to mean-squared of spacetime distance tends to a universal constant $(2/\\pi)\\hbar^{2}$ in the infrared region. This effect is testable by observing the linear...
HUANG YuNing; MA HuiYang; XU JingLei
2008-01-01
Modelling the turbulent flows in non-inertial frames of reference has long been a challenging task. Recently we introduced the notion of the "extended intrinsic mean spin tensor" for turbulence modelling and pointed out that, when applying the Reynolds stress models developed in the inertial frame of reference to model-ling the turbulence in a non-inertial frame of reference, the mean spin tensor should be replaced by the extended intrinsic mean spin tensor to correctly account for the rotation effects induced by the non-inertial frame of reference, to conform in phys-ics with the Reynolds stress transport equation. To exemplify the approach, we conducted numerical simulations of the fully developed turbulent channel flow in a rotating frame of reference by employing four non-linear K-εmodels. Our numerical results based on this approach at a wide range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers evince that, among the models tested, the non-linear K-ε model of Huang and Ma and the non-linear K-ε model of Craft, Launder and Suga can better capture the rotation effects and the resulting influence on the structures of turbulence, and therefore are satisfactorily applied to dealing with the turbulent flows of practical interest in engineering. The general approach worked out in this paper is also ap-plied to the second-moment closure and the large-eddy simulation of turbulence.
2008-01-01
Modelling the turbulent flows in non-inertial frames of reference has long been a challenging task. Recently we introduced the notion of the "extended intrinsic mean spin tensor" for turbulence modelling and pointed out that, when applying the Reynolds stress models developed in the inertial frame of reference to model-ling the turbulence in a non-inertial frame of reference, the mean spin tensor should be replaced by the extended intrinsic mean spin tensor to correctly account for the rotation effects induced by the non-inertial frame of reference, to conform in phys-ics with the Reynolds stress transport equation. To exemplify the approach, we conducted numerical simulations of the fully developed turbulent channel flow in a rotating frame of reference by employing four non-linear K-ε models. Our numerical results based on this approach at a wide range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers evince that, among the models tested, the non-linear K-ε model of Huang and Ma and the non-linear K-ε model of Craft, Launder and Suga can better capture the rotation effects and the resulting influence on the structures of turbulence, and therefore are satisfactorily applied to dealing with the turbulent flows of practical interest in engineering. The general approach worked out in this paper is also ap-plied to the second-moment closure and the large-eddy simulation of turbulence.
A study of the effects of Rotating Frame Turbulence (RFT) on helicopter flight mechanics
Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. B.; Gaonkar, G. H.
1989-01-01
The turbulence actually experienced by a helicopter blade-element significantly differs from the space-fixed free atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence in the rotor disk requires a rotationally sampled description in a rotating frame of reference. It is referred to as the rotating frame turbulence or RFT which exhibits a striking phenomenon. The RFT spectral density versus frequency shows high peak values at 1P,2P, or 3P, frequencies. The energy increase at these peaks is balanced by an energy decrease primarily at the lower-than-1P frequency range. Particularly for low altitude flight regimes of pure helicopters, such as the nap-of-the-earth maneuvers, the conventional space-fixed description of turbulence is not a good approximation, since the turbulence scale length can have values comparable to the rotor radius. Accordingly the flight mechanics characteristics with RFT description are compared with those based on the conventional space-fixed turbulence description. The results demonstrate that the RFT qualitatively and quantitatively affects the prediction of helicopter flight mechanics characteristics in turbulence. Such comparisons should play an important role in the new development of handling qualities specifications for helicopters.
Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-01-01
We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust.
On a Special Transformation to a Non-Inertial, Radially Rigid Reference Frame
Voytik, Vitaliy
2013-01-01
We discuss the conditions under which a body, moving non-inertially in Minkowski space, can preserve its size. Under these conditions, using a series expansion of the generalized Lorentz transformation, we ?nd a coor- dinate transformation connecting the laboratory inertial reference frame S and the rigid non-inertial reference frame s which moves without its own rotation with respect to S. Direct consequences of this transformation are: (a) desynchronization, in system s, of the coordinate clocks of s which were previously synchronized in S, and (b) a kinematic contraction of a ruler of system s observed in S. We also consider the dependence of the transfor- mation vector parameter on the proper coordinates of s.
Attitude Heading Reference System Using MEMS Inertial Sensors with Dual-Axis Rotation
Li Kang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table’s frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition.
Attitude heading reference system using MEMS inertial sensors with dual-axis rotation.
Kang, Li; Ye, Lingyun; Song, Kaichen; Zhou, Yang
2014-09-29
This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table's frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition.
Nicole Capitaine
2012-01-01
The adoption of the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS),based on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of extragalactic radiosources by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) since 1998 January 1,opened a new era for astronomy.The ICRS and the corresponding frame,the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF),replaced the Fundamental Catalog (FK5) based on positions and proper motions of bright stars,with the Hipparcos catalog being adopted as the primary realization of the ICRS in optical wavelengths.According to its definition,the ICRS is such that the barycentric directions of distant extragalactic objects show no global rotation with respect to these objects; this provides a quasi-inertial reference for measuring the positions and angular motions of the celestial objects.Other resolutions on reference systems were passed by the IAU in 2000 and 2006 and endorsed by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) in 2003 and 2007,respectively.These especially concern the definition and realization of the astronomical reference systems in the framework of general relativity and transformations between them.First,the IAU 2000 resolutions refined the concepts and definition of the astronomical reference systems and parameters for Earth's rotation,and adopted the IAU 2000 precession-nutation.Then,the IAU 2006 resolutions adopted a new precession model that is consistent with dynamical theories; they also addressed definition,terminology or orientation issues relative to reference systems and time scales that needed to be specified after the adoption of the IAU 2000 resolutions.An additional IUGG 2007 resolution defined the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) so that it strictly complies with the IAU recommendations.Finally,the IAU 2009 resolutions adopted a new system of astronomical constants and an improved realization of the ICRF.These fundamental changes have led to significant improvements in the fields
Estimating the Celestial Reference Frame via Intra-Technique Combination
Iddink, Andreas; Artz, Thomas; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel
2016-12-01
One of the primary goals of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the determination of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). Currently the third realization of the internationally adopted CRF, the ICRF3, is under preparation. In this process, various optimizations are planned to realize a CRF that does not benefit only from the increased number of observations since the ICRF2 was published. The new ICRF can also benefit from an intra-technique combination as is done for the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). Here, we aim at estimating an optimized CRF by means of an intra-technique combination. The solutions are based on the input to the official combined product of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), also providing the radio source parameters. We discuss the differences in the setup using a different number of contributions and investigate the impact on TRF and CRF as well as on the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs). Here, we investigate the differences between the combined CRF and the individual CRFs from the different analysis centers.
Earth Rotation Parameters 1899.7 :1992.0 After Reanalysis Within The Hipparcos Frame
Vondrák, Jan.
Earth rotation parameters (ERP) in the interval 1899.7-1992.0 are obtained from re-analysis of the observed latitude/universal time variations by optical astrometry. Hipparcos Catalogue is used to define the celestial reference frame, within which the ERP are described, with special care devoted to 'problematic' double and/or multiple stars. The terrestrial reference frame is defined by the adopted latitudes/longitudes of participating instruments and their secular motions as given by the NUVEL-1 NNR model of plate motions, and it is chosen to be very close to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). More than four million observations made with 48 different instruments at 31 observatories, located all over the world, are utilized to determine polar motion, celestial pole offsets and (after 1956) universal time UT1, all at 5-day intervals. Along with these parameters, the combinations of Love and Shida numbers, governing the tidal variations of the local verticals at individual observatories, are also determined. The analysis of the results covering almost a century, namely the long-periodic polar motion and length-of-day changes, is presented.
Extended intrinsic mean spin tensor for turbulence modelling in non-inertial frame of reference
HUANG Yu-ning; MA Hui-yang
2008-01-01
We investigate the role of extended intrinsic mean spin tensor introduced in this work for turbulence modelling in a non-inertial frame of reference.It is described by the Euclidean group of transformations and,in particular,its significance and importance in the approach of the algebraic Reynolds stress modelling,such as in a nonlinear K-εmodel.To this end and for illustration of the effect of extended intrinsic spin tensor on turbulence modelling,we examine several recently developed nonlinear K-ε models and compare their performance in predicting the homogeneous turbulent shear flow in a rotating frame of reference with LES data.Our results and analysis indicate that,only if the deficiencies of these models and the like be well understood and properly corrected,may in the near future,more sophisticated nonlinear K-ε models be 0eveloped to better predict complex turbulent flows in a non-inertial frame of reference.
Gaia Reference frame determination: the AVU/GSR pipeline
Vecchiato, Alberto; Abbas, Ummi; Becciani, Ugo; Bianchi, Luca; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Crosta, Mariateresa; Lattanzi, Mario G.
2015-08-01
The main goal of the Gaia ESA mission is the production of a 5 parameters astrometric catalog - i.e. including positions, parallaxes and the two components of the proper motions - of about 1 billion stars of our Galaxy at an accuracy level going from the few micro-arcseconds of the brightest objects to some ~100 micro-arcseconds of the faintests. This goal will be reached by means of high-precision astrometric measurements conducted by a satellite sweeping continuously the celestial sphere during its 5-years mission.A fundamental step toward the realization of this catalog is the so-called ''Sphere Reconstruction'', which determines the celestial reference frame using the observations of a subset of up to 100 million ''primary stars'' among those observed by Gaia.From a mathematical point of view, these observations translate into a large number of equations, linearized with respect to the unknown parameters around known initial values, whose solution in the least-squares sense eventually provides the catalog with its errors, and determines the Gaia reference frame.This represents an extremely challenging problem because of the high accuracy of the observations and of the large number of unknowns involved. The former issue implies that an adequately accurate relativistic astrometric model has to be used, while the huge number of unknowns and observations puts this task at the forefront of the High-Performance Computing problems.These challenges, and the absolute character of the Gaia measurements and results, calls for a careful scientific validation of the sphere reconstruction, as it was done for the previous HIPPARCOS mission. For these reasons the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) decided to replicate the baseline process, named AGIS (Astrometric Global Iterative Solution) with another independent solution, named GSR (Global Sphere Reconstruction) which uses a different astrometric model and different algorithms for the system solution
An anti-disturbance high-precision alignment for distributed POS based on inertial reference frame
Bai, Lijian; Wang, Yue
2017-03-01
The distributed POS is playing an important role in the ultra-high resolution aerial survey and remote sensing system, and can accurately provide time-spatial reference information for various imaging sensors. However, the distributed POS faces a special problem that the flexible arms used to connect the inertial measurement units (IMUs) would deteriorate the phenomenon that external disturbance leads to serious alignment errors. In order to improve the alignment precision of distributed POS in external disturbance, an anti-disturbance coarse alignment based on inertial reference frame is proposed. This method is developed mainly based on the structure of non-collinear vectors, which are constructed by a velocity vector determined by gravity vector integration. The disturbed acceleration and rotation is decreased a lot by the integral operation in the proposed method. Finally, the experiments were carried out and verified the validity of the proposed method.
Causality, relativity and quantum correlation experiments with moving reference frames
H Zbinden; J Brendel; W Tittel; N Gisin
2001-02-01
Entanglement, one of the most important features of quantum mechanics, is at the core of the famous Einstein–Bohr philosophical debate [1] and is the principal resource for quantum information processing [2]. We report on new experimental investigations of the properties of entangled photon pairs with emphasis on the tension between quantum mechanics and relativity [3,4]. Entangled photons are sent via an optical ﬁber network to two villages near Geneva, separated by more than 10 km where they are analyzed by interferometers [5]. The photon pair source is set as precisely as possible in the center so that the two photons arrive at the detectors within a time interval of less than 5 ps (corresponding to a path length difference of less than 1 mm). This sets a lower bound on the ‘speed of quantum information’ to 107 times the speed of light. Next, one detector is set in motion [6] so that both detectors, each in its own inertial reference frame, are ﬁrst to do the measurement! The data always reproduces the quantum correlations.
Contribution to defining a geodetic reference frame for Africa (AFREF): Geodynamics implications
Saria, Elifuraha E.
African Reference Frame (AFREF) is the proposed regional three-dimensional standard frame, which will be used to reference positions and velocities for geodetic sites in Africa and surrounding. This frame will play a crucial role in scientific application for example plate motion and crustal deformation studies, and also in mapping when it involves for example national boundary surveying, remote sensing, GIS, engineering projects and other development programs in Africa. To contribute to the definition of geodetic reference frame for Africa and provide the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, we processed and analyzed 16 years of GPS and 17 years of DORIS data at 133 GPS sites and 9 DORIS sites continuously operating geodetic sites in Africa and surroundings to describe the present-day kinematics of the Nubian and Somalian plates and constrain relative motions across the East African Rift. We use the resulting horizontal velocities to determine the level of rigidity of Nubia and updated a plate motion model for the East African Rift and revise the counter clockwise rotation of the Victoria plate and clockwise rotation of the Rovuma plate with respect to Nubia. The vertical velocity ranges from -2 to +2 mm/yr, close to their uncertainties with no clear geographical pattern. This study provides the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, expressed in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008), a contribution to the upcoming African Reference Frame (AFREF). In the next step we used the substantial increase in the geologic, geophysical and geodetic data in Africa to improve our understanding of the rift geometry and the block kinematics of the EAR. We determined the best-fit fault structure of the rift in terms of the locking depth and dip angle and use a block modeling approach where observed velocities are described as the contribution of rigid block rotation and strain accumulation on locked faults. Our results
Cornelis, Els V K; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan
2016-05-01
Research on the influence of reference frames has generally focused on visual phenomena such as the oblique effect, the subjective visual vertical, the perceptual upright, and ambiguous figures. Another line of research concerns mental rotation studies in which participants had to discriminate between familiar or previously seen 2-D figures or pictures of 3-D objects and their rotated versions. In the present study, we disentangled the influence of the environmental and the viewer-centered reference frame, as classically done, by comparing the performances obtained in various picture and participant orientations. However, this time, the performance is the pictorial relief: the probed 3-D shape percept of the depicted object reconstructed from the local attitude settings of the participant. Comparisons between the pictorial reliefs based on different picture and participant orientations led to two major findings. First, in general, the pictorial reliefs were highly similar if the orientation of the depicted object was vertical with regard to the environmental or the viewer-centered reference frame. Second, a viewpoint-from-above interpretation could almost completely account for the shears occurring between the pictorial reliefs. More specifically, the shears could largely be considered as combinations of slants generated from the viewpoint-from-above, which was determined by the environmental as well as by the viewer-centered reference frame.
Trajectory models and reference frames for crustal motion geodesy
Bevis, Michael; Brown, Abel
2014-03-01
We sketch the evolution of station trajectory models used in crustal motion geodesy over the last several decades, and describe some recent generalizations of these models that allow geodesists and geophysicists to parameterize accelerating patterns of displacement in general, and postseismic transient deformation in particular. Modern trajectory models are composed of three sub-models that represent secular trends, annual oscillations, and instantaneous jumps in coordinate time series. Traditionally the trend model invoked constant station velocity. This can be generalized by assuming that position is a polynomial function of time. The trajectory model can also be augmented as needed, by including one or more logarithmic transients in order to account for typical multi-year patterns of postseismic transient motion. Many geodetic and geophysical research groups are using general classes of trajectory model to characterize their crustal displacement time series, but few if any of them are using these trajectory models to define and realize the terrestrial reference frames (RFs) in which their time series are expressed. We describe a global GPS reanalysis program in which we use two general classes of trajectory model, tuned on a station by station basis. We define the network trajectory model as the set of station trajectory models encompassing every station in the network. We use the network trajectory model from the each global analysis to assign prior position estimates for the next round of GPS data processing. We allow our daily orbital solutions to relax so as to maintain their consistency with the network polyhedron. After several iterations we produce GPS time series expressed in a RF similar to, but not identical with ITRF2008. We find that each iteration produces an improvement in the daily repeatability of our global time series and in the predictive power of our trajectory models.
Examining egocentric and allocentric frames of reference in virtual space systems
Friedman, A.
2005-01-01
The aim of this paper is to examine the egocentric and allocentric frames of reference, through evidence from both gesture and linguistic communication. The action of frames of reference, helps the user refer to the agent as a base for movement or to the object as a guiding point. We will show that
Examining egocentric and allocentric frames of reference in virtual space systems
Friedman, A.
2005-01-01
The aim of this paper is to examine the egocentric and allocentric frames of reference, through evidence from both gesture and linguistic communication. The action of frames of reference, helps the user refer to the agent as a base for movement or to the object as a guiding point. We will show that
Differential Effects of the Rod-and-Frame Illusion on the Timing of Forearm Rotations
Lommertzen, J.; Zuijlen, A.M.J. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Lier, R.J. van
2009-01-01
The present study focused on the time course of the effects of the Rod-and-Frame Illusion (RFI) on the kinematics of targeted forearm rotations. Participants were asked to reproduce perceived rod orientations by propelling a hand-held cylinder forward while rotating it to the target orientation. Rod
The role of perceptual reference frames in visual field asymmetries.
Robertson, L C; Lamb, M R
1988-01-01
The direct access model of hemispheric asymmetry was tested in a letter reflection (normal of reflected) judgement task. In the baseline condition letters were presented in their upright orientation, and reaction times were faster to letters presented in the right visual field than to those presented in the left visual field. In two other conditions the slides, and thus the letters, were rotated +90 degrees clockwise (Rotated +90) from upright or -90 degrees counterclockwise (Rotated -90). This resulted in the letters in both rotated conditions being shown in the upper or lower visual field through the sagittal plane but rotated 90 degrees. Despite this fact a "right field" advantage was again found when the right field was defined relative to the orientation of the tops of the rotated letters (lower visual field in the Rotated +90 condition and upper visual field in the Rotated -90 condition). These results demonstrate that the internal representation of locations in space is more important in predicting visual field asymmetries, at least in the present task, than the field of stimulus presentation relative to the fovea.
A Global Terrestrial Reference Frame from simulated VLBI and SLR data in view of GGOS
Glaser, Susanne; König, Rolf; Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Nilsson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Flechtner, Frank; Schuh, Harald
2017-07-01
In this study, we assess the impact of two combination strategies, namely local ties (LT) and global ties (GT), on the datum realization of Global Terrestrial Reference Frames in view of the Global Geodetic Observing System requiring 1 mm-accuracy. Simulated Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data over a 7 year time span was used. The LT results show that the geodetic datum can be best transferred if the precision of the LT is at least 1 mm. Investigating different numbers of LT, the lack of co-located sites on the southern hemisphere is evidenced by differences of 9 mm in translation and rotation compared to the solution using all available LT. For the GT, the combination applying all Earth rotation parameters (ERP), such as pole coordinates and UT1-UTC, indicates that the rotation around the Z axis cannot be adequately transferred from VLBI to SLR within the combination. Applying exclusively the pole coordinates as GT, we show that the datum can be transferred with mm-accuracy within the combination. Furthermore, adding artificial stations in Tahiti and Nigeria to the current VLBI network results in an improvement in station positions by 13 and 12%, respectively, and in ERP by 17 and 11%, respectively. Extending to every day VLBI observations leads to 65% better ERP estimates compared to usual twice-weekly VLBI observations.
Time-odd mean fields in the rotating frame microscopic nature of nuclear magnetism
Afanasiev, A V
2000-01-01
The microscopic role of nuclear magnetism in rotating frame is investigated for the first time in the framework of the cranked relativistic mean field theory. It is shown that nuclear magnetism modifies the expectation values of single-particle spin, orbital and total angular momenta along the rotational axis effectively creating additional angular momentum. This effect leads to the increase of kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia at given rotational frequency and has an impact on effective alignments.
Kelly, Jonathan W.; Sjolund, Lori A.; Sturz, Bradley R.
2013-01-01
Spatial memories are often organized around reference frames, and environmental shape provides a salient cue to reference frame selection. To date, however, the environmental cues responsible for influencing reference frame selection remain relatively unknown. To connect research on reference frame selection with that on orientation via…
Satoshi Yamaguchi
Full Text Available Biomechanical effects of laterally wedged insoles are assessed by reduction in the knee adduction moment. However, the degree of reduction may vary depending on the reference frame with which it is calculated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reference frame on the reduction in the knee adduction moment by laterally wedged insoles.Twenty-nine healthy participants performed gait trials with a laterally wedged insole and with a flat insole as a control. The knee adduction moment, including the first and second peaks and the angular impulse, were calculated using four different reference frames: the femoral frame, tibial frame, laboratory frame and the Joint Coordinate System.There were significant effects of reference frame on the knee adduction moment first and second peaks (P < 0.001 for both variables, while the effect was not significant for the angular impulse (P = 0.84. No significant interaction between the gait condition and reference frame was found in either of the knee adduction moment variables (P = 0.99 for all variables, indicating that the effects of laterally wedged insole on the knee adduction moments were similar across the four reference frames. On the other hand, the average percent changes ranged from 9% to 16% for the first peak, from 16% to 18% for the second peak and from 17% to 21% for the angular impulse when using the different reference frames.The effects of laterally wedged insole on the reduction in the knee adduction moment were similar across the reference frames. On the other hand, Researchers need to recognize that when the percent change was used as the parameter of the efficacy of laterally wedged insole, the choice of reference frame may influence the interpretation of how laterally wedged insoles affect the knee adduction moment.
Gabriele Janzen
Full Text Available This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigates a crucial parameter in spatial description, namely variants in the frame of reference chosen. Two frames of reference are available in European languages for the description of small-scale assemblages, namely the intrinsic (or object-oriented frame and the relative (or egocentric frame. We showed participants a sentence such as "the ball is in front of the man", ambiguous between the two frames, and then a picture of a scene with a ball and a man--participants had to respond by indicating whether the picture did or did not match the sentence. There were two blocks, in which we induced each frame of reference by feedback. Thus for the crucial test items, participants saw exactly the same sentence and the same picture but now from one perspective, now the other. Using this method, we were able to precisely pinpoint the pattern of neural activation associated with each linguistic interpretation of the ambiguity, while holding the perceptual stimuli constant. Increased brain activity in bilateral parahippocampal gyrus was associated with the intrinsic frame of reference whereas increased activity in the right superior frontal gyrus and in the parietal lobe was observed for the relative frame of reference. The study is among the few to show a distinctive pattern of neural activation for an abstract yet specific semantic parameter in language. It shows with special clarity the nature of the neural substrate supporting each frame of spatial reference.
Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy
Cheng, Frank Shaopeng
2008-01-01
This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...
Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy
Cheng, Frank Shaopeng
2008-01-01
This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...
Moreaux, Guilhem; Lemoine, Frank G.; Capdeville, Hugues; Kuzin, Sergey; Otten, Michiel; Štěpánek, Petr; Willis, Pascal; Ferrage, Pascale
2016-12-01
In preparation of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014), the International DORIS Service delivered to the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service a set of 1140 weekly solution files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. The data come from eleven DORIS satellites: TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2, Cryosat-2, Saral and HY-2A. In their processing, the six analysis centers which contributed to the DORIS combined solution used the latest time variable gravity models and estimated DORIS ground beacon frequency variations. Furthermore, all the analysis centers but one excepted included in their processing phase center variations for ground antennas. The main objective of this study is to present the combination process and to analyze the impact of the new modeling on the performance of the new combined solution. Comparisons with the IDS contribution to ITRF2008 show that (i) the application of the DORIS ground phase center variations in the data processing shifts the combined scale upward by nearly 7-11 mm and (ii) thanks to estimation of DORIS ground beacon frequency variations, the new combined solution no longer shows any scale discontinuity in early 2002 and does not present unexplained vertical discontinuities in any station position time series. However, analysis of the new series with respect to ITRF2008 exhibits a scale increase late 2011 which is not yet explained. A new DORIS Terrestrial Reference Frame was computed to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the new combined solution. That evaluation shows that the addition of data from the new missions equipped with the latest generation of DORIS receiver (Jason-2, Cryosat-2, HY-2A, Saral), results in an internal position consistency of 10 mm or better after mid-2008.
High-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame
Farrar, C. T.; Hall, D. A.; Gerfen, G. J.
2000-01-01
A proton dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancement (ϵ) close to thermal equilibrium, ϵ = 0.89, has been obtained at high field (B0 = 5 T, νepr = 139.5 GHz) using 15 mM trityl radical in a 40:60 water/glycerol frozen solution at 11 K. The electron-nuclear polarization transfer...... is performed in the nuclear rotating frame with microwave irradiation during a nuclear spin-lock pulse. The growth of the signal enhancement is governed by the rotating frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1ρ), which is four orders of magnitude shorter than the nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1n......). Due to the rapid polarization transfer in the nuclear rotating frame the experiment can be recycled at a rate of 1/T1ρ and is not limited by the much slower lab frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation rate (1/T1n). The increased repetition rate allowed in the nuclear rotating frame provides an effective...
Transverse relaxation in the rotating frame induced by chemical exchange
Michaeli, Shalom; Sorce, Dennis J.; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Ugurbil, Kamil; Garwood, Michael
2004-08-01
In the presence of radiofrequency irradiation, relaxation of magnetization aligned with the effective magnetic field is characterized by the time constant T1 ρ. On the other hand, the time constant T2 ρ characterizes the relaxation of magnetization that is perpendicular to the effective field. Here, it is shown that T2 ρ can be measured directly with Carr-Purcell sequences composed of a train of adiabatic full-passage (AFP) pulses. During adiabatic rotation, T2 ρ characterizes the relaxation of the magnetization, which under adiabatic conditions remains approximately perpendicular to the time-dependent effective field. Theory is derived to describe the influence of chemical exchange on T2 ρ relaxation in the fast-exchange regime, with time constant defined as T2 ρ,ex . The derived theory predicts the rate constant R 2ρ, ex (=1/T 2ρ, ex) to be dependent on the choice of amplitude- and frequency-modulation functions used in the AFP pulses. Measurements of R2 ρ,ex of the water/ethanol exchanging system confirm the predicted dependence on modulation functions. The described theoretical framework and adiabatic methods represent new tools to probe exchanging systems.
Hypervelocity impact studies using a rotating mirror framing laser shadowgraph camera
Parker, Vance C.; Crews, Jeanne Lee
1988-01-01
The need to study the effects of the impact of micrometeorites and orbital debris on various space-based systems has brought together the technologies of several companies and individuals in order to provide a successful instrumentation package. A light gas gun was employed to accelerate small projectiles to speeds in excess of 7 km/sec. Their impact on various targets is being studied with the help of a specially designed continuous-access rotating-mirror framing camera. The camera provides 80 frames of data at up to 1 x 10 to the 6th frames/sec with exposure times of 20 nsec.
Krásná, Hana; Malkin, Zinovy; Böhm, Johannes
The increasing accuracy and growing time span of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations allow the determination of seasonal signals in station positions which still remain unmodelled in conventional analysis approaches. In this study we focus on the impact of the neglected seasonal signals in the station displacement on the celestial reference frame and Earth orientation parameters. We estimate empirical harmonic models for selected stations within a global solution of all suitable VLBI sessions and create mean annual models by stacking yearly time series of station positions which are then entered a priori in the analysis of VLBI observations. Our results reveal that there is no systematic propagation of the seasonal signal into the orientation of celestial reference frame but position changes occur for radio sources observed non-evenly over the year. On the other hand, the omitted seasonal harmonic signal in horizontal station coordinates propagates directly into the Earth rotation parameters causing differences of several tens of microarcseconds.
Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager
2011-01-01
of an object-centered, rather than egocentric, spatial reference frame. In this behavioral experiment we wanted to demonstrate a causal relationship between eye movement control and manipulation of spatial reference frames. Sixty two participants recalled either spatial ("Was X in front of Y?") or non...... were significantly slower for spatial relations with distraction while there was no effect on non-spatial relations. There was no effect on accuracy, i.e. WM maintenance. This is consistent with the hypothesis that in spatial representations the FEFs are involved in WM content manipulation......, such as establishing an object-centered spatial frame of reference....
Moving Frames of Reference, Relativity and Invariance in Transfer Entropy and Information Dynamics
Joseph T. Lizier
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new interpretation of a local framework for informationdynamics, including the transfer entropy, by defining a moving frame of reference for theobserver of dynamics in lattice systems. This formulation is inspired by the idea ofinvestigating “relativistic” effects on observing the dynamics of information - in particular,we investigate a Galilean transformation of the lattice system data. In applying thisinterpretation to elementary cellular automata, we demonstrate that using a moving frameof reference certainly alters the observed spatiotemporal measurements of informationdynamics, yet still returns meaningful results in this context. We find that, as expected,an observer will report coherent spatiotemporal structures that are moving in their frame asinformation transfer, and structures that are stationary in their frame as information storage.Crucially, the extent to which the shifted frame of reference alters the results dependson whether the shift of frame retains, adds or removes relevant information regarding thesource-destination interaction.
Four-Year-Olds Use a Mixture of Spatial Reference Frames.
James Negen
Full Text Available Keeping track of unseen objects is an important spatial skill. In order to do this, people must situate the object in terms of different frames of reference, including body position (egocentric frame of reference, landmarks in the surrounding environment (extrinsic frame reference, or other attached features (intrinsic frame of reference. Nardini et al. hid a toy in one of 12 cups in front of children, turned the array when they were not looking, and then asked them to point to the cup with the toy. This forced children to use the intrinsic frame (information about the array of cups to locate the hidden toy. Three-year-olds made systematic errors by using the wrong frame of reference, 4-year-olds were at chance, and only 5- and 6-year-olds were successful. Can we better understand the developmental change that takes place at four years? This paper uses a modelling approach to re-examine the data and distinguish three possible strategies that could lead to the previous results at four years: (1 Children were choosing cups randomly, (2 Children were pointing between the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location and the correct target, and (3 Children were pointing near the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location on some trials and near the target on the rest. Results heavily favor the last possibility: 4-year-olds were not just guessing or trying to combine the available frames of reference. They were using the intrinsic frame on some trials, but not doing so consistently. These insights suggest that accounts of improving spatial performance at 4 years need to explain why there is a mixture of responses. Further application of the selected model also suggests that children become both more reliant on the correct frame and more accurate with any chosen frame as they mature.
Four-Year-Olds Use a Mixture of Spatial Reference Frames.
Negen, James; Nardini, Marko
2015-01-01
Keeping track of unseen objects is an important spatial skill. In order to do this, people must situate the object in terms of different frames of reference, including body position (egocentric frame of reference), landmarks in the surrounding environment (extrinsic frame reference), or other attached features (intrinsic frame of reference). Nardini et al. hid a toy in one of 12 cups in front of children, turned the array when they were not looking, and then asked them to point to the cup with the toy. This forced children to use the intrinsic frame (information about the array of cups) to locate the hidden toy. Three-year-olds made systematic errors by using the wrong frame of reference, 4-year-olds were at chance, and only 5- and 6-year-olds were successful. Can we better understand the developmental change that takes place at four years? This paper uses a modelling approach to re-examine the data and distinguish three possible strategies that could lead to the previous results at four years: (1) Children were choosing cups randomly, (2) Children were pointing between the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location and the correct target, and (3) Children were pointing near the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location on some trials and near the target on the rest. Results heavily favor the last possibility: 4-year-olds were not just guessing or trying to combine the available frames of reference. They were using the intrinsic frame on some trials, but not doing so consistently. These insights suggest that accounts of improving spatial performance at 4 years need to explain why there is a mixture of responses. Further application of the selected model also suggests that children become both more reliant on the correct frame and more accurate with any chosen frame as they mature.
Frame Dragging Effect on Properties of Rotating Neutron Stars with Strong Magnetic Field
GUO Yu-Wu; WEN De-Hua; HU Jian-Xun
2008-01-01
The general relativistic frame dragging effect on the properties, such as the moments of inertia and the radii of gyration of fast rotating neutron stars with a uniform strong magnetic field, is calculated accurate to the first order in the uniform angular velocity. The results show that compared with the corresponding non-rotating static spherical symmetric neutron star with a weaker magnetic field, a fast rotating neutron star (millisecond pulsar) with a stronger magnetic field has a relative smaller moment of inertia and radius of gyration.
Motion, frames of reference, dead horses, and metaphysics (comment on Stoffregen & Bardy, 2001)
Wertheim, A.H.
2001-01-01
Various annoyingly incorrect statements of Stoffregen & Bardy are corrected, for example, that perception researchers commonly use the term "absolute motion" to denote motion without any frame of reference, confuse earth-relative and gravity-relative motion, err with respect to the frame of
Academe, Technology, Society, and the Market: Four Frames of Reference for Copyright and Fair Use.
Metcalfe, Amy; Diaz, Veronica; Wagoner, Richard
2003-01-01
Suggests that varied and often understated uses of copyrighted materials exist in academic settings. Introduces four "frames" of reference: Academic, Technological, Social, and Market. Presents court cases relevant to each frame. Explores two scenarios involving use of copyrighted materials. As technology increases both access and control, the…
Motion, frames of reference, dead horses, and metaphysics (comment on Stoffregen & Bardy, 2001)
Wertheim, A.H.
2001-01-01
Various annoyingly incorrect statements of Stoffregen & Bardy are corrected, for example, that perception researchers commonly use the term "absolute motion" to denote motion without any frame of reference, confuse earth-relative and gravity-relative motion, err with respect to the frame of referenc
Locally Inertial Reference Frames in Lorentzian and Riemann-Cartan Spacetimes
Giglio, J F T
2011-01-01
In this paper we scrutinize the concept of locally inertial reference frames (LIRF) in Lorentzian and Riemann-Cartan spacetime structures. We present rigorous mathematical definitions for those objects, something that needs preliminary a clear mathematical distinction between the concepts of observers, reference frames, naturally adapted coordinate functions to a given reference frame and which properties may characterize an inertial reference frame (if any) in the Lorentzian and Riemann-Cartan structures. We hope to have clarified some eventual obscure issues associated to the concept of LIRF appearing in the literature, in particular the relationship between LIRFs in Lorentzian and Riemann-Cartan spacetimes and Einstein's most happy though, i.e., the equivalence principle.
Pang, Hongfeng; Zhu, XueJun; Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao
2016-12-01
Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively.
The task of the relativistic oscillator in a non-inertial frame of reference
Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.
2016-09-01
The relativistic theory is one of the most difficult parts of theoretical physics to understand by high school students and scientists alike. In this paper, the important aspects from this theory are considered. The case of the non-inertial reference frame in which the space-time interval was presented for the Lorentz-like transformations, and the condition by which the transition to the inertial reference frame takes place, is shown.
Frames of reference that address the impact of physical environments on occupational performance.
Whedon, Caren A.
2000-01-01
A frame of reference is the mechanism for linking theory to practice. It may be the most practical and important tool a professional uses. As the practice of occupational therapy has evolved, so has the basis of information, or theories, on which it is grounded. From the theories, models have been developed that typically view occupational performance as a transaction between the person, occupation and environment. Occupational therapy practitioners use many frames of reference. Not all of them address all areas of occupational performance identified within this overarching model. Often the area of the environment does not receive attention. To do their jobs thoroughly, occupational therapy practitioners need frames of reference for thinking about the environment. The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore frames of reference that may be useful to occupational therapy practitioners when they are taking into consideration the physical environment. Included are the following frames of reference: ergonomics, industrial hygiene, environmental psychology, accessibility and feng shui. A case study is presented to illustrate the unique perspective of each frame of reference.
Plummer, Julia D.; Bower, Corinne A.; Liben, Lynn S.
2016-02-01
This study investigates the role of perspective-taking skills in how children explain spatially complex astronomical phenomena. Explaining many astronomical phenomena, especially those studied in elementary and middle school, requires shifting between an Earth-based description of the phenomena and a space-based reference frame. We studied 7- to 9-year-old children (N = 15) to (a) develop a method for capturing how children make connections between reference frames and to (b) explore connections between perspective-taking skill and the nature of children's explanations. Children's explanations for the apparent motion of the Sun and stars and for seasonal changes in constellations were coded for accuracy of explanation, connection between frames of reference, and use of gesture. Children with higher spatial perspective-taking skills made more explicit connections between reference frames and used certain gesture-types more frequently, although this pattern was evident for only some phenomena. Findings suggest that children - particularly those with lower perspective-taking skills - may need additional support in learning to explicitly connect reference frames in astronomy. Understanding spatial thinking among children who successfully made explicit connections between reference frames in their explanations could be a starting point for future instruction in this domain.
Pang, Hongfeng [Academy of Equipment, Beijing 101416 (China); College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhu, XueJun, E-mail: zhuxuejun1990@126.com [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2016-12-01
Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.
Kassinos, S. C.
2000-11-01
A closed-form solution for the evolution of one-point statistics is derived for the case of initially two-dimensional three-component (2D-3C) homogeneous turbulence deformed by rapid shear in a rotating frame. Cases with and without stratification are considered. Except for small total shear, the analytical result is shown to be in good agreement with the numerical solution of the governing equations, linearized for rapid distortions, and solved for the more general initial case of 3D-3C isotropic homogeneous turbulence. Based on this agreement, we show that the closed-from solution provides insight into the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of frame rotation on homogeneous stratified shear flow, and provides a useful reference point for the one-point modeling of rotated and stratified shear flows. This analysis provides insights on the stability of stratified homogeneous shear flows that are missed by the standard two-dimensional two-component (2D-2C) treatment of stability issues in these flows.
Binocular perception of slant about oblique axes relative to a visual frame of reference
Ee, R. van; Erkelens, Casper J.
2001-01-01
From the literature it is known that the processing of disparity for slant is different in the presence and in the absence of a visual frame of reference. We elaborate the experimental finding that vertical disparity is not processed for slant perception in the presence of a visual reference. This t
A Reference Frame for PBO: What do we Have; What do we Need?
Blewitt, G.
2003-12-01
By definition, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) will investigate the mechanics associated with the boundary between the North America and Pacific plates. A natural frame of reference to describe crustal deformation between these two plates would be one in which the far field appears to be stationary, which leads to two possibilities: the "stable North America frame" or the "stable Pacific frame." The theory of plate tectonics pre-supposes the existence of such entities. Within such a framework the sum of deformations across contiguous regions of the plate boundary zone are constrained by the known relative far-field plate motion. However both theory and observation complicate this simplified framework. Are "stable plate interiors" a meaningful concept at the level of anticipated geodetic accuracy? Observational evidence suggests that most of the North America and Pacific Plates appear to be horizontally stable at the level of 1--2 mm/yr over plate-wide distance scales, which is not a very stringent constraint given current and anticipated station velocity accuracies at Pacific-North America plate boundary zone is so broad that gravitational potential energy and mantle dynamics must play an important role - how deep into the plates do these dynamics have a measurable effect? How should we account for glacial isostatic adjustment in the definition of a plate-fixed frame? How should we define a "vertical datum" that is theoretically useful and can be realized in practice? In this presentation I review the current status of reference frame theory and actual practice, and I outline current thinking on the reference frame needs for PBO that derives from the working group on the "Stable North America Reference Frame" (SNARF), recently formed under the auspices of UNAVCO and the IAG sub-commission on the North America Reference Frame (NAREF).
Energy and spatial momentum of charged rotating frames in tetrad gravity
Gamal G.L. Nashed
2011-01-01
We compute the total energy and the spatial momentum of four charged rotating (Kerr-Newman) frames by using the gravitational energy-momentum 3-form within the framework of the tetrad formulation of the general relativity theory.We show how the effect of the inertial always makes the total energy divergent.We use a natural regularization method,which yields the physical value for the total energy of the system.We show how the regularization method works on a number of different rotating frames that are related to each other by the local Lorentz transformation.We also show that the inertial has no effect on the spatial momentum components.
International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión
Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.
A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al International Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.
Generalized Faraday law derived from classical forces in a rotating frame
Choi, Taeseung
2009-01-01
We show the additional spin dependent classical force due to the rotation of an electron spin's rest frame is essential to derive a spin-Faraday law by using an analogy with the usual Faraday law. The contribution of the additional spin dependent force to the spin-Faraday law is the same as that of the spin geometric phase. With this observations, Faraday law is generalized to include both the usual Faraday and the spin-Faraday laws in a unified manner.
Malkin, Z; Arias, F; Boboltz, D; Boehm, J; Bolotin, S; Bourda, G; Charlot, P; De Witt, A; Fey, A; Gaume, R; Heinkelmann, R; Lambert, S; Ma, C; Nothnagel, A; Seitz, M; Gordon, D; Skurikhina, E; Souchay, J; Titov, O
2015-01-01
The goal of this presentation is to report the latest progress in creation of the next generation of VLBI-based International Celestial Reference Frame, ICRF3. Two main directions of ICRF3 development are improvement of the S/X-band frame and extension of the ICRF to higher frequencies. Another important task of this work is the preparation for comparison of ICRF3 with the new generation optical frame GCRF expected by the end of the decade as a result of the Gaia mission.
Thermodynamic Properties of Spherically-Symmetric, Uniformly-Accelerated Reference Frames
ZHANG Jian-Bao; HUANG Chao-Guang; LIU Zeng-Rong; SUN Jia-Rui; LI Ying
2008-01-01
We aim to study the thermodynamic properties of the spherically symmetric reference frames with uniform acceleration, including the spherically symmetric generalization of Rindler reference frame and the new kind of uniformly accelerated reference frame. We find that, unlike the general studies about the horizon thermodynamics, one cannot obtain the laws of thermodynamics for their horizons in the usual approaches, despite that one can formally define an area entropy (Bekenstein-Hawking entropy). In fact, the common horizon for a set of uniformly accelerated observers does not always exist, even though the Hawking-Unruh temperature is still well-defined. This result indicates that the Hawking-Unruh temperature is only a kinematic effect, and to gain the laws of thermodynamics for the horizon, one needs the help of dynamics. Our result is in accordance with those from the various studies about the acoustic black holes.
Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English
Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
2014-06-01
The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.
Quantum ring in a rotating frame in the presence of a topological defect
Dantas, L.; Furtado, C.; Silva Netto, A. L.
2015-01-01
In this contribution, we study the effects caused by rotation of an electron/hole in the presence of a screw dislocation confined in a quantum ring potential, within a quantum dynamics. The Tan-Inkson potential is used to model the confinement of the particle in two-dimensional quantum ring. We suppose that the quantum ring is placed in the presence of an external uniform magnetic field and an Aharonov-Bohm flux in the center of the system, and that the frame rotates around the z-axis. The Schrödinger equation is solved and the eigenfunctions and energy eigenvalues are exactly obtained for this configuration. The influence of the dislocation and the rotation on both the persistent current and magnetization is also studied.
Quantum mechanics in noninertial reference frames: Relativistic accelerations and fictitious forces
Klink, W.H., E-mail: william-klink@uiowa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wickramasekara, S., E-mail: wickrama@grinnell.edu [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States)
2016-06-15
One-particle systems in relativistically accelerating reference frames can be associated with a class of unitary representations of the group of arbitrary coordinate transformations, an extension of the Wigner–Bargmann definition of particles as the physical realization of unitary irreducible representations of the Poincaré group. Representations of the group of arbitrary coordinate transformations become necessary to define unitary operators implementing relativistic acceleration transformations in quantum theory because, unlike in the Galilean case, the relativistic acceleration transformations do not themselves form a group. The momentum operators that follow from these representations show how the fictitious forces in noninertial reference frames are generated in quantum theory.
DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits
Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
. This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...... are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control method....
The task of the relativistic oscillator in a non-inertial frame of reference
Perepelkin, E E; Inozemtseva, N G
2016-01-01
In this paper the analogues of the Lorentz transformations for non-inertial reference frames have been obtained. A common case when the movement speed of one coordinate frame in relation to another one can have time derivatives of higher orders. The obtained transformations conserve invariance of the space-time interval, and in the particular case of inertial frames become the well-known Lorentz transformations. It is shown that the transition from classical mechanics to the theory of relativity is analogous to the consideration of the vibrating system described by the equation of the sine-Gordon type. In this case, if the amplitude of the elliptic functions is $k\\to 0$ the fluctuations can be considered small, and that leads to classical mechanics. With $k\\to 1$ time depends on the vibration amplitude, which leads to the theory of relativity. In the case of inertial frames the amplitude is $k=\\beta ={v}/{c}\\;$.
Supercontinent Pangea, Mantle Dynamics, and Reference Frame of Global Plate Motions
Zhong, S.; Rudolph, M. L.; Liu, X.
2014-12-01
Arguably the most important and challenging goal in geodynamics is to understand the two-way dynamics between tectonic plates and mantle convection. While it has long been recognized that the present-day degree-2 mantle structure as imaged seismically is closely related to the plate motions (Hager and O'Connell, 1981) and their history (500 Ma (Torsvik et al., 2014), although its statistical significance has been challenged (Austermann et al., 2013). The proposals of the spatially stable Africa and Pacific LLSVPs and of the LIP eruptions along their edges have also been exploited in attempts to build global plate motion models since the Pangea assembly by providing a plate motion reference frame or inferring true polar wander (TPW) corrections to the plate motions (Torsvik et al., 2014). Second, mantle dynamics studies indicate that degree-1 mantle convection, which is expected with realistic lithospheric and mantle viscosity, may be needed for assembly of a supercontinent (e.g., Pangea) (Zhong et al., 2007). This suggests that the present degree-2 mantle structure may have been formed only after the Pangea assembly from an initially degree-1 structure - a scenario that is consistent with convection calculations with a proxy plate motion model that considers Pangea process (Zhang et al., 2010). In this presentation, in addition to critically reviewing these arguments, we will discuss calculations of long-wavelength geoid for the mantle with thermochemical piles and LLSVPs and their potential effects on TPW determinations and hence reconstruction of plate motion (i.e., net lithospheric rotation). We will also present additional calculations of mantle structure evolution using different plate motion history models.
Maintenance of the Geodetic Reference Frame in the Global Positioning System
Oria, A.; Brodsky, B. L.; Labrecque, J.; Miller, J. J.; Moreau, M.; Pearlman, M.; Nelson, R.
2007-12-01
In the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the satellite coordinates and the underlying World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) reference frame are derived from observables such as pseudorandom noise (PRN) signals, and carrier phase, which are referenced to on-board atomic clocks. Systematic errors exist in both the estimated satellite coordinates and the reference frame. The reference frame utilizes external inputs in the form of International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) coordinates and constrains the results to be compatible with the ITRF coordinates for a set of global reference stations. The ITRF is, in turn, obtained from the combined analysis of GPS, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) data. The current realization of the reference frame could be described as circular in that an independent method of external verification is currently not available. To ensure the continued successful operation of the GPS it is necessary to have the capability of analyzing systematic errors by an independent means from current radiometric observables and data from foreign sources. In practice, accuracy of the standards used for measurement should be better than the expected, required operational measurement accuracy by a factor of ten to ensure that the desired requirement is met. Currently, the accuracy of both the ITRF and the WGS 84 is estimated to be on the order of 1 to 2 parts per billion, leading to expected drifts of 0.6 to 1.2 cm per year. The experience of the last three decades has indicated an approximate improvement by a factor of ten per decade. Therefore, while current accuracy of the ITRF and WGS 84 reference frames marginally meets civilian and military requirements, it is very likely that, within the lifetime of GPS III, the accuracy of the reference frames will be unable to meet the anticipated requirements. This report examines
Trunev A. P.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Metric describing the accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity on time has been proposed. It is established that the curvature tensor in such metrics is zero, which corresponds to movement in the flat spaces. It is shown that the motion of test bodies in the metric accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity is similarly to the classical motion in non-inertial reference frame. Maxwell's equations and Yang-Mills theory are converted to the moving axes in metric describes the acceleration and rotating reference frame in the general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity of the system from time. The article discusses the known effects associated with acceleration and (or the rotation of the reference frame - the Sagnac effect, the effect of the Stewart-Tolman and other similar effects. The numerical model of wave propagation in non-inertial reference frames in the case when potential depending of one, two and three spatial dimensions has been developed. It has been shown in numerical experiment that the acceleration of the reference system leads to retardation effects, as well as to a violation of the symmetry of the wave front, indicating that there is local change of wave speed
Testing nonlocality of a single photon without a shared reference frame
Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Chaves, Rafael; Brunner, Nicolas
2013-07-01
The question of testing the nonlocality of a single photon has raised much debate over the last years. The controversy is intimately related to the issue of providing a common reference frame for the observers to perform their local measurements. Here we address this point by presenting a simple scheme for demonstrating the nonlocality of a single photon which does not require a shared reference frame. Specifically, Bell inequality violation can be obtained with certainty with unaligned devices, even if the relative frame fluctuates between each experimental run of the Bell test. Our scheme appears feasible with current technology and may simplify the realization of quantum communication protocols based on single-photon entanglement.
Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard
2008-01-01
The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic…
Surtees, Andrew D.R.; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Apperly, Ian A.
2012-01-01
Two experiments tested 6- to 11-year-old children's and college students' use of different frames of reference when making judgments about descriptions of social and nonsocial scenes. In Experiment 1, when social and nonsocial scenes were mixed, both children and students (N = 144) showed spontaneou
DiSpezio, Michael A.
2011-01-01
This article addresses misconceptions surrounding the Coriolis force and describes how it should be presented as a function within inertial and noninertial frames of reference. Not only does this demonstrate the nature of science as it strives to best interpret the natural world (and presents alternative explanations), but it offers a rich…
Feldmann, C.T.; Bensing, J.M.; Ruijter, A. de; Boeije, H.R.
2006-01-01
The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The c
Titia Feldmann, C.; Bensing, J.; Ruijter, Arie de; Boeije, H.R.
2006-01-01
The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The c
Allocentric and egocentric reference frames in the processing of three-dimensional haptic space
Volcic, R.; Kappers, A.M.L.
2008-01-01
The main goal of our study is to gain insight into the reference frames involved in three-dimensional haptic spatial processing. Previous research has shown that two-dimensional haptic spatial processing is prone to large systematic deviations. A weighted average model that identifies the origin of
Hesselink, M.W.
2008-01-01
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the provisions of the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), in order to assess if the DCFR perceives contract law only as a tool for regulating private law relations between equally strong parties or if it contains elements of 'social justice' in favour
Aligning Body and World: Stable Reference Frames Improve Young Children's Search for Hidden Objects
Perry, Lynn K.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Spencer, John P.
2009-01-01
This study investigated how young children's increasingly flexible use of spatial reference frames enables accurate search for hidden objects by using a task that 3-year-olds have been shown to perform with great accuracy and 2-year-olds have been shown to perform inaccurately. Children watched as an object was rolled down a ramp, behind a panel…
"When was that date?" Building and assessing a frame of reference in the Netherlands
van Drie, J.; Logtenberg, A.; van der Meijden, B.; van Riessen, M.
2009-01-01
Concerns about our ability to equip young people with a frame of reference that they can actually use to orient themselves in time are widespread. The challenges were extensively debated within the last issue of Teaching History, with teachers, researchers and historians not only exploring the
The Reciprocal Internal/External Frame of Reference Model Using Grades and Test Scores
Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf
2014-01-01
Background: The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects…
"When was that date?" Building and assessing a frame of reference in the Netherlands
van Drie, J.; Logtenberg, A.; van der Meijden, B.; van Riessen, M.
2009-01-01
Concerns about our ability to equip young people with a frame of reference that they can actually use to orient themselves in time are widespread. The challenges were extensively debated within the last issue of Teaching History, with teachers, researchers and historians not only exploring the merit
Plummer, Julia D.; Bower, Corinne A.; Liben, Lynn S.
2016-01-01
This study investigates the role of perspective-taking skills in how children explain spatially complex astronomical phenomena. Explaining many astronomical phenomena, especially those studied in elementary and middle school, requires shifting between an Earth-based description of the phenomena and a space-based reference frame. We studied 7- to…
Hesselink, M.W.
2008-01-01
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the provisions of the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), in order to assess if the DCFR perceives contract law only as a tool for regulating private law relations between equally strong parties or if it contains elements of 'social justice' in favour
Layout Geometry in the Selection of Intrinsic Frames of Reference from Multiple Viewpoints
Mou, Weimin; Zhao, Mintao; McNamara, Timothy P.
2007-01-01
Four experiments investigated the roles of layout geometry in the selection of intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of objects in a room from 2 or 3 viewing perspectives. One view corresponded to the axis of bilateral symmetry of the layout, and the other view(s) was (were) nonorthogonal to the axis…
Accuracy of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame origin and Earth expansion
Wu, X.; Collilieux, X.; Altamimi, Z.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Gross, R.S.; Fukumori, I.
2011-01-01
The International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is a fundamental datum for high‐precision orbit tracking, navigation, and global change monitoring. Accurately realizing and maintaining ITRF origin at the mean Earth system center of mass (CM) is critical to surface and spacecraft based geodetic
Higher‐order ionospheric effects on the GPS reference frame and velocities
Petrie, E.J.; King, M.A.; Moore, P.; Lavallée, D.A.
2010-01-01
We describe how GPS time series are influenced by higher‐order ionospheric effects over the last solar cycle (1995–2008) and examine implications for geophysical studies. Using 14 years of globally reprocessed solutions, we demonstrate the effect on the reference frame. Including second‐ and
Understanding Frame-of-Reference Training Success: A Social Learning Theory Perspective
Sulsky, Lorne M.; Kline, Theresa J. B.
2007-01-01
Employing the social learning theory (SLT) perspective on training, we analysed the effects of alternative frame-of-reference (FOR) training protocols on various criteria of training effectiveness. Undergraduate participants (N = 65) were randomly assigned to one of four FOR training conditions and a control condition. Training effectiveness was…
Bhatia, Harsh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
2015-05-01
This dissertation presents research on addressing some of the contemporary challenges in the analysis of vector fields—an important type of scientific data useful for representing a multitude of physical phenomena, such as wind flow and ocean currents. In particular, new theories and computational frameworks to enable consistent feature extraction from vector fields are presented. One of the most fundamental challenges in the analysis of vector fields is that their features are defined with respect to reference frames. Unfortunately, there is no single “correct” reference frame for analysis, and an unsuitable frame may cause features of interest to remain undetected, thus creating serious physical consequences. This work develops new reference frames that enable extraction of localized features that other techniques and frames fail to detect. As a result, these reference frames objectify the notion of “correctness” of features for certain goals by revealing the phenomena of importance from the underlying data. An important consequence of using these local frames is that the analysis of unsteady (time-varying) vector fields can be reduced to the analysis of sequences of steady (timeindependent) vector fields, which can be performed using simpler and scalable techniques that allow better data management by accessing the data on a per-time-step basis. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art analysis of steady vector fields is not robust, as most techniques are numerical in nature. The residing numerical errors can violate consistency with the underlying theory by breaching important fundamental laws, which may lead to serious physical consequences. This dissertation considers consistency as the most fundamental characteristic of computational analysis that must always be preserved, and presents a new discrete theory that uses combinatorial representations and algorithms to provide consistency guarantees during vector field analysis along with the uncertainty
Extrinsic reference frames modify the neural substrates of object-location representations.
Chan, Edgar; Baumann, Oliver; Bellgrove, Mark A; Mattingley, Jason B
2013-04-01
The ability to form spatial representations of object locations is an important component of successful spatial navigation. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that environmental features that have a salient coordinate axis (e.g., a rectangular building or a geometrical room) may provide a reference frame for the encoding of object-location information. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine the brain networks engaged when object-location representations are stored with respect to an extrinsic reference frame. Participants learned the layout of an object array in an active, virtual-navigation paradigm. A square mat positioned on the floor of the virtual arena acted as the extrinsic reference frame. Knowledge of the spatial arrangement of the object array was probed while participants underwent fMRI, using a spatial judgment task that required them to imagine orientations of the learned array that were either aligned or misaligned with the geometry of the mat. Consistent with previous findings, participants responded faster and were more accurate when the imagined orientation was aligned, as opposed to misaligned, with the extrinsic reference frame. Analysis of the fMRI data revealed important differences in brain activity between the two conditions. Significantly greater activity was observed in the aligned condition compared with the misaligned condition across a bilateral network of brain areas that included the inferior occipital gyri, inferior and middle temporal gyri, and fusiform gyri. By contrast, activity in the misaligned condition was significantly greater than in the aligned condition in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, and in the right anterior prefrontal and anterior insular cortex. These results suggest that retrieval of spatial locations that are aligned with an extrinsic reference frame involve direct access to detailed and accurate representations within the ventral visual
Murase, Kenya
2013-11-01
We previously derived a simple equation for solving time-dependent Bloch equations by a matrix operation. The purpose of this study was to present a theoretical and numerical consideration of the longitudinal (R1ρ=1/T1ρ) and transverse relaxation rates in the rotating frame (R2ρ=1/T2ρ), based on this method. First, we derived an equation describing the time evolution of the magnetization vector (M(t)) by expanding the matrix exponential into the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors using diagonalization. Second, we obtained the longitudinal magnetization vector in the rotating frame (M1ρ(t)) by taking the inner product of M(t) and the eigenvector with the smallest eigenvalue in modulus, and then we obtained the transverse magnetization vector in the rotating frame (M2ρ(t)) by subtracting M1ρ(t) from M(t). For comparison, we also computed the spin-locked magnetization vector. We derived the exact solutions for R1ρ and R2ρ from the eigenvalues, and compared them with those obtained numerically from M1ρ(t) and M2ρ(t), respectively. There was excellent agreement between them. From the exact solutions for R1ρ and R2ρ, R2ρ was found to be given by R2ρ=(2R2+R1)/2-R1ρ/2, where R1 and R2 denote the conventional longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates, respectively. We also derived M1ρ(t) and M2ρ(t) for bulk water protons, in which the effect of chemical exchange was taken into account using a 2-pool chemical exchange model, and we compared the R1ρ and R2ρ values obtained from the eigenvalues and those obtained numerically from M1ρ(t) and M2ρ(t). There was also excellent agreement between them. In conclusion, this study will be useful for better understanding of the longitudinal and transverse relaxations in the rotating frame and for analyzing the contrast mechanisms in T1ρ- and T2ρ-weighted MRI.
Generalized Faraday law derived from classical forces in a rotating frame
Choi, Taeseung [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2010-06-15
We show that an additional spin-dependent classical force due to the rotation of an electron spin's rest frame is essential to derive a spin-Faraday law that has the same form as the usual Faraday law. We show that the contribution of the additional spin-dependent force to the spin-Faraday law is the same as the time derivative of the spin geometric phase. With this observations, the spin-Faraday law is generalized to include both an Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect and a scalar AC effect in a unified manner.
Effects of rotating frame turbulence and dynamic stall on gust response of helicopter blades
Madhavan, R.; Gaonkar, G. H.
1989-01-01
The instantaneous or frequency-time spectrum of rotating frame turbulence (RFT) is presented. This spectrum makes it possible to predict the transfer of energy with respect to frequencies and the periodically varying nonstationarity with respect to time. Attention is also given to the RFT effects on the response statistics of an isolated rotor blade for low-advance-ratio and low-altitude conditions. It is noted that spectral density, rms values, and threshold-crossing expectation rates are significantly influenced by RFT.
Method of moving frames to solve the shallow water equations on arbitrary rotating curved surfaces
Chun, S.; Eskilsson, C.
2017-03-01
A novel numerical scheme is proposed to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs) on arbitrary rotating curved surfaces. Based on the method of moving frames (MMF) in which the geometry is represented by orthonormal vectors, the proposed scheme not only has the fewest dimensionality both in space and time, but also does not require either of metric tensors, composite meshes, or the ambient space. The MMF-SWE formulation is numerically discretized using the discontinuous Galerkin method of arbitrary polynomial order p in space and an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in time. The numerical model is validated against six standard tests on the sphere and the optimal order of convergence of p + 1 is numerically demonstrated. The MMF-SWE scheme is also demonstrated for its efficiency and stability on the general rotating surfaces such as ellipsoid, irregular, and non-convex surfaces.
A Ka-band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation
Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Sotuela, I.
2011-10-01
The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of ~200 micro-arcsec (μas) in α cos δ and ~300 μas in δ. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.
A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation
Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana
2011-01-01
The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.
A New Synchronous Reference Frame-Based Method for Single-Phase Shunt Active Power Filters
Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the design of a novel method in the synchronous reference frame (SRF) to extract the reference compensating current for single-phase shunt active power filters (APFs). Unlike previous works in the SRF, the proposed method has an innovative feature that it does not need...... the fictitious current signal. Frequency-independent operation, accurate reference current extraction and relatively fast transient response are other key features of the presented strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is investigated by means of detailed mathematical analysis. The results confirm...
Sobre as Bases de Referência Celeste (On the Celestial Reference Frames)
Martin, Vera A. F.; Poppe, Paulo C. R.
2003-05-01
Ao longo deste artigo, apresentamos, como continuidade à discussão apresentada no trabalho anterior, uma primeira discussão sobre algumas das principais bases de referência utilizadas em Astronomia. Da mesma forma, esperamos que o presente texto possa ser utilizado ao longo dos cursos de Introdução à Astronomia das atuais graduações de Física e áreas afins.
Raju, C. S. K.; Sandeep, N.
2017-01-01
In this study, we investigated the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of Casson nanofluid flow over a rotating cone in a rotating frame filled with water based CoFe2O4 nano particles. Heat flux conditions and wall temperature conditions are very important in controlling of up and down heat transport phenomena's in industrial as well as engineering application. Resulting set of coupled nonlinear governing equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta based shooting technique. In graphical results we presented dual solutions for the prescribed wall temperature (PWT) and prescribed heat flux (PHF) cases. The effect of governing parameters on velocity and temperature fields along with the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate are presented with the help of graphs and tables. Results indicate that the rising values of the volume fraction of ferro particles and buoyancy parameter have tendency to improve the skin friction coefficient as well as the heat transfer rate for both the prescribed wall temperature (PWT) and prescribed heat flux (PHF) cases.
Reference values for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in clinically healthy cats.
Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Riond, Barbara; Jud Schefer, Rahel; Kutter, Annette P N
2017-03-01
To establish reference intervals for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) using feline blood. Prospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-three clinically healthy cats between 1 and 15 years. For each cat, whole blood was collected via jugular or medial saphenous venipuncture, and blood was placed into a serum tube, a tube containing potassium-EDTA, and tubes containing 3.2% sodium citrate. The tubes were maintained at 37°C for a maximum of 30 minutes before coagulation testing. ROTEM tests included the EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays. In addition, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration (Clauss method) were analyzed for each cat. Reference intervals for ROTEM were calculated using the 2.5-97.5(th) percentile for each parameter, and correlation with the standard coagulation profile was performed. Compared to people, clinically healthy cats had similar values for the EXTEM and INTEM assays, but had lower plasma fibrinogen concentrations (0.9-2.2 g/L), resulting in weaker maximum clot firmness (MCF, 3-10 mm) in the FIBTEM test. In 18 cats, maximum lysis (ML) values in the APTEM test were higher than in the EXTEM test, which seems unlikely to have occurred in the presence of aprotinin. It is possible that the observed high maximum lysis values were due to clot retraction rather than true clot lysis. Further studies will be required to test this hypothesis. Cats have a weaker clot in the FIBTEM test, but have a similar clot strength to human blood in the other ROTEM assays, which may be due to a stronger contribution of platelets compared to that found in people. In cats, careful interpretation of the results to diagnose hyperfibrinolysis is advised, especially with the APTEM test, until further data are available. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.
Research Activities for the DORIS Contribution to the Next International Terrestrial Reference Frame
Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.
2012-01-01
For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the reference frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling. . . ). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next international reference frame.
Frontal eye fields involved in shifting frame of reference within working memory for scenes
Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas; Burgess, Neil
2008-01-01
Working memory (WM) evoked by linguistic cues for allocentric spatial and egocentric spatial aspects of a visual scene was investigated by correlating fMRI BOLD signal (or "activation") with performance on a spatial-relations task. Subjects indicated the relative positions of a person or object...... response during recall involving allocentric compared to egocentric spatial reference frames, and that this difference was larger in good performers than in poor performers as measured by the first behavioural principal component. The frontal eye fields may be used when subjects move their internal gaze...... during shifting reference frames in representational space. Analysis of actual eye movements in 3 subjects revealed no difference between egocentric and allocentric recall tasks where visual stimuli were also absent. Thus, the FEF machinery for directing eye movements may also be involved in changing...
Theory of Relativistic Reference Frames for High-Precision Astrometric Space Missions
Kopeikin, S M
2000-01-01
Recent modern space missions deliver invaluable information about origin of our universe, physical processes in the vicinity of black holes and other exotic astrophysical objects, stellar dynamics of our galaxy, etc. On the other hand, space astrometric missions make it possible to determine with unparalleled precision distances to stars and cosmological objects as well as their physical characteristics and positions on the celestial sphere. Permanently growing accuracy of space astronomical observations and the urgent need for adequate data processing algorithms require corresponding development of an adequate theory of reference frames along with unambiguous description of propagation of light rays from a source of light to observer. Such a theory must be based on the Einstein's general relativity and account for numerous relativistic effects both in the solar system and outside of its boundary. The main features of the relativistic theory of reference frames are presented in this work. A hierarchy of the f...
A computational model for reference-frame synthesis with applications to motion perception.
Clarke, Aaron M; Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H
2016-09-01
As discovered by the Gestaltists, in particular by Duncker, we often perceive motion to be within a non-retinotopic reference frame. For example, the motion of a reflector on a bicycle appears to be circular, whereas, it traces out a cycloidal path with respect to external world coordinates. The reflector motion appears to be circular because the human brain subtracts the horizontal motion of the bicycle from the reflector motion. The bicycle serves as a reference frame for the reflector motion. Here, we present a general mathematical framework, based on vector fields, to explain non-retinotopic motion processing. Using four types of non-retinotopic motion paradigms, we show how the theory works in detail. For example, we show how non-retinotopic motion in the Ternus-Pikler display can be computed.
Swaffield
1998-07-01
/ The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country
Le, Thinh Phuc; Scarani, Valerio
2011-01-01
We define a family of reference-frame-independent quantum cryptography protocols for arbitrary dimensional signals. The generalized entropic uncertainty relations [M. Tomamichel and R. Renner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 110506 (2011)] are used for the first time to derive security bounds for protocols which use more than two measurements and combine the statistics in a non-linear parameter. This shows the power and versatility of this technique compared to the heavier, though usually tighter, conventional techniques.
Rodriguez, Pedro; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Teodorescu, Remus
2007-01-01
This work exploits the Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (DDSRF-PLL) as an effective method for grid synchronization of WT's power converters in the presence of transient faults in the grid. The DDSRF-PLL uses a dual synchronous reference frame and a decoupling network to effectively...
Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.
This "Frame of Reference Study" consists of the fifth section of the final report of the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research of the University of Pittsburgh. The term, "frames of reference," is used to mean the context of assumptions, procedures, rules, cognitive models, and conceptions of the nature of…
Bernier, Pierre-Michel; Grafton, Scott T
2010-11-18
Current models of sensorimotor transformations emphasize the dominant role of gaze-centered representations for reach planning in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Here we exploit fMRI repetition suppression to test whether the sensory modality of a target determines the reference frame used to define the motor goal in the PPC and premotor cortex. We show that when targets are defined visually, the anterior precuneus selectively encodes the motor goal in gaze-centered coordinates, whereas the parieto-occipital junction, Brodman Area 5 (BA 5), and PMd use a mixed gaze- and body-centered representation. In contrast, when targets are defined by unseen proprioceptive cues, activity in these areas switches to represent the motor goal predominantly in body-centered coordinates. These results support computational models arguing for flexibility in reference frames for action according to sensory context. Critically, they provide neuroanatomical evidence that flexibility is achieved by exploiting a multiplicity of reference frames that can be expressed within individual areas.
Different effects of numerical magnitude on visual and proprioceptive reference frames
Elvio eBlini
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This study assessed whether numerical magnitude affects the setting of basic spatial coordinates and reference frames, namely the subjective straight ahead. Three tasks were given to 24 right-handed healthy participants: a proprioceptive and a visuo-proprioceptive task, requiring pointing to the subjective straight ahead, and a visual task, requiring a perceptual judgment about the straight ahead position of a light moving left-to-right, or right-to-left. A control task, requiring the bisection of rods of different lengths, was also given. The four tasks were performed under conditions of passive auditory numerical (i.e., listening to small, 2, and large, 8, numbers, and neutral auditory-verbal (blah stimulation. Numerical magnitude modulates the participants’ deviations in the visual straight ahead task, when the movement of the light is from left to right, with the small number bringing about a leftward deviation, the large number a rightward deviation. This result suggests that the spatial effects induced by the activation of the mental number line extend to an egocentric frame of reference. A similar directional modulation was found in the rod bisection task, in line with previous evidence. No effects of numerical magnitude were found on the proprioceptive and visuo-proprioceptive straight ahead tasks. These results suggest that the spatial effects induced by the activation of the mental number line extend to an egocentric frame of reference but only when a portion of horizontal space has to be actively explored.
Schache, Anthony G; Baker, Richard; Vaughan, Christopher L
2007-01-01
When comparing previous studies that have measured the three-dimensional moments acting about the lower limb joints (either external moments or opposing internal joint moments) during able-bodied adult gait, significant variation is apparent in the profiles of the reported transverse plane moments. This variation cannot be explained on the basis of adopted convention (i.e. external versus internal joint moment) or inherent variability in gait strategies. The aim of the current study was to determine whether in fact the frame in which moments are expressed has a dominant effect upon transverse plane moments and thus provides a valid explanation for the observed inconsistency in the literature. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were acquired from nine able-bodied adult subjects walking at a self-selected speed. Three-dimensional hip, knee and ankle joint moments during gait were calculated using a standard inverse dynamics approach. In addition to calculating internal joint moments, the components of the external moment occurring in the transverse plane at each of the lower limb joints were calculated to determine their independent effects. All moments were expressed in both the laboratory frame (LF) as well as the anatomical frame (AF) of the distal segment. With the exception of the ankle rotation moment in the foot AF, lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait were found to display characteristic profiles that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait differed when expressed in the distal segment AF compared to the LF. At the hip, the two alternative reference frames produced near reciprocal joint moment profiles. The components of the external moment revealed that the external ground reaction force moment was primarily responsible for this result. Lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait were therefore found to be highly sensitive to a change in reference frame. These
Smith, Alexander R. H.; Piani, Marco; Mann, Robert B.
2016-07-01
Quantum communication without a shared reference frame or the construction of a relational quantum theory requires the notion of a quantum reference frame. We analyze aspects of quantum reference frames associated with noncompact groups, specifically, the group of spatial translations and Galilean boosts. We begin by demonstrating how the usually employed group average, used to dispense of the notion of an external reference frame, leads to unphysical states when applied to reference frames associated with noncompact groups. However, we show that this average does lead naturally to a reduced state on the relative degrees of freedom of a system, which was previously considered by Angelo et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 145304 (2011), 10.1088/1751-8113/44/14/145304]. We then study in detail the informational properties of this reduced state for systems of two and three particles in Gaussian states.
PROCESS UNIFICATION AND FRAME PREPARATION OF MACHINING PARAMETRES FOR ROTATIONAL PARTS
Ersan ASLAN
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Any traditional or computerized metal removal process needs a prototype, a technical drawing and a database for production of a part. Design, process planning and manufacturing problems such as modeling, the necessity data extraction from standard data exchange formats, and part programme preparation for machine tools can be solved by the operators or experts as soon as possible while they occurred in the traditonal approach. In circumstances of the production efforts spent by the computer, all experiences of expert can be saved in a database for foresight of the possible problems. This data can be used at any stage in the product cycle. In this paper, it is presented the results of research efforts which aimed to extract information from the defacto industry standard DXF files to determine features existing on rotational parts to be machined on horizontal machining centers. After process extraction and definition, process unifications and frame preparation for machining parameters of the part are introduced.
Taris, François; Andrei, Alexandre; Anton, Sonia; Barache, Christophe; Coelho, Bruno; Klotz, Alain; Lambert, Sébastien; Souchay, Jean; Vachier, Frédéric
2012-08-01
The Gaia catalogue will contain 500 000 QSOs with very accurate optical coordinates, at level of some tens to some hundreds of micro - arcsecond. From these targets a core sample will be chosen, formed by those with the most precise positions, to define the Gaia Fundamental Reference Frame. It will be at the basis of an optical reference frame ( provisionally, the GCRF) more accurate than the current version of the (radio) ICRF. At the same time due care must be taken when choosing the core picks because quasars do are also known by their flux variability, on time scales that may span from hours u p to years. We will review some of the potential astrophysical processes that could induce these variations in the corresponding emission regions and we will present light curves that were obtained by small robotic telescopes during more than 1.5 years. We will also present high resolution images obtained at ground based optical telescopes together with the morphological analysis of the targets. Finally we will conclude by the presentation of an optical image database currently under construction in the frame of the ICRS - pc.
Oess, Timo; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.; Röhrbein, Florian
2017-01-01
Behavioral studies for humans, monkeys, and rats have shown that, while traversing an environment, these mammals tend to use different frames of reference and frequently switch between them. These frames represent allocentric, egocentric, or route-centric views of the environment. However, combinations of either of them are often deployed. Neurophysiological studies on rats have indicated that the hippocampus, the retrosplenial cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex contribute to the formation of these frames and mediate the transformation between those. In this paper, we construct a computational model of the posterior parietal cortex and the retrosplenial cortex for spatial navigation. We demonstrate how the transformation of reference frames could be realized in the brain and suggest how different brain areas might use these reference frames to form navigational strategies and predict under what conditions an animal might use a specific type of reference frame. Our simulated navigation experiments demonstrate that the model’s results closely resemble behavioral findings in humans and rats. These results suggest that navigation strategies may depend on the animal’s reliance in a particular reference frame and shows how low confidence in a reference frame can lead to fluid adaptation and deployment of alternative navigation strategies. Because of its flexibility, our biologically inspired navigation system may be applied to autonomous robots. PMID:28223931
A relativistic rotating frame with physics majors, photons and mirrors: causality lost
West, Joseph [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)], E-mail: jwest4@isugw.indstate.edu
2008-09-15
An analysis of cylinders rotating at relativistic speeds is considered from the point of view of observers living on the cylinders and from the point of view of observers in an inertial frame at rest with respect to translational motion of the cylinder. All of the observers measure time and distance using the recently introduced floor mirrored Einstein-Langevin light clock (FMEL). Two 'obvious' choices for synchronizing clocks, the traditional Einstein method and the well-known 'global' method, will be compared. It is shown that Selleri's paradox does not actually illustrate a contradiction, and it is shown that the Einstein method seems to allow apparent time ordering violations of causality. The global method leads to a disagreement with those in the inertial frame about velocities, and to a non-isotropic value for the speed of light. Ehrenfest's paradox is explained from the point of view of observers using each choice of synchronization.
Rodrigues, W. A.; Scanavini, M. E. F.; de Alcantara, L. P.
1990-02-01
In this paper a given spacetime theory T is characterized as the theory of a certain species of structure in the sense of Bourbaki [1]. It is then possible to clarify in a rigorous way the concepts of passive and active covariance of T under the action of the manifold mapping group G M . For each T, we define also an invariance group G I T and, in general, G I T ≠ G M . This group is defined once we realize that, for each τ ∈ ModT, each explicit geometrical object defining the structure can be classified as absolute or dynamical [2]. All spacetime theories possess also implicit geometrical objects that do not appear explicitly in the structure. These implicit objects are not absolute nor dynamical. Among them there are the reference frame fields, i.e., “timelike” vector fields X ∈ TU,U subseteq M M, where M is a manifold which is part of ST, a substructure for each τ ∈ ModT, called spacetime. We give a physically motivated definition of equivalent reference frames and introduce the concept of the equivalence group of a class of reference frames of kind X according to T, G X T. We define that T admits a weak principle of relativity (WPR) only if G X T ≠ identity for some X. If G X T = G I T for some X, we say that T admits a strong principle of relativity (PR). The results of this paper generalize and clarify several results obtained by Anderson [2], Scheibe [3], Hiskes [4], Recami and Rodrigues [5], Friedman [6], Fock [7], and Scanavini [8]. Among the novelties here, there is the realization that the definitions of G I T and G X T can be given only when certain boundary conditions for the equations of motion of T can be physically realizable in the domain U U subseteq M M, where a given reference frame is defined. The existence of physically realizable boundary conditions for each τ ∈ ModT (in ∂ U), in contrast with the mathematically possible boundary condition, is then seen to be essential for the validity of a principle of relativity for T
Rotating saddle trap as Foucault's pendulum: a hidden 'Coriolis' force in an inertial frame
Kirillov, Oleg N
2016-01-01
According to Earnshaw's theorem an electrostatic potential cannot have stable equilibria, i.e. the minima, since such potentials are harmonic functions. However, the 1989 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to W. Paul for his invention of the trap for suspending charged particles in an oscillating electric field. Paul's idea was to stabilize the saddle by "vibrating" the electrostatic field, by analogy with the so-called Stephenson-Kapitsa pendulum in which the upside-down equilibrium is stabilized by vibration of the pivot. Instead of vibration, the saddle can also be stabilized by rotation of the potential (in two dimensions); this has been known for nearly a century, since 1918. Particles confined in rotating saddle traps exhibit precession in the laboratory frame, which up to now has been explained by analyzing explicit solutions. Here we show that this precession is actually due to a hidden Coriolis-like force, which we uncover by a normal form transformation. Unlike the conventional Coriolis force, this ...
Influence of frame-dragging on magnetic null points near rotating black holes
Karas, V.; Kopáček, O.; Kunneriath, D.
2012-02-01
Understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration from the vicinity of black holes poses a challenge. Electromagnetic effects are thought to be a prime suspect, but details still need an explanation. To this end, we study a three-dimensional structure of oblique magnetic fields near a rotating black hole in vacuum. It has been proposed that such a setup can lead to efficient acceleration when plasma is injected near a magnetic null point. We focus our attention especially on the magnetic field in the immediate neighborhood of the magnetic null point, which was previously shown to occur in the equatorial plane. By employing the line integral convolution method, we visualize the magnetic field lines and explore the electric lines rising out of the equatorial plane. We show the magnetic field structure near the boundary of ergosphere, depending on the spin of the black hole. Electric field develops a non-vanishing component passing through the magnetic null point and ensuring efficient acceleration of charged particles from this particular location near the horizon. We also examine the effect of translatory boost on the field lines. Similarly to the frame-dragging by rotation, the linear motion carries field lines along with the black hole. The position of the magnetic null point recedes from the black hole horizon as the spin parameter increases. For the extreme value of a = 1, the null point can occur outside the ergosphere.
Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames
Jaroon Rungamornrat
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.
Zhang, Huiming; Xie, Yang; Ji, Tongyu
2007-06-01
The off-resonance rotating frame technique based on the spin relaxation properties of off-resonance T1 ρ can significantly increase the sensitivity of detecting paramagnetic labeling at high magnetic fields by MRI. However, the in vivo detectable dimension for labeled cell clusters/tissues in T1 ρ-weighted images is limited by the water diffusion-exchange between mesoscopic scale compartments. An experimental investigation of the effect of water diffusion-exchange between compartments on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of paramagnetic agent compartment is presented for in vitro/ in vivo models. In these models, the size of paramagnetic agent compartment is comparable to the mean diffusion displacement of water molecules during the long RF pulses that are used to generate the off-resonance rotating frame. The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to qualitatively correlate the effect of water diffusion-exchange with the RF parameters of the long pulse and the rates of water diffusion, (2) to explore the effect of water diffusion-exchange on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vitro, and (3) to demonstrate the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vivo. The in vitro models include the water permeable dialysis tubes or water permeable hollow fibers embedded in cross-linked proteins gels. The MWCO of the dialysis tubes was chosen from 0.1 to 15 kDa to control the water diffusion rate. Thin hollow fibers were chosen to provide sub-millimeter scale compartments for the paramagnetic agents. The in vivo model utilized the rat cerebral vasculatures as a paramagnetic agent compartment, and intravascular agents (Gd-DTPA) 30-BSA were administrated into the compartment via bolus injections. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement is predominant in the T1 ρ-weighted image in the presence of water diffusion-exchange. The T1 ρ contrast has substantially higher sensitivity than the conventional T1
Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)
2013-07-01
Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.
Future global SLR network evolution and its impact on the terrestrial reference frame
Kehm, Alexander; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Pavlis, Erricos C.
2016-04-01
SLR is the unique technique that allows determining the geocentre with very high accuracy and contributes to the realization of the scale of a conventional reference frame. In addition, due to the high sensitivity of the SLR-tracked satellites on the Earth's gravitational field, SLR is a crucial technique for determining important geodetic parameters such as Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and low-degree spherical harmonics of the Earth's gravitational field model. So far, the distribution of SLR stations has been quite inhomogeneous, especially in the southern hemisphere, mostly due to the lack of land-masses. With the set-up of a new SLR station in Brasilia in 2014 and the transfer of the former TIGO observatory from Concepción (Chile) to La Plata (Argentina) - now known as AGGO Argentinian-German Geodetic Observatory -, the shape of SLR subnetwork in South America has changed significantly. Furthermore, additional SLR stations in India (Mount Abu and Ponmundi), as well as a new station in Hartebeesthoek, are scheduled to start operations in 2016 and they will further improve the global SLR network geometry. In this work, SLR data has been simulated in order to determine the influence of the changing SLR network geometry on the geodetic parameters such as a global terrestrial reference frame, EOP and the low-degree harmonics of the Earth's gravitational field. The simulations have been performed for different network geometries as well as different satellites. In this investigation, a special emphasis is placed on the improvement of the geocentric realization of a global SLR-derived reference frame.
Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.
2017-04-01
In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ˜160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.
Conventional Synchronous Reference Frame Phase-Locked Loop Is An Adaptive Complex Filter
Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
Despite the wide acceptance and use of the conventional synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop (SRFPLL) no transfer function describing its actual input-output relationship has been developed so far. Arguably, the absence of such transfer function has hampered the application of SRF......-PLL as a filter or controller inside the closed-loop control systems. In this letter, the transfer function describing the actual inputoutput relationship of the conventional SRF-PLL is presented. Using this transfer function, it is shown that the conventional SRF-PLL is a first-order adaptive complex bandpass...
Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.;
2012-01-01
. In these codes, the injection of positive- and negative-sequence current components becomes necessary for fulfilling, among others, the low-voltage ride-through requirements during balanced and unbalanced grid faults. However, the performance of classical dq current controllers, applied to power converters......, under unbalanced grid-voltage conditions is highly deficient, due to the unavoidable appearance of current oscillations. This paper analyzes the performance of the double synchronous reference frame controller and improves its structure by adding a decoupling network for estimating and compensating...
Residual sweeping effects in the swept frame of reference in Kinematic Simulations
Malik, Nadeem A
2015-01-01
It has been suggested that sweeping effects make Lagrangian properties in Kinematic Simulations (KS) unreliable. Here we show through a novel analysis based upon analysing neighbouring particle trajectories in a frame of reference moving with the large energy contining scales that the residual sweeping error in the turbulent pair diffusivity ($K$) in KS is $e_K\\sim dt/\\tau_s$, where $dt$ is the numerical timestep and $\\tau_s$ is the time scale of the sweeping through local eddies. Thus, provided that $dt\\ll \\tau_s$, then $e_K\\ll 1$ and the Lagrangian properties in KS are reliable.
New conceptions on the light wave theory in a moving frame of reference
Nascimento, Daniel Lima
2013-01-01
A reanalisis of the effect of a moving frame of reference is done, showing that the null result of the Michelson-Morley's experimente of 1887 on the possibility of detecting the variation of the velocity of light with respect to a moving observer, na observer at the Earth, was already implied in these equations; thereforewith no need of new ad hoc hypotheses to explain it in the classical framework. In fact, it will be shown that behind those equations is hidden the fascinating phenomenon of the absolute motion.
Asymptotically Matched Layer (AML) for transient wave propagation in a moving frame of reference
Madsen, Stine Skov; Krenk, Steen
2017-01-01
The paper presents an Asymptotically Matched Layer (AML) formulation in a moving frame of reference for transient dynamic response of a multi-layer 2D half-space. A displacement based finite element formulation of the convected domain problem is presented together with the AML formulation in which...... the original convolution integrals are represented via two auxiliary displacement-like state-space variables. A parametric study of the AML parameters is conducted for optimizing the absorbing properties. The performance is demonstrated on a single- and a two-layered half-space for various velocities...
Quantum reverse-engineering and reference frame alignment without non-local correlations
Bagán, E; Muñoz-Tàpia, R
2004-01-01
Estimation of unknown qubit elementary gates and alignment of reference frames are formally the same problem. Using quantum states made out of $N$ qubits, we show that the theoretical precision limit for both problems, which behaves as $1/N^{2}$, can be asymptotically attained with a covariant protocol that exploits the quantum correlation of internal degrees of freedom instead of the more fragile entanglement between distant parties. This cuts by half the number of qubits needed to achieve the precision of the dense covariant coding protocol.
Entanglement assisted alignment of reference frames using a dense covariant coding
Bagán, E; Muñoz-Tàpia, R
2003-01-01
We present a procedure inspired by dense coding, which enables a highly efficient transmission of information of a continuous nature. The procedure requires the sender and the recipient to share a maximally entangled state. We deal with the concrete problem of aligning reference frames or trihedra by means of a quantum system. We find the optimal covariant measurement and compute the corresponding average error, which has a remarkably simple close form. The connection of this procedure with that of estimating unitary transformations on qubits is briefly discussed.
The Large Quasar Reference Frame (LQRF). An Optical Representation of the ICRS
2009-10-01
found in the USNO B1.0 and GSC2.3 catalogs, and from the SDSS Data Release 5. The initial positions are next placed onto UCAC2-based reference frames...are found for all the catalogs used (apart from the SDSS DR5), an empirical magnitude correction can be discussed for the GSC2.3 intermediate and...right) of the quasars found in the LQAC catalog. The highest density regions indi- cate the SDSS DR5 contribution.The scale represents the number of
W production at LHC: lepton angular distributions and reference frames for probing hard QCD
Richter-Was, E.; Was, Z.
2017-02-01
Precision tests of the Standard Model in the Strong and Electroweak sectors play a crucial role, among the physics program of LHC experiments. Because of the nature of proton-proton processes, observables based on the measurement of the direction and energy of final state leptons provide the most precise probes of such processes. In the present paper, we concentrate on the angular distribution of leptons from W → ℓ ν decays in the lepton-pair rest-frame. The vector nature of the intermediate state imposes that distributions are to a good precision described by spherical harmonics of at most second order. We argue, that contrary to general belief often expressed in the literature, the full set of angular coefficients can be measured experimentally, despite the presence of escaping detection neutrino in the final state. There is thus no principle difference with respect to the phenomenology of the Z/γ → ℓ ^+ ℓ ^- Drell-Yan process. We show also, that with the proper choice of the reference frames, only one coefficient in this polynomial decomposition remains sizable, even in the presence of one or more high p_T jets. The necessary stochastic choice of the frames relies on probabilities independent from any coupling constants. In this way, electroweak effects (dominated by the V-A nature of W couplings to fermions), can be better separated from the ones of strong interactions. The separation is convenient for the measurements interpretation.
Back action evading quantum measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame
Møller, Christoffer B; Vasilakis, Georgios; Zeuthen, Emil; Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Jensen, Kasper; Schliesser, Albert; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S
2016-01-01
Quantum mechanics dictates that a measurement without perturbation is not possible. A textbook example is the observation of the position of an object, which imposes a random back action perturbation on the momentum. This randomness translates with time into position uncertainty, thus leading to the well known uncertainty on the measurement of motion. Here we demonstrate that the back action on an oscillator measured in a reference frame of another oscillator with an effective negative mass can be evaded in both position and momentum variables simultaneously. The mechanical oscillator is a millimeter-sized membrane and the reference negative mass oscillator is the collective spin of an atomic ensemble precessing in a magnetic field. Laser light transmitted through the hybrid system of these two disparate oscillators serves as the meter. We first observe the quantum measurement back action on each oscillator. We then demonstrate that back action at the single noise photon level is efficiently suppressed or enh...
Unit Template Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM
Bangarraju, J.; Rajagopal, V.; Jayalaxmi, A.
2014-04-01
This article proposes new and simplified unit templates instead of standard phase locked loop (PLL) for Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Control Algorithm (SRFT). The extraction of synchronizing components (sinθ and cosθ) for parks and inverse parks transformation using standard PLL takes more execution time. This execution time in control algorithm delays the extraction of reference source current generation. The standard PLL not only takes more execution time but also increases the reactive power burden on the Distributed Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). This work proposes a unit template based SRFT control algorithm for four-leg insulated gate bipolar transistor based voltage source converter for DSTATCOM in distribution systems. This will reduce the execution time and reactive power burden on the DSTATCOM. The proposed DSTATCOM suppress harmonics, regulates the terminal voltage along with neutral current compensation. The DSTATCOM in distribution systems with proposed control algorithm is modeled and simulated using MATLAB using SIMULINK and Simpower systems toolboxes.
Thomas, Lisa C; Wickens, Christopher D
This paper describes an experiment which illustrates the cause of 'cognitive tunnelling' as it affects information gathering and perception-based task performance in computer-generated terrain displays of varying frames of reference. Cognitive tunnelling refers to the effect where observers focus attention on information from specific areas of a display to the exclusion of information presented outside these areas. Previous research suggests that cognitive tunnelling is induced by more immersive or egocentric visual displays. Results from our preceding study suggested that an immersed split-screen display induces cognitive tunnelling and results in poorer information extraction and situation awareness than an exocentric display of the same information. The current study determined that failure of the observers to integrate information across the two views of the immersed display led to the cognitive tunnelling effect. Cognitive tunnelling was also affected by primacy of information initially presented within the larger egocentric view in the immersed display.
Device-dependent and device-independent quantum key distribution without a shared reference frame
Slater, Joshua A.; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas; Tittel, Wolfgang
2014-04-01
Standard quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols typically assume that the distant parties share a common reference frame. In practice, however, establishing and maintaining a good alignment between distant observers is rarely a trivial issue, which may significantly restrain the implementation of long-distance quantum communication protocols. Here we propose simple QKD protocols that do not require the parties to share any reference frame, and study their security and feasibility in both the usual device-dependent (DD) case—in which the two parties use well characterized measurement devices—as well as in the device-independent (DI) case—in which the measurement devices can be untrusted, and the security relies on the violation of a Bell inequality. To illustrate the practical relevance of these ideas, we present a proof-of-principle demonstration of our protocols using polarization entangled photons distributed over a coiled 10-km long optical fiber. We consider two situations, in which either the fiber spool's polarization transformation freely drifts, or randomly chosen polarization transformations are applied. The correlations obtained from measurements allow, with high probability, to generate positive asymptotic secret key rates in both the DD and DI scenarios (under the fair-sampling assumption for the latter case).
Gaia Data Release 1: The reference frame and the optical properties of ICRF sources
Mignard, F; Lindegren, L; Bastian, U; Bombrun, A; Hernandez, J; Hobbs, D; Lammers, U; Michalik, D; Ramos-Lerate, M; Biermann, M; Butkevich, A; Comoretto, G; Joliet, E; Holl, B; Hutton, A; Parsons, P; Steidelmueller, H; Andrei, A; Bourda, G; Charlot, P
2016-01-01
As part of the data processing for Gaia Data Release~1 (Gaia DR1) a special astrometric solution was computed, the so-called auxiliary quasar solution. This gives positions for selected extragalactic objects, including radio sources in the second realisation of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) that have optical counterparts bright enough to be observed with Gaia. A subset of these positions was used to align the positional reference frame of Gaia DR1 with the ICRF2. We describe the properties of the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution for a subset of sources matched to ICRF2, and compare their optical and radio positions at the sub-mas level. Their formal standard errors are better than 0.76~milliarcsec (mas) for 50% of the sources and better than 3.35~mas for 90%. Optical magnitudes are obtained in Gaia's unfiltered photometric G band. The comparison with the radio positions of the defining sources shows no systematic differences larger than a few tenths of a mas. The fraction of questionable s...
Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Glaser, Susanne; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald
2016-12-01
Terrestrial reference frames (TRF), such as the ITRF2008, are primary products of geodesy. In this paper, we present TRF solutions based on Kalman filtering of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, for which we estimate steady station coordinates over more than 30 years that are updated for every single VLBI session. By applying different levels of process noise, non-linear signals, such as seasonal and seismic effects, are taken into account. The corresponding stochastic model is derived site-dependent from geophysical loading deformation time series and is adapted during periods of post-seismic deformations. Our results demonstrate that the choice of stochastic process has a much smaller impact on the coordinate time series and velocities than the overall noise level. If process noise is applied, tests with and without additionally estimating seasonal signals indicate no difference between the resulting coordinate time series for periods when observational data are available. In a comparison with epoch reference frames, the Kalman filter solutions provide better short-term stability. Furthermore, we find out that the Kalman filter solutions are of similar quality when compared to a consistent least-squares solution, however, with the enhanced attribute of being easier to update as, for instance, in a post-earthquake period.
The Reference Frame of IOR Depends on How You Measure it
Hannah M. Krueger
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Attention is biased from returning to recently-inspected locations, an effect known as Inhibition of Return (IOR. For IOR to facilitate visual search, it should be coded in spatial, not retinal, coordinates. Here we report two studies indicating that the reference frame of IOR is flexible and determined by task demands. When participants performed a manual target detection task with an intervening saccade between cue-offset and target-onset, we found retinotopic IOR. The cue occurred in one of four markers on the screen; this meant the target was more likely to occur in the spatiotopic location of the cue than in its retinotopic location. In a second experiment we inverted this pattern so that the target was less likely to occur in the retinotopic location of the cue. Now target detection was relatively facilitated in the retinotopic location and relatively inhibited in the spatiotopic location of the cue. However, spatiotopic IOR in this experiment was not as robust as retinotopic IOR in the previous experiment. These findings show that decreasing the probability of targets aligning with cues in retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinates increases IOR in that frame of reference, although IOR is more robustly retinotopic than spatiotopic in a traditional cue-target paradigm.
Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Glaser, Susanne; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald
2016-06-01
Terrestrial reference frames (TRF), such as the ITRF2008, are primary products of geodesy. In this paper, we present TRF solutions based on Kalman filtering of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, for which we estimate steady station coordinates over more than 30 years that are updated for every single VLBI session. By applying different levels of process noise, non-linear signals, such as seasonal and seismic effects, are taken into account. The corresponding stochastic model is derived site-dependent from geophysical loading deformation time series and is adapted during periods of post-seismic deformations. Our results demonstrate that the choice of stochastic process has a much smaller impact on the coordinate time series and velocities than the overall noise level. If process noise is applied, tests with and without additionally estimating seasonal signals indicate no difference between the resulting coordinate time series for periods when observational data are available. In a comparison with epoch reference frames, the Kalman filter solutions provide better short-term stability. Furthermore, we find out that the Kalman filter solutions are of similar quality when compared to a consistent least-squares solution, however, with the enhanced attribute of being easier to update as, for instance, in a post-earthquake period.
Adaptive Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control for PMSM Drives with a Modified Reference Frame
Chaoui, Hicham
2017-01-10
In this paper, an adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy logic control scheme is proposed for high-performance permanent magnet synchronous machine drives. This strategy combines the power of type-2 fuzzy logic systems with the adaptive control theory to achieve accurate tracking and robustness to higher uncertainties. Unlike other controllers, the proposed strategy does not require electrical transducers and hence, no explicit currents loop regulation is needed, which yields a simplified control scheme. But, this limits the machine\\'s operation range since it results in a higher energy consumption. Therefore, a modified reference frame is also proposed in this paper to decrease the machine\\'s consumption. To better assess the performance of the new reference frame, comparison against its original counterpart is carried-out under the same conditions. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop control scheme is guaranteed by a Lyapunov theorem. Simulation and experimental results for numerous situations highlight the effectiveness of the proposed controller in standstill, transient, and steady-state conditions.
Insight into Others’ Minds: Spatio-Temporal Representations by Intrinsic Frame of Reference
Yanlong eSun
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Recent research has seen a growing interest in connections between domains of spatial and social cognition. Much evidence indicates that processes of representing space in distinct frames of reference (FOR contribute to basic spatial abilities as well as sophisticated social abilities such as tracking other’s intention and belief. Argument remains, however, that belief reasoning in social domain requires an innately dedicated system and cannot be reduced to low-level encoding of spatial relationships. Here we offer an integrated account advocating the critical roles of spatial representations in intrinsic frame of reference (IFOR. By re-examining the results from a spatial task (Tamborello, Sun, & Wang, 2012 and a false-belief task (Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005, we argue that spatial and social abilities share a common origin at the level of spatio-temporal association and predictive learning, where multiple FOR-based representations provide the basic building blocks for efficient and flexible partitioning of the environmental statistics. We also discuss neuroscience evidence supporting these mechanisms. We conclude that FOR-based representations may bridge the conceptual as well as the implementation gaps between the burgeoning fields of social and spatial cognition.
Insight into others' minds: spatio-temporal representations by intrinsic frame of reference.
Sun, Yanlong; Wang, Hongbin
2014-01-01
Recent research has seen a growing interest in connections between domains of spatial and social cognition. Much evidence indicates that processes of representing space in distinct frames of reference (FOR) contribute to basic spatial abilities as well as sophisticated social abilities such as tracking other's intention and belief. Argument remains, however, that belief reasoning in social domain requires an innately dedicated system and cannot be reduced to low-level encoding of spatial relationships. Here we offer an integrated account advocating the critical roles of spatial representations in intrinsic frame of reference. By re-examining the results from a spatial task (Tamborello etal., 2012) and a false-belief task (Onishi and Baillargeon, 2005), we argue that spatial and social abilities share a common origin at the level of spatio-temporal association and predictive learning, where multiple FOR-based representations provide the basic building blocks for efficient and flexible partitioning of the environmental statistics. We also discuss neuroscience evidence supporting these mechanisms. We conclude that FOR-based representations may bridge the conceptual as well as the implementation gaps between the burgeoning fields of social and spatial cognition.
Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.
2014-01-01
damping and improve both transient and steady-state performances, a voltage decoupling feedforward to improve the system robustness, and a multi-resonant harmonic compensator to prevent low-order load current harmonics to distort the inverter output voltage. Since, the voltage loop works......Control of three-phase power converters in the synchronous reference frame is now a mature and well developed research topic. However, for single-phase converters, it is not as well-established as three-phase applications. This paper deals with the design of a synchronous reference frame multi......-loop control strategy for single phase inverter-based islanded distributed generation (DG) systems. The proposed controller uses a synchronous reference frame PI (SRFPI) controller to regulate the instantaneous output voltage, a capacitor current shaping loop in the stationary reference frame to provide active...
Estimation and Analysis of Parameters for Reference Frame Transformation%参考架转换参数估计与分析∗
杨廷高; 高玉平; 童明雷; 赵成仕; 高峰
2016-01-01
Based on the estimation method of parameters for reference frame transfor-mation, the parameters used for transformation between different modern DE (Develop-ment Ephemeris) ephemeris pairs are derived using the data of heliocentric coordinates of Earth-Moon barycenter from DE ephemeris pairs, and the transformation parameters between DE ephemeris dynamic reference frame and ICRF (International Celestial Ref-erence Frame) are estimated by using the timing data and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observation results of millisecond pulsars. The estimated parameters for the reference frame transformation include three rotational angles of rotational ma-trix and their derivatives of time. The reference epoch of estimated parameters for the reference frame transformation is MJD51545, that is J2000.0. Our results show that the absolute maximum value of rotational angles for the transformation of DE200 to DE405 ephemeris is 13 mas, and its derivative of time is−0.0007 mas/d. No absolute value of rotational angles is larger than 0.1 mas for the transformation of DE414 to DE421 ephemeris. The absolute maximum value of rotational angles of rotation matrix for the transformation of DE421 ephemeris to ICRF is 3 mas, and the time derivatives of three rotational angles are also necessarily included.%在描述不同参考架转换参数估计方法的基础上,利用太阳系行星历表资料估计了近代不同DE (Development Ephemeris)历表之间的转换参数；利用脉冲星计时观测与VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry)技术观测得到的毫秒脉冲星位置资料,估计了基于DE历表的动力学参考架与河外射电源参考架(ICRF)之间的转换参数.给出的不同参考架之间转换参数包括旋转矩阵的3个旋转角及其随时间的变化率,参考历元为MJD51545.结果表明： DE200到DE405历表转换参数的旋转角最大绝对值为13 mas,其随时间变化率为−0.0007 mas/d. DE414到DE421历表转换参数的3个
Aslan, Z.; Gumerov, R.; Jin, W.; Khamitov, I.; Maigurova, N.; Pinigin, G.; Tang, Z.; Wang, S.
2010-01-01
We discuss the results of an investigation of astrometric positions of extragalactic radio sources from a list for the International Celestial Reference Frame. About 300 fields around extragalactic radio sources were observed during the years 2000-2003. The observations were performed mainly using two telescopes equipped with CCD cameras at TUG, Turkey (Russian-Turkish Telescope - RTT150) and at YAO (1 m telescope), (Kunming, China). The mean accuracies of the measured positions are 38 mas in right ascension and 35 mas in declination. A comparison between the measured optical positions determined using the UCAC2 catalog and the radio positions from the current ICRF shows that the overall optical-minus- radio offsets are -4 and +15 mas for right ascension and declination, respectively. The formal internal errors of these mean offsets are 4 mas. The results of optical positions with respect to the reference catalogue 2MASS are also given. A search for a relation between optical and radio reference frames indicates that the orientation angles are near zero within their accuracy of about 5 mas. The link accuracy becomes 3 mas when our observations are combined with other studies. Tables 2 and 3 giving the positions are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/510/A10Present address: İstanbul Kültür University, Ataköy Yerleşkesi, 34156 Istanbul, Turkey
Yan, Fei; Gustavsson, Simon; Bylander, Jonas; Jin, Xiaoyue; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Cory, David G; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Orlando, Terry P; Oliver, William D
2013-01-01
Gate operations in a quantum information processor are generally realized by tailoring specific periods of free and driven evolution of a quantum system. Unwanted environmental noise, which may in principle be distinct during these two periods, acts to decohere the system and increase the gate error rate. Although there has been significant progress characterizing noise processes during free evolution, the corresponding driven-evolution case is more challenging as the noise being probed is also extant during the characterization protocol. Here we demonstrate the noise spectroscopy (0.1-200 MHz) of a superconducting flux qubit during driven evolution by using a robust spin-locking pulse sequence to measure relaxation (T(1ρ)) in the rotating frame. In the case of flux noise, we resolve spectral features due to coherent fluctuators, and further identify a signature of the 1 MHz defect in a time-domain spin-echo experiment. The driven-evolution noise spectroscopy complements free-evolution methods, enabling the means to characterize and distinguish various noise processes relevant for universal quantum control.
Completing the K-band Celestial Reference Frame in the Southern Hemisphere
de Witt, A.; Bertarini, A.; Horiuchi, S.; Jacobs, C. S.; Jung, T.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Quick, J. F. H.; Sohn, B. W.; Phillips, C.; Ojha, R.
2014-12-01
K-band (22 GHz) radio observations have the potential to form the basis for the most accurate Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) ever constructed. Relative to the standard S/X (2.3/8.4 GHz) observing bands, K-band is expected to exhibit a reduction in extended source morphology and core-shift. This reduction in astrophysical systematics should allow for a more stable CRF at K-band and should also be advantageous in tying the VLBI radio frame to the Gaia optical frame. K-band CRF observations currently exist only from the all-northern Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and therefore must be complemented by observations from southern arrays in order to realize this potential. A collaboration was formed with the goal of completing sky coverage at K-band with specific emphasis on the Southern hemisphere where K-band CRF coverage is weak. Southern hemisphere observations to densify the CRF at K-band are under way and preliminary astrometric observations were carried out on 23 August 2013 between telescopes in Australia (Hobart 26 m), Korea (Tamna 21 m), and South Africa (HartRAO 26 m). More extensive astrometric observations were carried out on 21/22 December 2013 that also included the Tidbinbilla 70-m DSN antenna in Australia. A proposal for imaging source structure at K-band has been submitted to the Australian Telescope-Long Baseline Array (AT-LBA). We discuss some of our results as well as the implications for K-band CRF work.
Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution
Wabnig, J.; Bitauld, D.; Li, H. W.; Laing, A.; O'Brien, J. L.; Niskanen, A. O.
2013-07-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is moving from research laboratories towards applications. As computing becomes more mobile, cashless as well as cardless payment solutions are introduced. A possible route to increase the security of wireless communications is to incorporate QKD in a mobile device. Handheld devices present a particular challenge as the orientation and the phase of a qubit will depend on device motion. This problem is addressed by the reference frame independent (RFI) QKD scheme. The scheme tolerates an unknown phase between logical states that vary slowly compared to the rate of particle repetition. Here we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of RFI QKD over a free-space link in a prepare and measure scheme using polarization encoding. We extend the security analysis of the RFI QKD scheme to be able to deal with uncalibrated devices and a finite number of measurements. Together these advances are an important step towards mass production of handheld QKD devices.
Analysis and controller design for stand-alone VSIs in synchronous reference frame
Ramezani, Malek; Li, Shuhui; Golestan, Saeed
2017-01-01
-by-step graphical analysis and design approach for a three-phase stand-alone VSI system in the dq reference frame, which provides a clear systematic decoupling process to design the inner- and outer-loop current and voltage controllers, respectively. The closed-loop d- and q-axis output impedances of the stand......The common practice for controlling the stand-alone voltage source inverters (VSIs) is to transform abc voltage and current signals to DC signals using the dq transformation, which makes it possible to control the new DC voltage and current signals just using simple proportional...... and hardware results verify the effectiveness of the graphic design and analysis strategy....
Quantum Space-Time and Reference Frames in Gravity and Flat Space-Time
Mayburov, S
2000-01-01
The quantum space-time model which accounts material Reference Frames (RF) quantum effects considered for flat space-time and ADM canonical gravity. As was shown by Aharonov for RF - free material object its c.m. nonrelativistic motion in vacuum described by Schrodinger wave packet evolution which modify space coordinate operator of test particle in this RF and changes its Heisenberg uncertainty relations. In the relativistic case we show that Lorentz transformations between two RFs include the quantum corrections for RFs momentum uncertainty and in general can be formulated as the quantum space-time transformations. As the result for moving RF its Lorentz time boost acquires quantum fluctuations which calculated solving relativistic Heisenberg equations for the quantum clocks models. It permits to calculate RF proper time for the arbitrary RF quantum motion including quantum gravity metrics fluctuations. Space-time structure of canonical Quantum Gravity and its observables evolution for RF proper time discus...
The reference frame of visual motion priming depends on underlying motion mechanisms.
Yoshimoto, Sanae; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Takeuchi, Tatsuto
2014-01-10
Several different types of motion mechanisms function in the human visual system. The purpose of this study was to clarify the type of reference frame, such as retinotopic and spatiotopic frames of reference, at which those different motion mechanisms function. To achieve this, we used a phenomenon called visual motion priming, in which the perceived direction of a directionally ambiguous test stimulus is influenced by the moving direction of a preceding stimulus. Previous studies have indicated that negative motion priming is induced by a low-level motion mechanism, such as a first-order motion sensor, whereas positive motion priming is induced by a high-level motion mechanism, such as a feature-tracking system. In the experiments, subjects made a saccade after the termination of a smoothly drifting priming stimulus and judged the perceived direction of a 180° phase-shifted sine-wave grating presented subsequently in retinotopic or screen-based spatiotopic coordinates. By manipulating the stimulus parameters, such as primer duration, velocity, and contrast, both positive and negative priming were observed. We found that positive priming was observed in spatiotopic coordinates, whereas negative priming was observed in retinotopic coordinates. Prominent positive priming in spatiotopic coordinates was observed only when the interval between the priming and test stimuli was longer than around 600 ms. This delayed priming effect was not caused by saccadic eye movements. These results suggest that a low-level motion mechanism functions in retinotopic coordinates, whereas a high-level motion mechanism functions in spatiotopic coordinates, in which the representation builds up slowly.
Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Métivier, Laurent; Collilieux, Xavier
2016-08-01
For the first time in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) history, the ITRF2014 is generated with an enhanced modeling of nonlinear station motions, including seasonal (annual and semiannual) signals of station positions and postseismic deformation for sites that were subject to major earthquakes. Using the full observation history of the four space geodetic techniques (very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS)), the corresponding international services provided reprocessed time series (weekly from SLR and DORIS, daily from GNSS, and 24 h session-wise from VLBI) of station positions and daily Earth Orientation Parameters. ITRF2014 is demonstrated to be superior to past ITRF releases, as it precisely models the actual station trajectories leading to a more robust secular frame and site velocities. The ITRF2014 long-term origin coincides with the Earth system center of mass as sensed by SLR observations collected on the two LAGEOS satellites over the time span between 1993.0 and 2015.0. The estimated accuracy of the ITRF2014 origin, as reflected by the level of agreement with the ITRF2008 (both origins are defined by SLR), is at the level of less than 3 mm at epoch 2010.0 and less than 0.2 mm/yr in time evolution. The ITRF2014 scale is defined by the arithmetic average of the implicit scales of SLR and VLBI solutions as obtained by the stacking of their respective time series. The resulting scale and scale rate differences between the two solutions are 1.37 (±0.10) ppb at epoch 2010.0 and 0.02 (±0.02) ppb/yr. While the postseismic deformation models were estimated using GNSS/GPS data, the resulting parametric models at earthquake colocation sites were applied to the station position time series of the three other techniques, showing a very high level of consistency which enforces more the link
Rodriguez, Pedro; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Teodorescu, Remus
2007-01-01
This work exploits the Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (DDSRF-PLL) as an effective method for grid synchronization of WT's power converters in the presence of transient faults in the grid. The DDSRF-PLL uses a dual synchronous reference frame and a decoupling network to effectively...... separate the positive- and negative-sequence voltage components in a fast and accurate way. Excellent behavior of the DDSRF-PLL is demonstrated experimentally. Once sequence components of the faulty grid voltage are properly identified several algorithms computing current references are developed...
Reference frames in allocentric representations are invariant across static and active encoding
Edgar eChan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available An influential model of spatial memory – the so-called reference systems account – proposes that relationships between objects are biased by salient axes (frames of reference provided by environmental cues, such as the geometry of a room. In this study, we sought to examine the extent to which a salient environmental feature influences the formation of spatial memories when learning occurs via a single, static viewpoint and via active navigation, where information has to be integrated across multiple viewpoints. In our study, participants learned the spatial layout of an object array that was arranged with respect to a prominent environmental feature within a virtual arena. Location memory was tested using judgements of relative direction. Experiment 1a employed a design similar to previous studies whereby learning of object-location information occurred from a single, static viewpoint. Consistent with previous studies, spatial judgments were significantly more accurate when made from an orientation that was aligned, as opposed to misaligned, with the salient environmental feature. In Experiment 1b, a fresh group of participants learned the same object-location information through active exploration, which required integration of spatial information over time from a ground-level perspective. As in Experiment 1a, object-location information was organized around the salient environmental cue. Taken together, the findings suggest that the learning condition (static vs. active does not affect the reference system employed to encode object-location information. Spatial reference systems appear to be a ubiquitous property of spatial representations, and might serve to reduce the cognitive demands of spatial processing.
3D MODELLING OF AN INDOOR SPACE USING A ROTATING STEREO FRAME CAMERA SYSTEM
J. Kang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.
D Modelling of AN Indoor Space Using a Rotating Stereo Frame Camera System
Kang, J.; Lee, I.
2016-06-01
Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.
Positional priming of visual pop-out search is supported by multiple spatial reference frames
Gokce, Ahu; Müller, Hermann J.; Geyer, Thomas
2015-01-01
The present study investigates the representations(s) underlying positional priming of visual ‘pop-out’ search (Maljkovic and Nakayama, 1996). Three search items (one target and two distractors) were presented at different locations, in invariant (Experiment 1) or random (Experiment 2) cross-trial sequences. By these manipulations it was possible to disentangle retinotopic, spatiotopic, and object-centered priming representations. Two forms of priming were tested: target location facilitation (i.e., faster reaction times – RTs– when the trial n target is presented at a trial n-1 target relative to n-1 blank location) and distractor location inhibition (i.e., slower RTs for n targets presented at n-1 distractor compared to n-1 blank locations). It was found that target locations were coded in positional short-term memory with reference to both spatiotopic and object-centered representations (Experiment 1 vs. 2). In contrast, distractor locations were maintained in an object-centered reference frame (Experiments 1 and 2). We put forward the idea that the uncertainty induced by the experiment manipulation (predictable versus random cross-trial item displacements) modulates the transition from object- to space-based representations in cross-trial memory for target positions. PMID:26136718
UTC(SU) and EOP(SU) - the only legal reference frames of Russian Federation
Koshelyaevsky, Nikolay B.; Blinov, Igor Yu; Pasynok, Sergey L.
2015-08-01
There are two legal time reference frames in Russian Federation. UTC(SU) deals with atomic time and play a role of reference for legal timing through the whole country. The other one, EOP(SU), deals with Earth's orientation parameters and provides the official EOP data for scientific, technical and metrological applications in Russia.The atomic time is based on two essential hardware components: primary Cs fountain standards and ensemble of continuously operating H-masers as a time unit/time scale keeper. Basing on H-maser intercomparison system data, regular H-maser frequency calibration against Cs standards and time algorithm autonomous TA(SU) time scale is maintained by the Main Metrological Center. Since 2013 time unit in TA(SU) is the second (SU) reproduced independently by VNIIFTRI Cs primary standards in accordance to it’s definition in the SI. UTC(SU) is relied on TA(SU) and steering to UTC basing on TWSTFT/GNSS time link data. As a result TA(SU) stability level relative to TT considerably exceeds 1×10-15 for sample time one month and more, RMS[UTC-UTC(SU)] ≤ 3 ns for the period of 2013-2015. UTC(SU) is broadcasted by different national means such as specialized radio and TV stations, NTP servers and GLONASS. Signals of Russian radio stations contains DUT1 and dUT1 values at 0.1s and 0.02s resolution respectively.The definitive EOP(SU) are calculated by the Main Metrological Center basing on composition of the eight independent individual EOP data streams delivered by four Russian analysis centers: VNIIFTRI, Institute of Applied Astronomy, Information-Analytical Center of Russian Space Agency and Analysis Center of Russian Space Agency. The accuracy of ultra-rapid EOP values for 2014 is estimated ≤ 0.0006" for polar motion, ≤ 70 microseconds for UT1-UTC and ≤ 0.0003" for celestial pole offsets respectively.The other VNIIFTRI EOP activities can be grouped in three basic directions:- arrangement and carrying out GNSS and SLR observations at five
Paul eDassonville
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of illusion on perception and action, with perception generally reported to be susceptible to illusions, while actions are seemingly immune. These findings have been interpreted to support Milner and Goodale's Two Visual Systems model, which proposes the existence of separate visual processing streams for perception and action. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that this type of behavioral dissociation will occur for any illusion that is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame, without requiring the existence of separate perception and action systems that are differently affected by the illusion. In this scenario, movements aimed at illusory targets will be accurate if they are guided within the same distorted reference frame used for target encoding, since the error of motor guidance will cancel with the error of encoding (hence, for actions, two wrongs do make a right. We further test this Two-Wrongs model by examining two illusions for which the hypothesis makes very different predictions: the rod-and-frame illusion (which affects perception but not actions and the simultaneous-tilt illusion (which affects perception and actions equally. We demonstrate that the rod-and-frame illusion is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame suitable for the cancellation of errors predicted by the Two-Wrongs model. In contrast, the simultaneous-tilt illusion is caused by local interactions between stimulus elements within an undistorted reference frame, precluding the cancellation of errors associated with the Two-Wrongs model such that the illusion is reflected in both perception and actions. These results provide evidence for a class of illusions that lead to dissociations of perception and action through distortions of the observer's spatial reference frame, rather than through the actions of functionally separate visual
Gaia Data Release 1. Reference frame and optical properties of ICRF sources
Mignard, F.; Klioner, S.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Bombrun, A.; Hernández, J.; Hobbs, D.; Lammers, U.; Michalik, D.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Biermann, M.; Butkevich, A.; Comoretto, G.; Joliet, E.; Holl, B.; Hutton, A.; Parsons, P.; Steidelmüller, H.; Andrei, A.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.
2016-11-01
Context. As part of the data processing for Gaia Data Release 1 (Gaia DR1) a special astrometric solution was computed, the so-called auxiliary quasar solution. This gives positions for selected extragalactic objects, including radio sources in the second realisation of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) that have optical counterparts bright enough to be observed with Gaia. A subset of these positions was used to align the positional reference frame of Gaia DR1 with the ICRF2. Although the auxiliary quasar solution was important for internal validation and calibration purposes, the resulting positions are in general not published in Gaia DR1. Aims: We describe the properties of the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution for a subset of sources matched to ICRF2, and compare their optical and radio positions at the sub-mas level. Methods: Descriptive statistics are used to characterise the optical data for the ICRF sources and the optical-radio differences. The most discrepant cases are examined using online resources to find possible alternative explanations than a physical optical-radio offset of the quasars. Results: In the auxiliary quasar solution 2191 sources have good optical positions matched to ICRF2 sources with high probability. Their formal standard errors are better than 0.76 milliarcsec (mas) for 50% of the sources and better than 3.35 mas for 90%. Optical magnitudes are obtained in Gaia's unfiltered photometric G band. The Gaia results for these sources are given as a separate table in Gaia DR1. The comparison with the radio positions of the defining sources shows no systematic differences larger than a few tenths of a mas. The fraction of questionable solutions, not readily accounted for by the statistics, is less than 6%. Normalised differences have extended tails requiring case-by-case investigations for around 100 sources, but we have not seen any difference indisputably linked to an optical-radio offset in the sources. Conclusions: With
Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Stein, Seth
2017-01-01
Geoscientists infer past plate motions, which serve as fundamental constraints for a range of studies, from observations of magnetic isochrons as well as hotspots tracks on the ocean floor and, for stages older than the Cretaceous, from paleomagnetic data. These observations effectively represent time-integrals of past plate motions but, because they are made at present, yield plate kinematics naturally tied to a present-day reference-frame, which may be another plate or a hotspots system. These kinematics are therefore different than those occurred at the time when the rocks acquired their magnetisation or when hotspot-related marine volcanism took place, and are normally corrected for the reference-frame absolute motion (RFAM) that occurred since then. The impact of true-polar-wander events on paleomagnetic data and the challenge of inferring hotspot drifts result in RFAMs being less resolved - in a temporal sense - and prone to noise. This limitation is commonly perceived to hamper the correction of plate kinematic reconstructions for RFAMs, but the extent to which this may be the case has not been explored. Here we assess the impact of uncertain RFAMs on kinematic reconstructions using synthetic models of plate motions over 100 million years. We use randomly-drawn models for the kinematics of two plates separated by a spreading ridge to generate a synthetic magnetisation pattern of the ocean floor. The kinematics we infer from such a pattern are outputs that we correct for synthetic RFAMs using two equivalent methods (a classical one as well as another that we propose and test here) and then compare to the 'true' motions input. We assess the misfits between true and inferred kinematics by exploring a statistically-significant number of models where we systematically downgrade the temporal resolution of RFAM synthetic data and add noise to them. We show that even poorly-resolved, noisy RFAMs are sufficient to retrieve reliable plate kinematic reconstructions
Struiksma, Marijn E; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Postma, Albert
2011-01-01
We investigated which reference frames are preferred when matching spatial language to the haptic domain. Sighted, low-vision, and blind participants were tested on a haptic-sentence-verification task where participants had to haptically explore different configurations of a ball and a shoe and judge the relation between them. Results from the spatial relation "above", in the vertical plane, showed that various reference frames are available after haptic inspection of a configuration. Moreover, the pattern of results was similar for all three groups and resembled patterns found for the sighted on visual sentence-verification tasks. In contrast, when judging the spatial relation "in front", in the horizontal plane, the blind showed a markedly different response pattern. The sighted and low-vision participants did not show a clear preference for either the absolute/relative or the intrinsic reference frame when these frames were dissociated. The blind, on the other hand, showed a clear preference for the intrinsic reference frame. In the absence of a dominant cue, such as gravity in the vertical plane, the blind might emphasise the functional relationship between the objects owing to enhanced experience with haptic exploration of objects.
Klein, P.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Fleischhauer, A.; Müller, A.
2015-01-01
The selection and application of coordinate systems is an important issue in physics. However, considering different frames of references in a given problem sometimes seems un-intuitive and is difficult for students. We present a concrete problem of projectile motion which vividly demonstrates the value of considering different frames of references. We use this example to explore the effectiveness of video-based motion analysis (VBMA) as an instructional technique at university level in enhancing students’ understanding of the abstract concept of coordinate systems. A pilot study with 47 undergraduate students indicates that VBMA instruction improves conceptual understanding of this issue.
Guckenberger Matthias
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate geometric and dosimetric accuracy of frame-less image-guided radiosurgery (IG-RS for brain metastases. Methods and materials Single fraction IG-RS was practiced in 72 patients with 98 brain metastases. Patient positioning and immobilization used either double- (n = 71 or single-layer (n = 27 thermoplastic masks. Pre-treatment set-up errors (n = 98 were evaluated with cone-beam CT (CBCT based image-guidance (IG and were corrected in six degrees of freedom without an action level. CBCT imaging after treatment measured intra-fractional errors (n = 64. Pre- and post-treatment errors were simulated in the treatment planning system and target coverage and dose conformity were evaluated. Three scenarios of 0 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm GTV-to-PTV (gross tumor volume, planning target volume safety margins (SM were simulated. Results Errors prior to IG were 3.9 mm ± 1.7 mm (3D vector and the maximum rotational error was 1.7° ± 0.8° on average. The post-treatment 3D error was 0.9 mm ± 0.6 mm. No differences between double- and single-layer masks were observed. Intra-fractional errors were significantly correlated with the total treatment time with 0.7mm±0.5mm and 1.2mm±0.7mm for treatment times ≤23 minutes and >23 minutes (p5% in 14% of the patients. A 1 mm safety margin fully compensated intra-fractional patient motion. Conclusions IG-RS with online correction of translational errors achieves high geometric and dosimetric accuracy. Intra-fractional errors decrease target coverage and conformity unless compensated with appropriate safety margins.
The effects of frequency-dependent quasar evolution on the celestial reference frame
Shabala, Stanislav; McCallum, Jamie; Titov, Oleg; Blanchard, Jay; Lovell, Jim; Watson, Christopher
2013-01-01
We examine the relationship between source position stability and astrophysical properties of radio-loud quasars making up the International Celestial Reference Frame. We construct light curves for 95 most frequently observed ICRF2 quasars at both the geodetic VLBI observing bands. Because the appearance of new quasar components corresponds to an increase in quasar flux density, these light curves allow us to probe source structure on sub-100 microarcsecond scales, much smaller than conventional VLBI imaging. Flux density monitoring also allows us to trace the evolution of quasar structure. We test how source position stability depends on three astrophysical parameters: (1) Flux density variability at X-band; (2) Time lag between S and X-band light curves; (3) Spectral index rms, defined as the variability in the ratio between S and X-band flux densities. We find that small (<0.15 years) time lags between S and X-band light curves and low (<0.10) spectral index variability are excellent indicators of po...
A leisure-time frame of reference based on a literature analysis.
Söderback, I; Hammarlund, C
1992-01-01
The aims of this study were, through literature analyses, to identify the concept 'leisure time,' to design a model of leisure time and to study the empirical methods used in research literature on leisure time. The data for this article consisted of occupational therapy literature including 48 articles found through a search of the MEDLINE and PsychLIT databases for the period 1975-1989. The methods used for identifying and coding these data based on a set of questions presented by Guba and Lincoln (1985). For discovering the empirical methods used in the material, the work of Ostrow and Caplan (1985) was followed. The data analysis led to the development of a frame of reference of leisure time as used in occupational therapy literature. This model consists of the following dimensions: time, intrinsic motivation, free choice of activity, capability, structure of social and culture environment, leisure-time activity engaged in, goals, pleasure for pleasure's sake, diversion, recreation, relaxation, self-fulfillment, influence on individual, leisure role, leisure behavior, and satisfied harmonious person.
Are OPERA neutrinos faster than light because of non-inertial reference frames?
Germana, Claudio
2012-01-01
Recent results from the OPERA experiment reported a neutrino beam traveling faster than light. The experiment measured the neutrino time of flight (TOF) over a baseline from the CERN to the Gran Sasso site. The neutrino beam arrives 60 ns earlier than a light ray would do. Because the result has an enormous impact on science, it might be worth double-checking the time definitions with respect to the non-inertial system in which the neutrino travel time was measured. Potential problems in the OPERA data analysis connected with the definition of the reference frame and time synchronization are emphasized. We aim to investigate the synchronization of non-inertial clocks on Earth by relating this time to the proper time of an inertial observer at Solar System Barycenter(SSB). The Tempo2 software was used to time-stamp events observed on the geoid with respect to the SSB inertial observer time. Neutrino results from OPERA might carry the fingerprint of non-inertial effects. The CERN-Gran Sasso clock synchronizatio...
The virtual hand illusion is moderated by context-induced spatial reference frames
Zhang, Jing; Ma, Ke; Hommel, Bernhard
2015-01-01
The tendency to perceive an artificial effector as part of one’s own body is known to depend on temporal criteria, like the synchrony between stimulus events informing about the effector. The role of spatial factors is less well understood. Rather than physical distance, which has been manipulated in previous studies, we investigated the role of relative, context-induced distance between the participant’s real hand and an artificial hand stimulated synchronously or asynchronously with the real hand. We replicated previously reported distance effects in a virtual reality setup: the perception of ownership increased with decreased distance, and the impact of synchrony was stronger for short distances. More importantly, we found that ownership perception and impact of synchrony were affected by previous distance: the same, medium distance between real and artificial hand induced more pronounced ownership after having experienced a far-distance condition than after a near-distance condition. This suggests that subjective, context-induced spatial reference frames contribute to ownership perception, which does not seem to fit with the idea of fixed spatial criteria and/or permanent body representations as the sole determinants of perceived body ownership. PMID:26579042
Force encoding in stick insect legs delineates a reference frame for motor control.
Zill, Sasha N; Schmitz, Josef; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Büschges, Ansgar
2012-09-01
The regulation of forces is integral to motor control. However, it is unclear how information from sense organs that detect forces at individual muscles or joints is incorporated into a frame of reference for motor control. Campaniform sensilla are receptors that monitor forces by cuticular strains. We studied how loads and muscle forces are encoded by trochanteral campaniform sensilla in stick insects. Forces were applied to the middle leg to emulate loading and/or muscle contractions. Selective sensory ablations limited activities recorded in the main leg nerve to specific receptor groups. The trochanteral campaniform sensilla consist of four discrete groups. We found that the dorsal groups (Groups 3 and 4) encoded force increases and decreases in the plane of movement of the coxo-trochanteral joint. Group 3 receptors discharged to increases in dorsal loading and decreases in ventral load. Group 4 showed the reverse directional sensitivities. Vigorous, directional responses also occurred to contractions of the trochanteral depressor muscle and to forces applied at the muscle insertion. All sensory discharges encoded the amplitude and rate of loading or muscle force. Stimulation of the receptors produced reflex effects in the depressor motoneurons that could reverse in sign during active movements. These data, in conjunction with findings of previous studies, support a model in which the trochanteral receptors function as an array that can detect forces in all directions relative to the intrinsic plane of leg movement. The array could provide requisite information about forces and simplify the control and adaptation of posture and walking.
Quantum back-action-evading measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame
Møller, Christoffer B.; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Zeuthen, Emil; Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Balabas, Mikhail; Jensen, Kasper; Schliesser, Albert; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S.
2017-07-01
Quantum mechanics dictates that a continuous measurement of the position of an object imposes a random quantum back-action (QBA) perturbation on its momentum. This randomness translates with time into position uncertainty, thus leading to the well known uncertainty on the measurement of motion. As a consequence of this randomness, and in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the QBA puts a limitation—the so-called standard quantum limit—on the precision of sensing of position, velocity and acceleration. Here we show that QBA on a macroscopic mechanical oscillator can be evaded if the measurement of motion is conducted in the reference frame of an atomic spin oscillator. The collective quantum measurement on this hybrid system of two distant and disparate oscillators is performed with light. The mechanical oscillator is a vibrational ‘drum’ mode of a millimetre-sized dielectric membrane, and the spin oscillator is an atomic ensemble in a magnetic field. The spin oriented along the field corresponds to an energetically inverted spin population and realizes a negative-effective-mass oscillator, while the opposite orientation corresponds to an oscillator with positive effective mass. The QBA is suppressed by -1.8 decibels in the negative-mass setting and enhanced by 2.4 decibels in the positive-mass case. This hybrid quantum system paves the way to entanglement generation and distant quantum communication between mechanical and spin systems and to sensing of force, motion and gravity beyond the standard quantum limit.
Garel, Erwan; Rey, Cibran Camba; Ferreira, Oscar; van Koningsveld, Mark
2014-08-01
This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development. Taking European legislation as an example, it is suggested to adopt standardized monitoring protocols for the enhanced usage and utility of environmental indicators. Towards this objective, the use of the FoR approach is advocated since it provides guidance for the definition and use of coherent set of environmental state indicators. After a description of this framework, various examples of applications are provided considering a virtual MRE project located in European waters. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are provided for the successful implementation of the FoR approach and for future studies.
He, Bing; Wang, Xiao-Ya; Hu, Xiao-Gong; Zhao, Qun-He
2017-09-01
Based on years of input from the four geodetic techniques (SLR, GPS, VLBI and DORIS), the strategies of the combination were studied in SHAO to generate a new global terrestrial reference frame as the material realization of the ITRS defined in IERS Conventions. The main input includes the time series of weekly solutions (or fortnightly for SLR 1983–1993) of observational data for satellite techniques and session-wise normal equations for VLBI. The set of estimated unknowns includes 3-dimensional Cartesian coordinates at the reference epoch 2005.0 of the stations distributed globally and their rates as well as the time series of consistent Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs) at the same epochs as the input. Besides the final solution, namely SOL-2, generated by using all the inputs before 2015.0 obtained from short-term observation processing, another reference solution, namely SOL-1, was also computed by using the input before 2009.0 based on the same combination of procedures for the purpose of comparison with ITRF2008 and DTRF2008 and for evaluating the effect of the latest six more years of data on the combined results. The estimated accuracy of the x-component and y-component of the SOL-1 TRF-origin was better than 0.1 mm at epoch 2005.0 and better than 0.3 mm yr‑1 in time evolution, either compared with ITRF2008 or DTRF2008. However, the z-component of the translation parameters from SOL-1 to ITRF2008 and DTRF2008 were 3.4 mm and ‑1.0 mm, respectively. It seems that the z-component of the SOL-1 TRF-origin was much closer to the one in DTRF2008 than the one in ITRF2008. The translation parameters from SOL-2 to ITRF2014 were 2.2, ‑1.8 and 0.9 mm in the x-, y- and z-components respectively with rates smaller than 0.4 mm yr‑1. Similarly, the scale factor transformed from SOL-1 to DTRF2008 was much smaller than that to ITRF2008. The scale parameter from SOL-2 to ITRF2014 was ‑0.31 ppb with a rate lower than 0.01 ppb yr‑1. The external precision (WRMS
Brunner, Martin; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich
2008-01-01
The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate…
Auer-Rizzi, Werner; Berry Michael
2000-01-01
Examines ways business and cultural frames of reference affect decision making in multicultural groups. Finds students' reactions to two class activities shows how "groupthink" arose in both exercises; cultural interference paralyzed group decision making in one group; and cultural interference demonstrated the importance of a cultural…
Expert, Fabien; Ruffier, Franck
2015-02-26
Two bio-inspired guidance principles involving no reference frame are presented here and were implemented in a rotorcraft, which was equipped with panoramic optic flow (OF) sensors but (as in flying insects) no accelerometer. To test these two guidance principles, we built a tethered tandem rotorcraft called BeeRotor (80 grams), which was tested flying along a high-roofed tunnel. The aerial robot adjusts its pitch and hence its speed, hugs the ground and lands safely without any need for an inertial reference frame. The rotorcraft's altitude and forward speed are adjusted via two OF regulators piloting the lift and the pitch angle on the basis of the common-mode and differential rotor speeds, respectively. The robot equipped with two wide-field OF sensors was tested in order to assess the performances of the following two systems of guidance involving no inertial reference frame: (i) a system with a fixed eye orientation based on the curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) sensor, and (ii) an active system of reorientation based on a quasi-panoramic eye which constantly realigns its gaze, keeping it parallel to the nearest surface followed. Safe automatic terrain following and landing were obtained with CurvACE under dim light to daylight conditions and the active eye-reorientation system over rugged, changing terrain, without any need for an inertial reference frame.
Camilleri, Patrick
2012-01-01
In 1994 Orlikowski and Gash articulated Technological Frames of Reference as a systematic theoretical lens to examine technological developments in organisations. A decade later, in 2004, Davidson and Pai expressed concern that while the lens was widely cited in academic discourse, the incidence and adoption of the model as an analytical framework…
Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.
2012-01-01
Background: Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. Aim: To simultaneously…
Salomons, A.F.
2009-01-01
ABSTRACT: This contribution focuses on Book VIII Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) regarding acquisition and loss of ownership of movable property and consists of fifteen questions encountered when studying the rules of this book. The aim is to provide an ‘internal’ assessment of the provisions
Small-signal model of a decoupled double synchronous reference frame current controller
Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Hjerrild, Jester; Kocewiak, Lukasz;
2016-01-01
the dq signals are not dc anymore, and therefore, linearization cannot be done. In this paper a Decoupled Double Synchronous Frame PLL is used to eliminate the oscillations in the dq frame signals. The small signal model of this PLL including an unbalanced current controller is presented in this paper....
The evaluation of a frame-of-reference training programme for intern psychometrists
Gerdi Mulder
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Orientation: The use of assessment centres (ACs has drastically increased over the past decade. However, ACs are constantly confronted with the lack of construct validity. One aspect of ACs that could improve the construct validity significantly is that of assessor training. Unfortunately untrained or poorly trained assessors are often used in AC processes. Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate a frame-of-reference (FOR programme to train intern psychometrists as assessors at an assessment centre. Motivation of study: The role of an assessor is important in an AC; therefore it is vital for an assessor to be able to evaluate and observe candidates’ behaviour adequately. Commencing with this training in a graduate psychometrist programme gives the added benefit of sending skilled psychometrists to the workplace. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach was implemented, utilising a randomised pre-test-post-test comparison group design. Industrial Psychology postgraduate students (N = 22 at a South African university were used and divided into an experimental group (n = 11 and control group (n = 11. Three typical AC simulations were utilised as pre- and post-tests, and the ratings obtained from both groups were statistically analysed to determine the effect of the FOR training programme. Main findings: The data indicated that there was a significant increase in the familiarity of the participants with the one-on-one simulation and the group discussion simulation. Practical/managerial implications: Training intern psychometrists in a FOR programme could assist organisations in the appointment of more competent assessors. Contribution/value-add: To design an assessor training programme using FOR training for intern psychometrists in the South African context, specifically by incorporating this programme into the training programme for Honours students at universities.
Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard
2014-09-01
When speaking and reasoning about time, people around the world tend to do so with vocabulary and concepts borrowed from the domain of space. This raises the question of whether the cross-linguistic variability found for spatial representations, and the principles on which these are based, may also carry over to the domain of time. Real progress in addressing this question presupposes a taxonomy for the possible conceptualizations in one domain and its consistent and comprehensive mapping onto the other-a challenge that has been taken up only recently and is far from reaching consensus. This article aims at systematizing the theoretical and empirical advances in this field, with a focus on accounts that deal with frames of reference (FoRs). It reviews eight such accounts by identifying their conceptual ingredients and principles for space-time mapping, and it explores the potential for their integration. To evaluate their feasibility, data from some thirty empirical studies, conducted with speakers of sixteen different languages, are then scrutinized. This includes a critical assessment of the methods employed, a summary of the findings for each language group, and a (re-)analysis of the data in view of the theoretical questions. The discussion relates these findings to research on the mental time line, and explores the psychological reality of temporal FoRs, the degree of cross-domain consistency in FoR adoption, the role of deixis, and the sources and extent of space-time mapping more generally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, L.; Yu, J.; Wang, G.
2016-12-01
This study investigates current ground deformation derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term ( > 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root mean square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr -1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr -1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr -1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. The subsidence rate in southeastern Louisiana is relatively smaller (4.0-6.0 mm yr -1 ) but tends to be steady over time. This poses a potential threat to the safety of coastal infrastructure in the long-term.
Yu, J.; Wang, G.
2015-11-01
This study investigates current ground motions derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term (> 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr-1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr-1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. GPS observations in southeastern Louisiana indicate minor (4.0-6.0 mm yr-1) but consistent subsidence over time and space. This poses a potential threat to the safety of costal infrastructure in the long-term.
Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Guoquan
2016-07-01
This study investigates current ground deformation derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term (> 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root mean square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr-1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr-1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. The subsidence rate in southeastern Louisiana is relatively smaller (4.0-6.0 mm yr-1) but tends to be steady over time. This poses a potential threat to the safety of coastal infrastructure in the long-term.
J. Yu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This study investigates current ground motions derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF. Thirteen long-term (> 5 years CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root-mean-square (RMS of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr−1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr−1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City. The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr−1 (2008–2014. Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. GPS observations in southeastern Louisiana indicate minor (4.0–6.0 mm yr−1 but consistent subsidence over time and space. This poses a potential threat to the safety of costal infrastructure in the long-term.
Jacobs, Christopher
2015-08-01
ICRF-3 seeks to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverage relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames that are ready for comparison with the Gaia optical frame.Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration to improve at S/X-band precision of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey's ~2200 sources, which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2, is bearing fruit and is projected to yield a factor of 3 improvement in precision. S/X-band southern hemisphere precision improvements are underway with observations using southern antennas such as the AuScope, Warkworth, and HartRAO, South Africa.We also seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka-band and K-band work. An X/Ka frame of 660 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which is strengthening the southern hemisphere in general. The X/Ka-band frame's precision is now comparable to the ICRF-2 for the 530 sources in common. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. By the time of this meeting, we expect K-band to complete full sky coverage with south polar cap observations and to improve spatial density north of -30 deg declination with VLBA observations.On the analysis front, special attention is being given to combination techniques both of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) frames and of multiple data types. Consistency of the Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) with the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) and Earth Oreintation Parameters (EOP) is another area of concern. Comparison of celestial frame solutions from various groups is underway in order to identify and correct systematic errors. We will discuss evidence emerging for 100 µas zonal errors in the ICRF2 in the declination range from 0 to -30 deg.Finally, work is underway to identify and
Are OPERA neutrinos faster than light because of non-inertial reference frames?
Germanà, C.
2012-02-01
Context. Recent results from the OPERA experiment reported a neutrino beam traveling faster than light. The challenging experiment measured the neutrino time of flight (TOF) over a baseline from the CERN to the Gran Sasso site, concluding that the neutrino beam arrives ~60 ns earlier than a light ray would do. Because the result, if confirmed, has an enormous impact on science, it might be worth double-checking the time definitions with respect to the non-inertial system in which the neutrino travel time was measured. An observer with a clock measuring the proper time τ free of non-inertial effects is the one located at the solar system barycenter (SSB). Aims: Potential problems in the OPERA data analysis connected with the definition of the reference frame and time synchronization are emphasized. We aim to investigate the synchronization of non-inertial clocks on Earth by relating this time to the proper time of an inertial observer at SSB. Methods: The Tempo2 software was used to time-stamp events observed on the geoid with respect to the SSB inertial observer time. Results: Neutrino results from OPERA might carry the fingerprint of non-inertial effects because they are timed by terrestrial clocks. The CERN-Gran Sasso clock synchronization is accomplished by applying corrections that depend on special and general relativistic time dilation effects at the clocks, depending on the position of the clocks in the solar system gravitational well. As a consequence, TOF distributions are centered on values shorter by tens of nanoseconds than expected, integrating over a period from April to December, longer if otherwise. It is worth remarking that the OPERA runs have always been carried out from April/May to November. Conclusions: If the analysis by Tempo2 holds for the OPERA experiment, the excellent measurement by the OPERA collaboration will turn into a proof of the general relativity theory in a weak field approximation. The analysis presented here is falsifiable
Face-infringement space: the frame of reference of the ventral intraparietal area.
McCollum, Gin; Klam, François; Graf, Werner
2012-07-01
Experimental studies have shown that responses of ventral intraparietal area (VIP) neurons specialize in head movements and the environment near the head. VIP neurons respond to visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli, smooth pursuit eye movements, and passive and active movements of the head. This study demonstrates mathematical structure on a higher organizational level created within VIP by the integration of a complete set of variables covering face-infringement. Rather than positing dynamics in an a priori defined coordinate system such as those of physical space, we assemble neuronal receptive fields to find out what space of variables VIP neurons together cover. Section 1 presents a view of neurons as multidimensional mathematical objects. Each VIP neuron occupies or is responsive to a region in a sensorimotor phase space, thus unifying variables relevant to the disparate sensory modalities and movements. Convergence on one neuron joins variables functionally, as space and time are joined in relativistic physics to form a unified spacetime. The space of position and motion together forms a neuronal phase space, bridging neurophysiology and the physics of face-infringement. After a brief review of the experimental literature, the neuronal phase space natural to VIP is sequentially characterized, based on experimental data. Responses of neurons indicate variables that may serve as axes of neural reference frames, and neuronal responses have been so used in this study. The space of sensory and movement variables covered by VIP receptive fields joins visual and auditory space to body-bound sensory modalities: somatosensation and the inertial senses. This joining of allocentric and egocentric modalities is in keeping with the known relationship of the parietal lobe to the sense of self in space and to hemineglect, in both humans and monkeys. Following this inductive step, variables are formalized in terms of the mathematics of graph theory to deduce which
The ICRF-3: Proposed Roadmap to the Next Generation International Celestial Reference Frame
Jacobs, Christopher S.; Arias, F.; Boehm, J.; Bolotin, S.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; de Witt, A.; Fey, A.; Gaume, R.; Gordon, D.; Heinkelmann, R.; Kurdubov, S.; Lambert, S.; Ma, C.; Malkin, Z.; Nothnagel, A.; Seitz, M.; Skurikhina, E.; Souchay, J.; Titov, O.; Boboltz, D.
2014-10-01
ICRF-3 seeks to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverage relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames that are ready for comparison with the Gaia optical frame. Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration has started to improve at S/X-band precision of the VLBA Calibrator Survey's ~2200 sources which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2. S/X-band southern precision improvements are underway with observations using southern antennas such as the AuScope and HartRAO, S. Africa. We also seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka and K-band work. An X/Ka frame of 654 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which should strengthen the southern hemisphere in general. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. On the analysis front, special attention is being given to combination techniques both of VLBI frames and of multiple data types. Consistency of the CRF with the TRF and EOP is another area of concern. Comparison of celestial frame solutions from various groups is underway in order to identify and correct systematic errors. Finally, work is underway to identify and pinpoint sources bright enough in both radio and optical to allow for a robust frame tie between VLBI and Gaia optical frames.
Study of Geodesics and the Frame-dragging effect in a Rotating Traversable Wormhole
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2016-01-01
The complete equatorial causal geodesic structure of a rotating traversable wormhole is analyzed and it has been shown that the ISCO (Innermost Stable Circular Orbit) coincides at the throat of the wormhole for the retrograde rotation. By studying the effective potential we also find the radius of the circular photon orbit. The Periastron precession frequency and the nodal precession frequency have been derived for both of the direct and retrograde rotation. Moreover, we derive the exact Lense-Thirring precession frequency of a test gyro for the said wormhole and we show that this frequency is inversely proportional to the angular momentum $(a)$ of the wormhole along the pole in a certain range of $r \\,\\, (r < 16a^2)$ whereas it is directly proportional to the angular momentum of the spacetime for the other compact objects like black holes and pulsars.
Lehto, Lauri J; Albors, Aloma A; Sierra, Alejandra; Tolppanen, Laura; Eberly, Lynn E; Mangia, Silvia; Nurmi, Antti; Michaeli, Shalom; Gröhn, Olli
2017-01-01
In this work a new MRI modality entitled Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field in the rotating frame of rank 4 (RAFF4) was evaluated in its ability to detect lower myelin content in lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC)-induced demyelinating lesions. The lesions were induced in two areas of the rat brain with either uniform or complex fiber orientations, i.e., in the corpus callosum (cc) and dorsal tegmental tract (dtg), respectively. RAFF4 showed excellent ability to detect demyelinated lesions and good correlation with myelin content in both brain areas. In comparison, diffusion tensor imaging metrices, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and axonal and radial diffusivity, and magnetization transfer (MT) metrices, longitudinal relaxation during off-resonance irradiation and MT ratio, either failed to detect demyelination in dtg or showed lower correlation with myelin density quantified from gold chloride stained histological sections. Good specifity of RAFF4 to myelin was confirmed by its low correlation with cell density assesed from Nissl stained sections as well as its lack of sensitivity to pH changes in the physiological range as tested in heat denaturated bovine serum albumin phantoms. The excellent ability of RAFF4 to detect myelin content and its insensitivity to fiber orientation distribution, gliosis and pH, together with low specific absorption rate, demonstrates the promise of rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn) as a valuable MRI technique for non-invasive imaging of demyelinating lesions.
Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rodriguez, P.
2008-01-01
This work employs the Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (DSRF-PLL) as an effective method for grid synchronization of WT's power converters in the presence of transient faults in the grid. The DSRF-PLL exploits a dual synchronous reference frame voltage characterization, adding a decoupling...... network to a standard SRF-PLL in order to effectively separate the positive- and negative-sequence voltage components in a fast and accurate way. Experimental evaluation of the proposed grid synchronization method and simulations regarding its application to ride through transient faults verify...... and validate the excellent behavior of the DSRF-PLL in the grid synchronization of WT's power converters under unfavorable grid conditions....
Roadmap to a mutually consistent set of offshore vertical reference frames
Slobbe, D.C.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a combined approach for the realization of the (quasi-)geoid as a height reference surface and the vertical reference surface at sea (chart datum). This approach, specifically designed for shallow seas and coastal waters, provides the relation between the two vertical reference
Electronic maps for terminal area navigation: effects of frame of reference and dimensionality.
Wickens, C D; Liang, C C; Prevett, T; Olmos, O
1996-01-01
Two experiments are reported that contrast rotating versus fixed electronic map displays, which pilots used for a simulated approach to a landing. In Experiment 1, a rotating versus fixed-map display was experimentally crossed with a two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) view (perspective map) as pilots' ability to maintain the flight path and demonstrate awareness of the location of surrounding terrain features were assessed. Rotating displays supported better flight path guidance and did not substantially harm performance on terrain awareness tasks. 3D displays led to a substantial cost for vertical control but did not differ from 2D displays in lateral control. In Experiment 2, pilots flew with the rotating 2D display and with an improved version of the rotating 3D display, designed to reduce the ambiguity of representing altitude information. Vertical control improved as a result of the 3D display design improvement, but lateral control did not. The results are discussed in terms of the costs and benefits of presenting information in 3D, ego-referenced format for both flight path control and terrain awareness.
Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio
2016-04-01
The realization of Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRFs) must be periodically updated in order to account for newly acquired observations and for upgrades in data analysis procedures and/or combination techniques. Any innovative computation strategy should ameliorate the definition of the frame physical parameters, upon which a number of scientific applications critically rely. On the basis of the requirements of scientific cutting edge studies, the geodetic community has estimated that the present day challenge in the determination of TRFs is to provide a frame that is accurate and long-term stable at the level of 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y respectively. This work aims at characterizing the frame realized by a combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations via their co-location on board GNSS spacecrafts. In particular, it is established how such a frame compares to the traditional ITRF computation and what is the impact on the realization of the frame origin and scale. Four years of data from a global network encompassing about one hundred GNSS stations and all SLR sites have been analyzed. In order to ensure the highest possible consistency, the raw data of both techniques are treated with the same analysis Software (Bernese GNSS Software 5.2) following IERS2010 Conventions. Both weekly and long term solutions are carried out exploiting either the Bernese or the Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial Reference Frames (CATREF) Software packages. We present the results of a combination study involving GNSS data and SLR observations to the two LAGEOS and to the GNSS satellites equipped with retroreflector arrays. The latter type of measurements is currently not included in the computation of the official ITRF solutions. The assessment of the benefit that they could provide to the definition of the origin and scale of the ITRF is however worth investigating, as such data provide the potential for linking the GNSS and
A rotational and axial motion system load frame insert for in situ high energy x-ray studies
Shade, Paul A., E-mail: paul.shade.1@us.af.mil; Schuren, Jay C.; Turner, Todd J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Blank, Basil [PulseRay, Beaver Dams, New York 14812 (United States); Kenesei, Peter; Goetze, Kurt; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Suter, Robert M. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Bernier, Joel V.; Li, Shiu Fai [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lind, Jonathan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2015-09-15
High energy x-ray characterization methods hold great potential for gaining insight into the behavior of materials and providing comparison datasets for the validation and development of mesoscale modeling tools. A suite of techniques have been developed by the x-ray community for characterizing the 3D structure and micromechanical state of polycrystalline materials; however, combining these techniques with in situ mechanical testing under well characterized and controlled boundary conditions has been challenging due to experimental design requirements, which demand new high-precision hardware as well as access to high-energy x-ray beamlines. We describe the design and performance of a load frame insert with a rotational and axial motion system that has been developed to meet these requirements. An example dataset from a deforming titanium alloy demonstrates the new capability.
Entrainment of an inertial reference frame by an accelerated gravitating shell
Menshikov, L I; Pinzul, A N
2000-01-01
For the example of an accelerated shell we show that omission of the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) of the body that causes the acceleration and the tensions due to this acceleration can lead to a paradoxical result; Namely, the entrainment of an inertial frame by the accelerated shell in the direction opposite to that of the acceleration. We consider several models and demonstrate that the correct result can be obtained only if all components of the full EMT are adequately taken into account, and the problem statement is physically correct.
W production at LHC: lepton angular distributions and reference frames for probing hard QCD
Richter-Was, E
2016-01-01
Precision tests of the Standard Model in the Strong and Electroweak sectors play an important role, among the physics goals of LHC experiments. Because of the nature of proton-proton processes, observables based on the measurement of the direction and energy of leptons provide the most precise signatures. In the present paper, we concentrate on the angular distribution of leptons from W to l nu decays in the lepton-pair rest-frame. The vector nature of the intermediate state imposes that distributions are to a good precision described by spherical polynomials of at most second order. We argue, that contrary to general belief often expressed in the literature, the full set of angular coefficients can be measured experimentally, despite the presence in the final state of neutrino escaping detection. There is thus no principle difference with respect to the phenomenology of the Z/gamma to l^+ l^- Drell-Yan process. We show also, that with the proper choice of the coordinate frames, only one coefficient in this p...
Mackern, M. V.; Mateo, M. L.; Robin, A. M.; Calori, A. V.
2009-12-01
Satellite positioning systems allow the fixing of the location of a point on the Earth's surface with very good precision and accuracy. To do this, however, it is necessary to determine the point coordinates taking account the reference system and the movements that affect them because of tectonic plate movements. These reference systems are materialized by a significant number of continuous measurement stations in South America. In SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas), there are four Analysis Centers that process the data collected from satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), with the primary purpose to maintain the international terrestrial reference frame through calculation of the coordinates and velocities of the continuous GNSS stations of the SIRGAS-CON Network. In this work, we demonstrate the quality of the solutions from CIMA, one of the SIRGAS official processing centers operating in Mendoza, Argentina, in comparison with other South American processing centers. The importance of precise calculations of coordinates and velocities in a global frame is also shown. Finally, we give estimations of velocities from stations located within deformation zones in the Central Andes.
陈丽兵; 史丽萍; 夏正龙; 王攀攀
2014-01-01
为使静止无功发生器(Static Var Generator，SVG)具备无功、谐波及不对称电流综合补偿能力，提出了一种基于同步旋转坐标变换及离散傅立叶变换（Discrete Fourier Transform，DFT）的SVG指令电流检测方法。该方法通过在同步旋转坐标系下进行递归离散傅立叶变换，能够实时检测出负载电流中的无功分量、不对称分量以及特征谐波。利用该方法只用一个控制器就能同时对两种特征谐波分量进行补偿，相对于其他方法运算量大大减小，便于工程实现。仿真和实验验证证明了该方法的有效性。%A reference current detection method based on synchronous reference frame transformation and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is presented to make SVG provide synthetic compensation including reactive power compensation, harmonic compensation and unbalanced current compensation. By using recursive DFT algorithm in the rotating reference frame, the proposed method can be used to extract reactive currents, unbalanced currents and characteristic harmonic currents from the load currents in real time. This method allows the simultaneous compensation of two current harmonics with just one regulator, yielding a significant reduction of the computational effort and easy engineering implementation compared with other methods. The results of simulation and experiment show the validity of this method.
Rodríguez-Olivares, Ramón; El Faquir, Nahid; Rahhab, Zouhair; Maugenest, Anne-Marie; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Schultz, Carl; Lauritsch, Guenter; de Jaegere, Peter P T
2016-07-01
To study the determinants of image quality of rotational angiography using dedicated research prototype software for motion compensation without rapid ventricular pacing after the implantation of four commercially available catheter-based valves. Prospective observational study including 179 consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with either the Medtronic CoreValve (MCS), Edward-SAPIEN Valve (ESV), Boston Sadra Lotus (BSL) or Saint-Jude Portico Valve (SJP) in whom rotational angiography (R-angio) with motion compensation 3D image reconstruction was performed. Image quality was evaluated from grade 1 (excellent image quality) to grade 5 (strongly degraded). Distinction was made between good (grades 1, 2) and poor image quality (grades 3-5). Clinical (gender, body mass index, Agatston score, heart rate and rhythm, artifacts), procedural (valve type) and technical variables (isocentricity) were related with the image quality assessment. Image quality was good in 128 (72 %) and poor in 51 (28 %) patients. By univariable analysis only valve type (BSL) and the presence of an artefact negatively affected image quality. By multivariate analysis (in which BMI was forced into the model) BSL valve (Odds 3.5, 95 % CI [1.3-9.6], p = 0.02), presence of an artifact (Odds 2.5, 95 % CI [1.2-5.4], p = 0.02) and BMI (Odds 1.1, 95 % CI [1.0-1.2], p = 0.04) were independent predictors of poor image quality. Rotational angiography with motion compensation 3D image reconstruction using a dedicated research prototype software offers good image quality for the evaluation of frame geometry after TAVI in the majority of patients. Valve type, presence of artifacts and higher BMI negatively affect image quality.
Influence of frame-dragging on magnetic null points near rotating black hole
Karas, V; Kunneriath, D
2012-01-01
Understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration from the vicinity of black holes poses a challenge. Electromagnetic effects are thought to be a prime suspect, but details still need an explanation. To this end, we study a three-dimensional structure of oblique magnetic fields near a rotating black hole in vacuum. It has been proposed that such a set-up can lead to efficient acceleration when plasma is injected near a magnetic null point. We focus our attention especially on the magnetic field in the immediate neighborhood of the magnetic null point, which was previously shown to occur in the equatorial plane. By employing the Line-Integral-Convolution (LIC) method, we visualize the magnetic field lines and explore the electric lines rising out of the equatorial plane. We show the magnetic field structure near the boundary of ergosphere, depending on the spin of the black hole. Electric field develops a non-vanishing component passing through the magnetic null point and ensuring efficient acceleration of...
Fixing the Reference Frame for PPMXL Proper Motions Using Extragalactic Sources
Grabowski, Kathleen; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Beers, Timothy C; Chen, Li; Deng, Licai; Grillmair, Carl J; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hou, Jinliang; Lepine, Sebastien; Liu, Chao; Liu, Xiaowei; Luo, A-Li; Smith, Martin C; Yanny, Brian; Zhang, Haotong; Zheng, Zheng
2014-01-01
We quantify and correct systematic errors in PPMXL proper motions using extragalactic sources from the first two LAMOST data releases and the Veron-Cetty & Veron Catalog of Quasars. Although the majority of the sources are from the Veron catalog, LAMOST makes important contributions in regions that are not well-sampled by previous catalogs, particularly at low Galactic latitudes and in the south Galactic cap. We show that quasars in PPMXL have measureable and significant proper motions, which reflect the systematic zero-point offsets present in the catalog. We confirm the global proper motion shifts seen by Wu, Ma, & Zhou (2011), and additionally find smaller-scale fluctuations of the QSO-derived corrections to an absolute frame. We average the proper motions of 158,106 extragalactic objects in bins of 3x3 degrees and present a table of proper motion corrections.
Stephan eEhrenfeld
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of how the brain may maintain a probabilistic body state estimate over time from a modeling perspective.The neural Modular Modality Frame (nMMF model simulates such a body state estimation process by continuously integrating redundant, multimodal body state information sources.The body state estimate itself is distributed over separate, but bidirectionally interacting modules.nMMF compares the incoming sensory and present body state information across the interacting modules and fuses the information sources accordingly. At the same time, nMMF enforces body state estimation consistency across the modules.nMMF is able to detect conflicting sensory information and to consequently decrease the influence of implausible sensor sources on the fly. In contrast to the previously published Modular Modality Frame (MMF model, nMMF offers a biologically plausible neural implementation based on distributed, probabilistic population codes. Besides its neural plausibility, the neural encoding has the advantage of enabling (a additional probabilistic information flow across the separate body state estimation modules and (b the representation of arbitrary probability distributions of a body state.The results show that the neural estimates can detect and decrease the impact of false sensory information, can propagate conflicting information across modules, and can improve overal estimation accuracy due to additional module interactions. Even bodily illusions, such as the rubber hand illusion, can be simulated with nMMF. We conclude with an outlook on the potential of modeling human data and of invoking goal-directed behavioral control.
Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.
Rajasekaran Dharmalingam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC based on current source converter (CSC topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.
Non-iterative coherent diffractive imaging using a phase-shifting reference frame
Enders, B; Giewekemeyer, K; Salditt, T [Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Kurz, T [III. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Podorov, S [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de
2009-04-15
Lensless imaging is a high potential and currently intensely targeted research goal, in view of those fields of applications for which aberration-free high-resolution lenses are not available, for example for x-ray imaging. A recently proposed (direct inversion) variant of lensless imaging combines the advantages of two classical routes toward lensless imaging, the high-resolution characteristics of iterative object reconstruction, and the direct and deterministic nature of holographic reconstruction. Here, we use a simple standard optical setup using visible wavelength, a lithographic test object and a phase-shifting reference object to demonstrate the approach. Importantly, we show that a phase-shifting reference object, instead of the absorption mask proposed earlier, is sufficient for object reconstruction. This is relevant in view of the much easier implementation in future x-ray applications.
Allred, Charles Jefferson
mechanism, similar to a Stewart Platform. A calibration method for this device is developed and the improved orientation estimation results are shown. The second method is not specific to the fully articulated rotor head mounting geometry of the first method. Rather, it utilizes micro-electromechanical (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes configured to measure the centrifugal acceleration and rotation rate induced through rotor head rotation differentially. By measuring these quantities differentially, other accelerations from the fuselage reference frame are removed from the measurement, resulting in acceleration and rate quantities that are impacted only by the angle of the sensors relative to the plane of rotation. By mounting these sensors strategically and symmetrically about the rotor blade root center of rotation, the orientation of the rotor blade can be estimated in real time.
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
Bender, Andrea; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Hüther, Lisa; Beller, Sieghard
2012-01-01
People often use spatial vocabulary to describe temporal relations, and this increasingly has motivated attempts to map spatial frames of reference (FoRs) onto time. Recent research suggested that speech communities, which differ in how they conceptualize space, may also differ in how they conceptualize time and, more specifically, that the preferences for spatial FoRs should carry over to the domain of time. Here, we scrutinize this assumption (a) by reviewing data from recent studies on temporal references, (b) by comparing data we had collected in previous studies on preferences for spatial and temporal FoRs in four languages, (c) by analyzing new data from dynamic spatial tasks that resemble the temporal tasks more closely, and (d) by assessing the co-variation of individual preferences of English speakers across space and time. While the first set of data paints a mixed picture, the latter three do not support the assumption of a close link between referencing preferences across domains. We explore possible reasons for this lack of consistency and discuss implications for research on temporal references. PMID:23162519
Frame of reference of software architecture for web applications and mobile
Carlos Alberto Maliza Martinez
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Given the need to have a guide for the implementation of informatics applications, and thus achieve automate tasks improving response times of users, designed the framework of reference the architecture software for web and mobile applications with technology free software and open source. The technology to be used is the Object Oriented Programming (OOP with JAVA programming language, a client / server architecture and style of multitier architecture, which will allow us to create scalable, robust and stable systems, together of Java Platform Enterprise Edition (JEE that helps us to implement business applications thanks to the JPA and EJB APIs. By the server for handling transactions, security, scalability and concurrency we have Wildﬂy application server. And on the client side, for creating graphical interfaces we use the ExtJS and Sencha Touch Framework, which are lightweight, high-performance libraries based on HTML5, JavaScript and CSS3. The report generator is JasperReports, because it has the ability to deliver rich content display and printer. The database engine is MySQL, because its connectivity, speed, and security make it a very appropriate server for access from the web. Finally, as editor of web and mobile applications, we have the integrated development environment Eclipse IDE platform of open source. In this paper we make a critical analysis of such applications and formulate the Framework of Software Architecture for the development and implementation of Web and Mobile Applications, which were implemented in the ECU911 Babahoyo and at the Instituto Tecnologico Superior Babahoyo, proving through its application their effectiveness and efﬁciency in the implementation of integrated systems
From Work to Frame in Intermedial References: Joseph Beuys in Three Contemporary German Poems
Noël Reumkens
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous nous interrogeons sur ce qui se produit dans les textes littéraires se référant aux œuvres des arts visuels, qui en premier ressort ne sont pas visuels mais plutôt conceptuels et abstraits. L’œuvre conceptuelle de l’artiste allemand Joseph Beuys (1921-1986 s’appuie sur un cadre conceptuel résumé par le terme de “sculpture sociale”. Notre but est de rechercher comment trois poètes allemands contemporains, Thomas Kling, Durs Grünbein et Ulrike Draesner se rapprochent de cette “sculpture sociale” dans leurs poèmes.This article deals with about what happens in literary texts that refer to visual art works, that in the first place are not visual but rather conceptual and abstract. The conceptual work of the German artist Joseph Beuys (1921-1986 is founded on a conceptual framework that can be summed up under the term “social sculpture”. It is our goal to research exactly how three German contemporary poets, Thomas Kling, Durs Grünbein and Ulrike Draesner approach this “social sculpture” in their poems.En este artículo nos planteamos la cuestión de saber qué sucede con los textos literarios que remiten a obras de artes visuales que en primera instancia no son visuales, sino no más bien conceptuales y abstractos. La obra conceptual del artista alemán José Beuys (1921-1986 se fundamente en un marco conceptual sintetizado con el término de "escultura social ". Nuestro fin es ver cómo tres poetas alemanes contemporáneos, Thomás Kling, Durs Grünbein y Ulrike Draesner, se enfrentan en sus poemas a esta "escultura social".
Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; Frejeido, Francisco
2014-01-01
Control Parameters design of a three-phase synchronous reference frame phase locked loop (SRF-PLL) with a pre-filtering stage (acting as the sequence separator) is not a trivial task. The conventional way to deal with this problem is to neglect the interaction between the SRF-PLL and pre......-filtering stage, and treat them as two separate systems. This approach, although very simple, is not optimum as the pre-filtering stage and the SRF-PLL may have comparable dynamics. The aim of this paper is to develop a systematic and efficient approach to design the control parameters of a SRF-PLL with pre......-filtering stage. To this end, the paper first optimizes the performance of the filtering stage in detection of the sequence components. The paper then proceeds to reduce the interaction between the filtering stage and SRF-PLL, which is achieved by employing a derivative-filtered proportional...
Fraschetti, Federico; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne
2010-01-01
Context: The Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities generated by the deceleration of a supernova remnant during the ejecta-dominated phase are known to produce finger-like structures in the matter distribution which modify the geometry of the remnant. The morphology of supernova remnants is also expected to be modified when efficient particle acceleration occurs at their shocks. Aims: The impact of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities from the ejecta-dominated to the Sedov-Taylor phase is investigated over one octant of the supernova remnant. We also study the effect of efficient particle acceleration at the forward shock on the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Methods: We modified the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code RAMSES to study with hydrodynamic numerical simulations the evolution of supernova remnants in the framework of an expanding reference frame. The adiabatic index of a relativistic gas between the forward shock and the contact discontinuity mimics the presence of accelerated particles. Results: The ...
Rini Ann Jerin, A; Kaliannan, Palanisamy; Subramaniam, Umashankar
2017-09-01
Fault ride through (FRT) capability in wind turbines to maintain the grid stability during faults has become mandatory with the increasing grid penetration of wind energy. Doubly fed induction generator based wind turbine (DFIG-WT) is the most popularly utilized type of generator but highly susceptible to the voltage disturbances in grid. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) based external FRT capability improvement is considered. Since DVR is capable of providing fast voltage sag mitigation during faults and can maintain the nominal operating conditions for DFIG-WT. The effectiveness of the DVR using Synchronous reference frame (SRF) control is investigated for FRT capability in DFIG-WT during both balanced and unbalanced fault conditions. The operation of DVR is confirmed using time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink using 1.5MW DFIG-WT. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, P.;
2008-01-01
will be needed in order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid with an increased level of renewable power. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents an analysis of the natural...... reference frame controller, based on proportional-resonant (PR) technique, for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network. The proposed method is tested in terms of harmonic content in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), voltage......To pave the way to a sustainable energy future based on a larger share of Distributed Generation (DG), there is a clear need to prepare the European electricity system for the large-scale integration of both renewable and other distributed energy sources. Advanced power electronic converters for DG...
Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea
2015-01-01
A task like "moving a meeting forward" reveals the ambiguity inherent in temporal references. That speakers of U.S. English do not agree on how to solve it is well established: Roughly one half moves the meeting futurewards, the other half pastwards. But the extent to which individual speakers, rather than groups of speakers, consider such phrases as ambiguous has not been scrutinized. Does the split in readings result from a lack of intraindividual consistency or from a lack of interindividual consensus? And how specific is U.S. English in this regard when compared to other closely related Germanic languages? Based on a taxonomy of spatiotemporal frames of reference (FoRs), we conducted two experiments with speakers of Swedish, U.S. English, and German to assess individual preferences for temporal FoRs, intra- and cross-linguistic variability, consistency and long-term stability of these preferences, and possible effects of priming a spatial FoR. The data reveal cross-linguistic differences, both in terms of which temporal FoRs speakers prefer (the absolute FoR in Sweden, the intrinsic FoR in German, and both of these in the US) and in terms of the extent to which these preferences are shared and stable (high consensus and consistency in Sweden and Germany, and low consensus and partial consistency in the US). Overall, no effect of spatial priming was observed; only speakers of U.S. English with a baseline preference for the absolute temporal FoR seemed to be susceptible to spatial priming. Thus, the assumption that temporal references are affected by spatial references is only weakly supported.
Uehara, Masashi; Takahashi, Jun; Ikegami, Shota; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Oba, Hiroki; Kato, Hiroyuki
2017-04-01
Pedicle screw fixation is commonly employed for the surgical correction of scoliosis but carries a risk of serious neurovascular or visceral structure events during screw insertion. To avoid these complications, we have been using a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system during pedicle screw placement. As this could also prolong operation time, multilevel registration for pedicle screw insertion for posterior scoliosis surgery was developed to register three consecutive vertebrae in a single time with CT-based navigation. The reference frame was set either at the caudal end of three consecutive vertebrae or at one or two vertebrae inferior to the most caudal registered vertebra, and then pedicle screws were inserted into the three consecutive registered vertebrae and into the one or two adjacent vertebrae. This study investigated the perforation rates of vertebrae at zero, one, two, three, or four or more levels above or below the vertebra at which the reference frame was set. This is a retrospective, single-center, single-surgeon study. One hundred sixty-one scoliosis patients who had undergone pedicle screw fixation were reviewed. Screw perforation rates were evaluated by postoperative CT. We evaluated 161 scoliosis patients (34 boys and 127 girls; mean±standard deviation age: 14.6±2.8 years) who underwent pedicle screw fixation guided by a CT-based navigation system between March 2006 and December 2015. A total of 2,203 pedicle screws were inserted into T2-L5 using multilevel registration with CT-based navigation. The overall perforation rates for Grade 1, 2, or 3, Grade 2 or 3 (major perforations), and Grade 3 perforations (violations) were as follows: vertebrae at which the reference frame was set: 15.9%, 6.1%, and 2.5%; one vertebra above or below the reference frame vertebra: 16.5%, 4.0%, and 1.2%; two vertebrae above or below the reference frame vertebra: 20.7%, 8.7%, and 2.3%; three vertebrae above or below the reference frame vertebra: 23
Oliveira, Abinael B; Bakke, Knut
2016-06-01
The behaviour of a neutral particle (atom, molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment in a region with a uniform effective magnetic field under the influence of the Kratzer potential (Kratzer 1920 Z. Phys.3, 289-307. (doi:10.1007/BF01327754)), and rotating effects is analysed. It is shown that the degeneracy of the Landau-type levels is broken and the angular frequency of the system acquires a new contribution that stems from the rotation effects. Moreover, in the search for bound state solutions, it is shown that the possible values of this angular frequency of the system are determined by the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum, the angular velocity of the rotating frame and by the parameters associated with the Kratzer potential.
Kurtz, John E; Palfrey, Amy Pastva
2016-02-01
Frame-of-reference (FOR) effects in personality assessment are demonstrated when self-rated items oriented to specific contexts (e.g., workplace) show better predictive validity than noncontextualized items. Empirical support of FOR effects typically relies on job performance ratings or academic grades for criteria. The current study evaluates FOR effects using ratings of personality provided by informants from the home or school context. Items from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) were contextualized to the home and school contexts to create NEO-Home and NEO-School versions. One hundred fifty-eight college students completed the NEO-Home and NEO-School questionnaires, and 161 college students completed the standard, noncontextualized NEO-FFI. All participants recruited one peer from college and at least one parent to complete standard rater versions of the NEO-FFI. Contextualized self-ratings did not show FOR effects. NEO-Home self-ratings did not correlate higher with parent ratings than with peer ratings, and NEO-School self-ratings did not correlate higher with peer ratings than with parent ratings. Standard NEO-FFI self-ratings generally showed higher self-informant agreement with both types of informants than contextualized self-ratings. The pattern of correlations suggests that validity is enhanced more by specific trait-informant combinations than by the contextualization of items to social contexts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Svensson, Ola (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Salo, Ilkka (Dept. of Psychology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))
2004-11-15
A systems perspective on safety management is introduced followed by two briefly presented case studies of safety management in non-nuclear contexts. The first study concerns a car manufacturer and the second study a road traffic tunnel system. The risks of a car accident in the first case study are evident. The great exposure generates many incidents and accidents. In the second study, the rather low traffic intensity through the tunnel produces few incidents and accidents and only a few fatal accidents over the years. Yet, the risk of the individual traveler is much greater in the tunnel than on the average road. The case studies are presented in a systems perspective with emphasis on information feedback about the risks of the systems. The first case study illustrates high quality safety management, while the second case study shows many weaknesses of the safety management in the tunnel system. Some differences in safety management between the case studies are noted. The last part of the study presents an organizational perspective on safety management and offers alternative theoretical perspectives on the concept of safety management. The report shows that further studies are needed both (1) to develop a frame of reference for describing safety management across industries and activities and (2) to collect data illustrating of good and poor safety management. Then, the results can be used to strengthen and/or improving safety management in the nuclear power industry and its regulators
Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi;
2013-01-01
Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mat......Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops...... and the mathematical models of the VSIs are based on the stationary reference frame. A hierarchical control scheme for the paralleled VSI system is developed comprising two levels. The primary control includes the droop method and the virtual impedance loops, in order to share active and reactive power. The secondary...... control restores the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the primary control. Also, a synchronization algorithm is presented in order to connect the MicroGrid to the grid. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the parallel VSI system control...
固定坐标系下的风力机稳定性分析%STABILITY ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINE UNDER STATIONARY REFERENCE FRAME
何玉林; 刘桦; 杜静; 杨显刚
2011-01-01
采用仿真软件TurbSim建立紊流风场数据、AeroDyn建立气动力数据、FAST( fatigue,aerodynamics,structures,and turbulence)建立风力发电机组动力学模型,并将三者联合起来,建立完整的风力发电机组系统动力学模型.通过多叶片坐标变换(multi-blade coordinate)将系统动力学模型中与叶片相关的转动自由度转换到固定坐标系中,并进行稳定性分析.以某600 kW失速型风力机为例,根据联合仿真得到该风力机在稳态和紊流风场下的叶尖、塔架的变形和轮毂叶根处的受力,并得到不考虑气动力情况下的风力机系统稳定性结果.%After the stochastic inflow turbulence, the aerodynamcs and the wind turbine's structural dynamic model constructed by simulation softwares of TurbSim, AeroDyn and FAST(fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence) respectively, the full dynamic model of wind turbine system has been setup. The DOFs( degree of freedom) related to rotating blades have been transformed into stationary reference frame by using multi-blade coordinate transformation, then stability analysis has been conducted. Hie deformations of blades and tower top have been generated in steady and turbulence wind field for a 600 kW stall-regulated wind turbine and the results of stability analysis at different rotor speed without aerodynamic has been gerenated, and the Coleman diagram ploted according to them.
Moller, Jens; Pohlmann, Britta; Koller, Olaf; Marsh, Herb W.
2009-01-01
A meta-analysis of 69 data sets ( N = 125,308) was carried out on studies that simultaneously evaluate the effects of math and verbal achievements on math and verbal self-concepts. As predicted by the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model, math and verbal achievements were highly correlated overall (0.67), but the correlation between…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Möller, Jens; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.
2015-01-01
The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model and dimensional comparison theory posit paradoxical relations between achievement (ACH) and self-concept (SC) in mathematics (M) and verbal (V) domains; ACH in each domain positively affects SC in the matching domain (e.g., MACH to MSC) but negatively in the nonmatching domain (e.g., MACH to…
人格测验的参照情境效应%Frame-of-Reference Effect on Personality Tests
卢谢峰; 唐源鸿; 王孟成
2012-01-01
人格测验的参照情境效应是指，在一般人格测验的基础上，设置某种特定的参照情境，进而使测验的效标关联效度得以提高的现象。在过去十余年里，参照情境效应的考察重心从早期的效度证据搜集逐渐转向内部机理的探讨。研究耆试图通过参照情境与效标的逻辑关联、参照情境的被试问变异及被试内变异来解释现象背后的测量学原理。在构念层面则提出“人格和角色认同层级模型”，以此说明参照情境效应的人格机制问题。未来研究可从参照情境的操作范式、参照情境效应的调节机制等方面继续寻求突破。%The Frame-of-Reference (FOR) effect on personality tests refers to a kind of phenomenon that if a specific reference context is set for a plain personality test, the criterion-related validity of this test will be improved. In the past ten years, the focus of the FOR effect studies has gradually shifted from collecting validity evidence to probing its internal mechanism. The psychometric principle of the FOR effect is that various reference inconsistency in subjects' reaction courses, including the between-person variability and the within-person inconsistency of the FOR, will be reduced, when a concordant FOR matching with criterion is provided. It also reflects that the relation between the contextualized personality constructs and the relevent criterion variables is closer to nomological network. According to Wood's Personality and Role Identity Structural Model, the origin of that relation is from the mediating mechanism of "general personality →contextualized personality → role behavior". In practice, personnel assessment experts can use that conclusion, set proper FORs for personality tests, and thus improve the effectiveness of assessment tools. We see three avenues for future studies. First, on the FOR operational paradigm, researchers can incorporate the context priming paradigm into
R. Rodríguez-Olivares (Ramón); N. El Faquir (Nahid); Z. Rahhab (Zouhair); A.M. Maugenest; N.M. van Mieghem (Nicolas); C. Schultz (Carl); G. Lauritsch (Guenter); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter)
2016-01-01
textabstractTo study the determinants of image quality of rotational angiography using dedicated research prototype software for motion compensation without rapid ventricular pacing after the implantation of four commercially available catheter-based valves. Prospective observational study including
McGrath, Paul L
2014-01-01
In this thesis, I examine in detail the properties of rigid quasilocal frames (RQF), which have been proposed as a geometrically natural way to define spatially extended reference frames in general relativity. I also explore their usefulness, in particular, as a tool for constructing completely general conservation laws that do not rely on the presence of spacetime symmetries and include both matter and gravitational contributions without the need for any ad hoc structures such as pseudotensors. In doing so, I show how the RQF approach affords a deeper understanding of the nature of gravitational fluxes via the equivalence principle. Finally, I apply the RQF formalism to explore Ehrenfest's rotating disk paradox, a generalization of Archimedes' law to curved spacetime, tidal interactions for Earth's and Jupiter's moons, and more.
Liwosz T.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The new solution for the Polish geodetic primary GNSS network was created to verify the currently used reference frame (PL-ETRF2000. The new solution is based on more GNSS data (more daily observation sessions included, a longer data timespan, GLONASS observations added which were processed in a newer reference frame (IGb08 according to up-to-date methodology and using the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software. The new long-term solution (spanning 3.7 years was aligned to the IGb08 reference frame using a minimum constraints approach. We categorized Polish reference stations into two categories according to their data length. We obtained good agreement of the new solution with the PL-ETRF2000: for most stations position differences did not exceed 5 mm in horizontal, and 10 mm in vertical components. However, for 30 stations we observed discontinuities in position time series, mostly due to GNSS equipment changes, which occured after the introduction of PL-ETRF2000. Position changes due to the discontinuities reached 9.1 mm in horizontal components, and 26.9 mm in vertical components. The new solution takes into account position discontinuities, and in addition also includes six new stations which were installed after the introduction of the PL-ETRF2000. Therefore, we propose to update the currently-used reference frame for the Polish geodetic primary network (PL-ETRF2000 with the new solution. The new solution was also accepted by the EUREF Technical Working Group as a class A solution (highest accuracy according to EUREF standards.
Liwosz, T.; Ryczywolski, M.
2016-12-01
The new solution for the Polish geodetic primary GNSS network was created to verify the currently used reference frame (PL-ETRF2000). The new solution is based on more GNSS data (more daily observation sessions included, a longer data timespan, GLONASS observations added) which were processed in a newer reference frame (IGb08) according to up-to-date methodology and using the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software. The new long-term solution (spanning 3.7 years) was aligned to the IGb08 reference frame using a minimum constraints approach. We categorized Polish reference stations into two categories according to their data length. We obtained good agreement of the new solution with the PL-ETRF2000: for most stations position differences did not exceed 5 mm in horizontal, and 10 mm in vertical components. However, for 30 stations we observed discontinuities in position time series, mostly due to GNSS equipment changes, which occured after the introduction of PL-ETRF2000. Position changes due to the discontinuities reached 9.1 mm in horizontal components, and 26.9 mm in vertical components. The new solution takes into account position discontinuities, and in addition also includes six new stations which were installed after the introduction of the PL-ETRF2000. Therefore, we propose to update the currently-used reference frame for the Polish geodetic primary network (PL-ETRF2000) with the new solution. The new solution was also accepted by the EUREF Technical Working Group as a class A solution (highest accuracy) according to EUREF standards.
Orbital rotations of a satellite. Case study: GOCE
Baur, O.; Grafarend, E. W.
Considering a satellite orbit as a space curve in terms of Differential Geometry, we succeeded to merge orbital rotation and curvature/torsion by means of Cartan connection. Here we transform the Frenet frame of reference of the space curve to the Kepler frame of reference ("along track", "cross track", "quasi-radial") of the satellite orbit by means of Meusnier's Lemma. As a case study, we identify the spectrum of orbital rotation frequencies relative to a GOCE satellite configuration. In particular, we identify more than one rotational period. For a moving frame of reference of type Frenet, periods in the range of the time of revolution of the satellite as well as half the time of revolution appear, whereas even periods of a third the revolution time become visible for the Kepler frame of reference. We describe moving frame rotations with respect to the quasi-inertial frame of reference, namely the angular velocities around the base vectors, by means of curvature measures. This allows to calculate frame rotations by geometric orbit information only (GPS track), i.e. apart from gradiometer measurements. Among other things, we identify the angular velocity relative to the second base vector becoming strictly zero in case of the Frenet frame of reference.
Guerra, André G. C.; Simeão Carvalho, Paulo
2016-09-01
The motion of astronomical bodies and the centre of mass of the system is not always well perceived by students. One of the struggles is the conceptual change of reference frame, which is the same that held back the acceptance of the Heliocentric model over the Geocentric one. To address the question, the notion of centre of mass, motion equations (and their numerical solution for a system of multiple bodies), and change of frame of reference is introduced. The discussion is done based on conceptual and real world examples, using the solar system. Consequently, through the use of simple ‘do it yourself’ methods and basic equations, students can debate complex motions, and have a wider and potentially effective understanding of physics.
Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N
2015-07-07
We present a new numerical method to construct a rotational-vibrational Hamiltonian of a general polyatomic molecule in the Eckart frame as a power series expansion in terms of curvilinear internal coordinates. The expansion of the kinetic energy operator of an arbitrary order is obtained numerically using an automatic differentiation (AD) technique. The method is applicable to molecules of arbitrary size and structure and is flexible for choosing various types of internal coordinates. A new way of solving the Eckart-frame equations for curvilinear coordinates also based on the AD technique is presented. The resulting accuracy of the high-order expansion coefficients for the kinetic energy operator using our numerical technique is comparable to that obtained by symbolic differentiation, with the advantage of being faster and less demanding in memory. Examples for H2CO, NH3, PH3, and CH3Cl molecules demonstrate the advantages of the curvilinear internal coordinates and the Eckart molecular frame for accurate ro-vibrational calculations. Our results show that very high accuracy and quick convergence can be achieved even with moderate expansions if curvilinear coordinates are employed, which is important for applications involving large polyatomic molecules.
Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.
2015-07-01
We present a new numerical method to construct a rotational-vibrational Hamiltonian of a general polyatomic molecule in the Eckart frame as a power series expansion in terms of curvilinear internal coordinates. The expansion of the kinetic energy operator of an arbitrary order is obtained numerically using an automatic differentiation (AD) technique. The method is applicable to molecules of arbitrary size and structure and is flexible for choosing various types of internal coordinates. A new way of solving the Eckart-frame equations for curvilinear coordinates also based on the AD technique is presented. The resulting accuracy of the high-order expansion coefficients for the kinetic energy operator using our numerical technique is comparable to that obtained by symbolic differentiation, with the advantage of being faster and less demanding in memory. Examples for H2CO, NH3, PH3, and CH3Cl molecules demonstrate the advantages of the curvilinear internal coordinates and the Eckart molecular frame for accurate ro-vibrational calculations. Our results show that very high accuracy and quick convergence can be achieved even with moderate expansions if curvilinear coordinates are employed, which is important for applications involving large polyatomic molecules.
Arpaia, Pasquale; Köster, Oliver; Russenschuck, Stephan; Severino, Giordana; 10.1016/j.measurement.2016.02.061
2016-01-01
A method is proposed for calibrating the radius of a rotating coil sensor by relaxing the metrological constraints on alignment and field errors of the reference quadrupole. A coil radius calibration considering a roll-angle misalignment of the measurement bench, the magnet, and the motor-drive unit is analyzed. Then, the error arising from higher-order harmonic field imperfections in the reference quadrupole is assessed. The method is validated by numerical field computation for both the higher-order harmonic errors and the roll-angle misalignment. Finally, an experimental proof-of-principle demonstration is car-ried out in a calibration magnet with sextupole harmonic.
Ming Hsu Tsai
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A corotational finite element method combined with floating frame method and a numerical procedure is proposed to investigate large steady-state deformation and infinitesimal-free vibrationaround the steady-state deformation of a rotating-inclined Euler beam at constant angular velocity. The element nodal forces are derived using the consistent second-order linearization of the nonlinear beam theory, the d'Alembert principle, and the virtual work principle in a current inertia element coordinates, which is coincident with a rotating element coordinate system constructed at the current configuration of the beam element. The governing equations for linear vibration are obtained by the first-order Taylor series expansion of the equation of motion at the position of steady-state deformation. Numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method and to investigate the steady-state deformation and natural frequency of the rotating beam with different inclined angle, angular velocities, radius of the hub, and slenderness ratios.
Richter-Was, E
2016-01-01
Among the physics goals of LHC experiments, precision tests of the Standard Model in the Strong and Electroweak sectors play an important role. Because of nature of the proton-proton processes, observables based on the measurement of the direction and energy of leptons provide the most precise signatures. In the present paper, we concentrate on the angular distribution of Drell-Yan process leptons, in the lepton-pair rest-frame. The vector nature of the intermediate state imposes that distributions are to a good precision described by spherical polynomials of at most second order. We show that with the proper choice of the coordinate frames, only one coefficient in this polynomial decomposition remains sizable, even in the presence of one or two high $p_T$ jets. The necessary stochastic choice of the frames relies on probabilities independent from any coupling constants. This remains true when one or two partons accompany the lepton pairs. In this way electroweak effects can be better separated from strong in...
Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.
2008-12-01
Glacial isostatic adjustment following the last glacial period is the dominant source of crustal deformation in Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. The present-day vertical component of motion associated with this process may exceed 1 cm/y and is being directly measured with the Global Positioning System (GPS). A consequence of this steady deformation is that high accuracy coordinates at one epoch may not be compatible with those at another epoch. For example, modern precise point positioning (PPP) methods provide coordinates at the epoch of observation while NAD83, the officially adopted reference frame in Canada and the U.S., is expressed at some past reference epoch. The PPP positions are therefore incompatible with coordinates in such a realization of the reference frame and need to be propagated back to the frame's reference epoch. Moreover, the realizations of NAD83 adopted by the provincial geodetic agencies in Canada are referenced to different coordinate epochs; either 1997.0 or 2002.0. Proper comparison of coordinates between provinces therefore requires propagating them from one reference epoch to another. In an effort to reconcile PPP results and different realizations of NAD83, we empirically represent crustal deformation throughout Canada using a velocity field based solely on high accuracy continuous and episodic GPS observations. The continuous observations from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from nearly 100 permanent GPS stations, predominately operated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and provincial geodetic agencies. Many of these sites are part of the International GNSS Service (IGS) global network. Episodic observations from 1994 to 2006 were obtained from repeated occupations of the Canadian Base Network (CBN), which consists of approximately 160 stable pillar-type monuments across the entire country. The CBN enables a much denser spatial sampling of crustal motions although coverage in the far north is still rather sparse. NRCan solutions of
Construction of mm-level terrestrial reference frame%毫米级地球参考框架的构建
宋淑丽; 朱文耀; 熊福文; 高峻
2009-01-01
It is noted in this paper that the latest international terrestrial reference frame ITRF2005 can't satisfy the current need of monitoring mm-level terrestrial dynamic change.The strategy of using the latest results of ITRF2005,SBL/GGFC（Special Bureau for Loading/Global Geophysical Fluids Center）,GRACE and other satellites to construct mm-level terrestrial reference frame is mentioned in the paper.The methods and some preliminary results for two key problems are introduced in this article: non-linear characteristic of crust movement ∑_RΔX_R~I(t) and geocenter motionΔX_0(t) monitored using space technology (GPS,VLBI,SLR and GRACE) and modeled by geophysical factors.The preliminary assessment of accuracy and problems in constructing and realizing mm-level terrestrial reference frame is also introduced in the paper.%本文指出了最新的国际地球参考框架ITRF(International Terrestrial Reference Frame)2005已不能满足当今毫米级地球动态变化监测的需要.提出了利用ITRF2005、SBL/GGFC(Special Bureau for Loading/Global Geophysical Fluids Center)和GRACE(Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment)等卫星的最新成果,构建毫米级地球参考框架的方案,介绍了对其两个关键问题:地壳非线性运动特征∑_R△X_R~i(t)和地球质心运动△X_0(t)的空间技术(GPS,VLBI,SLR和GRACE)监测和地球物理因素模制的方法和一些初步结果,并对目前建立和实现毫米级地球参考框架存在的问题和所能达到的精度进行了初步评估.
Semenov, Alexander [Chemistry Department, Wehr Chemistry Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-1881 (United States); PSL Research University, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, UCP, CNRS, UMR8112, LERMA, 5 Place Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Dubernet, Marie-Lise [PSL Research University, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, UCP, CNRS, UMR8112, LERMA, 5 Place Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Babikov, Dmitri, E-mail: dmitri.babikov@mu.edu [Chemistry Department, Wehr Chemistry Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-1881 (United States)
2014-09-21
The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) for inelastic molecule-atom scattering developed recently [A. Semenov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174108 (2013)] is extended to treat a general case of an asymmetric-top-rotor molecule in the body-fixed reference frame. This complements a similar theory formulated in the space-fixed reference-frame [M. Ivanov, M.-L. Dubernet, and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 134301 (2014)]. Here, the goal was to develop an approximate computationally affordable treatment of the rotationally inelastic scattering and apply it to H{sub 2}O + He. We found that MQCT is somewhat less accurate at lower scattering energies. For example, below E = 1000 cm{sup −1} the typical errors in the values of inelastic scattering cross sections are on the order of 10%. However, at higher scattering energies MQCT method appears to be rather accurate. Thus, at scattering energies above 2000 cm{sup −1} the errors are consistently in the range of 1%–2%, which is basically our convergence criterion with respect to the number of trajectories. At these conditions our MQCT method remains computationally affordable. We found that computational cost of the fully-coupled MQCT calculations scales as n{sup 2}, where n is the number of channels. This is more favorable than the full-quantum inelastic scattering calculations that scale as n{sup 3}. Our conclusion is that for complex systems (heavy collision partners with many internal states) and at higher scattering energies MQCT may offer significant computational advantages.
Spin-1/2 Particles in Non-Inertial Reference Frames Low- and High-Energy Approximations
Singh, D
2000-01-01
Spin-1/2 particles can be used to study inertial and gravitational effects by means of interferometers, particle accelerators, and ultimately quantum systems. These studies require, in general, knowledge of the Hamiltonian and of the inertial and gravitational quantum phases. The procedure followed gives both in the low- and high-energy approximations. The latter affords a more consistent treatment of mass at high energies. The procedure is based on general relativity and on a solution of the Dirac equation that is exact to first-order in the metric deviation. Several previously known acceleration and rotation induced effects are re-derived in a comprehensive, unified way. Several new effects involve spin, electromagnetic and inertial/gravitational fields in different combinations.
Nina Engelhardt
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Gravity is a prominent physical concept in 'Gravity's Rainbow', as already announced by the novel's title. If the second part of the title – the poetic image of the rainbow – is bound up with mathematical formulas and the parabolic path of the Rocket, so conversely, this paper argues, Pynchon's novel introduces a relation between gravity and fiction. The paper explores 'Gravity's Rainbow''s use of the changing historical understandings of gravitation from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries by examining the novel's illustration of Newton and Leibniz's opposed concepts as well as its references to gravity as understood in Einstein's theory of relativity. When tracing the notions of gravity as force, fictitious force, and frame of reference, a particular focus lies on the relation of physical imagery to ethical questions and on the way 'Gravity's Rainbow' provides a physico-ethical explanation of Slothrop's disappearance from the novel.
2007-02-11
simulations by Agudo et al. (2001) suggested that multiple slowly moving conical shocks formed from the interaction of superluminal components with the under...from zero up to this bulk flow speed. A scenario such as this would be consistent with jet simulations such as those of Agudo et al. (2001), in which...Science Award from Research Corporation. REFERENCES Agudo , I., Gomez, J.-L., Martı́, J.-M., Ibáñez, J.-M., Marscher, A. P., Alberdi, A., Aloy, M.-A
Work and energy in rotating systems
Manjarres, Diego A; Diaz, Rodolfo A
2012-01-01
Literature analyzes the way in which Newton's second law can be used when non-inertial rotating systems are used. However, the treatment of the work and energy theorem in rotating systems is not considered in textbooks. In this paper, we show that the work and energy theorem can still be applied to a closed system of particles in a rotating system, as long as the work of fictitious forces is properly included in the formalism. The coriolis force does not contribute to the work coming from fictitious forces. It worths remarking that real forces that do not do work in an inertial reference frame can do work in the rotating reference frame and viceversa. The combined effects of acceleration of the origin and rotation of the non-inertial system are also studied.
郭子仪; 车晓军; 范振华; 周庆华
2014-01-01
Due to the technical difficulty and uncertainty of rotation construction of large tonnage T-shaped rigid frame bridge,it is necessary to perform construction risk assessment.Based on the risk assessment and management theory,the risk factors in the construction process are identified accord-ing to the comprehensive identification method.The main risk source of the construction process is as-sessed and the corresponding risk control measures are proposed.It is a good reference for the con-struction management and risk assessment of similar bridges.%大吨位 T 形刚构转体桥施工作业技术难度大，不确定因素多，对其施工过程展开风险评估研究非常必要。根据风险评估与管理理论，利用综合识别法识别出转体过程中的施工风险因素，并对转体过程的主要风险源进行风险评估，提出相应施工风险控制对策，为今后类似桥梁施工管理及风险评估提供借鉴。
Guan, Yajuan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhao, Xin
2016-01-01
A novel simple and effective autonomous current-sharing controller for parallel three-phase inverters is proposed in this paper. The proposed controller provides faster response and better accuracy in contrast to the conventional droop control, since this novel approach does not require any active...... or reactive power calculations. Instead, a synchronous-reference-frame (SRF) virtual impedance loop and an SRF-based phase-locked loop are used. Stationary analysis is provided in order to identify the inherent mechanism of the direct and quadrature output currents in relation to the voltage amplitude...... from a setup with three parallel 2.2 kW inverters verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in different scenarios....
Guerra, André G C
2016-01-01
The motion of astronomical bodies and the centre of mass of the system is not always well perceived by students. One of the struggles is the conceptual change of reference frame, which is the same that held back the acceptance of the Heliocentric model over the Geocentric one. To address the question, the notion of centre of mass, motion equations (and their numerical solution for a system of multiple bodies), and change of referential is introduced. The discussion is done based on conceptual and real world examples, using the solar system. Consequently, through the use of simple "do it yourself" methods and basic equations, students can debate complex motions, and have a wider and potentially effective understanding of physics.
A rotating quantum vacuum and the depolarization problem in storage rings
Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F.
1997-02-01
We investigate the consequences of using a Lorentz-like transformation to connect measurements between a inertial a rotating frame of reference. We obtain a new rotating vacuum (of a massless scalar field) different from the Minkowski one. After this we consider a monopole detector interacting with the field. The radiative processes are discussed from a rotating and inertial frame point of view. Finally using this formalism the polarization effects of electrons in circular accelerators is discussed. (author). 16 refs.
Kim, Taeho; Lee, Dong Yeon; Park, Jinah
2016-03-01
Clinical management of foot pathology requires accurate and robust measurement of the anatomical angles. In order to measure a 3D angle, recent approaches have adopted a landmark-based local coordinate system to establish bone angles used in orthopedics. These measurement methods mainly assess the relative angle between bones using a representative axis derived from the morphological feature of the bone and therefore, the results can be affected by bone deformities. In this study, we propose a method of deriving a global frame-of-reference to acquire consistent direction of the foot by extracting the undersurface of the foot from the CT image data. The two lowest positions of the foot skin are identified from the surface to define the base plane, and the direction from the hallux to the fourth toe is defined together to construct the global coordinate system. We performed the experiment on 10 volumes of foot CT images of healthy subjects to verify that the proposed method provides reliable measurements. We measured 3D angles for talus-calcaneus and talus-navicular using facing articular surfaces of paired bones. The angle was reported in 3 projection angles based on both coordinate systems defined by proposed global frame-of-reference and by CT image planes (saggital, frontal, and transverse). The result shows that the quantified angle using the proposed method considerably reduced the standard deviation (SD) against the angle using the conventional projection planes, and it was also comparable with the measured angles obtained from local coordinate systems of the bones. Since our method is independent from any individual local shape of a bone, unlike the measurement method using the local coordinate system, it is suitable for inter-subject comparison studies.
Todd McElroy
2007-08-01
Full Text Available We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the typical findings was observed whereas when the goal was to maintain, no framing effect was found. When we examined the decisions of the entire population, we did not observe a framing effect. In Study 2, we provided participants with a similar decision task except in this situation the goal was ambiguous, allowing us to observe participants' self-imposed goals and how they influenced choice preferences. The findings from Study 2 demonstrated individual variability in imposed goal and provided a conceptual replication of Study 1. %need keywords
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David
2013-10-01
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium αω-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number R(m) ~ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the αω-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade.
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David
2013-10-01
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium αω-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number Rm ˜ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the αω-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade.
1993 IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) annual report.
1994-07-01
Contents: I. General information. 1. Organization of the International Earth Rotation Service. 2. The rotation of the Earth and related space-time references. II. Central Bureau results. 1. Global analysis up to 1993. 2. Implementation of the IERS Celestial Reference Frame. 3. Implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame. 4. Evaluation of the Earth Orientation Parameters. III. Sub-bureaux reports. 1. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions. 2. Sub-Bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum. IV. Coordinating centres reports. 1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 2. Global Positioning System (GPS). 3. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). V. IERS Earth Rotation and Reference Frames Data Bank. 1. Central Bureau. 2. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions.
1992 IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) annual report.
1993-07-01
Contents: I. General information. 1. Organization of the International Earth Rotation Service. 2. The rotation of the Earth and related space-time references. II. Central Bureau results. 1. Global analysis up to 1992. 2. Implementation of the IERS Celestial Reference Frame. 3. Implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame. 4. Evaluation of the Earth Orientation Parameters. III. Sub-bureaux reports. 1. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions. 2. Sub-Bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum. IV. Coordinating centres reports. 1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 2. Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). 3. Global Positioning System (GPS). 4. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). V. IERS Earth Rotation and Reference Frames Data Bank. 1. Central Bureau. 2. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions.
International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). Annual report for 1991.
1992-07-01
Contents: I. General information. 1. Organization of the International Earth Rotation Service. 2. The rotation of the Earth and related space-time references. II. Central Bureau results. 1. Global analysis up to 1991. 2. Implementation of the IERS Celestial Reference Frame. 3. Implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame. 4. Evaluation of the Earth Orientation Parameters. III. Sub-bureaux reports. 1. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions. 2. Sub-Bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum. IV. Coordinating centres reports. 1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 2. Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). 3. Global Positioning System (GPS). 4. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). V. IERS Earth Rotation and Reference Frames Data Bank. 1. Central Bureau. 2. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions.
Marc Gueguen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The selection of appropriate frames of reference (FOR is a key factor in the elaboration of spatial perception and the production of robust interaction with our environment. The extent to which we perceive the head axis orientation (subjective head orientation, SHO with both accuracy and precision likely contributes to the efficiency of these spatial interactions. A first goal of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of both the visual and egocentric FOR (centre-of-mass in the SHO processing. A second goal was to investigate humans' ability to process SHO in various sensory response modalities (visual, haptic and visuo-haptic, and the way they modify the reliance to either the visual or egocentric FORs. A third goal was to question whether subjects combined visual and haptic cues optimally to increase SHO certainty and to decrease the FORs disruption effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen subjects were asked to indicate their SHO while the visual and/or egocentric FORs were deviated. Four results emerged from our study. First, visual rod settings to SHO were altered by the tilted visual frame but not by the egocentric FOR alteration, whereas no haptic settings alteration was observed whether due to the egocentric FOR alteration or the tilted visual frame. These results are modulated by individual analysis. Second, visual and egocentric FOR dependency appear to be negatively correlated. Third, the response modality enrichment appears to improve SHO. Fourth, several combination rules of the visuo-haptic cues such as the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE, Winner-Take-All (WTA or Unweighted Mean (UWM rule seem to account for SHO improvements. However, the UWM rule seems to best account for the improvement of visuo-haptic estimates, especially in situations with high FOR incongruence. Finally, the data also indicated that FOR reliance resulted from the application of UWM rule. This was observed more
Development of a Low-Cost Attitude and Heading Reference System Using a Three-Axis Rotating Platform
Fei-Bin Hsiao
2010-03-01
Full Text Available A development procedure for a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS with a self-developed three-axis rotating platform has been proposed. The AHRS consists of one 3-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, and one 3-axis digital compass. Both the accelerometer and gyroscope triads are based on micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS technology, and the digital compass is based on anisotropic-magnetoresistive (AMR technology. The calibrations for each sensor triad are readily accomplished by using the scalar calibration and the least squares methods. The platform is suitable for the calibration and validation of the low-cost AHRS and it is affordable for most laboratories. With the calibrated parameters and data fusion algorithm for the orientation estimation, the self-developed AHRS demonstrates the capabilities of compensating for the sensor errors and outputting the estimated orientation in real-time. The validation results show that the estimated orientations of the developed AHRS are within the acceptable region. This verifies the practicability of the proposed development procedure.
Lai, Ying-Chih; Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsiao, Fei-Bin
2010-01-01
A development procedure for a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) with a self-developed three-axis rotating platform has been proposed. The AHRS consists of one 3-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, and one 3-axis digital compass. Both the accelerometer and gyroscope triads are based on micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, and the digital compass is based on anisotropic-magnetoresistive (AMR) technology. The calibrations for each sensor triad are readily accomplished by using the scalar calibration and the least squares methods. The platform is suitable for the calibration and validation of the low-cost AHRS and it is affordable for most laboratories. With the calibrated parameters and data fusion algorithm for the orientation estimation, the self-developed AHRS demonstrates the capabilities of compensating for the sensor errors and outputting the estimated orientation in real-time. The validation results show that the estimated orientations of the developed AHRS are within the acceptable region. This verifies the practicability of the proposed development procedure.
Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance
Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann
2012-01-01
Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...
Taris, F.; Andrei, A.; Roland, J.; Klotz, A.; Vachier, F.; Souchay, J.
2016-03-01
Context. The Gaia astrometric mission of the European Space Agency was launched on December 2013. It will provide a catalog of 500 000 quasars. Some of these targets will be chosen to build an optical reference system that will be linked to the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The astrometric coordinates of these sources will have roughly the same uncertainty at both optical and radio wavelengths, and it is then mandatory to observe a common set of targets to build the link. In the ICRF, some targets have been chosen because of their pointlikeness. They are quoted as defining sources, and they ensure very good uncertainty about their astrometric coordinates. At optical wavelengths, a comparable uncertainty could be achieved for targets that do not exhibit strong astrophysical phenomena, which is a potential source of photocenter flickering. A signature of these phenomena is a magnitude variation at optical wavelengths. Aims: The goal of this work is to present the time series of 14 targets suitable for the link between the ICRF and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame. The observations have been done systematically by robotic telescopes in France and Chile once every two nights since 2011 and in two filters. These time series are analyzed to search for periodic or quasi-periodic phenomena that must be taken into account when computing the uncertainty about the astrometric coordinates. Methods: Two independent methods were used in this work to analyze the time series. We used the CLEAN algorithm to compare the frequency obtained to those given by the Lomb-Scargle method. It avoids misinterpreting the frequency peaks given in the periodograms. Results: For the 14 targets we determine some periods with a confidence level above 90% in each case. Some of the periods found in this work were not previously known. For the others, we did a comparative study of the periods previously studied by others and always confirm their values. All the periods given
de Pereira, Alexsandro Pereira; Lima Junior, Paulo; Rodrigues, Renato Felix
2016-05-01
Explaining is one of the most important everyday practices in science education. In this article, we examine how scientific explanations could serve as cultural tools for members of a group of pre-service physics teachers. Specifically, we aim at their use of explanations about forces of inertia in non-inertial frames of reference. A basic assumption of our study is that explanatory tools (e.g., typical explanations learned) shape the ways we think and speak about the world. Drawing on the theory of mediated action, analysis illustrates three major claims on scientific explanations: (1) explaining is an act of actively responding to explanations presented by others (and not only to evidence itself); (2) the actual experience of explaining involves the enactment of power and authority; (3) resistance (not acknowledging an explanation as one's own) might be a constitutive part of learning how to explain (hence, teachers could approach scientific explanation in a less dogmatic way). These assertions expand the possibilities of dialogue between studies of scientific explanations and the social sciences. Implications for science teaching and research in science education are presented.
Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.
2017-01-01
In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method. PMID:28192436
Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M
2017-01-01
In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method.
Rotational Alignment Altered by Source Position Correlations
Jacobs, Chris S.; Heflin, M. B.; Lanyi, G. E.; Sovers, O. J.; Steppe, J. A.
2010-01-01
In the construction of modern Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) the overall rotational alignment is only weakly constrained by the data. Therefore, common practice has been to apply a 3-dimensional No-Net-Rotation (NNR) constraint in order to align an under-construction frame to the ICRF. We present evidence that correlations amongst source position parameters must be accounted for in order to properly align a CRF at the 5-10 (mu)as level of uncertainty found in current work. Failure to do so creates errors at the 10-40 (mu)as level.
Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1996-11-01
It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.
Lecheler, S.K.
2010-01-01
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a dissociation of framing from other media effects concepts is not necessarily the ideal way to go in creating a more advanced framing theory. We also provide the first contours of a theory of news framing...
王金根
2011-01-01
不符通知的作用在于给予善意卖方保护,以便于其及时作出应对与补救,同时也便于保存证据。不符通知制度对买卖双方利益影响甚巨。有鉴于此,欧洲民法典草案从不符通知之具体要求到通知例外,都作了详尽规定。与之相比,我国不符通知制度无论是从立法理念还是具体制度上都存在不足,有必要在未来民法典立法中予以修改完善。%The notice of nonconformity aims to protect the bona fide seller so as to facilitate his in-time response and remedies,as well as to preserve evidence.Since this system has great influence on interests of both seller and buyer,the Draft Common Frame of Reference has stipulated in detail specific requirements of notice and notice exceptions.However,there are still imperfections of either legislative conceptions or specific rules as to notice of non-conformity in our Contract Law,therefore it is necessary to modify and improve this system in the future Civil Code of P.R.C.
赵军山
2012-01-01
The paper introduces the construction features and craft principle of the bridge frame direct tablet by adopting the adjustable rotation,sums up the construction operation points,the quality and safety controlling measures of the method,and points out the adoption of the adjustable rotation of the bridge frame direct tablet in the arc structure can shorten the laying time of the bridge frame,ensure the engineering quality,lower the labor intensity and improve the economic benefits.%介绍了采用可调节角度的转角桥架直接片施工的特点和工艺原理,详细归纳了该方法的施工操作要点及质量、安全控制措施,指出在弧形结构中采用可调节角度的转角桥架直接片有效缩短了桥架的敷设时间、保证了工程质量,降低了劳动强度,提高了经济效益。
Wang, Dayong; Han, Dongyan; Li, Wenqiang; Zheng, Zhanpeng; Song, Yongchen
2017-03-01
Permeability variation in reservoir rocks results from the combined effects of various factors, and makes porosity-permeability (ϕ-k) relationships more complex, or, in some cases, non-existent. In this work, the ϕ-k relationship of macroscopically homogeneous glass-bead packs is deduced based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement and Kozeny-Carman (K-C) model analysis; these are used as a frame of reference to study permeability of reservoir rocks. The results indicate: (1) most of the commonly used simplified K-C models (e.g. the simplified traditional (omitting specific surface area), high-order, threshold, and fractal models) are suitable for estimating permeability of glass-bead packs. The simplified traditional model does not present obvious dependence on rock samples. Whether for the glass-bead packs or clean natural sandstones, the sample coefficients almost remain invariant. Comparably, the high-order, the fractal, and the threshold models are strongly sample-specific and cannot be extrapolated from the glass-bead packs to natural sandstones; (2) the ϕ-k relationships of quartz sands and silty sandstones resemble those of the glass-bead packs, but they significantly deviate from the K-C models at low porosities due to small pore entry radius; (3) a small amount of intergranular cements (<10%v) does not affect the general variation trend of permeability with porosity but can potentially increase predictive errors of the K-C models, whereas in the case of more cements, the ϕ-k relationships of sandstones become uncertain and cannot be described by any of these K-C models.
Wang, Dayong; Han, Dongyan; Li, Wenqiang; Zheng, Zhanpeng; Song, Yongchen
2017-08-01
Permeability variation in reservoir rocks results from the combined effects of various factors, and makes porosity-permeability ( ϕ- k) relationships more complex, or, in some cases, non-existent. In this work, the ϕ- k relationship of macroscopically homogeneous glass-bead packs is deduced based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement and Kozeny-Carman (K-C) model analysis; these are used as a frame of reference to study permeability of reservoir rocks. The results indicate: (1) most of the commonly used simplified K-C models (e.g. the simplified traditional (omitting specific surface area), high-order, threshold, and fractal models) are suitable for estimating permeability of glass-bead packs. The simplified traditional model does not present obvious dependence on rock samples. Whether for the glass-bead packs or clean natural sandstones, the sample coefficients almost remain invariant. Comparably, the high-order, the fractal, and the threshold models are strongly sample-specific and cannot be extrapolated from the glass-bead packs to natural sandstones; (2) the ϕ- k relationships of quartz sands and silty sandstones resemble those of the glass-bead packs, but they significantly deviate from the K-C models at low porosities due to small pore entry radius; (3) a small amount of intergranular cements (<10%v) does not affect the general variation trend of permeability with porosity but can potentially increase predictive errors of the K-C models, whereas in the case of more cements, the ϕ- k relationships of sandstones become uncertain and cannot be described by any of these K-C models.
Gómez, D. D.; Piñón, D. A.; Smalley, R.; Bevis, M.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Lenzano, L. E.; Barón, J.
2016-03-01
The 2010, (Mw 8.8) Maule, Chile, earthquake produced large co-seismic displacements and non-secular, post-seismic deformation, within latitudes 28°S-40°S extending from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans. Although these effects are easily resolvable by fitting geodetic extended trajectory models (ETM) to continuous GPS (CGPS) time series, the co- and post-seismic deformation cannot be determined at locations without CGPS (e.g., on passive geodetic benchmarks). To estimate the trajectories of passive geodetic benchmarks, we used CGPS time series to fit an ETM that includes the secular South American plate motion and plate boundary deformation, the co-seismic discontinuity, and the non-secular, logarithmic post-seismic transient produced by the earthquake in the Posiciones Geodésicas Argentinas 2007 (POSGAR07) reference frame (RF). We then used least squares collocation (LSC) to model both the background secular inter-seismic and the non-secular post-seismic components of the ETM at the locations without CGPS. We tested the LSC modeled trajectories using campaign and CGPS data that was not used to generate the model and found standard deviations (95 % confidence level) for position estimates for the north and east components of 3.8 and 5.5 mm, respectively, indicating that the model predicts the post-seismic deformation field very well. Finally, we added the co-seismic displacement field, estimated using an elastic finite element model. The final, trajectory model allows accessing the POSGAR07 RF using post-Maule earthquake coordinates within 5 cm for ˜ 91 % of the passive test benchmarks.
Kedar, S.; Bock, Y.; Moore, A. W.; Argus, D. F.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Haase, J. S.; Su, L.; Owen, S. E.; Goldberg, D.; Squibb, M. B.; Geng, J.
2015-12-01
Postseismic deformation indicates a viscoelastic response of the lithosphere. It is critical, then, to identify and estimate the extent of postseismic deformation in both space and time, not only for its inherent information on crustal rheology and earthquake physics, but also since it must considered for plate motion models that are derived geodetically from the "steady-state" interseismic velocities, models of the earthquake cycle that provide interseismic strain accumulation and earthquake probability forecasts, as well as terrestrial reference frame definition that is the basis for space geodetic positioning. As part of the Solid Earth Science ESDR System) SESES project under a NASA MEaSUREs grant, JPL and SIO estimate combined daily position time series for over 1800 GNSS stations, both globally and at plate boundaries, independently using the GIPSY and GAMIT software packages, but with a consistent set of a prior epoch-date coordinates and metadata. The longest time series began in 1992, and many of them contain postseismic signals. For example, about 90 of the global GNSS stations out of more than 400 that define the ITRF have experienced one or more major earthquakes and 36 have had multiple earthquakes; as expected, most plate boundary stations have as well. We quantify the spatial (distance from rupture) and temporal (decay time) extent of postseismic deformation. We examine parametric models (log, exponential) and a physical model (rate- and state-dependent friction) to fit the time series. Using a PCA analysis, we determine whether or not a particular earthquake can be uniformly fit by a single underlying postseismic process - otherwise we fit individual stations. Then we investigate whether the estimated time series velocities can be directly used as input to plate motion models, rather than arbitrarily removing the apparent postseismic portion of a time series and/or eliminating stations closest to earthquake epicenters.
Antoine, Jean-Pierre [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium); Balazs, Peter, E-mail: jean-pierre.antoine@uclouvain.be, E-mail: peter.balazs@oeaw.ac.at [Acoustics Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wohllebengasse 12-14, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
2011-05-20
Loosely speaking, a semi-frame is a generalized frame for which one of the frame bounds is absent. More precisely, given a total sequence in a Hilbert space, we speak of an upper (resp. lower) semi-frame if only the upper (resp. lower) frame bound is valid. Equivalently, for an upper semi-frame, the frame operator is bounded, but has an unbounded inverse, whereas a lower semi-frame has an unbounded frame operator, with a bounded inverse. We study mostly upper semi-frames, both in the continuous and discrete case, and give some remarks for the dual situation. In particular, we show that reconstruction is still possible in certain cases.
Rotating saddle trap as Foucault's pendulum
Kirillov, Oleg N.; Levi, Mark
2016-01-01
One of the many surprising results found in the mechanics of rotating systems is the stabilization of a particle in a rapidly rotating planar saddle potential. Besides the counterintuitive stabilization, an unexpected precessional motion is observed. In this note, we show that this precession is due to a Coriolis-like force caused by the rotation of the potential. To our knowledge, this is the first example where such a force arises in an inertial reference frame. We also propose a simple mechanical demonstration of this effect.
Cho, Ji Young; Chan, Chee Keong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ho-Yeon
2012-01-01
In contrast to preoperative image-based 3D navigation systems, which require surgeon-dependent registration, an intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (cb-CT) image-based 3D navigation system allows automatic registration during the acquisition of 3D images intraoperatively. Thus, the need for spinal exposure for point matching is obviated, making a cb-CT image-based navigation system ideal for use in minimally invasive spinal procedures. Conventionally, the dynamic reference frame (DRF) is mounted to an adjacent spinous process or iliac bone through a separate incision. However, the close proximity of the DRF to the surgical area may result in its interfering with the surgical procedure or causing streak artifacts on the navigation images. Cutaneous placement of the DRF overlying the sacral hiatus is one possible solution to these problems, but such a placement does not provide a solid bony fixation point and is distant from the surgical area, both of which factors may hinder the accuracy of the navigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a novel idea for DRF placement in a series of mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedures performed with intraoperative cb-CT image-based 3D navigation. From June 2009 to December 2009, 20 patients underwent mini-open TLIF for a total 82 pedicle screws placed in the lumbar spine with cutaneous placement of the DRF overlying the sacral hiatus. The pedicle screws were inserted under navigational guidance using cb-CT data acquired intraoperatively with a Medtronic O-arm. Screw positions were subsequently checked with a final intraoperative cb-CT scan. Nineteen patients underwent single-level fusion (8 at L4-5, 6 at L5-S1, 4 at L3-4, and 1 at L2-3) and one patient underwent two-level fusion (from L3-5). There were 4 (4.9%) pedicle perforations greater than 2 mm out of the 82 pedicle screw insertions in the 20 patients. Two of these breached screws were repositioned and
Invariant quantities of a Mueller matrix under rotation and retarder transformations
Gil, Jose J
2015-01-01
Mueller matrices are defined with respect to appropriate Cartesian reference frames for the representation of the states of polarization of the input and output electromagnetic waves. The polarimetric quantities that are invariant under rotations of the said reference frames about the respective directions of propagation (rotation transformations) provide particularly interesting physical information. Moreover, certain properties are also invariant with respect to the action of birefringent devices located at both sides of the medium under consideration (retarder transformations). The polarimetric properties that remain invariant under rotation and retarder transformations are analyzed and interpreted, providing significant parameterizations of Mueller matrices in terms of meaningful physical quantities.
Tectonically asymmetric Earth:From net rotation to polarized westward drift of the lithosphere
Carlo Doglioni; Eugenio Carminati; Mattia Crespi; Marco Cuffaro; Mattia Penati; Federica Riguzzi
2015-01-01
The possibility of a net rotation of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle is generally overlooked since it depends on the adopted mantle reference frames, which are arbitrary. We review the geological and geophysical signatures of plate boundaries, and show that they are markedly asym-metric worldwide. Then we compare available reference frames of plate motions relative to the mantle and discuss which is at best able to fit global tectonic data. Different assumptions about the depths of hotspot sources (below or within the asthenosphere, which decouples the lithosphere from the deep mantle) predict different rates of net rotation of the lithosphere relative to the mantle. The widely used no-net-rotation (NNR) reference frame, and low (1?/Ma) net rotation (shallow hotspots source), all plates, albeit at different velocity, move westerly along a curved trajectory, with a tectonic equator tilted about 30? relative to the geographic equator. This is consistent with the observed global tectonic asymmetries.
Edge localized mode rotation and the nonlinear dynamics of filaments
Morales, J. A.; Bécoulet, M.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Fil, A.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Orain, F.; Hoelzl, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pamela, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Cahyna, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2016-04-15
Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) rotating precursors were reported few milliseconds before an ELM crash in several tokamak experiments. Also, the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash is commonly observed. In this article, we present a mathematical model that reproduces the rotation of the ELM precursors as well as the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash. Linear ballooning theory is used to establish a formula estimating the rotation velocity of ELM precursors. The linear study together with nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations give an explanation to the rotations observed experimentally. Unstable ballooning modes, localized at the pedestal, grow and rotate in the electron diamagnetic direction in the laboratory reference frame. Approaching the ELM crash, this rotation decreases corresponding to the moment when the magnetic reconnection occurs. During the highly nonlinear ELM crash, the ELM filaments are cut from the main plasma due to the strong sheared mean flow that is nonlinearly generated via the Maxwell stress tensor.
Edge localized mode rotation and the nonlinear dynamics of filaments
Morales, J. A.; Bécoulet, M.; Garbet, X.; Orain, F.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Hoelzl, M.; Pamela, S.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Cahyna, P.; Fil, A.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.
2016-04-01
Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) rotating precursors were reported few milliseconds before an ELM crash in several tokamak experiments. Also, the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash is commonly observed. In this article, we present a mathematical model that reproduces the rotation of the ELM precursors as well as the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash. Linear ballooning theory is used to establish a formula estimating the rotation velocity of ELM precursors. The linear study together with nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations give an explanation to the rotations observed experimentally. Unstable ballooning modes, localized at the pedestal, grow and rotate in the electron diamagnetic direction in the laboratory reference frame. Approaching the ELM crash, this rotation decreases corresponding to the moment when the magnetic reconnection occurs. During the highly nonlinear ELM crash, the ELM filaments are cut from the main plasma due to the strong sheared mean flow that is nonlinearly generated via the Maxwell stress tensor.
De Lorenci, V A
1996-01-01
We investigate which mapping we have to use to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a "Lorentz-like" coordinate transformation we obtain that creation-anihilation operators of a massless scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state (a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. After this, introducing an apparatus device coupled linearly with the field we obtain that there is a strong correlation between number of rotating particles (in a given state) obtained via canonical quantization and via response function of the rotating detector. Finally, we analyse polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view.
The program of CNC machine not following Descartes reference frame%不遵循笛卡尔坐标系的数控机床加工程序编制
耿欣; 顾红光
2013-01-01
针对不遵循笛卡尔坐标系的专用数控机床不能按通用的数控指令进行编程的问题,运用宏程序编制一螺旋插补铣的加工程序.%Aiming at the CNC machine can't program with standard dictate not following Descartes reference frame, here program a screw interpolation milling programm with Macro program.
Mode-Coupling in Realistic Rotating Gravitational Collapse
Hod, S
2000-01-01
We analyze the mode-coupling phenomena in realistic rotating gravitational collapse. Physically, this phenomena is caused by the dragging of reference frames, due to the black-hole (or star's) rotation. It is shown that different modes become coupled during the rotating collapse. As a consequence, the asymptotic late-time tails are dominated by modes which, in general, have an angular distribution different from the original one. We show that a rotating Kerr black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than a spherically-symmetric Schwarzschild black hole. This paper considers gravitational, electromagnetic and neutrino fields propagating on a Kerr background.
辛业春; 李国庆; 王尧; 王振浩
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a kind of method of three-phase voltage phase locked loop under three-phase unbalanced voltage. When the positive dq synchronous reference frame transforms, the dq axis voltage component will contain AC component caused by negative sequence voltage component which leads to the error of the three-phase voltage phase locked loop (PLL) based on the dq synchronous reference frame transformation. After the dq axis DC voltage component extracted from negative sequence dq synchronous reference frame transformation compensates positive sequence dq transformation synchronous reference frame q axis voltage component, the positive sequence voltage phase can be locked accurately and quickly. By the way of the negative sequence dq synchronous reference frame d axis and q axis DC voltage component detecting negative sequence voltage initial phase angle, the negative sequence voltage phase can be locked. The simulation results show that, this method can achieve the purpose that three-phase power supply frequency, positive sequence voltage phase and the negative sequence voltage phase can be fast and accurately locked in case of unbalanced three-phase voltage.%提出了一种三相电压不平衡情况下，三相电压基波频率、正序电压分量和负序电压分量相位锁定方法。正序dq坐标变换时，负序电压分量将在dq轴电压分量上产生交流分量，导致基于dq坐标变换的三相电压锁相环存在误差；通过提取负序dq坐标变换中dq轴的直流电压分量，对正序dq坐标变换q轴电压分量进行补偿，从而准确快速锁定正序基波电压相位。通过负序dq坐标中d轴和q轴的直流电压分量检测负序电压初相角，锁定负序电压相位。仿真结果表明，该方法能够快速准确地锁定三相电源在不对称情况下的基波频率、正序电压相位和负序电压相位。
Lecheler, S.K.
2010-01-01
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a dissoc
de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.
2016-01-01
Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used th
Fairbanks, Ethan Jefferson
1994-01-01
Off-resonance spin locking makes use of the novel relaxation time T_{1rho} ^{rm off}, which may be useful in characterizing breast disease. Knowledge of T _{rm 1rho}^{rm off} is essential for optimization of spin -locking imaging methods. The purpose of this work was to develop an optimal imaging technique for in vivo measurement of T_{rm 1rho}^ {rm off}. Measurement of T _{1rho}^{rm off } using conventional methods requires long exam times which are not suitable for patients. Exam time may be shortened by utilizing a one-shot method developed by Look and Locker, making in vivo measurements possible. The imaging method consisted of a 180^circ inversion pulse followed by a series of small-angle alpha pulses to tip a portion of the longitudinal magnetization into the transverse plane for readout. During each relaxation interval (between alpha pulses), a spin-locking pulse was applied off-resonance to achieve T_ {1rho}^{rm off} relaxation. The value of T_{rm 1rho}^{rm off} was then determined using a three-parameter non-linear least-squares fitting procedure. Values of T_ {1rho}^{rm off} were measured for normal and pathologic breast tissues at several resonant offsets. These measurements revealed that image contrast can be manipulated by altering the resonant offset of the spin-locking pulse. Whereas T _1 relaxation times were nearly identical for normal and cancerous tissues, T_{1 rho}^{rm off} relaxation times differed significantly. These results may be useful in improving image contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.
Hybrid state-space time integration of rotating beams
Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre
2012-01-01
An efficient time integration algorithm for the dynamic equations of flexible beams in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space format in terms of local displacements and local components of the absolute velocity. With inspiration ...
Hybrid State-Space Time Integration of Rotating Beams
Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen
2010-01-01
Modeling and efficien design of wind turbines require efficien and accurate computational methods for dynamic analysis of the different components. In the present paper an efficien hybrid formulation for beams in a rotating frame of reference is presented for analysis of the rotor system. It is d...
Self-face Advantage Benefits from a Visual Self-reference Frame%自我参照框架决定了自我面孔优势效应的出现
王凌云; 张明; 隋洁
2011-01-01
研究使用外显面孔再认实验(实验一)和内隐面孔感知实验(实验二)检验自我参照框架是否是自我面孔加工优势出现的决定性因素这一假设.具有不同朝向(左或右)的被试自己面孔和朋友面孔呈现在视野中央,实验一中,被试的任务为参照自我框架(观察者角度)或他人框架(被观察的像的角度)判断自我面孔的朝向(忽视朋友面孔),或者判断朋友面孔的朝向(忽视自我面孔);实验二中,被试的任务为参照自我框架或他人框架判断所有面孔的朝向.结果表明:自我参照框架促进自我面孔加工优势的出现,而他人参照框架消减自我面孔优势,这种效应稳定地存在于外显和内隐两项任务中.并且,自我参照框架对自我优势效应的促进作用不依赖于面孔刺激背景.%One responds faster to own faces than the faces of others. Although this self-advantage effect in face processing has been well documented, the mechanism underlying the phenomena is far from clear. A plausible account of the effect is that self-face as the salient stimulus automatically attracts one's attention relative to others' faces. An alternative interpretation based on the theory of social cognition stresses the implicit positive association between the self and positive trait adjectives, suggesting that such implicit associations may contribute to the self-advantage. Here we propose that the self-reference frame (making judgments from first-person perspective) facilitates the self-face processing compared to the processing of others' faces.We reported two experiments to assess the role of the self-reference frame in the self-advantage effect by manipulating the judgment-reference frame (self- vs. other-reference) and the attentional level (explicit vs.implicit task). There were sixteen pairs of gender matched participants in Experiment 1, they selectively judged the orientation of self Of familiar faces while ignoring the familiar or
Electromagnetism of rotating conductors revisited
Redzic, Dragan V. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)]. E-mail: redzic@ff.bg.ac.yu
2002-03-01
The charge distribution and electromagnetic fields in a rotating, charged conductor under stationary conditions are investigated, assuming that the electrons are at rest relative to the conductor. The basic equations are found, referred to the inertial rest frame of the rotational axis, in the relativistic case, and applied to the case of a cylindrical conductor. The results obtained are compared with those of Groen and Voeyenli (Groen Oe and Voeyenli K 1982 Eur. J. Phys. 3 210-4) who considered the same problem but without taking into account the relative permittivity of the rotating conductor. It is found that the E- and B-fields do not depend on {epsilon}{sub r} and coincide with those calculated by Groen and Voeyenli; the space and surface charge densities, however, depend on {epsilon}{sub r}. (author)
Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence
Boffetta, G.; Mazzino, A.; Musacchio, S.
2016-09-01
The turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor system in a rotating reference frame is investigated by direct numerical simulations within the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. On the basis of theoretical arguments, supported by our simulations, we show that the Rossby number decreases in time, and therefore the Coriolis force becomes more important as the system evolves and produces many effects on Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence. We find that rotation reduces the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations and therefore the growth rate of the temperature mixing layer. Moreover, in the presence of rotation the conversion of potential energy into turbulent kinetic energy is found to be less effective, and the efficiency of the heat transfer is reduced. Finally, during the evolution of the mixing layer we observe the development of a cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry.
Childs, Peter R N
2010-01-01
Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics
Fusion Frames and -Frames in Banach Spaces
Amir Khosravi; Behrooz Khosravi
2011-05-01
Fusion frames and -frames in Hilbert spaces are generalizations of frames, and frames were extended to Banach spaces. In this article we introduce fusion frames, -frames, Banach -frames in Banach spaces and we show that they share many useful properties with their corresponding notions in Hilbert spaces. We also show that -frames, fusion frames and Banach -frames are stable under small perturbations and invertible operators.
Hydromagnetic rotating flow of third grade fluid
T. HAYAT; R. NAZ; A. ALSAEDI; M. M. RASHIDI
2013-01-01
This work investigates the flow of a third grade fluid in a rotating frame of reference. The fluid is incompressible and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). The flow is bounded between two porous plates, the lower of which is shrinking linearly. Mathematical modelling of the considered flow leads to a nonlinear problem. The solution of this nonlinear problem is computed by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Graphs are presented to demonstrate the effect of several emerging parameters, which clearly describe the flow characteristics.
王爱君; 沈路; 迟莹莹; 刘晓乐; 陈骐; 张明
2016-01-01
Spatial location of an object can be represented in the human brain based on allocentric and egocentric reference frames. The perception/action hypothesis of the ventral and dorsal visual streams proposed that egocentric representations are readily encoded in the dorsal stream as sensorimotor representations, and allocentric representations are encoded in the ventral stream as perceptual representations. In addition, the dorsal visual stream, which transforms visual information into sensorimotor representations is implicated in near-space processing, and the ventral stream, which transforms visual information into perceptual representations is involved in the conscious perception of objects in far space. It has been well documented that how the spatial domain and spatial reference frame works, separately. However, it remains poorly understood how the spatial domain interacts with spatial reference frame, especially for the deaf populations. In present study, we synchronously operated different spatial domains (near vs. far) and different spatial reference frames (egocentric vs. allocentric) to investigate the potential interactions in deaf and hearing populations. By asking 17 congenitally deaf participants and 17 hearing participants to perform allocentric and egocentric judgment tasks on the same stimulus set in near and far spaces, respectively, forming a 2 by 2 factorial design in Experiment 1. The stimuli in each trial contained two 3-D objects: a fork on the top of a round orange plate. In near space, stimuli were presented on a screen with the eye-to-screen distance as 50 cm, and in far space, stimuli were presented via a projector on a screen with the eye-to-screen distance as 226 cm. Retinotopic sizes of the objects and visual angles of the egocentric and allocentric distances were both matched for near and far spaces. To test the sense of balance was impaired in the deaf group of the present experiment, we asked both groups to perform a open loop pointing
Bubble migration in a rotating, liquid-filled sphere
Annamalai, P.; Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.
1982-01-01
Results and analysis of ground-based experiments performed to aid in designing experiments on the behavior of bubbles in a rotating liquid body on board the Shuttle in free fall are presented. Spherical shells filled with silicone oil containing a small gas bubble were spun and filmed by high speed motion picture photography. The rotation of the shell and the trajectory of the bubble motion were recorded and the film was exposed to a motion analyzer connected to a keypunch. The analyzer measured Cartesian coordinates as well as angle, frame number, and rotation rate. Optical correction equations were employed to determine the apparent bubble trajectory relative to an inertial frame of reference. An analytical model for the bubble motion was defined, yielding predictions of velocity and position at different times. Rotation of the fluid container is concluded to aid in centering the bubbles.
Expansion of Frames to Tight Frames
Deng Feng LI; Wen Chang SUN
2009-01-01
We show that every Bessel sequence (and therefore every frame) in a separable Hilbert space can be expanded to a tight frame by adding some elements. The proof is based on a recent generalization of the frame concept, the g-frame, which illustrates that g-frames could be useful in the study of frame theory. As an application, we prove that any Gabor frame can be expanded to a tight frame by adding one window function.
Eye-hand coordination during dynamic visuomotor rotations.
Lorenzo Masia
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: for many technology-driven visuomotor tasks such as tele-surgery, human operators face situations in which the frames of reference for vision and action are misaligned and need to be compensated in order to perform the tasks with the necessary precision. The cognitive mechanisms for the selection of appropriate frames of reference are still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of changing visual and kinesthetic frames of reference during wrist pointing, simulating activities typical for tele-operations. METHODS: using a robotic manipulandum, subjects had to perform center-out pointing movements to visual targets presented on a computer screen, by coordinating wrist flexion/extension with abduction/adduction. We compared movements in which the frames of reference were aligned (unperturbed condition with movements performed under different combinations of visual/kinesthetic dynamic perturbations. The visual frame of reference was centered to the computer screen, while the kinesthetic frame was centered around the wrist joint. Both frames changed their orientation dynamically (angular velocity = 36 degrees /s with respect to the head-centered frame of reference (the eyes. Perturbations were either unimodal (visual or kinesthetic, or bimodal (visual+kinesthetic. As expected, pointing performance was best in the unperturbed condition. The spatial pointing error dramatically worsened during both unimodal and most bimodal conditions. However, in the bimodal condition, in which both disturbances were in phase, adaptation was very fast and kinematic performance indicators approached the values of the unperturbed condition. CONCLUSIONS: this result suggests that subjects learned to exploit an "affordance" made available by the invariant phase relation between the visual and kinesthetic frames. It seems that after detecting such invariance, subjects used the kinesthetic input as an informative signal rather than a
Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte
in the information given. However, in this process the organisation is not operating in a social vacuum but is continuously interacting with various players, such as the media, for its textual and discursive creation (Gunnarsson 2009). In this presentation, I will focus on the role of this interaction in framing...... an organisation, and hence in shaping the image projected to the public. Framing is here understood as the selection of ‘some aspects of perceived reality … [making] them more salient in the communication text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility. References Entman, Robert M. 1993. Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 41: 6-25. Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise. 2009. Professional Discourse. London...
Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte
and/or treatment recommendation for the item described’ (Entman 1993, Hallahan 1999). I will take my starting point in the 2008 financial crisis and the discursive construction or framing of the large Danish bank, Danske Bank. Facing severe criticism for its business conduct prior to the crisis......, in 2009 the Bank was striving to uphold the image of a prudent, trustworthy – and blameless - actor in the financial sector, a strategy it eventually changed. Through the study of the frames adopted by the Danish print press and the Bank, I will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility. References Entman, Robert M. 1993. Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 41: 6-25. Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise. 2009. Professional Discourse. London...
Framing scales and scaling frames
Lieshout, van M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.
2009-01-01
Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment o
Lourens, Lucas
2016-04-01
The astronomical theory of climate has revolutionized our understanding of past climate change and the development of highly accurate geologic time scales for the entire Cenozoic. Most of this understanding has started with the construction of high-resolution stable oxygen isotope (18O) records from planktonic and benthic foraminifera of open ocean deep marine sediments explored by the international drilling operations of DSDP, ODP and IODP. These efforts culminated into global ocean isotopic stacked records, which give a clear picture of the evolution of the climate state through time. Fundamental for these reconstructions are the assumptions made between the astronomical forcing and the tuned time series and the accuracy of the astronomical solution. In the past decades, an astronomically calibrated time scale for the Pliocene and Pleistocene of the Mediterranean has been developed, which has become the reference for the standard Geologic Time Scale. Characteristic of the studied marine sediments are the cyclic lithological alternations, reflecting the interference between obliquity and precession-paced low latitude climate variability. These interference patterns allowed to evaluate the accuracy of astronomical solutions and to constrain the dynamical ellipticity of the Earth and tidal dissipation by the Sun and the Moon, which in turn provided the backbone for the widely applied LR04 open ocean benthic isotope stack of the past 5 Myr. So far, the assumed time lags between orbital forcing and the global climate response as reflected in LR04 have not been tested, while these assumptions hark back to SPECMAP, using simple ice sheet models and a limited number of radiometric dates. In addition, LR04 adopted a shorter response time for the smaller ice caps during the Pliocene. Here I present the first benthic 18O record of the Mediterranean reference scale, which strikingly mirrors the LR04. I will use this record to discuss the assumed phase relations and its
Maria Elena Giraldo Ramirez
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Este texto pretende dar cuenta del marco de referencia conceptual que soporta los trabajos investigativos del Grupo EAV en torno al tema de la educación virtual y de las tecnologías de información y comunicación. Este marco plantea dos enfoques, el primero, un enfoque antropológico, para acercarse a la comprensión de la relación Tecnología-Comunicación-Educación que reconocemos como la tríada; y el segundo, un enfoque comunicacional que despliega la tríada contemporánea desde dos principios conceptuales: la mediación y la interacción.This paper tries to realize of the frame of conceptual reference that supports the works of research of the Group EAV around the topic of the virtual education and of the technologies of information and communication. This frame raises two approaches, the first one, an anthropologic approach, to approach the comprehension of the relation Technology, Communication and Education that we recognize as the triad; and the second one, a communication approach that develops the contemporary triad from two conceptual principles: the mediation and the interaction.
Definition and Proposed Realization of the International Height Reference System (IHRS)
Ihde, Johannes; Sánchez, Laura; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Drewes, Hermann; Foerste, Christoph; Gruber, Thomas; Liebsch, Gunter; Marti, Urs; Pail, Roland; Sideris, Michael
2017-05-01
Studying, understanding and modelling global change require geodetic reference frames with an order of accuracy higher than the magnitude of the effects to be actually studied and with high consistency and reliability worldwide. The International Association of Geodesy, taking care of providing a precise geodetic infrastructure for monitoring the Earth system, promotes the implementation of an integrated global geodetic reference frame that provides a reliable frame for consistent analysis and modelling of global phenomena and processes affecting the Earth's gravity field, the Earth's surface geometry and the Earth's rotation. The definition, realization, maintenance and wide utilization of the International Terrestrial Reference System guarantee a globally unified geometric reference frame with an accuracy at the millimetre level. An equivalent high-precision global physical reference frame that supports the reliable description of changes in the Earth's gravity field (such as sea level variations, mass displacements, processes associated with geophysical fluids) is missing. This paper addresses the theoretical foundations supporting the implementation of such a physical reference surface in terms of an International Height Reference System and provides guidance for the coming activities required for the practical and sustainable realization of this system. Based on conceptual approaches of physical geodesy, the requirements for a unified global height reference system are derived. In accordance with the practice, its realization as the International Height Reference Frame is designed. Further steps for the implementation are also proposed.
Definition and Proposed Realization of the International Height Reference System (IHRS)
Ihde, Johannes; Sánchez, Laura; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Drewes, Hermann; Foerste, Christoph; Gruber, Thomas; Liebsch, Gunter; Marti, Urs; Pail, Roland; Sideris, Michael
2017-03-01
Studying, understanding and modelling global change require geodetic reference frames with an order of accuracy higher than the magnitude of the effects to be actually studied and with high consistency and reliability worldwide. The International Association of Geodesy, taking care of providing a precise geodetic infrastructure for monitoring the Earth system, promotes the implementation of an integrated global geodetic reference frame that provides a reliable frame for consistent analysis and modelling of global phenomena and processes affecting the Earth's gravity field, the Earth's surface geometry and the Earth's rotation. The definition, realization, maintenance and wide utilization of the International Terrestrial Reference System guarantee a globally unified geometric reference frame with an accuracy at the millimetre level. An equivalent high-precision global physical reference frame that supports the reliable description of changes in the Earth's gravity field (such as sea level variations, mass displacements, processes associated with geophysical fluids) is missing. This paper addresses the theoretical foundations supporting the implementation of such a physical reference surface in terms of an International Height Reference System and provides guidance for the coming activities required for the practical and sustainable realization of this system. Based on conceptual approaches of physical geodesy, the requirements for a unified global height reference system are derived. In accordance with the practice, its realization as the International Height Reference Frame is designed. Further steps for the implementation are also proposed.
Characterization of the rotating display.
Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A
1988-09-01
The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.
Gravitomagnetic Field of the Universe and Coriolis Force on the Rotating Earth
Veto, B.
2011-01-01
The Machian effect of distant masses of the universe in the frame of reference of the rotating Earth is demonstrated using the gravitomagnetic approach of general relativity. This effect appears in the form of a gravitomagnetic Lorentz force acting on moving bodies on the Earth. The gravitomagnetic field of the universe--deduced from a simple…
Cross-modal visuo-haptic mental rotation: comparing objects between senses
Volcic, R.; Wijntjes, M.W.A.; Kool, E.C.; Kappers, A.M.L.
2010-01-01
The simple experience of a coherent percept while looking and touching an object conceals an intriguing issue: different senses encode and compare information in different modality-specific reference frames. We addressed this problem in a cross-modal visuo-haptic mental rotation task. Two objects in
Gravitomagnetic Field of the Universe and Coriolis Force on the Rotating Earth
Veto, B.
2011-01-01
The Machian effect of distant masses of the universe in the frame of reference of the rotating Earth is demonstrated using the gravitomagnetic approach of general relativity. This effect appears in the form of a gravitomagnetic Lorentz force acting on moving bodies on the Earth. The gravitomagnetic field of the universe--deduced from a simple…
Numerical investigation of monodisperse granular flow through an inclined rotating chute
Shirsath, Sushil S.; Padding, Johan T.; Kuipers, J.A.M. (Hans); Peeters, Tim W.J.; Clercx, Herman J.H.
2014-01-01
A discrete element model of spherical glass particles flowing down a rotating chute is validated against high quality experimental data. The simulations are performed in a corotating frame of reference, taking into account Coriolis and centrifugal forces. In view of future extensions aimed at segreg
Bundgaard, Charlotte
2009-01-01
, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... into separate parts or systems: skeleton, skin, services, internal cladding, etc. Each building part/system is being conceived, produced, delivered and maintained by different construction companies. Basically the building is being fragmented into separate parts living their separate lives. The architect has...... to create architectural meaning and give character to an architecture of fragmentation. Layers are both seen as conceptual as well as material frames which define certain strong properties or meanings in the architectural work. Defining layers is a way of separating and organizing; it both defines...
THE EVOLUTION OF PERCEPTUAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE.
the Estimation of Number, by William Bevan and Edward D. Turner. Technical rept. no. 13; The Influence of ...Lightness upon the Judgment of Size: An Exercise in Multi-Dimensional Psychophysics, by William Bevan and Edward D. Turner. Technical rept. no. 14...Current Trends and Issues in Adaptation-Level theory, by Harry Helson. Technical rept. no. 15; and Reaction time as a function of the Temporal Pattern of Stimulation, by William Bevan and Donald Hardesty. Technical rept. no.
刘华吾; 孙永恒; 胡海兵; 邢岩
2016-01-01
锁相环技术是并网变流器的核心技术之一。针对传统单相同步旋转坐标系锁相环在畸变电网下锁相精度差的问题，提出一种基于离散傅里叶变换（DFT ）的高精度锁相环技术。基于DFT的锁相技术的核心问题是如何准确获取电网频率，将DFT 和单相同步旋转坐标系锁相环相结合，利用DFT 的优异选择性滤波性能和相角变换性质，从畸变电网信号中准确提取基波和生成虚拟正交信号，在同步旋转坐标系提取电网频率，实现DFT 的频率自适应，最终无静差、高精度跟踪电网相位。仿真和实验结果表明，所提出的锁相环对电网电压的畸变谐波、直流偏置误差和电网频率脉动等有很好的适应性，在各种电网条件下，均能准确地跟踪电网电压相位，验证了该锁相方法的有效性和优越性。%The phase‐locked loop ( PLL) is a key aspect of grid‐tied converters . A new PLL technique based on discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is proposed to improve the performances of conventional synchronous reference frame PLLs under distorted power grid conditions . The major challenge of the category of DFT based synchronization methods is how to accurately obtain the grid frequency . For this problem , this paper combines the DFT with the single‐phase synchronous reference frame PLL . It utilizes the selective filtering and phase shifting properties of DFT to accurately extract the fundamental and generate its virtual orthogonal signals from the distorted grid . Then by transforming to the synchronous reference frame and properly control the q‐component , accurate synchronization with zero steady state errors is achieved . Besides , grid frequency variations are incorporated by adjusting the sampling period of DFT according to the estimated frequency . Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed DFT‐based PLL offers high harmonics immunity and DC component rejection
Relativistic Rotating Vector Model
Lyutikov, Maxim
2016-01-01
The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.
[The framing effect: medical implications].
Mazzocco, Ketti; Cherubini, Paolo; Rumiati, Rino
2005-01-01
Over the last 20 years, many studies explored how the way information is presented modifies choices. This sort of effect, referred to as "framing effects", typically consists of the inversion of choices when presenting structurally identical decision problems in different ways. It is a common assumption that physicians are unaffected (or less affected) by the surface description of a decision problem, because they are formally trained in medical decision making. However, several studies showed that framing effects occur even in the medical field. The complexity and variability of these effects are remarkable, making it necessary to distinguish among different framing effects, depending on whether the effect is obtained by modifying adjectives (attribute framing), goals of a behavior (goal framing), or the probability of an outcome (risky choice framing). A further reason for the high variability of the framing effects seems to be the domain of the decision problem, with different effects occurring in prevention decisions, disease-detection decisions, and treatment decisions. The present work reviews the studies on framing effects, in order to summarize them and clarify their possible role in medical decision making.
Frame construction and frame promotion (strategic framing choices)
Hänggli, R.; Kriesi, H.
2012-01-01
In this article, the authors discuss the three most important strategic framing choices by political actors ("substantive emphasis choice," "oppositional emphasis choice," and "contest emphasis choice") of direct-democratic campaigns. The authors investigate these strategic framing choices in the
Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A
2016-06-01
Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.
Frenet frames and invariants of timelike ruled surfaces
Mehmet Önder
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this study we give the Frenet frames and Frenet invariants of timelike ruled surfaces. We show that a timelike ruled surface and its directing cone have the same base of Frenet frame. We define instantaneous rotation vectors of the Frenet frames of timelike ruled surfaces. Also we prove the Chasles Theorem for timelike ruled surfaces.
Frenet frames and invariants of timelike ruled surfaces
Mehmet Önder; H. Hüseyin Uğurlu
2013-01-01
In this study we give the Frenet frames and Frenet invariants of timelike ruled surfaces. We show that a timelike ruled surface and its directing cone have the same base of Frenet frame. We define instantaneous rotation vectors of the Frenet frames of timelike ruled surfaces. Also we prove the Chasles Theorem for timelike ruled surfaces.
In-duct identification of a rotating sound source with high spatial resolution
Heo, Yong-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Bodén, Hans
2015-11-01
To understand and reduce the flow noise generation from in-duct fluid machines, it is necessary to identify the acoustic source characteristics precisely. In this work, a source identification technique, which can identify the strengths and positions of the major sound radiators in the source plane, is studied for an in-duct rotating source. A linear acoustic theory including the effects of evanescent modes and source rotation is formulated based on the modal summation method, which is the underlying theory for the inverse source reconstruction. A validation experiment is conducted on a duct system excited by a loudspeaker in static and rotating conditions, with two different speeds, in the absence of flow. Due to the source rotation, the measured pressure spectra reveal the Doppler effect, and the amount of frequency shift corresponds to the multiplication of the circumferential mode order and the rotation speed. Amplitudes of participating modes are estimated at the shifted frequencies in the stationary reference frame, and the modal amplitude set including the effect of source rotation is collected to investigate the source behavior in the rotating reference frame. By using the estimated modal amplitudes, the near-field pressure is re-calculated and compared with the measured pressure. The obtained maximum relative error is about -25 and -10 dB for rotation speeds at 300 and 600 rev/min, respectively. The spatial distribution of acoustic source parameters is restored from the estimated modal amplitude set. The result clearly shows that the position and magnitude of the main sound source can be identified with high spatial resolution in the rotating reference frame.
Subdaily Earth rotation model and GPS solutions
Panafidina, Natalia; Hugentobler, Urs; Seitz, Manuela
2014-05-01
In this contribution we study the influence of the subdaily Earth rotation model on the GPS solution including station coordinates, satellite orbits and daily Earth rotation parameters (ERPs). The approach used is based on the transformation of GPS normal equation systems: free daily normal equations containing ERPs with 1-hour resolution are used as input data, in this case the high-frequency ERPs can be transformed into tidal terms which then can be fixed to new a priori values, thus changing implicitly the underlying subdaily Earth rotation model. To study the influence of individual tidal terms on the solution we successively changed a priori values for one tidal term in polar motion and compared the resulting solutions for GPS orbits, station coordinates and daily ERPs for a time interval of 13 years. The comparison reveals periodic changes in all estimated parameters with periods depending on the periods of the changed tidal terms. The dynamical reference frame realized by the GPS orbits is also affected: the whole satellite constellation shows periodic orientation variations, and each individual satellite shows periodic changes in the position of the orbit origin. We present a mechanism showing how errors in the subdaily Earth rotation model are propagated into the dynamical reference frame and the estimated parameters. Our model represents a change in one tidal term over one day as the sum of a prograde diurnal wave, a retrograde diurnal wave and an offset and linear drift in x- and y-pole. We demonstrate that this simple model, in conjunction with appropriate constraints, can explain well the observed variations in a one day GPS solution as well as in daily pole rates caused by changes in the subdaily Earth rotation model.
Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games
Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.
2016-01-01
Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate
On the invariant motions of rigid body rotation over the fixed point, via Euler angles
Ershkov, Sergey V
2016-01-01
The generalized Euler case (rigid body rotation over the fixed point) is discussed here: - the center of masses of non-symmetric rigid body is assumed to be located at the equatorial plane on axis Oy which is perpendicular to the main principal axis Ox of inertia at the fixed point. Such a case was presented in the rotating coordinate system, in a frame of reference fixed in the rotating body for the case of rotation over the fixed point (at given initial conditions). In our derivation, we have represented the generalized Euler case in the fixed Cartesian coordinate system; so, the motivation of our ansatz is to elegantly transform the proper components of the previously presented solution from one (rotating) coordinate system to another (fixed) Cartesian coordinates. Besides, we have obtained an elegantly analytical case of general type of rotations; also, we have presented it in the fixed Cartesian coordinate system via Euler angles.
Mode-Coupling in Rotating Gravitational Collapse of a Scalar Field
Hod, S
2000-01-01
We present an analytic study of the mode-coupling phenomena for a scalar field propagating on a rotating Kerr background. Physically, this phenomena is caused by the dragging of reference frames, due to the black-hole (or star's) rotation. We find that different modes become mixed during the evolution and the asymptotic late-time tails are dominated by a mode which, in general, has an angular distribution different from the original one. We show that a rotating Kerr black hole becomes `bald' slower than a spherically-symmetric Schwarzschild black hole.
Parameter Design of Single Synchronous Reference Frame Software Phase Locked Loop%单同步坐标系软件锁相环控制器参数设计
夏泽中; 冯林; 王友阳; 黄刚
2015-01-01
Phase-locked loop ( PLL) is essential for detecting the grid phase angle in grid converters , its speed and accura-cy directly affects the performance of synchronous control system relying on PLLs .Some basic principles of the single synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop ( PLL) were firstly presented and analyzed .Partial differential is employed for analyzing the control scheme of the proposed PLL .As the transfer function of controller is a typical II system , parameter was designed in a typ-ical method and its digital implementation was discussed .The performance of the proposed designing method was verified by ex-periments .%针对复杂的锁相环控制器参数设计问题，提出了一种简单实用的控制器参数设计方法。在分析三相锁相环原理的基础上，对单同步坐标系软件锁相环控制结构进行微偏线性化处理，求出其控制器等效传递函数为典型II型系统，按照典型II型系统参数设计原则推导出连续系统下的PI参数设计公式。通过对连续系统控制器离散化处理，推导出一套简单实用的数字系统三相软件锁相环控制器参数设计公式。建模仿真结果表明，锁相环系统动静态性能优越，验证了由该公式设计PI参数的合理性与实用性。
The Heroic Framing of US Foreign Policy
2010-01-01
This dissertation concerns the US presidential use of heroic framing in connection with foreign policy. I identify "heroic framing" as speech which describes policies in terms evoking the heroic narrative, either explicitly or implicitly through references to heroic characters. The technique of heroic framing both encourages audiences to view a situation in terms of stark moral absolutes and normalizes casualties and violence as an aspect of these heroic conflicts. This rhetorical technique t...
Micro-Doppler Frequency Comb Generation by Axially Rotating Scatterers
Kozlov, Vitali; Yankelevich, Yefim; Ginzburg, Pavel
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic scattering in accelerating reference frames inspires a variety of phenomena, requiring employment of general relativity for their description. While the quasi-stationary field analysis could be applied to slowly-accelerating bodies as a first-order approximation, the scattering problem remains fundamentally nonlinear in boundary conditions, giving rise to multiple frequency generation (micro-Doppler shifts). Here a frequency comb, generated by an axially rotating subwavelength (cm-range) wire and split ring resonator (SRR), is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally by illuminating the system with a 2GHz carrier wave. Highly accurate lock in detection scheme enables factorization of the carrier and observation of more than ten peaks in a comb. The Hallen integral equation is employed for deriving the currents induced on the scatterer at rest and a set of coordinate transformations, connecting laboratory and rotating frames, is applied in order to predict the spectral positions and a...
Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.
2014-01-01
to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...
Casazza, Peter G; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta
2010-01-01
Frames have established themselves as a means to derive redundant, yet stable decompositions of a signal for analysis or transmission, while also promoting sparse expansions. However, when the signal dimension is large, the computation of the frame measurements of a signal typically requires a large number of additions and multiplications, and this makes a frame decomposition intractable in applications with limited computing budget. To address this problem, in this paper, we introduce sparsity of a frame as a new paradigm. In our terminology, a sparse frame is a frame whose elements have a sparse representation in an orthonormal basis, thereby enabling low-complexity frame decompositions. To introduce a precise meaning of optimality, we take the sum of the numbers of vectors needed of this orthonormal basis when expanding each frame vector as sparsity measure. We then analyze the recently introduced algorithm Spectral Tetris for construction of unit norm tight frames and prove that the tight frames generated...
Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation
Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch
2010-10-08
In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________
Framing of health information messages.
Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger
2011-12-07
The same information about the evidence on health effects can be framed either in positive words or in negative words. Some research suggests that positive versus negative framing can lead to different decisions, a phenomenon described as the framing effect. Attribute framing is the positive versus negative description of a specific attribute of a single item or a state, for example, "the chance of survival with cancer is 2/3" versus "the chance of mortality with cancer is 1/3". Goal framing is the description of the consequences of performing or not performing an act as a gain versus a loss, for example, "if you undergo a screening test for cancer, your survival will be prolonged" versus "if you don't undergo screening test for cancer, your survival will be shortened". To evaluate the effects of attribute (positive versus negative) framing and of goal (gain versus loss) framing of the same health information, on understanding, perception of effectiveness, persuasiveness, and behavior of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, issue 3 2007), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2007), PsycINFO (Ovid) (1887 to October 2007). There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of related systematic reviews, included studies and of excluded but closely related studies. We also contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cross-over studies with health professionals, policy makers, and consumers evaluating one of the two types of framing. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate and independently. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using standardized mean difference (SMD). We stratified the analysis by the type of framing (attribute, goal) and conducted pre
Tectonically asymmetric Earth: From net rotation to polarized westward drift of the lithosphere
Carlo Doglioni
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The possibility of a net rotation of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle is generally overlooked since it depends on the adopted mantle reference frames, which are arbitrary. We review the geological and geophysical signatures of plate boundaries, and show that they are markedly asymmetric worldwide. Then we compare available reference frames of plate motions relative to the mantle and discuss which is at best able to fit global tectonic data. Different assumptions about the depths of hotspot sources (below or within the asthenosphere, which decouples the lithosphere from the deep mantle predict different rates of net rotation of the lithosphere relative to the mantle. The widely used no-net-rotation (NNR reference frame, and low (1°/Ma net rotation (shallow hotspots source, all plates, albeit at different velocity, move westerly along a curved trajectory, with a tectonic equator tilted about 30° relative to the geographic equator. This is consistent with the observed global tectonic asymmetries.
Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains
Wang
1996-11-01
The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable
Haddout Soufiane
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In Newtonian mechanics, the non-inertial reference frames is a generalization of Newton’s laws to any reference frames. While this approach simplifies some problems, there is often little physical insight into the motion, in particular into the effects of the Coriolis force. The fictitious Coriolis force can be used by anyone in that frame of reference to explain why objects follow curved paths. In this paper, a mathematical solution based on differential equations in non-inertial reference is used to study different types of motion in rotating system. In addition, the experimental data measured on a turntable device, using a video camera in a mechanics laboratory was conducted to compare with mathematical solution in case of parabolically curved, solving non-linear least-squares problems, based on Levenberg-Marquardt’s and Gauss-Newton algorithms.
Haddout, Soufiane
2016-06-01
In Newtonian mechanics, the non-inertial reference frames is a generalization of Newton's laws to any reference frames. While this approach simplifies some problems, there is often little physical insight into the motion, in particular into the effects of the Coriolis force. The fictitious Coriolis force can be used by anyone in that frame of reference to explain why objects follow curved paths. In this paper, a mathematical solution based on differential equations in non-inertial reference is used to study different types of motion in rotating system. In addition, the experimental data measured on a turntable device, using a video camera in a mechanics laboratory was conducted to compare with mathematical solution in case of parabolically curved, solving non-linear least-squares problems, based on Levenberg-Marquardt's and Gauss-Newton algorithms.
Developing the Framed Standard Model
Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T
2011-01-01
The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.
Österlind, Tomas; Kari, Leif; Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
2017-02-01
Rotor vibration and stationary displacement patterns observed in rotating machineries subject to local harmonic excitation are analysed for improved understanding and dynamic characterization. The analysis stresses the importance of coordinate transformation between rotating and stationary frame of reference for accurate results and estimation of dynamic properties. A generic method which can be used for various rotor applications such as machine tool spindle and turbo machinery vibration is presented. The phenomenon shares similarities with stationary waves in rotating disks though focuses on vibration in shafts. The paper further proposes a graphical tool, the displacement map, which can be used for selection of stable rotational speed for rotating machinery. The results are validated through simulation of dynamic response of a milling cutter, which is a typical example of a variable speed rotor operating under different load conditions.
An Analytic Mathematical Model to Explain the Spiral Structure and Rotation Curve of NGC 3198
Rout, Bruce; Rout, Cameron
2016-06-01
An analytical model of galactic morphology is presented. This model presents resolutions to two inter-related parameters of spiral galaxies: one being the flat velocity rotation profile and the other being the spiral morphology of such galaxies. This model is a mathematical transformation dictated by the general theory of relativity applied to rotating polar coordinate systems that conserve the metric. The model shows that the flat velocity rotation profile and spiral shape of certain galaxies are both products of the general theory. Validation of the model is presented by application to 878 rotation curves provided by Salucci, and by comparing the results of a derived distance modulus to those using Cepheid variables, water masers and Tully-Fisher calculations. The model suggests means of determining galactic linear density, mass and angular momentum. We also show that the morphology of NGC 3198 is congruent to the geodesic as observed within a rotating reference frame and that galaxies are gravitationally viscous and self bound.
A novel body frame based approach to aerospacecraft attitude tracking.
Ma, Carlos; Chen, Michael Z Q; Lam, James; Cheung, Kie Chung
2017-09-01
In the common practice of designing an attitude tracker for an aerospacecraft, one transforms the Newton-Euler rotation equations to obtain the dynamic equations of some chosen inertial frame based attitude metrics, such as Euler angles and unit quaternions. A Lyapunov approach is then used to design a controller which ensures asymptotic convergence of the attitude to the desired orientation. Although this design methodology is pretty standard, it usually involves singularity-prone coordinate transformations which complicates the analysis process and controller design. A new, singularity free error feedback method is proposed in the paper to provide simple and intuitive stability analysis and controller synthesis. This new body frame based method utilizes the concept of Euleraxis and angles to generate the smallest error angles from a body frame perspective, without coordinate transformations. Global tracking convergence is illustrated with the use of a feedback linearizing PD tracker, a sliding mode controller, and a model reference adaptive controller. Experimental results are also obtained on a quadrotor platform with unknown system parameters and disturbances, using a boundary layer approximated sliding mode controller, a PIDD controller, and a unit sliding mode controller. Significant tracking quality is attained. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comparison of three local frame definitions for the kinematic analysis of the fingers and the wrist.
Goislard de Monsabert, B; Visser, J M A; Vigouroux, L; Van der Helm, F C T; Veeger, H E J
2014-08-22
Because the hand is a complex poly-articular limb, numerous methods have been proposed to investigate its kinematics therefore complicating the comparison between studies and the methodological choices. With the objective of overcoming such issues, the present study compared the effect of three local frame definitions on local axis orientations and joint angles of the fingers and the wrist. Three local frames were implemented for each segment. The "Reference" frames were aligned with global axes during a static neutral posture. The "Landmark" frames were computed using palpated bony landmarks. The "Functional" frames included a flexion-extension axis estimated during functional movements. These definitions were compared with regard to the deviations between obtained local segment axes and the evolution of joint (Cardan) angles during two test motions. Each definition resulted in specific local frame orientations with deviations of 15° in average for a given local axis. Interestingly, these deviations produced only slight differences (below 7°) regarding flexion-extension Cardan angles indicating that there is no preferred method when only interested in finger flexion-extension movements. In this case, the Reference method was the easiest to implement, but did not provide physiological results for the thumb. Using the Functional frames reduced the kinematic cross-talk on the secondary and tertiary Cardan angles by up to 20° indicating that the Functional definition is useful when investigating complex three-dimensional movements. Globally, the Landmark definition provides valuable results and, contrary to the other definitions, is applicable for finger deformities or compromised joint rotations.
Choi, B. H.; Poe, R. T.
1977-01-01
A detailed vibrational-rotational (V-R) close-coupling formulation of electron-diatomic-molecule scattering is developed in which the target molecular axis is chosen to be the z-axis and the resulting coupled differential equation is solved in the moving body-fixed frame throughout the entire interaction region. The coupled differential equation and asymptotic boundary conditions in the body-fixed frame are given for each parity, and procedures are outlined for evaluating V-R transition cross sections on the basis of the body-fixed transition and reactance matrix elements. Conditions are discussed for obtaining identical results from the space-fixed and body-fixed formulations in the case where a finite truncated basis set is used. The hybrid theory of Chandra and Temkin (1976) is then reformulated, relevant expressions and formulas for the simultaneous V-R transitions of the hybrid theory are obtained in the same forms as those of the V-R close-coupling theory, and distorted-wave Born-approximation expressions for the cross sections of the hybrid theory are presented. A close-coupling approximation that conserves the internuclear axis component of the incident electronic angular momentum (l subscript z-prime) is derived from the V-R close-coupling formulation in the moving body-fixed frame.
Moving-Frame Approach to Nonlinear Internal Waves in Oceans
Xu, Xiaoping
2013-01-01
In this article, we introduce a moving-frame approach to the geophysical equation of two-dimensional uniformly stratified rotational fluid in oceans and find a family of exact solutions containing ten arbitrary parameter functions.
基于同步参考坐标系的三相数字锁相环%Three-Phase Digital Phase-Locked Loop Based on Synchronous Reference Frame
洪小圆; 吕征宇
2012-01-01
基于同步参考坐标系的三相数字锁相环的动态性能取决于比例积分环节的参数设计、角频率静态偏置补偿误差及相位静态偏置补偿误差，本文通过构造李雅普诺夫函数验证了三相数字锁相环的非线性模型全局渐进稳定性，保证基于线性模型设计的PI参数的有效性；提出了基于过零检测的电网三相电压相序识别方法以保证角频率静态偏置的正确补偿，推导出了该方法下综合抗干扰能力最强的过零检测滞环幅值的求解公式，将相序识别时获得的初始相位用于锁相环的相位静态偏置补偿，使锁相环的调整时间缩短到过零点的等待时间及滞环电压弓J起的过零点误差调整时间。最后，仿真和实验证明了该方法的可行性。%The dynamic performance of three-phase digital phase-locked loop (PLL) based on synchronous reference frame depends on the proportional and integral (PI) parameters, compensation errors of angular frequency and phase angle static bias. The nonlinear model of the PLL is proved to be globally asymptotically stable with the design of Lyapunov function, which assures the validity of the PI parameters designed on the linear model. A grid phase sequence identification method based on zero-crossing detection is presented to guarantee the correct compensation of the angular frequency static bias. And the hysteresis voltage for zero-crossing detection is deduced to obtain the largest anti-interference margin. The initial phase angle is identified during phase sequence identification, and it could be used to compensate the phase angle static bias. Then the set-up time of the PLL could be greatly shortened to the waiting time of the zero-crossing and the set-up time of zero-crossing error due to the hysteresis voltage. Finally, the advantages mentioned above are verified by simulations and experiments.
1991-09-06
who require millisecond of arc accuracy in reference frame applications, the Interna - tional Earth Rotation Service (IERS) publishes in weekly and...California, Westford, Massachusetts, Algonquin Park, Canada, and Medicina , Noto, and Matera, Italy, have also participated in these experiments on an
Bergstra, J.A.; Fokkink, W.J.; Middelburg, C.A.
2008-01-01
Timed frames are introduced as objects that can form a basis of a model theory for discrete time process algebra. An algebraic setting for timed frames is proposed and results concerning its connection with discrete time process algebra are given. The presented theory of timed frames captures the ba
MAKING STUDENTS’ FRAMES EXPLICIT
Nielsen, Louise Møller; Hansen, Poul Henrik Kyvsgaard
2016-01-01
Framing is a vital part of the design and innovation process. Frames are cognitive shortcuts (i.e. metaphors) that enable designers to connect insights about i.e. market opportunities and users needs with a set of solution principles and to test if this connection makes sense. Until now, framing ...
Framing of grid cells within and beyond navigation boundaries
Savelli, Francesco; Luck, JD; Knierim, James J
2017-01-01
Grid cells represent an ideal candidate to investigate the allocentric determinants of the brain’s cognitive map. Most studies of grid cells emphasized the roles of geometric boundaries within the navigational range of the animal. Behaviors such as novel route-taking between local environments indicate the presence of additional inputs from remote cues beyond the navigational borders. To investigate these influences, we recorded grid cells as rats explored an open-field platform in a room with salient, remote cues. The platform was rotated or translated relative to the room frame of reference. Although the local, geometric frame of reference often exerted the strongest control over the grids, the remote cues demonstrated a consistent, sometimes dominant, countervailing influence. Thus, grid cells are controlled by both local geometric boundaries and remote spatial cues, consistent with prior studies of hippocampal place cells and providing a rich representational repertoire to support complex navigational (and perhaps mnemonic) processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21354.001 PMID:28084992
Body-fixed relativistic molecular Hamiltonian and its application to nuclear spin-rotation tensor.
Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2013-04-07
A relativistic molecular Hamiltonian that describes electrons fully relativistically and nuclei quasi-relativistically is proposed and transformed from the laboratory to the body-fixed frame of reference. As a first application of the resulting body-fixed relativistic molecular Hamiltonian, the long anticipated relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) tensor is formulated rigorously. A "relativistic mapping" between experimental NSR and NMR is further proposed, which is of great value in establishing high-precision absolute NMR shielding scales.
Implementation of Unsteady Double-Axis of Rotation Motion to Predict Pitch-Damping Moment
2016-10-18
becomes important when eventually defining initial Euler angles. This coordinate system defines the inertial reference frame. Approved for public...coordinates, except when defining the initial Euler angles set in “Initialization based on:” select “ Euler Angles.” For this example, set the coning angle...to the global longitudinal axis before setting the Euler angles. Since the rotation is about the global +y-axis, Euler_y is set to 0.5 (note degrees
Skopina, Maria; Protasov, Vladimir
2016-01-01
This book presents a systematic study of multivariate wavelet frames with matrix dilation, in particular, orthogonal and bi-orthogonal bases, which are a special case of frames. Further, it provides algorithmic methods for the construction of dual and tight wavelet frames with a desirable approximation order, namely compactly supported wavelet frames, which are commonly required by engineers. It particularly focuses on methods of constructing them. Wavelet bases and frames are actively used in numerous applications such as audio and graphic signal processing, compression and transmission of information. They are especially useful in image recovery from incomplete observed data due to the redundancy of frame systems. The construction of multivariate wavelet frames, especially bases, with desirable properties remains a challenging problem as although a general scheme of construction is well known, its practical implementation in the multidimensional setting is difficult. Another important feature of wavelet is ...
Efficient Short Boundary Detection & Key Frame Extraction using Image Compression
Shilpa. R. Jadhav Anup. V. Kalaskar Shruti Bhargava
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This paper present novel algorithm for efficient short boundary detection and key frames extraction using image compression. The algorithm differs from conventional methods mainly in the use of image segmentation and attention model.. Matching difference between two consecutive frames is computed with different weight. Shot boundaries are detected with automatic threshold. Key frame is extracted by using reference frame-based approach. Experimental results show improved performance of short boundary detection by using the proposed algorithms, and key frames represent shot content. And also satisfactorily image compression of result frame.
IRREGULAR WAVELET FRAMES AND GABOR FRAMES
Ole Christensen; Sergio Favier; Felipe Zó
2001-01-01
Given g ∈ L2 (R), we consider irregular wavelet systems of theform {λ g(λj x-kb) }j z. kz, where λj ＞0 and b＞0. Sufficient conditions for the wavelet system to constitute a frame for L2(R) are given. For a class of functions g ∈ L 2 (R) we prove that certain growth conditions on {λj} will lead to frames, and that some other types of sequences exclude the frame property. We also give a sufficient condition for a Gabor system {exib(j,x)g(x-λh)}jzn,kz to be a frame.CLC Number：O17 Document ID：AAuthor Resume：Ole Christensen;E-mail: Ole. Christensen@mat. dtu. dk Sergio Favier and Felipe Zó ;e-mails : sfavier@unsl. edu. ar fzo@unsl. edu. ar References：[1]Casaza,P.G. and Christensen,O.,Weyl-Heisenberg Frames for Subspaces of L2(R),Proc.Amer. Math. Soc. ,129(2001),145-154.[2]Casazza,P.G. and Christensen,O. ,Classifying Certain Irregular Gabor Frames,preprint[2]001.[3]Christensen,O. and Lindner,A. ,Lower Bounds for Finite Wavelet and Gabor Systems,Appr. Theory and Appl.,17(2001),17-31.[4]Chui,C.K. and Shi,X. ,Inequalities of Litdewood-Paley Type for Frames and Wavelets,SIAM J. Math. Anal. ,24:1(1993),263-277.[5]Daubechies,I. ,Ten Lectures on Wavelets,SIAM,Philadelphia,1992.[6]Favier,S. and Zalik,R. ,On the Stability of Frames and Riesz Bases,Appl. Comp. Ham.Anal. ,2(1995),160-173.[7]Feichtinger,H.G. and Strohmer,T. ,(Eds.),Gabor Analysis and Algorithms : Theory and Applications,Birkhauser,1998.[8]Heil,C.E. and Walnut,D.F. ,Continuous and Discrete Wavelet Transforms,SIAM Review,31:4(1989),628-666.[9]Sun,W. and Zhou,X. ,Irregular Wavelet Frames,Science in China (Series A),43:2(2000),122-127.Manuscript Received：2001年7月10日Manuscript Revised：2001年7月23日Published：2001年9月1日
Liquid-film coating on topographically patterned rotating cylinders
Li, Weihua; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Kumar, Satish
2017-02-01
The coating of discrete objects having surface topography is an important step in the manufacturing of a broad variety of products. To develop a fundamental understanding of this problem, we study liquid-film flow on rotating cylinders patterned with sinusoidal topographical features. The Stokes equations, augmented with a term accounting for centrifugal forces, are solved in a rotating reference frame using the Galerkin finite-element method (GFEM). A nonlinear evolution equation for the film thickness based on lubrication theory is also solved numerically and its predictions are compared to those from the GFEM calculations. When gravitational effects are negligible and the rotation rate is sufficiently low, liquid accumulates over the pattern troughs before merging to form multiple larger drops (located over troughs) whose number at steady state depends on the topography wavelength and rotation rate. When the rotation rate is sufficiently high, similar merging events occur, but liquid accumulates over the pattern crests at steady state. When gravitational forces become significant, it is possible to obtain a coating that closely conforms to the surface topography. The GFEM calculations are in agreement with predictions from the lubrication model provided the free-surface curvatures are sufficiently small. For sufficiently large pattern amplitude and film thickness, the GFEM calculations show that recirculation regions inside the troughs can appear and vanish as the cylinder rotates due to the variation of gravitational forces around the cylinder surface. This phenomenon, along with flow reversal over the crests, may strongly influence mixing, mass transport, and heat transport.
New trends for the realization of the international terrestrial reference system
Altamimi, Zuheir; Boucher, Claude; Sillard, Patrick
2002-07-01
With the advent of Space geodesy techniques in early eighties, global terrestrial reference frames became available whose precision is still improving parallel to measuring and modeling advances. As a global reference, the realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), known as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), maintained by the International Earth Rotation Service, has sustained substantial improvement and enhancement. One of the major new trends is the 2000 ITRS realization, to be considered as a standard solution for a wide user community (geodesy, geophysics, astronomy, etc.). The ITRF2000 comprises on one hand primary core stations observed by VLBI, LLR, GPS, SLR and DORIS techniques and, on the other hand, significant extension provided by regional GPS networks for densifications as well as other useful geodetic markers tied to space geodetic ones. The ITRF2000 combination and implementation strategy are described in this paper. Important results in terms of datum definition as well as quality assessment of the ITRF2000 are presented.
Frames and fusion frames in quantum optics
Jamiolkowski, Andrzej, E-mail: jam@fizyka.umk.p [Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland)
2010-03-01
The main purpose of this paper is to show that the notions of frames and fusion frames introduced in non-harmonic Fourier analysis are also very natural in discussion of some basic problems in theory of open quantum systems and, in particular, in quantum optics. Frames are collections of vectors in a Hilbert space which assure a natural representation of each vector in the space, but may have infinitely many different representations for any given vector. For a given quantum system represented in a Hilbert space H the question of minimal number {eta} of observables Q{sub 1},..., Q{sub {eta}} whose expectation values at some instants t{sub 1},...,t{sub p} determine the statistical state of the system is discussed. We assume that the time evolution of the system in question is governed by a semigroup of linear transformations with generator L.
Frame independent cosmological perturbations
Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2013-09-01
We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.
Discretization of Continuous Frame
A Fattahi; H Javanshiri
2012-05-01
In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$ which has a countable reconstruction formula. Among the other results, we characterize the relationship between this new concept and other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept.
Time delay control of power converters: Mixed frame and stationary-frame variants
Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Tang, Y.;
2008-01-01
In this paper, a mixed-frame and a stationary-frame time delay current controller are proposed for high precision reference tracking and disturbance rejection of power converters. In particular, the controllers use a proportional-resonant regulator in the stationary frame for regulating...... the positive and negative-sequence fundamental currents, which are known to directly influence the flow of active and reactive power in most energy conversion systems. Moreover, for the tracking or compensation of harmonics, the controllers include a time delay control path in either the synchronous...... or stationary frame, whose inherent feedback and feedforward structure can be proven to resemble a bank of resonant filters in either reference frames. Unlike other existing controllers, the proposed time delay controllers function by introducing multiple resonant peaks at only those harmonic frequencies...
Nonlinear modes and symmetry breaking in rotating double-well potentials
Li, Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A
2012-01-01
We study modes trapped in a rotating ring carrying the self-focusing (SF) or defocusing (SDF) cubic nonlinearity and double-well potential $\\cos^{2}\\theta $, where $\\theta $ is the angular coordinate. The model, based on the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger (NLS) equation in the rotating reference frame, describes the light propagation in a twisted pipe waveguide, as well as in other optical settings, and also a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)trapped in a torus and dragged by the rotating potential. In the SF and SDF regimes, five and four trapped modes of different symmetries are found, respectively. The shapes and stability of the modes, and transitions between them are studied in the first rotational Brillouin zone. In the SF regime, two symmetry-breaking transitions are found, of subcritical and supercritical types. In the SDF regime, an antisymmetry-breaking transition occurs. Ground-states are identified in both the SF and SDF systems.
Heat Transfer and Flows of Thermal Convection in a Fluid-Saturated Rotating Porous Medium
Jianhong Kang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal convection at the steady state for high Rayleigh number in a rotating porous half space is investigated. Taking into account the effect of rotation, Darcy equation is extended to incorporate the Coriolis force term in a rotating reference frame. The velocity and temperature fields of thermal convection are obtained by using the homotopy analysis method. The influences of Taylor number and Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number, velocity profile, and temperature distribution are discussed in detail. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases rapidly with the increase of Taylor number but tends to have an asymptotic value. Besides, the rotation can give rise to downward flow in contrast with the upward thermal convection.
梁承磊; 李秀荣
2012-01-01
本文采用架构为2（参照群体建议的信息框架：正面框架/负面框架）×2（调节焦点：促进型焦点/防御型焦点）×2（认知需求：高认知需求/低认知需求）的组间设计,分析参照群体建议的信息框架、调节匹配和认知需求对消费者冲动性购买行为的影响。研究结果发现：在调节匹配的情况下,消费者冲动性购买的意图和行为程度更高,且认知需求会干扰调节匹配对冲动性购买意图和行为的影响效果。%A2（framing effect of reference group＇s proposal：positive/negative） × 2（regulatory focus：promotion/prevention） × 2（need for cognition：high/low） experiment is conducted to analyze the effect of framing effect of reference group＇s proposal,regulatory fit,and need for cognition on impulse buying.The experiment reveals that consumers respond differently to various framing message of reference group＇s proposal.When regulatory fit appears,consumers have more positive purchase intention and impulse buying on products.The need for cognition will moderate the effect of regulatory fit on purchase intention and impulse buying.
American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.
In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…
孙文昌; 周性伟
2000-01-01
For the non-band-limited function ψ, a sufficient condition is presented under whichis a frame for L2(R). The stability of these frames is studied. For the wavelets frequently used in signal processing, some concrete results are given.
无
2000-01-01
For the non-band-limited function ψ, a sufficient condition is presented under which{√sjψ(sj·-kb)} is a frame for L2(R). The stability of these frames is studied. For the wavelets frequently used in signal processing, some concrete results are given.
Edwards, Michael Todd; Cox, Dana C.
2011-01-01
In this article, the authors explore framing, a non-multiplicative technique commonly employed by students as they construct similar shapes. When students frame, they add (or subtract) a "border" of fixed width about a geometric object. Although the approach does not yield similar shapes in general, the mathematical underpinnings of…
International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference
Husson, Van; Noll, Carey
2000-01-01
The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.
Solving Einstein's Equations With Dual Coordinate Frames
Scheel, M A; Lindblom, L; Pfeiffer, H P; Rinne, O; Teukolsky, S A; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Lindblom, Lee; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Rinne, Oliver; Scheel, Mark A.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2006-01-01
A method is introduced for solving Einstein's equations using two distinct coordinate systems. The coordinate basis vectors associated with one system are used to project out components of the metric and other fields, in analogy with the way fields are projected onto an orthonormal tetrad basis. These field components are then determined as functions of a second independent coordinate system. The transformation to the second coordinate system can be thought of as a mapping from the original ``inertial'' coordinate system to the computational domain. This dual-coordinate method is used to perform stable numerical evolutions of a black-hole spacetime using the generalized harmonic form of Einstein's equations in coordinates that rotate with respect to the inertial frame at infinity; such evolutions are found to be generically unstable using a single rotating coordinate frame. The dual-coordinate method is also used here to evolve binary black-hole spacetimes for several orbits. The great flexibility of this met...
Gulshani, P
2016-01-01
A simple derivation from first principles of the conventional cranking model for nuclear collective rotation about a single axis and its coupling to intrinsic motion is given. The microscopic cranking model is derived by transforming the nuclear Schrodinger equation to a rotating frame using a rotation-intrinsic product wavefunction and imposing no constraints on either the wavefunction or the nucleon coordinates. The no-constraint feature of the transformation makes it possible to share the angular momentum of the nucleus between the rotating frame and intrinsic system. The rotation of the frame is driven by a combination of rigid and irrotational flows generated by the motion of the nucleons. The resulting transformed, time-reversal invariant Schrodinger equation is readily reduced to the equations of the conventional cranking, particle-plus-rotor, phenomenological and microscopic collective rotation-vibration, and two-fluid semi-classical collective models. In particular, the reduction of the microscopic m...
Yee, Seonghwan, E-mail: Seonghwan.Yee@Beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States); Gao, Jia-Hong [Center for MRI Research, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2014-12-15
Purpose: To investigate whether the direction of spin-lock field, either parallel or antiparallel to the rotating magnetization, has any effect on the spin-lock MRI signal and further on the quantitative measurement of T1ρ, in a clinical 3 T MRI system. Methods: The effects of inverted spin-lock field direction were investigated by acquiring a series of spin-lock MRI signals for an American College of Radiology MRI phantom, while the spin-lock field direction was switched between the parallel and antiparallel directions. The acquisition was performed for different spin-locking methods (i.e., for the single- and dual-field spin-locking methods) and for different levels of clinically feasible spin-lock field strength, ranging from 100 to 500 Hz, while the spin-lock duration was varied in the range from 0 to 100 ms. Results: When the spin-lock field was inverted into the antiparallel direction, the rate of MRI signal decay was altered and the T1ρ value, when compared to the value for the parallel field, was clearly different. Different degrees of such direction-dependency were observed for different spin-lock field strengths. In addition, the dependency was much smaller when the parallel and the antiparallel fields are mixed together in the dual-field method. Conclusions: The spin-lock field direction could impact the MRI signal and further the T1ρ measurement in a clinical MRI system.
Framing effects over time: comparing affective and cognitive news frames
Lecheler, S.; Matthes, J.
2012-01-01
A growing number of scholars examine the duration of framing effects. However, duration is likely to differ from frame to frame, depending on how strong a frame is. This strength is likely to be enhanced by adding emotional components to a frame. By means of an experimental survey design (n = 111),
Framing effects over time: comparing affective and cognitive news frames
Lecheler, S.; Matthes, J.
2012-01-01
A growing number of scholars examine the duration of framing effects. However, duration is likely to differ from frame to frame, depending on how strong a frame is. This strength is likely to be enhanced by adding emotional components to a frame. By means of an experimental survey design (n = 111),
Research on Optimization of Formula SAE Truss-Frame
Wang Yu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The frame, as one of the basic components of a car, plays an important role of connecting components and withstanding various loads. The truss-frame is the commonest form of Formula SAE car in that it has many advantages, such as low cost, simple manufacture, high rigidity and high strength. The development of frame is reviewed. First, the key performance indicators and the mechanical state of the frame under different conditions are discussed. Second, a variety of optimization methods used in the design of frame are described. Finally, the test method of frame are introduced, with the experimental data and the finite element analysis of results being compared. Through analyzing and summarizing the development of the design, optimization and testing technology of the Formula SAE truss-frame, forecasting the future trends, the great theoretical reference is provided for the design and research of the follow-up frame.
Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos
An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny
2005-04-01
Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).
Rotating and rolling rigid bodies and the "hairy ball" theorem
Bormashenko, Edward; Kazachkov, Alexander
2017-06-01
Rotating and rolling rigid bodies exemplify a fascinating theorem of topology, jokingly called the "hairy ball" theorem, which demands that any continuous tangent vector field on the sphere has at least one point where the field is zero. We demonstrate via a gedanken experiment how drilling through a rotating ball, thereby converting it into a torus, leads to the elimination of zero-velocity points on the ball surface. Using the same reasoning, zero-velocity points can be removed from the surface of a drilled spinning top. We discuss the location of zero-velocity points on the surfaces of rigid bodies rolling with no slip and with slip. Observations made from different reference frames identify various zero-velocity points. Illustrative experiments visualizing zero-velocity points are presented.
Micro-Doppler frequency comb generation by rotating wire scatterers
Kozlov, V.; Filonov, D.; Yankelevich, Y.; Ginzburg, P.
2017-03-01
Electromagnetic scattering in accelerating reference frames inspires a variety of phenomena, requiring employment of general relativity for their description. While the 'quasi-stationary field' analysis could be applied to slowly-accelerating bodies as a first-order approximation, the scattering problem remains fundamentally nonlinear in boundary conditions, giving rise to multiple frequency generation (micro-Doppler shifts). Here a frequency comb, generated by an axially rotating subwavelength (cm-range) wires is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally by illuminating the system with a 2 GHz carrier wave. Highly accurate 'lock in' detection scheme enables factorization of the carrier and observation of multiple peaks in a comb. The Hallen integral equation is employed for deriving the currents induced on the scatterer and a set of coordinate transformations, connecting laboratory and rotating frames, is applied in order to make analytical predictions of the spectral positions and amplitudes of the frequency comb peaks. Numeric simulations of the theoretic framework reveal the dependence of the micro-Doppler peaks on the wire's length and its axis of rotation. Unique spectral signature of micro-Doppler shifts could enable resolving internal structures of scatterers and mapping their accelerations in space, which is valuable for a variety of applications spanning from targets identification to stellar radiometry.
Using great circles to understand motion on a rotating sphere
McIntyre, D. H.
2000-12-01
Motion observed in a rotating frame of reference is generally explained by invoking inertial forces. While this approach simplifies some problems, there is often little physical insight into the motion, in particular into the effects of the Coriolis force. To aid in the understanding of three-dimensional inertial forces, motion on a rotating sphere is considered from the points of view of an inertial observer and of an observer fixed on the sphere. The inertial observer observes the motion to be along a great circle fixed in the inertial frame, in analogy with simple straight-line motion in the two-dimensional case. This simple "straight-line" viewpoint of the inertial observer is reconciled qualitatively and quantitatively with the view of the rotating observer that requires inertial forces in order to account for the motion. Through a succession of simple examples, the Coriolis and centrifugal effects are isolated and illustrated, as well as effects due to the curvilinear nature of motion on a sphere.
Modern frame structure buildings
В. М. Першаков; Т. О. Петрова; К. М. Лисницька
2013-01-01
The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings...
无
2005-01-01
Blackmagic Design在NAB2005新推出的FrameLink软件，将在DeckLink系列视频卡中免费提供。它支持DPX文件格式，兼容电影工作中的数字中间片（DI）环节。FrameLink允许在保持Quick-Time和AVI文件的速度和灵活性的同时兼容DPX文件。
Type of frame dependence: variation in media frames affecting attitudes via audience frames
van Drunen, A.S.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Vliegenthart, R.
2012-01-01
In this paper two suggested processes of framing theory (Scheufele, 1999) are tested: frame setting (media affecting audience frames) and the individual effects process (audience frames affecting attitudes or behavior). Media frames may affect opinions and behavior, however these effects are not dir
Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?
Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate
2013-01-01
Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…
Dynamic analysis on generalized linear elastic body subjected to large scale rigid rotations
刘占芳; 颜世军; 符志
2013-01-01
The dynamic analysis of a generalized linear elastic body undergoing large rigid rotations is investigated. The generalized linear elastic body is described in kine-matics through translational and rotational deformations, and a modified constitutive relation for the rotational deformation is proposed between the couple stress and the curvature tensor. Thus, the balance equations of momentum and moment are used for the motion equations of the body. The floating frame of reference formulation is applied to the elastic body that conducts rotations about a fixed axis. The motion-deformation coupled model is developed in which three types of inertia forces along with their incre-ments are elucidated. The finite element governing equations for the dynamic analysis of the elastic body under large rotations are subsequently formulated with the aid of the constrained variational principle. A penalty parameter is introduced, and the rotational angles at element nodes are treated as independent variables to meet the requirement of C1 continuity. The elastic body is discretized through the isoparametric element with 8 nodes and 48 degrees-of-freedom. As an example with an application of the motion-deformation coupled model, the dynamic analysis on a rotating cantilever with two spatial layouts relative to the rotational axis is numerically implemented. Dynamic frequencies of the rotating cantilever are presented at prescribed constant spin velocities. The maximal rigid rotational velocity is extended for ensuring the applicability of the linear model. A complete set of dynamical response of the rotating cantilever in the case of spin-up maneuver is examined, it is shown that, under the ultimate rigid rotational velocities less than the maximal rigid rotational velocity, the stress strength may exceed the material strength tolerance even though the displacement and rotational angle responses are both convergent. The influence of the cantilever layouts on their responses and
李俊卿; 戴斌
2016-01-01
针对电网电压不平衡且同时含有5次、7次谐波的复杂电网环境对双馈风力发电机组( DFIG)定子输出功率的不良影响,在两相静止α、β坐标系中对DFIG适应复杂电网环境的定子输出有功和无功功率波动抑制控制策略进行了研究. 分析了复杂电网环境下DFIG在两相静止α、β坐标系中的定子输出有功、无功功率波动成分,计算出能抑制DFIG定子输出有功、无功功率中2倍频和6倍频波动成分的转子电流参考指令. 通过MATLAB/Simulink仿真验证了所提控制策略的有效性.%At the view of the harmful effects on DFIG stator output power caused by unbalanced grid voltage which also contains fifth order harmonic and seventh order harmonic, the DFIG stator output active and reactive power fluctuation suppressing control strategy was studied in the α、β reference frame. The rotor current reference instructions that suppressed the 2-doubling and 6-doubling fluctuant components of DFIG stator output active and reactive power was calculated in the α、β reference frame based on analysis of DFIG stator output active and reactive power fluctuant components. The effectiveness of the control strategy proposed was proved through MATLAB/Simulink simulation.
Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids
Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir
2017-04-01
The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E
New Characterizations of Fusion Frames (Frames of Subspaces)
Mohammad Sadegh Asgari
2009-06-01
In this article, we give new characterizations of fusion frames, on the properties of their synthesis operators, on the behavior of fusion frames under bounded operators with closed range, and on erasures of subspaces of fusion frames. Furthermore we show that every fusion frame is the image of an orthonormal fusion basis under a bounded surjective operator.
Orientation Resolution through Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy
Makhija, Varun; Gockel, Drue; Le, Ahn-Thu; Kumarappan, Vinod
2016-01-01
The rich information content of measurements in the molecular frame rather than the laboratory frame has motivated the development of several methods for aligning gas phase molecules in space. Even so, for asymmetric tops the problem of making molecular frame measurements remains challenging due to its inherently multi-dimensional nature. In this Letter we present a method, based on the analysis of observables measured from rotational wavepackets, that does not require either 3D alignment or coincident momentum measurements to access the molecular frame. As an application we describe the first fully-orientation-resolved measurements of strong-field ionization and dissociation of an asymmetric top (ethylene).
Domènech, Guillem
2016-01-01
From higher dimensional theories, e.g. string theory, one expects the presence of non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We review the notion of conformal frames in cosmology and emphasize their physical equivalence, which holds at least at a classical level. Furthermore, if there is a field, or fields, which dominates the universe, as it is often the case in cosmology, we can use such notion of frames to treat our system, matter and gravity, as two different sectors. On one hand, the gravity sector which describes the dynamics of the geometry and on the other hand the matter sector which has such geometry as a playground. We use this interpretation to build a model where the fact that a curvaton couples to a particular frame metric could leave an imprint in the CMB.
Anderson, Joel; Antalikova, Radka
2014-01-01
Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit...... and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified...... by the participants’ religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion...
Bruggemann, Michael; Humprecht, Edda; Kleis, Rasmus
2016-01-01
This article argues that discourses of a newspaper crisis should not be regarded simply as descriptions of the actual state of the press but also as a means by which strategic actors frame the situation. The emerging frames can have substantial consequences for media policy making. The study...... identifies four key frames used to portray the newspaper crisis and discusses their relevance for public debates in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States. Similarities and differences are examined through 59 in-depth interviews with policymakers and industry executives...... as well as a qualitative analysis of policy documents and relevant media coverage. The study demonstrates that debates on the newspaper crisis are only partly influenced by (1) economic realities and (2) media policy traditions in the six countries but also reflect (3) the strategic motives of powerful...
Lekner, John
2008-01-01
Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…
Modeling rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers: rotation axes, bistability, and controllability.
Meshkati, Farshad; Fu, Henry Chien
2014-12-01
Magnetically actuated microswimmers have recently attracted attention due to many possible biomedical applications. In this study we investigate the dynamics of rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers with permanent magnetic dipoles. Our approach uses a boundary element method to calculate a mobility matrix, accurate for arbitrary geometries, which is then used to identify the steady periodically rotating orbits in a co-rotating body-fixed frame. We evaluate the stability of each of these orbits. We map the magnetoviscous behavior as a function of dimensionless Mason number and as a function of the angle that the magnetic field makes with its rotation axis. We describe the wobbling motion of these swimmers by investigating how the rotation axis changes as a function of experimental parameters. We show that for a given magnetic field strength and rotation frequency, swimmers can have more than one stable periodic orbit with different rotation axes. Finally, we demonstrate that one can improve the controllability of these types of microswimmers by adjusting the relative angle between the magnetic field and its axis of rotation.
Surana, K. S.; Joy, A. D.; Reddy, J. N.
2017-03-01
This paper presents a non-classical continuum theory in Lagrangian description for solids in which the conservation and the balance laws are derived by incorporating both the internal rotations arising from the Jacobian of deformation and the rotations of Cosserat theories at a material point. In particular, in this non-classical continuum theory, we have (i) the usual displacements ( ±b \\varvec{u}) and (ii) three internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of a triad whose axes are parallel to the x-frame arising from the Jacobian of deformation (which are completely defined by the skew-symmetric part of the Jacobian of deformation), and (iii) three additional rotations ({}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of the same triad located at each material point as additional three degrees of freedom referred to as Cosserat rotations. This gives rise to ±b \\varvec{u} and {}_e ±b \\varvec{{Θ} as six degrees of freedom at a material point. The internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}), often neglected in classical continuum mechanics, exist in all deforming solid continua as these are due to Jacobian of deformation. When the internal rotations {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} are resisted by the deforming matter, conjugate moment tensor arises that together with {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} may result in energy storage and/or dissipation, which must be accounted for in the conservation and the balance laws. The Cosserat rotations {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ} also result in conjugate moment tensor which, together with {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}, may also result in energy storage and/or dissipation. The main focus of the paper is a consistent derivation of conservation and balance laws that incorporate aforementioned physics and associated constitutive theories for thermoelastic solids. The mathematical model derived here has closure, and the constitutive theories derived using two alternate approaches are in agreement with each other as well as with the condition resulting from the
Comparative Analysis of Frames with Varying Inertia
Prerana Nampalli
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an elastic seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with 3 variations of heights, i.e. (G+2, (G+4, (G+6 storey models are compared for bare frame and frame with brick infill structures which have been analyzed for gravity as well as seismic forces and their response is studied as the geometric parameters varying from view point of predicting behavior of similar structures subjected to similar loads or load combinations. In this study, two different cases are selected i.e. frames with prismatic members and frames with non-prismatic members. The structural response of various members when geometry changes physically, as in case of linear and parabolic haunches provided beyond the face of columns at beam column joints or step variations as in case of stepped haunches was also studied. Frames have been analyzed statically as well as dynamically using ETABS-9.7.4 software referring IS: 456-2000, IS: 1893 (Part-12002 and the results so obtained are grouped into various categories
Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis
2006-01-01
. Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....
Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.
2014-01-01
between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....
Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik
2010-01-01
A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....
Framings for graph hypersurfaces
Brown, Francis
2013-01-01
We present a method for computing the framing on the cohomology of graph hypersurfaces defined by the Feynman differential form. This answers a question of Bloch, Esnault and Kreimer in the affirmative for an infinite class of graphs for which the framings are Tate motives. Applying this method to the modular graphs of Brown and Schnetz, we find that the Feynman differential form is not of Tate type in general. This finally disproves a folklore conjecture stating that the periods of Feynman integrals of primitive graphs in phi^4 theory factorise through a category of mixed Tate motives.
Vassiliev, Dmitri
2017-04-01
We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833
Promotional Frames' Influence on Price Perceptions of Two Apparel Products.
Stanforth, Nancy; Lennon, Sharron; Shin, Jung Im
2001-01-01
A study explored the differences in price perceptions of two apparel products when promotions were framed as either a price discount or a gift-with-purchase. The majority preferred the discount. Results illustrate the importance of promotional framing in forming consumer price perceptions. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/JOW)
Concepts and Contexts – Argumentative Forms of Framing
Gabrielsen, Jonas; Nørholm Just, Sine; Bengtsson, Mette
2011-01-01
, and it is necessary to determine what argumentative forms the concept of framing actually covers. In this paper we argue that framing refers to at least two different argumentative forms. One is an internal definition of the concepts in question; the other is an external shift in the context of the case. In making...
Promotional Frames' Influence on Price Perceptions of Two Apparel Products.
Stanforth, Nancy; Lennon, Sharron; Shin, Jung Im
2001-01-01
A study explored the differences in price perceptions of two apparel products when promotions were framed as either a price discount or a gift-with-purchase. The majority preferred the discount. Results illustrate the importance of promotional framing in forming consumer price perceptions. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/JOW)
6-DOF MOTION AND CENTER OF ROTATION ESTIMATION BASED ON STEREO VISION
CAO Wanpeng; BI Wei; CHE Rensheng; GUO Wenbo; YE Dong
2008-01-01
A new motion model and estimation algorithm is proposed to compute the general rigid motion object's 6-DOF motion parameters and center of rotation based on stereo vision. The object's 6-DOF motion model is designed from the rigid object's motion character under the two defined reference frames. According to the rigid object's motion model and motion dynamics knowledge, the corresponding motion algorithm to compute the 6-DOF motion parameters is worked out. By the rigid object pure rotation motion model and space sphere geometry knowledge, the center of rotation may be calculated after eliminating the translation motion out of the 6-DOF motion. The motion equations are educed based on the motion model and the closed-form solutions are figured out. To heighten the motion estimation algorithm's robust, RANSAC algorithm is applied to delete the outliers. Simulation and real experiments are conducted and the experiment results are analyzed. The results prove the motion model's correction and algorithm's validity.
Frames and extension problems I
Christensen, Ole
2014-01-01
In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....
Akmaluddin
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the behaviour of hybrid reinforced concrete frame with pumice brick masonry infill under static lateral loading. The term hybrid herein is referred to the frame composed of precast block masonry unit and cast in-place reinforced concrete beams. Parameters considered in this study were frame opening representing doors and windows commonly used in the wall system. Six types of frame namely FS, FB, FDE, FDC, FWE and FWC designation for solid frame, bare frame, frame with door opening at edge, frame with door opening at centre, frame with window opening at edge and frame with window opening at centre respectively were considered. Test results indicated that the FS has a maximum lateral strength greater than that of FB. The lateral strength of FS was about 3.68 of FB. The frames with various openings have lateral strength nearly 2.3 of lateral strength of the bare frame, FB. Ductility factor of the frames varied from 2.4 to 4.92. The residual strength of the frame with openings were varies between 2.33 and 3.35 of the bare frame. The stiffness of the infilled frames with opening were varied from 3.56 to 3.67 of the bare frame. The presence of openings in the infilled frame did not affect the frame stiffness considerably.
Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory
Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta
2014-01-01
Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...
Meng, Bin
2010-01-01
Operator-valued frames are natural generalization of frames that have been used in quantum computing, packets encoding, etc. In this paper, we focus on developing the theory about operator-valued frames for finite Hilbert spaces. Some results concerning dilation, alternate dual, and existence of operator-valued frames are given. Then we characterize the optimal operator-valued frames under the case which one packet of data is lost in transmission. At last we construct the operator-valued frames $\\{V_j\\}_{j=1}^m$ with given frame operator $S$ and satisfying $V_jV_j^*=\\alpha_jI$, where $\\alpha_j's$ are positive numbers.
Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.
2011-01-01
This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…
Kau, Edvin
2012-01-01
Unfolding his story very gradually and arousing the viewer’s curiosity, Sitaru invites the audience to investigate the parents’ and the boy’s mutual positions in their small flat, as well as the various layers of their conversations, through such means as framing, editing style, and the use...
Haastrup, Helle Kannik
2016-01-01
How is the global media event of the Oscars localised through the talk show on Danish television? How are both the mediated film star and the special brand of Hollywood celebrity culture addressed by the cultural intermediaries in the Danish framing? These are the questions I propose to answer...
Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.
2011-01-01
This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…
Institutional Justification in Frames
Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike
Crises – such as the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (2010) – are moments in which conventional interpretations break down. This paper analyzes the dynamics of the re-construction and stabilization of meaning in the public debate and assesses how BP’s strategic framing affected the emerging...
Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah
2017-01-01
The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understand
Framing for Scientific Argumentation
Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David
2012-01-01
In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…
Doran, C F; Gates, S J, Jr; Hübsch, T; Iga, K M; Landweber, G D
2008-01-01
We explain how the redefinitions of supermultiplet component fields, comprising what we call "frame shifts", can be used in conjuction with the graphical technology of multiplet Adkinras to render manifest the reducibility of off-shell representations of supersymmetry. This technology speaks to possibility of organizing multiplet constraints in a way which complements and extends the possibilities afforded by superspace methods.
Framing difficulties in quantum mechanics
Modir, Bahar; Sayre, Eleanor C
2016-01-01
Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of the epistemological framing, we investigated four frames in our observational data: algorithmic math, conceptual math, algorithmic physics, and conceptual physics. We then used our framework to seek an underlying structure to the long lists of published difficulties that span many topics in quantum mechanics. We mapped descriptions of published difficulties into errors in epistemological framing and resource use. We analyzed descriptions of students' problem solving to find their frames, and compared students' framing to framing (and frame shifting) required by problem statements. We found three categories of error: mismatches between students' framing and problem statement framing; inappropriate or absent transiti...
The Massive Schwinger Model in a Fast Moving Frame
1998-01-01
We present a non-perturbative study of the massive Schwinger model. We use a Hamiltonian approach, based on a momentum lattice corresponding to a fast moving reference frame, and equal time quantization.
Consistent representations of and conversions between 3D rotations
Rowenhorst, D.; Rollett, A. D.; Rohrer, G. S.; Groeber, M.; Jackson, M.; Konijnenberg, P. J.; De Graef, M.
2015-12-01
In materials science the orientation of a crystal lattice is described by means of a rotation relative to an external reference frame. A number of rotation representations are in use, including Euler angles, rotation matrices, unit quaternions, Rodrigues-Frank vectors and homochoric vectors. Each representation has distinct advantages and disadvantages with respect to the ease of use for calculations and data visualization. It is therefore convenient to be able to easily convert from one representation to another. However, historically, each representation has been implemented using a set of often tacit conventions; separate research groups would implement different sets of conventions, thereby making the comparison of methods and results difficult and confusing. This tutorial article aims to resolve these ambiguities and provide a consistent set of conventions and conversions between common rotational representations, complete with worked examples and a discussion of the trade-offs necessary to resolve all ambiguities. Additionally, an open source Fortran-90 library of conversion routines for the different representations is made available to the community.
戴兴鸿; 詹建国
2014-01-01
In traditional sprint speed training,both coaches and athletes take the distance as frame of reference,in which speed training is carried out by running different short distances. However,this method cannot help athletes achieve the desired results of improving the ability to accelerate and the rhythm controlling ability of the whole distance. In the training practice,we educate the training i-dea that takes the time as the frame of reference according to the characteristics of energy supply and the whole rhythm for sprint. Research shows that it is helpful to improve the athlete′s speed ability and controlling ability of the whole rhythm in sprint speed training.%在传统的百米跑速度训练中，教练员和运动员都是以距离为参照系进行专项速度训练，即通过快速跑不同的短距离进行速度训练。这种速度训练手段对运动员的加速能力以及运动员对全程节奏的控制能力的提高并不能达到理想的效果。在训练实践中，我们根据百米跑运动的能量供应特点和全程节奏特点，灌输以时间为参照系的训练理念。研究表明，优秀女子百米跑运动员速度训练中运用以时间为参照系的训练理念有助于提高运动员的速度能力以及提高运动员对全程的控制能力。
Dynamic Response of a Chevron Concentrically Braced Frame
Okazaki, Taichiro; Lignos, Dimitrios G.; Hikino, Tsuyoshi; Kajiwara, Koichi
2013-01-01
Large-scale shake table tests were conducted at E-Defense, Japan, to examine the dynamic response of a steel concentrically braced frame. The specimen was a single-bay, single-story frame with a pair of square hollow structural section braces placed in a chevron arrangement. The gusset plates connecting the brace to the framing elements were provided with an elliptic fold line to accommodate out-of-plane rotation of the brace in compression. The specimen was subjected repeatedly to a unidirec...
Meng, Bin
2010-01-01
Operator-valued frames are natural generalization of frames that have been used in quantum computing, packets encoding, etc. In this paper, we focus on developing the theory about operator-valued frames for finite Hilbert spaces. Some results concerning dilation, alternate dual, and existence of operator-valued frames are given. Then we characterize the optimal operator-valued frames under the case which one packet of data is lost in transmission. At last we construct the operator-valued fram...
Near-Wall Turbulence Modelling of Rotating and Curved Shear Flows
Pettersson, Bjoern Anders
1997-12-31
This thesis deals with verification and refinement of turbulence models within the framework of the Reynolds-averaged approach. It pays special attention to modelling the near-wall region, where the turbulence is strongly non-homogeneous and anisotropic. It also studies in detail the effects associated with an imposed rotation of the reference frame or streamline curvature. The objective with near-wall turbulence closure modelling is to formulate a set of equations governing single point turbulence statistics, which can be solved in the region of the flow which extends to the wall. This is in contrast to the commonly adopted wall-function approach in which the wall-boundary conditions are replaced by matching conditions in the logarithmic region. The near-wall models allow more flexibility by not requiring any such universal behaviour. Assessment of the novel elliptic relaxation approach to model the proximity of a solid boundary reveals an encouraging potential used in conjunction with second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures. The most natural level of closure modelling to predict flows affected by streamline curvatures or an imposed rotation of the reference frame is at the second-moment closure (SMC) level. Although SMCs naturally accounts for the effects of system rotation, the usual application of a scalar dissipation rate equation is shown to require ad hoc corrections in some cases in order to give good results. The elliptic relaxation approach is also used in conjunction with non-linear pressure-strain models and very encouraging results are obtained for rotating flows. Rotational induced secondary motions are vital to predicting the effects of system rotation. Some severe weaknesses of non-linear pressure-strain models are also indicated. Finally, a modelling methodology for anisotropic dissipation in nearly homogeneous turbulence are proposed. 84 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.
The Virtual Reference Librarian's Handbook.
Lipow, Anne Grodzins
This book is a practical guide to librarians and their administrators who are thinking about or in the early stages of providing virtual reference service. Part 1, "The Decision to Go Virtual," provides a context for thinking about virtual reference, including the benefits and problems, getting in the virtual frame of mind, and shopping…
Siemaszko, D
2015-01-01
The handling of weak networks with asymmetric loads and disturbances im- plies the accurate handling of the second-harmonic component that appears in an unbalanced network. This paper proposes a classic vector control approach using a PI-based controller with superior decoupling capabilities for operation in weak networks with unbalanced phase voltages. A synchronization method for weak unbalanced networks is detailed, with dedicated dimensioning rules. The use of a double-frame controller allows a current symmetry or controlled imbalance to be forced for compensation of power oscillations by controlling the negative current sequence. This paper also serves as a useful reminder of the proper way to cancel the inherent coupling effect due to the transformation to the synchronous rotating reference frame, and of basic considerations of the relationship between switching frequency and control bandwidth.
ON THE STABILITY OF FUSION FRAMES (FRAMES OF SUBSPACES)
Mohammad Sadegh Asgari
2011-01-01
A frame is an orthonormal basis-like collection of vectors in a Hilbert space,but need not be a basis or orthonormal.A fusion frame (frame of subspaces) is a frame-like collection of subspaces in a Hilbert space,thereby constructing a frame for the whole space by joining sequences of frames for subspaces.Moreover the notion of fusion frames provide a framework for applications and providing efficient and robust information processing algorithms.In this paper we study the conditions under which removing an element from a fusion frame,again we obtain another fusion frame.We give another proof of[5,Corollary 3.3(iii)]with extra information about the bounds.
Some relationship between G-frames and frames
Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we proved that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space $H$ with respect to $K$ by adding a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert $B(K$-module $B(H,K$. This is an extension of [A. Askarizadeh,M. A. Dehghan, {em G-frames as special frames}, Turk. J. Math., 35, (2011 1-11]. Also, we derived similar results for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases. Some relationships between dual frame, dual g-frame and exact frame and exact g-frame are presented too.
Geoids in General Relativity: Geoid Quasilocal Frames
Oltean, Marius; McGrath, Paul L; Mann, Robert B
2015-01-01
We develop, in the context of general relativity, the notion of a geoid -- a surface of constant "gravitational potential". In particular, we show how this idea naturally emerges as a specific choice of a previously proposed, more general and operationally useful construction called a quasilocal frame -- that is, a choice of a two-parameter family of timelike worldlines comprising the worldtube boundary of the history of a finite spatial volume. We study the geometric properties of these geoid quasilocal frames, and construct solutions for them in some simple spacetimes. We then compare these results -- focusing on the computationally tractable scenario of a non-rotating body with a quadrupole perturbation -- against their counterparts in Newtonian gravity (the setting for current applications of the geoid), and we compute general-relativistic corrections to some measurable geometric quantities.
Quantum Dynamics of Mesoscopic Driven Duffing Oscillators in Rotating Frame
Guo, Lingzhen; Li, Xin-Qi
2010-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a mesoscopic driven Duffing oscillator in a quantum regime. We construct a bifurcation equation applicable in quantum regime. The predictions of our bifurcation equation agree with numerical results perfectly. In terms ofWigner function, we identify the nature of state near the bifurcation point, and extract the transition rate, which displays perfect scaling behavior with the driving distance to the bifurcation point.
Olesen, Mette
2014-01-01
In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...