The chirally rotated Schroedinger functional. Theoretical expectations and perturbative tests
Dalla Brida, Mattia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Vilaseca, Pol [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma (Italy)
2016-03-15
The chirally rotated Schroedinger functional (χSF) with massless Wilson-type fermions provides an alternative lattice regularization of the Schroedinger functional (SF), with different lattice symmetries and a common continuum limit expected from universality. The explicit breaking of flavour and parity symmetries needs to be repaired by tuning the bare fermion mass and the coefficient of a dimension 3 boundary counterterm. Once this is achieved one expects the mechanism of automatic O(a) improvement to be operational in the χSF, in contrast to the standard formulation of the SF. This is expected to significantly improve the attainable precision for step-scaling functions of some composite operators. Furthermore, the χSF offers new strategies to determine finite renormalization constants which are traditionally obtained from chiral Ward identities. In this paper we consider a complete set of fermion bilinear operators, define corresponding correlation functions and explain the relation to their standard SF counterparts. We discuss renormalization and O(a) improvement and then use this set-up to formulate the theoretical expectations which follow from universality. Expanding the correlation functions to one-loop order of perturbation theory we then perform a number of non-trivial checks. In the process we obtain the action counterterm coefficients to one-loop order and reproduce some known perturbative results for renormalization constants of fermion bilinears. By confirming the theoretical expectations, this perturbative study lends further support to the soundness of the χSF framework and prepares the ground for non-perturbative applications.
On the chirally rotated Schroedinger functional with Wilson fermions
Gonzalez Lopez, Jenifer
2011-05-25
There are many phenomena in nature, which are closely linked to the low energy regime of QCD. From a theoretical point of view, these low energy phenomena can be dealt with only by means of non-perturbative methods. It is the central goal of this thesis to provide a framework for such a nonperturbative renormalization. For that purpose, we employ a 4-dimensional lattice as a regulator of QCD. As a renormalization scheme, we propose a finite volume Schroedinger functional scheme and here in particular, the chirally rotated Schroedinger functional ({chi}SF). We first perform analytical studies of the {chi}SF at tree-level of perturbation theory, in the continuum and on the lattice. We study the eigenvalue spectrum of the continuum Dirac operator, equipped with chirally rotated SF boundary conditions, and derive the corresponding quark propagator. We then determine the tree-level quark propagator on the lattice, employing massless Wilson fermions as a regulator of the theory. Beyond tree-level, all studies are performed in the quenched approximation of QCD, as a first, computationally much simpler step to understand the properties of the newly proposed {chi}SF scheme. One of the main targets of the present work, has been to perform the non-perturbative tuning of the two required coefficients of the {chi}SF scheme, such that a well defined continuum limit can be reached. We demonstrate, as the first main result of this thesis, that the tuning is feasible and that, moreover, physical quantities are insensitive to the particular tuning condition. As in any lattice regularization with SF-like boundary conditions, there are also in the {chi}SF a couple of counterterms at the boundaries, whose coefficients need to be tuned in order to remove the O(a) discretization effects originated at the boundaries. However, besides these boundary O(a) effects, the {chi}SF is expected to be compatible with bulk automatic O(a)-improvement. We show here that, indeed, the scaling behavior
Lopez, J. Gonzalez [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Renner, D.B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Shindler, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2012-08-23
The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to nonperturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit. (orig.)
Lopez, J. Gonzalez [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Renner, D.B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Shindler, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2012-08-23
The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to nonperturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit. (orig.)
A dynamical study of the chirally rotated Schroedinger functional in QCD
Dalla Brida, Mattia; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2014-12-15
The chirally rotated Schroedinger functional for Wilson-fermions allows for finite-volume, mass-independent renormalization schemes compatible with automatic O(a) improvement. So far, in QCD, the set-up has only been studied in the quenched approximation. Here we present first results for N{sub f}=2 dynamical quark-flavours for several renormalization factors of quark-bilinears. We discuss how these renormalization factors can be easily obtained from simple ratios of two-point functions, and show how automatic O(a) improvement is at work. As a by-product of this investigation the renormalization of the non-singlet axial current, Z{sub A}, is determined very precisely.
Studying the gradient flow coupling in the Schroedinger functional
Fritzsch, P. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Ramos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2013-08-15
We discuss the setup and features of a new definition of the running coupling in the Schroedinger functional scheme based on the gradient flow. Its suitability for a precise continuum limit in QCD is demonstrated on a set of N{sub f}=2 gauge field ensembles in a physical volume of L{proportional_to}0.4 fm.
Schroedinger functional formalism with Ginsparg-Wilson fermion
Taniguchi, Y
2005-01-01
The Schroedinger functional formalism is given as a field theory in a finite volume with a Dirichlet boundary condition in temporal direction. When one tries to construct this formalism with the Ginsparg-Wilson fermion including the overlap Dirac operator and the domain-wall fermion one easily runs into difficulties. The reason is that if the Dirichlet boundary condition is simply imposed on the Wilson Dirac operator $DW$ inside of the overlap Dirac operator an exponentially small eigenvalue appears in $DW$, which affects the locality properties of the operator. In this paper we propose a new procedure to impose the Schroedinger functional Dirichlet boundary condition on the overlap Dirac operator using an orbifolding projection.
Numerical stochastic perturbation theory in the Schroedinger functional
Brambilla, Michele; Di Renzo, Francesco; Hesse, Dirk [Parma Univ. (Italy); INFN, Parma (Italy); Dalla Brida, Mattia [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2013-11-15
The Schroedinger functional (SF) is a powerful and widely used tool for the treatment of a variety of problems in renormalization and related areas. Albeit offering many conceptual advantages, one major downside of the SF scheme is the fact that perturbative calculations quickly become cumbersome with the inclusion of higher orders in the gauge coupling and hence the use of an automated perturbation theory framework is desirable. We present the implementation of the SF in numerical stochastic perturbation theory (NSPT) and compare first results for the running coupling at two loops in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with the literature.
The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models
Leder, B.
2007-04-18
Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)
The gradient flow coupling in the Schroedinger functional
Fritzsch, Patrick [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2013-01-15
We study the perturbative behavior of the Yang-Mills gradient flow in the Schroedinger Functional, both in the continuum and on the lattice. The energy density of the flow field is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the size of the finite volume box. From our perturbative computation we estimate the size of cutoff effects of this coupling to leading order in perturbation theory. On a set of N{sub f}=2 gauge field ensembles in a physical volume of L{proportional_to}0.4 fm we finally demonstrate the suitability of the coupling for a precise continuum limit due to modest cutoff effects and high statistical precision.
Perturbative analysis of the Neuberger-Dirac operator in the Schroedinger functional
Takeda, S
2008-01-01
I examine some properties of the overlap operator in the Schroedinger functional formulated by Luescher at perturbative level. By investigating spectra of the free operator and one-loop coefficient of the Schroedinger functional coupling, I confirm the universality at tree and one-loop level. Furthermore, I address cutoff effects of the step scaling function and it turns out that the lattice artifacts for the overlap operator are comparable with those of the clover actions.
Trajectory length and autocorrelation times. N{sub f} = 2 simulations in the Schroedinger functional
Meyer, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Witzel, O. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2006-09-15
A status report is presented on the large-volume simulations in the Schroedinger functional with two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson quarks performed by the ALPHA collaboration. The physics goal is to set the scale for the computation of the fundamental parameters of QCD. In this talk the emphasis is on aspects of the Hybrid Monte-Carlo algorithm, which we use with (symmetric) even-odd and Hasenbusch preconditioning. We study the dependence of aucorrelation times on the trajectory length. The latter is found to be significant for fermionic correlators, the trajectories longer than unity performing better than the shorter ones. (orig.)
Hesse, Dirk
2012-07-13
The author developed the pastor software package for automated lattice perturbation theory calculations in the Schroedinger functional scheme. The pastor code consists of two building blocks, dealing with the generation of Feynman rules and Feynman diagrams respectively. Accepting a rather generic class of lattice gauge and fermion actions, passed to the code in a symbolic form as input, a low level part of pastor will generate Feynman rules to an arbitrary order in the bare coupling with a trivial or an Abelian background field. The second, high level part of pastor is a code generator whose output relies on the vertex generator. It writes programs that evaluate Feynman diagrams for a class of Schroedinger functional observables up to one loop order automatically, the relevant O(a) improvement terms are taken into account. We will describe the algorithms used for implementation of both parts of the code in detail, and provide cross checks with perturbative and non-perturbative data to demonstrate the correctness of our code. We demonstrate the usefulness of the pastor package through various applications taken from the matching process of heavy quark effective theory with quantum chromodynamics. We have e.g. completed a one loop analysis for new candidates for matching observables timely and with rather small effort, highlighting two advantages of an automated software setup. The results that were obtained so far will be useful as a guideline for further non-perturbative studies.
Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions
Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.
1974-01-01
A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined wave function through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the wave functions (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the wave functions are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order functions.
Guasti, M Fernandez [Depto de Fisica, CBI, Universidad A Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, DF, Apdo Postal 55-534 (Mexico); Moya-Cessa, H [INAOE, Coordinacion de Optica, Apdo Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)
2003-02-28
An extension of the classical orthogonal functions invariant to the quantum domain is presented. This invariant is expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian. Unitary transformations which involve the auxiliary function of this quantum invariant are used to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent parameter. The solution thus obtained is in agreement with the results derived using other methods which invoke the Lewis invariant in their procedures.
B0-B0bar mixing in the static approximation from the Schroedinger Functional and twisted mass QCD
Palombi, F.; Papinutto, M.; Pena., C; Wittig, H.
2005-01-01
We discuss the renormalisation properties of parity-odd Delta B=2 operators with the heavy quark treated in the static approximation. Via twisted mass QCD (tmQCD), these operators provide the matrix elements relevant for the B0-B0bar mixing amplitude. The layout of a non-perturbative renormalisation programme for the operator basis, using Schroedinger Functional techniques, is described. Finally, we report our results for a one-loop perturbative study of various renormalisation schemes with W...
Herbert, John M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1997-01-01
Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory is an effective and popular tool for describing low-lying vibrational and rotational states of molecules. This method, in conjunction with ab initio techniques for computation of electronic potential energy surfaces, can be used to calculate first-principles molecular vibrational-rotational energies to successive orders of approximation. Because of mathematical complexities, however, such perturbation calculations are rarely extended beyond the second order of approximation, although recent work by Herbert has provided a formula for the nth-order energy correction. This report extends that work and furnishes the remaining theoretical details (including a general formula for the Rayleigh-Schroedinger expansion coefficients) necessary for calculation of energy corrections to arbitrary order. The commercial computer algebra software Mathematica is employed to perform the prohibitively tedious symbolic manipulations necessary for derivation of generalized energy formulae in terms of universal constants, molecular constants, and quantum numbers. As a pedagogical example, a Hamiltonian operator tailored specifically to diatomic molecules is derived, and the perturbation formulae obtained from this Hamiltonian are evaluated for a number of such molecules. This work provides a foundation for future analyses of polyatomic molecules, since it demonstrates that arbitrary-order perturbation theory can successfully be applied with the aid of commercially available computer algebra software.
Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Seccion de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, C.P.07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2005-05-06
We consider the real stationary two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. With the aid of any of its particular solutions, we construct a Vekua equation possessing the following special property. The real parts of its solutions are solutions of the original Schroedinger equation and the imaginary parts are solutions of an associated Schroedinger equation with a potential having the form of a potential obtained after the Darboux transformation. Using Bers' theory of Taylor series for pseudoanalytic functions, we obtain a locally complete system of solutions of the original Schroedinger equation which can be constructed explicitly for an ample class of Schroedinger equations. For example it is possible when the potential is a function of one Cartesian, spherical, parabolic or elliptic variable. We give some examples of application of the proposed procedure for obtaining a locally complete system of solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The procedure is algorithmically simple and can be implemented with the aid of a computer system of symbolic or numerical calculation.
Arvieu, R.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.; Mangin-Brinet, M. [Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); Rozmej, P. [Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland)
1997-12-31
The time evolution of coherent rotational wave packets associated to a diatomic molecule or to a deformed nucleus has been studied. Assuming a rigid body dynamics the J(J+1) law leads to a mechanism of cloning: the way function is divided into wave packets identical to the initial one at specific time. Applications are studied for a nuclear wave packed formed by Coulomb excitation. Exact boundary conditions at finite distance for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are derived. A numerical scheme based on Crank-Nicholson method is proposed to illustrate its applicability in several examples. (authors) 3 refs.
Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Departmento de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI, Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CP 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2005-01-28
Given a particular solution of a one-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation this equation of second order can be reduced to a first-order linear ordinary differential equation. This is done with the aid of an auxiliary Riccati differential equation. In the present work we show that the same fact is true in a multidimensional situation also. For simplicity we consider the case of two or three independent variables. One particular solution of the stationary Schroedinger equation allows us to reduce this second-order equation to a linear first-order quaternionic differential equation. As in the one-dimensional case this is done with the aid of an auxiliary quaternionic Riccati equation. The resulting first-order quaternionic equation is equivalent to the static Maxwell system and is closely related to the Dirac equation. In the case of two independent variables it is the well-known Vekua equation from theory of pseudoanalytic (or generalized analytic) functions. Nevertheless, we show that even in this case it is very useful to consider not only complex valued functions, solutions of the Vekua equation, but complete quaternionic functions. In this way the first-order quaternionic equation represents two separate Vekua equations, one of which gives us solutions of the Schroedinger equation and the other one can be considered as an auxiliary equation of a simpler structure. Moreover for the auxiliary equation we always have the corresponding Bers generating pair (F, G), the base of the Bers theory of pseudoanalytic functions, and what is very important, the Bers derivatives of solutions of the auxiliary equation give us solutions of the main Vekua equation and as a consequence of the Schroedinger equation. Based on this fact we obtain an analogue of the Cauchy integral theorem for solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation. Other results from theory of pseudoanalytic functions can be written for solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Moreover, for an ample
Non-perturbative renormalization of quark mass in Nf=2+1 QCD with the Schroedinger functional scheme
Taniguchi, Yusuke
2010-01-01
We present an evaluation of the quark mass renormalization factor for Nf=2+1 QCD. The Schroedinger functional scheme is employed as the intermediate scheme to carry out non-perturbative running from the low energy to deep in the high energy perturbative region. The regularization independent step scaling function of the quark mass is obtained in the continuum limit. Renormalization factors for the pseudo scalar density and the axial vector current are also evaluated for the same action and the bare couplings as two recent large scale Nf=2+1 simulations; previous work of the CP-PACS/JLQCD collaboration, which covered the up-down quark mass range heavier than m_pi=500 MeV and that of PACS-CS collaboration on the physical point using the reweighting technique.
Non-perturbative renormalization of quark mass in Nf=2+1 QCD with the Schroedinger functional scheme
Aoki, S; Ishizuka, N; Izubuchi, T; Kanaya, K; Kuramashi, Y; Murano, K; Namekawa, Y; Okawa, M; Taniguchi, Y; Ukawa, A; Ukita, N; Yoshié, T
2010-01-01
We present an evaluation of the quark mass renormalization factor for Nf=2+1 QCD. The Schroedinger functional scheme is employed as the intermediate scheme to carry out non-perturbative running from the low energy region, where renormalization of bare mass is performed on the lattice, to deep in the high energy perturbative region, where the conversion to the renormalization group invariant mass or the MS-bar scheme is safely carried out. For numerical simulations we adopted the Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermion action with the clover term. Seven renormalization scales are used to cover from low to high energy regions and three lattice spacings to take the continuum limit at each scale. The regularization independent step scaling function of the quark mass for the Nf=2+1 QCD is obtained in the continuum limit. Renormalization factors for the pseudo scalar density and the axial vector current are also evaluated for the same action and the bare couplings as two recent large sca...
Nakamura, Yousuke; Taniguchi, Yusuke; Collaboration, for CP-PACS
2007-01-01
We present non-perturbative renormalization factors for $\\Delta S=2$ four-quark operators in quenched domain-wall QCD using the Schroedinger functional method. Non-perturbative renormalization factor for $B_K$ is evaluated at hadronic scale. Combined with the non-perturbative RG running obtained by the Alpha collaboration, our result yields renormalization factor which converts lattice bare $B_K$ to the renormalization group invariant one. We apply the renormalization factor to bare $B_K$ pre...
Kurth, S.
2002-09-04
The renormalised quark mass in the Schroedinger functional is studied perturbatively with a non-vanishing background field. The framework in which the calculations are done is the Schroedinger functional. Its definition and basic properties are reviewed and it is shown how to make the theory converge faster towards its continuum limit by O(a) improvement. It is explained how the Schroedinger functional scheme avoids the implications of treating a large energy range on a single lattice in order to determine the scale dependence of renormalised quantities. The description of the scale dependence by the step scaling function is introduced both for the renormalised coupling and the renormalised quark masses. The definition of the renormalised coupling in the Schroedinger functional is reviewed, and the concept of the renormalised mass being defined by the axial current and density via the PCAC-relation is explained. The running of the renormalised mass described by its step scaling function is presented as a consequence of the fact that the renormalisation constant of the axial density is scale dependent. The central part of the thesis is the expansion of several correlation functions up to 1-loop order. The expansion coefficients are used to compute the critical quark mass at which the renormalised mass vanishes, as well as the 1-loop coefficient of the renormalisation constant of the axial density. Using the result for this renormalisation constant, the 2-loop anomalous dimension is obtained by conversion from the MS-scheme. Another important application of perturbation theory carried out in this thesis is the determination of discretisation errors. The critical quark mass at 1-loop order is used to compute the deviation of the coupling's step scaling function from its continuum limit at 2-loop order. Several lattice artefacts of the current quark mass, defined by the PCAC relation with the unrenormalised axial current and density, are computed at 1-loop order
The time-dependent Schroedinger equation, Riccati equation and Airy functions
Lanfear, Nathan
2009-01-01
We construct the Green functions (or Feynman's propagators) for the Schr\\"odinger equations of the form $i\\psi_{t}+{1/4}\\psi_{xx}\\pm tx^{2}\\psi =0$ in terms of Airy functions and solve the Cauchy initial value problem in the coordinate and momentum representations. Particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations with variable coefficients are also found.
Palombi, F.; Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Papinutto, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Pena, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
2005-09-01
We discuss the renormalisation properties of parity-odd {delta}B = 2 operators with the heavy quark treated in the static approximation. Via twisted mass QCD, these operators provide the matrix elements relevant for the B{sup 0} - B{sup 0} mixing amplitude. The layout of a non-perturbative renormalisation programme for the operator basis, using Schroedinger Functional techniques, is described. Finally, we report our results for a one-loop perturbative study of various renormalisation schemes with Wilson-type lattice regularisations, which allows, in particular, to compute the NLO anomalous dimensions of the operators in the SF schemes of interest. (orig.)
Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.
1996-01-01
The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.
Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone
Gato, Beatriz
2010-01-01
We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...
Nakamura, Y
2007-01-01
We present non-perturbative renormalization factors for $\\Delta S=2$ four-quark operators in quenched domain-wall QCD using the Schroedinger functional method. Non-perturbative renormalization factor for $B_K$ is evaluated at hadronic scale. Combined with the non-perturbative RG running obtained by the Alpha collaboration, our result yields renormalization factor which converts lattice bare $B_K$ to the renormalization group invariant one. We apply the renormalization factor to bare $B_K$ previously obtained by the CP-PACS collaboration with the quenched domain-wall QCD(DWQCD). We compare our result with previous ones obtained by perturbative renormalization factors, different renormalization schemes or different quark actions. We also show that chiral symmetry breaking effects in the renormalization factor are numerically small.
A numerical study of the Schroedinger-Newton equations
Harrison, R I
2001-01-01
and added perturbations oscillate at frequencies determined by the linear perturbation theory. The higher states are shown to be unstable, emitting scatter and leaving a rescaled ground state. The rate at which they decay is controlled by the complex eigenvalues of the linear perturbation. Next we consider adding another dimension in two different ways: by considering the axisymmetric case and the 2-D equations. The stationary solutions are found. We modify the evolution method and find that the higher states are unstable. In 2-D case we consider rigidly rotating solutions and show they exist and are unstable. The Schroedinger-Newton (S-N) equations were proposed by Penrose [18] as a model for gravitational collapse of the wave-function. The potential in the Schroedinger equation is the gravity due to the density of vertical bar psi vertical bar sup 2 , where psi is the wave-function. As with normal Quantum Mechanics the probability, momentum and angular momentum are conserved. We first consider the spherical...
Schroedinger's radial equation - Solution by extrapolation
Goorvitch, D.; Galant, D. C.
1992-01-01
A high-accuracy numerical method for the solution of a 1D Schroedinger equation that is suitable for a diatomic molecule, obtained by combining a finite-difference method with iterative extrapolation to the limit, is presently shown to have several advantages over more conventional methods. Initial guesses for the term values are obviated, and implementation of the algorithm is straightforward. The method is both less sensitive to round-off error, and faster than conventional methods for equivalent accuracy. These advantages are illustrated through the solution of Schroedinger's equation for a Morse potential function suited for HCl and a numerically derived Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential function for the X 1Sigma(+) state of CO.
Schroedinger`s statistical physics and some related themes
Darrigol, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)
1992-12-31
This article is divided in two sections. One is about the origins and contents of Schroedinger`s works in statistical physics: kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics (diamagnetism, melting, specific heats, quantum degeneracy, detailed balancing and quantized waves, entropy definitions, quantized matter waves. The other is about general themes elaborated in this context and brought to bear on quantum theory: holism, acausality, and the Bild-conception of physical theory. 108 refs.
Remarks on the solution of the position-dependent mass Schroedinger equation
Koc, Ramazan; Sayin, Seda, E-mail: koc@gantep.edu.t, E-mail: ssayin@gantep.edu.t [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Gaziantep University, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)
2010-11-12
An approximate method is proposed to solve the position-dependent mass (PDM) Schroedinger equation. The procedure suggested here leads to the solution of the PDM Schroedinger equation without transforming the potential function to the mass space or vice versa. The method based on the asymptotic Taylor expansion of the function produces an approximate analytical expression for eigenfunction and numerical results for eigenvalues of the PDM Schroedinger equation. The results show that the PDM and constant mass Schroedinger equations are not isospectral. The calculations are carried out with the aid of a computer system of symbolic or numerical calculation by constructing a simple algorithm.
A life of Erwin Schroedinger; Erwin Schroedinger. Eine Biographie
Moore, Walter J.
2012-07-01
Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) was a pioneer of quantum physics, one of the most important scientists of the 20th century at all and - a charming Austrian. He was a man with a passionate interest in people and ideas. Mostly known he became by his representation of quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics, for which he got the Nobel prize for physics and naturally by the famous thought experiment ''Schroedinger's cat''. Walter Moore's biography is very close to the person of Schroedinger and presents his scientific work in the context of his private friendships, his interest in mysticism, and in front of the moving background of the political events in Germany and Austria.
Mathematical Minute: Rotating a Function Graph
Bravo, Daniel; Fera, Joseph
2013-01-01
Using calculus only, we find the angles you can rotate the graph of a differentiable function about the origin and still obtain a function graph. We then apply the solution to odd and even degree polynomials.
Solving the Schroedinger equation using Smolyak interpolants.
Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker
2013-10-07
In this paper, we present a new collocation method for solving the Schroedinger equation. Collocation has the advantage that it obviates integrals. All previous collocation methods have, however, the crucial disadvantage that they require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. By combining Lagrange-like functions with a Smolyak interpolant, we device a collocation method that does not require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. We exploit the structure of the grid to develop an efficient algorithm for evaluating the matrix-vector products required to compute energy levels and wavefunctions. Energies systematically converge as the number of points and basis functions are increased.
Asselmeyer, T.
1997-12-22
First we introduce a simple model for the description of evolutionary algorithms, which is based on 2nd order partial differential equations for the distribution function of the individuals. Then we turn to the properties of Boltzmann's and Darwin's strategy. the next chapter is dedicated to the mathematical properties of Schroedinger operators. Both statements on the spectral density and their reproducibility during the simulation are summarized. The remaining of this chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the kernel as well as the dependence of the Schroedinger operator on the potential. As conclusion from the results of this chapter we obtain the classification of the strategies in dependence of the fitness. We obtain the classification of the evolutionary strategies, which are described by a 2nd order partial differential equation, in relation to their solution behaviour. Thereafter we are employed with the variation of the mutation distribution.
Random discrete Schroedinger operators from random matrix theory
Breuer, Jonathan [Institute of Mathematics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Forrester, Peter J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010 (Australia); Smilansky, Uzy [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2007-02-02
We investigate random, discrete Schroedinger operators which arise naturally in the theory of random matrices, and depend parametrically on Dyson's Coulomb gas inverse temperature {beta}. They are similar to the class of 'critical' random Schroedinger operators with random potentials which diminish as vertical bar x vertical bar{sup -1/2}. We show that as a function of {beta} they undergo a transition from a regime of (power-law) localized eigenstates with a pure point spectrum for {beta} < 2 to a regime of extended states with a singular continuous spectrum for {beta} {>=} 2. (fast track communication)
Schroedinger vs. Navier–Stokes
P. Fernández de Córdoba
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum mechanics has been argued to be a coarse-graining of some underlying deterministic theory. Here we support this view by establishing a map between certain solutions of the Schroedinger equation, and the corresponding solutions of the irrotational Navier–Stokes equation for viscous fluid flow. As a physical model for the fluid itself we propose the quantum probability fluid. It turns out that the (state-dependent viscosity of this fluid is proportional to Planck’s constant, while the volume density of entropy is proportional to Boltzmann’s constant. Stationary states have zero viscosity and a vanishing time rate of entropy density. On the other hand, the nonzero viscosity of nonstationary states provides an information-loss mechanism whereby a deterministic theory (a classical fluid governed by the Navier–Stokes equation gives rise to an emergent theory (a quantum particle governed by the Schroedinger equation.
Generalized dromions of the （2＋1）—dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations
JiefangZHANG
2001-01-01
We derive the generalized dromions of the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations besides the basic dromion solutions by sutably ustilising the arbitrary function in the bilinearized equatins.The rich dromion structures for this system are revealed.
Effective Schroedinger equations on submanifolds
Wachsmuth, Jakob
2010-02-11
In this thesis the time dependent Schroedinger equation is considered on a Riemannian manifold A with a potential that localizes a certain class of states close to a fixed submanifold C, the constraint manifold. When the potential is scaled in the directions normal to C by a small parameter epsilon, the solutions concentrate in an epsilon-neighborhood of the submanifold. An effective Schroedinger equation on the submanifold C is derived and it is shown that its solutions, suitably lifted to A, approximate the solutions of the original equation on A up to errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3} vertical stroke t vertical stroke at time t. Furthermore, it is proved that, under reasonable conditions, the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonians below a certain energy coincide upto errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3}. These results holds in the situation where tangential and normal energies are of the same order, and where exchange between normal and tangential energies occurs. In earlier results tangential energies were assumed to be small compared to normal energies, and rather restrictive assumptions were needed, to ensure that the separation of energies is maintained during the time evolution. The most important consequence of this thesis is that now constraining potentials that change their shape along the submanifold can be treated, which is the typical situation in applications like molecular dynamics and quantum waveguides.
Lifshitz Space-Times for Schroedinger Holography
Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A
2014-01-01
We show that asymptotically locally Lifshitz space-times are holographically dual to field theories that exhibit Schroedinger invariance. This involves a complete identification of the sources, which describe torsional Newton-Cartan geometry on the boundary and transform under the Schroedinger algebra. We furthermore identify the dual vevs from which we define and construct the boundary energy-momentum tensor and mass current and show that these obey Ward identities that are organized by the Schroedinger algebra. We also point out that even though the energy flux has scaling dimension larger than z+2, it can be expressed in terms of computable vev/source pairs.
Erwin Schroedinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability.
Ogryzko, Vasily V
2008-04-17
Schroedinger's book 'What is Life?' is widely credited for having played a crucial role in development of molecular and cellular biology. My essay revisits the issues raised by this book from the modern perspective of epigenetics and systems biology. I contrast two classes of potential mechanisms of epigenetic stability: 'epigenetic templating' and 'systems biology' approaches, and consider them from the point of view expressed by Schroedinger. I also discuss how quantum entanglement, a nonclassical feature of quantum mechanics, can help to address the 'problem of small numbers' that led Schroedinger to promote the idea of a molecular code-script for explaining the stability of biological order.
Erwin Schroedinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability
Ogryzko Vasily V
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Schroedinger's book 'What is Life?' is widely credited for having played a crucial role in development of molecular and cellular biology. My essay revisits the issues raised by this book from the modern perspective of epigenetics and systems biology. I contrast two classes of potential mechanisms of epigenetic stability: 'epigenetic templating' and 'systems biology' approaches, and consider them from the point of view expressed by Schroedinger. I also discuss how quantum entanglement, a nonclassical feature of quantum mechanics, can help to address the 'problem of small numbers' that led Schroedinger to promote the idea of a molecular code-script for explaining the stability of biological order.
Erwin Schroedinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability
Ogryzko, Vasily
2007-01-01
Schroedinger's book 'What is Life?' is widely credited for having played a crucial role in development of molecular and cellular biology. My essay revisits the issues raised by this book from the modern perspective of epigenetics and systems biology. I contrast two classes of potential mechanisms of epigenetic stability: 'epigenetic templating' and 'systems biology' approaches, and consider them from the point of view expressed by Schroedinger. I also discuss how quantum entanglement, a nonclassical feature of quantum mechanics, can help to address the 'problem of small numbers' that lead Schroedinger to promote the idea of molecular code-script for explanation of stability of biological order.
Asymptotic Value Distribution for Solutions of the Schroedinger Equation
Breimesser, S. V., E-mail: s.v.breimesser@maths.hull.ac.uk; Pearson, D. B. [University of Hull, Department of Mathematics (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.b.pearson@maths.hull.ac.uk
2000-12-15
We consider the Dirichlet Schroedinger operator T=-(d{sup 2}/d x{sup 2})+V, acting in L{sup 2}(0,{infinity}), where Vis an arbitrary locally integrable potential which gives rise to absolutely continuous spectrum. Without any other restrictive assumptions on the potential V, the description of asymptotics for solutions of the Schroedinger equation is carried out within the context of the theory of value distribution for boundary values of analytic functions. The large x asymptotic behaviour of the solution v(x,{lambda}) of the equation Tf(x,{lambda})={lambda}f(x,{lambda}), for {lambda} in the support of the absolutely continuous part {mu}{sub a.c.} of the spectral measure {mu}, is linked to the spectral properties of this measure which are determined by the boundary value of the Weyl-Titchmarsh m-function. Our main result (Theorem 1) shows that the value distribution for v'(N,{lambda})/v(N,{lambda}) approaches the associated value distribution of the Herglotz function m{sup N}(z) in the limit N{sup {yields}}{infinity}, where m{sup N}(z) is the Weyl-Titchmarsh m-function for the Schroedinger operator -(d{sup 2}/d x{sup 2})+Vacting in L{sup 2}(N,{infinity}), with Dirichlet boundary condition at x=N. We will relate the analysis of spectral asymptotics for the absolutely continuous component of Schroedinger operators to geometrical properties of the upper half-plane, viewed as a hyperbolic space.
Rotation Symmetric Bent Boolean Functions for n = 2p
Cusick, T. W.; Sanger, E. M.
2017-01-01
It has been conjectured that there are no homogeneous rotation symmetric bent Boolean functions of degree greater than two. In this paper we begin by proving that sums of short-cycle rotation symmetric bent Boolean functions must contain a specific degree two monomial rotation symmetric Boolean function. We then prove most cases of the conjecture in n=2p, p>2 prime, variables and extend this work to the nonhomogeneous case.
The exact solutions for a nonisospectral nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Ning Tongke [Finance College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)], E-mail: tkning@shnu.edu.cn; Zhang Weiguo; Jia Gao [Science College, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)
2009-10-30
In this paper, lax pair for the nonisospectral nonlinear Schroedinger hierarchy is given, the time dependence of nonisospectral scattering data is derived and exact solutions for the nonisospectral nonlinear Schroedinger hierarchy are obtained through the inverse scattering transform.
Revised Iterative Solution for Groundstate of Schroedinger Equation
ZHAOWei-Qin
2004-01-01
A revised iterative method based on Green function defined by quadratures along a single trajectory is proposed to solve the low-lying quantum wave function for Schroedinger equation. Specially a new expression of the perturbed energy is obtained, which is much simpler than the traditional one. The method is applied to solve the unharmonic oscillator potential. The revised iteration procedure gives exactly the same result as those based on the single trajectory quadrature method. A comparison of the revised iteration method to the old one is made using the example of Stark effect. The obtained results are consistent to each other after making power expansion.
The phase space of the focused cubic Schroedinger equation: A numerical study
Burlakov, Yuri O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
1998-05-01
distinctly different components. They point out the interesting fact that the phase space into distinctly different components. They point out the interesting fact that the phase transition type behavior of the discretized cubic Schroedinger equation can be observed in a discretization with as few as 2 points. The refinement of the discretization does not change the global picture qualitatively. The authors vary two parameters in the canonical ensemble of the cubic Schroedinger equation: the first parameter is the temperature, the second one is a certain constraint on the function space. They demonstrate that at a fixed low temperature, as the constraint varies, the canonical ensemble of the cubic Schroedinger equation undergoes a bifurcation which is manifested both in the change in the shape of the typical function and in a corresponding change of the structure of the phase space.
Rotator cuff muscles perform different functional roles during shoulder external rotation exercises.
Tardo, Daniel T; Halaki, Mark; Cathers, Ian; Ginn, Karen A
2013-03-01
The aim of this study was to compare activity in shoulder muscles during an external rotation task under conditions of increasing arm support to investigate whether changing support requirements would influence muscle recruitment levels, particularly in the rotator cuff (RC) muscles. Electromyographic recordings were collected from seven shoulder muscles using surface and indwelling electrodes. The dominant shoulder of 14 healthy participants were examined during dynamic shoulder external rotation performed at 90° abduction with the arm fully supported, partially supported, and unsupported. Linear regressions between arm support load and the averaged muscle activity across participants for each muscle showed infraspinatus predominantly contributing to rotating the shoulder whilst supraspinatus, deltoid, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior were predominantly functioning in support/stabilization roles. During dynamic shoulder external rotation in mid-range abduction, the RC muscles perform different functional roles. Infraspinatus is responsible for producing external rotation torque, supraspinatus is playing a larger joint stabilizer role, and subscapularis is contributing minimally to joint stability. The results also indicate that increasing support load requirements during an external rotation task may be a functionally specific way to retrain the stabilization function of axioscapular muscles. Manipulating joint stabilization requirements while maintaining constant rotational load is a novel method of investigating the differential contribution of muscles to joint movement and stabilization during a given task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
EXISTENCE TIME FOR THE SEMILINEAR SCHROEDINGER EQUATION
WeiMingjun
2003-01-01
Based on the methods introduced by Klainerman and Ponce.and Cohn.a lower bounded estimate of the existence time for a kind of semilinear Schroedinger equation is obtained in this paper.The implemantation of this method depends on the Lp-Lq estimate and the energy estimate.
The Homoclinic Orbits in Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation
PengchengXU; BolingGUO; 等
1998-01-01
The persistence of Homoclinic orbits for perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger equation with five degree term under een periodic boundary conditions is considered.The exstences of the homoclinic orbits for the truncation equation is established by Melnikov's analysis and geometric singular perturbation theory.
New Ways to Solve the Schroedinger Equation
Friedberg, R
2004-01-01
We discuss a new approach to solve the low lying states of the Schroedinger equation. For a fairly large class of problems, this new approach leads to convergent iterative solutions, in contrast to perturbative series expansions. These convergent solutions include the long standing difficult problem of a quartic potential with either symmetric or asymmetric minima.
Schroedinger's Wave Structure of Matter (WSM)
Wolff, Milo; Haselhurst, Geoff
2009-10-01
The puzzling electron is due to the belief that it is a discrete particle. Einstein deduced this structure was impossible since Nature does not allow the discrete particle. Clifford (1876) rejected discrete matter and suggested structures in `space'. Schroedinger, (1937) also eliminated discrete particles writing: What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). He rejected wave-particle duality. Schroedinger's concept was developed by Milo Wolff and Geoff Haselhurst (SpaceAndMotion.com) using the Scalar Wave Equation to find spherical wave solutions in a 3D quantum space. This WSM, the origin of all the Natural Laws, contains all the electron's properties including the Schroedinger Equation. The origin of Newton's Law F=ma is no longer a puzzle; It originates from Mach's principle of inertia (1883) that depends on the space medium and the WSM. Carver Mead (1999) at CalTech used the WSM to design Intel micro-chips correcting errors of Maxwell's magnetic Equations. Applications of the WSM also describe matter at molecular dimensions: alloys, catalysts, biology and medicine, molecular computers and memories. See ``Schroedinger's Universe'' - at Amazon.com
The Universe according to Schroedinger and Milo
Wolff, Milo
2009-10-01
The puzzling electron is due to the belief that it is a discrete particle. Schroedinger, (1937) eliminated discrete particles writing: What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). Thus he rejected wave-particle duality. Schroedinger's concept was developed by Milo Wolff using a Scalar Wave Equation in 3D quantum space to find wave solutions. The resulting Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) contains all the electron's properties including the Schroedinger Equation. Further, Newton's Law F=ma is no longer a puzzle; It originates from Mach's principle of inertia (1883) that depends on the space medium and the WSM. These the origin of all the Natural Laws. Carver Mead (1999) at CalTech used the WSM to design Intel micro-chips and to correct errors of Maxwell's Equations. Applications of the WSM describe matter at molecular dimensions: Industrial alloys, catalysts, biology and medicine, molecular computers and memories. See book ``Schroedinger's Universe'' - at Amazon.com. Pioneers of the WSM are growing rapidly. Some are: SpaceAndMotion.com, QuantumMatter.com, treeincarnation.com/audio/milowolff.htm, daugerresearch.com/orbitals/index.shtml, glafreniere.com/matter.html =A new Universe.
Energy Density of Vortices in the Schroedinger Picture
Laenge, J D; Reinhardt, H
2003-01-01
The one-loop energy density of an infinitely thin static magnetic vortex in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is evaluated using the Schroedinger picture. Both the gluonic fluctuations as well as the quarks in the vortex background are included. The energy density of the magnetic vortex is discussed as a function of the magnetic flux. The center vortices correspond to local minima in the effective potential. These minima are degenerated with the perturbative vacuum if the fermions are ignored. Inclusion of fermions lifts this degeneracy, raising the vortex energy above the energy of the perturbative vacuum.
Newton Algorithms for Analytic Rotation: An Implicit Function Approach
Boik, Robert J.
2008-01-01
In this paper implicit function-based parameterizations for orthogonal and oblique rotation matrices are proposed. The parameterizations are used to construct Newton algorithms for minimizing differentiable rotation criteria applied to "m" factors and "p" variables. The speed of the new algorithms is compared to that of existing algorithms and to…
Newton Algorithms for Analytic Rotation: An Implicit Function Approach
Boik, Robert J.
2008-01-01
In this paper implicit function-based parameterizations for orthogonal and oblique rotation matrices are proposed. The parameterizations are used to construct Newton algorithms for minimizing differentiable rotation criteria applied to "m" factors and "p" variables. The speed of the new algorithms is compared to that of existing algorithms and to…
Iterative Solutions for Low Lying Excited States of a Class of Schroedinger Equation
Friedberg, R; Zhao, W Q
2006-01-01
The convergent iterative procedure for solving the groundstate Schroedinger equation is extended to derive the excitation energy and the wave function of the low-lying excited states. The method is applied to the one-dimensional quartic potential problem. The results show that the iterative solution converges rapidly when the coupling $g$ is not too small.
A life of Erwin Schroedinger. 2. ed.; Erwin Schroedinger. Eine Biographie
Moore, Walter J.
2015-07-01
Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) was a pioneer of quantum physics, one of the most important scientist of the 20th century at all and a charming Austrian. He was a man with a passionate interest for men and ideas. Mostly known he became by his representation of quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics, for which he obtained the Nobel prize for physics and naturally by the famous thought experiment ''Schroedingers cat''. Walter Moore's biography is quite near to the person of Schroedinger and presents his scientific work in the context of his friendships, his interset for mysticism, and in front of the moving background of the political events in Germany and Austria.
Bound states for non-symmetric evolution Schroedinger potentials
Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotalco, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)). E-mail: ccg@correo.azc.uam.mx
2001-09-14
We consider the spectral problem associated with the evolution Schroedinger equation, (D{sup 2}+ k{sup 2}){phi}=u{phi}, where u is a matrix-square-valued function, with entries in the Schwartz class defined on the real line. The solution {phi}, called the wavefunction, consists of a function of one real variable, matrix-square-valued with entries in the Schwartz class. This problem has been dealt for symmetric potentials u. We found for the present case that the bound states are localized similarly to the scalar and symmetric cases, but by the zeroes of an analytic matrix-valued function. If we add an extra condition to the potential u, we can determine these states by an analytic scalar function. We do this by generalizing the scalar and symmetric cases but without using the fact that the Wronskian of a pair of wavefunction is constant. (author)
Walsh Spectrum Properties of Rotation Symmetric Boolean Function
WANG Yongjuan; HAN Wenbao; LI Shiqu
2006-01-01
Rotation symmetric function was presented by Pieprzyk. The algebraic configuration of rotation symmetric(RotS) function is special. For a RotS n variables function f(x1,x2,...,xn) we have f(ρkn(x1,x2,...xn))=f(x1,x2,...,xn) for k=0,1,...,n-1. In this paper, useing probability method we find that when the parameters of RotS function is under circular translation of indices, its walsh spectrum is invariant. And we prove the result is both sufficient and necessary.
Schroedinger Eigenmaps for the analysis of biomedical data.
Czaja, Wojciech; Ehler, Martin
2013-05-01
We introduce Schroedinger Eigenmaps (SE), a new semi-supervised manifold learning and recovery technique. This method is based on an implementation of graph Schroedinger operators with appropriately constructed barrier potentials as carriers of labeled information. We use our approach for the analysis of standard biomedical datasets and new multispectral retinal images.
Stable explicit schemes for equations of Schroedinger type
Mickens, Ronald E.
1989-01-01
A method for constructing explicit finite-difference schemes which can be used to solve Schroedinger-type partial-differential equations is presented. A forward Euler scheme that is conditionally stable is given by the procedure. The results presented are based on the analysis of the simplest Schroedinger type equation.
Schroedinger Eigenmaps for the Analysis of Bio-Medical Data
Czaja, Wojciech
2011-01-01
We introduce Schroedinger Eigenmaps, a new semi-supervised manifold learning and recovery technique. This method is based on an implementation of graph Schroedinger operators with appropriately constructed barrier potentials as carriers of labeled information. We apply it to analyze two complex bio-medical datasets: multispectral retinal images and microarray gene expressions.
The solution of coupled Schroedinger equations using an extrapolation method
Goorvitch, D.; Galant, D. C.
1992-01-01
In this paper, extrapolation to the limit in a finite-difference method is applied to solve a system of coupled Schroedinger equations. This combination results in a method that only requires knowledge of the potential energy functions for the system. This numerical procedure has several distinct advantages over the more conventional methods. Namely, initial guesses for the term values are not needed; assumptions need be made about the behavior of the wavefunctions, such as the slope or magnitude in the nonclassical region; and the algorithm is easy to implement, has a firm mathematical foundation, and provides error estimates. Moreover, the method is less sensitive to round-off error than other methods since a small number of mesh points is used and it can be implemented on small computers. A comparison of the method with another numerical method shows results agreeing within 1 part in 10 exp 4.
Structure functions in rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection
Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, Bernardus J.
2011-01-01
A combined numerical–experimental investigation on the scaling of velocity structure functions in turbulent rotating Rayleigh–B´enard convection is carried out. Direct numerical simulations in a cylindrical domain and a horizontally periodic domain are compared with experiments using a cylindrical t
Gamma-ray strength functions in thermally excited rotating nuclei
Døssing, T; Maj, A; Matsuo, M; Vigezzi, E; Bracco, A; Leoni, S; Broglia, R A
2001-01-01
A general discussion and illustration is given of strength functions for rotational transitions in two-dimensional E(gamma_1) x E(gamma_2) spectra. Especially, a narrow component should be proportional to the compound damping width, related to the mixing of basis rotational bands into compound bands with fragmented transition strength. Three E(gamma_1) x E(gamma_2) spectra are made by setting gates on triple coincidences, selecting cascades which feed into specific low-lying bands in the nucleus 168Hf. In each of the gated spectra, we find a ridge, carrying about 100 decay paths. This ridge is ascribed to rotational transitions in the excitation energy range of 1.0 to 1.5 MeV above the yrast line. The FWHM of the ridges are around 40 keV, about a factor of two smaller than calculated on the basis of mixed cranked mean field bands.
The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra. Mathematical structure and dynamical Schroedinger symmetries
Unterberger, Jeremie [Henri Poincare Univ., Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Inst. Elie Cartan; Roger, Claude [Lyon I Univ., Villeurbanne (France). Dept. de Mathematiques
2012-07-01
This monograph provides the first up-to-date and self-contained presentation of a recently discovered mathematical structure the Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra. Just as Poincare invariance or conformal (Virasoro) invariance play a key role in understanding, respectively, elementary particles and two-dimensional equilibrium statistical physics, this algebra of non-relativistic conformal symmetries may be expected to apply itself naturally to the study of some models of non-equilibrium statistical physics, or more specifically in the context of recent developments related to the non-relativistic AdS/CFT correspondence. The study of the structure of this infinite-dimensional Lie algebra touches upon topics as various as statistical physics, vertex algebras, Poisson geometry, integrable systems and supergeometry as well as representation theory, the cohomology of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, and the spectral theory of Schroedinger operators. (orig.)
Chains of Darboux transformations for the matrix Schroedinger equation
Samsonov, B F; Samsonov, Boris F; Pecheritsin, AA
2004-01-01
Chains of Darboux transformations for the matrix Schroedinger equation are considered. Matrix generalization of the well-known for the scalar equation Crum-Krein formulas for the resulting action of such chains is given.
Schroedinger Equation and the Quantization of Celestial Systems
Smarandache F.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available In the present article, we argue that it is possible to generalize Schroedinger equation to describe quantization of celestial systems. While this hypothesis has been described by some authors, including Nottale, here we argue that such a macroquantization was formed by topological superfluid vortice. We also provide derivation of Schroedinger equation from Gross-Pitaevskii-Ginzburg equation, which supports this superfluid dynamics interpretation.
Generalization of Schroedinger invariance. Applications to Bose-Einstein condensation
Stoimenov, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)
2009-05-15
The symmetries of non-linear Schroedinger equations with power-law non-linearities are investigated. It is shown that Galilei invariance can be extended to Schroedinger invariance if the coupling constant(s) in non-linearity is treated as dimensionful quantity. This is used to find a new non-stationary solutions from given stationary ones. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Numerical approximation on computing partial sum of nonlinear Schroedinger eigenvalue problems
JiachangSUN; DingshengWANG; 等
2001-01-01
In computing electronic structure and energy band in the system of multiparticles,quite a large number of problems are to obtain the partial sum of the densities and energies by using “First principle”。In the ordinary method,the so-called self-consistency approach,the procedure is limited to a small scale because of its high computing complexity.In this paper,the problem of computing the partial sum for a class of nonlinear Schroedinger eigenvalue equations is changed into the constrained functional minimization.By space decompostion and Rayleigh-Schroedinger method,one approximating formula for the minimal is provided.The numerical experiments show that this formula is more precise and its quantity of computation is smaller.
Non-iterative solution of the Schroedinger Eq. in the presence of exchange terms.
Rawitscher, George H.; Kang, S.-Y.; Koltracht, I.
2000-06-01
In the Hartree-Fock approximation the Pauli exclusion principle leads to a Schroedinger Eq. of an integro-differential form. We show that this equation can be solved non-iteratively by the same integral equation algorithm developed previously [1] for local potentials. This holds for non-localities of the exchange type, since a) the corresponding integration kernel is semi-separable, b) the convolution of the semi-separable exchange kernel with the semi-separable Green's function kernel is also of semi-separable form, and c) the integral equation method works well with semi-separable kernels. Numerical examples for electron-hydrogen scattering will be presented, and comparisons with existing iterative methods will be given. [1] R. A. Gonzales et. al., ''Integral Equation Method for Coupled Schroedinger Equations'', J. Comput. Phys., 153, 160 (1999).
Robinson, Hayden A; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Murrell, George A C
2017-01-01
Rotator cuff tears are often surgically repaired, generally with good results. However, repairs not infrequently retear, and how important repair integrity is with respect to early functional outcomes after rotator cuff repair is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a retear on overhead activities in a large cohort of patients after rotator cuff repair. This was a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data from 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs. Outcomes were based on patient responses to the L'Insalata Shoulder Questionnaire and findings on examination preoperatively and at 6 months of follow-up. Repair integrity was determined by ultrasound imaging at the 6-month follow-up visit. The 1600 patients (885 men, 715 women) were a mean age of 58 years. Postoperative ultrasound imaging found 13% (211 of 1600) of repairs had retorn. Significant improvements were seen irrespective of rotator cuff integrity in pain levels with overhead activity (P rotation strength (P rotator cuff repair integrity on shoulder function. Patients who had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reported significant improvements in overhead pain levels irrespective of the repair integrity at 6 months. Repair integrity influenced supraspinatus and external rotation power, where patients with intact repairs were stronger than those with a retear. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Human Vestibular Function, Rotating Litter Chair - Skylab Experiment M131
1970-01-01
This 1970 photograph shows the Rotating Litter Chair, a major component of Skylab's Human Vestibular Function experiment (M131). The experiment was a set of medical studies designed to determine the effect of long-duration space missions on astronauts' coordination abilities. The M131 experiment tested the astronauts susceptibility to motion sickness in the Skylab environment, acquired data fundamental to an understanding of the functions of human gravity reception under prolonged absence of gravity, and tested for changes in the sensitivity of the semicircular canals. Data from this experiment was collected before, during, and after flight. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.
Calculations of Optical Rotation from Density Functional Theory
António Canal Neto; Francisco Elias Jorge
2007-01-01
Density function theory calculations of frequency-dependent optical rotations [α]ω for three rigid chiral molecules are reported. Calculations have been carried out at the sodium D line frequency, using the ADZP basis set and a wide variety of functionals. Gauge-invariant atomic orbitals are used to guarantee origin-independent values of [α]D. In addition, study of geometry dependence of [α]D. Is reported. Using the geometries optimized at the B3LYP/ADZP level, the mean absolute deviation of B3LYP/ADZP and experimental [α]D values yields 60.1°/(dm g/cm3). According to our knowledge, this value has not been achieved until now with any other model.
Some Exact Results for the Schroedinger Wave Equation with a Time Dependent Potential
Campbell, Joel
2009-01-01
The time dependent Schroedinger equation with a time dependent delta function potential is solved exactly for many special cases. In all other cases the problem can be reduced to an integral equation of the Volterra type. It is shown that by knowing the wave function at the origin, one may derive the wave function everywhere. Thus, the problem is reduced from a PDE in two variables to an integral equation in one. These results are used to compare adiabatic versus sudden changes in the potential. It is shown that adiabatic changes in the p otential lead to conservation of the normalization of the probability density.
Mickens, Ronald E.
1989-01-01
A family of conditionally stable, forward Euler finite difference equations can be constructed for the simplest equation of Schroedinger type, namely u sub t - iu sub xx. Generalization of this result to physically realistic Schroedinger type equations is presented.
Spectral Target Detection using Schroedinger Eigenmaps
Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.
Applications of optical remote sensing processes include environmental monitoring, military monitoring, meteorology, mapping, surveillance, etc. Many of these tasks include the detection of specific objects or materials, usually few or small, which are surrounded by other materials that clutter the scene and hide the relevant information. This target detection process has been boosted lately by the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) since its high spectral dimension provides more detailed spectral information that is desirable in data exploitation. Typical spectral target detectors rely on statistical or geometric models to characterize the spectral variability of the data. However, in many cases these parametric models do not fit well HSI data that impacts the detection performance. On the other hand, non-linear transformation methods, mainly based on manifold learning algorithms, have shown a potential use in HSI transformation, dimensionality reduction and classification. In target detection, non-linear transformation algorithms are used as preprocessing techniques that transform the data to a more suitable lower dimensional space, where the statistical or geometric detectors are applied. One of these non-linear manifold methods is the Schroedinger Eigenmaps (SE) algorithm that has been introduced as a technique for semi-supervised classification. The core tool of the SE algorithm is the Schroedinger operator that includes a potential term that encodes prior information about the materials present in a scene, and enables the embedding to be steered in some convenient directions in order to cluster similar pixels together. A completely novel target detection methodology based on SE algorithm is proposed for the first time in this thesis. The proposed methodology does not just include the transformation of the data to a lower dimensional space but also includes the definition of a detector that capitalizes on the theory behind SE. The fact that target pixels and
Lie symmetries of semi-linear Schroedinger equations and applications
Stoimenov, Stoimen [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux (CNRS UMR 7556), Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, B.P.239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France); Henkel, Malte [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux (CNRS UMR 7556), Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, B.P.239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)
2006-05-15
Conditional Lie symmetries of semi-linear 1D Schroedinger and diffusion equations are studied in case the mass (or the diffusion constant) is considered as an additional variable and/or where the couplings of the non-linear part have a non-vanishing scaling dimension. In this way, dynamical symmetries of semi-linear Schroedinger equations become related to certain subalgebras of a three-dimensional conformal Lie algebra (conf{sub 3}){sub C}. The representations of these subalgebras are classified and the complete list of conditionally invariant semi-linear Schroedinger equations is obtained. Applications to the phase-ordering kinetics of simple magnets and to simple particle-reaction models are briefly discussed.
A nonlinear Schroedinger wave equation with linear quantum behavior
Richardson, Chris D.; Schlagheck, Peter; Martin, John; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Bastin, Thierry [Departement de Physique, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)
2014-07-01
We show that a nonlinear Schroedinger wave equation can reproduce all the features of linear quantum mechanics. This nonlinear wave equation is obtained by exploring, in a uniform language, the transition from fully classical theory governed by a nonlinear classical wave equation to quantum theory. The classical wave equation includes a nonlinear classicality enforcing potential which when eliminated transforms the wave equation into the linear Schroedinger equation. We show that it is not necessary to completely cancel this nonlinearity to recover the linear behavior of quantum mechanics. Scaling the classicality enforcing potential is sufficient to have quantum-like features appear and is equivalent to scaling Planck's constant.
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schroedinger supergravity
Bergshoeff, Eric; Zojer, Thomas
2015-01-01
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N=2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The "superconformal" theory that we start with is Schroedinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schroedinger superalgebra. We present two non-relativistic N=2 matter multiplets that can be used as compensators in the superconformal calculus. They lead to two different off-shell formulations which, in analogy with the relativistic case, we call "old minimal" and "new minimal" Newton-Cartan supergravity. We find similarities but also point out some differences with respect to the relativistic case.
The nonlinear Schroedinger equation on a disordered chain
Scharf, R.; Bishop, A.R.
1990-01-01
The integrable lattice nonlinear Schroedinger equation is a unique model with which to investigate the effects of disorder on a discrete integrable dynamics, and its interplay with nonlinearity. We first review some features of the lattice nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the absence of disorder and introduce a 1- and 2-soliton collective variable approximation. Then we describe the effect of different types of disorder: attractive and repulsive isolated impurities, spatially periodic potentials, random potentials, and time dependent (kicked) long wavelength perturbations. 18 refs., 15 figs.
A method of calculating the Jost function for analytic potentials
Rakityansky, S.A. [University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Sofianos, S.A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Amos, K. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics
1995-05-10
A combination of the variable-constant and complex coordinate rotation methods is used to solve the two-body Schroedinger equation. The equation is replaced by a system of linear first-order differential equations, which enables one to perform direct calculation of the Jost function for all complex momenta of physical interest including the spectral points corresponding to bound and resonance states. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.
A new propagation method for the radial Schroedinger equation
Devries, P. L.
1979-01-01
A new method for propagating the solution of the radial Schroedinger equation is derived from a Taylor series expansion of the wavefunction and partial re-summation of the infinite series. Truncation of the series yields an approximation to the exact propagator which is applied to a model calculation and found to be highly convergent.
Schroedinger operators with the q-ladder symmetry algebras
Skorik, Sergei; Spiridonov, Vyacheslav
1994-01-01
A class of the one-dimensional Schroedinger operators L with the symmetry algebra LB(+/-) = q(+/-2)B(+/-)L, (B(+),B(-)) = P(sub N)(L), is described. Here B(+/-) are the 'q-ladder' operators and P(sub N)(L) is a polynomial of the order N. Peculiarities of the coherent states of this algebra are briefly discussed.
Exact solutions for the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Zhu Jiamin [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China)]. E-mail: zjm64@163.com; Ma Zhengyi [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)
2007-08-15
In this paper, the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is solved through the extended elliptic sub-equation method. As a consequence, many types of exact travelling wave solutions are obtained which including bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions and singular solutions.
Intertwining operator method and supersymmetry for effective mass Schroedinger equations
Suzko, A.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); JIPENP, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)], E-mail: suzko@cv.jinr.ru; Schulze-Halberg, A. [Mathematics Department, University of Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima 28045 (Mexico)], E-mail: xbat@ucol.mx
2008-09-08
By application of the intertwining operator method to Schroedinger equations with position-dependent (effective) mass, we construct Darboux transformations, establish the supersymmetry factorization technique and show equivalence of both formalisms. Our findings prove equivalence of the intertwining technique and the method of point transformations.
On the recovering of a coupled nonlinear Schroedinger potential
Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: ccg@hp9000a1.uam.mx
2000-04-28
We establish a priori conditions for a Gel'fand-Levitan (GL) integral using some results of the Fredholm theory. As consequence, we obtain a recovering formula for the potential of the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The remarkable fact is that the recovering formula is given in terms of the solutions of a classical GL-integral equation. (author)
The thermal-wave model: A Schroedinger-like equation for charged particle beam dynamics
Fedele, Renato; Miele, G.
1994-01-01
We review some results on longitudinal beam dynamics obtained in the framework of the Thermal Wave Model (TWM). In this model, which has recently shown the capability to describe both longitudinal and transverse dynamics of charged particle beams, the beam dynamics is ruled by Schroedinger-like equations for the beam wave functions, whose squared modulus is proportional to the beam density profile. Remarkably, the role of the Planck constant is played by a diffractive constant epsilon, the emittance, which has a thermal nature.
ZHENGChun-Long; ZHANGJie-Fang; CHENLi-Qun
2003-01-01
Starting from a special Baecklund transform and a variable separation approach, a quite general variable separation solution of the generalized ( 2 + 1 )-dimensional perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger system is obtained. In addition to the single-valued localized coherent soliron excitations like dromions, breathers, instantons, peakons, and previously revealed chaotic localized solution, a new type of multi-valued (folded) localized excitation is derived by introducing some appropriate lower-dimensional multiple valued functions.
Functional outcomes after bilateral arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
Aleem, Alexander W; Syed, Usman Ali M; Wascher, Jocelyn; Zoga, Adam C; Close, Koby; Abboud, Joseph A; Cohen, Steven B
2016-10-01
Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears is a common procedure performed by orthopedic surgeons. There is a well-known incidence of up to 35% of bilateral rotator cuff tear disease in patients who have a known unilateral tear. The majority of the literature focuses on outcomes after unilateral surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are clinical differences in shoulders of patients who underwent staged bilateral rotator cuff repairs during their lifetime. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent staged bilateral arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery at our institution was performed. All patients had at least 2 years of follow-up. Clinical outcome scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and Rowe measures were obtained. A subset of patients returned for clinical and ultrasound evaluation performed by an independent fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist. Overall, 110 shoulders in 55 patients, representing 68% of all eligible patients, participated. No clinical or statistical difference was found in any outcome measure. ASES scores averaged 86.5 (36.7-100) in the dominant shoulder compared with 89.6 (23.3-100) in the nondominant shoulder (P = .42). Ultrasound was available on 34 shoulders and showed complete healing rate of 88%. The shoulders with retearing of the rotator cuff (12%) demonstrated clinically relevant lower ASES scores (72.5) compared with shoulders with confirmed healed repairs (86.2; P = .2). Patients who undergo staged bilateral rotator cuff repair can expect to have similarly good clinical outcomes regardless of hand dominance or chronologic incidence with excellent healing rates in both shoulders. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bureau, Nathalie J; Blain-Paré, Etienne; Tétreault, Patrice; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hagemeister, Nicola
2016-09-01
To assess the prevalence of sonographic visualization of the rotator cable in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears and asymptomatic controls and to correlate rotator cable visualization with tear size, muscular fatty infiltration and atrophy, and the functional outcome in the patients with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears and 30 asymptomatic volunteers underwent shoulder sonography for prospective assessment of the rotator cable and rotator cuff tear and responded to 2 functional outcome questionnaires (shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH] and Constant). In the patients with rotator cuff tears, appropriate tests were used to correlate rotator cable visualization with the tear size, functional outcome, muscular fatty infiltration, and atrophy. The patients with rotator cuff tears included 25 women and 32 men (mean age,57 years; range, 39-67 years), and the volunteers included 13 women and 17 men (mean age, 56 years; range, 35-64 years). The rotator cable was identified in 77% (23 of 30) of controls and 23% (13 of 57) of patients with rotator cuff tears. In the patients, nonvisualization of the rotator cable correlated with larger tears (P infraspinatus fatty infiltration (P = .065). Nonvisualization of the rotator cable was more prevalent in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears than asymptomatic controls and was associated with a larger tear size and greater supraspinatus fatty infiltration and atrophy. Diligent assessment of the supraspinatus muscle should be done in patients with rotator cuff tears without a visible rotator cable, as the integrity of these anatomic structures may be interdependent.
Defects in the discrete non-linear Schroedinger model
Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: adoikou@upatras.gr [University of Patras, Department of Engineering Sciences, Physics Division, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)
2012-01-01
The discrete non-linear Schroedinger (NLS) model in the presence of an integrable defect is examined. The problem is viewed from a purely algebraic point of view, starting from the fundamental algebraic relations that rule the model. The first charges in involution are explicitly constructed, as well as the corresponding Lax pairs. These lead to sets of difference equations, which include particular terms corresponding to the impurity point. A first glimpse regarding the corresponding continuum limit is also provided.
Stochasticity in numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Shen, Mei-Mei; Nicholson, D. R.
1987-01-01
The cubically nonlinear Schroedinger equation is an important model of nonlinear phenomena in fluids and plasmas. Numerical solutions in a spatially periodic system commonly involve truncation to a finite number of Fourier modes. These solutions are found to be stochastic in the sense that the largest Liapunov exponent is positive. As the number of modes is increased, the size of this exponent appears to converge to zero, in agreement with the recent demonstration of the integrability of the spatially periodic case.
Intermittency and solitons in the driven dissipative nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Moon, H. T.; Goldman, M. V.
1984-01-01
The cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation, in the presence of driving and Landau damping, is studied numerically. As the pump intensity is increased, the system exhibits a transition from intermittency to a two-torus to chaos. The laminar phase of the intermittency is also a two-torus motion which corresponds in physical space to two identical solitons of amplitude determined by a power-balance equation.
Non-Schroedinger forces and pilot waves in quantum cosmology
Tipler, F.J.
1987-09-01
The author argues that the version of the pilot wave interpretation of quantum mechanics which uses a non-local non-Schroedinger force is inconsistent when applied to distributions with small numbers of particles. Thus, no version of the pilot wave interpretation (some-times called the de Broglie-Bohm, or causal, interpretation) can be applied to the wavefunction of quantum cosmology because in any version of this interpretation, there is only one particle, the universe.
Representations of the Schroedinger group and matrix orthogonal polynomials
Vinet, Luc [Centre de recherches mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei, E-mail: luc.vinet@umontreal.ca, E-mail: zhedanov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)
2011-09-02
The representations of the Schroedinger group in one space dimension are explicitly constructed in the basis of the harmonic oscillator states. These representations are seen to involve matrix orthogonal polynomials in a discrete variable that have Charlier and Meixner polynomials as building blocks. The underlying Lie-theoretic framework allows for a systematic derivation of the structural formulas (recurrence relations, difference equations, Rodrigues' formula, etc) that these matrix orthogonal polynomials satisfy. (paper)
Elastic and viscoelastic solutions to rotating functionally graded hollow and solid cylinders
无
2008-01-01
Analytical solutions to rotating functionally graded hollow and solid long cylinders are developed. Young's modulus and material density of the cylinder are as* sumed to vary exponentially in the radial direction, and Poisson's ratio is assumed to be constant. A unified governing equation is derived from the equilibrium equations, compat-ibility equation, deformation theory of elasticity and the stress-strain relationship. The governing second-order differential equation is solved in terms of a hypergeometric func-tion for the elastic deformation of rotating functionally graded cylinders. Dependence of stresses in the cylinder on the inhomogeneous parameters, geometry and boundary conditions is examined and discussed. The proposed solution is validated by comparing the results for rotating functionally graded hollow and solid cylinders with the results for rotating homogeneous isotropic cylinders. In addition, a viscoelastic solution to the rotating viscoelastic cylinder is presented, and dependence of stresses in hollow and solid cylinders on the time parameter is examined.
Nguyen, Ba Phi [Central University of Construction, Tuy Hoa (Viet Nam); Kim, Ki Hong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-02-15
We study numerically the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices with both local and nonlocal nonlinearities. Using the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation generalized by including a nonlocal nonlinear term, we calculate four different physical quantities as a function of time, which are the return probability to the initial excitation site, the participation number, the root-mean-square displacement from the excitation site and the spatial probability distribution. We investigate the influence of the nonlocal nonlinearity on the delocalization to self-trapping transition induced by the local nonlinearity. In the non-self-trapping region, we find that the nonlocal nonlinearity compresses the soliton width and slows down the spreading of the wave packet. In the vicinity of the delocalization to self-trapping transition point and inside the self-trapping region, we find that a new kind of self-trapping phenomenon, which we call partial self-trapping, takes place when the nonlocal nonlinearity is sufficiently strong.
Sauer, S. P. A.; Paidarová, I.; Oddershede, J.
2011-01-01
The vibrational g factor, that is, the nonadiabatic correction to the vibrational reduced mass, of LiH has been calculated for internuclear distances over a wide range. Based on multiconfigurational wave functions with a large complete active space and an extended set of gaussian type basis...... functions, these calculations yielded also the rotational g factor, the electric dipolar moment, and its gradient with internuclear distance for LiH in its electronic ground state X (1)Sigma(+). The vibrational g factor g(v) exhibits a pronounced minimum near internuclear distance R = 3.65 x 10(-10) m...... state A (1)Sigma(+). The irreducible contribution g(r)(irr)(R) to the rotational g factor increases monotonically over the calculated domain, whereas the irreducible contribution g(v)(irr)(R) to the vibrational g factor has a minimum at the same location as that of g(v) itself. From these calculated...
A Note on Lifshitz and Schroedinger Solutions in Pure Lovelock theories
Jatkar, Dileep P
2015-01-01
We look for Lifshitz and Schroedinger solutions in Lovelock gravity. We span the entire parameter space and determine parametric relations under which Lifshitz and Schroedinger solution exists. We find that in arbitrary dimensions pure Lovelock theories have Lifshitz and Schroedinger solutions on a co-dimension two locus in the Lovelock parameter space. This co-dimension two locus precisely corresponds to the subspace over which the Lovelock gravity can be written in the Chern-Simons form. While Lifshitz and Schroedinger solutions do not exist outside this locus, on this locus these solutions exist for arbitrary dynamical exponent z.
Midya, Bikashkali; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2010-01-01
Here we have studied first and second-order intertwining approach to generate isospectral partner potentials of position-dependent (effective) mass Schroedinger equation. The second-order intertwiner is constructed directly by taking it as second order linear differential operator with position depndent coefficients and the system of equations arising from the intertwining relationship is solved for the coefficients by taking an ansatz. A complete scheme for obtaining general solution is obtained which is valid for any arbitrary potential and mass function. The proposed technique allows us to generate isospectral potentials with the following spectral modifications: (i) to add new bound state(s), (ii) to remove bound state(s) and (iii) to leave the spectrum unaffected. To explain our findings with the help of an illustration, we have used point canonical transformation (PCT) to obtain the general solution of the position dependent mass Schrodinger equation corresponding to a potential and mass function. It is...
Exact solution of Schroedinger equation in the case of reduction to Riccati type of ODE
Ershkov, Sergey V
2011-01-01
Here is presented a new type of exact solution of Schroedinger equation in the case of it's reduction to Riccati type of ordinary differential equations. Due to a very special character of Riccati's type equation, it's general solution is proved to have a proper gap of components of the particle wavefunction (which is known to be determining a proper quantum state of the particle). It means a possibility of sudden transformation or transmutation of quantum state of the particle (from one meaning of wavefunction to another), at definite moment of parametrical time. Besides, in the case of spherical symmetry of particle potential V in position space, as well as spherical symmetry of quantum system E total energy, such a solution is proved to be a multiplying of Bessel function (for radial component) & Legendre spherical function (for angle component), in spherical coordinate system.
An Analog of the Fourier Transform Associated with a Nonlinear One-Dimensional Schroedinger Equation
Zhidkov, E P
2001-01-01
We consider an eigenvalue problem which includes a nonlinear Schroedinger equation on the half-line [0,\\infty) and certain boundary conditions. It is shown that the spectrum of this problem fills a half-line and that to each point of the spectrum there corresponds a unique eigenfunction. The main result of the paper is that an arbitrary infinitely differentiable function g(x) rapidly decaying as x\\to\\infty and satisfying suitable boundary conditions at the point x=0 can be uniquely expanded into an integral over eigenfunctions similar to the representation of functions by the Fourier transform (the latter is obviously associated with a linear self-adjoint eigenvalue problem).
Initial study of Schroedinger eigenmaps for spectral target detection
Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.; Messinger, David W.
2016-08-01
Spectral target detection refers to the process of searching for a specific material with a known spectrum over a large area containing materials with different spectral signatures. Traditional target detection methods in hyperspectral imagery (HSI) require assuming the data fit some statistical or geometric models and based on the model, to estimate parameters for defining a hypothesis test, where one class (i.e., target class) is chosen over the other classes (i.e., background class). Nonlinear manifold learning methods such as Laplacian eigenmaps (LE) have extensively shown their potential use in HSI processing, specifically in classification or segmentation. Recently, Schroedinger eigenmaps (SE), which is built upon LE, has been introduced as a semisupervised classification method. In SE, the former Laplacian operator is replaced by the Schroedinger operator. The Schroedinger operator includes by definition, a potential term V that steers the transformation in certain directions improving the separability between classes. In this regard, we propose a methodology for target detection that is not based on the traditional schemes and that does not need the estimation of statistical or geometric parameters. This method is based on SE, where the potential term V is taken into consideration to include the prior knowledge about the target class and use it to steer the transformation in directions where the target location in the new space is known and the separability between target and background is augmented. An initial study of how SE can be used in a target detection scheme for HSI is shown here. In-scene pixel and spectral signature detection approaches are presented. The HSI data used comprise various target panels for testing simultaneous detection of multiple objects with different complexities.
Nieto, L M; Suzko, A A
2003-01-01
The intertwining operator technique is applied to difference Schroedinger equations with operator-valued coefficients. It is shown that these equations appear naturally when a discrete basis is used for solving a multichannel Schroedinger equation. New families of exactly solvable multichannel Hamiltonians are found.
A new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino (Italy)
2004-03-12
We present a new method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation applicable to problems of a non-perturbative nature. The method works by identifying three different scales in the problem, which then are treated independently: an asymptotic scale, which depends uniquely on the form of the potential at large distances; an intermediate scale, still characterized by an exponential decay of the wavefunction; and, finally, a short distance scale, in which the wavefunction is sizable. The notion of optimized perturbation is then used in the last two regimes. We apply the method to the quantum anharmonic oscillator and find it suitable to treat both energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions, even for strong couplings.
Non-Schroedinger forces and pilot waves in quantum cosmology
Tipler, Frank J.
1987-09-01
The version of the pilot wave interpretation of quantum mechanics using a nonlocal non-Schroedinger force is found to be inconsistent when applied to distributions with small numbers of particles. Any version of the pilot wave interpretation is shown to require the universe to move along a single trajectory. It is suggested that no version of the pilot wave interpretation can be applied to the wavefunction of quantum cosmology, because in any version of this interpretation there is only one particle, the universe.
Schroedinger invariant solutions of type IIB with enhanced supersymmetry
Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Group; Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences
2009-07-15
We construct the Killing spinors for a class of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic Schroedinger algebra. The solutions depend on a five-dimensional Sasaki- Einstein space and it has been shown that they admit two Killing spinors. Here we will show that, for generic Sasaki-Einstein space, there are special subclasses of solutions which admit six Killing spinors and we determine the corresponding superisometry algebra. We also show that for the special case that the Sasaki-Einstein space is the round five-sphere, the number of Killing spinors can be increased to twelve. (orig.)
Properties of some nonlinear Schroedinger equations motivated through information theory
Yuan, Liew Ding; Parwani, Rajesh R, E-mail: parwani@nus.edu.s [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore)
2009-06-01
We update our understanding of nonlinear Schroedinger equations motivated through information theory. In particular we show that a q-deformation of the basic nonlinear equation leads to a perturbative increase in the energy of a system, thus favouring the simplest q = 1 case. Furthermore the energy minimisation criterion is shown to be equivalent, at leading order, to an uncertainty maximisation argument. The special value eta = 1/4 for the interpolation parameter, where leading order energy shifts vanish, implies the preservation of existing supersymmetry in nonlinearised supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Physically, eta might be encoding relativistic effects.
Comparison theorems for the position-dependent mass Schroedinger equation
Kulikov, D A
2011-01-01
The following comparison rules for the discrete spectrum of the position-dependent mass (PDM) Schroedinger equation are established. (i) If a constant mass $m_0$ and a PDM $m(x)$ are ordered everywhere, that is either $m_0\\leq m(x)$ or $m_0\\geq m(x)$, then the corresponding eigenvalues of the constant-mass Hamiltonian and of the PDM Hamiltonian with the same potential and the BenDaniel-Duke ambiguity parameters are ordered. (ii) The corresponding eigenvalues of PDM Hamiltonians with the different sets of ambiguity parameters are ordered if $\
Paul, Wolfgang; Koeppe, Jeanette [Institut fuer Physik, Martin Luther Universitaet, 06099 Halle (Germany); Grecksch, Wilfried [Institut fuer Mathematik, Martin Luther Universitaet, 06099 Halle (Germany)
2016-07-01
The standard approach to solve a non-relativistic quantum problem is through analytical or numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation. We show a way to go around it. This way is based on the derivation of the Schroedinger equation from conservative diffusion processes and the establishment of (several) stochastic variational principles leading to the Schroedinger equation under the assumption of a kinematics described by Nelson's diffusion processes. Mathematically, the variational principle can be considered as a stochastic optimal control problem linked to the forward-backward stochastic differential equations of Nelson's stochastic mechanics. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann equation of this control problem is the Schroedinger equation. We present the mathematical background and how to turn it into a numerical scheme for analyzing a quantum system without using the Schroedinger equation and exemplify the approach for a simple 1d problem.
Left-handed and right-handed rotation double function circular polarizer
TANG Heng-jing; WU Fu-quan; DENG Hong-yan; ZHAO Shuang
2005-01-01
In order to gain circularly polarized light of left-handed and right-handed rotation by using a fixed device, a left-handed and right-handed rotation double function circular polarizer is designed with two λ/4 retarders and one polarizer, and its operating principle is analysed by matrix optical means. The result indicates that when the monochromatic light enters this circular polarizer in the positive direction and the negative direction,the emergent light should be circularly polarized light,of left-handed and right-handed rotation respectively. The testing system has been established to verify the above results.
Crop rotational diversity enhances belowground communities and functions in an agroecosystem.
Tiemann, L K; Grandy, A S; Atkinson, E E; Marin-Spiotta, E; McDaniel, M D
2015-08-01
Biodiversity loss, an important consequence of agricultural intensification, can lead to reductions in agroecosystem functions and services. Increasing crop diversity through rotation may alleviate these negative consequences by restoring positive aboveground-belowground interactions. Positive impacts of aboveground biodiversity on belowground communities and processes have primarily been observed in natural systems. Here, we test for the effects of increased diversity in an agroecosystem, where plant diversity is increased over time through crop rotation. As crop diversity increased from one to five species, distinct soil microbial communities were related to increases in soil aggregation, organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial activity and decreases in the carbon-to-nitrogen acquiring enzyme activity ratio. This study indicates positive biodiversity-function relationships in agroecosystems, driven by interactions between rotational and microbial diversity. By increasing the quantity, quality and chemical diversity of residues, high diversity rotations can sustain soil biological communities, with positive effects on soil organic matter and soil fertility.
[ESTABLISHMENT AND TESTING OF RATING SCALE OF RAT ROTATOR CUFF FUNCTION].
Ding, Shuchen; Fang, Xuewei; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Zhengang; Fu Chudi; Lai, Yi; Zhang Zhiwu; Lu, Yisheng
2016-01-01
To provides an objective tool to evaluate rotator cuff function in rats. Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing (281.21 ± 20.12) g, were involved in this experiment. Botulinum toxin A (6 U/kg) was injected into the infraspinatus of 12 rats in Botox group. Infraspinatus tendons of 12 rats in tear group were cut by microinvasive method. Infraspinatus tendons of 12 rats in sham-operation group were exposed but not cut. No any treatment was performed on the 12 rats in normal control group. One shoulder joint of each rat was selected randomly as treatment side. After 7 days, cadence, rate of stand phase, support pressure, swing speed, stand speed, and stride length of rats in those 4 groups were measured. Treatment side and contralateral side ratio of each gait parameter was caculated. If parameters of Botox group and tear group both showed significant differences compared with those of normal control group and sham-operation group, the gait parameter was brought into rating scale as an item. Each item was assigned from 1 point to 5 points according to gait parameter. The chronic rotator cuff injury model was established in 12 rats of verification group and rating scale was used to evaluate rotator cuff function each week for 8 weeks after surgery. All gait parameters of tear group were significantly less than those of Botox group (P 0.05). All gait parameters were brought into rating scale as items. All items were rated from 1 point to 5 points, so the total score was 30 points and the lowest score was 6 points. Thirty points meant normal function of infraspinatus (rotator cuff function was normal), and 6 points meant complete loss of infraspinatus function (rotator cuff function was severely damaged). Rotator cuff functional scores of rats in verification group were 27.00 ± 1.86, 23.75 ± 2.83, 21.33 ± 1.92, 18.17± 2.37, 13.17 ± 1.64, 11.67 ± 2.50, 8.17 ± 1.27, 6.50 ± 0.67 from the 1st week to the 8th week respectively. The rating scale of rat rotator
Yang-Mills $\\beta$-function from a large-distance expansion of the Schrödinger functional
Mansfield, P; Mansfield, Paul; Sampaio, Marcos
1999-01-01
For slowly varying fields the Yang-Mills Schroedinger functional can be expanded in terms of local functionals. We show how analyticity in a complex scale parameter enables the Schroedinger functional for arbitrarily varying fields to be reconstructed from this expansion. We also construct the form of the Schroedinger equation that determines the coefficients. Solving this in powers of the coupling reproduces the results of the `standard' perturbative solution of the functional Schroedinger equation which we also describe. In particular the usual result for the beta-function is obtained illustrating how analyticity enables the effects of rapidly varying fields to be computed from the behaviour of slowly varying ones.
In Vivo Shoulder Function After Surgical Repair of a Torn Rotator Cuff
Bey, Michael J.; Peltz, Cathryn D.; Ciarelli, Kristin; Kline, Stephanie K.; Divine, George W.; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Muh, Stephanie; Kolowich, Patricia A.; Lock, Terrence R.; Moutzouros, Vasilios
2015-01-01
Background Surgical repair of a torn rotator cuff is based on the belief that repairing the tear is necessary to restore normal glenohumeral joint (GHJ) mechanics and achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. Hypothesis Dynamic joint function is not completely restored by rotator cuff repair, thus compromising shoulder function and potentially leading to long-term disability. Study Design Controlled laboratory study and Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods Twenty-one rotator cuff patients and 35 control participants enrolled in the study. Biplane radiographic images were acquired bilaterally from each patient during coronal-plane abduction. Rotator cuff patients were tested at 3, 12, and 24 months after repair of a supraspinatus tendon tear. Control participants were tested once. Glenohumeral joint kinematics and joint contact patterns were accurately determined from the biplane radiographic images. Isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were measured at each time point. Ultrasound imaging assessed rotator cuff integrity at 24 months after surgery. Results Twenty of 21 rotator cuff repairs appeared intact at 24 months after surgery. The humerus of the patients’ repaired shoulder was positioned more superiorly on the glenoid than both the patients’ contralateral shoulder and the dominant shoulder of control participants. Patient-reported outcomes improved significantly over time. Shoulder strength also increased over time, although strength deficits persisted at 24 months for most patients. Changes over time in GHJ mechanics were not detected for either the rotator cuff patients’ repaired or contralateral shoulders. Clinical outcome was associated with shoulder strength but not GHJ mechanics. Conclusion Surgical repair of an isolated supraspinatus tear may be sufficient to keep the torn rotator cuff intact and achieve satisfactory patient-reported outcomes, but GHJ mechanics and shoulder strength are not fully restored with current
Toeplitz Matrices Whose Elements Are the Coefficients of Functions with Bounded Boundary Rotation
V. Radhika
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Let R denote the family of functions f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn of bounded boundary rotation so that Ref′(z>0 in the open unit disk U={z:z<1}. We obtain sharp bounds for Toeplitz determinants whose elements are the coefficients of functions f∈R.
Gender, ethnicity and smoking affect pain and function in patients with rotator cuff tears.
Maher, Anthony; Leigh, Warren; Brick, Matt; Young, Simon; Millar, James; Walker, Cameron; Caughey, Michael
2017-09-01
This study is a collation of baseline demographic characteristics of those presenting for rotator cuff repair in New Zealand, and exploration of associations with preoperative function and pain. Data were obtained from the New Zealand Rotator Cuff Registry; a multicentre, nationwide prospective cohort of rotator cuff repairs undertaken from 1 March 2009 until 31 December 2010. A total of 1383 patients were included in the study. This required complete demographic information, preoperative Flex-SF (functional score) and pain scores. Following univariate analysis, a multivariate model was used. The average age was 58 years (69% males and 11% smokers). New Zealand Europeans made up 90% and Maori 5%. The average preoperative Flex-SF was significantly lower (poorer function) in those over 65 years, females, smokers and Maori, in the non-dominant patients, using a multivariate model. Average preoperative pain scores were significantly worse (higher scores) in females, Maori, Polynesians, smokers, using a multivariate model. This is the largest reported prospective cohort of patients presenting for rotator cuff surgery. Results can be used to understand the effect of rotator cuff tears on the different patients, for example Maori patients who are under-represented, present younger, with more pain and poorer function. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Rotating higher spin partition functions and extended BMS symmetries
Campoleoni, A.; Gonzalez, H.A. [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Oblak, B. [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Riegler, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
2016-04-06
We evaluate one-loop partition functions of higher-spin fields in thermal flat space with angular potentials; this computation is performed in arbitrary space-time dimension, and the result is a simple combination of Poincaré characters. We then focus on dimension three, showing that suitable products of one-loop partition functions coincide with vacuum characters of higher-spin asymptotic symmetry algebras at null infinity. These are extensions of the bms{sub 3} algebra that emerges in pure gravity, and we propose a way to build their unitary representations and to compute the associated characters. We also extend our investigations to supergravity and to a class of gauge theories involving higher-spin fermionic fields.
Soil microbial biomass and function are altered by 12 years of crop rotation
McDaniel, Marshall D.; Grandy, A. Stuart
2016-11-01
Declines in plant diversity will likely reduce soil microbial biomass, alter microbial functions, and threaten the provisioning of soil ecosystem services. We examined whether increasing temporal plant biodiversity in agroecosystems (by rotating crops) can partially reverse these trends and enhance soil microbial biomass and function. We quantified seasonal patterns in soil microbial biomass, respiration rates, extracellular enzyme activity, and catabolic potential three times over one growing season in a 12-year crop rotation study at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station LTER. Rotation treatments varied from one to five crops in a 3-year rotation cycle, but all soils were sampled under a corn year. We hypothesized that crop diversity would increase microbial biomass, activity, and catabolic evenness (a measure of functional diversity). Inorganic N, the stoichiometry of microbial biomass and dissolved organic C and N varied seasonally, likely reflecting fluctuations in soil resources during the growing season. Soils from biodiverse cropping systems increased microbial biomass C by 28-112 % and N by 18-58 % compared to low-diversity systems. Rotations increased potential C mineralization by as much as 53 %, and potential N mineralization by 72 %, and both were related to substantially higher hydrolase and lower oxidase enzyme activities. The catabolic potential of the soil microbial community showed no, or slightly lower, catabolic evenness in more diverse rotations. However, the catabolic potential indicated that soil microbial communities were functionally distinct, and microbes from monoculture corn preferentially used simple substrates like carboxylic acids, relative to more diverse cropping systems. By isolating plant biodiversity from differences in fertilization and tillage, our study illustrates that crop biodiversity has overarching effects on soil microbial biomass and function that last throughout the growing season. In simplified agricultural systems
Efficient vector hysteresis modeling using rotationally coupled step functions
Adly, A.A., E-mail: adlyamr@gmail.com; Abd-El-Hafiz, S.K., E-mail: sabdelhafiz@gmail.com
2012-05-01
Vector hysteresis models are usually used as sub-modules of field computation software tools. When dealing with a massive field computation problem, computational efficiency and practicality of such models become crucial. In this paper, generalization of a recently proposed computationally efficient vector hysteresis model based upon interacting step functions is presented. More specifically, the model is generalized to cover vector hysteresis modeling of both isotropic and anisotropic magnetic media. Model configuration details as well as experimental testing and simulation results are given in the paper.
Haghdani, Shokouh; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Koch, Henrik
2016-02-01
We have calculated the electronic optical rotation of seven molecules using coupled cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) and the second-order approximation (CC2) employing the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, or Q) basis sets. We have also compared to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) by utilizing two functionals B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP and the same basis sets. Using relative and absolute error schemes, our calculations demonstrate that the CAM-B3LYP functional predicts optical rotation with the minimum deviations compared to CCSD at λ = 355 and 589.3 nm. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set provides the optical rotation in good agreement with the larger basis sets for molecules not possessing small-angle optical rotation at λ = 589.3 nm. We have also performed several two-point inverse power extrapolations for the basis set convergence, i.e., OR(∞) + AX(-n), using the CC2 model at λ = 355 and 589.3 nm. Our results reveal that a two-point inverse power extrapolation with the aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets at n = 5 provides optical rotation deviations similar to those of aug-cc-pV5Z with respect to the basis limit.
Schroedinger Invariance from Lifshitz Isometries in Holography and Field Theory
Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A
2014-01-01
We study non-relativistic field theory coupled to a torsional Newton-Cartan geometry both directly as well as holographically. The latter involves gravity on asymptotically locally Lifshitz space-times. We define an energy-momentum tensor and a mass current and study the relation between conserved currents and conformal Killing vectors for flat Newton-Cartan backgrounds. It is shown that this involves two different copies of the Lifshitz algebra together with an equivalence relation that joins these two Lifshitz algebras into a larger Schroedinger algebra (without the central element). In the holographic setup this reveals a novel phenomenon in which a large bulk diffeomorphism is dual to a discrete gauge invariance of the boundary field theory.
Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation
Zamboni-Rached, Michel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DMO/FEEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Microondas e Optica; Recami, Erasmo, E-mail: recami@mi.infn.i [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria
2011-07-01
In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)
Comment on "Fractional quantum mechanics" and "Fractional Schroedinger equation"
Wei, Yuchuan
2016-01-01
In this comment, we point out some shortcomings in two papers "Fractional quantum mechanics" [Phys. Rev. E 62, 3135 (2000)] and "Fractional Schroedinger equation" [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056108 (2002)]. We prove that the fractional uncertainty relation does not hold generally. The probability continuity equation in fractional quantum mechanics has a missing source term, which leads to particle teleportation, i.e., a particle can teleport from one place to another. Since the relativistic kinetic energy can be viewed as an approximate realization of the fractional kinetic energy, the particle teleportation should be an observable relativistic effect in quantum mechanics. With the help of this concept, superconductivity could be viewed as the teleportation of electrons from one side of a superconductor to another and superfluidity could be viewed as the teleportation of helium atoms from one end of a capillary tube to the other. We also point out how to teleport a particle to a destination.
From qubits and actions to the Pauli-Schroedinger equation
Mizrahi, Salomon S
2010-01-01
Here I show that a classical or quantum bit state plus one simple operation, an action, are sufficient ingredients to derive a quantum dynamical equation that rules the sequential changes of the state. Then, by assuming that a freely moving massive particle is the qubit carrier, it is found that both, the particle position in physical space and the qubit state, change in time according to the Pauli-Schroedinger equation. So, this approach suggests the following conjecture: because it carries one qubit of information the particle motion has its description enslaved by the very existence of the internal degree of freedom. It is compelled to be no more described classically but by a wavefunction. I also briefly discuss the Dirac equation in terms of qubits.
Seo, Joong-Bae; Yoo, Jae-Sung; Jang, Ho-Seong; Kim, Jung-Sang
2015-05-01
The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation of clinical symptoms and function with the fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus in rotator cuff tears. A total of 152 patients who had rotator cuff tears was enroled retrospectively. The infraspinatus muscle was divided into two compartments according to the bundle of fibres, and the patients were divided into four groups that reflected fatty degeneration. The muscle strength of the shoulder and clinical symptoms was investigated. The severity of the rotator cuff tear and retraction increased with fatty degeneration of both the superior and inferior parts in the infraspinatus muscles. Because of the increasing fatty degeneration of the superior part of the infraspinatus, the shoulder strength index (SSI) of abduction had poor results. Additionally, as the fatty degeneration of the inferior part of the infraspinatus increased, the SSI of abduction and external rotation had worse results. Fatty degeneration of the superior part of the infraspinatus has no correlation with the power of external rotation but has a negative correlation with the power of abduction. Moreover, fatty degeneration of the inferior part of the infraspinatus has a negative correlation with both the power of abduction and external rotation. Retrospective study, Level IV.
WEIGHT FUNCTION FOR STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS IN ROTATING THICK-WALLED CYLINDER
CHEN Ai-jun; ZENG Wen-ji
2006-01-01
The equation of stress intensity factors(SIF) of internally pressurized thickwalled cylinder was used as the reference case. SIF equation of rotating thick-walled cylinder containing a radial crack along the internal bore was presented in weight function method. The weight function formulas were worked out and can be used for all kinds of depth of cracks, rotating speed, material, size of thick-walled cylinder to calculate the stress intensity factors. The results indicated the validity and effectiveness of these formulas. Meanwhile, the rules of the stress intensity factors in rotating thick-walled cylinder with the change of crack depths and the ratio of outer radius to inner radius were studied. The studies are valuable to engineering application.
Functional and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation after single-tendon rotator cuff reconstruction
Knudsen, H B; Gelineck, J; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole
1999-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate tendon integrity after surgical repair of single-tendon rotator cuff lesions. In 31 patients, 31 single-tendon repairs were evaluated. Thirty-one patients were available for clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. A standard...... series of MR images was obtained for each. The results of functional assessment were scored according to the system of Constant. According to MRI evaluation, 21 (68%) patients had an intact or thinned rotator cuff and 10 (32%) had recurrence of a full-thickness cuff defect at follow-up. Patients...... with an intact or thinned rotator cuff had a median Constant score of 75.5 points; patients with a full-thickness cuff defect had a median score of 62 points. There was no correlation between tendon integrity on postoperative MR images and functional outcome. Patients with intact or thinned cuffs did not have...
Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory
Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo, E-mail: bzuniga.51@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A2, Procesos Industriales, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso [Universidad Tecnológica de Tecámac, División A3, Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones, Carretera Federal México Pachuca Km 37.5, Col. Sierra Hermosa, C.P. 55740 Tecámac, Estado de México (Mexico); Simon-Bastida, Patricia [Universidad Tecnlógica de Tulancingo, División Electromecánica, Camino a Ahuehuetitla No. 301, Col. Las Presas, C.P. 43642 Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M. [Departamento de Química, CINVESTAV, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico)
2015-09-14
The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H{sup 12}C–{sup 12}CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.
CHEN Jiang-ying; CHEN Wei-qiu
2007-01-01
The analytical solution for an annular plate rotating at a constant angular velocity is derived by means of direct displacement method from the elasticity equations for axisymmetric problems of functionally graded transversely isotropic media.The displacement components are assumed as a linear combination of certain explicit functions of the radial coordinate, with seven undetermined coefficients being functions of the axial coordinate z. Seven equations governing these z-dependent functions are derived and solved by a progressive integrating scheme. The present solution can be degenerated into the solution of a rotating isotropic functionally graded annular plate. The solution also can be degenerated into that for transversely isotropic or isotropic homogeneous materials. Finally, a special case is considered and the effect of the material gradient index on the elastic field is illustrated numerically.
Existence of the time periodic solution for damped Schroedinger-Boussinesq equation
BolingGUO; XianyunDU
2000-01-01
In this paper, we study the time priodic solution for the weakly damped Schroedinger-Boussinesq equation, by Galerkin method, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the equations under some appropriate conditions.
Finite-difference scheme for the numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation
Mickens, Ronald E.; Ramadhani, Issa
1992-01-01
A finite-difference scheme for numerical integration of the Schroedinger equation is constructed. Asymptotically (r goes to infinity), the method gives the exact solution correct to terms of order r exp -2.
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)], E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com; Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar
2008-04-28
We show that the Riccati-Pade method is suitable for the calculation of the complex eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation with a repulsive exponential potential. The accuracy of the results is remarkable for realistic potential parameters.
Smarandache F.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we find out some analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for cluster deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schroedinger equation.
The influence of rotator cuff pathology on functional outcome in total shoulder replacement
Nathanael Ahearn
2013-01-01
Conclusions: TSR is an efficacious treatment option for patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the medium term, even in the presence of rotator cuff tendonopathy or partial tearing. Minor changes within the cuff do not significantly affect functional outcome following TSR.
Bondeson, A.; Ott, E.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.
1985-01-01
Certain first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations exemplified by strongly damped, quasiperiodically driven pendula and Josephson junctions are isomorphic to Schroedinger equations with quasiperiodic potentials. The implications of this equivalence are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the transition to Anderson localization in the Schroedinger problem corresponds to the occurrence of a novel type of strange attractor in the pendulum problem. This transition should be experimentally observable in the frequency spectrum of the pendulum of Josephson junction.
Optimal heat kernel estimates for Schroedinger operators with magnetic fields in two dimensions
Loss, M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (United States). School of Mathematics; Thaller, B. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)
1997-06-01
Sharp smoothing estimates are proven for magnetic Schroedinger semigroups in two dimensions under the assumption that the magnetic field is bounded below by some positive constant B{sub 0}. As a consequence the L{sup {infinity}} norm of the associated integral kernel is bounded by the L{sup {infinity}} norm of the Mehler kernel of the Schroedinger semigroup with the constant magnetic field B{sub 0}. (orig.)
Effect of ordering ambiguity in constructing the Schroedinger equation on perturbation theory
Jaghoub, M.I. [Hashemite University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 150459, Zarka (Jordan)
2006-05-15
This work explores the application of perturbation formalism, developed for isotropic velocity-dependent potentials, to three-dimensional Schroedinger equations obtained using different orderings of the Hamiltonian. It is found that the formalism is applicable to Schroedinger equations corresponding to three possible ordering ambiguities. The validity of the derived expressions is verified by considering examples admitting exact solutions. The perturbative results agree quite well with the exactly obtained ones. (orig.)
Functional and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation after single-tendon rotator cuff reconstruction
Knudsen, H B; Gelineck, J; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole
1999-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate tendon integrity after surgical repair of single-tendon rotator cuff lesions. In 31 patients, 31 single-tendon repairs were evaluated. Thirty-one patients were available for clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. A standard...... with an intact or thinned rotator cuff had a median Constant score of 75.5 points; patients with a full-thickness cuff defect had a median score of 62 points. There was no correlation between tendon integrity on postoperative MR images and functional outcome. Patients with intact or thinned cuffs did not have...
Li Li; Qingshuang Zeng; Fanfeng Meng
2008-01-01
An algorithm is proposed for registering images related by translation, rotation, and scale based on angular and radial difference fimctions. In frequency domain, the spatial translation parameters are computed via phase correlation method. The magnitudes of images are represented in log-polar grid, and the angular and radial difference functions are given and applied to measure shifts in both angular and radial dimensions for rotation and scale estimation. Experimental results show that this method achieves the same accurate level as classic fast Fourier transform (FFT) based method with invariance to illumination change and lower computation costs.
Affine Equivalence of Quartic Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions in Prime Power Dimension
2015-01-27
ANF. This representation of f (not unique, since one can choose any representative in Gn(x1xi2 . . . xil)) is called the short algebraic normal form ...Affine Equivalence of Quartic Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions in Prime Power Dimension Pantelimon Stănică Naval Postgraduate School...Boolean functions, circulant matrices, affine equivalence , permutations, prime powers. Mathematics Subject Classification [2010]: 94A60, 94C10, 06E30 1
Functional evaluation of patient after arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear.
Kumar, Rohit; Jadhav, Umesh
2014-06-01
Rotator cuff tear is a common problem either after trauma or after degenerative tear in old age group. Arthroscopic repair is the current concept of rotator cuff repair. Here, we are trying to evaluate the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear (single row) in Indian population. Twenty five patients (14 males and 11 females) who underwent arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear at a single institution were included in the study. Postoperatively patient's shoulder was rated according to UCLA score, pain was graded according to the visual analog score. The range of motion was analysed and documented. The mean age of the patients were 50.48 years. The preoperative VAS score mode was 7 and post operative VAS was 1 (p value fair in 12% (n = 3), excellent in 8% (n = 2) and poor results were seen in none of the patients. The mean UCLA improved from a score of 15.84 to 30.28 with a p value <0.001. Mean postoperative forward flexion was 161.6°, mean abduction was 147.6° and mean external rotation was 45.4°. Arthroscopic repair is a good procedure for full thickness rotator cuff tear with minimal complications. The newer double row repair claims to be biomechanically superior with faster healing rates without functional advantages, hence we used a single row repair considering the Indian population and the cost effectiveness of the surgery with good to excellent results.
Zanca, Gisele G; Oliveira, Ana B; Saccol, Michele F; Ejnisman, Benno; Mattiello-Rosa, Stela M
2011-12-01
In this study, we evaluated the peak torque, functional torque ratios, and torque curve profile of the shoulder rotators in overhead athletes with impingement symptoms so as to examine possible alterations in response to sports training and shoulder pain. Twenty-one overhead athletes with impingement symptoms were compared with 25 overhead athletes and 21 non-athletes, none of whom were symptomatic for impingement. The participants performed five maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric contractions of medial and lateral shoulder rotations at 1.57 rad · s(-1) and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Isokinetic peak torque was used to calculate the eccentric lateral rotation-to-concentric medial rotation and the eccentric medial rotation-to-concentric lateral rotation ratios. An analysis of the torque curve profiles was also carried out. The eccentric lateral rotation-to-concentric medial rotation torque ratio of asymptomatic athletes was lower than that of non-athletes at both test velocities. The concentric medial rotation isokinetic peak torque of the asymptomatic athletes, at 3.14 rad · s(-1), was greater than that of the non-athletes, and the peak appeared to occur earlier in the movement for athletes than non-athletes. These findings suggest that there may be adaptations to shoulder function in response to throwing practice. The eccentric medial rotation-to-concentric lateral rotation torque ratio was altered neither by the practice of university-level overhead sports nor impingement symptoms.
Alberto Naoki Miyazaki
2014-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the functional result from arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in patients with pseudoparalysis, defined as incapacity to actively raise the arm above 90◦ , while complete passive elevation was possible.METHODS: we reevaluated 38 patients with a mean follow-up of 51 months (minimum of 24. We analyzed the pseudoparalysis reversion rate and the functional result obtained.RESULTS: according to the assessment criteria of the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA, 31 (82% patients had good and excellent results, two (5% had fair results and five (13% had poor results. The mean active elevation went from 39◦ before the operation to 139◦ after the operation (p < 0.05; the mean active lateral rotation went from 30◦ to 48◦ (p < 0.05 and the mean active medial rotation went from level L3 to T12 (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries produced good and excellent results in 82% of the cases and a statistically significant improvement of active range of motion, with reversion of the pseudoparalysis in 97.4% of the cases. It is therefore a good treatment option.
Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions
Krümmelbein, Julia
2013-04-01
Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.
Analytical exact solution of the non-linear Schroedinger equation
Martins, Alisson Xavier; Rocha Filho, Tarcisio Marciano da [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fisica e Matematica
2011-07-01
Full text: In this work we present how to classify and obtain analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with a generic non-linearity in 1+1 dimensions. Our approach is based on the determination of Lie symmetry transformation mapping solutions into solutions, and non-classical symmetry transformations, mapping a given solution into itself. From these symmetries it is then possible to reduce the equation to a system of ordinary differential equations which can then be solved using standard methods. The generic non-linearity is handled by considering it as an additional unknown in the determining equations for the symmetry transformations. This results in an over-determined system of non-linear partial differential equations. Its solution can then be determined in some cases by reducing it to the so called involutive (triangular) form, and then solved. This reduction is very tedious and can only performed using a computer algebra system. Once the determining system is solved, we obtain the explicit form for the non-linearity admitting a Lie or non-classical symmetry. The analytical solutions are then derived by solving the reduced ordinary differential equations. The non-linear determining system for the non-classical symmetry transformations and Lie symmetry generators are obtaining using the computer algebra package SADE (symmetry analysis of differential equations), developed at our group. (author)
Functional outcomes of traumatic and non-traumatic rotator cuff tears after arthroscopic repair
Abechain, José Jorge Kitagaki; Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; Matsunaga, Fabio Teruo; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Daou, Julia Pozzetti; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara
2017-01-01
AIM To compare the functional outcomes of traumatic and non-traumatic rotator cuff tears after arthroscopic repair. METHODS Eighty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears following arthroscopic treatment were divided into traumatic and non-traumatic tear groups. Postoperative muscle strength and outcomes using the modified University of California, Los Angeles score were evaluated. Sex, age, affected limb and dominant limb were correlated between groups. Muscle strength of the repaired and unaffected shoulders was compared. Rotator cuff injury size was measured. RESULTS Of the 87 patients who underwent rotator cuff repairs, 35 had traumatic tears and 52 had non-traumatic tears. In patients with non-traumatic tears, the average age was 59 years, 74.5% were female, 96.1% were right-hand dominant and 92.3% had their dominant shoulder affected. Patients with traumatic tears were 59.5 years old on average, 51.4% were female, 91.4% were right-hand dominant and 88.5% had their dominant shoulder affected. No difference existed in the mean modified University of California, Los Angeles score between patients with traumatic tears (33.7) compared with those with non-traumatic tears (32.8). No strength differences were observed between groups: The strength difference between the non-affected and affected sides was 1.21 kg in the non-traumatic group and 1.39 kg in the traumatic group (P = 0.576), while the strength ratio between the non-affected/affected sides was 0.805 in the non-traumatic group and 0.729 in the traumatic group (P = 0.224). CONCLUSION The functional results of traumatic rotator cuff repairs are similar to non-traumatic tears. Both outcomes are satisfactory. PMID:28875129
An approximate solution to the stress and deformation states of functionally graded rotating disks
Sondhi, Lakshman; Sanyal, Shubhashis; Saha, Kashi Nath; Bhowmick, Shubhankar
2016-07-01
The present work employs variational principle to investigate the stress and deformation states and estimate the limit angular speed of functionally graded high-speed rotating annular disks of constant thickness. Assuming a series approximation following Galerkin's principle, the solution of the governing equation is obtained. In the present study, elasticity modulus and density of the disk material are taken as power function of radius with the gradient parameter ranging between 0.0 and 1.0. Results obtained from numerical solutions are validated with benchmark results and are found to be in good agreement. The results are reported in dimensional form and presented graphically. The results provide a substantial insight in understanding the behavior of FGM rotating disks with constant thickness and different gradient parameter. Furthermore, the stress and deformation state of the disk at constant angular speed and limit angular speed is investigated to explain the existence of optimum gradient parameters.
Beyond single stream with the Schroedinger method - Closing the Vlasov hierarchy
Uhlemann, Cora; Kopp, Michael; Haugg, Thomas [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany)
2014-07-01
We investigate large scale structure formation of dark matter in the phase-space description based on the Vlasov equation whose nonlinearity is induced by gravitational interaction according to the Poisson equation. Determining the time-evolution of density and peculiar velocity demands solving the full Vlasov hierarchy for the moments of the phase-space distribution function. In the presence of long-range interaction no consistent truncation of the hierarchy is known apart from the pressureless fluid (dust) model which is incapable of describing virialization due to the occurrence of shell-crossing singularities and the inability to generate higher cumulants like vorticity and velocity dispersion. Our goal is to find a phase-space distribution function that is able to describe regions of multi-streaming and therefore can serve as theoretical N-body double. We use the coarse-grained Wigner probability distribution obtained from a wavefunction fulfilling the Schroedinger equation and show that its evolution equation bears strong resemblance to the Vlasov equation but cures the shell-crossing singularities. This feature was already employed in cosmological simulations of large-scale structure formation by Widrow and Kaiser '93. We are able to show that the coarse-grained Wigner ansatz automatically closes the corresponding hierarchy while incorporating nonzero higher cumulants which are determined self-consistently from density and velocity.
Zhu, Xun; Kelly, Thomas H; Curry, Thomas E; Lal, Chitra; Joseph, Jane E
2015-09-30
Mental rotation is a visuospatial task associated with pronounced sex differences. Performance is also affected by gonadal hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. To better understand hormonal modulation of the neural substrates of mental rotation, the present study examined the influence of estradiol using functional MRI. Ten premenopausal women were tested on a 3D mental rotation task during the early follicular and late follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. Change in estradiol between the two phases was confirmed by hormone assays. Brain activation patterns were similar across the two phases, but the change in estradiol had different associations with the two hemispheres. Better performance in the late follicular than the early follicular phase was associated with a pattern of reduced recruitment of the right hemisphere and increased recruitment of the left hemisphere. The increased recruitment of the left hemisphere was directly associated with greater changes in estradiol. Given that the right hemisphere is the dominant hemisphere in visuospatial processing, our results suggest that estradiol is associated with reduced functional asymmetry, consistent with recent accounts of hormonal modulation of neurocognitive function.
Arefi Mohammad
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Thermo-mechanical analysis of the functionally graded orthotropic rotating hollow structures, subjected to thermo-mechanical loadings is studied in this paper. The relations were derived for both plane strain and plane stress conditions as a cylinder and disk, respectively. Non homogeneity was considered arbitrary through thickness direction for all mechanical and thermal properties. The responses of the system including temperature distribution, radial displacement and radial and circumferential stresses were derived in the general state. As case study, power law gradation was assumed for functionally graded cylinder and the mentioned results were evaluated in terms of parameters of the system such as non-homogeneous index and angular velocity.
Gerasimov, Vladislav V.; Zuev, Vladimir V.
2016-10-01
We present and examine two three-coefficient calibration functions to be used for the tropospheric temperature retrievals via the pure rotational Raman (PRR) lidar technique. These functions are the special cases of the general analytical calibration function in the PRR lidar technique. The general function special cases take into account the collisional (pressure) broadening of all individual atmospheric N2 and O2 PRR lines in varying degrees. We apply these two special cases to real lidar remote sensing data and compare nighttime temperature profiles retrieved using these calibration functions to the profiles retrieved using other known ones. The absolute statistical uncertainties of temperature retrieval are also given in an analytical form. Lidar measurements data, obtained in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) using the IMCES PRR lidar at λ = 354.67 nm on 1 April 2015, were used for the tropospheric temperature retrievals (3-12 km).
The chirally rotated Schr\\"odinger functional with Wilson fermions and automatic O(a) improvement
Sint, Stefan
2010-01-01
A modified version of the Schr\\"odinger functional (SF) with Wilson fermions is proposed, which is related to the standard SF by a non-singlet chiral field rotation. Besides offering the possibility of some interesting universality checks, the main advantage of the new set-up consists in its compatibility with the mechanism of automatic O(a) improvement. In the free theory, the implementation of chirally rotated SF boundary conditions is obtained using an orbifold construction. The lattice symmetries imply a list of counterterms, which then determine how the basic fermionic two-point functions are renormalised and O(a) improved. As in the standard SF, a logarithmically divergent boundary counterterm leads to a multiplicative renormalisation of the quark boundary fields. In addition, a finite dimension-3 boundary counterterm must be tuned in order to maintain the chirally rotated boundary condtions in the interacting theory. Once this is achieved, automatic O(a) improvement works up to boundary O(a) effects. F...
Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff: functional outcome after arthroscopic treatment.
Jacobs, Ruben; Debeer, Philippe
2006-06-01
In this study, we assessed the functional results after arthroscopic excision of rotator cuff calcifications. Sixty-one shoulders in 57 patients with chronic calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff were treated with arthroscopic excision, subacromial bursa debridement and shaving. In patients with fraying or roughness of the coracoacromial ligament, an acromioplasty was also performed. Patients were evaluated after a mean follow-up of 15 months. The modified Constant score and DASH score significantly improved from 33.4 to 66.8 and from 49.7 to 17.3 respectively. Performing an acromioplasty did not influence the final outcome. Frozen shoulder was a frequent complication (18%) without significant effect on the final DASH or Constant score. The presence of residual calcifications after arthroscopic needling did not influence the final outcome. We therefore believe that the presence of residual calcifications can be accepted if this is deemed necessary to preserve the integrity of the tendon.
On the Effect of Functionally Graded Materials on Resonances of Rotating Beams
Arnaldo J. Mazzei Jr.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Radially rotating beams attached to a rigid stem occur in several important engineering applications. Some examples include helicopter blades, turbine blades and certain aerospace applications. In most studies the beams have been treated as homogeneous. Here, with a goal of system improvement, non-homogeneous beams made of functionally graded materials are explored. The effects on the natural frequencies of the system are investigated. Euler-Bernoulli theory, including an axial stiffening effect and variations of both Young's modulus and density, is employed. An assumed mode approach is utilized, with the modes taken to be beam characteristic orthogonal polynomials. Results are obtained via Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared for both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous cases. It was found, for example, that allowing Young's modulus and density to vary by approximately 2.15 and 1.15 times, respectively, leads to an increase of 23% in the lowest bending rotating natural frequency of the beam.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
Afanasjev, A V; 10.1103/PhysRev.82.034329
2010-01-01
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration and rotational frequency dependences of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analysed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have ...
The chirally rotated Schr\\"odinger functional: theoretical expectations and perturbative tests
Brida, Mattia Dalla; Vilaseca, Pol
2016-01-01
The chirally rotated Schr\\"odinger functional ($\\chi$SF) with massless Wilson-type fermions provides an alternative lattice regularization of the Schr\\"odinger functional (SF), with different lattice symmetries and a common continuum limit expected from universality. The explicit breaking of flavour and parity symmetries needs to be repaired by tuning the bare fermion mass and the coefficient of a dimension 3 boundary counterterm. Once this is achieved one expects the mechanism of automatic O($a$) improvement to be operational in the $\\chi$SF, in contrast to the standard formulation of the SF. This is expected to significantly improve the attainable precision for step-scaling functions of some composite operators. Furthermore, the $\\chi$SF offers new strategies to determine finite renormalization constants which are traditionally obtained from chiral Ward identities. In this paper we consider a complete set of fermion bilinear operators, define corresponding correlation functions and explain the relation to t...
Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R
2017-07-17
Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for five upper limb tasks performed by three groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p<.001, p<.001) and external rotation (p<.001, p=.017) strength than the young adults respectively. Presence of a tear signficantly increased percentage of internal rotation strength compared to young (p<.001) and uninjured older adults (p=.008). Marked differences in strength demand across tasks indicate the need for evaluating a diversity of functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss which may lead to disability.
de Castro Veado, Marco Antônio; Castilho, Rodrigo Simões; Maia, Philipe Eduardo Carvalho; Rodrigues, Alessandro Ulhôa
2015-01-01
Objective: To prospectively assess the surgical results from patients undergoing repairs to rotator cuff injuries via open and arthroscopic procedures, with regard to functional and clinical features, and by means of ultrasound examinations, and to compare occurrences of renewed tearing. Methods: Sixty patients underwent operations performed by the same surgeon (29 via open surgery and 31 via arthroscopy), to repair complete rotator cuff tears. The procedures were performed at Hospital Governor Israel Pinheiro (HGIP) and Mater Dei Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, between August 2007 and February 2009. The patients were assessed functionally by means of the UCLA score before and after the operation, and magnetic resonance imaging was done before the operation. All the patients were reassessed at least 12 months after the operation, and an ultrasound examination was also performed at this time. Results: Out of the 29 patients who underwent open surgery, 27 (93.1%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 32 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 14 months. Three patients presented renewed tearing on ultrasound, of whom one remained asymptomatic. Out of the 31 patients who underwent arthroscopic procedures, 29 (93.5%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 33 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 19 months. Two patients presented renewed tearing, of whom one remained asymptomatic and one evolved with loosening of an anchor, with an unsatisfactory result. Conclusion: The repairs on rotator cuff injuries presented good results by means of both open surgery and arthroscopy, with similar functional results in the two groups and similar rates of renewed tearing. PMID:27027052
Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)
2013-05-15
The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.
Satisfaction, function and repair integrity after arthroscopic versus mini-open rotator cuff repair.
Barnes, L A Fink; Kim, H M; Caldwell, J-M; Buza, J; Ahmad, C S; Bigliani, L U; Levine, W N
2017-02-01
Advances in arthroscopic techniques for rotator cuff repair have made the mini-open approach less popular. However, the mini-open approach remains an important technique for repair for many surgeons. The aims of this study were to compare the integrity of the repair, the function of the shoulder and satisfaction post-operatively using these two techniques in patients aged > 50 years. We identified 22 patients treated with mini-open and 128 patients treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of July 2007 and June 2011. The mean follow-up was two years (1 to 5). Outcome was assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and satisfaction. The integrity of the repair was assessed using ultrasonography. A power analysis ensured sufficient enrolment. There was no statistically significant difference between the age, function, satisfaction, or pain scores (p > 0.05) of the two groups. The integrity of the repair and the mean SST scores were significantly better in the mini-open group (91% of mini-open repairs were intact versus 60% of arthroscopic repairs, p = 0.023; mean SST score 10.9 (standard deviation (sd) 1.3) in the mini-open group; 8.9 (sd 3.5) in arthroscopic group; p = 0.003). The ASES scores were also higher in the mini-open group (mean ASES score 91.0 (sd 10.5) in mini-open group; mean 82.70 (sd 19.8) in the arthroscopic group; p = 0.048). The integrity of the repair and function of the shoulder were better after a mini-open repair than after arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear in these patients. The functional difference did not translate into a difference in satisfaction. Mini-open rotator cuff repair remains a useful technique despite advances in arthroscopy. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:245-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities
Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin
2016-01-01
Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities. PMID:27695462
Impact of wheat / faba bean mixed cropping or rotation systems on soil microbial functionalities
Sanâa Wahbi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases and enhacing ecological serices. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the two years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration (SIR method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after 2 cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.
Elgohary, Tarek A.; Turner, James D.; Junkins, John L.
2015-06-01
A symmetric flexible rotating spacecraft can be modeled as a distributed parameter system of a rigid hub attached to two flexible appendages with tip masses. First, Hamilton's extended principle is utilized to establish a general treatment for deriving the dynamics of multi-body dynamical systems to establish a hybrid system of integro-partial differential equations that model the evolution of the system in space and time. A Generalized State Space (GSS) system of equations is constructed in the frequency domain to obtain analytic transfer functions for the rotating spacecraft. This model does not include spatial discretization. The frequency response of the generally modeled spacecraft and a special case with no tip masses are presented. Numerical results for the system frequency response obtained from the analytic transfer functions are presented and compared against the classical assumed modes numerical method with two choices of admissible functions. The truncation-error-free analytic results are used to validate the numerical approximations and to agree well with the classical widely used finite dimensional numerical solutions. Fundamentally, we show that the rigorous transfer function, without introduction of spatial discretization, can be directly used in control law design with a guarantee of Lyapunov stable closed loop dynamics. The frequency response of the system is used in a classical control problem where the Lyapunov stable controller is derived and tested for gain selection. The correlation between the controller design in the frequency domain utilizing the analytic transfer functions and the system response is analyzed and verified. The derived analytic transfer functions provide a powerful tool to test various control schemes in the frequency domain and a validation platform for existing numerical methods for distributed parameters models. The same platform has been used to obtain the frequency response of more complex beam models following
Vortex Nucleation in a Dissipative Variant of the Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation Under Rotation
2014-12-01
Vortices in Nonlinear Fields (Clarendon, UK, 1999). [2] Yu.S. Kivshar and B. Luther -Davies, Physics Reports 298, 81–197 (1998). [3] Y.S. Kivshar, J...Christou, V. Tikhonenko, B. Luther -Davies and L. Pismen, Optics Comm. 152, 198–206 (1998). [4] H.J. Lugt, Vortex Flow in Nature and Technology (John
Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G
2015-11-01
We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation.
A dynamical study of the chirally rotated Schr\\"odinger functional in QCD
Brida, Mattia Dalla
2014-01-01
The chirally rotated Schr\\"odinger functional for Wilson-fermions allows for finite-volume, mass-independent renormalization schemes compatible with automatic O($a$) improvement. So far, in QCD, the set-up has only been studied in the quenched approximation. Here we present first results for $N_{\\rm f} = 2$ dynamical quark-flavours for several renormalization factors of quark-bilinears. We discuss how these renormalization factors can be easily obtained from simple ratios of two-point functions, and show how automatic O($a$) improvement is at work. As a by-product of this investigation the renormalization of the non-singlet axial current, $Z_A$, is determined very precisely.
Interpretation of the structure function of rotation measure in the interstellar medium
Xu, Siyao
2016-01-01
The observed structure function (SF) of rotation measure (RM) varies as a broken power-law function of angular scales. The systematic shallowness of its spectral slope is inconsistent with the standard Kolmogorov scaling. This motivates us to examine the statistical analysis on RM fluctuations. The correlations of RM constructed by Lazarian & Pogosyan (2016) are demonstrated to be adequate in explaining the observed features of RM SFs through a direct comparison between the theoretically obtained and observationally measured SF results. By segregating the density and magnetic field fluctuations and adopting arbitrary indices for their respective power spectra, we find that when the SFs of RM and emission measure have a similar form over the same range of angular scales, the statistics of the RM fluctuations reflect the properties of density fluctuations. RM SFs can be used to evaluate the mean magnetic field along the line of sight, but cannot serve as an informative source on the properties of turbulent ...
High-Resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl
Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Peña, I.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.
2016-01-01
We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na35Cl and Na37Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.
Wang Dengshan [CEMA and CIAS, Central Univ. of Finance and Economics, BJ (China); BNLCMP, Inst. of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China); Liu Yifang [School of Economics, Central Univ. of Finance and Economics, BJ (China)
2010-01-15
In this paper, with the aid of symbolic computation the bright soliton solutions of two variable-coefficient coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations are obtained by Hirota's method. Some figures are plotted to illustrate the properties of the obtained solutions. The properties are meaningful for the investigation on the stability of soliton propagation in the optical soliton communications. (orig.)
Helffer, Bernard
2008-01-01
The two-dimensional Schroedinger operator with a uniform magnetic field and a periodic zero-range potential is considered. For weak magnetic fields we reduce the spectral problem to the semiclassical analysis of one-dimensional Harper-like operators. This shows the existence of parts of Cantor structure in the spectrum for special values of the magnetic flux.
Blow-up in nonlinear Schroedinger equations. I. A general review
Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Rypdal, K.
1986-01-01
The general properties of a class of nonlinear Schroedinger equations: iut + p:∇∇u + f(|u|2)u = 0 are reviewed. Conditions for existence, uniqueness, and stability of solitary wave solutions are presented, along with conditions for blow-up and global existence for the Cauchy problem....
Magnetic virial identities and applications to blow-up for Schroedinger and wave equations
Garcia, Andoni, E-mail: andoni.garcia@ehu.es [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2012-01-13
We prove blow-up results for the solution of the initial-value problem with negative energy of the focusing mass-critical and supercritical nonlinear Schroedinger and the focusing energy-subcritical nonlinear wave equations with electromagnetic potential. (paper)
Monte Carlo solution of the Schroedinger equation in Fock space representation
Szybisz, L.; Zabolitzky, J.G. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1984-09-03
A new Monte Carlo method to solve the Schroedinger equation when expressed in Fock space is presented. The procedure is applied to two soluble many-body hamiltonians, the quasispin model of Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick and the so-called 'static source' limit of the nucleon-scalar-meson interaction in the discrete one-dimensional space.
Belmonte-Beitia, J [Departamento de Matematicas, E T S de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la IngenierIa (IMACI), Avda Camilo Jose Cela, 3 Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Cuevas, J [Grupo de Fisica No Lineal, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, C/Virgen de Africa, 7, 41011 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: juan.belmonte@uclm.es, E-mail: jcuevas@us.es
2009-04-24
In this paper, we construct, by means of similarity transformations, explicit solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with potentials and nonlinearities depending on both time and spatial coordinates. We present the general approach and use it to calculate bright and dark soliton solutions for nonlinearities and potentials of physical interest in applications to Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics.
Belmonte-Beitia, Juan [Departamento de Matematicas, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Avda. Camilo Jose Cela 3, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: juan.belmonte@uclm.es; Calvo, Gabriel F. [Departamento de Matematicas, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Avda. Camilo Jose Cela 3, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: gabriel.fernandez@uclm.es
2009-01-19
In this Letter, by means of similarity transformations, we construct explicit solutions to the quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with potentials and nonlinearities depending both on time and on the spatial coordinates. We present the general approach and use it to study some examples and find nontrivial explicit solutions such as periodic (breathers), quasiperiodic and bright and dark soliton solutions.
Solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity with Schroedinger(z) symmetry
Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Group; Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences
2009-05-15
We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic Schroedinger(z) algebra for various values of the dynamical exponent z. The new solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, respectively, and include supersymmetric solutions with z=2. (orig.)
Hsu, Jason E; Reuther, Katherine E; Sarver, Joseph J; Lee, Chang Soo; Thomas, Stephen J; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J
2011-07-01
The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff "force couple," is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two-tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Hsu, Jason E.; Reuther, Katherine E.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Lee, Chang Soo; Thomas, Stephen J.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
2011-01-01
The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff “force couple,” is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented. PMID:21308755
An ab initio HCN/HNC rotational-vibrational line list and opacity function for astronomy
Harris, Gregory John
HCN/HNC is an important molecule which is found throughout the universe. For example HCN/HNC is known to exist in comets, planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. HCN is also an important opacity source in carbon rich stars (C-stars). HCN masers have been observed in the circumstellar material around these C-stars and also in galaxies. Jorgensen and co-workers investigated model carbon star atmospheres in which they included HCN as an opacity source. They found that including a HCN opacity function had a remarkable effect: the atmosphere expanded by five times and the pressure of the atmosphere in the surface layers dropped by one or two orders of magnitude. This suggests that a full and detailed treatment of the rotational-vibrational spectrum of HCN/HNC could have a profound effect on the models of carbon stars, this provides the main motivation in this work. The temperatures of the stars in which HCN is an important opacity source Teff = 2000 - 3000 K. If HCN and HNC are in thermodynamic equilibrium it would be expected that HNC as well as HCN are found in significant populations. The transition dipoles of the fundamental bands of HNC are more than twice as strong as their HCN counter parts. These factors mean that both HCN and HNC will be considered, which makes a semiglobal treatment of the [H,C,N] system necessary. In this thesis an ab initio HCN/HNC linelist, from which accurate spectra and opacity functions can be calculated, is computed. Within this thesis I present least squares fits for ab initio semiglobal potential energy, dipole moment, relativistic correction and adiabatic correction surfaces. The potential energy surface (PES) is morphed for HNC geometries of the potential to improve the HNC representation of the surface. The PES and dipole moment surface (DMS) are used to perform quantum mechanical nuclear motion (rotational-vibrational) calculations with the DVR3D suite of codes. Preliminary calculations are made to optimise a ro
Sex differences and autism: brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation.
Felix D C C Beacher
Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1 may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2 alternately reflect sex-specificity in how autism is expressed in males and females. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test these alternate hypotheses. Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS, and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks. All groups performed the tasks equally well. On the verbal fluency task, despite equivalent task-performance, both males and females with AS showed enhanced activation of left occipitoparietal and inferior prefrontal activity compared to controls. During mental rotation, there was a significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction across occipital, temporal, parietal, middle frontal regions, with greater activation in AS males and typical females compared to AS females and typical males. These findings suggest a complex relationship between autism and sex that is differentially expressed in verbal and visuospatial domains.
Claret, A.
2016-04-01
Aims: Recent observations of very fast rotating stars show systematic deviations from the von Zeipel theorem and pose a challenge to the theory of gravity-darkening exponents (β1). In this paper, we present a new insight into the problem of temperature distribution over distorted stellar surfaces to try to reduce these discrepancies. Methods: We use a variant of the numerical method based on the triangles strategy, which we previously introduced, to evaluate the gravity-darkening exponents. The novelty of the present method is that the theoretical β1 is now computed as a function of the optical depth, that is, β1 ≡ β1(τ). The stellar evolutionary models, which are necessary to obtain the physical conditions of the stellar envelopes/atmospheres inherent to the numerical method, are computed via the code GRANADA. Results: When the resulting theoretical β1(τ) are compared with the best accurate data of very fast rotators, a good agreement for the six systems is simultaneously achieved. In addition, we derive an equation that relates the locus of constant convective efficiency in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram with gravity-darkening exponents.
Sex differences and autism: brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation.
Beacher, Felix D C C; Radulescu, Eugenia; Minati, Ludovico; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Walker, Anne; Howard, Dawn; Gray, Marcus A; Harrison, Neil A; Critchley, Hugo D
2012-01-01
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1) may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2) alternately reflect sex-specificity in how autism is expressed in males and females. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test these alternate hypotheses. Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS), and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks. All groups performed the tasks equally well. On the verbal fluency task, despite equivalent task-performance, both males and females with AS showed enhanced activation of left occipitoparietal and inferior prefrontal activity compared to controls. During mental rotation, there was a significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction across occipital, temporal, parietal, middle frontal regions, with greater activation in AS males and typical females compared to AS females and typical males. These findings suggest a complex relationship between autism and sex that is differentially expressed in verbal and visuospatial domains.
Sakmann, Kaspar
2010-07-21
In this thesis, the physics of trapped, interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is analyzed by solving the many-body Schroedinger equation. Particular emphasis is put on coherence, fragmentation and reduced density matrices. First, the ground state of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and its correlation functions are obtained. Then the dynamics of a bosonic Josephson junction is investigated by solving the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation numerically exactly. These are the first exact results in literature in this context. It is shown that the standard approximations of the field, Gross-Pitaevskii theory and the Bose-Hubbard model fail at weak interaction strength and within their range of expected validity. For stronger interactions the dynamics becomes strongly correlated and a new equilibration phenomenon is discovered. By comparison with exact results it is shown that a symmetry of the Bose- Hubbard model between attractive and repulsive interactions must be considered an artefact of the model. A conceptual innovation of this thesis are time-dependent Wannier functions. Equations of motion for time-dependent Wannier functions are derived from the variational principle. By comparison with exact results it is shown that lattice models can be greatly improved at little computational cost by letting the Wannier functions of a lattice model become time-dependent. (orig.)
Thermo-mechanical vibration of rotating axially functionally graded nonlocal Timoshenko beam
Azimi, Majid; Mirjavadi, Seyed Sajad; Shafiei, Navvab; Hamouda, A. M. S.
2017-01-01
The free vibration analysis of rotating axially functionally graded nanobeams under an in-plane nonlinear thermal loading is provided for the first time in this paper. The formulations are based on Timoshenko beam theory through Hamilton's principle. The small-scale effect has been considered using the nonlocal Eringen's elasticity theory. Then, the governing equations are solved by generalized differential quadrature method. It is supposed that the thermal distribution is considered as nonlinear, material properties are temperature dependent, and the power-law form is the basis of the variation of the material properties through the axial of beam. Free vibration frequencies obtained are cantilever type of boundary conditions. Presented numerical results are validated by comparing the obtained results with the published results in the literature. The influences of the nonlocal small-scale parameter, angular velocity, hub radius, FG index and also thermal effects on the frequencies of the FG nanobeams are investigated in detail.
Griffin, J. J.; Lichtner, P. C.; Dworzecka, M.; Kan, K. K.
1979-01-01
The restrictions implied for the time dependent many-body reaction theory by the (TDHF) single determinantal assumption are explored by constructive analysis. A restructured TD-S-HF reaction theory is modelled, not after the initial-value form of the Schroedinger reaction theory, but after the (fully equivalent) S-matrix form, under the conditions that only self-consistent TDHF solutions occur in the theory, every wave function obeys the fundamental statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the theory reduces to the exact Schroedinger theory for exact solutions which are single determinantal. All of these conditions can be accomodated provided that the theory is interpreted on a time-averaged basis, i.e., physical constants of the Schroedinger theory which are time-dependent in the TDHF theory, are interpreted in TD-S-HF in terms of their time averaged values. The resulting reaction theory, although formulated heuristically, prescribes a well defined and unambiguous calculational program which, although somewhat more demanding technically than the conventional initial-value TDHF method, is nevertheless more consonant with first principles, structurally and mechanistically. For its physical predictions do not depend upon the precise location of the distant measuring apparatus, and are in no way influenced by the spurious cross channel correlations which arise whenever the description of many reaction channels is imposed upon one single-determinantal solution. For nuclear structure physics, the TDHF-eigenfunctions provide the first plausible description of exact eigenstates in the time-dependent framework; moreover, they are unencumbered by any restriction to small amplitudes. 14 references.
Zuniga S, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2003-07-01
Employing canonical transformations defined in the coherent-state representation of quantum mechanics, we introduce Schroedinger-Cat- Like-States. The squeezed displaced number states with real squeezing parameter are contained in these states. (Author)
Golo Storch
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Stereodynamic ligands offer intriguing possibilities in enantioselective catalysis. “NU-BIPHEPs” are a class of stereodynamic diphosphine ligands which are easily accessible via rhodium-catalyzed double [2 + 2 + 2] cycloadditions. This study explores the preparation of differently functionalized “NU-BIPHEP(O” compounds, the characterization of non-covalent adduct formation and the quantification of enantiomerization barriers. In order to explore the possibilities of functionalization, we studied modifications of the ligand backbone, e.g., with 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl chloride. Diastereomeric adducts with Okamoto-type cellulose derivatives and on-column deracemization were realized on the basis of non-covalent interactions. Enantioselective dynamic HPLC (DHPLC allowed for the determination of rotational barriers of ΔG‡298K = 92.2 ± 0.3 kJ mol−1 and 99.5 ± 0.1 kJ mol−1 underlining the stereodynamic properties of “NU-BIPHEPs” and “NU-BIPHEP(Os”, respectively. These results make the preparation of tailor-made functionalized stereodynamic ligands possible and give an outline for possible applications in enantioselective catalysis.
Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.
2016-08-01
Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.
Waszczak, Adam; Ofek, Eran O; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; Surace, Jason; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Helou, George; Prince, Thomas A; Kulkarni, Shrinivas
2015-01-01
We fit 54,296 sparsely-sampled asteroid lightcurves in the Palomar Transient Factory to a combined rotation plus phase-function model. Each lightcurve consists of 20+ observations acquired in a single opposition. Using 805 asteroids in our sample that have reference periods in the literature, we find the reliability of our fitted periods is a complicated function of the period, amplitude, apparent magnitude and other attributes. Using the 805-asteroid ground-truth sample, we train an automated classifier to estimate (along with manual inspection) the validity of the remaining 53,000 fitted periods. By this method we find 9,033 of our lightcurves (of 8,300 unique asteroids) have reliable periods. Subsequent consideration of asteroids with multiple lightcurve fits indicate 4% contamination in these reliable periods. For 3,902 lightcurves with sufficient phase-angle coverage and either a reliably-fit period or low amplitude, we examine the distribution of several phase-function parameters, none of which are bimo...
Zuev, Vladimir V.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Pavlinskiy, Aleksei V.; Nakhtigalova, Daria P.
2017-01-01
Among lidar techniques, the pure rotational Raman (PRR) technique is the best suited for tropospheric and lower stratospheric temperature measurements. Calibration functions are required for the PRR technique to retrieve temperature profiles from lidar remote sensing data. Both temperature retrieval accuracy and number of calibration coefficients depend on the selected function. The commonly used calibration function (linear in reciprocal temperature 1/T with two calibration coefficients) ignores all types of broadening of individual PRR lines of atmospheric N2 and O2 molecules. However, the collisional (pressure) broadening dominates over other types of broadening of PRR lines in the troposphere and can differently affect the accuracy of tropospheric temperature measurements depending on the PRR lidar system. We recently derived the calibration function in the general analytical form that takes into account the collisional broadening of all N2 and O2 PRR lines (Gerasimov and Zuev, 2016). This general calibration function represents an infinite series and, therefore, cannot be directly used in the temperature retrieval algorithm. For this reason, its four simplest special cases (calibration functions nonlinear in 1/T with three calibration coefficients), two of which have not been suggested before, were considered and analyzed. All the special cases take the collisional PRR lines broadening into account in varying degrees and the best function among them was determined via simulation. In this paper, we use the special cases to retrieve tropospheric temperature from real PRR lidar data. The calibration function best suited for tropospheric temperature retrievals is determined from the comparative analysis of temperature uncertainties yielded by using these functions. The absolute and relative statistical uncertainties of temperature retrieval are given in an analytical form assuming Poisson statistics of photon counting. The vertical tropospheric temperature
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional: theoretical expectations and perturbative tests
Brida, Mattia Dalla [NIC, DESY,Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Sint, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin,Dublin 2 (Ireland); Vilaseca, Pol [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma,P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy)
2016-08-17
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional (χSF) with massless Wilson-type fermions provides an alternative lattice regularization of the Schrödinger functional (SF), with different lattice symmetries and a common continuum limit expected from universality. The explicit breaking of flavour and parity symmetries needs to be repaired by tuning the bare fermion mass and the coefficient of a dimension 3 boundary counterterm. Once this is achieved one expects the mechanism of automatic O(a) improvement to be operational in the χSF, in contrast to the standard formulation of the SF. This is expected to significantly improve the attainable precision for step-scaling functions of some composite operators. Furthermore, the χSF offers new strategies to determine finite renormalization constants which are traditionally obtained from chiral Ward identities. In this paper we consider a complete set of fermion bilinear operators, define corresponding correlation functions and explain the relation to their standard SF counterparts. We discuss renormalization and O(a) improvement and then use this set-up to formulate the theoretical expectations which follow from universality. Expanding the correlation functions to one-loop order of perturbation theory we then perform a number of non-trivial checks. In the process we obtain the action counterterm coefficients to one-loop order and reproduce some known perturbative results for renormalization constants of fermion bilinears. By confirming the theoretical expectations, this perturbative study lends further support to the soundness of the χSF framework and prepares the ground for non-perturbative applications.
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional: theoretical expectations and perturbative tests
Brida, Mattia Dalla; Sint, Stefan; Vilaseca, Pol
2016-08-01
The chirally rotated Schrödinger functional (χSF) with massless Wilson-type fermions provides an alternative lattice regularization of the Schrödinger functional (SF), with different lattice symmetries and a common continuum limit expected from universality. The explicit breaking of flavour and parity symmetries needs to be repaired by tuning the bare fermion mass and the coefficient of a dimension 3 boundary counterterm. Once this is achieved one expects the mechanism of automatic O( a) improvement to be operational in the χSF, in contrast to the standard formulation of the SF. This is expected to significantly improve the attainable precision for step-scaling functions of some composite operators. Furthermore, the χSF offers new strategies to determine finite renormalization constants which are traditionally obtained from chiral Ward identities. In this paper we consider a complete set of fermion bilinear operators, define corresponding correlation functions and explain the relation to their standard SF counterparts. We discuss renormalization and O( a) improvement and then use this set-up to formulate the theoretical expectations which follow from universality. Expanding the correlation functions to one-loop order of perturbation theory we then perform a number of non-trivial checks. In the process we obtain the action counterterm coefficients to one-loop order and reproduce some known perturbative results for renormalization constants of fermion bilinears. By confirming the theoretical expectations, this perturbative study lends further support to the soundness of the χSF framework and prepares the ground for non-perturbative applications.
Ostrander, Roger V; Klauser, Jeffrey M; Menon, Sanjay; Hackel, Joshua G
2017-03-01
Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears are a frequent source of shoulder pain. Despite conservative measures, some patients continue to be symptomatic and require surgical management. However, there is some controversy as to which surgical approach results in the best outcomes for grade 3 tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate repair integrity and the clinical results of patients treated with transtendinous repair of high-grade partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis was that transtendinous repairs would result in reliable healing and acceptable functional outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in the study. All patients underwent arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears utilizing a transtendinous technique by a single surgeon. At latest follow-up, the repair integrity was evaluated using ultrasound imaging, and functional scores were calculated. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated that 18 of 20 patients had complete healing with a normal-appearing rotator cuff. Two patients had a minor residual partial tear. Sixteen of 20 patients had no pain on visual analog scale. Four patients complained of mild intermittent residual pain. All patients were rated as "excellent" by both the University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Score and the Simple Shoulder Test. The transtendon technique for the repair of articular-sided high-grade partial rotator cuff tears results in reliable tendon healing and excellent functional outcomes.
Quantum Nonlocality and Generation of Multi-mode Schroedinger Cat States
ZHENGShi-Biao
2004-01-01
We describe the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox in the multi-mode Schroedinger cat states.We also show that the multi-mode cat states violate the Bell's inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with number of modes. The test of quantum nonlocality is based on parity measurement and displacement operation, which are experimentally feasible. We also describe a scheme for the generation of the cat states in cavity QED.
Efficient Scheme for the Generation of Atomic Schroedinger Cat States in an Optical Cavity
ZHENGShi-Biao; LINLi-Hua; JIANGYun-Kun
2003-01-01
An efficient scheme is proposed for the generation of atomic Schroedinger cat states in an optical cavity. In the scheme N three-level atoms are loaded in the optical cavity. Raman coupling of two ground states is achieved via a laser tield and the cavity mode. The cavity mode is always in the vacuum state and the atoms have no probability of being populated in the excited state. Thus, the scheme is insensitive to both the cavity decay and spontaneous emission.
A nonlinear Schroedinger equation with two symmetric point interactions in one dimension
Kovarik, Hynek [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Sacchetti, Andrea [Facolta di Scienze, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)], E-mail: Hynek.Kovarik@polito.it, E-mail: Andrea.Sacchetti@unimore.it
2010-04-16
We consider a time-dependent one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a symmetric double-well potential represented by two Dirac's {delta}. Among our results we give an explicit formula for the integral kernel of the unitary semigroup associated with the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Then we establish the corresponding Strichartz-type estimate and we prove local existence and uniqueness of the solution to the original nonlinear probl0008.
Remarks on the Schroedinger operator with singular complex potentials. Technical summary report
Brezis, H.; Kato, T.
1978-08-01
Schroedinger operators of the form A = delta + V(x), where delta is the Laplacian and V is a scalar potential, arise in quantum mechanics and other areas. Delicate questions concerning what domain should be assigned to A must be settled in order to have a good theory. These questions are answered here for a very general class of potentials V which may even have complex values.
Belmonte-Beitia, Juan [Departamento de Matematicas, E. T. S. de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la IngenierIa (IMACI), E. T. S. I. Industriales, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela, s/n Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2009-01-23
We introduce a model of a Bose-Einstein condensate based on the one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation, in which the nonlinear term depends on the domain. The nonlinear term changes a cubic term into a quintic term, according to the domain considered. We study the existence, stability and bifurcation of solutions, and use the qualitative theory of dynamical systems to study certain properties of such solutions.
On the solution of the coupled Schroedinger-KdV equation by the decomposition method
Kaya, Dogan; El-Sayed, Salah M
2003-06-23
In this Letter, we consider a coupled Schroedinger-Korteweg-de Vries equation (or Sch-KdV) equation with appropriate initial values using the Adomian's decomposition method (or ADM). In this method, the solution is calculated in the form of a convergent power series with easily computable components. The method does not need linearization, weak nonlinearity assumptions or perturbation theory. The convergence of the method as applied to Sch-KdV is illustrated numerically.
Glaydson Gomes Godinho
2016-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff fixation and, when present, simultaneous repair of the Bankart lesion caused by traumatic dislocation; and to assess whether the size of the rotator cuff injury caused by traumatic dislocation has any influence on the postoperative clinical outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with traumatic shoulder dislocation and complete rotator cuff injury, with at least two years of follow up, were retrospectively evaluated. For analysis purposes, the patients were divided into groups: presence of fixed Bankart lesion or absence of this lesion, and rotator cuff lesions smaller than 3.0 cm (group A or greater than or equal to 3.0 cm (group B. All the patients underwent arthroscopic repair of the lesions and were evaluated postoperatively by means of the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles score and strength measurements. RESULTS: The group with Bankart lesion repair had a postoperative UCLA score of 33.96, while the score of the group without Bankart lesion was 33.7, without statistical significance (p = 0.743. Group A had a postoperative UCLA score of 34.35 and group B, 33.15, without statistical significance (p = 0.416. CONCLUSION: The functional outcomes of the patients who only presented complete rotator cuff tearing after traumatic shoulder dislocation, which underwent arthroscopic repair, were similar to the outcomes of those who presented an associated with a Bankart lesion that was corrected simultaneously with the rotator cuff injury. The extent of the original rotator cuff injury did not alter the functional results in the postoperative evaluation.
Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; Freitas, José Márcio Alves; de Oliveira França, Flávio; Santos, Flávio Márcio Lago; de Simoni, Leandro Furtado; Godinho, Pedro Couto
2016-01-01
Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff fixation and, when present, simultaneous repair of the Bankart lesion caused by traumatic dislocation; and to assess whether the size of the rotator cuff injury caused by traumatic dislocation has any influence on the postoperative clinical outcomes. Methods Thirty-three patients with traumatic shoulder dislocation and complete rotator cuff injury, with at least two years of follow up, were retrospectively evaluated. For analysis purposes, the patients were divided into groups: presence of fixed Bankart lesion or absence of this lesion, and rotator cuff lesions smaller than 3.0 cm (group A) or greater than or equal to 3.0 cm (group B). All the patients underwent arthroscopic repair of the lesions and were evaluated postoperatively by means of the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) score and strength measurements. Results The group with Bankart lesion repair had a postoperative UCLA score of 33.96, while the score of the group without Bankart lesion was 33.7, without statistical significance (p = 0.743). Group A had a postoperative UCLA score of 34.35 and group B, 33.15, without statistical significance (p = 0.416). Conclusion The functional outcomes of the patients who only presented complete rotator cuff tearing after traumatic shoulder dislocation, which underwent arthroscopic repair, were similar to the outcomes of those who presented an associated with a Bankart lesion that was corrected simultaneously with the rotator cuff injury. The extent of the original rotator cuff injury did not alter the functional results in the postoperative evaluation. PMID:27069884
DuPré, Donald B.; Chapoy, L. Lawrence
1980-01-01
The effect of rotational Brownian motion on measurements of orientational distribution functions in uniaxial liquid crystals is discussed. The comments of Naqvi1 on the authors previously published2,3 papers are answered.(AIP) The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute...
Savage, Mathew
2016-07-27
The key requirement for a portable store of natural gas is to maximize the amount of gas within the smallest possible space. The packing of methane (CH4) in a given storage medium at the highest possible density is, therefore, a highly desirable but challenging target. We report a microporous hydroxyl-decorated material, MFM-300(In) (MFM = Manchester Framework Material, replacing the NOTT designation), which displays a high volumetric uptake of 202 v/v at 298 K and 35 bar for CH4 and 488 v/v at 77 K and 20 bar for H2. Direct observation and quantification of the location, binding, and rotational modes of adsorbed CH4 and H2 molecules within this host have been achieved, using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, coupled with density functional theory (DFT) modeling. These complementary techniques reveal a very efficient packing of H2 and CH4 molecules within MFM-300(In), reminiscent of the condensed gas in pure component crystalline solids. We also report here, for the first time, the experimental observation of a direct binding interaction between adsorbed CH4 molecules and the hydroxyl groups within the pore of a material. This is different from the arrangement found in CH4/water clathrates, the CH4 store of nature.
Rotation Matrix Method Based on Ambiguity Function for GNSS Attitude Determination.
Yang, Yingdong; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng
2016-06-08
Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are well suited for attitude determination. In this study, we use the rotation matrix method to resolve the attitude angle. This method achieves better performance in reducing computational complexity and selecting satellites. The condition of the baseline length is combined with the ambiguity function method (AFM) to search for integer ambiguity, and it is validated in reducing the span of candidates. The noise error is always the key factor to the success rate. It is closely related to the satellite geometry model. In contrast to the AFM, the LAMBDA (Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment) method gets better results in solving the relationship of the geometric model and the noise error. Although the AFM is more flexible, it is lack of analysis on this aspect. In this study, the influence of the satellite geometry model on the success rate is analyzed in detail. The computation error and the noise error are effectively treated. Not only is the flexibility of the AFM inherited, but the success rate is also increased. An experiment is conducted in a selected campus, and the performance is proved to be effective. Our results are based on simulated and real-time GNSS data and are applied on single-frequency processing, which is known as one of the challenging case of GNSS attitude determination.
Galasso, Olimpio; Riccelli, Daria Anna; De Gori, Marco; De Benedetto, Massimo; Orlando, Nicola; Gasparini, Giorgio; Castricini, Roberto
2017-02-01
To evaluate the minimum 2-year results and possible outcomes of arthroscopic partial repair in different patterns of irreparable rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients suffering from an irreparable supraspinatus and a reparable infraspinatus tendons who underwent arthroscopic partial repair with a minimum 24-month follow-up were included in this study. The Constant and Murley score (CMS) was used to assess patients' functionality pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative patient assessment included the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and the Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). A postoperative range of motion, CMS, and strength were compared with the contralateral side. Postoperative SF-36 was compared with age- and sex-matched norms. Ninety patients (95 shoulders) were reviewed after a mean follow-up of 7 (range 2-12) years. The subscapularis tendon was intact in 80 shoulders and torn but completely reparable in the remaining 15 shoulders. The CMS improved from 39.1 ± 8.4 (10-61) to 76.3 ± 9.7 (32-93) (P case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Savage, Mathew; da Silva, Ivan; Johnson, Mark; Carter, Joseph H; Newby, Ruth; Suyetin, Mikhail; Besley, Elena; Manuel, Pascal; Rudić, Svemir; Fitch, Andrew N; Murray, Claire; David, William I F; Yang, Sihai; Schröder, Martin
2016-07-27
The key requirement for a portable store of natural gas is to maximize the amount of gas within the smallest possible space. The packing of methane (CH4) in a given storage medium at the highest possible density is, therefore, a highly desirable but challenging target. We report a microporous hydroxyl-decorated material, MFM-300(In) (MFM = Manchester Framework Material, replacing the NOTT designation), which displays a high volumetric uptake of 202 v/v at 298 K and 35 bar for CH4 and 488 v/v at 77 K and 20 bar for H2. Direct observation and quantification of the location, binding, and rotational modes of adsorbed CH4 and H2 molecules within this host have been achieved, using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, coupled with density functional theory (DFT) modeling. These complementary techniques reveal a very efficient packing of H2 and CH4 molecules within MFM-300(In), reminiscent of the condensed gas in pure component crystalline solids. We also report here, for the first time, the experimental observation of a direct binding interaction between adsorbed CH4 molecules and the hydroxyl groups within the pore of a material. This is different from the arrangement found in CH4/water clathrates, the CH4 store of nature.
Vassiliev, Dmitri
2017-04-01
We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833
Glaydson Gomes Godinho
2015-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the functional results from high and low-grade isolated partial lesions of the supraspinatus tendon of bursal and articular types, after arthroscopic treatment.METHODS: Sixty-four patients with isolated partial lesions of the supraspinatus tendon were evaluated. The mean length of follow-up was 76 months (range: 29-193. The mean age was 59 years (range: 36-82. The dominant side was affected in 44 patients (68.8%. There were 35 bursal lesions (54.7% and 29 articular lesions (45.3%. We used the Ellman classification and characterized the lesions as low or high-grade according to whether they affected less than or more than 50% of the tendon thickness, respectively. Debridement was performed in 15 patients (23.5%, repair without completing the lesion in 11 (17% and repair after completing the lesion in 38 (59.5%. The functional assessments on the patients were done using the Constant & Murley and UCLA scores.RESULTS: The mean Constant & Murley score among the patients with bursal lesions was 82.64 ± 6.98 (range: 59.3-99 and among those with articular lesions, 83.57 ± 7.58 (range: 66-95, while the mean UCLA score in the bursal lesions was 33.37 ± 2.85 (range: 21-35 and in the articular lesions, 32.83 ± 2.95 (range: 22-35.CONCLUSION: Videoarthroscopic treatment of partial lesions of the rotator cuff presents good or excellent results when the low-grade lesions are debrided and the high-grade lesions are completed and repaired. These results are maintained over the long term, with a high satisfaction rate and few complications.
Cyprien Lemouchi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy.
Alberto Naoki Miyazaki
2016-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the good and excellent functional results from arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears are maintained over the long term. METHODS: From the sample of the study conducted by our group in 2006, in which we evaluated the functional results from arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears, 35 patients were reassessed, 8 years after the first evaluation. The inclusion criteria were that these patients with massive rotator cuff tears operated by means of an arthroscopic technique, who participated in the previous study and achieved good or excellent outcomes according to the UCLA criteria. Patients whose results were not good or excellent in the first evaluation according to the UCLA criteria were excluded. RESULTS: Among the 35 patients reassessed, 91% of them continued to present good and excellent results (40% excellent and 51% good, while 3% presented fair results and 6% poor results. The time interval between the first and second evaluations was 8 years and the minimum length of follow-up since the immediate postoperative period was 9 years (range: 9-17 years, with an average of 11.4 years. CONCLUSION: The good and excellent results from arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears were mostly maintained (91%, with the same level of function and satisfaction, even though 8 years had passed since the first assessment, with a follow-up period averaging 11.4 years.
Marco Antonio de Castro Veado
2015-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff injuries, among those aged over 65 years, observing integrity, function and strength.METHODS: Thirty-five shoulders were operated between July 2005 and July 2010, and 28 shoulders were re-evaluated regarding elevation strength and external rotation, using a digital dynamometer. Integrity was evaluated by means of ultrasound examinations. The patients, whose mean age was 70.54 years (ranging from 65 to 82 years, were followed up for a minimum of 26 months and mean of 51.18 months (ranging from 26 to 82 months. To evaluate function, the UCLA score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain were used.RESULTS: In analyzing the ultrasound scans, it was observed that the integrity of the rotator cuff was maintained in 75% of the cases at the end of the follow-up, along with the improvement in the UCLA score, which evolved from 17.46 to 32.39, i.e. excellent and good results in 89.28%. The mean SST and VAS indices were 9.86 and 1.5 respectively.CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injuries in patients over the age of 65 years leads to improved function and pain relief, with maintenance of the integrity of the repair. The data on muscle strength were inconclusive.
Shields, Edward; Mirabelli, Mark; Amsdell, Simon; Thorsness, Robert; Goldblatt, John; Maloney, Michael; Voloshin, Ilya
2014-11-01
Previous studies have investigated outcomes of simultaneous rotator cuff (RC) repair and superior labral injury repair; however, there is limited information in the literature on outcomes of simultaneous RC repair and Bankart lesion repair after acute shoulder dislocations. To determine functional and imaging outcomes of simultaneous arthroscopic RC repair and Bankart repair after acute shoulder dislocations and to compare functional outcomes to contralateral, asymptomatic shoulders. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic simultaneous RC repair and Bankart repair with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were recruited. All patients had suffered an acute shoulder dislocation. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Constant-Murley, and Short Form (SF)-36 scores were obtained. The affected shoulder also underwent ultrasound imaging to assess the integrity of the RC. Thirteen patients (mean age, 58.8 ± 11.2 years; mean follow-up, 38.5 ± 12.3 months) were recruited. In a comparison of the affected versus unaffected shoulder, there were no significant differences in the mean ASES score (89.7 ± 12.6 vs 95.0 ± 6.7, respectively), mean Constant score (80.5 ± 18.9 vs 86.8 ± 7.9, respectively), or mean abduction strength (15.4 ± 6.4 lb vs 15.4 ± 5.2 lb, respectively) (P > .05). The mean SF-36 physical component summary was 48.4. According to ultrasound imaging, there were persistent/recurrent full-thickness tears in 4 patients, and 1 patient had a new full-thickness tear. At follow-up, patients with full-thickness RC tears in the affected shoulder compared with their unaffected shoulder showed similar mean ASES scores (90.9 ± 11.8 vs 97.6 ± 4.3, respectively), mean Constant scores (77.8 ± 20.3 vs 84.8 ± 7.2, respectively), and mean abduction strength (11.5 ± 5.3 lb vs 12.6 ± 4.5 lb, respectively) (P > .05). After simultaneous arthroscopic repair of the RC and a Bankart lesion in patients after shoulder
Fang, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Guang An Men Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking (China); Krings, T.; Weidemann, J.; Meister, I.G.; Thron, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of the University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)
2004-05-01
The cerebral activation pattern due to acupuncture is not completely understood. Although the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics has been studied, no previous report has focused on different puncture and stimulation methods. We used functional MRI (fMRI) in 15 healthy subjects to investigate cortical activation during stimulation of two real acupoints (Liv3 and G40) and one sham point, needled in a random and, for the subjects, blinded order employing rotating and non-rotating methods, using a blocked paradigm on a 1.5 tesla imager. Compared to the non-rotating stimulation method, during rotating stimulation of the real acupoints, we observed an increase in activation in both secondary somatosensory cortical areas, frontal areas, the right side of the thalamus and the left side of the cerebellum; no such effects of the needling technique were seen while stimulating the sham point. The observation that rotating the needle strengthened the effects of acupuncture only at real acupoints suggests that, as claimed in Chinese traditional medicine, stimulation of these acupoints has a specific effect on cortical neuronal activity, absent with sham acupoints. These specific cerebral activation patterns might explain the therapeutic effects of acupuncture in certain subjects. (orig.)
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beam fixed to a Rotating Hub
Panigrahi, B.; Pohit, G.
2016-08-01
The present work accounts centrifugal stiffening effect on the nonlinear vibration response of an FGM Timoshenko beam. Analysis is carried out for a cantilever beam fixed with a rotating hub. Material is assumed to have a gradation relation along the depth of the beam. Centrifugal force and axial displacement raised due to the rotating hub is incorporated in the strain energy equations. Subsequent to this, an iterative technique is employed to obtain amplitude dependent vibration response of a rotating Timoshenko beam while material follows a gradation relation along the beam depth. Main objective of the work is to obtain the effects of rotational speeds, hub radius, and different gradation relations on the linear as well as nonlinear frequencies and mode shapes.
Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Terras, V. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique
2010-12-15
We present a new method allowing us to derive the long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the correlations functions of quantum integrable models from their exact representations. Starting from the form factor expansion of the correlation functions in finite volume, we explain how to reduce the complexity of the computation in the so-called interacting integrable models to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We apply our method to the time-dependent zero-temperature current-current correlation function in the non-linear Schroedinger model and compute the first few terms in its asymptotic expansion. Our result goes beyond the conformal field theory based predictions: in the time-dependent case, other types of excitations than the ones on the Fermi surface contribute to the leading orders of the asymptotics. (orig.)
Hougaard, Rikke Frølich; Andersen, Félicie Faucon; Westergaard, Ole
2004-01-01
The human topoisomerase I N-terminal domain is the only part of the enzyme still not crystallized and the function of this domain remains enigmatical. In the present study, we have addressed the specific functions of individual N-terminal regions of topoisomerase I by characterizing mutants lacking...... amino acid residues 1–202 or 191–206 or having tryptophane-205 substituted by glycine in a broad variety of in vitro activity assays. As a result of these investigations we find that mutants altered in the region 191–206 distinguished themselves from the wild-type enzyme by a faster strand rotation step...... support a model according to which tryptophane-205 and possibly other residues located between position 191–206 coordinates the restriction of free strand rotation during the topoisomerization step of catalysis. Moreover, tryptophane-205 appears important for the function of the bulk part of the N...
Giuliano, Barbara M.; Bizzocchi, Luca; Sanchez, Raquel; Villanueva, Pablo; Cortijo, Vanessa; Sanz, M. Eugenia; Grabow, Jens-Uwe
2011-08-01
The pure rotational spectra of 18 and 21 isotopic species of GeSe and GeTe have been measured in the frequency range 5-24 GHz using a Fabry-Pérot-type resonator pulsed-jet Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. Gaseous samples of both chalcogenides were prepared by a combined dc discharge/laser ablation technique and stabilized in supersonic jets of Ne. Global multi-isotopologue analyses of the derived rotational data, together with literature high-resolution infrared data, produced very precise Dunham parameters, as well as rotational constant Born-Oppenheimer breakdown (BOB) coefficients (δ01) for Ge, Se, and Te. A direct fit of the same datasets to an appropriate radial Hamiltonian yielded analytic potential-energy functions and BOB radial functions for the X1Σ+ electronic state of both GeSe and GeTe. Additionally, the electric quadrupole and magnetic hyperfine interactions produced by the nuclei 73Ge, 77Se, and 125Te were observed, yielding much improved quadrupole coupling constants and first determinations of the spin-rotation parameters.
Lutnæs, Ola B.; Teale, Andrew M.; Helgaker, Trygve; Tozer, David J.; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen
2009-10-01
An accurate set of benchmark rotational g tensors and magnetizabilities are calculated using coupled-cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) theory and coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative-triples [CCSD(T)] theory, in a variety of basis sets consisting of (rotational) London atomic orbitals. The accuracy of the results obtained is established for the rotational g tensors by careful comparison with experimental data, taking into account zero-point vibrational corrections. After an analysis of the basis sets employed, extrapolation techniques are used to provide estimates of the basis-set-limit quantities, thereby establishing an accurate benchmark data set. The utility of the data set is demonstrated by examining a wide variety of density functionals for the calculation of these properties. None of the density-functional methods are competitive with the CCSD or CCSD(T) methods. The need for a careful consideration of vibrational effects is clearly illustrated. Finally, the pure coupled-cluster results are compared with the results of density-functional calculations constrained to give the same electronic density. The importance of current dependence in exchange-correlation functionals is discussed in light of this comparison.
Rotational head kinematics in football impacts: an injury risk function for concussion.
Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M; Crisco, Joseph J; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C
2012-01-01
Recent research has suggested a possible link between sports-related concussions and neurodegenerative processes, highlighting the importance of developing methods to accurately quantify head impact tolerance. The use of kinematic parameters of the head to predict brain injury has been suggested because they are indicative of the inertial response of the brain. The objective of this study is to characterize the rotational kinematics of the head associated with concussive impacts using a large head acceleration dataset collected from human subjects. The helmets of 335 football players were instrumented with accelerometer arrays that measured head acceleration following head impacts sustained during play, resulting in data for 300,977 sub-concussive and 57 concussive head impacts. The average sub-concussive impact had a rotational acceleration of 1230 rad/s(2) and a rotational velocity of 5.5 rad/s, while the average concussive impact had a rotational acceleration of 5022 rad/s(2) and a rotational velocity of 22.3 rad/s. An injury risk curve was developed and a nominal injury value of 6383 rad/s(2) associated with 28.3 rad/s represents 50% risk of concussion. These data provide an increased understanding of the biomechanics associated with concussion and they provide critical insight into injury mechanisms, human tolerance to mechanical stimuli, and injury prevention techniques.
Koroleva, L. A.; Krasnoshchekov, S. V.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.
2016-08-01
The structural parameters of s- trans- and s- cis-isomers of a methacrolein molecule in the ground ( S 0) electronic state are determined by means of MP2 method with the cc-pVTZ basis set. Kinematic factor F(φ) is expanded in a Fourier series. The potential function of internal rotation (PFIR) of methacrolein in this state is built using experimental frequencies of transitions of the torsional vibration of both isomers, obtained from an analysis of the vibrational structure of the high-resolution UV spectrum with allowance for the geometry and difference between the energy (Δ H) of the isomers. It is shown that the V n parameters of the potential function of internal rotation of the molecule, built using the frequencies of the transition of the torsional vibrations of s- trans- and s- cis-isomers of the methacrolein molecule, determined from vibrational structure of the high-resolution UV spectrum and the FTIR spectrum, are close.
Zia, Roseanna N., E-mail: zia@cbe.cornell.edu; Su, Yu [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Swan, James W. [Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2015-12-14
The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261–290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16–29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375–400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1–29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle
Zia, Roseanna N.; Swan, James W.; Su, Yu
2015-12-01
The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16-29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375-400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1-29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle translation
Alignment of collagen fiber in knitted silk scaffold for functional massive rotator cuff repair.
Zheng, Zefeng; Ran, Jisheng; Chen, Weishan; Hu, Yejun; Zhu, Ting; Chen, Xiao; Yin, Zi; Heng, Boon Chin; Feng, Gang; Le, Huihui; Tang, Chenqi; Huang, Jiayun; Chen, Yangwu; Zhou, Yiting; Dominique, Pioletti; Shen, Weiliang; Ouyang, Hong-Wei
2017-03-15
Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common types of shoulder injuries, often resulting in pain and physical debilitation. Allogeneic tendon-derived decellularized matrices do not have appropriate pore size and porosity to facilitate cell infiltration, while commercially-available synthetic scaffolds are often inadequate at inducing tenogenic differentiation. The aim of this study is to develop an advanced 3D aligned collagen/silk scaffold (ACS) and investigate its efficacy in a rabbit massive rotator cuff tear model. ACS has similar 3D alignment of collagen fibers as natural tendon with superior mechanical characteristics. Based on ectopic transplantation studies, the optimal collagen concentration (10mg/ml), pore diameter (108.43±7.25μm) and porosity (97.94±0.08%) required for sustaining a stable macro-structure conducive for cellular infiltration was determined. Within in vitro culture, tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) displayed spindle-shaped morphology, and were well-aligned on ACS as early as 24h. TSPCs formed intercellular contacts and deposited extracellular matrix after 7days. With the in vivo rotator cuff repair model, the regenerative tendon of the ACS group displayed more conspicuous native microstructures with larger diameter collagen fibrils (48.72±3.75 vs. 44.26±5.03nm) that had better alignment and mechanical properties (139.85±49.36vs. 99.09±33.98N) at 12weeks post-implantation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the positive efficacy of the macroporous 3D aligned scaffold in facilitating rotator cuff tendon regeneration, and its practical applications for rotator cuff tendon tissue engineering. Massive rotator cuff tear is one of the most common shoulder injuries, and poses a formidable clinical challenge to the orthopedic surgeon. Tissue engineering of tendon can potentially overcome the problem. However, more efficacious scaffolds with good biocompatibility, appropriate pore size, favorable inductivity and sufficient mechanical
THE LONG-TIME BEHAVIOR OF SPECTRAL APPROXIMATE FOR KLEIN-GORDON-SCHROEDINGER EQUATIONS
Xin-minXiang
2004-01-01
Klein-Gordon-Schroedinger (KGS) equations are very important in physics. Some papers studied their well-posedness and numerical solution [1-4], and another works investigated the existence of global attractor in Rn and Ω包含于Rn (n≤3) [5-6,11-12]. In this paper, we discuss the dynamical behavior when we apply spectral method to find numerical approximation for periodic initial value problem of KGS equations. It includes the existence of approximate attractor AN, the upper semi-continuity on A which is a global attractor of initial problem and the upper bounds of Hausdorff and fractal dimensions for A and AN,etc.
Explicit and exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized derivative Schroedinger equation
Huang Dingjiang [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)]. E-mail: hdj8116@163.com; Li Desheng [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Mathematics, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2007-02-15
In this paper, a new auxiliary equation expansion method and its algorithm is proposed by studying a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a sixth-degree nonlinear term. Being concise and straightforward, the method is applied to the generalized derivative Schroedinger equation. As a result, some new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained which include bright and dark solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions and singular solutions. This algorithm can also be applied to other nonlinear wave equations in mathematical physics.
On form factors of the conjugated field in the non-linear Schroedinger model
Kozlowski, K.K.
2011-05-15
Izergin-Korepin's lattice discretization of the non-linear Schroedinger model along with Oota's inverse problem provides one with determinant representations for the form factors of the lattice discretized conjugated field operator. We prove that these form factors converge, in the zero lattice spacing limit, to those of the conjugated field operator in the continuous model. We also compute the large-volume asymptotic behavior of such form factors in the continuous model. These are in particular characterized by Fredholm determinants of operators acting on closed contours. We provide a way of defining these Fredholm determinants in the case of generic paramaters. (orig.)
A New Approach to Solve the Low-lying States of the Schroedinger Equation
Lee Tsung Dao
2005-01-01
We review a new iterative procedure to solve the low-lying states of the Schroedinger equation, done in collaboration with Richard Friedberg. For the groundstate energy, the $n^{th}$ order iterative energy is bounded by a finite limit, independent of $n$; thereby it avoids some of the inherent difficulties faced by the usual perturbative series expansions. For a fairly large class of problems, this new procedure can be proved to give convergent iterative solutions. These convergent solutions include the long standing difficult problem of a quartic potential with either symmetric or asymmetric minima.
Protogenov, A P
2001-01-01
The brief review of events, conditioned by the nonlinear modes strong correlations in the planar systems is presented. The analysis is limited by the Schroedinger nonlinear equation model. The fields stationary distributions are determined. The dependence of the particles number on the parameter characterizing the degree of looking, of the universal oscillation lines, is obtained. It is shown that by small values of this parameter there exists on the two-dimensional lattice the universal gravitation, which may be the dynamic cause of transition to the coherent state. The connection of the chiral nonlinear boundary modes with the violations of the Galilean-invariance of the considered system is discussed
On form factors of the conjugated field in the non-linear Schroedinger model
Kozlowski, K.K.
2011-05-15
Izergin-Korepin's lattice discretization of the non-linear Schroedinger model along with Oota's inverse problem provides one with determinant representations for the form factors of the lattice discretized conjugated field operator. We prove that these form factors converge, in the zero lattice spacing limit, to those of the conjugated field operator in the continuous model. We also compute the large-volume asymptotic behavior of such form factors in the continuous model. These are in particular characterized by Fredholm determinants of operators acting on closed contours. We provide a way of defining these Fredholm determinants in the case of generic paramaters. (orig.)
Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth E; Dong, Yan; Higgins, Laurence D; Katz, Jeffrey N; Jain, Nitin B
2015-05-01
Structural characteristics of rotator cuff tears are used in surgical decision making. However, data on the association of tear size with patient-reported pain and function are sparse. To assess the association of tear size, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy with shoulder pain/function in patients with cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 67 patients with rotator cuff tears were recruited for this longitudinal cohort study. Patients were determined to have a cuff tear using clinical assessment and blinded magnetic resonance imaging review. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) was used as a measure of shoulder pain and function. Tear size and thickness were not significantly associated with pain (SPADI pain score, 60.6 [95% CI, 49.8-71.5] for partial-thickness tear; 56.8 [95% CI, 42.8-70.7] for tear; 60.4 [95% CI, 51.7-69.0] for ≥2 cm full-thickness tear). Tear size and thickness were not associated with function (SPADI disability score, 42.7 [95% CI, 29.8-55.6] for partial-thickness tear; 37.6 [95% CI, 23.9-51.4] for tear; 45.1 [95% CI, 35.4-54.8] for ≥2 cm full-thickness tear). Fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and tendon retraction were also not significantly associated with SPADI pain and disability scores. A Mental Health Index score of tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment, pain and functional status were not associated with tear size and thickness, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy. Conversely, factors unrelated to cuff anatomy such as mental health, comorbidities, age, and sex were associated with pain/function. These findings have clinical implications during surgical decision making and suggest that pain and functional disability in patients with rotator cuff tears is multifactorial and should not solely be attributed to structural characteristics.
Nonlinear Schroedinger excitations scattering on local barrier in one dimension
Kovrizhin, D L
2001-01-01
The task on the excitations scattering of the Bose condensate under consideration on the unidimensional barrier is nontrivial one even in the case of a low barrier because the barrier itself and change in the condensate density in its vicinity play the similar important role. It is shown that if any repulsive barrier for a bare particle within the range of the waves high lengths is impermeable, than the coefficient of the delta-functional transmission for the phonons within this range strives to the unity and the barrier becomes transparent
Kravchenko, Viktor G [Faculdade de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Depto de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI ESIME Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN S/N, Edif. 1 CP 07738, DF (Mexico)
2003-11-07
We show that an ample class of physically meaningful partial differential systems of first order such as the Dirac equation with different one-component potentials, static Maxwell's system and the system describing the force-free magnetic fields are equivalent to a single quaternionic equation which in its turn reduces in general to a Schroedinger equation with quaternionic potential, and in some situations this last can be diagonalized. The rich variety of methods developed for different problems corresponding to the Schroedinger equation can be applied to the systems considered in the present work.
Mihalache, D.; Panoiu, N.-C.; Moldoveanu, F.; Baboiu, D.-M. [Dept. of Theor. Phys., Inst. of Atomic Phys., Bucharest (Romania)
1994-09-21
We used the Riemann problem method with a 3*3 matrix system to find the femtosecond single soliton solution for a perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger equation which describes bright ultrashort pulse propagation in properly tailored monomode optical fibres. Compared with the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko approach, the major advantage of the Riemann problem method is that it provides the general single soliton solution in a simple and compact form. Unlike the standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation, here the single soliton solution exhibits periodic evolution patterns. (author)
Kozlowski, K.K.
2010-12-15
Starting from the form factor expansion in finite volume, we derive the multidimensional generalization of the so-called Natte series for the zero-temperature, time and distance dependent reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model. This representation allows one to read-off straightforwardly the long-time/large-distance asymptotic behavior of this correlator. Our method of analysis reduces the complexity of the computation of the asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in the so-called interacting integrable models, to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We compute explicitly the first few terms appearing in the asymptotic expansion. Part of these terms stems from excitations lying away from the Fermi boundary, and hence go beyond what can be obtained by using the CFT/Luttinger liquid based predictions. (orig.)
Klein-Gordon-Wheeler-DeWitt-Schroedinger Equation
Pavsic, Matej
2011-01-01
We start from the Einstein-Hilbert action for the gravitational field in the presence of a point particle source, and cast the action into the corresponding phase space form. The dynamical variables of such a system satisfy the point particle mass shell constraint, the Hamilton and the momentum constraints of the canonical gravity. In the quantized theory, those constraints become operators that annihilate a state. A state can be represented by a wave functional $\\Psi$ that simultaneously satisfies the Klein-Gordon and the Wheeler-DeWitt-Schr\\"odinger equation. The latter equation, besides the term due to gravity, also contains the Schr\\"odinger like term, namely the derivative of $\\Psi$ with respect to time, that occurs because of the presence of the point particle. The particle's time coordinate, $X^0$, serves the role of time. Next, we generalize the system to $p$-branes, and find out that for a quantized spacetime filling brane there occurs an effective cosmological constant, proportional to the expectati...
Ok, Hyun Soo; Kim, Byung Guk; Choi, Won Chul; Hong, Chul Gie; Kim, Jee Woong; Kim, Jae Hwa
2017-01-01
Studies on the results of arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears have reported widely varied prognoses. Among other factors, the sizable discrepancy can be attributable to the fact that the current definition of massive rotator cuff tears covers an extensive area of tendons. Functional and radiological results according to subgroups would show significant inter-subgroup differences preoperatively and postoperatively. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 104 patients who required arthroscopic repair for massive rotator cuff tears were prospectively evaluated. The patients were allocated into 3 groups according to tendon involvement as diagnosed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging: group 1 (anterosuperior type involving the subscapularis and supraspinatus), group 2 (posterosuperior type involving the infraspinatus and supraspinatus), and group 3 (anteroposterior type involving the subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus). We compared functional results (at 2 years postoperatively) and radiological findings (at 1 year postoperatively) for each group. There were 34 patients in group 1, 54 in group 2, and 16 in group 3. In all 3 groups, functional results significantly improved after surgery. There were no statistically significant intergroup differences in functional results among the 3 groups. On the radiological evaluations, each group (groups 1, 2, and 3) showed a significantly different result in the preoperative acromiohumeral distance (AHD) (7.19, 5.44, and 5.22 mm, respectively), tear size (38.8, 39.3, and 46.4 mm, respectively), extent of retraction (33.9, 40.0, and 41.4 mm, respectively), postoperative AHD (8.92, 7.37, and 6.71 mm, respectively), and retear rate (23.5%, 51.9%, and 56.2%, respectively) ( P rotator cuff tears can be divided into 3 types: anterosuperior (group 1), posterosuperior (group 2), and anteroposterior (group 3). Each group has distinctive characteristics and shows different results in the preoperative
Alberto Naoki Miyazaki
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries (RCI that involved the supra and infraspinatus muscles using the suture bridge (SB technique. METHODS: Between July 2010 and November 2014, 37 patients with RCI who were treated with SB technique were evaluated. The study included all patients with a minimum follow-up of 12 months who underwent primary surgery of the shoulder. Twenty-four patients were male and 13 were female. The mean age was 60 years (45-75. The dominant side was affected in 32 cases. The most common cause of injury was trauma (18 cases. The mean preoperative motion was 123°, 58°, T11. Through magnetic resonance imaging, 36 fatty degenerations were classified according to Goutallier. Patients underwent rotator cuff repair with SB technique, which consists of using a medial row anchor with two Corkscrew(r fibertape(r or fiberwire(r at the articular margin, associated with lateral fixation without stitch using PushLocks(r or SwiveLocks(r. RESULTS: The mean age was 60 years and mean fatty degeneration was 2.6. The mean range of motion (following the AAOS in the postoperative evaluation was 148° of forward elevation, 55° in lateral rotation and medial rotation in T9. Using the criteria of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA, 35 (94% patients had excellent and good results; one (2.7%, fair; and one (2.7%, poor. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic repair of a large and extensive RCI using SB technique had good and excellent results in 94% of the patients.
Bell's theorem and quantum realism. Reassessment in light of the Schroedinger paradox
Shakur, Asif M. [Salisbury Univ., MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hemmick, Douglas L.
2012-07-01
Quantum theory presents a strange picture of the world, offering no real account of physical properties apart from observation. Neils Bohr felt that this reflected a core truth of nature: ''There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract mathematical description.'' Among the most significant developments since Bohr's day has been the theorem of John S. Bell. It is important to consider whether Bell's analysis supports such a denial of microrealism. In this book, we evaluate the situation in terms of an early work of Erwin Schroedinger. Doing so, we see how Bell's theorem is conceptually related to the Conway and Kochen Free Will theorem and also to all the major anti-realism efforts. It is easy to show that none of these analyses imply the impossibility of objective realism. We find that Schroedinger's work leads to the derivation of a new series of theoretical proofs and potential experiments, each involving ''entanglement,'' the link between particles in some quantum systems. (orig.)
A new fundamental model of moving particle for reinterpreting Schroedinger equation
Umar, Muhamad Darwis [Laboratorium Fisika Material dan Komputasi, Jurusan Fisika, Universitas Gadjah Mada Sekip Utara BLS 21 Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)
2012-06-20
The study of Schroedinger equation based on a hypothesis that every particle must move randomly in a quantum-sized volume has been done. In addition to random motion, every particle can do relative motion through the movement of its quantum-sized volume. On the other way these motions can coincide. In this proposed model, the random motion is one kind of intrinsic properties of the particle. The every change of both speed of randomly intrinsic motion and or the velocity of translational motion of a quantum-sized volume will represent a transition between two states, and the change of speed of randomly intrinsic motion will generate diffusion process or Brownian motion perspectives. Diffusion process can take place in backward and forward processes and will represent a dissipative system. To derive Schroedinger equation from our hypothesis we use time operator introduced by Nelson. From a fundamental analysis, we find out that, naturally, we should view the means of Newton's Law F(vector sign) = ma(vector sign) as no an external force, but it is just to describe both the presence of intrinsic random motion and the change of the particle energy.
A Critical Centre-Stable Manifold for the Schroedinger Equation in Three Dimensions
Beceanu, Marius
2009-01-01
Consider the H^{1/2}-critical Schroedinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity in R^3, i \\partial_t \\psi + \\Delta \\psi + |\\psi|^2 \\psi = 0. It admits an eight-dimensional manifold of periodic solutions called solitons e^{i(\\Gamma + vx - t|v|^2 + \\alpha^2 t)} \\phi(x-2tv-D, \\alpha), where \\phi(x, \\alpha) is a positive ground state solution of the semilinear elliptic equation -\\Delta \\phi + \\alpha^2\\phi = \\phi^3. We prove that in the neighborhood of the soliton manifold there exists a H^{1/2} real analytic manifold N of asymptotically stable solutions of the Schroedinger equation, meaning they are the sum of a moving soliton and a dispersive term. Furthermore, a solution starting on N remains on N for all positive time and for some finite negative time and N can be identified as the centre-stable manifold for this equation. The proof is based on the method of modulation, introduced by Soffer and Weinstein and adapted by Schlag to the L^2-supercritical case. Novel elements include a different linearization and a S...
沈远胜; 刘高联; 刘永杰
2004-01-01
The variational analysis of the Pseudo-potential function-vortex-potential function model, a new mathematical model, was developed and by which the flow field with transonic speed and curl was decided, and different sorts of the variational principle for vortexpotential function were established by transforming the original equation for vortex-function, the boundary conditions for vortex-potential function was raised.
Bertsch, Sharon; Knee, H Donald; Webb, Jeffrey L
2011-02-01
The influence of listening to music on subsequent spatial rotation scores has a controversial history. The effect is unreliable, seeming to depend on several as yet unexplored factors. Using a large sample (167 women, 160 men; M age = 18.9 yr.), two related variables were investigated: participants' sex and the emotion conveyed by the music. Participants listened to 90 sec. of music that portrayed emotions of approach (happiness), or withdrawal (anger), or heard no music at all. They then performed a two-dimensional spatial rotation task. No significant difference was found in spatial rotation scores between groups exposed to music and those who were not. However, a significant interaction was found based on the sex of the participants and the emotion portrayed in the music they heard. Women's scores increased (relative to a no-music condition) only after hearing withdrawal-based music, while men's scores increased only after listening to the approach-based music. These changes were explained using the theory of functional cerebral distance.
FANHong-Yi; XUXue-Fen; LIChao
2004-01-01
A newly transparent approach for determining energy eigenvalues is proposed, which is finding the ‘eigen-operator' of the square of the Schroedinger operator. As three examples, we discuss the energy level of a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, an angular momentum system and a ring shape of coupled oscillators.
Cobian, Hector [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, 28045 Colima, Colima (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: horus.cobian@gmail.com, E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States)
2011-07-15
We construct Darboux transformations for time-dependent Schroedinger equations with position-dependent mass in (2 + 1) dimensions. Several examples illustrate our results, which complement and generalize former findings for the constant mass case in two spatial variables (Schulze-Halberg 2010 J. Math. Phys. 51 033521).
Guseinov, I I
2010-01-01
The new combined formulas have been established for the complex and real rotation-angular functions arising in the evaluation of two-center overlap integrals over arbitrary atomic orbitals in molecular coordinate system. These formulas can be useful in the study of different quantum mechanical problems in both the theory and practice of calculations dealing with atoms, molecules, nuclei and solids when the integer and noninteger n complex and real atomic orbitals basis sets are emploed. This work presented the development of our previous paper (I.I. Guseinov, Phys. Rev. A, 32 (1985) 1864).
Waszczak, Adam [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chang, Chan-Kao; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kinoshita, Daisuke [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, Frank; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas, E-mail: waszczak@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2015-09-15
We fit 54,296 sparsely sampled asteroid light curves in the Palomar Transient Factory survey to a combined rotation plus phase-function model. Each light curve consists of 20 or more observations acquired in a single opposition. Using 805 asteroids in our sample that have reference periods in the literature, we find that the reliability of our fitted periods is a complicated function of the period, amplitude, apparent magnitude, and other light-curve attributes. Using the 805-asteroid ground-truth sample, we train an automated classifier to estimate (along with manual inspection) the validity of the remaining ∼53,000 fitted periods. By this method we find that 9033 of our light curves (of ∼8300 unique asteroids) have “reliable” periods. Subsequent consideration of asteroids with multiple light-curve fits indicates a 4% contamination in these “reliable” periods. For 3902 light curves with sufficient phase-angle coverage and either a reliable fit period or low amplitude, we examine the distribution of several phase-function parameters, none of which are bimodal though all correlate with the bond albedo and with visible-band colors. Comparing the theoretical maximal spin rate of a fluid body with our amplitude versus spin-rate distribution suggests that, if held together only by self-gravity, most asteroids are in general less dense than ∼2 g cm{sup −3}, while C types have a lower limit of between 1 and 2 g cm{sup −3}. These results are in agreement with previous density estimates. For 5–20 km diameters, S types rotate faster and have lower amplitudes than C types. If both populations share the same angular momentum, this may indicate the two types’ differing ability to deform under rotational stress. Lastly, we compare our absolute magnitudes (and apparent-magnitude residuals) to those of the Minor Planet Center’s nominal (G = 0.15, rotation-neglecting) model; our phase-function plus Fourier-series fitting reduces asteroid photometric rms
Imaging of rotational wave-function in photodissociation of rovibrationally excited HCl molecules
Grygoryeva, K.; Rakovský, J.; Votava, O.; Fárník, M.
2017-07-01
We demonstrate a visualization of quantum mechanical phenomena with the velocity map imaging (VMI) technique, combining vibrationally mediated photodissociation (VMP) of a simple diatomic HCl with the VMI of its H-photofragments. Free HCl molecules were excited by a pump infrared (IR) laser pulse to particular rotational J levels of the v = 2 vibrational state, and subsequently a probe ultraviolet laser photodissociated the molecule at a fixed wavelength of 243.07 nm where also the H-fragments were ionized. The molecule was aligned by the IR excitation with respect to the IR laser polarization, and this alignment was reflected in the angular distribution of the H-photofragments. In particular, the highest degree of molecular alignment was achieved for the J =1 ←0 transition, which exclusively led to the population of a single rotational state with M = 0. The obtained images were analyzed for further details of the VMP dynamics, and different J states were studied as well. Additionally, we investigated the dynamic evolution of the excited states by changing the pump-probe laser pulse delay; the corresponding images reflected dephasing due to a coupling between the molecular angular momentum and nuclear spin. Our measurements confirmed previous observation using the time-of-flight technique by Sofikitis et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 144307 (2007)]. We observed a partial recovery of the originally excited state after 60 ns in agreement with the previous observation.
Brida, Mattia Dalla; Vilaseca, Pol
2016-01-01
The chirally rotated Schr\\"odinger functional ($\\chi$SF) renders the mechanism of automatic $O(a)$ improvement compatible with Schr\\"odinger functional (SF) renormalization schemes. Here we define a family of renormalization schemes based on the $\\chi$SF for a complete basis of $\\Delta F = 2$ parity-odd four-fermion operators. We compute the corresponding scale-dependent renormalization constants to one-loop order in perturbation theory and obtain their NLO anomalous dimensions by matching to the $\\overline{\\textrm{MS}}$ scheme. Due to automatic $O(a)$ improvement, once the $\\chi$SF is renormalized and improved at the boundaries, the step scaling functions (SSF) of these operators approach their continuum limit with $O(a^{2})$ corrections without the need of operator improvement.
Giuliano, Barbara M.; Bizzocchi, Luca; Grabow, Jens-Uwe
2008-09-01
The pure rotational spectra of 18 isotopic species of SiSe (8) and SiTe (10) have been measured in their X1Σ + electronic state with a pulsed-jet resonator Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The molecules were prepared by a combined DC discharge/laser ablation technique and stabilised in a supersonic jet of Ar. Global multi-isotopologue analyses yielded spectroscopic Dunham parameters Y01, Y11, Y21, Y31 and Y02 for both species, as well as effective Born-Oppenheimer breakdown (BOB) coefficients δ01 for Si, Se and Te. A direct fit of the same data sets to an appropriate radial Hamiltonian yielded analytic potential energy functions and BOB radial functions for the X1Σ + electronic state of both SiSe and SiTe. Additionally, the magnetic hyperfine interactions produced by the uneven mass number A nuclei 29Si, 77Se and 125Te were observed, yielding first determinations of the corresponding nuclear spin-rotation coupling constants.
Bizzocchi, Luca; Giuliano, Barbara M; Hess, Mareike; Grabow, Jens-Uwe
2007-03-21
The pure rotational spectra of 27 isotopic species of SnSe and SnTe have been measured in the frequency range of 5-24 GHz using a Fabry-Perot-type resonator pulsed-jet Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. Gaseous samples of both chalcogenides were prepared by laser ablation of suitable target rods and were stabilized in supersonic jets of Ar. Global multi-isotopolog analyses of all available high-resolution data produced spectroscopic Dunham parameters Y01, Y11, Y21, Y31, Y02, and Y12 for both species, as well as Born-Oppenheimer breakdown (BOB) coefficients delta01 for Sn, Se, and Te. A direct fit of the same data sets to an appropriate radial Hamiltonian yielded analytic potential energy functions and BOB radial functions for the X 1Sigma+ electronic state of both SnSe and SnTe. Additionally, the magnetic hyperfine interaction produced by the dipolar nuclei 119Sn, 117Sn, 77Se, and 125Te was observed, yielding first determinations of the corresponding spin-rotation coupling constants.
Tago, Kanako; Ishii, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi
2011-01-01
Denitrifiers can produce and consume nitrous oxide (N(2)O). While little N(2)O is emitted from rice paddy soil, the same soil produces N(2)O when the land is drained and used for upland crop cultivation. In this study, we collected soils from two types of fields each at three locations in Japan; one type of field had been used for continuous cultivation of rice and the other for rotational cultivation of rice and soybean. Active denitrifiers were isolated from these soils using a functional single-cell isolation method, and their taxonomy and denitrifying properties were examined. A total of 110 denitrifiers were obtained, including those previously detected by a culture-independent analysis. Strains belonging to the genus Pseudogulbenkiania were dominant at all locations, suggesting that Pseudogulbenkiania denitrifiers are ubiquitous in various rice paddy soils. Potential denitrifying activity was similar among the strains, regardless of the differences in taxonomic position and soil of origin. However, relative amounts of N(2) in denitrification end products varied among strains isolated from different locations. Our results also showed that crop rotation had minimal impact on the functional diversity of the denitrifying strains. These results indicate that soil and other environmental factors, excluding cropping systems, could select for N(2)-producing denitrifiers.
Yang, Jianke
2016-01-01
Stability of soliton families in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations with non-parity-time (PT)-symmetric complex potentials is investigated numerically. It is shown that these solitons can be linearly stable in a wide range of parameter values both below and above phase transition. In addition, a pseudo-Hamiltonian-Hopf bifurcation is revealed, where pairs of purely-imaginary eigenvalues in the linear-stability spectra of solitons collide and bifurcate off the imaginary axis, creating oscillatory instability, which resembles Hamiltonian-Hopf bifurcations of solitons in Hamiltonian systems even though the present system is dissipative and non-Hamiltonian. The most important numerical finding is that, eigenvalues of linear-stability operators of these solitons appear in quartets $(\\lambda, -\\lambda, \\lambda^*, -\\lambda^*)$, similar to conservative systems and PT-symmetric systems. This quartet eigenvalue symmetry is very surprising for non-PT-symmetric systems, and it has far-reaching consequences ...
Yang, Jianke
2012-01-01
Linear stability of both sign-definite (positive) and sign-indefinite solitary waves near pitchfork bifurcations is analyzed for the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equations with arbitrary forms of nonlinearity and external potentials in arbitrary spatial dimensions. Bifurcations of linear-stability eigenvalues associated with pitchfork bifurcations are analytically calculated. It is shown that the smooth solution branch switches stability at the bifurcation point. In addition, the two bifurcated solution branches and the smooth branch have the opposite (same) stability when their power slopes have the same (opposite) sign. One unusual feature on the stability of these pitchfork bifurcations is that the smooth and bifurcated solution branches can be both stable or both unstable, which contrasts such bifurcations in finite-dimensional dynamical systems where the smooth and bifurcated branches generally have opposite stability. For the special case of positive solitary waves, stronger and more explicit stab...
Basudeb Sahu; Bidubhusan Sahu; Santosh K Agarwalla
2008-01-01
In a one-dimensional quantal solution of Schroedinger equation, the general expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients are derived for a potential constituting n number of rectangular wells and barriers. These expressions are readily used for the estimation of eigenvalues of a smooth potential which is simulated by a multi-step potential. The applicability of this method is demonstrated with success in potentials with different forms including the most versatile Ginocchio potential where the widely used numerical method like Runge–Kutta integration algorithm fails to yield the result. Accurate evaluation of eigenvalues free from numerical problem for any form of potentials, whether analytically solvable or not, is the highlight of the present multi-step approximation method in the theory of potential scattering.
Beyond the Dirac phase factor: Dynamical Quantum Phase-Nonlocalities in the Schroedinger Picture
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos
2011-01-01
Generalized solutions of the standard gauge transformation equations are presented and discussed in physical terms. They go beyond the usual Dirac phase factors and they exhibit nonlocal quantal behavior, with the well-known Relativistic Causality of classical fields affecting directly the phases of wavefunctions in the Schroedinger Picture. These nonlocal phase behaviors, apparently overlooked in path-integral approaches, give a natural account of the dynamical nonlocality character of the various (even static) Aharonov-Bohm phenomena, while at the same time they seem to respect Causality. Indeed, for particles passing through nonvanishing magnetic or electric fields they lead to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point, generalizing earlier semiclassical experimental observations (of Werner & Brill) to delocalized (spread-out) quantum states. This leads to a correction of previously unnoticed sign-errors in the literature, and to a natural explanation of the deeper reason why certa...
Non-relativistic Schroedinger theory on q-deformed quantum spaces III, Scattering theory
Wachter, H
2007-01-01
This is the third part of a paper about non-relativistic Schroedinger theory on q-deformed quantum spaces like the braided line or the three-dimensional q-deformed Euclidean space. Propagators for the free q-deformed particle are derived and their basic properties are discussed. A time-dependent formulation of scattering is proposed. In this respect, q-analogs of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation are given. Expressions for their iterative solutions are written down. It is shown how to calculate S-matrices and transition probabilities. Furthermore, attention is focused on the question what becomes of unitarity of S-matrices in a q-deformed setting. The examinations are concluded by a discussion of the interaction picture and its relation to scattering processes.
Morris, Brent J; Haigler, Richard E; Cochran, John M; Laughlin, Mitzi S; Elkousy, Hussein A; Gartsman, Gary M; Edwards, T Bradley
2016-01-01
The potential adverse effect of body mass index (BMI) on shoulder function scores after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has not been investigated. We conducted a study to examine outcomes of RSA performed for rotator cuff tear arthropathy (RCTA) across BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, obese). We hypothesized that, compared with normal-weight patients, obese patients would have worse shoulder function scores, worse mobility, and more complications. Using a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry, we identified 77 primary RSAs performed for RCTA with minimum 2-year follow-up. Thirty-four patients had normal weight (BMI 30 kg/m2). Shoulder function scores, mobility, and satisfaction were evaluated before surgery and at final follow-up. The 3 BMI groups were not significantly different on demographic factors, preoperative shoulder function scores, or preoperative mobility (P > .05). For each group, shoulder function scores and mobility significantly improved between the preoperative and final follow-up assessments (P shoulder function scores, mobility, and patient satisfaction can be expected after RSA for RCTA in patients regardless of BMI.
Ikhdair, Sameer M
2012-01-01
We solve the parametric generalized effective Schr\\"odinger equation with a specific choice of posi-tion-dependent mass function and Morse oscillator potential by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method combined with the Pekeris approximation scheme. All bound-state energies are found explicitly and all corresponding radial wave functions are built analytically. We choose the Weyl or Li and Kuhn ordering for the ambiguity parameters in our numerical work to calculate the energy spectrum for a few and diatomic molecules with arbitrary vibration and rotation quantum numbers and different position-dependent mass functions. Two special cases including the constant mass and the vibration s-wave (l =0) are also investigated.
Sheppard, Scott S
2007-01-01
(Abridged) I report new light curves and determine the rotations and phase functions of several large Kuiper Belt objects, including the dwarf planet Eris (2003 UB313). (120348) 2004 TY364 shows a light curve which if double-peaked has a period of 11.70+-0.01 hours and peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.22+-0.02 magnitudes. (84922) 2003 VS2 has a well defined double-peaked light curve of 7.41+-0.02 hours with a 0.21+-0.02 magnitude range. (126154) 2001 YH140 shows variability of 0.21+-0.04 magnitudes with a possible 13.25+-0.2 hour single-peaked period. The seven new KBOs in the sample which show no discernible variations within the uncertainties on short rotational time scales are 2001 UQ18, (55565) 2002 AW197, (119979) 2002 WC19, (120132) 2003 FY128, (136108) Eris 2003 UB313, (90482) Orcus 2004 DW, and (90568) 2004 GV9. The three medium to large sized Kuiper Belt objects 2004 TY364, Orcus and 2004 GV9 show fairly steep linear phase curves (~0.18 to 0.26 mags per degree) between phase angles of 0.1 and 1.5 degrees....
Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab; Alireza Mousavi, S.
2016-09-01
Due to having difficulty in solving governing nonlinear differential equations of a non-uniform microbeam, a few numbers of authors have studied such fields. In the present study, for the first time, the size-dependent vibration behavior of a rotating functionally graded (FG) tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory is investigated using differential quadrature element method (DQEM). It is assumed that physical and mechanical properties of the FG microbeam are varying along the thickness that will be defined as a power law equation. The governing equations are determined using Hamilton's principle, and DQEM is presented to obtain the results for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. The accuracy and validity of the results are shown in several numerical examples. In order to display the influence of size on the first two natural frequencies and consequently changing of some important microbeam parameters such as material length scale, rate of cross section, angular velocity and gradient index of the FG material, several diagrams and tables are represented. The results of this article can be used in designing and optimizing elastic and rotary-type micro-electro-mechanical systems like micro-motors and micro-robots including rotating parts.
F. Botta
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Damping of vibrations is often required to improve both the performances and the integrity of engiengineering structures, e.g. gas turbine blades. In [24] some of the authors have proposed a new function to control the multimode vibrations of a fixed beam. In this article this methodology has been extended to a rotating cantileverbeam. To develop an effective control strategy, and optimize the placement of the active piezoelectric elements in terms of vibrations amplitude reduction, a procedure has been developed and a new analytical solution has been proproposed. The results obtained have been corroborated by comparison with the results from a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL and data from other models available in the literature.
Chackerian, C., Jr.
1976-01-01
The electric dipole moment function of the ground electronic state of carbon monoxide has been determined by combining numerical solutions of the radial Schrodinger equation with absolute intensity data of vibration-rotation bands. The derived dipole moment function is used to calculate matrix elements of interest to stellar astronomy and of importance in the carbon monoxide laser.
Kirilyuk, A P
2001-01-01
Following Max Planck's hypothesis of quanta (quant-ph/0012069) and the matter wave idea of Louis de Broglie (quant-ph/9911107), Erwin Schroedinger proposed, at the beginning of 1926, the concept of the wavefunction and the wave equation for it. Though endowed with a realistic undular interpretation by its farther, the wavefunction could not be considered as a real 'matter wave' and has been provided with the abstract, formally probabilistic interpretation. In this paper we show how the resulting 'mysteries' of the standard theory are resolved within the unreduced, dynamically multivalued description of the underlying, essentially nonlinear interaction process (quant-ph/9902015, quant-ph/9902016), without artificial modification of the Schroedinger equation. The causal, totally realistic wavefunction emerges as the dynamically probabilistic intermediate state of a simple system with interaction performing dynamically discrete transitions between its localised, incompatible 'realisations' ('corpuscular' states)...
Herbert, J.M.
1997-02-01
Perturbation theory has long been utilized by quantum chemists as a method for approximating solutions to the Schroedinger equation. Perturbation treatments represent a system`s energy as a power series in which each additional term further corrects the total energy; it is therefore convenient to have an explicit formula for the nth-order energy correction term. If all perturbations are collected into a single Hamiltonian operator, such a closed-form expression for the nth-order energy correction is well known; however, use of a single perturbed Hamiltonian often leads to divergent energy series, while superior convergence behavior is obtained by expanding the perturbed Hamiltonian in a power series. This report presents a closed-form expression for the nth-order energy correction obtained using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and a power series expansion of the Hamiltonian.
Wachter, H
2007-01-01
The aim of these three papers (I, II, and III) is to develop a q-deformed version of non-relativistic Schroedinger theory. Paper I introduces the fundamental mathematical and physical concepts. The braided line and the three-dimensional q-deformed Euclidean space play the role of position space. For both cases the algebraic framework is extended by a time element. A short review of the elements of q-deformed analysis on the spaces under consideration is given. The time evolution operator is introduced in a consistent way and its basic properties are discussed. These reasonings are continued by proposing q-deformed analogs of the Schroedinger and the Heisenberg picture.
Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth
2015-08-11
We present an implementation of the nuclear spin-rotation (SR) constants based on the relativistic four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. This formalism has been implemented in the framework of the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham theory, allowing assessment of both pure and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. In the density-functional theory (DFT) implementation of the response equations, a noncollinear generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been used. The present approach enforces a restricted kinetic balance condition for the small-component basis at the integral level, leading to very efficient calculations of the property. We apply the methodology to study relativistic effects on the spin-rotation constants by performing calculations on XHn (n = 1-4) for all elements X in the p-block of the periodic table and comparing the effects of relativity on the nuclear SR tensors to that observed for the nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. Correlation effects as described by the density-functional theory are shown to be significant for the spin-rotation constants, whereas the differences between the use of GGA and hybrid density functionals are much smaller. Our calculated relativistic spin-rotation constants at the DFT level of theory are only in fair agreement with available experimental data. It is shown that the scaling of the relativistic effects for the spin-rotation constants (varying between Z(3.8) and Z(4.5)) is as strong as for the chemical shieldings but with a much smaller prefactor.
Shafiei, Navvab; Kazemi, Mohammad; Ghadiri, Majid
2016-09-01
The target of this paper is to present an exhaustive study on the small scale effect on vibrational behavior of a rotary tapered axially functionally graded (AFG) microbeam on the basis of Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli beam and modified couple stress theories. The variation of the material properties and cross section along the longitudinal direction of the microbeam are taken into consideration as a linear function. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the equations for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions and the generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) is employed to solve the equations. By parametric study, the effects of small-scale parameter, rates of cross section change of the microbeam and angular velocity on the fundamental and second frequencies of the microbeam are studied. Also, comparison between the frequencies of Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli microbeams are presented. The results can be used in many applications such as micro-robots and biomedical microsystems.
Circulant Matrices and Affine Equivalence of Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions
2015-01-01
Received in revised form 15 October 2014 Accepted 17 May 2015 Keywords: Boolean functions Circulant matrices Affine equivalence Permutations a b s t... representation of f is called the algebraic normal form (ANF) of f . The number of variables in the highest order product term with nonzero... representation of f (not unique, since one can choose any representative in Gn(x1xi2 . . . xil)) is called the short algebraic normal form (SANF) of f
Rotation Invariant Face Detection Using Wavelet, PCA and Radial Basis Function Networks
Kamruzzaman, S M; Islam, Md Saiful; Haque, Md Emdadul; Alam, Mohammad Shamsul
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a novel method for human face detection with its orientation by using wavelet, principle component analysis (PCA) and redial basis networks. The input image is analyzed by two-dimensional wavelet and a two-dimensional stationary wavelet. The common goals concern are the image clearance and simplification, which are parts of de-noising or compression. We applied an effective procedure to reduce the dimension of the input vectors using PCA. Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network is then used as a function approximation network to detect where either the input image is contained a face or not and if there is a face exists then tell about its orientation. We will show how RBF can perform well then back-propagation algorithm and give some solution for better regularization of the RBF (GRNN) network. Compared with traditional RBF networks, the proposed network demonstrates better capability of approximation to underlying functions, faster learning speed, better size of network, and high ro...
Storch, Golo; Pallmann, Sebastian; Rominger, Frank
2016-01-01
Summary Stereodynamic ligands offer intriguing possibilities in enantioselective catalysis. “NU-BIPHEPs” are a class of stereodynamic diphosphine ligands which are easily accessible via rhodium-catalyzed double [2 + 2 + 2] cycloadditions. This study explores the preparation of differently functionalized “NU-BIPHEP(O)” compounds, the characterization of non-covalent adduct formation and the quantification of enantiomerization barriers. In order to explore the possibilities of functionalization, we studied modifications of the ligand backbone, e.g., with 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl chloride. Diastereomeric adducts with Okamoto-type cellulose derivatives and on-column deracemization were realized on the basis of non-covalent interactions. Enantioselective dynamic HPLC (DHPLC) allowed for the determination of rotational barriers of ΔG ‡ 298K = 92.2 ± 0.3 kJ mol−1 and 99.5 ± 0.1 kJ mol−1 underlining the stereodynamic properties of “NU-BIPHEPs” and “NU-BIPHEP(O)s”, respectively. These results make the preparation of tailor-made functionalized stereodynamic ligands possible and give an outline for possible applications in enantioselective catalysis. PMID:27559397
Critical slowing down and the gradient flow coupling in the Schroedinger functional
Fritzsch, Patrick; Stollenwerk, Felix [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2013-11-15
We study the sensitivity of the gradient flow coupling to sectors of different topological charge and its implications in practical situations. Furthermore, we investigate an alternative definition of the running coupling that is expected to be less sensitive to the problems of the HMC algorithm to efficiently sample all topological sectors.
Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yu, Xin [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics; Xue, Long [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics; Aviation Univ. of Air Force, Liaoning (China). Flight Training Base
2015-07-01
Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.
Xin, Libiao; Yang, Shengyou; Ma, Baoyu; Dui, Guansuo
2015-11-01
A thermoelastic solution for the functionally graded rotating thick-walled tube subjected to axisymmetric mechanical and thermal loads is given in terms of volume fractions of constituents. We assume that the tube consists of two linear elastic constituents and the volume fraction of one phase is a power function varied in the radial direction. By using the assumption of a uniform strain field within the representative volume element, the theoretical solutions of the displacement and the stresses are presented. Based on the relation of the volume average stresses of constituents and the macroscopic stresses of the composite material in micromechanics, the present method can avoid the assumption of the distribution regularities of unknown overall material parameters appeared in existing papers, such as Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and density. The effects of the angular velocity, the volume fraction, the ratio of two thermal expansion coefficients, the ratio of two thermal conductivities, and the ratio of two densities on the displacement and stresses are systematically studied, which should help structural engineers and material scientists optimally design thick-walled tube comprised inhomogeneous materials.
G. Wunner
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The coalescence of two eigenfunctions with the same energy eigenvalue is not possible in Hermitian Hamiltonians. It is, however, a phenomenon well known from non-hermitian quantum mechanics. It can appear, e.g., for resonances in open systems, with complex energy eigenvalues. If two eigenvalues of a quantum mechanical system which depends on two or more parameters pass through such a branch point singularity at a critical set of parameters, the point in the parameter space is called an exceptional point. We will demonstrate that exceptional points occur not only for non-hermitean Hamiltonians but also in the nonlinear Schroedinger equations which describe Bose-Einstein condensates, i.e., the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for condensates with a short-range contact interaction, and with additional long-range interactions. Typically, in these condensates the exceptional points are also found to be bifurcation points in parameter space. For condensates with a gravity-like interaction between the atoms, these findings can be confirmed in an analytical way.
Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Rechi, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut
2009-08-01
The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66-85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0 degrees, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60 degrees, (3) internal rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. INTERPRETATION; Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate.
Segal-Snir, Yael; Lubetzky, V Anat; Masharawi, Youssef
2016-08-10
Exercise is considered the first line of treatment for people with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) but the ideal exercise type is currently unclear. Given the unique anatomical structure of the lower lumbar spine and the lumbosacral junction transverse-plane rotation exercises may be helpful for people suffering from pain in this region. We aimed to examine the effect of spinal rotation exercises delivered in a group format on range of motion, pain level and function parameters in women with NSCLBP. This was a randomized controlled single-blinded study. Thirty-five women with NSCLBP, participated in either a bi-weekly rotation exercise classes (n= 20) or a `wait-list' control group (n = 15). The exercises aimed at improving lumbar mobility in the transverse plane. Pain rated on a Visual Analog Scale, back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire), and lumbar range of motion (flexion, extension and left and right rotation) were taken prior to intervention, immediately following 4 weeks of intervention and 8 weeks later. There were no significant differences for either group (p> 0.05) on all dependent variables at all times of measurements. A specific group program of rotation exercises had no effect on the functional status, pain level and lumbar range of motion in women with NSCLBP.
Ilana Feain, PhD
2016-10-01
Conclusions: We have demonstrated imaging equivalence in cone beam CT reconstructions between rigid phantom images acquired with a conventional rotating gantry and with a fixed-gantry and rotating phantom. We have presented a method for image reconstruction under a fixed-beam imaging geometry using a deformable phantom.
Lópiz, Yaiza; Rodríguez-González, Alberto; García-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Fernando
2015-01-01
To describe the incidence, etiological factors, functional impairment and therapeutic management of scapular fractures after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in rotator cuff arthropathy. A retrospective study was conducted on 126 RSA between 2009 and 2011, in which 4 fractures were identified that were compared with a control group of 40 patients. An analysis was performed on the variables related to the surgical technique, functional results, and quality of life (Constant scale, EQ-5D). The fracture incidence was 3.28% with a mean age of 74.7 years. The mean time until diagnosis was 11.9 months. The preoperative Constant score in the control group was 37.3%, and 34.7% in the fracture group (P>.05); postoperative Constant score: 81.2 and 66.5%, respectively (P>.001). Forward elevation and abduction in fracture patients decreased by 39° (P=.02), and 34° (P=.057) respectively. The perceived quality of life (EQ-VAS) was lower in the fracture group (60 vs. 76) (P=.002). There were no instability cases, and no revision surgery was required. The union rate was 50% after a mean follow-up 39.6 months. Scapular fracture after RSA is a rare complication. Despite its presence, the functional outcomes and quality of life of these patients are higher than preoperatively; however, they are lower than that obtained in patients with RSA without this complication. More prospective studies are needed to define guidelines for therapeutic action against this complication. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Khoramnia, Rahmin; Attia, Mary Safwat; Koss, Michael Janusz; Linz, Katharina; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe
2016-01-01
Purpose To evaluate postoperative outcomes and visual performance in intermediate distance after implantation of a +1.5 diopters (D) addition, aspheric, rotational asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL). Methods Patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, asymmetric MIOL with +1.5 D near addition. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were monocular and binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), distance corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) and distance corrected keratometry, and manifest refraction. The Salzburg Reading Desk was used to analyze unilateral and bilateral functional vision with uncorrected and corrected reading acuity, reading distance, reading speed, and the smallest log-scaled print size that could be read effectively at near and intermediate distances. Results The study comprised 60 eyes of 30 patients (mean age, 68.30 ± 9.26 years; range, 34 to 80 years). There was significant improvement in UDVA and CDVA. Mean UIVA was 0.01 ± 0.09 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and mean DCIVA was -0.02 ± 0.11 logMAR. In Salzburg Reading Desk analysis for UIVA, the mean subjective intermediate distance was 67.58 ± 8.59 cm with mean UIVA of -0.02 ± 0.09 logMAR and mean word count of 96.38 ± 28.32 words/min. Conclusions The new aspheric, asymmetric, +1.5 D near addition MIOL offers good results for distance visual function in combination with good performance for intermediate distances and functional results for near distance. PMID:27729759
Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab
2016-04-01
In this study, thermal vibration of rotary functionally graded Timoshenko microbeam has been analyzed based on modified couple stress theory considering temperature change in four types of temperature distribution on thermal environment. Material properties of FG microbeam are supposed to be temperature dependent and vary continuously along the thickness according to the power-law form. The axial forces are also included in the model as the thermal and true spatial variation due to the rotation. Governing equations and boundary conditions have been derived by employing Hamiltonian's principle. The differential quadrature method is employed to solve the governing equations for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. Validations are done by comparing available literatures and obtained results which indicate accuracy of applied method. Results represent effects of temperature changes, different boundary conditions, nondimensional angular velocity, length scale parameter, different boundary conditions, FG index and beam thickness on fundamental, second and third nondimensional frequencies. Results determine critical values of temperature changes and other essential parameters which can be applicable to design micromachines like micromotor and microturbine.
Faraday rotation measure synthesis
Brentjens, MA; de Bruyn, AG
2005-01-01
We extend the rotation measure work of Burn ( 1966, MNRAS, 133, 67) to the cases of limited sampling of lambda(2) space and non-constant emission spectra. We introduce the rotation measure transfer function (RMTF), which is an excellent predictor of n pi ambiguity problems with the lambda(2) coverag
Helffer, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Dept. de Mathematiques; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, M. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Strudthofgasse 4, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringerstrasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)]|[International Erwin Schroedinger Inst. for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria); Owen, M.P. [International Erwin Schroedinger Inst. for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria)
1999-05-01
We investigate nodal sets of magnetic Schroedinger operators with zero magnetic field, acting on a non-simply connected domain in R{sup 2}. For the case of circulation 1/2 of the magnetic vector potential around each hole in the region, we obtain a characterisation of the nodal set, and use this to obtain bounds on the multiplicity of the ground state. For the case of one hole and a fixed electric potential, we show that the first eigenvalue takes its highest value for circulation 1/2. (orig.) With 8 figs., 20 refs.
Serafini, Thomas; Bertoni, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bertoni@unimore.i [S3 National Research Center, INFM-CNR, 41125 Modena (Italy)
2009-11-15
In this work we present TDStool, a general-purpose easy-to-use software tool for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in 2D and 3D domains with arbitrary time-dependent potentials. The numerical algorithms adopted in the code, namely Fourier split-step and box-integration methods, are sketched and the main characteristics of the tool are illustrated. As an example, the dynamics of a single electron in systems of two and three coupled quantum dots is obtained. The code is released as an open-source project and has a build-in graphical interface for the visualization of the results.
Skokos, Ch; Bodyfelt, J D; Papamikos, G; Eggl, S
2013-01-01
While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not yet been studied in detail. We demonstrate ways to construct high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in three integrable parts. Using these techniques for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that three part split symplectic integrators are more efficient than other numerical methods for the long time integration of multidimensional systems, with respect to both accuracy and computational time.
Rodriguez-Toro, Victor A; Velasco-Medina, Jaime
2011-01-01
This paper presents a first approach in order to design an optimal architecture to implement the Numerov method, which solves the time-independent Schroedinger equation (TISE) for one dimension. The design and simulation have been performed by using 64-bits floating-point megafunctions available in Quartus II (Version 9.0). The verification of these results was done by using Matlab. According to these results, it is possible to extend this design to parallel structures, which would be able to calculate several TISE solutions.
Childs, Peter R N
2010-01-01
Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics
Hsu, Jason E; Tang, Anna; Matsen, Frederick A
2017-07-06
The rationale for rotator cuff repair surgery is that better integrity of the cuff should be associated with better comfort and function. However, in patients with cuff disease, there is not good evidence that the degree of rotator cuff integrity is closely associated with the shoulder's comfort, function, or active motion. The goal of this study was to explore these relationships in shoulders with surgically documented cuff disease. In 55 shoulders having surgery for cuff-related symptoms, we correlated the preoperative Simple Shoulder Test score with the objectively measured preoperative active shoulder motion and with the integrity of the cuff observed at surgery. The 16 shoulders with tendinosis or partial-thickness tears had an average Simple Shoulder Test score of 3.7 ± 3.3, active abduction of 111° ± 38°, and active flexion of 115° ± 36°. The corresponding values were 3.6 ± 2.8, 94° ± 47°, and 94° ± 52° for the 22 full-thickness supraspinatus tears and 3.9 ± 2.7, 89° ± 39°, and 100° ± 39° for the 17 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears. In this study, surgically observed cuff integrity was not strongly associated with the shoulder's comfort or function. Whereas surgeons often seek to improve the integrity of the rotator cuff, the management of patients with rotator cuff disorders needs to be informed by a better understanding of the factors other than cuff integrity that influence the comfort and functioning of shoulders with cuff disease. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Lorenci, V A
1996-01-01
We investigate which mapping we have to use to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a "Lorentz-like" coordinate transformation we obtain that creation-anihilation operators of a massless scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state (a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. After this, introducing an apparatus device coupled linearly with the field we obtain that there is a strong correlation between number of rotating particles (in a given state) obtained via canonical quantization and via response function of the rotating detector. Finally, we analyse polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view.
Ruitenberg, G.
1972-01-01
A variant is presented of the relative intensity method (RIM) in microwave spectroscopy to determine barriers to internal rotation. In this method torsional energies are determined directly from the slope of the straight line relating the logarithm of the intensity ratio and the reciprocal of the te
Lekner, John
2008-01-01
Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…
Bar, D
2002-01-01
Using the Gell-Mann-Hartle-Griffiths formalism in the framework of the Flesia-Piron form of the Lax-Phillips theory we show that the Schr\\"oedinger equation may be derived as a condition of stability of histories. This mechanism is realized in a mathematical structure closely related to the Zeno effect.
de Swiniarski, R.; Beatty, D.; Donoghue, E.; Fergerson, R.W.; Franey, M.; Gazzaly, M.; Glashausser, C.; Hintz, N.; Jones, K.W.; McClelland, J.B.; Nanda, S.; Plum, M. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 53, avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble CEDEX (France) Serin Physics Laboratory, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (USA) School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (USA) Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (USA))
1990-09-01
Analyzing powers have been measured for elastic and inelastic scattering of 500-MeV protons from {sup 28}Si. These data for the first 0{sup +}, 2{sup +}, and 4{sup +} states and the corresponding cross-section data have been analyzed with both Schroedinger and Dirac equation phenomenological coupled-channels methods. Good, qualitatively similar, results are achieved with the two methods.
Colle, Francesca; Lopomo, Nicola; Visani, Andrea; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcacci, Maurilio
2016-01-01
Estimating the main axis of rotation (AoR) of a human joint represents an important issue in biomechanics. This study compared three formal methods used to estimate functional AoR, namely a cylindrical fitting method, a mean helical axis transformation, and a symmetrical axis approach. These methods were tested on 106 subjects undergoing navigated total knee arthroplasty. AoR orientation in 3D and in the frontal and coronal planes provided by each method was compared to the transepicondylar axis direction. Although all the methods resulted effective, significant differences were identified among them, relatively to the orientation in 3D and in the frontal plane projection. This was probably due to the presence of secondary rotations during the first degrees of knee flexion.
Isaacson, D.; Isaacson, E. L.; Paes-Leme, P. J.; Marchesin, D.
1981-01-01
Several methods for computing many eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a single anharmonic oscillator Schroedinger operator whose potential may have one or two minima are described. One of the methods requires the solution of an ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problem. This method has the virtue of using a bounded amount of work to achieve a given accuracy in both the single and double well regions. Rigorous bounds are given, and it is proved that the approximations converge faster than any inverse power of the size of the matrices needed to compute them. The results of computations for the g:phi(4):1 theory are presented. These results indicate that the methods actually converge exponentially fast.
Romero, MarIa de los Angeles Sandoval; Weder, Ricardo [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-726, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)
2006-09-15
We consider nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a potential, and non-local nonlinearities, that are models in mesoscopic physics, for example of a quantum capacitor, and that are also models of molecular structure. We study in detail the initial value problem for these equations, in particular, existence and uniqueness of local and global solutions, continuous dependence on the initial data and regularity. We allow for a large class of unbounded potentials. We have no restriction on the growth at infinity of the positive part of the potential. We also construct the scattering operator in the case of potentials that go to zero at infinity. Furthermore, we give a method for the unique reconstruction of the potential from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator. In the case of the quantum capacitor, our method allows us to uniquely reconstruct all the physical parameters from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator.
Giannotti, Stefano; Ghilardi, Marco; Dell'osso, Giacomo; Magistrelli, Luca; Bugelli, Giulia; Di Rollo, Frederica; Ricci, Giulia; Calabrese, Rosanna; Siciliano, Gabriele; Guido, Giulio
2014-03-01
Tendon augmentation grafts have the potential to facilitate the repair of massive or otherwise unrepairable rotator cuff tears. In our clinic, between 2009 and 2013, 25 patients underwent surgery to treat massive symptomatic rotator cuff tears with porcine dermal collagen patch. This study is a clinical and instrumental assessment of 9 patients with the longest follow-up. These patients were evaluated with Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation Form, ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and electromyography. The clinical evaluations have shown good outcomes. The magnetic resonance imaging results were comparable with those of the ultrasound scan. In all cases, we found covering of humeral head, centering of the humeral head, maintenance of the tropism of the supraspinatus, no appearance of fatty degeneration, no worse in cases with fatty degeneration. With the electromyographic examination a complete functional recovery was observed with the possibility of performing maximal contraction against resistance in all cases. We believe that porcine dermal collagen is effective as an augmentation graft in the treatment of chronic extensive rotator cuff tears, providing excellent pain relief with an improvement in active ranges of motion and strength.
Rotator cuff tendon connections with the rotator cable.
Rahu, Madis; Kolts, Ivo; Põldoja, Elle; Kask, Kristo
2017-07-01
The literature currently contains no descriptions of the rotator cuff tendons, which also describes in relation to the presence and characteristics of the rotator cable (anatomically known as the ligamentum semicirculare humeri). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the rotator cuff tendons in association with the rotator cable. Anatomic dissection was performed on 21 fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with an average age of 68 years. The rotator cuff tendons were dissected from each other and from the glenohumeral joint capsule, and the superior glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoglenoidal and semicircular (rotator cable) ligaments were dissected. Dissection was performed layer by layer and from the bursal side to the joint. All ligaments and tendons were dissected in fine detail. The rotator cable was found in all specimens. It was tightly connected to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, which was partly covered by the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon. The posterior insertion area of the rotator cable was located in the region between the middle and inferior facets of the greater tubercle of the humerus insertion areas for the teres minor (TM), and ISP tendons were also present and fibres from the SSP extended through the rotator cable to those areas. The connection between the rotator cable and rotator cuff tendons is tight and confirms the suspension bridge theory for rotator cuff tears in most areas between the SSP tendons and rotator cable. In its posterior insertion area, the rotator cable is a connecting structure between the TM, ISP and SSP tendons. These findings might explain why some patients with relatively large rotator cuff tears can maintain seamless shoulder function.
Teale, Andrew M; Lutnæs, Ola B; Helgaker, Trygve; Tozer, David J; Gauss, Jürgen
2013-01-14
Accurate sets of benchmark nuclear-magnetic-resonance shielding constants and spin-rotation constants are calculated using coupled-cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) theory and coupled-cluster singles-doubles-perturbative-triples [CCSD(T)] theory, in a variety of basis sets consisting of (rotational) London atomic orbitals. The accuracy of the calculated coupled-cluster constants is established by a careful comparison with experimental data, taking into account zero-point vibrational corrections. Coupled-cluster basis-set convergence is analyzed and extrapolation techniques are employed to estimate basis-set-limit quantities, thereby establishing an accurate benchmark data set. Together with the set provided for rotational g-tensors and magnetizabilities in our previous work [O. B. Lutnæs, A. M. Teale, T. Helgaker, D. J. Tozer, K. Ruud, and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 144104 (2009)], it provides a substantial source of consistently calculated high-accuracy data on second-order magnetic response properties. The utility of this benchmark data set is demonstrated by examining a wide variety of Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functionals for the calculation of these properties. None of the existing approximate functionals provide an accuracy competitive with that provided by CCSD or CCSD(T) theory. The need for a careful consideration of vibrational effects is clearly illustrated. Finally, the pure coupled-cluster results are compared with the results of Kohn-Sham calculations constrained to give the same electronic density. Routes to future improvements are discussed in light of this comparison.
Beom, Jaewon; Jang, Hye Jin; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo; Paik, Nam-Jong; Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Shi-Uk
2015-01-01
The association between fatty replacement of rotator cuff and hemiplegic upper extremity function has not been defined yet. Moreover, the relationships among rotator cuff tears, shoulder pain, spasticity, and fatty replacement were not clearly studied. We investigated the association of fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with tendon tear in stroke or brain-injured patients. A total of 72 hemiplegic patients were enrolled in 3 hospitals, and ultrasonography of both shoulders was performed once. Fatty replacement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus was graded by the visibility of outer contours, pennate pattern, central tendon, and echogenicity. Fatty replacement was observed in 22 (30.6%) out of the 72 patients (in 18 supraspinatus muscles and 12 infraspinatus). Inter-rater agreement (kappa value) between the 2 physiatrists was 0.530 for the supraspinatus, and 0.411 for the infraspinatus. The Fugl-Meyer assessment score, Brunnstrom stage, and modified Barthel index were significantly lower in patients with fatty replacement of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus (group 1) than in those without (group 2). The motor power of both shoulders, the pain-free range of motion, spasticity, and hemiplegic shoulder pain were comparable between the two groups. The tear rate of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, or subscapularis tendon at the hemiplegic side was higher than that at the contralesional side in each group, although there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. Disuse leading to muscle atrophy rather than rotator cuff tear might be the cause of fatty replacement of these muscles, which may be associated with decreased function of the hemiplegic upper extremities.
Giuliano, Barbara M; Bizzocchi, Luca; Cooke, Stephen; Banser, Deike; Hess, Mareike; Fritzsche, Juliane; Grabow, Jens-Uwe
2008-04-21
The pure rotational spectra of 41 isotopic species of PbSe and PbTe have been measured in their X 1Sigma+ electronic state with a resonator pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The molecules were prepared by laser ablation of suitable target rods and stabilised in supersonic jets of noble gas. Global multi-isotopologue analyses yielded spectroscopic Dunham parameters Y01, Y11, Y21, Y31, Y02, and Y12 for both species, as well as effective Born-Oppenheimer breakdown (BOB) coefficients delta01 for Pb, Se and Te. Unusual large values of the BOB parameters for Pb have been rationalized in terms of finite nuclear size (field shift) effect. A direct fit of the same data sets to an appropriate radial Hamiltonian yielded analytic potential energy functions and BOB radial functions for the X 1Sigma+ electronic state of both PbSe and PbTe. Additionally, the magnetic hyperfine interactions produced by the uneven mass number A nuclei 207Pb, 77Se, 123Te, and 125Te were observed, yielding first determinations of the corresponding nuclear spin-rotation coupling constants.
Moraiti, Constantina; Valle, Pablo; Maqdes, Ali; Boughebri, Omar; Dib, Chourky; Giakas, Giannis; Kany, Jean; Elkholti, Kamil; Garret, Jérôme; Katz, Denis; Leclère, Franck Marie; Valenti, Philippe
2015-02-01
To assess rotator cuff rupture characteristics and evaluate healing and the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair in patients older than 70 years versus patients younger than 50 years. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, comparative study of 40 patients younger than 50 years (group A) and 40 patients older than 70 years (group B) treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patients older than 70 years were operated on only if symptoms persisted after 6 months of conservative treatment, whereas patients younger than 50 years were operated on regardless of any persistent symptoms. Imaging consisted of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative ultrasound. Preoperative and postoperative function was evaluated with Constant and modified Constant scores. Patient satisfaction was also assessed. The evaluations were performed at least 1 year postoperatively. No patient was lost to follow-up. The incidence of both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears was greater in group B. Greater retraction in the frontal plane and greater fatty infiltration were observed in group B. The Constant score was significantly improved in both groups (51 ± 12.32 preoperatively v 77.18 ± 11.02 postoperatively in group A and 48.8 ± 10.97 preoperatively v 74.6 ± 12.02 postoperatively in group B, P Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van de Kraats, Everine B; Carelsen, Bart; Fokkens, Wytske J; Boon, Sjirk N; Noordhoek, Niels; Niessen, Wiro J; van Walsum, Theo
2005-12-21
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.
van de Kraats, Everine B.; Carelsen, Bart; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Boon, Sjirk N.; Noordhoek, Niels; Niessen, Wiro J.; van Walsum, Theo
2005-12-01
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.
Kraats, Everine B van de [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Carelsen, Bart [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Medical Physics Department (Netherlands); Fokkens, Wytske J [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Netherlands); Boon, Sjirk N [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Noordhoek, Niels [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Walsum, Theo van [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)
2005-12-21
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.
Savoie III FH
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Felix H Savoie III,1 Mark Zunkiewicz,2 Larry D Field,2 William H Replogle,3 Michael J O’Brien1 1Tulane Institute of Sports Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Mississippi Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Family Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Purpose: This study was designed to compare functional outcomes in patients undergoing revision repair of massive rotator cuff tears (retracted medial to the glenoid with Goutallier Grade 4 atrophy and concomitant release of the suprascapular nerve to a similar group of patients with Grade 3 atrophy undergoing revision rotator cuff repair (RTCR without nerve release. We hypothesized that patients undergoing nerve release would have more favorable functional outcomes as measured by the Modified University of California at Los Angeles shoulder rating scale (UCLA. Patients and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent revision repair of massive rotator cuff tears with release of the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch. We compared total preoperative, postoperative, and change in UCLA score in these patients to a similar group of 22 patients undergoing revision RTCR without suprascapular nerve release. Additionally, UCLA subscores between the two groups were compared preoperatively and at final follow-up. Results: The average preoperative UCLA score in the nerve-release group was 7.91, and final follow-up average was 27.86; average 3.05 grades of strength were recovered. In the comparison group, average preoperative UCLA score was 11.77, and final follow-up average was 29.09; average 1.32 grades of strength were recovered. The average preoperative UCLA score was significantly worse in the nerve-release group (P=0.007. The average postoperative UCLA score was not significantly different (P=0.590 between the groups, indicating a better improvement in the nerve-release group with significantly
Wachter, H
2007-01-01
This is the second part of a paper about a q-deformed analog of non-relativistic Schroedinger theory. It applies the general ideas of part I and tries to give a description of one-particle states on q-deformed quantum spaces like the braided line or the q-deformed Euclidean space in three dimensions. Hamiltonian operators for the free q-deformed particle in one as well as three dimensions are introduced. Plane waves as solutions to the corresponding Schroedinger equations are considered. Their completeness and orthonormality relations are written down. Expectation values of position and momentum observables are taken with respect to one-particle states and their time-dependence is discussed. A potential is added to the free-particle Hamiltonians and q-analogs of the Ehrenfest theorem are derived from the Heisenberg equations of motion. The conservation of probability is proved.
Davies, C.L.; Maslen, E.N.
1983-12-21
A procedure for solving the few-particle Schroedinger equation exactly is applied to a model system consisting of two identical particles and a massive third particle. The type of interaction potential is not specified except that it should not diverge more rapidly than r/sup -2/ at the particle positions. Allowable interactions include the Coulomb and the harmonic oscillator potentials. The principles are illustrated by reference to the spatially symmetric states of the system.
Dembinski, S.T.; Wolniewicz, L. [Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun (Poland)
1996-01-21
It is shown that the 1 D Hamiltonian, which is a sum of operators which generate a finite nilpotent Lie algebra and depends explicitly on time existing closed form solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, cannot fulfil in general boundary and normalization conditions on a positive semi-axis. An explanation of the controversy surrounding the solutions of the quantum bouncer model, which appeared recently in the literature, is given. (author)
Modeling rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers: rotation axes, bistability, and controllability.
Meshkati, Farshad; Fu, Henry Chien
2014-12-01
Magnetically actuated microswimmers have recently attracted attention due to many possible biomedical applications. In this study we investigate the dynamics of rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers with permanent magnetic dipoles. Our approach uses a boundary element method to calculate a mobility matrix, accurate for arbitrary geometries, which is then used to identify the steady periodically rotating orbits in a co-rotating body-fixed frame. We evaluate the stability of each of these orbits. We map the magnetoviscous behavior as a function of dimensionless Mason number and as a function of the angle that the magnetic field makes with its rotation axis. We describe the wobbling motion of these swimmers by investigating how the rotation axis changes as a function of experimental parameters. We show that for a given magnetic field strength and rotation frequency, swimmers can have more than one stable periodic orbit with different rotation axes. Finally, we demonstrate that one can improve the controllability of these types of microswimmers by adjusting the relative angle between the magnetic field and its axis of rotation.
Chiral rotational spectroscopy
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.
2016-09-01
We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.
Gogoi, R; Kalita, L; Devi, N, E-mail: runmoni_gogoi@rediffmail.co, E-mail: latikakalita@rediffmail.co, E-mail: nirupama_cotton@rediffmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Cotton College, Guwahati-781001, Assam (India)
2010-02-01
Much interest was shown towards the studies on nonlinear stability in the late sixties. Plasma instabilities play an important role in plasma dynamics. More attention has been given towards stability analysis after recognizing that they are one of the principal obstacles in the way of a successful resolution of the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion. Nonlinearity and dispersion are the two important characteristics of plasma instabilities. Instabilities and nonlinearity are the two important and interrelated terms. In our present work, the continuity and momentum equations for both ions and electrons together with the Poisson equation are considered as cold plasma model. Then we have adopted the modified reductive perturbation technique (MRPT) from Demiray [1] to derive the higher order equation of the Nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE). In this work, detailed mathematical expressions and calculations are done to investigate the changing character of the modulation of ion acoustic plasma wave through our derived equation. Thus we have extended the application of MRPT to derive the higher order equation. Both progressive wave solutions as well as steady state solutions are derived and they are plotted for different plasma parameters to observe dark/bright solitons. Interesting structures are found to exist for different plasma parameters.
Brown, R. S.; Waugh, R. C.
1980-01-01
The results of a re-evaluation of the propellant combustion data obtained using the dual valve approach for measuring velocity-coupling characteristics of solid propellants are presented. Data analysis and testing procedures are described. The velocity response is compared to pressure-coupled response data within the context of thermal wave response theory. This comparison shows important inconsistencies which cast doubt on inferring the velocity response from pressure-coupled response functions.
Mielke, Steven L., E-mail: slmielke@gmail.com, E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu; Truhlar, Donald G., E-mail: slmielke@gmail.com, E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Theory Center, and Supercomputing Institute, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant St. S.E., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)
2015-01-28
We present an improved version of our “path-by-path” enhanced same path extrapolation scheme for Feynman path integral (FPI) calculations that permits rapid convergence with discretization errors ranging from O(P{sup −6}) to O(P{sup −12}), where P is the number of path discretization points. We also present two extensions of our importance sampling and stratified sampling schemes for calculating vibrational–rotational partition functions by the FPI method. The first is the use of importance functions for dihedral angles between sets of generalized Jacobi coordinate vectors. The second is an extension of our stratification scheme to allow some strata to be defined based only on coordinate information while other strata are defined based on both the geometry and the energy of the centroid of the Feynman path. These enhanced methods are applied to calculate converged partition functions by FPI methods, and these results are compared to ones obtained earlier by vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) calculations, both calculations being for the Jordan–Gilbert potential energy surface. The earlier VCI calculations are found to agree well (within ∼1.5%) with the new benchmarks. The FPI partition functions presented here are estimated to be converged to within a 2σ statistical uncertainty of between 0.04% and 0.07% for the given potential energy surface for temperatures in the range 300–3000 K and are the most accurately converged partition functions for a given potential energy surface for any molecule with five or more atoms. We also tabulate free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities.
Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G
2015-01-28
We present an improved version of our "path-by-path" enhanced same path extrapolation scheme for Feynman path integral (FPI) calculations that permits rapid convergence with discretization errors ranging from O(P(-6)) to O(P(-12)), where P is the number of path discretization points. We also present two extensions of our importance sampling and stratified sampling schemes for calculating vibrational-rotational partition functions by the FPI method. The first is the use of importance functions for dihedral angles between sets of generalized Jacobi coordinate vectors. The second is an extension of our stratification scheme to allow some strata to be defined based only on coordinate information while other strata are defined based on both the geometry and the energy of the centroid of the Feynman path. These enhanced methods are applied to calculate converged partition functions by FPI methods, and these results are compared to ones obtained earlier by vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) calculations, both calculations being for the Jordan-Gilbert potential energy surface. The earlier VCI calculations are found to agree well (within ∼1.5%) with the new benchmarks. The FPI partition functions presented here are estimated to be converged to within a 2σ statistical uncertainty of between 0.04% and 0.07% for the given potential energy surface for temperatures in the range 300-3000 K and are the most accurately converged partition functions for a given potential energy surface for any molecule with five or more atoms. We also tabulate free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities.
Barik, N.; Barik, B.K. (Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics)
1981-12-01
It is shown that a non-relativistic power-law potential model for the heavy quarks in the form V(r) = Arsup(..nu..) + V/sub 0/, (A,..nu..>0) acquires relativistic consistency in generating Dirac bound states of Q anti Q-system in agreement with the Schroedinger spectroscopy if the interaction is modelled by equally mixed scalar and vector parts as suggested by the phenomenology of fine-hyperfine splittings of heavy quarkonium systems in a non-relativistic perturbative approach.
Rotational spectra and molecular structure
Wollrab, James E
1967-01-01
Physical Chemistry, A Series of Monographs: Rotational Spectra and Molecular Structure covers the energy levels and rotational transitions. This book is divided into nine chapters that evaluate the rigid asymmetric top molecules and the nuclear spin statistics for asymmetric tops. Some of the topics covered in the book are the asymmetric rotor functions; rotational transition intensities; classes of molecules; nuclear spin statistics for linear molecules and symmetric tops; and classical appearance of centrifugal and coriolis forces. Other chapters deal with the energy levels and effects of ce
Local time-decay of solutions to Schroedinger equations with time-periodic potentials
Galtbayar, A; Yajima, K
2002-01-01
Let $H(t)=-\\Delta+V(t,x)$ be a time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger operator on $L^2(\\R^3)$. We assume that $V(t,x)$ is $2\\pi$--periodic in time and decays sufficiently rapidly in space. Let $U(t,0)$ be the associated propagator. For $u_0$ belonging to the continuous spectral subspace of $L^2(\\R^3)$ for the Floquet operator $U(2\\pi, 0)$, we study the behavior of $U(t,0)u_0$ as $t\\to\\infty$ in the topology of $x$-weighted spaces, in the form of asymptotic expansions. Generically the leading term is $t^{-3/2}B_1u_0$. Here $B_1$ is a finite rank operator mapping functions of $x$ to functions of $t$ and $x$, periodic in $t$. If $n\\in\\Z$ is an eigenvalue, or a threshold resonance of the corresponding Floquet Hamiltonian $-i\\pa_t + H(t)$, the leading behavior is $t^{-1/2}B_0u_0$. The point spectral subspace for $U(2\\pi, 0)$ is finite dimensional. If $U(2\\pi, 0)\\phi_j = e^{-i2\\pi\\l_j }\\phi_j$, then $U(t, 0)\\phi_j$ represents a quasi-periodic solution.
St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien
2016-01-01
To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000357.htm Rotator cuff exercises To use the sharing features on this ... gov/pubmed/25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder ...
Chapoy, Larry Lawrence; DuPré, Donald B.
1978-01-01
An expression is derived for the anisotropic fluorescent emission in uniaxial liquid crystals where fluorescent sites governed by an initial nonrandom distribution of orientations are subject to rotational Brownian motion. The possibility of nonparallelism of absorption and emission oscillators...
Rotating Cavitation Supression Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating...
Lee, S.Y.
1990-06-18
The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10{sup {minus}4} will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs.
Minimal requirements for rotation of bacterial flagella.
Ravid, S; Eisenbach, M
1984-01-01
An in vitro system of cell envelopes from Salmonella typhimurium with functional flagella was used to determine the minimal requirements for flagellar rotation. Rotation in the absence of cytoplasmic constituents could be driven either by respiration or by an artificially imposed chemical gradient of protons. No specific ionic requirements other than protons (or hydroxyls) were found for the motor function.
The Yang-Mills Vacuum Wave Functional in 2+1 Dimensions
Krug, Sebastian
2014-01-01
We investigate Yang-Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions in the Schroedinger representation. The Schroedinger picture is interesting because it is well suited to explore properties of the vacuum state in the non-perturbative regime. Yet, not much analytical work has been done on this subject, and even the topic of perturbation theory in the Schroedinger representation is not well developed, especially in the case of gauge theories. In a paper by Hatfield [Phys.Lett.B 147, 435 (1984)] the vacuum wave functional for SU(2) theory was computed to O(e). In the non-perturbative regime, the most sophisticated analytical approach has been developed by Karabali et al. in a series of papers (see [Nucl.Phys.B 824, 387 (2010)] and references therein). This thesis aims to put perturbation theory in the Schroedinger representation on more solid ground by computing the vacuum wave functional for a general gauge group SU$(N_c)$ up to O$(e^2)$, utilizing modifications of these two methods. This is important since it provides us wit...
Martinez, D [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Plantel Cuautepec, Av. La Corona 320, Col. Loma la Palma, Delegacion Gustavo A. Madero, 07160, Mexico DF (Mexico); Flores-Urbina, J C; Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, Delegacion Gustavo A. Madero, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dmartinezs77@yahoo.com.mx
2010-04-02
We apply the Schroedinger factorization to construct the ladder operators for the hydrogen atom, Mie-type potential, harmonic oscillator and pseudo-harmonic oscillator in arbitrary dimensions. By generalizing these operators we show that the dynamical algebra for these problems is the su(1, 1) Lie algebra.
EINSTEIN, SCHROEDINGER, AND ATOM
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Einstein’s atom model has been developed, and proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves
Differentially-rotating neutron star models with a parametrized rotation profile
Galeazzi, Filippo; Eriguchi, Yoshiharu
2011-01-01
We analyze the impact of the choice rotation law on equilibrium sequences of relativistic differentially-rotating neutron stars in axisymmetry. The maximum allowed mass for each model is strongly affected by the distribution of angular velocity along the radial direction and by the consequent degree of differential rotation. In order to study the wide parameter space implied by the choice of rotation law, we introduce a functional form that generalizes the so called "j-const. law" adopted in all previous work. Using this new rotation law we reproduce the angular velocity profile of differentially-rotating remnants from the coalescence of binary neutron stars in various 3-dimensional dynamical simulations. We compute equilibrium sequences of differentially rotating stars with a polytropic equation of state starting from the spherically symmetric static case. By analyzing the sequences at constant ratio, T/|W|, of rotational kinetic energy to gravitational binding energy, we find that the parameters that best d...
A method to deconvolve stellar rotational velocities
Cure, Michel; Cassetti, Julia; Christen, Alejandra
2014-01-01
Rotational speed is an important physical parameter of stars and knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for the understanding stellar evolution. However, it cannot be measured directly but the convolution of the rotational speed and the sine of the inclination angle, $v \\sin i$. We developed a method to deconvolve this inverse problem and obtain the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for stellar rotational velocities extending the work of Chandrasekhar & M\\"unch (1950). This method is applied a) to theoretical synthetic data recovering the original velocity distribution with very small error; b) to a sample of about 12.000 field main--sequence stars, corroborating that the velocity distribution function is non--Maxwellian, but is better described by distributions based on the concept of maximum entropy, such as Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions. This is a very robust and novel method that deconvolve the rotational velocity cumulative distribution function fro...
Saylor-Pavkovich, Estee
2016-06-01
Rotator cuff tendinopathy (RTCT) is regularly treated by the physical therapist. Multiple etiologies for RTCT exist, leading an individual to seek treatment from their provider of choice. Strengthening exercises (SE) have been reported to be effective in the treatment of RTCT, but there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of dry needing (DN) for this condition. The purpose of this retrospective case series was to investigate DN to various non-trigger point-based anatomical locations coupled with strengthening exercises (SE) as a treatment strategy to decrease pain and increase function in healthy patients with chronic RTC pathology. Eight patients with RTCT were treated 1-2 times per week for up to eight weeks, and no more than sixteen total treatment sessions of SE and DN. Outcomes were tested at baseline and upon completion of therapy. A long-term outcome measure follow up averaging 8.75 months (range 3 to 20 months) was also performed. The outcome measures included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Quick Dash (QD). Clinically meaningful improvements in disability and pain in the short term and upon long-term follow up were demonstrated for each patient. The mean VAS was broken down into best (VAS(B)), current (VAS(C)), and worst (VAS(W)) rated pain levels and the mean was calculated for the eight patients. The mean VAS(B) improved from 22.5 mm at the initial assessment to 2.36 mm upon completion of the intervention duration. The mean VASC improved from 28.36 mm to 5.0 mm, and the mean VAS(W) improved from 68.88 mm to 13.25 mm. At the long-term follow up (average 8.75 months), The mean VAS(B), VAS(C), and VAS(W) scores were 0.36 mm, 4.88 mm, and 17.88 mm respectively. The QD(mean) for the eight patients improved from 43.09 at baseline to 16.04 at the completion of treatment. At long-term follow-up, the QD(mean) was 6.59. Clinically meaningful improvements in pain and disability were noted with the intervention protocol. All subjects
Suchomel, P; Jurák, L; Antinheimo, J; Pohjola, J; Stulik, J; Meisel, H-J; Čabraja, M; Woiciechowsky, C; Bruchmann, B; Shackleford, I; Arregui, R; Sola, S
2014-05-01
Recent studies describe significant rates of heterotopic ossification (HO) after cervical total disc replacement (CTDR). Little is known about the reasons, and one aspect that requires further in vivo investigation is the biomechanical alteration after CTDR and the role of the implant-related centre of rotation (CORi) in particular. The role of the sagittal position of the CORi on functional outcome in two versions of a semi-constrained disc prosthesis with sagittally different CORi is the topic of this study. Patients were candidates for single-level CTDR between C3 and C7 who suffered from CDDD and received a standard or flat version of activ C™ (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen). Clinical and radiographic assessments were determined preoperatively, intraoperatively, at discharge and again at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 and 2 years. Radiographic examinations were performed independently using specialized quantitative motion analysis software. Clinical outcome improved significantly regarding NDI as well as VAS on neck and arm pain with no differences in mean improvement by study group. Segmental angle measures show a significantly better lordotic alignment for both groups after surgery, but the degree of correction achieved is higher in the flat group. Correlation analysis proves that the more anterior the CORi is positioned, the higher the lordotic correction is achieved (Pearson rho -0.385). Segmental ROM decreased in the standard group but was maintained for flat implants. At present, our data do not demonstrate a correlation between CORi and ROM at 2 years. Two years after surgery, severe HO grade III-IV was present in 31.6 % standard and 13.1 % flat cases with significant differences. Grouping according to HO severity showed comparable sagittal positions of CORi for flat implants but a more posterior position in the severe HO group for standard implants. Our results confirm the influence of CORi location on segmental alignment, kinematics and HO for a semi
Roberto Yukio Ikemoto
2013-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of the arthroscopic margin convergence of the posterior cuff to the biceps tendon. METHODS: From October 2003 to December 2007, 20 patients with massive rotator cuff tear which include the rotator interval were treated with arthroscopic margin convergence of the posterior cuff to biceps tendon. Sixteen patients were female and four were male. The mean age was 58.95 years old. The dominant side was affected in 16 cases (80%. The outcomes were analysed according to the UCLA Score with a minimum follow-up period of two years. RESULTS: The UCLA score improved, on average, 14 points (p < 0.001. Six patients had excellent results; nine good; three fair and two poor results. The mean improvement of forward flexion was 33º (p < 0.001, 3º of external rotation (p < 0.396 and two vertebral levels for internal rotation (p < 0.025. CONCLUSION: The arthroscopic margin convergence of the posterior cuff to the biceps tendon leads to satisfactory results.
Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.
Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos
2017-01-01
Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.
Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.b [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR) (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.b [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)
2010-05-31
The non-relativistic Pauli-Schroedinger theory has a richer gauge structure than usually expected, being invariant under the U(1)xSU(2) gauge group, which allows to define spin-current density vectors and obtains the relevant conserved quantities from Noether's theorem. The electromagnetic fields E and B play the role of the gauge potentials for the SU(2) sector of the gauge group and can possibly contribute with a corresponding invariant curvature self-energy term in the Lagrangian density. From the dynamics of the U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields we show that electric fields can be induced by spin-currents originated from the SU(2) gauge symmetry.
Kovarik, M. D.; Barnes, T.
We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of a dynamical fermion problem in two spatial dimensions on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. The problem studied is the determination of the dispersion relation of a dynamical hole in the t-J model of the high temperature superconductors. Since this problem involves the motion of many fermions in more than one spatial dimension, it is representative of the class of systems that suffer from the 'minus sign problem' of dynamical fermions which has made Monte Carlo simulation very difficult. We demonstrate that for small values of the hole hopping parameter one can extract the entire hole dispersion relation using the GRW Monte Carlo algorithm, which is a simulation of the Euclidean time Schroedinger equation, and present results on 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 lattices. Generalization to physical hopping parameter values will only require use of an improved trial wavefunction for importance sampling.
Kovarik, M.D.; Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics
1993-10-01
We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of a dynamical fermion problem in two spatial dimensions on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. The problem studied is the determination of the dispersion relation of a dynamical hole in the t-J model of the high temperature superconductors. Since this problem involves the motion of many fermions in more than one spatial dimensions, it is representative of the class of systems that suffer from the ``minus sign problem`` of dynamical fermions which has made Monte Carlo simulation very difficult. We demonstrate that for small values of the hole hopping parameter one can extract the entire hole dispersion relation using the GRW Monte Carlo algorithm, which is a simulation of the Euclidean time Schroedinger equation, and present results on 4 {times} 4 and 6 {times} 6 lattices. Generalization to physical hopping parameter values wig only require use of an improved trial wavefunction for importance sampling.
Design of a piezoelectric rotation actuator
Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Babakhani, B.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel
2012-01-01
In order to facilitate active damping within a linear motion system, a self-sensing piezoelectric rotation actuator has been designed. The rotation actuator consists of two piezoelectric stacks that function as linear actuators, embedded in a mechanical interface with several elastic elements, thus
Measuring stellar rotation periods with Kepler
Nielsen, M B; Schunker, H; Karoff, C
2015-01-01
We measure rotation periods for 12151 stars in the Kepler field, based on the photometric variability caused by stellar activity. Our analysis returns stable rotation periods over at least six out of eight quarters of Kepler data. This large sample of stars enables us to study the rotation periods as a function of spectral type. We find good agreement with previous studies and vsini measurements for F, G and K stars. Combining rotation periods, B-V color, and gyrochronology relations, we find that the cool stars in our sample are predominantly younger than ~1Gyr.
Butterflies with rotation and charge
Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.
2016-11-01
We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.
Butterflies with rotation and charge
Reynolds, Alan P
2016-01-01
We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.
Rotator cuff repair - slideshow
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...
ZHANGJin-Liang; WANGMing-Liang
2004-01-01
The complex tanh-function expansion method was presented recently, and it can be applied to derive exact solutions to the Schroedinger-type nonlinear evolution equations directly without transformation. In this paper,the complex tanh-function expansion method is applied to derive the exact solutions to the general coupled nonlinear evolution equations. Zakharov system and a long-short-wave interaction system are considered as examples, and the new applications of the complex tanh-function expansion method are shown.
Gramkow, Claus
1999-01-01
In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...
Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector
Pina, E.
2011-01-01
The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…
Gramkow, Claus
2001-01-01
In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...
Perches, Sara; Ares, Jorge; Collados, Victoria; Palos, Fernando
2013-07-01
New designs of ophthalmic lenses customised for particular wearing conditions (e.g., vertex distance or wrap tilt angle) have emerged during the last few years. However, there is limited information about the extent of any improvement in visual quality of these products. The aim of this work was to determine whether customisation according to the centre of rotation of the eye (CRE) improves visual quality for oblique gaze in monofocal spherical lenses. Conventional spherical lenses were designed by numerical ray tracing with back vertex powers (BVP) ranging from +8 to -8 dioptres (D) and base curves from 0 to 8 D. The wavefront error at oblique gaze (40°) was computed for each design with CRE positions from 20 to 35 mm. Sphero-cylindrical (SC) error was calculated using wavefront Zernike coefficients, considering only monochromatic aberrations. Visual acuity in logMAR was estimated following the Raasch empirical regression model. SC error and visual acuity maps were calculated for each BVP as a function of base curves and CRE in a graded colour scale. From SC error maps maximum spherical and cylindrical errors (MSE and MCE) of 1.49 D and -1.24 D respectively were found for BVP from 0 to -2 D, 2.27 D and -1.90 D for BVP from -2 D to -4 D, 2.59 D and -2.20 D for lenses from -4 D to -6 D and 2.63 D and -2.28 D for lenses from -6 D to -8 D. Concerning positive lenses, we obtained MSE and MCE of 0.37 D and -1.35 D respectively for lenses from 0 D to +2 D, 0.39 D and -2.23 D for lenses from +2 D to +4 D and 0.36 D and -2.73 D for lenses from +4 D to +6 D. Regarding visual acuity maps for 40° oblique gaze, significant loss of visual acuity (>0.30 logMAR, Snellen 6/12, 20/40, decimal 0.50) was found for BVP as low as -2 D. Clinically negligible high order aberration levels (equivalent spherical power high SC error when they were designed with low bases. However, high BVP negative lenses with low SC error were found for medium bases and low
Rotational spectroscopy of interstellar PAHs
Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine
2013-01-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been part of the standard model of the interstellar medium, and are believed to play important roles in its physics and chemistry. Yet, up to now it has not been possible to identify any specific molecule among them. In this paper, a new observational avenue is suggested to detect individual PAHs, using their rotational line emission at radio frequencies. Previous PAH searches based on rotational spectroscopy have only targeted the bowl-shaped corannulene molecule, with the underlying assumption that other polar PAHs are triaxial and as a consequence their rotational emission is diluted over a very large number of lines and unusable for detection purposes. In this paper the rotational spectrum of quasi-symmetric PAHs is computed analytically, as a function of the level of triaxiality. It is shown that the asymmetry of planar, nitrogen-substituted symmetric PAHs is small enough that their rotational spectrum, when observed with a resolution of about a MHz, has ...
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2012-01-01
Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.
Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim
2013-01-01
Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.
Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard
2013-01-01
to identify the specific tissue region under study. In order to use the spatial rotator in practice, however, it is necessary to be able to identify intersection points between cell boundaries and test rays in a series of parallel focal planes, also at the peripheral parts of the cell boundaries. In cases......This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...... the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...
Dynamic behaviour of a rotating cracked beam
Yashar, Ahmed; Ghandchi-Tehrani, Maryam; Ferguson, Neil
2016-09-01
This paper presents a new approach to investigate and analyse the vibrational behaviour of cracked rotating cantilever beams, which can for example represent helicopter or wind turbine blades. The analytical Hamiltonian method is used in modelling the rotating beam and two numerical methods, the Rayleigh-Ritz and FEM, are used to study the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the intact rotating beams. Subsequently, a crack is introduced into the FE model and simulations are performed to identify the modal characteristics for an open cracked rotating beam. The effect of various parameters such as non-dimensional rotating speed, hub ratio and slenderness ratio are investigated for both the intact and the cracked rotating beam, and in both directions of chordwise and flapwise motion. The veering phenomena in the natural frequencies as a function of the rotational speed and the buckling speed are considered with respect to the slenderness ratio. In addition, the mode shapes obtained for the flapwise vibration are compared using the modal assurance criterion (MAC). Finally, a new three dimensional design chart is produced, showing the effect of crack location and depth on the natural frequencies of the rotating beam. This chart will be subsequently important in identifying crack defects in rotating blades.
Manolopoulou, Maria
2016-01-01
We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...
BIRKHOFF'S EQUATIONS AND GEOMETRICAL THEORY OF ROTATIONAL RELATIVISTIC SYSTEM
LUO SHAO-KAI; CHEN XIANG-WEI; FU JING-LI
2001-01-01
The Birkhoffian and Birkhoff's functions of a rotational relativistic system are constructed, the Pfaff action of rotational relativistic system is defined, the Pfaff-Birkhoff principle of a rotational relativistic system is given, and the Pfaff-Birkhoff-D'Alembert principles and Birkhoff's equations of rotational relativistic system are constructed. The geometrical description of a rotational relativistic system is studied, and the exact properties of Birkhoff's equations and their forms onR × T*M for a rotational relativistic system are obtained. The global analysis of Birkhoff's equations for a rotational relativistic system is studied, the global properties of autonomous, semi-autonomous and non-autonomous rotational relativistic Birkhoff's equations, and the geometrical properties of energy change for rotational relativistic Birkhoff's equations are given.
Relativistic Rotating Vector Model
Lyutikov, Maxim
2016-01-01
The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.
陈江瑛; 翁国飞; 丁皓江
2009-01-01
Three-dimensional(3D)analytical solution for a rotating annular plate made of functionally graded materials with transverse isotropy waft,obtained.It is based on the basic equations of piezoelectricity and the direct displacement method.The material parameters were assumed as the arbitrary functions of thickness coordinate(Z).The general displacement components(displacement and the electric potential)were assumed as a linear combination of the power -functions of radial coordinate(r)with nine undetermined displacement functions.By means of the boundary conditions with direct integral approach,the governing equations of the annular were solved and the displacement functions and integral constants were given.Thus the general stress fields of the rotating annular were determined.Effects played by gradient index on the distributing of elastic and electric fields were studied humerically in an example.%基于三维压电弹性力学方程,采用直接位移法,给出横观各向同性功能梯度压电旋转圆环的三维解析解.设功能梯度压电材料参数是厚度坐标Z的任意函数,广义位移分量是径向坐标r的幂函数的线性组合,其中含有9个待定的位移函数,它们是坐标Z的函数.结合相应的边界条件,求解控制方程,通过直接积分确定位移函数和相应的积分常数,从而确定旋转圆环的力场和电场.算例展示一种材料的梯度指标对力场和电场的影响.
Weiss, Michael M; Wolbers, Thomas; Peller, Martin
2008-01-01
Functional neuroimaging studies have identified a set of areas in the intraparietal sulcus and dorsal precentral cortex which show a linear increase in activity with the angle of rotation across a variety of mental rotation tasks. This linear increase in activity with angular disparity suggests t...
Density functional calculations of nanoscale conductance
Koentopp, Max; Chang, Connie [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, UC Irvine, 1102 Natural Sciences 2, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Car, Roberto [Department of Chemistry and Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2008-02-27
Density functional calculations for the electronic conductance of single molecules are now common. We examine the methodology from a rigorous point of view, discussing where it can be expected to work, and where it should fail. When molecules are weakly coupled to leads, local and gradient-corrected approximations fail, as the Kohn-Sham levels are misaligned. In the weak bias regime, exchange-correlation corrections to the current are missed by the standard methodology. For finite bias, a new methodology for performing calculations can be rigorously derived using an extension of time-dependent current density functional theory from the Schroedinger equation to a master equation. (topical review)
张旭; 于宪伟; 齐美美; 张继明
2011-01-01
A subalgerbra A 1,which is equivalent to the subalgebra of the Loop algebra A2 in [4], is constructed by making use of algebraic transformation, and then a high - dimensional Loop alegebra G is presented in terms of A1. An isospectral problem is established following G by using direct sum operators and isomorphic relations among subalgebras. It is concluded that a class of expanding integrable system for generalized Schrodinger hierarchy of evolution equations is obtained. As in reduction cases, the integrable coupling of the famous generalized Schroedinger e -quation is presented.%利用代数变换，构造了与文献[4]中的Loop代数A2的子代数等价的Loop代数A1的一个子代数A1。再将A1扩展为一个高维的Loop代数G，利用G设计了一个等谱问题，结合子代数间直和运算和同构关系，得到了广义Schroedinger方程族的一类扩展可积系统。作为约化情形，求得了著名的广义Schroedinger方程的可积耦合系统。
Bertola, Marco
2010-01-01
The semiclassical (zero-dispersion) limit of the one-dimensional focusing Nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLS) with decaying potentials is studied in a full scaling neighborhood D of the point of gradient catastrophe (x_0,t_0). This neighborhood contains the region of modulated plane wave (with rapid phase oscillations), as well as the region of fast amplitude oscillations (spikes). In this paper we establish the following universal behaviors of the NLS solutions near the point of gradient catastrophe: i) each spike has the height 3|q_0(x_0,t_0,epsilon)| and uniform shape of the rational breather solution to the NLS, scaled to the size O(epsilon); ii) the location of the spikes are determined by the poles of the tritronquee solution of the Painleve I (P1) equation through an explicit diffeomorphism between D and a region into the Painleve plane; iii) if (x,t) belongs to D but lies away from the spikes, the asymptotics of the NLS solution q(x,t,epsilon) is given by the plane wave approximation q_0(x,t,epsilon...
Shell Model for Warm Rotating Nuclei
Matsuo, M; Vigezzi, E; Broglia, R A; Yoshida, K
1997-01-01
In order to provide a microscopic description of levels and E2 transitions in rapidly rotating nuclei with internal excitation energy up to a few MeV, use is made of a shell model which combines the cranked Nilsson mean-field and the residual surface delta two-body force. The damping of collective rotational motion is investigated in the case of a typical rare-earth nucleus, namely \\Yb. It is found that rotational damping sets in at around 0.8 MeV above the yrast line, and the levels which form rotational band structures are thus limited. We predict at a given rotational frequency existence of about 30 rotational bands of various lengths, in overall agreement with the experimental findings. The onset of the rotational damping proceeds quite gradually as a function of the internal excitation energy. The transition region extends up to around 2 MeV above yrast and it is characterized by the presence of scars of discrete rotational bands which extend over few spin values and stand out among the damped transition...
Deconstructing Mental Rotation
Larsen, Axel
2014-01-01
A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...... alignment take place during fixations at very high speed....
Philip E. Pope; Jeffery O. Dawson
1989-01-01
Short-rotation plantations offer several advantages over longer, more traditional rotations. They enhance the natural productivity of better sites and of tree species with rapid juvenile growth. Returns on investment are realized in a shorter period and the risk of loss is reduced compared with long term investments. Production of wood and fiber can be maximized by...
Le Vine, David
2016-01-01
Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).
Uniformly rotating neutron stars
Boshkayev, Kuantay
2016-01-01
In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...
Berthout, P.; Faivre, R.; Bernard, Y.; Bassand, J.P.; Maurat, J.P.; Cardot, J.C.; Baud, M.; Jouan, A.; Verdenet, J.; Bidet, R.
1988-06-01
Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional wall motion abnormalities were determined in 40 patients using equilibrium radionuclide angiography. Scintigraphic acquisitions were collected in random order with 2 different collimators. Results were compared to contrast ventriculography (CV) performed in the 30/sup 0/ right anterior view and in a 60/sup 0/ left anterior oblique view. Radionuclide LVEF in both series was closely correlated with contrast ventriculographic LVEF. Regional wall motion analysis was only performed among the 30 patients suffering from coronary heart disease. Eight contrast angiographic studies were normal and 22 abnormal. Global sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 63% with the VTC and 91% and 87% with the 30/sup 0/ RSHC. Agreement for the localisation of the regional wall motion abnormalities between CV and radionuclide angiography was 70.6% with the VTC and 71.2% with the RSHC (P=ns). Intensity of the regional wall motion abnormalities was assessed with the 30/sup 0/ RSHC as well as with the VTC. We conclude that the use of a rotating slant hole collimator associated with radionuclide ventriculography allows improved determination of left ventricular ejection fraction and more accurate assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities with only two projections while the vertical collimator requires three.
Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Pau-Chung
2015-03-01
To investigate the relationship between elevated serum alanine-transaminase (e-ALT) and persistent rotating shift work (p-RSW) among employees with sonographic fatty liver (SFL), the authors performed a retrospective analysis on a cohort of electronics manufacturing workers. The records of 758 workers (507 men, 251 women) with initially normal ALT and a mean age of 32.9 years were analyzed. A total of 109 workers (14.4%) developed e-ALT after 5 years. Compared with those having neither initial SFL nor p-RSW exposure, multivariate analysis indicated that employees who had initial SFL but without p-RSW finally had a higher risk (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-5.1) for developing e-ALT; workers with baseline SFL plus p-RSW had a 3.7-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.8-7.5). SFL poses a conspicuous risk for the development of e-ALT, and persistent p-RSW exposure significantly aggravates the development of e-ALT among on-site workers with preexisting SFL.
Droplets climbing a rotating helical fiber
Texier, Baptiste Darbois
2015-01-01
A liquid droplet is placed on a rotating helical fiber. We find that the droplet may slide down, attach or climb up the fiber. We inspect experimentally the domain of existence of these three behaviors as a function of the geometrical characteristics of the fiber, its angle relatively to the horizontal, the wetting properties of the fluid and the rotating speed of the helix. A theoretical model is proposed in order to capture the boundaries of the experimental phase diagram.
Visualization of a particle's wave function in the double slits experiment
Postnikov, Eugene B
2013-01-01
The double slits experiment is a basic phenomenon, which allows to explain principal behaviour of quantum systems. However, textbooks present static pictures of corresponding interference patterns. At the same time, modern computer software for PDE solution provides an opportunity for dynamical modeling of a wave function behaviour using a numerical solution of Schroedinger's equation and to use the obtained demonstrations in a teaching of physics. This material presents such a dynamical animated simulation.
MRI of the rotator cuff and internal derangement
Opsha, Oleg [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: oopsha@hotmail.com; Malik, Archana [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: dr.armal@gmail.com; Baltazar, Romulo [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: rbaltazar@gmail.com; Primakov, Denis [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States)], E-mail: dgprim@yahoo.com; Beltran, Salvador [Dr. Ramon Marti, 2 Albons, Ginrona 17136 (Spain); Miller, Theodore T. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States)], E-mail: MillerTT@hss.edu; Beltran, Javier [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 10th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219 (United States)], E-mail: jbeltran46@msn.com
2008-10-15
Disease to the rotator cuff is the most common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in adults. This group of muscles performs multiple functions and is often stressed during various activities. The anatomy and physiology of the rotator cuff is complex and interconnected to other muscle groups in the shoulder. One must take the anatomic status of the rotator cuff tendons into account when planning the treatment of the rotator cuff injury. Diagnostic imaging of the rotator cuff, performed by MRI, provides valuable information about the nature of the injury. In this article, we will review the various types and causes of rotator cuff injuries, normal MR anatomy, function, patho-anatomy, and the biomechanics of the rotator cuff. We will also review shoulder impingement syndromes.
Binzel, R. P.; Green, J. R.; Opal, C. B.
1986-01-01
Thomas et al. (1984) analyzed 14 Voyager 2 images of Saturn's satellite Hyperion and interpreted them to be consistent with a coherent (nonchaotic) rotation period of 13.1 days. This interpretation was criticized by Peale and Wisdom (1984), who argued that the low sampling frequency of Voyager data does not allow chaotic or nonchaotic rotation to be distinguished. New observations obtained with a higher sampling frequency are reported here which conclusively show that the 13.1 day period found by Thomas et al. was not due to coherent rotation.
Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1996-11-01
It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.
Variable Separation Solution for （1＋1）-Dimensional Nonlinear Models Related to Schroedinger Equation
XUChang-Zhi; ZHANGJie-Fang
2004-01-01
A variable separation approach is proposed and successfully extended to the (1+1)-dimensional physics models. The new exact solution of (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear models related to Schr6dinger equation by the entrance of three arbitrary functions is obtained. Some special types of soliton wave solutions such as multi-soliton wave solution,non-stable soliton solution, oscillating soliton solution, and periodic soliton solutions are discussed by selecting the arbitrary functions appropriately.
Entropy generation of radial rotation convective channels
Alić, Fikret
2012-03-01
The exchange of heat between two fluids is established by radial rotating pipe or a channel. The hotter fluid flows through the pipe, while the cold fluid is ambient air. Total length of pipe is made up of multiple sections of different shape and position in relation to the common axis of rotation. In such heat exchanger the hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of the hotter and colder fluid occur. Therefore, the total entropy generated within the radial rotating pipe consists of the total entropy of hotter and colder fluid, taking into account all the hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of both fluids. Finding a mathematical model of the total generated entropy is based on coupled mathematical expressions that combine hydraulic and thermal effects of both fluids with the complex geometry of the radial rotating pipe. Mathematical model follows the each section of the pipe and establishes the function between the sections, so the total generated entropy is different from section to section of the pipe. In one section of the pipe thermal irreversibility may dominate over the hydraulic irreversibility, while in another section of the pipe the situation may be reverse. In this paper, continuous analytic functions that connect sections of pipe in geometric meaning are associated with functions that describe the thermo-hydraulic effects of hotter and colder fluid. In this way, the total generated entropy of the radial rotating pipe is a continuous analytic function of any complex geometry of the rotating pipe. The above method of establishing a relationship between the continuous function of entropy with the complex geometry of the rotating pipe enables indirect monitoring of unnecessary hydraulic and thermal losses of both fluids. Therefore, continuous analytic functions of generated entropy enable analysis of hydraulic and thermal irreversibility of individual sections of pipe, as well as the possibility of improving the thermal-hydraulic performance of the rotating
... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...
Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation
WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang
2004-01-01
By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.
Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation
WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang
2004-01-01
By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.
Solar rotation gravitational moments
A. Ajabshirizadeh
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Gravitational multipole moments of the Sun are still poorly known. Theoretically, the difficulty is mainly due to the differential rotation for which the velocity rate varies both on the surface and with the depth. From an observational point of view, the multipole moments cannot be directly measured. However, recent progresses have been made proving the existence of a strong radial differential rotation in a thin layer near the solar surface (the leptocline. Applying the theory of rotating stars, we will first compute values of J2 and J4 taking into account the radial gradient of rotation, then we will compare these values with the existing ones, giving a more complete review. We will explain some astrophysical outcomes, mainly on the relativistic Post Newtonian parameters. Finally we will conclude by indicating how space experiments (balloon SDS flights, Golf NG, Beppi-Colombo, Gaia... will be essential to unambiguously determine these parameters.
How fast is the wave function collapse?
Ignatiev, A Yu
2012-01-01
Using complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formulation, a new kind of non-linear equations is proposed that have almost classical structure and extend the Schroedinger equation to describe the collapse of the wave function as a finite-time process. Experimental bounds on the collapse time are reported (of order 0.1 ms to 0.1 ps) and its convenient dimensionless measure is introduced. This parameter helps to identify the areas where sensitive probes of the possible collapse dynamics can be done. Examples are experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates, ultracold neutrons or ultrafast optics.
梁平; 张志强; 卢光明; 邵庆
2005-01-01
目的:利用功能磁共振成像技术,观察旋转光栅刺激引起的视觉皮层生理反应,探索其反应的组成成分.方法:在1.5 T磁共振扫描仪上,对9例健康志愿者以梯度回波基础上加平面回波(GRE-EPI)成像序列法采集旋转光栅引起的视皮层反应数据,SPM99软件进行数据离线后处理.结果:旋转光栅的各种刺激成分引起不同视觉皮层中枢的兴奋.枕叶中央区域的强烈反应位于初级视觉皮层区,与白光刺激有关;两侧19区的反应与视觉运动功能有关.枕叶中央微弱反应区与形状察觉功能有关.结论:旋转光栅包含丰富的视觉信息,作为刺激源可兴奋视觉中枢的不同区域.功能磁共振成像技术可以作为研究视皮层生理的良好工具.%AIM: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, to inspect v sual cortex physical reactions stimulated by rotating grating, and to its components. METHODS: On 1.5T MR scanner, GRE-EPI imaging sequence was carried on 9 h discover ealthy volunteers, the visual cortex response data were processed after delinearation by SPM99.RESULTS: Different components of rotating grating excited different areas of the visual cortex. Dramatic response in the central part of the occipital lobe, which was related to white light stimuli, located at primary visual cortex. Response area in bilateral Broadaman 19 areas was related to vision-motion function. And weak response area in the central part of the occipital lobe was related to shape perception.CONCLUSION: Rotating grating conclude plenty of visual information, and it excites different areas of the optic center as a stimuli. fMRI is a valuable equipment to study the physiology of visual cortex.
Electromagnetic rotational actuation.
Hogan, Alexander Lee
2010-08-01
There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.
Rotational spectrum of phenylglycinol
Simão, Alcides; Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.
2014-11-01
Solid samples of phenylglycinol were vaporized by laser ablation and investigated through rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion using two different techniques: chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and narrow band molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. One conformer, bearing an O-H···N and an N-H···π intramolecular hydrogen bonds, could be successfully identified by comparison of the experimental rotational and 14N nuclear quadruple coupling constants with those predicted theoretically.
Earth rotation and geodynamics
Bogusz Janusz; Brzezinski Aleksander; Kosek Wieslaw; Nastula Jolanta
2015-01-01
This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals wit...
Simultaneity on the Rotating Disk
Koks, Don
2017-04-01
The disk that rotates in an inertial frame in special relativity has long been analysed by assuming a Lorentz contraction of its peripheral elements in that frame, which has produced widely varying views in the literature. We show that this assumption is unnecessary for a disk that corresponds to the simplest form of rotation in special relativity. After constructing such a disk and showing that observers at rest on it do not constitute a true rotating frame, we choose a "master" observer and calculate a set of disk coordinates and spacetime metric pertinent to that observer. We use this formalism to resolve the "circular twin paradox", then calculate the speed of light sent around the periphery as measured by the master observer, to show that this speed is a function of sent-direction and disk angle traversed. This result is consistent with the Sagnac Effect, but constitutes a finer analysis of that effect, which is normally expressed using an average speed for a full trip of the periphery. We also use the formalism to give a resolution of "Selleri's paradox".
Weich, Tobias
2014-06-13
This work consists of four self-containedly presented parts. In the first part we prove equivariant spectral asymptotics for h-pseudo-differential operators for compact orthogonal group actions generalizing results of El-Houakmi and Helffer (1991) and Cassanas (2006). Using recent results for certain oscillatory integrals with singular critical sets (Ramacher 2010) we can deduce a weak equivariant Weyl law. Furthermore, we can prove a complete asymptotic expansion for the Gutzwiller trace formula without any additional condition on the group action by a suitable generalization of the dynamical assumptions on the Hamilton flow. In the second and third part we study resonance chains which have been observed in many different physical and mathematical scattering problems. In the second part we present a mathematical rigorous study of the resonance chains on three funneled Schottky surfaces. We prove the analyticity of the generalized zeta function which provide the central mathematical tool for understanding the resonance chains. Furthermore we prove for a fixed ratio between the funnel lengths and in the limit of large lengths that after a suitable rescaling the resonances in a bounded domain align equidistantly along certain lines. The position of these lines is given by the zeros of an explicit polynomial which only depends on the ratio of the funnel lengths. In the third part we provide a unifying approach to these resonance chains by generalizing dynamical zeta functions. By means of a detailed numerical study we show that these generalized zeta functions explain the mechanism that creates the chains of quantum resonance and classical Ruelle resonances for 3-disk systems as well as geometric resonances on Schottky surfaces. We also present a direct system-intrinsic definition of the continuous lines on which the resonances are strung together as a projection of an analytic variety. Additionally, this approach shows that the existence of resonance chains is
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Cortical activity during rotational and linear transformations.
Barnes, J; Howard, R J; Senior, C; Brammer, M; Bullmore, E T; Simmons, A; Woodruff, P; David, A S
2000-01-01
Neuroimaging studies of cortical activation during image transformation tasks have shown that mental rotation may rely on similar brain regions as those underlying visual perceptual mechanisms. The V5 complex, which is specialised for visual motion, is one region that has been implicated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate rotational and linear transformation of stimuli. Areas of significant brain activation were identified for each of the primary mental transformation tasks in contrast to its own perceptual reference task which was cognitively matched in all respects except for the variable of interest. Analysis of group data for perception of rotational and linear motion showed activation in areas corresponding to V5 as defined in earlier studies. Both rotational and linear mental transformations activated Brodman Area (BA) 19 but did not activate V5. An area within the inferior temporal gyrus, representing an inferior satellite area of V5, was activated by both the rotational perception and rotational transformation tasks, but showed no activation in response to linear motion perception or transformation. The findings demonstrate the extent to which neural substrates for image transformation and perception overlap and are distinct as well as revealing functional specialisation within perception and transformation processing systems.
Kohn-Sham calculations with the exact functional
Wagner, Lucas O; Stoudenmire, E M; Burke, Kieron; White, Steven R
2014-01-01
As a proof of principle, self-consistent Kohn-Sham calculations are performed with the exact exchange-correlation functional. The systems calculated are one-dimensional real-space interacting fermions with more than two electrons. To find the exact functional for trial densities requires solving the interacting Schroedinger equation multiple times, a much more demanding task than direct solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation. The density matrix renormalization group method makes this possible. We illustrate and explore the convergence properties of the exact KS scheme for both weakly and strongly correlated systems. We also explore the spin-dependent generalization and densities for which the functional is ill defined.
Fourier analysis for rotating-element ellipsometers.
Cho, Yong Jai; Chegal, Won; Cho, Hyun Mo
2011-01-15
We introduce a Fourier analysis of the waveform of periodic light-irradiance variation to capture Fourier coefficients for multichannel rotating-element ellipsometers. In this analysis, the Fourier coefficients for a sample are obtained using a discrete Fourier transform on the exposures. The analysis gives a generic function that encompasses the discrete Fourier transform or the Hadamard transform, depending on the specific conditions. Unlike the Hadamard transform, a well-known data acquisition method that is used only for conventional multichannel rotating-element ellipsometers with line arrays with specific readout-mode timing, this Fourier analysis is applicable to various line arrays with either nonoverlap or overlap readout-mode timing. To assess the effects of the novel Fourier analysis, the Fourier coefficients for a sample were measured with a custom-built rotating-polarizer ellipsometer, using this Fourier analysis with various numbers of scans, integration times, and rotational speeds of the polarizer.
Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines
Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.
1978-01-01
This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.
Rotational control of asymmetric molecules: dipole- vs. polarizability- driven rotational dynamics
Damari, Ran; Fleischer, Sharly
2016-01-01
We experimentally study the optical- and terahertz- induced rotational dynamics of asymmetric molecules in the gas phase. Terahertz and optical fields are identified as two distinct control handles over asymmetric molecules, as they couple to the rotational degrees of freedom via the molecular- dipole and polarizability selectively. The distinction between those two rotational handles is highlighted by different types of quantum revivals observed in long duration (>100ps) field-free rotational evolution. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with Random Phase Wave Function simulations [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063420 (2015)] and provide verification of the RPWF as an efficient method for calculating asymmetric molecular dynamics at ambient temperatures, where exact calculation methods are practically not feasible. Our observations and analysis pave the way for orchestrated excitations by both optical and THz fields as complementary rotational handles, that enable a plethora of new possibilities in three...
Rotational Diffusion of Particles in Turbulence
Variano, Evan; Meyer, Colin; Byron, Margaret
2011-11-01
We experimentally compare the rotation of spherical and ellipsoidal particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. We find that the particle orientation is well described by a Gaussian diffusion process. This theoretical model would predict that the Lagrangian autocorrelation function for angular velocity is a negative exponential. We measure this Lagrangian autocorrelation function using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) applied to particles whose size is within the inertial subrange of the ambient turbulence. The SPIV resolves 3 velocity components in a nearly 2-dimensional planar volume, which we use as inputs for a nonlinear optimization to quantify the solid body rotation of the particles. This provides us the angular velocity timeseries for individual particles. Through ensemble statistics, we determine the Lagrangian autocorrelation function of angular velocity, from which we can quantify the turbulent rotational diffusivity and its behavior between the extremes of short-term non-Fickian transport and long-term Fickian diffusion.
马正义; 马松华; 杨毅
2012-01-01
The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is one of the most important nonlinear models with widely applications in physics. Based on a similarity transformation, the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed coefficients is transformed into a traceable nonlinear Schroedinger equation, and then two types of rational solutions and several spatial solitons are derived.%非线性Schroedinger方程是物理学中具有广泛应用的非线性模型之一．本文采用相似变换，将具有色散系数的（2＋1）维非线性Schrioedinger方程简化成熟知的Schroedinger方程，进而得到原方程的有理解和一些空间孤子．
Miguel A.V. Ferreira
2007-03-01
Full Text Available In the present work it is exposed synthetically part of an empirical investigation in the field of the sociology of scientific knowledge. From the sociological perspective that assumes the (social activity producing scientific knowledge as one of the epistemological components of this knowledge, it is exposed as, from an autobservational methodology, it has been possible to state the constituently reflexive nature of this activity. A reflexivity in which the formal and formalizeable it is intermingled very indisociably with the existential and informalizable. We present, from these methodologic foundations a (sociological vision of Schroedinger equation that reveals it in its social nataure: beyond its neutral appearance, formal and mathematical, it shows one agencial and active potentiality, shows all the dimensions of an authentic social subject.En el presente trabajo se expone sintéticamente parte de lo que ha sido una investigación empírica en el campo de la sociología del conocimiento científico. Desde la perspectiva sociológica que asume la actividad (social productora de conocimiento científico como uno de los constituyentes epistemológicos de dicho conocimiento, se expone cómo a partir de una metodología autobservacional se ha podido constatar la naturaleza constitutivamente reflexiva de dicha actividad. Una reflexividad en la que lo formal y formalizable se entremezcla indisociablemente con lo informal y vivencial. Presentamos, a partir de estos fundamentos metodológicos, una visión (sociológica de la ecuación de Schroedinger que la revela en su naturaleza social: más allá de su apariencia neutra, formal y matemática, muestra una virtualidad agencial y activa, muestra todas las dimensiones de un auténtico sujeto social. Proponemos, para culminar, que el tipo de reflexividad que entendemos constitutivo de la práctica científica y, por extensión, de cualquier práctica social, se distancia de lo que ha venido defini
Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric
2016-01-01
Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...
Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid
2016-01-01
We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer.
Functional description of S{sup 1} x S{sup 2} and S{sup 3} Gowdy cosmologies
Vergel, Daniel Gomez; Villasenor, Eduardo J S, E-mail: dgvergel@iem.cfmac.csic.e, E-mail: ejsanche@math.uc3m.e [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2009-06-01
We will briefly review the classical formulation of the 3-handle S{sup 1} x S{sup 2} and 3-sphere S{sup 3} Gowdy cosmological models coupled with massless scalar fields and their exact (non-perturbative) quantization by defining suitable Schroedinger functional representations in terms of appropriate probability spaces. We will pay special attention to the construction of closed expressions for the corresponding quantum time evolution propagators.
Differential rotation of main-sequence dwarfs and its dynamo-efficiency
Kitchatinov, L L
2010-01-01
A new version of a numerical model of stellar differential rotation based on mean-field hydrodynamics is presented and tested by computing the differential rotation of the Sun. The model is then applied to four individual stars including two moderate and two fast rotators to reproduce their observed differential rotation quite closely. A series of models for rapidly rotating ($P_{rot} = 1$~day) stars of different masses and compositions is generated. The effective temperature is found convenient to parameterize the differential rotation: variations with metallicity, that are quite pronounced when the differential rotation is considered as a function of the stellar mass, almost disappear in the dependence of differential rotation on temperature. The differential rotation increases steadily with surface temperature to exceed the largest differential rotation observed to date for the hottest F-stars we considered. This strong differential rotation is, however, found not to be efficient for dynamos when the effic...
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy
Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M
2015-01-01
We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.
Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team
2014-11-01
The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.
Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel
1997-01-01
The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...
Rotation of cometary meteoroids
Capek, David
2014-01-01
The aim of this study is to estimate the rotational characteristics of meteoroids after their release from a comet during normal activity. The results can serve as initial conditions for further analyses of subsequent evolution of rotation in the interplanetary space. A sophisticated numerical model was applied to meteoroids ejected from 2P/Encke comet. The meteoroid shapes were approximated by polyhedrons with several thousands of surface elements, which have been determined by 3D laser scanning method of 36 terrestrial rock samples. These samples came from three distinct sets with different origin and shape characteristics. Two types of gas-meteoroid interactions (diffuse and specular reflection of gas molecules from the surface of meteoroid) and three gas ejection models (leading to very different ejection velocities) were assumed. The rotational characteristics of ejected meteoroid population were obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion with random initial conditions and random shape sele...
Passive RFID Rotation Dimension Reduction via Aggregation
Matthews, Eric
Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) has applications in object identification, position, and orientation tracking. RFID technology can be applied in hospitals for patient and equipment tracking, stores and warehouses for product tracking, robots for self-localisation, tracking hazardous materials, or locating any other desired object. Efficient and accurate algorithms that perform localisation are required to extract meaningful data beyond simple identification. A Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is the strength of a received radio frequency signal used to localise passive and active RFID tags. Many factors affect RSSI such as reflections, tag rotation in 3D space, and obstacles blocking line-of-sight. LANDMARC is a statistical method for estimating tag location based on a target tag's similarity to surrounding reference tags. LANDMARC does not take into account the rotation of the target tag. By either aggregating multiple reference tag positions at various rotations, or by determining a rotation value for a newly read tag, we can perform an expected value calculation based on a comparison to the k-most similar training samples via an algorithm called K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) more accurately. By choosing the average as the aggregation function, we improve the relative accuracy of single-rotation LANDMARC localisation by 10%, and any-rotation localisation by 20%.
Theory and simulations of rotating convection
Barker, Adrian J; Lithwick, Yoram
2014-01-01
We study thermal convection in a rotating fluid, with the ultimate goal of explaining the structure of convection zones in rotating stars and planets. We first derive mixing-length theory for rapidly-rotating convection, arriving at the results of Stevenson (1979) via simple physical arguments. The theory predicts the properties of convection as a function of the imposed heat flux and rotation rate, independent of microscopic diffusivities. In particular, it predicts the mean temperature gradient; the rms velocity and temperature fluctuations; and the size of the eddies that dominate heat transport. We test all of these predictions with high resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. The results agree remarkably well with the theory across more than two orders of magnitude in rotation rate. For example, the temperature gradient is predicted to scale as the rotation rate to the 4/5th power at fixed flux, and the simulations yield $0.75\\pm 0.06$. We conclude that the mixing length theory is a soli...
Surface rotation of Kepler red giant stars
Ceillier, T.; Tayar, J.; Mathur, S.; Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Stello, D.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; van Saders, J.; Beck, P. G.; Bloemen, S.
2017-09-01
Kepler allows the measurement of starspot variability in a large sample of field red giants for the first time. With a new method that combines autocorrelation and wavelet decomposition, we measure 361 rotation periods from the full set of 17 377 oscillating red giants in our sample. This represents 2.08% of the stars, consistent with the fraction of spectroscopically detected rapidly rotating giants in the field. The remaining stars do not show enough variability to allow us to measure a reliable surface rotation period. Because the stars with detected rotation periods have measured oscillations, we can infer their global properties, e.g. mass and radius, and quantitatively evaluate the predictions of standard stellar evolution models as a function of mass. Consistent with results for cluster giants when we consider only the 4881 intermediate-mass stars, M > 2.0 M⊙ from our full red giant sample, we do not find the enhanced rates of rapid rotation expected from angular momentum conservation. We therefore suggest that either enhanced angular momentum loss or radial differential rotation must be occurring in these stars. Finally, when we examine the 575 low-mass (Mhttp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A111
Metalloproteases and rotator cuff disease.
Del Buono, Angelo; Oliva, Francesco; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Rodeo, Scott A; Orchard, John; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola
2012-02-01
The molecular changes occurring in rotator cuff tears are still unknown, but much attention has been paid to better understand the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the development of tendinopathy. These are potent enzymes that, once activated, can completely degrade all components of the connective tissue, modify the extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediatethe development of painful tendinopathy and tendon rupture. To control the local activity of activated proteinases, the same cells produce tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) that bind to the enzymes and prevent degradation. The balance between the activities of MMPs and TIMPs regulates tendon remodeling, whereas an imbalance produces a collagen dis-regulation and disturbances intendons. ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are cell membrane-linked enzymes with proteolytic and cell signaling functions. ADAMTSs (ADAM with thrombospondin motifs) are secreted into the circulation, and constitute a heterogenous family of proteases with both anabolic and catabolic functions. Biologic modulation of endogenous MMP activity to basal levels may reduce pathologic tissue degradation and favorably influence healing after rotator cuff repair. Further studies are needed to better define the mechanism of action, and whether these new strategies are safe and effective in larger models. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Model of a rotating magnetic cloud
Farrugia, C. J.; Osherovich, V. A.; Burlaga, L. F.
1992-01-01
The possibility that magnetic clouds rotate while they propagate antisunward was investigated. Magnetic clouds are modeled as magnetic flux ropes which rotate rigidly about the axis of symmetry. An ideal magnetohydrodynamic model, in which the evolution of the magnetic structure is related to the time evolution of the angular frequency, is developed. A class of 'separable' magnetic fields is employed to reduce the problem to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation for the evolution function, and it is solved numerically. The corresponding effective potential gives rise to two modes of evolution--expansion and oscillation--depending on the energy and on the value of a dimensionless parameter, k. Parameter k depends on the gas pressure, the ratio of the magnetic field components, and the frequency of rotation. There is a critical value of k, k(sub c), above which the oscillatory regime disappears and the flux rope invariably expands, regardless of the energy. Below k(sub c) the energy determines whether the configuration is confined or unbounded. Rotation always helps expansion by lowering the potential barrier. A data example was studied and features which are interpreted as signatures of rotation are presented. The angular speed is comparable to the Alfven speed, and the core of the rotating cloud completes on average one full revolution every three days at 1 AU. The parameter k is calculated from observations, and it is found to be close to, but below, critical. Only three out of the nine clouds examined showed signatures of rotation. Theoretical analysis suggests that close to the Sun rotation effects may play a more important role in the evolution of magnetic clouds than 1 AU.
Marco Antonio de Castro Veado
2008-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar avaliação funcional dos pacientes portadores de lesão completa do MR que foram submetidos ao reparo artroscópico associados à acromioplastia. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo realizado com pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico artroscópico para reparo da lesão do MR. Foram incluídos os pacientes operados entre junho/2000 e outubro/2004 nos Hospitais Mater Dei e Felício Rocho, em Belo Horizonte. Dos 102 pacientes submetidos à reconstrução, 11 foram retirados por não cumprirem os critérios de inclusão, sendo o número final igual a 91 ombros em 91 pacientes. A avaliação funcional foi realizada pela escala UCLA (Universidade da Califórnia em Los Angeles e pelo teste Simples. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação pós-operatória em 35 pacientes, os resultados foram considerados excelentes (38,4%; em 47, bons (51,6%; seis, regulares (6,6%; e três, ruins (3,3%. Desse modo, 82 (90,1% pacientes foram avaliados como tendo obtido resultado bom ou excelente e nove como regulares ou ruins, sendo estes insatisfatórios. CONCLUSÃO: O reparo artroscópico do manguito rotador, associado a acromioplastia, apresentou resultado funcional excelente ou bom, na maioria dos pacientes, quando avaliados pelo método funcional da UCLA.OBJECTIVE: To perform a function evaluation of patients with complete rotator cuff tears that were submitted to arthroscopic repair associated to acromioplasty. METHODS: This is a retrospective study made with patients submitted to arthroscopic surgical treatment to repair rotator cuff tears. Patients included were operated on from June 2000 to October 2004 at the Mater Dei and Felício Rocho Hospitals, in Belo Horizonte. Of the 102 patients submitted to reconstruction, 11 were removed from the study because they did not meet the inclusion criteria, and so the final number of the series was 91 shoulders of 91 patients. The functional evaluation scale was the UCLA scale and the simple test was
Effect of rotation on a rotating hot-wire sensor
Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1978-01-01
An investigation was conducted to discern the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on a rotating hot-wire. The probe was calibrated in a wind tunnel as well as in a rotating mode. The effect of rotation was found to be negligibly small. A small change in cold resistance (1.5%) was observed in the rotating wire. The rotation seems to have a negligible effect on the fluid mechanics, heat transfer and material characteristics of the wire. This is a significant conclusion in view of the potential application of the hot-wire probe in a rotating passage (such as turbomachinery).
Rasmusson, Allan
2009-01-01
The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest befo...
Connors, G. Patrick
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
Connors, G. Patrick
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
Compact rotating cup anemometer
Wellman, J. B.
1968-01-01
Compact, collapsible rotating cup anemometer is used in remote locations where portability and durability are factors in the choice of equipment. This lightweight instrument has a low wind-velocity threshold, is capable of withstanding large mechanical shocks while in its stowed configuration, and has fast response to wind fluctuations.
Davies, Paul Charles William; Manogue, C A; Davies, Paul C W; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A
1996-01-01
We derive conditions for rotating particle detectors to respond in a variety of bounded spacetimes and compare the results with the folklore that particle detectors do not respond in the vacuum state appropriate to their motion. Applications involving possible violations of the second law of thermodynamics are briefly addressed.
Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand
Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.
1991-01-01
Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.
D.R. Suárez (Daniel); E.R. Valstar (Edward); J.C. Linden (Jacqueline); F. van Keulen (Fred); P.M. Rozing (Piet)
2009-01-01
textabstractThe functional outcome of shoulder replacement is related to the condition of the rotator cuff. Rotator cuff disease is a common problem in candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty; this study relates the functional status of the rotator cuff to the initial stability of a cementless gl
D.R. Suárez (Daniel); E.R. Valstar (Edward); J.C. Linden (Jacqueline); F. van Keulen (Fred); P.M. Rozing (Piet)
2009-01-01
textabstractThe functional outcome of shoulder replacement is related to the condition of the rotator cuff. Rotator cuff disease is a common problem in candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty; this study relates the functional status of the rotator cuff to the initial stability of a cementless
A program to solve rotating plasma problems
Bakker, M.; Berg, M.S. van den
1980-01-01
It is shown that the solution of a rotating plasma problem minimizes a quitably chosen funtional. This variational problem is solved by the Ritz-Galerkin methud using piecewise bilinear functions and applying some Newton-Côtes-like quadrature. The resulting linear system with a sparse nonegative def
Octupole Vibrations Built on Superdeformed Rotational Bands
Mizutori, S.; Shimizu, Y. R.; Matsuyanagi, K.
1990-04-01
Strength functions for giant octupole resonances built on the superdeformed rotational bands are calculated by means of the RPA based on the cranking model. It is suggested that strongly collective octupole vibrational states appear within a few MeV from the superdeformed yrast line.
A rotational integral formula for intrinsic volumes
Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel; Rataj, J.
2008-01-01
passing through fixed points are related to the geometry of the sectioned object. In particular it is shown how certain weighting factors, appearing in the rotational integral formula, can be expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. Close connections to geometric tomography will be pointed out...
The effects of rotation on a double-diffusive layer in a rotating spherical shell
Blies, Patrick; Zaussinger, Florian; Hollerbach, Rainer
2014-01-01
So far, numerical studies of double-diffusive layering in turbulent convective flows have neglected the effects of rotation. We undertake a first step into that direction by investigating how Coriolis forces affect a double-diffusive layer inside a rotating spherical shell. For this purpose we have run simulations in a parameter regime where these layers are expected to form and successively increased the rate of rotation with the result that fast rotation is found to have a similar stabilising effect on the overall convective flux as an increase of the stability ratio $R_{\\rho}$ has in a non-rotating setup. We have also studied to what extent the regimes of rotational constraints suggested by King, Stellmach, and Buffett (2013) for rotation in the case of Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection are influenced by double-diffusive convection: their classification could also be applicable to the case of double-diffusive convection in a spherical shell if it is extended to be also a function of the stability ratio $R_{\\rho...
Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors
A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch
2010-02-15
Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.
Consideration of rotational tunneling in rare gas cluster ions
Albertoni, C. R.; Ferguson, A. W. Castleman E. E., Jr.
1989-04-01
Tunneling transmission coefficients through rotational barriers are investigated as a function of argon cluster ion size using the WKB approximation. The results indicate that tunneling coefficients corresponding to transmissions of a few percent, extend over time windows of ten orders of magnitude. Hence, a very broad distribution of metastable lifetimes is expected for decay of cluster ions by tunneling through rotational barriers.
Preschoolers' Mental Rotation: Sex Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetry
Hahn, Nicola; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin
2010-01-01
Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition accompanied by sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry. Although sex differences in mental rotation performance can be reliably demonstrated as early as age 5 years old, that is, long before puberty, no data exist as to whether…
Unidirectional Heat Transport Driven by Rotating Cholesteric Droplets
Sato, Sayumi; Bono, Shinji; Tabe, Yuka
2017-02-01
When a cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) is submitted to a thermal gradient, it exhibits continuous director rotation. The phenomenon is called the Lehmann effect and is understood as a thermomechanical coupling in chiral LCs without mirror symmetry. Since the Lehmann effect is considered to possess time-reversal symmetry, one can expect the inverse process, i.e., rotating chiral LCs to pump heat along the rotational axis. We report the first observation of heat transport driven by rotating cholesteric droplets. This result suggests a new function of the cholesterics as a micro heat pump.
Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...
A nonsingular rotating black hole
Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban (South Africa)
2015-11-15
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
Coherent spin-rotational dynamics of oxygen super rotors
Milner, Alexander A; Milner, Valery
2014-01-01
We use state- and time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy to study the rotational dynamics of oxygen molecules in ultra-high rotational states. While it is possible to reach rotational quantum numbers up to $N \\approx 50$ by increasing the gas temperature to 1500 K, low population levels and gas densities result in correspondingly weak optical response. By spinning O$_2$ molecules with an optical centrifuge, we efficiently excite extreme rotational states with $N\\leqslant 109$ in high-density room temperature ensembles. Fast molecular rotation results in the enhanced robustness of the created rotational wave packets against collisions, enabling us to observe the effects of weak spin-rotation coupling in the coherent rotational dynamics of oxygen. The decay rate of spin-rotation coherence due to collisions is measured as a function of the molecular angular momentum and explained in terms of the general scaling law. We find that at high values of $N$, the rotational decoherence of oxygen is much faster than t...
Differential rotation in K, G, F and A stars
Balona, Luis A
2016-01-01
Rotational light modulation in Kepler photometry of K - A stars is used to estimate the absolute rotational shear. The rotation frequency spread in 2562 carefully selected stars with known rotation periods is measured using time-frequency diagrams. The variation of rotational shear as a function of effective temperature in restricted ranges of rotation period is determined. The shear increases to a maximum in F stars, but decreases somewhat in the A stars. Theoretical models reproduce the temperature variation quite well. The dependence of rotation shear on rotation rate in restricted temperature ranges is also determined. The dependence of the shear on the rotation rate is weak in K and G stars, increases rapidly for F stars and is strongest in A stars. For stars earlier than type K, a discrepancy exists between the predicted and observed variation of shear with rotation rate. There is a strong increase in the fraction of stars with zero frequency spread with increasing effective temperature. The time-freque...
S. Wittig
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Cooling of high speed rotating components is a typical situation found in turbomachinery as well as in automobile engines. Accurate knowledge of discharge coefficients and heat transfer of related components is essential for the high performance of the whole engine. This can be achieved by minimized cooling air flows and avoidance of hot spots. In high speed rotating clutches for example aerodynamic investigations improving heat transfer have not been considered in the past. Advanced concepts of modern plate design try to reduce thermal loads by convective cooling methods. Therefore, secondary cooling air flows have to be enhanced by an appropriate design of the rotor stator system with orifices. CFD modelling is used to improve the basic understanding of the flow field in typical geometries used in these systems.
Rasmusson, Allan
2009-01-01
is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region...
Earth rotation and geodynamics
Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta
2015-12-01
This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.
Rotational spectrum of tryptophan
Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2014-05-28
The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.
Rotational Spectrum of Tryptophan
Sanz, M. Eugenia; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.
2014-06-01
The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed using a recently constructed LA-MB-FTMW spectrometer, specifically designed to optimize the detection of heavier molecules at a lower frequency range. Independent analyses of the rotational spectra of individual conformers have conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The experimental values of the 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been found capital in the discrimination of the conformers. Both observed conformers are stabilized by a O-H\\cdotsN hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N-H\\cdotsπ interaction forming a chain that reinforces the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.
A Translational Polarization Rotator
Chuss, David T; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah
2012-01-01
We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident linear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.
Costella, J P; Rawlinson, A A; Costella, John P.; Kellar, Bruce H. J. Mc; Rawlinson, Andrew A.
2001-01-01
We review why the Thomas rotation is a crucial facet of special relativity, that is just as fundamental, and just as "unintuitive" and "paradoxical", as such traditional effects as length contraction, time dilation, and the ambiguity of simultaneity. We show how this phenomenon can be quite naturally introduced and investigated in the context of a typical introductory course on special relativity, in a way that is appropriate for, and completely accessible to, undergraduate students. We also demonstrate, in a more advanced section aimed at the graduate student studying the Dirac equation and relativistic quantum field theory, that careful consideration of the Thomas rotation will become vital as modern experiments in particle physics continue to move from unpolarized to polarized cross-sections.
Rotation and instabilities for isotope and mass separation
Rax, J.-M.; Gueroult, R.
2016-10-01
Rotating plasmas have the potential to offer unique capabilities for isotope and mass separation. Among the various electric and magnetic field configurations offering mass separation capabilities, rotating plasmas produced through static or oscillating fields are shown to be a leading candidate for tackling the unsolved problem of large-scale plasma separation. The successful development and deployment of industrial-scale plasma separation technologies could, among many other applications, provide an innovative path towards advanced sustainable nuclear energy. In this context, the potential and versatility of plasma rotation induced by rotating magnetic fields is uncovered and analysed. Analytical stability diagrams are derived from rotating ion orbits as a function of ion mass. Based on these findings, the basic principles of a rotating field plasma separator are then introduced. In light of these results, challenges associated with this original separation process are underlined, and the main directions for a future research program aimed at this important unsolved problem of applied plasma physics are identified.
Properties of Rotating Neutron Star
Shailesh K. Singh
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Using the nuclear equation of states for a large variety of relativistic and non-relativistic force parameters, we calculate the static and rotating masses and radii of neutron stars. From these equation of states, we evaluate the properties of rotating neutron stars, such as rotational frequencies, moment of inertia, quadrupole deformation parameter, rotational ellipticity and gravitational wave strain amplitude. The estimated gravitational wave strain amplitude of the star is found to be~sim 10-23.
Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy
Pate, Brooks
2014-06-01
The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De
Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.
2016-10-11
The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.
2009-01-01
textabstractThe functional outcome of shoulder replacement is related to the condition of the rotator cuff. Rotator cuff disease is a common problem in candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty; this study relates the functional status of the rotator cuff to the initial stability of a cementless glenoid implant. A 3D finite element model of a complete scapula was used to quantify the effect of a dysfunctional rotator cuff in terms of bone-implant interface micromotions when the implant is ph...
Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The shape and spin of Neptune's outermost satellite Nereid are still unknown. Ground-based photometry indicates large brightness variations, but different observers report very different lightcurve amplitudes and periods. On the contrary, Voyager 2 images spanning 12 days show no evidence of variations greater than 0.1 mag. The latter suggest either that Nereid is nearly spherical, or that it is rotating slowly. We propose that tides have already despun Nereid's rotation to a period of a few weeks, during the time before the capture of Triton when Nereid was closer to Neptune. Since Nereid reached its present orbit, tides have further despun Nereid to a period on the order of a month. For Nereid's orbital eccentricity of 0.75, tidal evolution ceases when the spin period is still approximately 1/8 of the orbital period. Furthermore, the synchronous resonance becomes quite weak for such high eccentricities, along with other low-order spin orbit commensurabilities. In contrast, high-order resonances become very strong particularly the 6:1, 6.5:1, 7:1, 7.5:1, and 8:1 spin states. If Nereid departs by more than approximately 1% from a sphere, however, these resonances overlap, generating chaos. Our simulations show that Nereid is likely to be in chaotic rotation for any spin period longer than about 2 weeks.
Bioreactor rotating wall vessel
2001-01-01
The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.
Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn
2013-04-25
The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.
Bioreactor rotating wall vessel
2001-01-01
The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.
Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.
Coordinate-Free Rotation Operator.
Leubner, C.
1979-01-01
Suggests the use of a coordinate-free rotation operator for the teaching of rotations in Euclidean three space because of its twofold didactic advantage. Illustrates the potentialities of the coordinate-free rotation operator approach by a number of examples. (Author/GA)
Trenkler, G.; Trenkler, D.
2008-01-01
Using the elementary tools of matrix theory, we show that the product of two rotations in the three-dimensional Euclidean space is a rotation again. For this purpose, three types of rotation matrices are identified which are of simple structure. One of them is the identity matrix, and each of the other two types can be uniquely characterized by…
Exotic Rotational Correlations in Emergent Quantum Geometry
Hogan, Craig
2015-01-01
Estimates are presented of exotic, purely rotational correlations that arise in large systems if directions in space-time emerge from Planck scale quantum elements with no fixed classical background space. In the time domain, directions to world lines at finite separation $R$ from any world line coherently fluctuate in the classical (that is, $R\\rightarrow \\infty$) inertial frame, on a timescale $R/c$, by an angle of order $R^{-1/2}$ in Planck units. The exact exotic correlation function is computed for the signal in a Sagnac type interferometer of arbitrary shape. The signal variance is equal to twice the enclosed area divided by the perimeter, in Planck units. It is conjectured that exotic Planck scale rotational correlations, entangled with the strong interactions, determine the value of the cosmological constant. Cosmic acceleration may be viewed heuristically as centrifugal acceleration by rotational fluctuations of the matter vacuum. An experiment concept is sketched, based on a reconfiguration of the F...
Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs I: Regimes of Internal Rotation
Ghosh, Pranab; Wheeler, J. Craig
2017-01-01
Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SNe Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super-Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly uniform rotation and strongly differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri ≤slant 0.1, we find both the low-viscosity Zahn regime with a nonmonotonic angular velocity profile and a new differential rotation regime for which the viscosity is high and scales linearly with the shear, σ. Employment of Kelvin–Helmholtz viscosity alone yields differential rotation. Large values of Ri ≫ 1 produce a regime of nearly uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as {σ }3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.
Rotation of cometary meteoroids
Čapek, D.
2014-08-01
Aims: The rotation of meteoroids caused by gas drag during the ejection from a cometary nucleus has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to estimate the rotational characteristics of meteoroids after their release from a comet during normal activity. Methods: The basic dependence of spin rate on ejection velocity and meteoroid size is determined analytically. A sophisticated numerical model is then applied to meteoroids ejected from the 2P/Encke comet. The meteoroid shapes are approximated by polyhedrons, which have been determined by a 3D laser scanning method of 36 terrestrial rock samples. These samples come from three distinct sets with different origins and characteristics, such as surface roughness or angularity. Two types of gas-meteoroid interactions and three gas ejection models are assumed. The rotational characteristics of ejected meteoroid population are obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion with random initial conditions and random shape selection. Results: It is proved that the results do not depend on a specific set of shape models and that they are applicable to the (unknown) shapes of real meteoroids. A simple relationship between the median of meteoroid spin frequencies bar{f} (Hz), ejection velocities vej (m s-1), and sizes D (m) is determined. For diffuse reflection of gas molecules from meteoroid's surface it reads as bar{f≃ 2× 10-3 v_ej D-0.88}, and for specular reflection of gas molecules from meteoroid's surface it is bar{f≃ 5× 10-3 v_ej D-0.88}. The distribution of spin frequencies is roughly normal on log scale, and it is relatively wide: a 2σ-interval can be described as (0.1, 10)× bar{f}. Most of the meteoroids are non-principal axis rotators. The median angle between angular momentum vector and spin vector is 12°. About 60% of meteoroids rotate in long-axis mode. The distribution of angular momentum vectors is not random. They are concentrated in the perpendicular direction with respect to the gas
Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A; Miller, Bruce; Brandon, Catherine; Gandikota, Girish; Jacobson, Jon A
2013-01-01
The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the rotator cuff tendon tears and long-term shoulder disability in conservatively treated elderly patients and determine if an association exists between these factors. Assessment of the rotator cuff tendon tear dimensions and depth, rotator interval involvement, rotator cable morphology and location, and rotator cuff muscle status was carried out on magnetic resonance studies of 24 elderly patients treated nonoperatively for rotator cuff tendon tears. Long-term shoulder function was measured using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index; Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand questionnaire; and the American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment form, and a correlation between the outcome scores and morphologic magnetic resonance findings was carried out. The majority of large rotator cuff tendon tears are limited to the rotator cuff crescent. Medial rotator interval involvement (isolated or in association with lateral rotator interval involvement) was significantly associated with WORC physical symptoms total (P = 0.01), WORC lifestyle total (P = 0.04), percentage of all WORC domains (P = 0.03), and American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment total (P = 0.01), with medial rotator interval involvement associated with an inferior outcome. Medial rotator interval tears are associated with long-term inferior outcome scores in conservatively treated elderly patients with large rotator cuff tendon tears.
CISM Course on Rotating Fluids
1992-01-01
The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.
Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs
Dyda, Sergei; Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Romanova, Marina M.; Koldoba, Alexander V.
2014-01-01
Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the tw...
温远光; 左花; 朱宏光; 刘世荣; 梁宏温; 黄雪蔓; 李晓琼; 罗应华
2014-01-01
[Objective]This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of multi-successive rotations on vegetation cover,species diversity and functional groups in eucalypt plantation.[Methods]By the methods of time-space series analysis and field monitoring,the vegetation cover,species di-versity and functional groups were studied from first to third successive rotations in eucalypt plantation.[Results]The successive rotations of eucalypt plantation revealed not only to reduce species diversity but also to change the composi-tion of plant functional groups.The successive short-rotation of eucalypt plantation decreased propagule availability of tall tree and vine spe-cies,but increased grasss.The relationship be-tween vegetation cover and plant species diversi-ty was different among different successive rota-tions of eucalypt plantations.The species richness was significant positive for canopy cover and shrub layer cover of understory vegetation in first rotation stands (P<0.05,n=18),but was significant negative in second rotation stands and third rotation stands of eucalypt plantations ( P<0.05,n=18).The successive rotation reduced to the understory vegetation cover strong-ly,but showed a little influence on the canopy cover.[Conclusion]The successive rotation in eu-calypt plantation had significant negative effects on plant species diversity.The plant functional group trended obviously to the grass,small-sized and annual plants over successive rotations.%【目的】研究和阐明桉树(Eucalyptus spp.)连栽对植被盖度、植物多样性和功能群的影响。【方法】采用空间代替时间和定位监测相结合的方法,对Ⅰ~Ⅲ代连栽林分的植被盖度、植物多样性和功能群进行研究。【结果】连栽不仅降低林下植物的物种多样性,还将改变植物的功能群组成；连栽降低乔木和藤本植物营养体和种子库的有效性,增强草本植物的有效性。不同连栽代数植被盖度与植物多样性的关系
Symptomatic Progression of Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears
Mall, Nathan A.; Kim, H. Mike; Keener, Jay D.; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Stobbs, Georgia; Yamaguchi, Ken
2010-01-01
Background: The purposes of this study were to identify changes in tear dimensions, shoulder function, and glenohumeral kinematics when an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear becomes painful and to identify characteristics of individuals who develop pain compared with those who remain asymptomatic. Methods: A cohort of 195 subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear was prospectively monitored for pain development and examined annually for changes in various parameters such as tear size, fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle, glenohumeral kinematics, and shoulder function. Forty-four subjects were found to have developed new pain, and the parameters before and after pain development were compared. The forty-four subjects were then compared with a group of fifty-five subjects who remained asymptomatic over a two-year period. Results: With pain development, the size of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear increased significantly, with 18% of the full-thickness tears showing an increase of >5 mm, and 40% of the partial-thickness tears had progressed to a full-thickness tear. In comparison with the assessments made before the onset of pain, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores for shoulder function were significantly decreased and all measures of shoulder range of motion were decreased except for external rotation at 90° of abduction. There was an increase in compensatory scapulothoracic motion in relation to the glenohumeral motion during early shoulder abduction with pain development. No significant changes were found in external rotation strength or muscular fatty degeneration. Compared with the subjects who remained asymptomatic, the subjects who developed pain were found to have significantly larger tears at the time of initial enrollment. Conclusions: Pain development in shoulders with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear is associated with an increase in tear size. Larger tears are more likely to develop pain in the short term than are smaller
Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming
2013-05-24
We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process.
Le Doeuff, René
2013-01-01
In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives). General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I
Optical fiber rotation sensing
Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul
1993-01-01
Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t
Zeps, Dainis
2009-01-01
Using a notation of corner between edges when graph has a fixed rotation, i.e. cyclical order of edges around vertices, we define combinatorial objects - combinatorial maps as pairs of permutations, one for vertices and one for faces. Further, we define multiplication of these objects, that coincides with the multiplication of permutations. We consider closed under multiplication classes of combinatorial maps that consist of closed classes of combinatorial maps with fixed edges where each such class is defined by a knot. One class among them is special, containing selfconjugate maps.
Differential rotation of the unstable nonlinear r -modes
Friedman, John L.; Lindblom, Lee; Lockitch, Keith H.
2016-01-01
At second order in perturbation theory, the r -modes of uniformly rotating stars include an axisymmetric part that can be identified with differential rotation of the background star. If one does not include radiation reaction, the differential rotation is constant in time and has been computed by Sá. It has a gauge dependence associated with the family of time-independent perturbations that add differential rotation to the unperturbed equilibrium star: For stars with a barotropic equation of state, one can add to the time-independent second-order solution arbitrary differential rotation that is stratified on cylinders (that is a function of distance ϖ to the axis of rotation). We show here that the gravitational radiation-reaction force that drives the r -mode instability removes this gauge freedom; the exponentially growing differential rotation of the unstable second-order r -mode is unique. We derive a general expression for this rotation law for Newtonian models and evaluate it explicitly for slowly rotating models with polytropic equations of state.
Soft initial-rotation and HΦ robust constant rotational speed control for rotational MEMS gyro
Ma Gaoyin; Chen Wenyuan; Cui Feng; Zhang Weiping; Wang Liqi
2009-01-01
A novel soft initial-rotation control system and an Hoo robust constant rotational speed controller (RCRSC) for a rotational MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) gyro are presented. The soft initial-rotation control system can prevent the possible tumbling down of the suspended rotor and ensure a smooth and fast initial-rotation process. After the initial-rotation process, in order to maintain the rotational speed accurately constant, the RCRSC is acquired through the mixed sensitivity design approach. Simulation results show that the actuation voltage disturbances from the internal carrier waves in the gyro is reduced by more than 15.3 dB, and the speed fluctuations due to typical external vibrations ranging from 10 Hz to 200 Hz can also be restricted to 10-3 rad/s order.
Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer
2016-11-01
For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.
Bambi, Cosimo
2013-01-01
The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...
Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle
2013-01-01
A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...
Rotge, J. R.; Simmons, B. J.; Kroncke, G. T.; Stech, D. J.
1986-05-01
Research efforts were concentrated on passive ring laser rotation sensor technology. Initial efforts were performed on supportive projects, e.g., laser stabilization, followed by a 0.62 sq m passive resonant ring laser gyro (PRRLG), leading to the development of a 60 sq m system mounted on the pneumatically supported isolation test platform (Iso-Pad) at FJSRL. Numerous sub-system tasks and a feasibility 0.62 sq m PRRLG were completed, supporting projections of very high resolution performance by a large 60 sq m PRRLG. The expected performance of the large PRRLG, on the order of 10 to the minus 10th power ERU (earth rate units), would provide an accurate error model applicable to Air Force operational ring laser gyros, a new source of geophysical data, e.g., earth wobble and variations in earth rotation, a proven design concept applicable to Air Force sensor needs as reference to MX instruments tests, and relativity experiments. This report documents the many accomplishments leading to, and the status of the large PRRLG at the date of the PRRLG stop order, November 1985.
Kissin, Yevgeni
2015-01-01
The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches and the partitioning of angular momentum between the outer and inner envelope. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag as well as the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles $\\Omega(r)$ is considered in the deep convective envelope, ranging from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force on the inward pumping of angular momentum, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core ro...
Rotational Spectrum of Saccharine
Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.
2017-06-01
A significant step forward in the structure-activity relationships of sweeteners was the assignment of the AH-B moiety in sweeteners by Shallenberger and Acree. They proposed that all sweeteners contain an AH-B moiety, known as glucophore, in which A and B are electronegative atoms separated by a distance between 2.5 to 4 Å. H is a hydrogen atom attached to one of the electronegative atom by a covalent bond. For saccharine, one of the oldest artificial sweeteners widely used in food and drinks, two possible B moieties exist ,the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfoxide oxygen atom although there is a consensus of opinion among scientists over the assignment of AH-B moieties to HN-SO. In the present work, the solid of saccharine (m.p. 220°C) has been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and its rotational spectrum has been analyzed by broadband CP-FTMW and narrowband MB-FTMW Fourier transform microwave techniques. The detailed structural information extracted from the rotational constants and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants provided enough information to ascribe the glucophore's AH and B sites of saccharine. R. S. Shallenberger, T. E. Acree. Nature 216, 480-482 Nov 1967. R. S. Shallenberger. Taste Chemistry; Blackie Academic & Professional, London, (1993).
Moo-Yeon Lee
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We developed and tested a novel rotation scanner for nano resolution and accurate rotary motion about the rotation center. The scanner consists of circular hinges and leaf springs so that the parasitic error at the center of the scanner in the X and Y directions is minimized, and rotation performance is optimized. Each sector of the scanner's system was devised to have nano resolution by minimizing the parasitic errors of the rotation center that arise due to displacements other than rotation. The analytic optimal design results of the proposed scanner were verified using finite element analyses. The piezoelectric actuators were used to attain nano-resolution performances, and a capacitive sensor was used to measure displacement. A feedback controller was used to minimize the rotation errors in the rotation scanner system under practical conditions. Finally, the performance evaluation test results showed that the resonance frequency was 542 Hz, the resolution was 0.09 μrad, and the rotation displacement was 497.2 μrad. Our test results revealed that the rotation scanner exhibited accurate rotation about the center of the scanner and had good nano precision.
Differential rotation rates for short-lived regions of emerging magnetic flux. [in sun
Golub, L.; Vaiana, G. S.
1978-01-01
We have measured the synodic rotation rates of a sample of compact X-ray emission features lasting from 1 day to 7 days, thus bridging the transition between X-ray bright points and active regions. The rotation rate is found to be a function of the lifetime, or size, of the feature; shorter-lived smaller features rotate more slowly than long-lived ones. The rotation rate for features lasting 2 days or less is consistent with that of the photospheric gas. The longest-lived features rotate at a rate about 5% higher, consistent with the sunspot rotation rate.
Bifurcations of rotating waves in rotating spherical shell convection.
Feudel, F; Tuckerman, L S; Gellert, M; Seehafer, N
2015-11-01
The dynamics and bifurcations of convective waves in rotating and buoyancy-driven spherical Rayleigh-Bénard convection are investigated numerically. The solution branches that arise as rotating waves (RWs) are traced by means of path-following methods, by varying the Rayleigh number as a control parameter for different rotation rates. The dependence of the azimuthal drift frequency of the RWs on the Ekman and Rayleigh numbers is determined and discussed. The influence of the rotation rate on the generation and stability of secondary branches is demonstrated. Multistability is typical in the parameter range considered.
Visualizing rotations and composition of rotations with the Rodrigues vector
Valdenebro, Angel G.
2016-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that the mathematical treatment of three-dimensional rotations can be simplified, and its geometrical understanding improved, using the Rodrigues vector representation. We present a novel geometrical interpretation of the Rodrigues vector. Based on this interpretation and simple geometrical considerations, we derive the Euler-Rodrigues formula, Cayley’s rotation formula and the composition law for finite rotations. The level of this discussion should be suitable for undergraduate physics or engineering courses where rotations are discussed.
Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head
Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.
Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Pauyo, Thierry; Debski, Richard E; Rodosky, Mark W; Tuan, Rocky S; Musahl, Volker
2017-08-01
The torn rotator cuff remains a persistent orthopedic challenge, with poor outcomes disproportionately associated with chronic, massive tears. Degenerative changes in the tissues that comprise the rotator cuff organ, including muscle, tendon, and bone, contribute to the poor healing capacity of chronic tears, resulting in poor function and an increased risk for repair failure. Tissue engineering strategies to augment rotator cuff repair have been developed in an effort to improve rotator cuff healing and have focused on three principal aims: (1) immediate mechanical augmentation of the surgical repair, (2) restoration of muscle quality and contractility, and (3) regeneration of native enthesis structure. Work in these areas will be reviewed in sequence, highlighting the relevant pathophysiology, developmental biology, and biomechanics, which must be considered when designing therapeutic applications. While the independent use of these strategies has shown promise, synergistic benefits may emerge from their combined application given the interdependence of the tissues that constitute the rotator cuff organ. Furthermore, controlled mobilization of augmented rotator cuff repairs during postoperative rehabilitation may provide mechanotransductive cues capable of guiding tissue regeneration and restoration of rotator cuff function. Present challenges and future possibilities will be identified, which if realized, may provide solutions to the vexing condition of chronic massive rotator cuff tears.
Effect of gravity level fluctuations for rotating fluids in high and low rotating speeds
Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.
1989-01-01
Time-dependent evolutions of the profile of the free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with sinusoidal-function vibration of the gravity environment at high and low cylinder speeds.
Triaxial rotation in atomic nuclei
CHEN Yong-Shou; GAO Zao-Chun
2009-01-01
The Projected Shell Model has been developed to include the spontaneously broken axial symmetry so that the rapidly rotating triaxial nuclei can be described microscopically. The theory provides an useful tool to gain an insight into how a triaxial nucleus rotates, a fundamental question in nuclear structure. We shall address some current interests that are strongly associated with the triaxial rotation. A feasible method to explore the problem has been suggested.
Zeh, H D
2002-01-01
Schroedinger's wave function shows many aspects of a state of incomplete knowledge or information ("bit"): (1) it is defined on a space of classical configurations, (2) its generic entanglement is, therefore, analogous to statistical correlations, and (3) it determines probabilites of measurement outcomes. Nonetheless, quantum superpositions (such as represented by a wave function) also define individual physical states ("it"). This conceptual dilemma may have its origin in the conventional operational foundation of physical concepts, successful in classical physics, but inappropriate in quantum theory because of the existence of mutually exclusive operations (used for the definition of concepts). In contrast, a hypothetical realism, based on concepts that are justified only by their universal and consistent applicability, favors the wave function as a description of (thus nonlocal) physical reality. The (conceptually local) classical world then appears as an illusion, facilitated by the phenomenon of decoher...
Rotations, quaternions, and double groups
Altmann, Simon L
2005-01-01
This self-contained text presents a consistent description of the geometric and quaternionic treatment of rotation operators, employing methods that lead to a rigorous formulation and offering complete solutions to many illustrative problems.Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, the book begins with chapters covering the fundamentals of symmetries, matrices, and groups, and it presents a primer on rotations and rotation matrices. Subsequent chapters explore rotations and angular momentum, tensor bases, the bilinear transformation, projective representations, and the g
Electronic Control Of Slow Rotations
Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.
1992-01-01
Digital/analog circuit controls both angular position and speed of rotation of motor shaft with high precision. Locks angular position of motor to phase of rotation-command clock signal at binary submultiple of master clock signal. Circuit or modified version used to control precisely position and velocity of robotic manipulator, to control translation mechanism of crystal-growing furnace, to position hands of mechanical clock, or to control angular position and rate of rotation in any of large variety of rotating mechanisms.
Cohen, S.A.; Budny, R.V.; Corso, V.; Boychuck, J.; Grisham, L.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Luyber, S.; Loprest, P.; Manos, D.
1984-07-01
A limiter with a specially contoured front face and the ability to rotate during tokamak discharges has been installed in a PLT pump duct. These features have been selected to handle the unique particle removal and heat load requirements of ICRF heating and lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. The limiter has been conditioned and commissioned in an ion-beam test stand by irradiation with 1 MW power, 200 ms duration beams of 40 keV hydrogen ions. Operation in PLT during ohmic discharges has proven the ability of the limiter to reduce localized heating caused by energetic electron bombardment and to remove about 2% of the ions lost to the PLT walls and limiters.
Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment
Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten
In stratified waters like those around Denmark there is a close correlation between the biology of the water masses and their structure and currents; this is known as dynamic biologicaloceanography. The currents are particularly strong near the fronts, which can be seen in several places throughout...... the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...
Sporcularda rotator cuff problemleri
Guven, Osman; Guven, Zeynep; Gundes, Hakan; Yalcin, Selim
2004-01-01
Rotator cuff tendinitinin etyolojisinde genellikle birden çok faktörün kombinasyonu görülür. Yüzme, raket sporları ve fırlatma sporlarının özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde giderek yaygınlaşması bu konuya olan ilginin artmasına sebep olmuştur. Eski konseptlerde aktif bir sporcuda tedavinin başarısı genellikle eski atletik seviyesine dönmesi ile ölçülürdü. Son zamanlarda atletik tekniklerin analizi, atroskopik evaluasyon gibi yeni bir Iükse sahip olmamız ve Iiteratürün yeniden gözden geçirilmesi il...
Overcomplete steerable pyramid filters and rotation invariance
Greenspan, H.; Belongie, S; Goodman, R; Perona, P.; Rakshit, S.; C. H. Anderson
1994-01-01
A given (overcomplete) discrete oriented pyramid may be converted into a steerable pyramid by interpolation. We present a technique for deriving the optimal interpolation functions (otherwise called 'steering coefficients'). The proposed scheme is demonstrated on a computationally efficient oriented pyramid, which is a variation on the Burt and Adelson (1983) pyramid. We apply the generated steerable pyramid to orientation-invariant texture analysis in order to demonstrate its excellent rotat...
Overcomplete steerable pyramid filters and rotation invariance
1994-01-01
A given (overcomplete) discrete oriented pyramid may be converted into a steerable pyramid by interpolation. We present a technique for deriving the optimal interpolation functions (otherwise called 'steering coefficients'). The proposed scheme is demonstrated on a computationally efficient oriented pyramid, which is a variation on the Burt and Adelson (1983) pyramid. We apply the generated steerable pyramid to orientation-invariant texture analysis in order to demonstrate its excellent rotat...
CONSTRAINED QUADRILATERAL NONCONFORMING ROTATED Q1 ELEMENT
Jun Hu; Zhong-ci Shi
2005-01-01
In this paper, we define a new nonconforming quadrilateral finite element based on the nonconforming rotated Q1 element by enforcing a constraint on each element, which has only three degrees of freedom. We investigate the consistency, approximation, superclose property, discrete Green's function and superconvergence of this element. Moreover, we propose a new postprocessing technique and apply it to this element. It is proved that the postprocessed discrete solution is superconvergent under a mild assumption on the mesh.
Novel Term in Fermion-Boson Mapping for Nuclear Rotation
Nomura, Kosuke; Shimizu, Noritaka; Guo, Lu
2010-01-01
We introduce a novel term in fermion-boson mapping method for the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) for rotational nuclei. The rotation of a given deformed nucleon system is similar to the corresponding one of the boson system, but there is a certain difference in quantitative details. This requires the additional rotational correction to the boson system. We implement the rotational $L\\cdot L$ term into the IBM Hamiltonian, and determine its coupling constant based on the mean-field calculation with Skyrme Energy Density Functional. The validity of the method is examined for rare-earth (Sm) and actinoid (U) nuclei. Experimental rotational spectra for these nuclei are shown to be reproduced remarkably well without any phenomenological correction.
A method to deconvolve stellar rotational velocities II
Christen, A; Cure, M; Rial, D F; Cassetti, J
2016-01-01
Knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for the understanding stellar evolution. Because we measure the projected rotational speed vsini, we need to solve an ill-posed problem given by a Fredholm integral of the first kind to recover the true rotational velocity distribution. After discretization of the Fredholm integral, we apply the Tikhonov regularization method to obtain directly the probability distribution function for stellar rotational velocities. We propose a simple and straightforward procedure to determine the Tikhonov parameter. We applied Monte Carlo simulations to prove that Tikhonov method is a consistent estimator and asymptotically unbiased. This method is applied to a sample of cluster stars. We obtain confidences intervals using bootstrap method. Our results are in good agreement with the one obtained using the Lucy method, in recovering the probability density distribution of rotational velocities. Furthermore, Lucy estimation lies inside our confidence inter...
Interplay between antimagnetic and collective rotation in Fe-58
Peng, J; Zhang, S Q; Meng, J
2015-01-01
The self-consistent tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory based on the point- coupling interaction PC-PK1 is applied to investigate the possible existence of antimagnetic ro- tation in the nucleus Fe-58. The observed data for Band 3 and Band 4 are reproduced well with two assigned configurations. It is found that both bands correspond to a rotation of antimagnetic character, but, due to the presence of considerable deformation, the interplay between antimag- netic rotation and collective motion plays an essential role. In particular for Band 4, collective rotation is dominant in the competition with antimagnetic rotation. Moreover, it is shown that the behavior of the ratios between the dynamic moments of inertia and the B(E2) values reflects the interplay between antimagnetic and collective rotation.
[Correction of severe alar retraction with alar rotation flap].
Hong, Chun; Zheng, Dongxue; Lu, Lixin
2015-01-01
To investigate the therapeutic effect of alar rotation flap for severe alar retraction. Patients with severely retracted alar underwent ala reconstruction using alar rotation flaps and autogenous cartilage batten grafts. First, costal cartilage was used to reshape the nasal tip and nasal dorsum. Then cartilage patch was used to extend and thicken the retracted alar. Then the alar rotation flap was transferred to correct retracted alar. Fourteen patients with severe alar retraction underwent alar reconstruction with alar rotation flap and alar batten grafts. The alar retraction was corrected in all cases, with improvements functionally and aesthetically. No recurrence of alar retraction was noted. The incision healed with acceptable cosmetic results, with obvious scar in only one patient (one side). The alar rotation flap is an effective and reliable surgical option to correct severe alar retraction. Scar can be kept inconspicuous by precise placement of the incision within the junction of the ala and the nasal dorsum, following principles of the aesthetic nasal subunits.
Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein
Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolic, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian
2010-01-01
In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approac...... inside-out computations and neutral bits in the inbound phase of the rebound attack, and give well-defined rotational distinguishers as certificates of weaknesses for the compression functions and block ciphers.......In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approach...... and the Threefish cipher. The new techniques include an analytical search for optimal input values in the rotational cryptanalysis, which allows to extend the outbound phase of the attack with a precomputation phase, an approach never used in any rebound-style attack before. Further we show how to combine multiple...
Rotational motion of Foton M-4
Abrashkin, V. I.; Voronov, K. E.; Piyakov, I. V.; Puzin, Yu. Ya.; Sazonov, V. V.; Semkin, N. D.; Chebukov, S. Yu.
2016-07-01
The actual controlled rotational motion of the Foton M-4 satellite is reconstructed for the mode of single-axis solar orientation. The reconstruction was carried out using data of onboard measurements of vectors of angular velocity and the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. The reconstruction method is based on the reconstruction of the kinematic equations of the rotational motion of a solid body. According to the method, measurement data of both types collected at a certain time interval are processed together. Measurements of the angular velocity are interpolated by piecewise-linear functions, which are substituted in kinematic differential equations for a quaternion that defines the transition from the satellite instrument coordinate system to the inertial coordinate system. The obtained equations represent the kinematic model of the satellite rotational motion. A solution of these equations that approximates the actual motion is derived from the condition of the best (in the sense of the least squares method) match between the measurement data of the strength vector of the Earth's magnetic field and its calculated values. The described method makes it possible to reconstruct the actual rotational satellite motion using one solution of kinematic equations over time intervals longer than 10 h. The found reconstructions have been used to calculate the residual microaccelerations.
Rotating target wheel for the FMA
Back, B.B.; Davids, C.N.; Falout, J. [and others
1995-08-01
In anticipation of high intensity beams that will be available from the PII-ECR source injector to ATLAS, a new rotating target wheel was developed for the sliding seal chamber at the FMA. The wheel is 9 inch in diameter and contains up to ten targets. The rotation of the wheel is achieved by a DC motor, a ferrofluidic feedthrough, and a gear mechanism that allows both target rotation and changing the target angle relative to the beam. The nominal rotation speed is 1000 RPM, although higher speeds can be achieved if necessary. The assembly is equipped with an absolute encoder which is read out via a newly developed CAMAC module. This module provides the following main functions: (1) a TTL signal to be used for sweeping the beam when a target frame is about to pass through the beam, (2) a read-out of the target position that can be included in the data event structure, (3) programmable set points for the beam-off signal. The system is presently being tested and will be used in experiments scheduled for March 1995.
Biological strategies to enhance rotator cuff healing.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Rizzello, Giacomo; Berton, Alessandra; Maltese, Ludovica; Fumo, Caterina; Khan, Wasim S; Denaro, Vincenzo
2013-11-01
Rotator cuff tear causes a high rate of morbidity. After surgical repair, the presence of a scar tissue reduces tendon biomechanical properties. Emerging strategies for enhancing tendon healing are growth factors, cytokines, gene therapy and tissue engineering. However their efficacy has to be proved. Growth factors help the process of tendon healing by aiding cells chemotaxis, differentiation and proliferation. Numerous growth factors, including the bone morphogenetic proteins and platelet-derived growth factor can be found during the early healing process of a rotator cuff repair. Growth factors are delivered to the repair site using tissue-engineered scaffolding, coated sutures, or dissolved in a fibrin sealant. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous concentration of platelets and contains an high density of growth factors. There is some evidence that platelet-rich plasma may improve pain and recovery of function in a short time period, but it does not improve healing rates in rotator cuff. Thus the routine use of platelet-rich plasma in rotator cuff repair is not recommended. The addition of mesenchymal stem cells to scaffolds can lead to the production of a better quality healing tissue. Gene therapy is a gene transfer from a cell into another, in order to over-express the gene required. In this way, cultures of stem cells can over-express growth factors. Better understanding of the mechanisms of physiological tendon healing can promote the correct use of these new biological therapies for a better healing tissue.
Regimes of Internal Rotation in Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs
Wheeler, J. Craig; Ghosh, Pranab
2017-01-01
Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SN Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super--Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly-uniform and strongly-differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri > 1 produce a regime of nearly-uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as σ3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.
Unidirectional Rotation of Molecules Measured by the Rotational Doppler Effect
Prior Yehiam
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A pair of linearly polarized pump pulses induce field-free unidirectional molecular rotation, which is detected by a delayed circularly polarized probe. The polarization and spectrum of the probe are modified by the interaction with the molecules, in accordance with the Rotational Doppler Effect.