WorldWideScience

Sample records for rosyth dockyard uk

  1. Mortality among dock-yard workers in Genoa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntoni, R; Russo, L; Zannini, D; Vercelli, M; Gambaro, R P; Valerio, F; Santi, L

    1977-01-01

    The causes of death among the dock-yard workers of Genoa from December 31, 1959 to January 1, 1970, have been investigated. These workers, mainly assigned to ship repair, refitting and construction, are exposed to several noxious substances, such as: asbestos, silica, paint solvents, welding smoke and volatile products of petroleum. Two different control groups were selected: the male population of Genoa and the staff of the San Martino Hospital in Genoa. Causes of death showing a significant increase were: gastric cancer (only in comparison with the hospital staff), cancer of colon excluding rectum, lung cancer, cancer of kidney, urinary bladder and other urinary organs, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis of the liver, cardiovascular diseases (only in comparison with the hospital staff).

  2. Formation of ferric flocks for the removal of Zn and Cu from dockyard wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Arevalo, Edurado; Stichnothe, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    the wastewater is investigated and the method was shown successful. TBT concentration in a sample from a German dockyard was also decreased during flocculation, but the TBT removed was already associated with small particulates in the original sample. Low concentrations of heavy metals were obtained...

  3. [Evaluation of forklift trucks operated in dockyards for reducing exposure to whole-body vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hiroji; Taoda, Kazushi; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2005-03-01

    Our preceding study revealed that many fork-lift truck drivers in Japanese dockyards suffer from fatigue symptoms such as low back pain (LBP). It has been suggested that exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a cause of their LBP. Using forklift models manufactured from 1982 to 2000, we measured and evaluated the vibration of forklift trucks operated in dockyards, adopting experimental procedures based on the European Standard. We investigated various factors related to WBV, with the main focus on attenuating seat vibration. This study showed that (1) the seats did not attenuate vibration in the vertical direction, (2) forklift trucks and their seats had not improved in terms of WBV attenuation for a decade, (3) some forklift trucks in which the seat suspension could no longer be adjusted to the driver's weight continued to be used without being repaired, and impractical seat adjustment methods were adopted, and (4) the seats did not attenuate vertical vibration well in the most undesirable frequency range. We conclude that forklift trucks and especially their seats should urgently be improved with regard to WBV attenuation in order to prevent LBP in forklift truck drivers.

  4. Screening among workers in a dockyard in the city of Varna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milkov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing reduction and hearing loss are common among the industrial workers exposed to continuous and intensive occupational noise, although they are completely preventable. Hearing protection devices are more and more widely used in modern industry, however, they are not efficient enough. That is why preventive otorhinolaryngologic examinations should regularly been performed to enable the early diagnosis and timely treatment of this severe pathology. Several recent investigations deal with the damage of the medium and inner ear as well as of the hearing characteristics caused by intensive and longlasting industrial noise, especially in construction in the USA (Wu, et al., 1998; Edelson, et al., 2009, in dockyards (Sliwinska-Kowalska, et al., 2004; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, et al., 2007, in a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder infusion factory in Taiwan (Chang, et al., 2009, in a semiconductor factory (Chou, et al., 2009, in steel mills, lumber mills and marble shops in Brazil (Boger, et al., 2009, among truck drivers (Krishnamurti, 2009; Karimi, et al., 2010, etc. The combined harmful effects of workplace noise and various agents such as chemicals (Morata, et al., 1993; Sliwinska-Kowalska, et al., 2004; Sliwinska- Kowalska, et al., 2005 and heat (Singh, et al., 2010 are intensively studied, too. Binaurial hearing impairment caused by simultaneous exposure to occupational noise and cigarette smoke is proved, too (Mohammadi, et al., 2010. The role of shift-work on noise-induced hearing loss is emphasized (Borchgrevink, 2009; Chou, et al., 2009. The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the dynamics of hearing reduction of dockyard workers by twofold comprehensive screening examinations as a first step in a broad prevention programme.

  5. Radioactive Substances Act 1993 - annex document. To accompany the explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to assist public consultation on the application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document constitutes Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited' s (DML) application to vary its authorisations to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard (DRD). The document describes the radioactive waste arisings from existing and future facilities at DRD and the way these wastes are handled and treated on site from generation to disposal. It also serves to present to a wider audience DML's activities and plans for radioactive waste management, and the 'benefits and detriments of the activities giving rise to radioactive wastes. DML's current Authorisations, granted in 1997, cover its refuelling, refitting and general maintenance activities on the so-called 'Hunter-killer' nuclear powered submarines. Following Ministerial approval, DRD is being modernised and enhanced. This will bring existing dock structures, refuelling facilities, and services in line with latest standards, and also provide new facilities to support the refit and refuel of the new Vanguard class ballistic missile carrying nuclear powered submarines. To cover these additional activities, revised authorisations - which in some cases include increased disposal limits - are being requested tinder the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. The current DML Authorisations were also due for review and so this Application covers both continuing and new operations and facilities. It is Government policy that the UK should maintain and operate a fleet of nuclear powered submarines. It is also Government policy to have a single dockyard for the refitting of nuclear powered submarines at DRD. DML owns the DRD site, and carries out work for the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and other customers. The radiation from the operation of a submarine's nuclear reactor causes some of the materials of the reactor core - and the Water used to cool it - to become radioactive. As a consequence of DML's work on these submarines, radioactive wastes are generated; these wastes

  6. OT {-(Uk} / ET {-(Uk}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. İbrahim TAŞ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The {-(Uk} affix, expressing the verb result and derivingqualifications, is not seen among the the rules of vowels, rounded-unroundedat old Turkic and middle Turkic texts. But in some words, rounded -unrounded rule is seen. At this text, we investigated some of these words.

  7. The tidal basin : Portsmouth Dockyard

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Alfred Hugh, 1867-1945

    2002-01-01

    Quarter-plate (landscape format). Showing a small group of men walking along the dockside. To the left is a ship and lifting equipment. The photograph is annotated: 'Showing the 50 ton cranes: the Hawke alongside'.

  8. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  9. Economic Indicators Selected Countries, March Quarter 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Rates of Pay - Adult Males 3 Table 3 Index of Average Hourly Wage Rates - Dockyard Wages Employees 4 Table 4 Index of Wholesale Prices of Electrical...RATES - WAGES EMPLOYEES GARDEN ISLAND AND WILLIAMSTOWN DOCKYARDS 1980-81 = 100 Source: Garden Island and Williamstown Dockyards Garden Island Wl...Weekly Edition) - U.K. SIC 1980 Hot rolled Zinc coated Beams Coil plate lead coated Plate Ordinary Sheet and and and other 3 mm Year Steel Piling

  10. BSE in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2004-01-01

    The 2000 BSE Inquiry report points out that the most serious failure of the UK Government was one of risk communication. This paper argues that the government's failure to communicate the risks BSE posed to humans to a large degree can be traced back to a lack of transparency in the first risk...

  11. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  12. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  13. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  14. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  15. UK businesses bag innovation awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  16. UK science, post-Brexit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Wilsdon

    2017-01-01

    Nine months since the British vote to exit the European Union ("Brexit"), the UK science community's initial dismay has given way to hard-boiled determination to limit the damage it will do to universities and research...

  17. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  18. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional adv...

  19. for the removal of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) from dockyard wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemi- cal, biological, and photolytic processes (Ritter et ... to their widespread occurrence, strong resistance, long-range transportation and high level of ..... of methylene blue using cedar sawdust and crushed brick. J. Hazardous Mater. 135 264–273.

  20. Vaccine acceptance: the UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-12-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner's theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013.

  1. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  2. Anandavardhanan, Dr U.K.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 2007–2010. Anandavardhanan, Dr U.K.. Date of birth: 25 May 1976. Address during Associateship: Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076. Contact: Email: anand@math.iitb.ac.in. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  3. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Læserbrev, som kritiserer det store UK Prospective Diabetes Study's forfattere for at overfortolke deres fund, idet marginalt signifikante p-værdier tages som udtryk for slående effekt (af at sænke blodsukkeret). Det sker selvom der f.eks. indgår effektvariabler, som kunne påvirkes af patienternes...

  4. Altamont attracts UK windfarm developer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macari, L.; Reynolds, S.C.

    1986-08-01

    Altamont Pass in California is the site for a 25 MW wind farm built by UK-based James Howden and equipped with seventy-five 330 kW machines. It was sold to an institutional investor in the USA for $48 million. The wind farm is also the site for a 750 kW demonstration wind turbine.

  5. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  6. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  7. UK policy: A success story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2007-10-01

    Child poverty is at the heart of the United Kingdom (UK) government's social policy agenda. Child poverty rose rapidly in the 1980s; the child poverty rate was one of the highest in Europe by 2000. In 1999, the government's objective was to reduce child poverty by 50% by 2004/2005, which it narrowly failed to meet. In 2005/2006, there was an increase in child poverty. An index of child well-being found that the UK was 21st out of the 25 European Union countries. Overall, the UK came in last in the UNICEF well-being index. The government's child poverty strategy has been to manage the economy to maximize employment and to improve in-work incomes. Both have been successful in reducing child poverty. Out-of-work incomes have also been improved, but not enough to lift many children out of poverty. Public expenditure on services, especially health, education and childcare, has also increased; although there are questions about how much of this extra spending has focused on children and child poverty. The comprehensive spending review, reporting later in 2007, is likely to be tight, and it is now unlikely that the government will succeed in its aim of reducing child poverty by 50% by 2010 unless there are radical changes in policy. Constraints on the government's ability to do this include the structural inequalities in British society and public attitudes toward people in poverty.

  8. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Harnad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  9. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  10. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  11. UK photonics in defence and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-10-01

    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  12. Police.uk and Data.police.uk: Developing Open Crime and Justice Data for the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Smith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the evolution and development of the police.uk and data.police.uk sites, which publish open data about crime and justice in the UK, and make it accessible and comprehensible to the public. Police.uk has received over 64 million visits (754 million hits since launching in January 2011. Open crime and justice data represents a key sector in the UK open data landscape, and citizens are keen to engage with the criminal justice system to become more informed about local levels of crime and other policing information. This paper sets out the policing context in the UK, discusses the journey in providing such open data, the processes involved and challenges encountered, and explores possible future developments.

  13. Energy co-operatives in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tham; T. Muneer

    2011-01-01

    The UK is implementing different types of policies to encourage the use of renewable energy for electricity generation. Currently, the UK is falling behind other European countries in this respect. Hence, co-operatives play an important role in helping the UK to move forward. Co-operatives are of interest to the Government in respect of economic development in the community. Co-operatives keep both the business, or entity, and the wealth it creates locally, which also supports the local econo...

  14. Immunization campaigns in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, K; Salisbury, D

    2006-01-01

    A mass immunization campaign is a rapid vaccination intervention across age groups as opposed to provision through routine vaccination at a specified age attainment. Some countries use campaigns routinely as they have experience that shows that in their health systems higher coverage can be reached through campaigns than by routine service provision. Whilst many industrialized and non-industrialized countries have introduced new vaccines into their routine programme, the UK is unusual in deliberately doing this via campaigns. A number of mass immunization campaigns have been implemented in the UK, either integrated into the routine immunization programme such as the annual influenza immunization campaign; as a catch-up campaign alongside the introduction of a new vaccine into the routine vaccination schedule (MMR, Haemophilus influenzae b, Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine); or as a one-off campaign, to boost immunity in a particular age group, without introducing the vaccination into the schedule routinely at that age (Haemophilus influenzae b). Campaigns require intense planning at national and local level with leadership to achieve proper management. Although the components of an immunization campaign can be described separately--strategic planning, vaccine supply, communication and surveillance; for a programme to be successful integrated planning is essential.

  15. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  16. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  17. The Geomatics.org.UK Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramald, Tom; Powell, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how pupils can benefit from some unusual and exciting free resources of geomatics.org.uk. Geomatics.org.uk is a project that provides free resources to support teaching and learning in a variety of subjects including maths and geography, often in a cross-curricular way. Via the project website, it is possible,…

  18. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  19. UK creates new funding super-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The UK government has passed its higher-education and research bill, which includes the creation of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) - a new umbrella organization that will oversee the country’s seven research councils such as the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  20. Grade Inflation in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachan, Ray

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the continual increase in the proportion of "good" honour degrees awarded by UK universities since the mid-2000s. This trend has brought with it the charge of "grade inflation" that may reflect falling standards in UK higher education. This issue has been raised in the national press and in government which…

  1. Development of the UK Engagement Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiko Howson, Camille; Buckley, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement has become a key feature of UK higher education, but until recently there has been a lack of data to track, benchmark and drive enhancement. In 2015 the first full administration ran in the UK a range of survey items drawn from the US-based National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This is the latest example of international…

  2. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  3. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  4. MNCs in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Marginson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    country’s institutions to suit the MNC’s needs (country-of-origin effect). This question is discussed by Steen E. Navrbjerg from FAOS and Paul Marginson from Warwick in the article MNCs in Denmark and the UK - accommodating to or transforming national industrial relations? The article is based on a survey...... of 301 MNCs in the UK and 110 MNC’s in Denmark. In the article home owned MNCs is compared with overseas MNCs in Denmark and the UK respectively; furthermore, MNCs in a liberal market economy (UK) is compared with MNCs in a coordinated market economy (Denmark). The analysis shows that the MNCs in Denmark...... much more often recognize unions than is the case with MNCs in the UK. This indicates that strong relations between the social partners and a strong institutionalised IR-system in Denmark are defining the relations between employer and employee, and are also inhibiting the MNCs opportunities...

  5. END-TO-END INDIA-UK TRANSNATIONAL WIRELESS TESTBED

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Ramamurthi, Bhaskar; Narayanan, Babu; A, Oredope

    2011-01-01

    .... The India-UK Advanced Technology Centre initiative is a collaborative research project between various institutes and companies across UK and India, which envisages, apart from several research...

  6. Heavens Open Up for UK Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A significant milestone for British and European science occurred today (July 8, 2002) when the Council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) met in London. At this historical meeting, the United Kingdom was formally welcomed into ESO by the nine other member states. The UK, one of the leading nations in astronomical research, now joins one of the world's major astronomical organisations. UK astronomers will now be able to use the four 8.2-metre and several 1.8-metre telescopes that comprise the Very Large Telescope (VLT) facility located at the Paranal Observatory in the northern part of the Atacama desert in Chile, as well as two 4-m class telescopes and several smaller ones at the ESO La Silla Observatory further south. The UK will also benefit from increased involvement in the design and construction of the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), a network of 64 twelve-metre telescopes also sited in Chile, and play a defining role in ESO's 100-metre Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL). Sir Martin Rees , The Astronomer Royal, said, "Joining ESO is good for UK science, and I think good for Europe as well. It offers us access to the VLT's 8-m class telescopes and restores the UK's full competitiveness in optical astronomy. We're now guaranteed full involvement in ALMA and in the next generation of giant optical instruments - projects that will be at the forefront of the research in the next decade and beyond. Moreover, our commitment to ESO should enhance its chances of forging ahead of the US in these technically challenging and high profile scientific projects. UK membership of ESO is a significant and welcome outcome of this government's increasing investment in science". Prof. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the UK's strategic science investment agency said, "The United Kingdom already participates in Europe's flagship particle physics research and the space science research programmes through

  7. UK Freight Demand: Elasticities and Decoupling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnolucci, Paolo; Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate road freight demand in the UK for the period 1956-2003 and to assess the occurrence of decoupling between economic activity and freight demand as discussed in McKinnon (2006...

  8. CERN sells management system to UK's Transacsys

    CERN Multimedia

    Rohde, L

    2001-01-01

    CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).

  9. Project SEARCH UK - Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-11-01

    The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. The evaluation obtained data from all sites operational in the UK at the time of evaluation (n = 17) and analysed employment outcomes. Data were available for 315 young people (n = 315) in the programme and pay and other employment related data were available for a subsample. The results of the analysis suggest that Project SEARCH achieves on average employment rates of around 50 per cent. Project SEARCH UK represents a valuable addition to the supported employment provision in the UK. Its unique model should inform discussions around best practice in supported employment. Implications for other supported employment programmes are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. UK Higher Education Project Management Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This is a printable version of a survey designed and distributed online to capture information about the maturity of project management practices across UK Higher Education during the academic year 2012-2013.

  11. A rescue plan for UK physics funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Brumfiel, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    "Britain's most troubled research council is about to undergo radical surgery. On 4 March, UK science minister Paul Drayson unveiled his plan to reform the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)" (0.5 page)

  12. Analysing UK real estate market forecast disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Patrick; Newell, G.; Matysiak, George

    2005-01-01

    Given the significance of forecasting in real estate investment decisions, this paper investigates forecast uncertainty and disagreement in real estate market forecasts. Using the Investment Property Forum (IPF) quarterly survey amongst UK independent real estate forecasters, these real estate forecasts are compared with actual real estate performance to assess a number of real estate forecasting issues in the UK over 1999-2004, including real estate forecast error, bias and consensus. The re...

  13. The UK sports- and underwear market

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfai, Iyoel; Melgaard, Mathilde; Elvestad, Nina; Grav, Nina Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Pierre Robert Group is a Norwegian company, which specialises in regular underwear, in addition to sports underwear. The company is currently represented in Sweden and Finland, as well as in their domestic market. Pierre Robert Group wishes to explore the possibilities for a future expansion into the UK sports- and/or underwear market. The purpose of this report is to explore the UK sports- and underwear market in order to ascertain the most appropriate strategy for Pierre Robert, if they ...

  14. UK energy policy: findings from two surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1996-08-01

    The paper summarises the results of two surveys, carried out in November 1992 and December 1994, of the opinions of UK energy professionals on the effectiveness of UK energy policy, what objectives energy policy should seek to achieve and how they should be achieved. Most respondents said that there should be a long term energy policy, at the level of both the UK and Europe. Such a policy should create a regulatory framework that complements market forces to improve the efficiency of energy use and environmental quality, to enhance security of supplies and to reduce the costs of energy supplies. Around two-thirds, however, said that existing UK energy policies were inappropriate and ineffective. There were serious doubts about the effectiveness of the regulation of gas and electricity, particularly the latter. Opinions tended to be somewhat more favourable in 1994 than in 1992. Just under half the respondents wanted nuclear power to occupy a special place in policy, while two-fifths wanted a special place for electricity from renewable sources. While the experts` desired energy policy objectives were broadly similar to those listed by the Government in 1994, the rankings were in many cases different. The energy professionals were not fully convinced that the objectives had been satisfactorily achieved. The paper also draws some wider lessons from the UK`s recent policy experience. 18 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  15. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two

  16. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard

    2014-04-17

    To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB

  17. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  18. Trends in UK mean sea level revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Shennan, I.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of rates of mean sea level (MSL) change around the UK, based on a larger tide gauge data set and more accurate analysis methods than have been employed so far. The spatial variation of the trend in MSL is found to be similar to that inferred from geological information and from advanced geodetic techniques, which is a similar conclusion to that arrived at in the previous studies. The tide gauge MSL trends for 1901 onwards are estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1 larger than those inferred from geology or geodetic methods, suggesting a regional sea level rise of climate change origin several one-tenths of mm per year lower than global estimates for the 20th century. However, UK MSL change cannot be described in terms of a simple linear increase alone but includes variations on interannual and decadal timescales. The possible sources of variation in a `UK sea level index' are explored. Air pressure is clearly one such possible source but its direct local forcing through the `inverse barometer' accounts for only one-third of the observed variability. A number of larger scale atmospheric and ocean processes must also play important roles, but modelling them satisfactorily and separating the individual contributions present a major challenge. As regards future regional UK sea level changes, we conclude that there is no basis for major modification to existing projections for the 2080s included in the 2002 UK Climate Impacts Programme studies.

  19. UK-India CBM technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creedy, D.P.; Garner, K.; Vrolijk, C. [Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle-under-Lyme (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this UK-India coalbed methane (CBM) technology transfer project was to promote the development of CBM gas extraction and utilisation techniques appropriate to the geological and mining conditions in India, focusing on coal mine methane (CMM) and abandoned mine methane (AMM) needs. The potential use of environmental support mechanism under the Kyoto Agreement to project development was also explored. Two of the most advanced, gassy coal mines in India were selected as case study sites: Moonidih coal mine and North Amlabad coal mine. Background data were gathered on the two mines and supplemented by observations made during the UK team visit to India in December 2004. The report concludes that opportunities exist for UK companies in VCBM, CMM and DMM in India. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 apps.

  20. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  1. Putting the teeth into the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, John

    2011-01-01

    The author of this article has been involved in the development of the UK Biobank, and was instrumental in ensuring that dentistry has been included in the project. He describes what the UK Biobank is, what the project involves and aims to achieve, and how by July 2010 some 500,000 UK citizens aged from 40-69 years had been recruited. He then details the events that led to the inclusion of dentistry in the project, the key role that stored saliva samples will have, and how the project will link to data stored by the Dental Practice Board and now the National Health Service Business Services Authority. The article ends with a brief look into the future of the project.

  2. UK Minister enthusiastic after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ON Tuesday 5 August the UK Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, John Denham, came to CERN. The UK continues its strong links with CERN.The Minister was welcomed on arrival at CERN by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and senior British scientists. Following a short presentation, he began a comprehensive tour of the Laboratory with a visit to both the LHC at point 5 and the CMS experiment. After lunch the Minister’s busy schedule continued, completing his overview of the main areas of UK participation at CERN. As soon as he had signed the guest book, he was whisked off to visit the LHCb experiment, the LHC computing grid project (LCG) and the ATLAS control room. However, the last item on his itinerary was perhaps the most illuminating. Meeting a diverse group of British scientists, from technical and summer students to staff members with more than 30 years of experience, the Minister had the opportunity...

  3. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  4. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  5. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  6. 16th UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gegov, Alexander; Jayne, Chrisina; Shen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The book is a timely report on advanced methods and applications of computational intelligence systems. It covers a long list of interconnected research areas, such as fuzzy systems, neural networks, evolutionary computation, evolving systems and machine learning. The individual chapters are based on peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 16th Annual UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence, held on September 7-9, 2016, in Lancaster, UK. The book puts a special emphasis on novels methods and reports on their use in a wide range of applications areas, thus providing both academics and professionals with a comprehensive and timely overview of new trends in computational intelligence.

  7. Bullying and the UK Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, R H; Atkins, S; Gould, M

    2012-06-01

    There are certain characteristics of the culture and environment in the Armed Forces that may be conducive to bullying. In this article we examine the cultural and environmental factors that may encourage such behaviour and those that act as deterrents for victims to come forward. We will look at the scope of this problem within the UK Armed Forces specifically, before more generally considering the psychological impact of bullying. There appears to be an overall downward trend in bullying within the UK Armed Forces and a positive increase in complaints as more victims step forward. We conclude by highlighting some areas for further development.

  8. Brexit and UK-Based Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sowels, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to present the key issues which Brexit is raising for financial services based in the UK, as they appeared in early 2017: i.e. since the Government has made clear that Britain will leave both the EU and the Single Market. The article reviews the place of UK-based financial services internationally and with respect to the European Union. The article then looks at some of the main questions currently highlighted by the Brexit process, most notably the loss of “passporting rig...

  9. IMMIGRATION AND INTEGRATION POLICIES IN UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Voicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of immigrants received by the United Kingdom significantly increased during the past several years. Given the set of economic and social difficulties encountered, UK created for the first time a completely original system of Nationality Legislation and started to apply a severe policy of assimilation instead of integration. UK applied the Community Law concerning immigration, asylum and free movement of workers in its national interest, the whole European construction showing the “British specificities”. Even today, there are a lot of measures to be taken in order to come to a real integration policy of immigrants.

  10. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology...... airline size and load factor. The paper also highlights that factors such as increase in oil price and fierce market competition were also potential inefficiency determinants. Practical implications – The findings of this paper provide a fresh link between airline performance and the current industry...... of the airline industry. The study also extends the limited literature available on UK airlines....

  11. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ...

  12. Developing Internationalisation Strategies, University of Winchester, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Richard Hugh; Spark, Alasdair; Carter, Joy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Internationalisation has been a theme in UK higher education for a decade or more. The review of this paper, a practice-based case study, is to find how Winchester formulated two successive internationalisation strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The strategies were developed using a research-oriented method: grounded in the…

  13. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  14. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  15. Student Representations of Psychology in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Duffy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Psychology is a popular choice for UK students in their secondary school curriculum. Policy makers and elite universities, however, express concern about the subject. The British Psychological Society (2013) commissioned a detailed study of the provision of school curricula in psychology and as part of this work a survey of students was conducted.…

  16. Akanidomo ibanga University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: Akanidomo Ibanga, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. E-mail: akjibanga@yahoo.com ... sexual behaviour and lack of self-protection in sexual situations among the women (Co- hen et al. ... behaviour is upheld despite varying defini- tions of CSA. Other negative ...

  17. UK pulls out of plans for ILC

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2007-01-01

    "A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)

  18. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  19. UK Groups Plan Cancer Research Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    Two major cancer research groups in the UK have announced plans to create a global cancer center aimed at accelerating drug development and fostering collaboration with industry. The $1.5 billion campus is expected to house 10,000 scientists and clinicians and deliver two additional drug candidates, an increase of 40%, every 5 years. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Rental Values in UK Shopping Malls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuo, Tony Shun-Te; Lizieri, Colin; McCann, Phillip; Crosby, Neil

    This paper employs a unique dataset to analyse the retail rental levels of 1108 retail tenants in 148 UK regional shopping malls. The dataset integrates information regarding the characteristics of the shopping centre, the individual retailer, the brand, the individual unit occupied, the tenancy

  1. Periodic integration in quarterly UK macroeconomic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); G. Romijn

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents empirical evidence on the seasonal patterns in several UK macroeconomic variables, additional to related evidence reported in Osborn (International Journal of Forecasting (1990), 6, 327–336). The method used is a test procedure for seasonal unit roots that allows

  2. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  3. A UK indicator of education for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Huckle, John; Sustainable Development Commission

    2006-01-01

    Report references UK Government publication 'Securing the Future'. Report on workshops consulting members of the education community on their preferred approach to the indicator announced in the UK strategy for sustainable development, 'Securing the Future'. Publisher PDF

  4. Entrepreneurial Propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK Prospective Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar Ali; Keith Topping; Tariq, Riaz H.; Peter Wakefield

    2011-01-01

    This research compares entrepreneurial inclination of Pakistani and UK primary level prospective teachers (B.Ed. students). Factor analysis revealed entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and self-efficacy as three common factors among both the data sets. Both the groups of respondents were also compared on five conceptual variables namely locus of control, self efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and subjective norms. The prospective teachers from UK were...

  5. Analysis of energy embodied in the international trade of UK

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the role embodied energy plays in international trade and its subsequent impact on energy security has grown. As a developed nation, the UK's economic structure has changed from that of a primary producer to that of a primary consumer. Although the UK's energy consumption appears to have peaked, it imports a lot of energy embodied in international trade alongside the more obvious direct energy imports. The UK has seen increasing dependency on imported fossil energy since the UK be...

  6. Mytilus Edulis as an Indicator of Trace Metal Pollution in Naval Dockyard Waters with Preliminary Results form Williamstown Naval Dockyard, Victoria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Laboratory, USA. 40. Anonymous. (1975). Basic atomic absorption spectroscopy. Varian Techtron Manual , Springvale, Australia. 41. Colquhon, D. (1971...Oceanography Division, St. Louis, U.S.A. (Attention: Mr. A. Pressman, Code 330) Laboratorio de Ensayo de Materiales e Investigaciones Tecnologicas

  7. Food production and service in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

  8. DYNAMICS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the beginning of the 1990’s, organic agriculture in the UK has expanded rapidly, in the middle of the year 2003 it represented 4% of the agricultural surface with around 4000 farms, managing almost 720.000 hectares. This growth was brought by the consumers and decisional factors which see organic agriculture as a contribution to environment, social and nutritional welfare purposes. This is one of the sustainable food production strategies; another being the integrated agriculture, a less restrictive option for the farmers. The most recent national statistics presented by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on organic farming were published in July of 2012. These present information gathered throughout 2011 for organic crops and livestock in the UK and the number of organic producers/processors registered with the Organic Certification Bodies in Great Britain.

  9. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S.; Adams, R; Hill, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms...

  10. Stresses reported by UK trainee counselling psychologists

    OpenAIRE

    Kumary, Ajvir; Baker, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined stressors and psychological distress in 109 UK counselling psychology trainees. The research focus was two-fold. What is the profile of stressors that counselling psychology trainees report about the components of training? What relationship is there between this profile, and other characteristics of trainees, including their level of current psychological distress? Data from a stress survey and from the General Health Questionnaire were examined. High stress scores were f...

  11. The UK's National Electronic Site Licencing Initiative.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Hazel

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the UK created the National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI) to increase and improve access to electronic journals and to negotiate license agreements on behalf of academic libraries. The use of a model license agreement and the success of site licensing is discussed. Highlights from an interim evaluation by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) are noted and key issues and questions arising from the evaluation are identified

  12. Comovement in UK real estate sector returns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Engle et al. (1990) distinguish between 'heat waves' and 'meteor showers' in an analogy which tries to differentiate between particular effects, not transmitted among markets, and general effects, which tend to affect all the markets, although different markets can be affected to different degrees. This paper applies this approach to the study of the monthly returns of four real estate market sectors: Office, Retail, Industrial and Retail Warehouses in the UK over the period 1979:2 to 1997:12...

  13. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Les Levidow; Susan Carr

    1996-01-01

    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  14. INOPS Survey data report for the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Nielsen, Alex Skøtt

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Denmark. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from September 2015 to November 2015 through an onl...... an online survey send to managers in all Local Authorities in the UK (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)....

  15. UK wood gasification project under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-24

    It is reported that a wood gasification pilot plant will be built in the UK by John Brown and Wellman Engineering as part of the EEC solar energy programme. The construction of the plant is scheduled to start in November 1982 and will convert up to 12 ton/day of biomass into around 20 ton/day of synthesis gas suitable for methanol production.

  16. Engineering geology maps of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Marcus; Reeves, Helen; Northmore, Kevin; Entwisle, David

    2010-01-01

    School and university students of geology, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering generally have less knowledge of engineering geological conditions than those who have had experience of hands-on research or practice. In the UK, the number of geology, geoscience and earth science departments has reduced over the past 25 years. Engineering geology has a very weak academic base and geology is taught less to civil engineering students than previously.

  17. Emerging hybridity: comparing UK healthcare regulatory arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnival, Joy; Walshe, Kieran; Boaden, Ruth

    2017-06-19

    Purpose Healthcare regulation is one means to address quality challenges in healthcare systems and is carried out using compliance, deterrence and/or improvement approaches. The four countries of the UK provide an opportunity to explore and compare different regulatory architecture and models. The purpose of this paper is to understand emerging regulatory models and associated tensions. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses qualitative methods to compare the regulatory architecture and models. Data were collected from documents, including board papers, inspection guidelines and from 48 interviewees representing a cross-section of roles from six organisational regulatory agencies. The data were analysed thematically using an a priori coding framework developed from the literature. Findings The findings show that regulatory agencies in the four countries of the UK have different approaches and methods of delivering their missions. This study finds that new hybrid regulatory models are developing which use improvement support interventions in parallel with deterrence and compliance approaches. The analysis highlights that effective regulatory oversight of quality is contingent on the ability of regulatory agencies to balance their requirements to assure and improve care. Nevertheless, they face common tensions in sustaining the balance in their requirements connected to their roles, relationships and resources. Originality/value The paper shows through its comparison of UK regulatory agencies that the development and implementation of hybrid models is complex. The paper contributes to research by identifying three tensions related to hybrid regulatory models; roles, resources and relationships which need to be managed to sustain hybrid regulatory models.

  18. IEA PVPS Task 1 - UK Expert. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper relates to work carried out under contract to the UK Renewable Energy Programme, and describes the terms of reference of the UK representation in the IEA PVPS Task 1 which provides a forum for exchange of information on photovoltaic (PV) technology between 21 participating countries. The main benefit derived by the UK is access to international expertise in PV technology. Using information obtained from participation in Task 1, the UK produces a National Survey Report which reports on developments in PV technology in the UK over the previous 12 months. The report covers installed capacity, prices, budgets and costs: it is freely available on the UK PVPS website. The newsletter PV Power, is prepared and distributed biannually - 18 issues have been published by mid-2003. IT Power is currently the UK representative on the IEA PVPS Task 1.

  19. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reap, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from shale rock is a new, rapidly expanding industry in the United States (US). However, there is concern that these operations could be having large negative impacts such as groundwater contamination, increased air pollution and seismic events. The United Kingdom (UK) is looking at the potential for emulating the success of 'shale gas' in the US. Differences in population density and geological conditions mean that the public health impacts recorded in the US cannot be directly extrapolated to the UK. There is limited academic literature available but findings suggest that the UK government is not fully recognising the inherent risks of hydraulic fracturing exposed by this literature. Government reports suggest a reliance on engineering solutions and better practice to overcome problems found in the US when evidence suggests that there are inherent risks and impacts that cannot be eliminated. This study applies US results to approximate the impact of one exposure pathway, inhalation of hydrocarbons by the public from operational air emissions over the 30 year lifetime of a well and finds that 7.2 extra cancer cases from exposure to air contamination would be expected in the UK if all test sites, approved test sites and test sites awaiting approval as of January 2015 went on to extract gas. In conclusion, limited assessment of the public health implications of hydraulic fracturing operations is available but the UK government appears to not be applying the precautionary principle to potentially significant legislation.

  20. UK FIT : successes and lessons learned from the UK's small wind FIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A. [NEL Technologies, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the feed-in tariff (FIT) program established in the United Kingdom (UK) to develop wind power resources. Grants and and other financial incentives available in the UK were also described. The FIT program is comprised of 3 small wind financial incentive bands that are based on wind turbine rate power. Microgeneration certification scheme (MCS) certification is a prerequisite. The MCS is comprised of scheme owners, administrators and licensees, and certification bodies. MCS product standards and scheme documents for factory production control were reviewed. Testing, certification, and accreditation standards were outlined. FIT tariffs will be reviewed in 2013. The FIT program has been guaranteed in the UK for a period of 20 years. An Act of Parliament will be required to overturn it. A chart of wind speed power curves was also included. tabs., figs.

  1. Report on primate supply for biomedical scientific work in the UK. EUPREN UK Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S; Thomas, C; West, P; Wolfensohn, S; Wood, M

    1997-10-01

    A Working Party of the UK group of European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) considered primate supply for scientific work in the UK. Through a questionnaire, which achieved a very good response, it obtained details of primate use, sources and breeding in the UK and it put forward options to ensure that animal welfare is the best possible whilst ensuring continued supply. The questionnaire showed that contract research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies use about 80% of the 4233 primates used annually at the moment, with the rest accounted for by academic establishments and public sector laboratories. Fifty-four per cent are cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), of which nearly 90% are captive-bred outside the European Union (EU), the remainder being bred in the UK. Nearly 90% of cynomolgus macaques are used by only five institutions. Thirty-seven per cent of primates used are marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), all of which are bred in the UK. Most of the rest are rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), about half of which are captive-bred outside the EU, the other half being bred in the UK. Overall primate use has increased from about 3000 per year in 1990 and users predict that requirements for all species except baboons (Papio sp.) will be maintained or increase. Marmoset breeding in the UK is already closely matched to use, and it could be increased reasonably easily if necessary. Some of the existing breeding centres of macaques in the UK would be prepared to consider expanding to supply others, although investment and imported breeding stock would be needed and it is likely that a large investment would be needed to breed a significant fraction of the macaque use in the UK. A further problem is that the users of only about 10% of the cynomolgus macaques said that they could replace this species by rhesus macaques, which are easier to breed in the UK. The questionnaire showed that much of the use of macaques would be transferred to other countries

  2. Entrepreneurial Propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research compares entrepreneurial inclination of Pakistani and UK primary level prospective teachers (B.Ed. students. Factor analysis revealed entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and self-efficacy as three common factors among both the data sets. Both the groups of respondents were also compared on five conceptual variables namely locus of control, self efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and subjective norms. The prospective teachers from UK were found to be significantly lower on instrumental readiness and entrepreneurial intentions than their Pakistani counterparts. There were some partial impacts of demographic variables on entrepreneurial propensity of both the groups of respondents. Some implications for planning and policy were outlined.

  3. Pharmacovigilance teaching in UK undergraduate pharmacy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn P; Webley, Sherael D

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacists in the UK are able to report spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority. The level of reporting by UK pharmacists remains low. This could be explained by poor knowledge of ADR reporting. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level of pharmacovigilance education provided to pharmacy students on undergraduate pharmacy programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain data relating to the teaching of pharmacovigilance within schools of pharmacy. The survey was designed to reveal whether core elements pertinent to pharmacovigilance and specifically to spontaneous reporting were taught and to what extent. All of the respondents taught pharmacovigilance within an assessed compulsory module. A small number (23%) did not include pharmacovigilance law within their syllabus. In 54%, the amount of time devoted to teaching pharmacy students about their role in pharmacovigilance was less than 4 h in the 4-year course; only one respondent spent approximately 20 h, the remaining respondents (38%) spent between 4 and 8 h. The amount of time dedicated to the teaching of pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate degree programmes is low. Considering the importance of spontaneous reporting in drug safety and the shift in the role of the pharmacists, more time may need to be devoted to pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate courses. By doing so, new pharmacists would be more informed of the important role they play in drug safety and thereby potentially help enhance the level of ADR reporting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A Water Grid for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, A.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically aggravated climate change associated with intensive expansion of the global economy has increased the demand for water whilst simultaneously altering natural variability in its distribution, straining water resources unsustainably and inequitably in many parts of the world, increasing drought risk, and encouraging decision-makers to reconsider the security of water supply. Indeed, in the absence of additional resource development, contemporary planning forecasts imply increased water stress across much of the United Kingdom. Until recently the regulatory authorities of the UK promoted increased efficiency of water delivery and consumption combined with a portfolio of financial instruments as a means of reducing water stress, maintaining present levels of consumer service without significant further exploitation of the environment. However, despite an increasingly sophisticated understanding of climate change and its effects, significant uncertainty remains in the quantification of its impacts on the water sector, and questions persist as to the effectiveness of such demand management measures compared to that of more traditional infrastructure improvements. Faced with possible futures provided for by detrimentally over-stressed resources, what opportunities remain for future strategic development in the UK? Is there a single national strategy that is both politically and socially acceptable? Do the benefits of national water infrastructure projects outweigh their costs? This ongoing study aims to evolve robust national adaptation strategies by quantifying the projected impacts of climate change across mainland UK using multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of projected future climate, encapsulating uncertainties in a scenario-driven integrated water resources model incorporating socio-economic elements.

  5. UK medicines regulation: responding to current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Natalie; Hudson, Ian

    2016-12-01

    The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also affect the regulatory environment. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health, and supports innovation through scientific research and development. It works closely with other bodies in a single medicines network across Europe and takes forward UK health priorities. This paper discusses the range of initiatives in the UK and across Europe to support innovation in medicines regulation. The MHRA leads a number of initiatives, such as the Innovation Office, which helps innovators to navigate the regulatory processes to progress their products or technologies; and simplification of the Clinical Trials Regulations and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme, to bring innovative medicines to patients faster. The Accelerated Access Review will identify reforms to accelerate access for National Health Service patients to innovative medicines and medical technologies. PRIME and Adaptive Pathways initiatives are joint endeavours within the European regulatory community. The MHRA runs spontaneous reporting schemes and works with INTERPOL to tackle counterfeiting and substandard products sold via the internet. The role of the regulator is changing rapidly, with new risk-proportionate, flexible approaches being introduced. International collaboration is a key element of the work of regulators, and is set to expand. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...... analysis we find a single equilibrium relationship relating velocity to opportunity costs, and we identify a significant link between excess money and inflation. After accounting for the turbulent periods, the equilibrium structure is reasonably stable over a period of 130 years...

  7. Well integrity failure in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  8. Intake Levels of Fish in the UK Paediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, Sibylle; Nicholas R V Jones; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2?18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey ...

  9. Challenges and opportunities for UK immigrants. Learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Pundziuvienė, Daiva; Matulionienė, Jūratė

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, the need for adult immigrants to learn English includes considerations for the recently arrived and those who have been living in the UK for a long time but still do not speak English; those in a wide variety of work situations; and those experiencing cultural shock. Such learners frequently have low self-esteem and often develop psychological barriers to speaking a foreign language. While most learning of English takes place in informal contexts, formal institutions in the UK and ...

  10. An exploration of Branding approaches in UK Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Chapleo, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory paper considers the current state of UK HE branding; in particular, conceptualisations and approaches. It is driven by calls in the literature for clearer understanding and application of branding in Higher Education (HE). Objectives of the research, drawn from literature, were to explore conceptualisations of branding in the UK HE sector, as well as current challenges to branding concepts/ practice in UK HE. The methodology was based upon depth interviews with fifteen opinio...

  11. Obesity Treatment in the UK Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capehorn, Matthew S; Haslam, David W; Welbourn, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In the UK, as in most other countries in the world, levels of obesity are increasing. According to the Kinsey report, obesity has the second largest public health impact after smoking, and it is inextricably linked to physical inactivity. Since the UK Health and Social Care Act reforms of 2012, there has been a significant restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS). As a consequence, NHS England and the Department of Health have issued new policy guidelines regarding the commissioning of obesity treatment. A 4-tier model of care is now widely accepted and ranges from primary activity, through community weight management and specialist weight management for severe and complex obesity, to bariatric surgery. However, although there are clear care pathways and clinical guidelines for evidence-based practice, there remains no single stakeholder willing to take overall responsibility for obesity care. There is a lack of provision of adequate services characterised by a noticeable 'postcode lottery', and little political will to change the obesogenic environment.

  12. The UK s new National Space Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, K.; Barnet

    The National Space Centre (NSC) was opened in June 2001 and is a £52M (75M) science-based visitor attraction and education facility with the mission `to promote a wider understanding of space science and technology, and demonstrate its relevance to life on Earth in the 21s t Century'. It is located in the city of Leicester, lying close to the geographical heart of the UK and with 9 million people within a 90 minute drive. The NSC was funded by the Millennium Commission in partnership with the University of Leicester and Leicester City Council, with support from BT, ESA and others. Its main components are an Exhibition, Space Theatre and Challenger Learning Centre. The CLC is the only one operating outside North America and it has been the stimulus for the new "Classroom Space" project which makes data from real space missions available for use in schools, with appropriate support for teachers. Recently the NSC has become the host for the UK's Near Earth Object Information Centre, and it will act as the Operations Centre for the Faulkes (2m class) robotic telescopes to be located in Maui and Siding Springs, providing a unique educational facility for 12-18 year old school students. The first successful year of operation of the NSC will be reported and plans for future national and international development outlined.

  13. Islamist groups in the UK and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ilyas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 and 7/7 the search to find out why and how Muslims born in Europe join political and violence orientated Islamist groups has occupied policy makers and social scientist. The search has produced explanations that suggest social grievance, Islam and physiological problems are the motivations for why some Muslims join and act on behalf of Islamist groups in the UK. However, the approaches tend not to focus the role emotions generated from events that involve Muslim suffering play in some individuals becoming interested in acquiring and acting upon them. These events are often experienced variously by Muslims living in Europe through the media and are used by Islamist groups as resources to recruit. Consequently, this paper is based on interviews carried out with Islamists in the UK and tentatively discusses two process that take into account the emotional effect of events that concern Muslims in order to make sense of how some Muslims become compelled to acquire extreme ideas, act upon extreme ideas (independently or behalf of a group or join Islamist groups.

  14. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  15. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The UK Virtual Observatory - Adding Planetary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Peter

    The UK has built a virtual observatory called AstroGrid. Using this facility, scientists can already get access to a wide range of data on traditional astronomy, the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics (STP). This paper describes the AstroGrid system and what would be involved in adding access to planetary data to those already on offer. In recent years, there have been activities in several countries to create what are known as virtual observatories. The idea is that you should be able to easily get to all of the astronomical data that exist from your desktop computer. You do not need to know that specific data exist and you do not need to know where these data reside. In order to make this possible, it is essential that data archives and software that accesses those archives is built around a set of internationally agreed standards. These standards have been developed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A data archive that adheres to these standards can publish data on the internet to registries of resources that client software can search. The AstroGrid software developed in the UK adheres to these standards and provides a comprehensive set of services for data archives to provide dataset access, registries of data holdings, virtual file stores, communities of users, workflow for execution of complex grid applications and an environment into which pre-existing data processing applications can be plugged. There is also client software for searching registries and remote data archives, accessing the remote data, and a basic set of tools for displaying and analysing those data. AstroGrid is unique amongst virtual observatories in that it includes major data sources on the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics as well as more traditional astronomy. The need to support these very different types of data has led to the development of tools that can handle very different coordinate systems and display data in a variety of ways. For example, we have a

  17. Changes needed to medicine in the UK before senior UK-trained doctors, working outside the UK, will return: questionnaire surveys undertaken between 2004 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Questionnaire survey. UK-trained medical graduates. Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned 'politics/management/funding', 'pay/pension', 'posts/security/opportunities', 'working conditions/hours', and 'factors outside medicine'. Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical-political interface, working hours, and work-life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career.

  18. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likeman Marcus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA, allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st

  19. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absoud, Michael; Cummins, Carole; Chong, Wui K; De Goede, Christian; Foster, Katharine; Gunny, Roxanna; Hemingway, Cheryl; Jardine, Philip; Kneen, Rachel; Likeman, Marcus; Lim, Ming J; Pike, Mike; Sibtain, Naomi; Whitehouse, William P; Wassmer, Evangeline

    2011-07-28

    There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is no direct patient

  20. The compassion gap in UK universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Waddington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is set in the context of increasing marketisation in UK higher education, where students are seen as consumers, rather than learners with power. The paper explores the dark side of academic work and the compassion gap in universities, in order to make recommendations for practice development in higher education and the human services. Aims: The paper aims to show how reflexive dialogue can be used to enable the development of compassionate academic practice. Conclusions and implications for practice: Toxic environments and organisational cultures in higher education have compounded the crisis in compassionate care in the NHS. Implications for practice are: Narrative approaches and critical appreciative inquiry are useful methods with which to reveal, and rectify, failures of compassion Courageous conversations are required to challenge dysfunctional organisational systems and processes Leadership development programmes should include the application of skills of compassion in organisational settings

  1. Repertoires of ADHD in UK newspaper media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2011-09-01

    This article takes a discursive approach to examine how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been represented and debated in UK newspapers in the last decade. Two repertoires of ADHD were identified as the biological and the psychosocial. Subject positions such as problem child, abnormal or ordinary naughty child and ineffectual or neglectful parents are embedded in these alternative versions of ADHD. The biological repertoire justifies and encourages drug treatment for problem children while the psychosocial repertoire makes available the subject position of ordinary naughty child and supports moral judgements about poor parenting practices in a 'sick society'. Such representations have challenged the media medicalization of ADHD common in a previous decade. Although the biological and the psychosocial repertoires are competing explanations for ADHD, they both perform a common function in representing families as in need of regulation.

  2. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  3. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  4. Food advertising during children's television in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M

    2009-09-01

    Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.

  5. Students and Sex Work in the UK: Providers and Purchasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…

  6. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  7. Is Communications a Strategic Activity in UK Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory paper investigates whether communications/public relations is regarded by opinion formers in UK education as a strategic business activity or a tactical marketing tool. It is based upon depth interviews with 16 senior managers with strategic roles in UK higher or further education, or Government bodies, conducted…

  8. In the Service of Technocratic Managerialism? History in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Norton, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptualisation, organisation and philosophical orientation of academic history culture in UK higher education. It problematises the extent to which a dominant history culture in UK universities implies and uncritically reproduces normative understandings about the subject; about its epistemological standing,…

  9. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  10. Staying In Step: The US Pivot and UK Strategic Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    http://ukinsingapore.fco.gov.uk/en/about-us/working-with -singapore/defence. 10. “New Treaty to Formalise Defence Co-Operation with Australia,” 18...January 2013, https:// www.gov.uk/government/news/new-treaty-to- formalise -defence-co-operation-with-australia. 11. Saki Dockrill, Britain’s Retreat from

  11. Stress among UK Academics: Identifying Who Copes Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article examined levels of stress and associated coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored…

  12. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  13. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. IDRC to populate at a later date. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Nous finançons des chercheurs qui inspirent des changements mondiaux. Abonnez-vous · Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Désabonnez-vous · Plan du site. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube ...

  14. UK Higher Education: The Truth about the Student Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    This article uses data from a series of reports by the Longer Term Strategy Group of Universities UK to outline key features of the developing market for higher education in the UK. The resulting empirical lessons about the behaviour of students and institutions are tested against the political drive for a freer domestic "market" for…

  15. Long-term scenarios: Energy pathways in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    The bottom-up approach promoted through the Paris Agreement and signed in 2016 requires the definition of accurate and realistic national pathways to cut emissions. A recent study applied to the UK energy system shows that current UK policy on climate change is incompatible with the most stringent climate objectives.

  16. UK Government: New postgraduate scheme - Dorothy Hodgkin awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The UK Prime Minister today announced a new GBP10m initiative, the Dorothy Hodgkin Postgraduate Awards, which will allow over 100 PhD students from India, China, Hong Kong, Russia and the developing world to study in top UK universities (1 page).

  17. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  18. Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

  19. In the loop Large Hadron Collider project - UK engineering firms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, N

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the latest measures being taken to boost the level of UK engineering firms' involvement in research at CERN (Centre for Nuclear Research), including its 27 km circular Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Virtually all of the components on this complex project have had to be custom-made, usually in the form of collaboration. It is part of these collaborations that some UK firms have proved they can shine. However, despite the proven capabilities, the financial return continues to be less than the government's funding. Each of the 20 CERN member states provides funds in proportion to its GDP and the UK is the second largest financial contributor. UK firms become price-competitive where a contract calls for a degree of customisation or product development, project management and tight quality control. Development of the Particle Physics Grid, for dissemination and analysis of data from the LHC, continues to provide major supply opportunities for UK manufacturers.

  20. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  1. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the UK: current status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Distefano, G; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J; Hatton, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has developed from the principles and techniques used in the stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of brain metastases. Advances in computer technology, imaging, planning and treatment delivery and evidence from retrospective analysis of single- and multi-institutional early-phase studies have established SABR in the treatment of medically inoperable early lung cancer. Effective multidisciplinary team working is crucial to safe delivery of SABR. The variation in patient selection, radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques has led to a collective approach to SABR implementation across the UK. Centres developing the technique are represented in the UK SABR Consortium, which is supported by the relevant UK professional bodies and represents a platform to develop extracranial SABR across the UK. The uptake of SABR in the UK has been slowed by workforce issues, but at least 15 centres are currently delivering treatment with over 500 patients treated using UK SABR Consortium guidance. A mentoring program is being piloted helping new centres to develop their programs, and over 30 UK centres are expected to be offering SABR treatment by the end of 2014. The use of consistent guidance for patient selection, treatment planning and delivery in the UK gives the opportunity to collect and audit toxicity and outcome across the centres, contributing to the internationally reported SABR experience. Having established this service in the UK, the development of SABR through clinical research is a priority, and with input from the Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, the UK is developing a national study program that includes participation in international trials. PMID:23873906

  2. Report from the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting, September 10-13, 2007, Nottingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Neilson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report from the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting held at the East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham on September 10-13, 2007. This event was the 5th annual All Hands Meeting. The proceedings of the meeting are available from the UK e-Science 2007 All Hands Meeting Website.

  3. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  4. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  5. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1 : 24 000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.0-1.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors.

  6. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  7. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout.

  8. Social sensing of floods in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel T. P.

    2018-01-01

    “Social sensing” is a form of crowd-sourcing that involves systematic analysis of digital communications to detect real-world events. Here we consider the use of social sensing for observing natural hazards. In particular, we present a case study that uses data from a popular social media platform (Twitter) to detect and locate flood events in the UK. In order to improve data quality we apply a number of filters (timezone, simple text filters and a naive Bayes ‘relevance’ filter) to the data. We then use place names in the user profile and message text to infer the location of the tweets. These two steps remove most of the irrelevant tweets and yield orders of magnitude more located tweets than we have by relying on geo-tagged data. We demonstrate that high resolution social sensing of floods is feasible and we can produce high-quality historical and real-time maps of floods using Twitter. PMID:29385132

  9. Social Justice and Adaptation in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Benzie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation strategies and policies are normally based on climate impact assessments that fail to take account of the social nature and distribution of vulnerability to climate change. This is largely a product of the dominant assessment techniques that are used to inform such strategies and the limits of existing evidence. In this paper I contribute to filling gaps in the current adaptation literature by exploring the social nature of vulnerability and the potential for socially just adaptation. It does so by reviewing studies from the UK, in particular those under the Joseph Rowntree Foundation's Climate Change and Social Justice programme. It finds that vulnerability to high temperatures and fluvial and coastal flooding, in terms of sensitivity, exposure, and the capacity to anticipate, respond, and recover, is concentrated in certain disadvantaged and socially marginalized groups, including those on low incomes. It also finds that both autonomous and planned adaptation may fail to protect the most vulnerable individuals and groups, and may even reinforce existing patterns of vulnerability in some cases, i.e., mal-adaptation, especially where they rely on unmediated market forces or where they fail to explicitly recognize aspects of social vulnerability in their design and implementation. I argue that social justice should be an explicit objective of adaptation strategy.

  10. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  11. Processing LHC data in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, D; Britton, D; Gordon, J; Lloyd, S; Doyle, A; Gronbech, P; Coles, J; Sansum, A; Patrick, G; Jones, R; Middleton, R; Kelsey, D; Cass, A; Geddes, N; Clark, P; Barnby, L

    2013-01-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest scientific endeavours to date. The construction of the collider itself and the experiments that collect data from it represent a huge investment, both financially and in terms of human effort, in our hope to understand the way the Universe works at a deeper level. Yet the volumes of data produced are so large that they cannot be analysed at any single computing centre. Instead, the experiments have all adopted distributed computing models based on the LHC Computing Grid. Without the correct functioning of this grid infrastructure the experiments would not be able to understand the data that they have collected. Within the UK, the Grid infrastructure needed by the experiments is provided by the GridPP project. We report on the operations, performance and contributions made to the experiments by the GridPP project during the years of 2010 and 2011--the first two significant years of the running of the LHC.

  12. UK Renal Registry 12th Annual Report (December 2009): chapter 16: international comparisons with the UK RRT programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kieron; Ford, Daniel; van Schalkwyk, Dirk; Ansell, David

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons between renal registries are important to highlight epidemiological and practice differences in RRT provision between countries. This report aims to compare the rates of RRT incidence and prevalence in the UK with a number of different countries. Data from 19 countries or regions between 2003 and 2007 from four international renal registries were analysed. Rates of RRT incidence, prevalence, transplantation and dialysis modality were compared. A crude mortality rate for each country was calculated. Despite continued growth, the UK ranked 16th highest in incidence rate and 15th in prevalence rate in 2007. This may partly be related to successful primary care preventing stage 5 CKD. The UK had the 8th fastest rate of increase in RRT prevalence of 18 countries (4.2%/ year). The age profile of UK RRT patients was comparable with other countries. The UK had the 6th highest use of home dialysis therapies. The UK has the 8th highest incidence and 9th highest prevalence rate of kidney transplantation of 16 countries. Meeting the growing demand for RRT is a problem for all countries that choose to offer it. The UK continues to provide for growth in demand for RRT. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Mercury in UK imported fish and shellfish and UK-farmed fish and their products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, T G; Farrington, D; Kestin, S C

    2003-09-01

    Total mercury concentrations were measured in fish and shellfish and their products imported into the UK and also in UK-produced farmed salmon and trout. Three hundred and thirty-six samples were collected using a two-stage sampling plan. The sample plan was weighted to reflect consumption, but with some bias towards fish that might accumulate higher levels of mercury, such as large predatory fish at the top of the food chain. The highest levels of total mercury were found in billfish (swordfish and marlin) and shark. Mercury concentrations in the five samples of fresh/frozen shark ranged from 1.006 to 2.200 mg kg(-1), all above the European Commission limit for the species, and concentrations in 20 samples of fresh/frozen billfish ranged from 0.153 to 2.706 mg kg(-1) with 13 samples above the 1.0 mg kg(-1) limit for the species. One sample of Antarctic ice fish was collected and had a mercury concentration of 0.664 mg kg(-1). The limit for this species was 0.5 mg kg(-1). One sample of fresh/frozen tuna out of the 20 collected had a mercury concentration above the limit of 1.0 mg kg(-1) (1.5 mg kg(-1)), but all other fresh tuna samples were well within the regulatory limit (average 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Mercury concentrations in canned tuna were lower with concentrations on average half that measured in fresh/frozen tuna. Mercury concentrations in UK-farmed salmon and trout were relatively low. The maximum concentration found in 46 samples of fresh/frozen or smoked trout and salmon was 0.103 mg kg(-1).

  14. Experiences with maternal and perinatal death reviews in the UK--the MBRRACE-UK programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinczuk, J J; Draper, E S; Field, D J; Bevan, C; Brocklehurst, P; Gray, R; Kenyon, S; Manktelow, B N; Neilson, J P; Redshaw, M; Scott, J; Shakespeare, J; Smith, L K; Knight, M

    2014-09-01

    Established in 1952, the programme of surveillance and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK is the longest running such programme worldwide. Although more recently instituted, surveillance and confidential enquiries into perinatal deaths are also now well established nationally. Recent changes to funding and commissioning of the Enquiries have enabled both a reinvigoration of the processes and improvements to the methodology with an increased frequency of future reporting. Close engagement with stakeholders and a regulator requirement for doctors to participate have both supported the impetus for involvement of all professionals leading to greater potential for improved quality of care for women and babies. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Curbing UK impacts on global biodiversity: an agenda for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steve [Scott Wilson Ltd (United Kingdom); Craeynest, Lies [WWF (United Kingdom); Bass, Steve

    2008-05-15

    Stemming the tide of biodiversity loss is a global issue with national implications. The UK has set up initiatives to reduce its impacts on biodiversity worldwide — but as a government review found in 2006, these have yet to add up to a comprehensive strategy. How can the gaps be filled? New research suggests that action on a number of fronts is key. Many UK policies and practices clearly affect biodiversity even though they do not directly address it. For instance, UK imports such as coffee, cocoa and sugar are linked to biodiversity loss. By integrating relevant mainstream concerns such as trade and exploitation of natural resources into an overall strategy, the UK government could better demonstrate its commitment to reducing biodiversity loss significantly by the target date of 2010.

  16. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  17. UK Ownership and Control: A Transformational Analysis | Lotto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    financial companies and data from the Office for National Statistics, this study reveals that, UK equity ownership has witnessed a rapid decline by major domestic institutional investors and increase in foreign ownership since 2004. It is further ...

  18. Hydrogeological aspects of shale gas extraction in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    UK shale gas exploitation currently at a very early stage. Potentially significant quantities but resources are not yet proven. In the UK a number of the potentially exploitable shales are below important aquifers.Water demand for shale gas production may not be significant relative to other uses but local needs must be considered carefully. Shale gas extraction will use/mobilise potential pollutants. Risks must be fully assessed and managed effectively – through to post abandonment. The most...

  19. Exploring shared leadership in a UK public sector programme

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers shared leadership in a UK public sector programme. Many UK public sector change initiatives are delivered through programmes. In recent years, the practice and academic domain of programme management have developed from within the established discipline of project management. The leadership of projects has been widely studied, both conceptually and empirically, but programmes are substantively different. Shared leadership is a relatively new conceptuali...

  20. Determinants of Capital Structure: Empirical Evidence From UK

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wenjing

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of capital structure for the companies in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study is to determine which capital structure is more appropriate to UK listed companies. Results obtained will be compared against previous empirical and theoretical predictions. Panel data set containing 342 UK public quoted companies across 8 industries during the period from 2000-2009 is employed. A Pooled OLS regression is constructed to discuss what the determinants...

  1. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    sea shipping (SSS) in the North Sea Region (NSR). The models integrate the necessary variables to establish the impact of different fleets and SSS features on the competitiveness of intermodal chains for the movement of food related goods. The models were applied to evaluate the opportunities...

  2. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Prescription errors in UK critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, S A; Booth, S A; Thompson, C M

    2004-12-01

    Drug prescription errors are a common cause of adverse incidents and may be largely preventable. The incidence of prescription errors in UK critical care units is unknown. The aim of this study was to collect data about prescription errors and so calculate the incidence and variation of errors nationally. Twenty-four critical care units took part in the study for a 4-week period. The total numbers of new and re-written prescriptions were recorded daily. Errors were classified according to the nature of the error. Over the 4-week period, 21,589 new prescriptions (or 15.3 new prescriptions per patient) were written. Eighty-five per cent (18,448 prescriptions) were error free, but 3141 (15%) prescriptions had one or more errors (2.2 erroneous prescriptions per patient, or 145.5 erroneous prescriptions per 1000 new prescriptions). The five most common incorrect prescriptions were for potassium chloride (10.2% errors), heparin (5.3%), magnesium sulphate (5.2%), paracetamol (3.2%) and propofol (3.1%). Most of the errors were minor or would have had no adverse effects but 618 (19.6%) errors were considered significant, serious or potentially life threatening. Four categories (not writing the order according to the British National Formulary recommendations, an ambiguous medication order, non-standard nomenclature and writing illegibly) accounted for 47.9% of all errors. Although prescription rates (and error rates) in critical care appear higher than elsewhere in hospital, the number of potentially serious errors is similar to other areas of high-risk practice.

  4. Macrofaunal production along the UK continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, S. G.; Barrio-Frojan, C. R. S.; Eggleton, J. D.

    2010-10-01

    Estimates of secondary production ( P/ B ratio and total production) by macrobenthic communities across the UK continental shelf are presented. Values for individual sampling stations varied from 0.21 to 4.1 y - 1 for community P/ B and 3.1 to 897.2 kJ m - 2 y - 1 for total production. Such data fills an important gap pertaining to our understanding of the spatial variation in production estimates for this region. Benthic production estimates varied primarily at small (inter-station) scales (24 nm), although larger-scale differences were observed. In general, the highest production estimates were exhibited by benthic communities in Cardigan Bay (Irish Sea) and East English Channel, while the lowest estimates were observed for the mid- and northern North Sea areas. The former were typified by shallow, gravelly areas of seabed which exhibit high bed tidal stress and do not thermally stratify during the summer months. On average, annelids contribute an overwhelming majority of the total production with different regions varying in the relative contributions from other phyla such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. Spatial heterogeneity of sediment granulometric variables occurred primarily between stations while those of other variables (e.g., depth, stratification, and tidal bed stress) were more regional. Although a large proportion of the spatial variation in secondary production estimates was not explained by environmental characteristics, the data indicate that such relationships are scale-dependent. Average bed temperature was a significant factor in creating some of the observed differences at large spatial scales. The possible reasons why a larger proportion of the variation in production estimates was not explained by the present study are presented.

  5. Core competencies for UK occupational health nurses: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, D; Demou, E; Kiran, S; Gaffney, M; Stevenson, M; Macdonald, E B

    2016-11-01

    Occupational health nurses (OHNs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of occupational health (OH) services. Specific competency guidance has been developed in a number of countries, including the UK. While it is acknowledged that UK OHN practice has evolved in recent years, there has been no formal research to capture these developments to ensure that training and curricula remain up-to-date and reflect current practice. To identify current priorities among UK OHNs of the competencies required for OH practice. A modified Delphi study undertaken among representative OHN networks in the UK. This formed part of a larger study including UK and international occupational physicians. The study was conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire based on available guidance on training competencies for OH practice, the published literature, expert panel reviews and conference discussions. Consensus among OHNs was high with 7 out of the 12 domains scoring 100% in rating. 'Good clinical care' was the principal domain ranked most important, followed by 'general principles of assessment & management of occupational hazards to health'. 'Research methods' and 'teaching & educational supervision' were considered least important. This study has established UK OHNs' current priorities on the competencies required for OH practice. The timing of this paper is opportune with the formal launch of the Faculty of Occupational Health Nursing planned in 2018 and should inform the development of competency requirements as part of the Faculty's goals for standard setting in OHN education and training.

  6. Clinical epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doufekas K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Konstantinos Doufekas, Adeola OlaitanDepartment of Gynaecological Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London, UKAbstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth commonest cancer among women and the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in the UK. Most women present with advanced disease, mainly because the nonspecific nature of the symptoms lead to diagnostic delays. Recent data have shown a fall in ovarian cancer mortality rates in the UK, but rates are still higher when compared to other European countries or the USA. In addition, surgeons in the UK achieve on average lower optimal surgical cytoreduction rates in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Despite a wealth of information on epidemiological risk factors, the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains largely unknown. This review presents the most recent data on incidence, mortality, and survival for epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK. Time trends, trends by age, international comparisons, and regional variation in incidence, survival, and mortality are presented within the context of a major reorganization of cancer services that took place in the UK over 10 years ago. Centralization of cancer services has meant that women with ovarian cancer receive treatment in specialist Cancer Centers.Keywords: ovarian, cancer, epidemiology, UK, incidence, survival

  7. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M; McCambridge, Jim

    2014-08-01

    Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  9. Incentives facing UK-listed companies to comply with the risk reporting provisions of the UK corporate governance code â[euro] Abstract of the London Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

      This abstract relates to the following paper: Klumpes P. , Ledlie C. , Fahey F. , Kakar G. and Styles S. Incentives facing UK-listed companies to comply with the risk reporting provisions of the UK corporate governance code...

  10. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  11. School food standards in the UK: implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley; Spence, Suzanne; Reed, Lowri; Conway, Ruth; Palmer, Alison; Stewart, Eve; McBratney, Jennifer; Carter, Lynne; Beattie, Shirley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To outline the evolution of school food standards and their implementation and evaluation in each of the four countries of the UK since 2000. Review of relevant policies, surveys and evaluations, including country-specific surveys and regional evaluations. UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Primary and secondary schools and schoolchildren. By September 2013 standards will have been introduced in all primary and secondary schools in the UK. Evaluations have varied in their scope and timing, relating to government forward planning, appropriate baselines and funding. Where standards have been implemented, the quality and nutritional value of food provided have improved. Emerging evidence shows improved overall diet and nutrient intake by school-aged children as a result. The re-introduction of school food standards in the UK has not been centrally coordinated, but by September 2013 will be compulsory across all four countries in the UK, except in England where academies are now exempt. Provision of improved school food has had a demonstrable impact on diet and nutrition beyond the school dining room and the school gate, benefiting children from all socio-economic groups. Improved school food and dining environments are associated with higher levels of school lunch take up. Implementation of school food standards requires investment. It is critical to policy development that the value of this investment is measured and protected using planned, appropriate, robust and timely evaluations. Where appropriate, evaluations should be carried out across government departments and between countries.

  12. Factors associated with smoking behaviour change in UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, G; Fear, N T

    2017-10-10

    Research in the UK civilian population suggests that poor mental health outcomes are associated with smoking behaviour. In the UK military population, smoking cessation is associated with deployment in the reserve forces. However, little is known about the links between mental health outcomes and smoking initiation and cessation in the UK military. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine change in mental health and military factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation in a representative sample of UK military personnel. Data were collected between 2003 and 2009; 5138 regular and reserve military personnel were included in the analyses. The results showed that smoking initiation was associated with symptoms of psychological distress, symptoms of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relationship breakdown and deployment. These findings are consistent with existing research in civilian populations showing links between poor mental health and smoking behaviour. Furthermore, our finding that deployment is associated with smoking initiation is also in line with research from the US military and UK reserves.

  13. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  14. The future of UK/Irish surgery: A European solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzgalis, M; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) hospital systems are dependent on junior doctors for their functionality however it is increasingly difficult to recruit UK/ROI trained doctors to fill these posts. Directive 2005/36/EC, which came into force in 2007, is the principal European legislation on the recognition of equivalence of professional qualifications across Europe. European trained doctors are therefore attractive candidates for junior doctor posts. However, although their training is recognised as equivalent by the Irish Medical Council (IMC) and General Medical Council (GMC) they are not being appointed to equivalent posts by the Health Service Executive (HSE) or National Health Service (NHS). With the influence of European Union (EU) centralisation, modification of UK/ROI consultant grade is imminent, possibly to pyramidal structure of the Continental European model with clearer lines of corporate responsibility. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AstroGrid: Initial Deployment of the UK's Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.; Lawrence, A.; Linde, T.

    2004-07-01

    AstroGrid, a UK eScience project with collaborating groups drawn from the major UK data archive centres, is creating the UK's virtual observatory. AstroGrid has now completed its requirements capture and design stages, and has begun to release software capabilities on a three monthly cycle. It is using the iterative process, with eight iterations, with each successive iteration release building a working system comprising increasing capabilities. AstroGrid's first functional release with it's 'Iteration 2' product, and the capabilities and functionality that this provides, is described. AstroGrid's technical input into joint products in conjunction with the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, and the Australian VO, is discussed. The component based AstroGrid architecture and how external projects may be able to deploy components of interest in constructing there 'VO' - for instance the use of MySpace to provide secure intermediate 'grid' user storage areas, is discussed.

  16. Evolving trauma and orthopedics training in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaparthy, Praveen K; Sayana, Murali K; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing population of the UK has resulted in increasing demands on its healthcare service. Changes have been introduced in the UK medical training system to avoid loss of training time and make it more focused and productive. Modernizing medical careers (MMC) was introduced in 2005. This promised to reduce the training period for a safe trauma specialist, in trauma and orthopedics, to 10 years. At around the same time, the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) was introduced to reduce the working hours for junior doctors in training, to improve patient safety and also work-life balance of junior doctors. Introduction of the assessment tools from Orthopedic Competency assessment project (OCAP) will help tailor the training according to the needs of the trainee. The aim of this article is to review the changes in the UK orthopedic surgical training over the past two decades. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  18. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The UK's multidisciplinary response to an Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Sian; Brown, Colin S; Dunning, Jake; Chand, Meera A; Zambon, Maria C; Jacobs, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic was the largest and most devastating outbreak of EVD the world has ever seen. Its impact was felt far from the shores of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, with public health systems and clinicians across the globe confronted with an international response both in the affected region and within their own borders. The UK had a prominent role in response efforts, particularly in Sierra Leone. This article highlights how UK academic, health service, military, commercial and public health professionals all played a significant role both at home and abroad. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  20. Food, the UK and the EU: Brexit or Bremain?

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, T.; Schoen, V.

    2016-01-01

    This briefing paper explores the food terrain exposed by the wider “Brexit versus Bremain” Referendum question to be decided by the voting UK public on June 23. It is written to raise issues; to invite academics and civil society working on food matters to consider how their work fits this momentous issue; and to aid informed decisions. The paper follows from debates and concerns expressed at the 6th City Food Symposium on UK food and Brexit held on December 14, 2015.

  1. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Learning the Price of Poverty across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Thompson, Ian; Beckett, Lori; Egan, David; Leitch, Ruth; McKinney, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Commission on Poverty and Policy Advocacy brought together several academics from across the four jurisdictions of the UK already engaged in work on poverty, education and schooling. The aim of this BERA Commission was to build a network of research-active practitioners across the UK…

  3. LGBT refugee protection in the UK: from discretion to belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gray

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The UK government used to have no specific guidance or trainingfor decision-makers for claims brought on the grounds of sexualorientation. It was only in 2010 following a combination of judicial,civil society and political pressures that specific policy guidance wasspeedily issued and significant progress was seen.

  4. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  5. The Future of Entrepreneurship Education in the UK's "Big Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlay, Harry; Hussain, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades in the UK, successive Conservative and Labour governments have implemented policies and initiatives aimed at widening access to higher education. During the same period, entrepreneurship education has emerged as an important aspect of higher education provision, as it has in other industrially developed and developing…

  6. The Textuality of Learning Contexts in UK Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchwell, Candice; Ivanic, Roz

    2007-01-01

    A significant aspect of learning contexts is the way in which semiotic artefacts mediate learning within them. This article reports on the "Literacies for Learning in Further Education" (LfLFE) project in the UK, which has researched the role of texts and associated communicative practices in constructing and mediating teaching and…

  7. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  8. The Future of Bioscience Fieldwork in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Peacock, Julie; Park, Julian R.

    2013-01-01

    Fieldwork is an important and often enjoyable part of learning in Bioscience degree courses, however it is unclear how the recent reforms to Higher Education (HE) may impact the future funding of outdoor learning. This paper reports on the findings from a recent survey of 30 HE Bioscience practitioners from across the UK. Their current level of…

  9. The status of ISI in the UK nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bann, T.; Rogerson, A. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom). Nuclear NDE Services

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the status of in-service inspection (ISI) in UK nuclear power generation industry through the experience of its nuclear utilities. The paper is intended to be a summary of some of the most recent and relevant ISI issues facing the utilities and the solutions devised to address those issues. (orig.)

  10. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  11. UK Food Standards Agency alpha-linolenic acid workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderson, P; Finnegan, YE; Williams, CM; Calder, PC; Burdge, GC; Wootton, SA; Griffin, BA; Millward, DJ; Pegge, NC; Bemelmans, WJE

    2002-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from plant oils (alpha-linolenic acid; ALA) were as beneficial to cardiovascular health as the n-3 PUFA from the marine oils, eicosapentaenoic

  12. The Global Economic Cost of Osteoarthritis: How the UK Compares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine all relevant literature on the economic costs of osteoarthritis in the UK, and to compare such costs globally. Methods. A search of MEDLINE was performed. The search was expanded beyond peer-reviewed journals into publications by the department of health, national orthopaedic associations, national authorities and registries, and arthritis charities. Results. No UK studies were identified in the literature search. 3 European, 6 North American, and 2 Asian studies were reviewed. Significant variation in direct and indirect costs were seen in these studies. Costs for topical and oral NSAIDs were estimated to be £19.2 million and £25.65 million, respectively. Cost of hip and knee replacements was estimated to exceed £850 million, arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis was estimated to be £1.34 million. Indirect costs from OA caused a loss of economic production over £3.2 billion, £43 million was spent on community services and £215 million on social services for osteoarthritis. Conclusions. While estimates of economic costs can be made using information from non-published data, there remains a lack of original research looking at the direct or indirect costs of osteoarthritis in the UK. Differing methodology in calculating costs from overseas studies makes direct comparison with the UK difficult.

  13. Paokil uks ja 13 noort hinge / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    12. mail esietendus Eesti Riiklikus Nukuteatris noortestuudio debüütlavastus "Kolmteist + uks" L. Knutzoni näidendi "Kõigepealt sa sünnid" põhjal, lavastaja R. Toots, muusikaline kujundaja J. Kreen, liikumine E. Ülevainult

  14. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary schools in the United Kingdom (UK) are community organised schools with the general aim of teaching younger generations their 'native' languages and cultures. However, the aims and practices of these schools are predominantly dependent on changes in the social and political contexts both in the host ...

  15. Participation in Written Government Consultations in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system-and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation...

  16. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary schools in the United Kingdom (UK) are community organised schools with the general aim of teaching younger generations their 'native' languages and cultures. However, the aims and practices of these schools are pre- dominantly dependent on changes in the social and political contexts both in the host ...

  17. Chinese Language Teaching in the UK: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, George X.; Li, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long history of Chinese learning and teaching (CLT) in the UK, but until recently CLT was predominantly confined to community schools for Chinese children at weekends and a small number of other schools and universities. Therefore, it had remained peripheral for a long time in terms of student numbers and its position in the…

  18. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S

    2011-01-01

    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  19. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  20. Greening Technology in U.K. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob

    2009-01-01

    With the world focusing on climate change and individuals through to organizations questioning how they can reduce their personal and professional carbon footprints, JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) is looking at how it can help U.K. education professionals learn from one another. In 2009, the final report from JISC's SusteIT study…

  1. Diagnostic Testing at UK Universities: An E-Mail Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Jonathan; Levi, Margaret; Wilson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, an e-mail survey was sent to various UK universities to gain information regarding current practices concerning mathematics diagnostic testing, and to provide an update from the review "Diagnostic Testing for Mathematics" published by the LTSN MathsTEAM Project in 2003. A total of 38 university departments were contacted…

  2. Norms and Values in UK Science Engagement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Holliman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rhetorical shift from "deficit" to "dialogue" and "engagement" in UK policy and institutional discourse about science communication. Past efforts to reduce public scientific literacy deficits have been overshadowed by calls for dialogue between scientists, science communicators and…

  3. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bekalo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  4. Emotional Connectedness to Home for Ghanaian Students in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, Florence; Meekums, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian migrants represent one of the largest Black African groups in the UK. While viewed positively in terms of economic and educational success, migration has impacts on emotional attachments. The aim of this study was therefore to explore narrative expressions of belonging and emotional connectedness for Ghanaian university students in the…

  5. The Education of Asylum Seekers: Some UK Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reakes, Angharad

    2007-01-01

    The body of literature examining the educational needs of asylum-seeker children is limited. Extending the body of knowledge has become increasingly important because of the increasing number of asylum seekers in the UK, with significant implications for local education authorities and schools. The main focus of the research was the situation in…

  6. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  7. Quick Win or Slow Burn: Modelling UK HE CAA Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The uptake of CAA in UK higher education (HE) on a large scale lags behind the expectations of CAA specialists. A research project was undertaken with the aim of discovering and addressing the underlying reasons for this. The research was conducted according to Strauss and Corbin's (1998) prescription for grounded theory (GT) research. During…

  8. Commitment to Environmental Sustainability in the UK Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Alcock, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is an increasingly important issue in higher education, both in the UK and internationally. Although environmental sustainability is the most frequently identified of the three pillars of sustainability (social and economic sustainability being less widely understood), there has been little previous research which has quantitatively…

  9. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  10. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  11. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  12. Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Catherine; Khanom, Shaina; Evans, Jason T.; Smith, E. Grace; Hawkey, Peter M.; Kunst, Heinke; Welch, Steven B.; Dedicoat, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if local transmission was responsible for rising tuberculosis incidence in a recently dispersed migrant community in Birmingham, UK, during 2004–2013, we conducted enhanced epidemiologic investigation of molecular clusters. This technique identified exact locations of social mixing and chains of apparent recent transmission, which can be helpful for directing resources. PMID:25695328

  13. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  14. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  15. Leveraged Public to Private Transactions in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Simons, T.; Wright, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the magnitude and the sources of the expected shareholder gains in UK public to private transactions (PTPs) in the second wave from 1997-2003.Pre-transaction shareholders on average receive a premium of 40% and the share price reaction to the PTP announcement is about 30%.The

  16. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  17. Lock-In Agreements in Venture Capital Backed UK IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espenlaub, S.; Goergen, M.; Khurshed, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of venture-capital backing of UK companies issuing shares at flotation on the characteristics of the lock-in agreements entered into by the existing shareholders, and on the abnormal returns realised around the expiry of the directors' lock-in agreements.The study

  18. Bloom's syndrome in an Indian man in the UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vekaria, Rajni; Bhatt, Ree'Thee; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; de Boer, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old Indian man was diagnosed with Bloom's syndrome at the age of 3 years. This is the first reported case of Bloom's in an Indian from the UK and the third case report from the British Isles...

  19. UK Solar System Data Centre: Data Archive for Ionospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Matthew; James, Sarah; Bogdanova, Yulia; Crothers, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The UK Solar System Data Centre (UKSSDC) has been working to improve access to its extensive holdings of historical ionospheric data. In our archive, ionospheric data from 200 stations worldwide (1930s-present), such as ionograms and scaled ionospheric parameters (e.g., foF2, fmin, h'F2), is held on both digital and physical media. From the 1990s these data sets are available in digital form and can be downloaded from our web-interface. Thanks to a Natural Environment Research Council grant we are in the process of digitising a selection, 2,200 out of ~27,000, of UK ionosonde film data to be made available via the web interface. It is hoped that more funding will be made available to continue this exercise over the next few years. The UKSSDC also provides real-time ionospheric data retrieval from two RAL Space ionosondes, Chilton and Port Stanley, alongside other European observatories. The UKSSDC is part of RAL Space based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the electronic address: http://www.ukssdc.ac.uk. This is a UK national data archive facility with open data access and can be used by scientists around the globe.

  20. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  1. PISA 2015: Findings and Some Implications for UK Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Millar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main findings for the countries of the UK from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2015, where science was the major focus. The nature of the tests, the key findings and how they might be interpreted are discussed--in…

  2. High risk of unprecedented UK rainfall in the current climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vikki; Dunstone, Nick J; Scaife, Adam A; Smith, Doug M; Slingo, Julia M; Brown, Simon; Belcher, Stephen E

    2017-07-24

    In winter 2013/14 a succession of storms hit the UK leading to record rainfall and flooding in many regions including south east England. In the Thames river valley there was widespread flooding, with clean-up costs of over £1 billion. There was no observational precedent for this level of rainfall. Here we present analysis of a large ensemble of high-resolution initialised climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated, and that in the current climate there remains a high chance of exceeding the observed record monthly rainfall totals in many regions of the UK. In south east England there is a 7% chance of exceeding the current rainfall record in at least one month in any given winter. Expanding our analysis to some other regions of England and Wales the risk increases to a 34% chance of breaking a regional record somewhere each winter.A succession of storms during the 2013-2014 winter led to record flooding in the UK. Here, the authors use high-resolution climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated and that there remains a high chance of exceeding observed record monthly rainfall totals in many parts of the UK.

  3. Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Verhees, Bram; Raven, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X; Smith, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore wind has been positioned as a promising technology that could play a major role in moving towards more sustainable energy systems, but deployment varies significantly across countries. This article aims to explain the contrast between the boom in the UK versus stagnation in The

  4. Maturity and Interculturality: Chinese Students' Experiences in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Increasing global competition for students has witnessed an ever more rapid internationalisation of higher education. In the case of the UK, there has been a major influx of Chinese students to British universities since the launch of the British Government's long-term worldwide educational campaign in 1999. Drawing upon evidence from an extensive…

  5. Kosovan refugees in the UK: the Rolls Royce or rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bloch

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the different reception and support entitlements offered to spontaneous asylum seekers from Kosovo and their UNHCR programme counterparts, plus the operation of the Kosovo reception programme. It also discusses the Asylum and Immigration Bill and itsimplications for asylum seekers to the UK.

  6. The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.M.; Kettridge, Nicholas; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Gray, Alan; Ascoli, Davide; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Marrs, Rob; Allen, Katherine A.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Clay, Gareth D.; McMorrow, Julia; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    Fire has been used for centuries to generate and manage some of the UK’s cultural landscapes. Despite its complex role in the ecology of UK peatlands and moorlands, there has been a trend of simplifying the narrative around burning to present it as an only ecologically damaging practice. That

  7. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  8. Comparing SVARs and SEMs : Two models of the UK economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.P.A.M.; Wallis, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The structural vector autoregression (SVAR) and simultaneous equation macroeconometric model (SEM) styles of empirical macroeconomic modelling are compared and contrasted, with reference to two models of the UK economy, namely the long-run structural VAR model of Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin and

  9. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Bekalo

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  10. Evidence-based medicine teaching in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meats, Emma; Heneghan, Carl; Crilly, Mike; Glasziou, Paul

    2009-04-01

    It is recognized that clinicians need training in evidence-based medicine (EBM), however there is considerable variation in the content and methods of the EBM curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine current practice and variation in EBM undergraduate teaching in UK medical schools and inform the strategy of medical schools and the National Knowledge Service. We contacted all 32 medical schools in the UK and requested that the person primarily responsible for EBM undergraduate teaching complete a short online survey and provide their EBM curriculum. The survey was completed by representatives from 20 (63%) medical schools and curriculum details were received from 5 (16%). There is considerable variation in the methods and content of the EBM curriculum. Although the majority of schools teach core EBM topics, relatively few allow students to practice the skills or assess such skills. EBM teaching is restricted by lack of curriculum time, trained tutors and teaching materials. Key elements to progress include the integration of EBM with clinical specialties, tutor training and the availability of high-quality teaching resources. The development of a national undergraduate EBM curriculum may help in promoting progress in EBM teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.

  11. Potential vectors of equine arboviruses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G E; Archer, D; Torr, S; Solomon, T; Baylis, M

    2017-01-07

    There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. Mosquito magnet traps and red-box traps were used to sample adults, and larvae were collected from water sources such as tyres, buckets, ditches and pools. Several species that are known to be capable of transmitting important equine infectious arboviruses were trapped. The most abundant, with a maximum catch of 173 in 72 hours, was Ochlerotatus detritus, a competent vector of some flaviviruses; the highest densities were found near saltmarsh habitats. The most widespread species, recorded at >75 per cent of sites, was Culiseta annulata. This study demonstrates that potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses, including those known to be capable of infecting horses, are present and may be abundant on equine premises in the UK. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Current status of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Alexis; Kirkby, Karen J; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and benchmark the current clinical and dosimetric practices in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the UK. A detailed questionnaire was sent to 70 radiotherapy centres in the UK. 97% (68/70) of centres replied between June and December 2014. 21 centres stated that they are practising SRS, and a further 12 centres plan to start SRS by the end of 2016. The most commonly treated indications are brain metastases and acoustic neuromas. A large range of prescription isodoses that range from 45% to 100% between different radiotherapy centres was seen. Ionization chambers and solid-water phantoms are used by the majority of centres for patient-specific quality assurance, and thermoplastic masks for patient immobilization are more commonly used than fixed stereotactic frames. The majority of centres perform orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays for localization before and during delivery. The acceptable setup accuracy reported ranges from 0.1 to 2 mm with a mean of 0.8 mm. SRS has been increasing in use in the UK and will continue to increase in the next 2 years. There is no current consensus between SRS centres as a whole, or even between SRS centres with the same equipment, on the practices followed. This indicates the need for benchmarking and standardization in SRS practices within the UK. This article outlines the current practices in SRS and provides a benchmark for reference and comparison with future research in this technique.

  13. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  14. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  15. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  16. Malaria in the UK: past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, T; Welsby, P

    2004-01-01

    There is strong evidence that malaria was once indigenous to the UK, that global warming is occurring, and that human activity is contributing to global warming. Global warming will have a variety of effects, one of which will probably be the return of indigenous malaria.

  17. L130-million cut to grants hits UK physical scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cressey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    "UK physicists, still reeling from massive funding cuts announced earlier this year, have learnt of worse to come. Roughly L130 million (US$260 million)is being slashed from research grants awarded by the Engineering and Physical Scienes Research Council (EPSRC), it announced on 17 March." (2 pages)

  18. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  19. Supporting International Students in UK Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ian

    2014-01-01

    International students make up an increasingly large proportion of the UK's student population. Whether studying at undergraduate, postgraduate taught or postgraduate research level, they require support just like home students. However, international students can often bring additional issues and complications for the staff who are supporting…

  20. Abandoned babies in the UK - a review utilizing media reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Mueller, J; Fox, Z

    2009-05-01

    In the absence of national policy or comprehensive data, the phenomenon of abandoned babies is poorly understood in the UK. This study aims to use media reports as a resource to collate existing information on abandoned babies and to draw conclusions to inform future response. An exhaustive media search using electronic searches and media monitoring was undertaken to glean systematic information on all abandoned babies in the UK from 1998-2005. These were matched onto two databases - the UK Crime Statistics and the UK Abandoned Children Register in an attempt to align information on infant abandonment. Media reports were coded to list gender, survival, age, parental finding and circumstantial data. Our figures suggest an average of 16 babies abandoned yearly, while official sources give conflicting indications because of incomplete data gathering and child over-inclusion. Through systematic coding of media reports, 124 babies were identified over a 7-year period. Of these, 96 (77.4%) were newborns (1 week old). Adjusted logistic regression analysis found the strongest predictors of survival were age at abandonment and 'findability'. Newborn babies were less likely to survive than older babies (33.7% newborns died vs. 0% older babies, P Media interest is transient - 44.8% cases have a single report - and are typified by negative headlines (81.5%). This database currently represents the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the newborn abandonment phenomenon in the UK, a phenomenon that is rare but with high media and social interest. If the future well-being of mother and baby are to be catered for, clearer evidence-based policy and provision is vital.

  1. June 22, 1941: Evaluation of Public Opinion US and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey O. Buranok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the U.S. and U.K public opinion about German attack on the USSR 22 June 1941. Considered the views of the American and British statesmen and politicians, the public mood, reflected in the press. Identify the main points of view on the outbreak of war with Germany against the Soviet Union. It is shown that in the presence of a variety of assessments prevailed ideas of solidarity with the Soviet Union and the need to support it. This work will allow for a " reflection" of the image of a belligerent Soviet Union, and to find the key moments falsifying the history of World War II in the U.S. and the UK. The events of the Great Patriotic War , which will be set out on the basis of US and UK archives, and t hen will be presented t o look at fighting in the USSR in the memoranda of public institutions of Great Britain and the United States, as well as their coverage in the Anglo-American media. In this case, due consideration will be given to the mechanisms of information influence that have been implemented in the U.S. Office of War Information and the British Ministry of Information. Selected key battles 1941 year in the USSR: a description of the fighting, then their score by British and U.S. military and political leadership, guidelines an d promotional materials departments of the UK and the U.S., the UK and the U.S. press.

  2. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  3. Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman

    2016-10-10

    Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

  4. Increased funding fro UK's largest scientific computing grid, GridPP

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Science computing in the UK has been boosted with the annoucement by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) of 30 million BP further funding for the UK's largest scientific Grid." (1 page)

  5. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge

    1993-01-01

    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...

  6. Survey of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in the UK by the QA group on behalf of the UK SABR Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the progress being made towards the implementation of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) treatment in the UK, to obtain details of current practice in centres with an active treatment programme and to assess the projected future provision. Methods: In August 2012, an online questionnaire was sent to all 65 UK radiotherapy institutions. The included questions covered the current number of patients being treated and the intended number of patients for each clinical site; immobilization and motion management methods; CT scanning protocols; target and organ-at-risk delineation; treatment planning; image-guidance and treatment protocols; and quality assurance methods. Results: 48/65 (74%) institutions responded by the end of November 2012, with 15 indicating an active SABR programme. A further four centres indicated that a SABR protocol had been established but was not yet in clinical use. 14 of the 29 remaining responses stated an intention to develop a SABR programme in the next 2 years. Conclusion: The survey responses confirm that SABR provision in the UK is increasing and that this should be expected to continue in the next 2 years. A projection of the future uptake would suggest that by the end of 2014, UK SABR provision will be broadly in line with international practice. PMID:24620840

  7. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  8. Evaluating the UK and Dutch defined benefit policies using the holistic balance sheet framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Pelsser, A.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    This paper compares the UK and Dutch occupational defined-benefit pension policies using the holistic balance sheet (HBS) framework. The UK DB pension system differs from the Dutch one in terms of the steering tools and adjustment mechanisms. In addition to the sponsor guarantee, the UK system has

  9. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Johnson, L.; Jebb, S.A.; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK

  10. Evaluating UK research in speech and language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Grant; Carding, Paul

    2003-01-01

    There has been a steady growth in recent years in British higher-degree training in speech and language therapy. But what is the standing of UK research in the subject and its component areas which should underpin and inform such training? How can such research be evaluated? The intention was to compare UK publications relevant to speech and language therapy with those of other countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We sought then to examine the UK papers in more detail to analyse their sources of funding, their geographical distribution and the ways in which they could appropriately be evaluated. Papers were selectively retrieved from the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index for 1991-2000 by means of a filter based on journal names and paper title words. They were subsequently checked to remove many false positives. The papers were classified into one of seven subject areas and by their research level (from clinical to basic). Their importance was estimated through their potential impact on other researchers, as determined by the citation score of their journals, by the numbers of citations they actually received and by the subjective esteem in which the various journals were held by UK speech and language researchers. World output of speech and language therapy papers has averaged 1000 papers per year during the 1990s, and has grown by half over the period. UK output has been about 12% of the total, compared with 10% in biomedicine, and is published in high impact journals relative to the norm for the field, which is quite a low rate compared with biomedicine overall. Almost half the UK papers had no funding acknowledgements, with the private-non-profit and industrial sectors playing less of a role than in other biomedical areas. Papers in seven subject areas showed substantial differences in their performance on the four criteria selected. The state of British speech and language research appears to be satisfactory, with an

  11. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-04-01

    During recent decades and centuries, pools and fluxes of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (C, N and P) in UK rivers and ecosystems have been transformed by the spread and fertiliser-based intensification of agriculture (necessary to sustain human populations), by atmospheric pollution, by human waste (rising in line with population growth), and now by climate change. The principal objective of the UK's NERC-funded Macronutrients LTLS research project has been to account for observable terrestrial and aquatic pools, concentrations and fluxes of C, N and P on the basis of past inputs, biotic and abiotic interactions, and transport processes. More specifically, over the last 200 years, what have been the temporal responses of plant and soil nutrient pools in different UK catchments to nutrient enrichment, and what have been the consequent effects on nutrient transfers from land to the atmosphere, freshwaters and estuaries? The work described here addresses the second question by providing an integrated quantitative description of the interlinked land and water pools and annual fluxes of C, N and P for UK catchments over time. A national-scale modelling environment has been developed, combining simple physically-based gridded models that can be parameterised using recent observations before application to long timescales. The LTLS Integrated Model (LTLS-IM) uses readily-available driving data (climate, land-use, nutrient inputs, topography), and model estimates of both terrestrial and freshwater nutrient loads have been compared with measurements from sites across the UK. Here, the focus is on the freshwater nutrient component of the LTLS-IM, but the terrestrial nutrient inputs required for this are provided by models of nutrient processes in semi-natural and agricultural systems, and from simple models of nutrients arising from human waste. In the freshwater model, lateral routing of dissolved and particulate nutrients and within-river processing such as

  12. The medline UK filter: development and validation of a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiku, Lynda; Levay, Paul; Hudson, Tom; Craven, Jenny; Barrett, Elizabeth; Finnegan, Amy; Adams, Rachel

    2017-07-13

    A validated geographic search filter for the retrieval of research about the United Kingdom (UK) from bibliographic databases had not previously been published. To develop and validate a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline with high recall and precision. Three gold standard sets of references were generated using the relative recall method. The sets contained references to studies about the UK which had informed National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance. The first and second sets were used to develop and refine the medline UK filter. The third set was used to validate the filter. Recall, precision and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated using a case study. The validated medline UK filter demonstrated 87.6% relative recall against the third gold standard set. In the case study, the medline UK filter demonstrated 100% recall, 11.4% precision and a NNR of nine. A validated geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK with high recall and precision has been developed. The medline UK filter can be applied to systematic literature searches in OVID medline for topics with a UK focus. © 2017 Crown copyright. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2017 Health Libraries GroupThis article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  13. Large-scale innovation and change in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brown

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ technology to deliver such changes. Key lessons that emerged from these experiences are reviewed covering themes of pervasiveness, unofficial systems, project creep, opposition, pressure to deliver, personnel changes and technology issues. The paper argues that collaborative approaches to project management offer greater prospects of effective large-scale change in universities than either management-driven top-down or more champion-led bottom-up methods. It also argues that while some diminution of control over project outcomes is inherent in this approach, this is outweighed by potential benefits of lasting and widespread adoption of agreed changes.

  14. Financing Corporate Rescues, Where Does the UK Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpareva Aruoriwo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Akpareva Aruoriwo aims to evaluate the adequacy of the framework available for the financing of corporate rescues in the UK. She examines the legal provision made for prioritising creditors who get involved after an insolvency has been declared, with reference to examples from America and Canada. Without post-insolvency funding, companies may find it very difficult to survive, and without protection for post-insolvency creditors, those creditors may not wish to provide this sort of funding. The author examines the arguments for and against this kind of creditor protection, looking at past calls for reforms to the law and the preparedness of the UK to adopt any reforms.

  15. UK role 4 military infection services: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, Ngozi E; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    NATO describes 'Role 4' military medical services as those provided for the definitive care of patients who cannot be treated within a theatre of operations and these are usually located in a military force's country of origin and may include the involvement of civilian medical services. The UK Defence Medical Services have a proud history of developing and providing clinical services in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, sexual health and HIV medicine, and medical microbiology and virology. These UK Role 4 Military Infection Services have adapted well to recent overseas deployments, but new challenges will arise due to current military cutbacks and a greater diversity of contingency operations in the future. Further evidence-based development of these services will require leadership by military clinicians and improved communication and support for 'reach-back' services.

  16. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  17. [Career guidance for registered nurse in the UK].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón Melchor, Lucía; Simón Melchor, Alba

    2014-04-01

    Cuts in temporary contracts has had big consequences for newly qualified nurses with regards to finding employment. This cut in contracts has resulted in a doubling in the rate of unemployment in this profession. In the past nurses emigrated to other countries for purposes like knowledge of the language or to extend their training and experience, however today the emigration has become the only way out for many professional nurses. The reputation of nurses in Spain is recognised internationally, with the UK being one of the countries with the largest demand for Spanish nurses. Due to the great amount of job opportunities that are emerging in the UK, nurses need help and guidance in their careers, and also nurses need training in areas such as Professional Body, developing a curriculum, facing an interview etc...

  18. Evaluation of the status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waining, M; Young, I S; Williams, S B

    2011-04-16

    To establish the current status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK and to ascertain information regarding the current use of hydrotherapy, a questionnaire was sent to 152 hydrotherapy centres throughout the UK, from which 89 responded. Hydrotherapy was found to be a rapidly growing business. Stand-alone centres were in existence; however, many centres were connected to other businesses, including boarding kennels and general practice veterinary surgeries. The dogs using the facility were mainly pedigree breeds, particularly labrador retrievers (30 per cent), and the most commonly encountered conditions were rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (25 per cent), hip dysplasia (24 per cent) and osteoarthritis (18 per cent). The proportion of qualified versus unqualified staff varied between centres, highlighting a need for improved regulation of this aspect of the industry. However, all the dogs treated by the hydrotherapy centres surveyed were direct veterinary referrals, suggesting a good degree of professionalism in the field and a high regard for the benefits of hydrotherapy.

  19. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  20. Attitudes towards protective headgear in UK rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew; Rumbold, James L; Olusoga, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players’ attitudes towards wearing protective headgear.\\ud \\ud \\ud Methods 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey. Quant...

  1. Determinants of satisfaction amongst tenants of UK Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Danielle C.; Edwards, Victoria M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Corporate Occupiers require offices and services which meet their business needs, whilst\\ud landlords must attract and retain occupiers in order to maximise occupancy and rental income. The purpose\\ud of this research is to help landlords and corporate occupiers understand each other better, in order to achieve a mutually beneficial relationship.\\ud Design/methodology/approach - This paper analyses interviews with 1334 office tenants in the UK,\\ud conducted over an 11-year period, t...

  2. Experience, age and exporting performance in UK SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Love, James H.; Roper, Stephen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We consider the determinants of SME exporting performance using a survey of internationally engaged UK SMEs. We first develop a model incorporating organisational and prior managerial learning effects. Our empirical analysis then allows us to identify separately the positive effects on exporting from the international experience of the firm and the negative effects of firm age. Positive exporting effects also result from grafted knowledge – acquired by the recruitment of management with prior...

  3. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Mickes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details ...

  4. Gene-obesogenic environment interactions in the UK Biobank study

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, J.; Wood, AR; Ames, RM; Yaghootkar, H; Beaumont, RN; Jones, SE; Tuke, MA; Ruth, KS; Freathy, RM; Davey Smith, G.; S. Joost; Guessous, I; Murray, A.; Strachan, DP; Kutalik, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI).Methods: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity. We used BMI as the outcome a...

  5. Renal artery sympathetic denervation:observations from the UK experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Andrew S.P.; Davies, Justin E; Lobo, Melvin D.; Bent, Clare L.; Mark, Patrick B.; Burchell, Amy E; Thackray, Simon D.; Martin, Una; McKane, William S.; Gerber, Robert T.; Wilkinson, James R.; Antonios, Tarek F.; Doulton, Timothy W.; Patterson, Tiffany; Clifford, Piers C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal denervation (RDN) may lower blood pressure (BP); however, it is unclear whether medication changes may be confounding results. Furthermore, limited data exist on pattern of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response?particularly in those prescribed aldosterone antagonists at the time of RDN. Methods We examined all patients treated with RDN for treatment-resistant hypertension in 18 UK centres. Results Results from 253 patients treated with five technologies are shown. Pre-proc...

  6. Proposal for establishment of the UK Cranial Reconstruction Registry (UKCRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolias, Angelos G; Bulters, Diederik O; Cowie, Christopher J; Wilson, Mark H; Afshari, Fardad T; Helmy, Adel; Broughton, Ellie; Joannides, Alexis J; Zebian, Bassel; Harrisson, Stuart E; Hill, Ciaran S; Ahmed, Animul I; Barone, Damiano G; Thakur, Bhaskar; McMahon, Catherine J; Adlam, David M; Bentley, Robert P; Tolias, Christos M; Mitchell, Patrick M; Whitfield, Peter C; Critchley, Giles R; Belli, Antonio; Brennan, Paul M; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    The increasing utilisation of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury and stroke has led to an increase in the number of cranioplasties undertaken. Cranioplasty is also undertaken following excision of tumours originating from or invading the skull vault, removal of bone flaps due to post-operative infection, and decompressive craniectomy for the management of rarer causes of brain oedema and/or refractory intracranial hypertension. The existing literature which mainly consists of single-centre, retrospective studies, shows a significant variation in practice patterns and a wide range of morbidity. There also exists a need to measure the outcome as perceived by the patients themselves with patient reported outcome measures (PROMs; functional outcome, quality of life, satisfaction with cosmesis). In the UK, the concept of long-term surveillance of neurosurgical implants is well established with the UK shunt registry. Based on this background, we propose to establish the UK Cranial Reconstruction Registry (UKCRR). The overarching aim of the UKCRR is to collect high-quality data about cranioplasties undertaken across the UK and Ireland in order to improve outcomes for patients. Any patient undergoing reconstruction of the skull vault with autologous bone, titanium, or synthetic material in participating units will be eligible for inclusion. Data will be submitted directly by participating units to the Outcome Registry Intervention and Operation Network secure platform. A Steering Committee will be responsible for overseeing the strategic direction and running of the UKCRR. These will include re-operation due to a cranioplasty-related issue, surgical site infection, re-admission due to a cranioplasty-related issue, unplanned post-operative escalation of care, adverse events, length of stay in admitting unit, destination at discharge from admitting unit, mortality at discharge from admitting unit, neurological status and PROMs during routine follow-up. The

  7. Determinants of Small Business Presence in Japanese and UK Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    土井, 教之; Cowling, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The present paper has attempted to examine determinants of small business(SMEs) presence in Japanese and UK manufacturing industries, using a cross-industry model. The results suggest that market structure elements have a definite influence on SMEs' share. This conclusion is consistent with the findings observed in the US and other European countries. The main results here are the following; (1) Concentration is negatively related to SMEs' share. (2) Capital intensity and requirements have a ...

  8. Fracking for shale in the UK: risks, reputation and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Comfort, Daphne; Hillier, David

    2017-01-01

    Fracking, the exploitation of shale gas reserves, has become one of the most contentious energy-related issues in the world. New technologies have made once-unprofitable fields open to exploitation. This chapter examines fracking in the UK, a case study that illuminates the technology and politics of the procedure in many places. It situates British fracking within changing manifolds of global energy supply and demand as well as wider debates about energy security. It also explains the techni...

  9. The advertising creative process:a study of UK agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Sarah; Wheeler, Colin H.

    2015-01-01

    Advertising agencies are hired to develop creative advertising for their clients. This paper explores the advertising creative process used by agencies when developing new creative work. Using in-depth interviews with 21 agency practitioners in the United Kingdom (UK) this study examines the stages that take place within the advertising creative process. Findings suggest the process is made up of a series of sequentially linked stages and illustrate how agencies validate advertising creative ...

  10. Reassessing employer expectations of graduates in UK travel services

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Bridget; Evans, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out to ascertain travel and tourism industries employers' views on degrees. Research of this kind and on this scale has not previously been carried out and a large scale survey of industry views was conducted with key issues identified and discussed. These cover topics such as the employment of graduates within the UK travel services industry, views on their contribution and appropriateness, the types of skills that such degrees provide, salary scales and graduate training s...

  11. Phalangiotarbid arachnids from the coal measures of Lancashire, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, J.A.; Horrocks, C.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1997-05-01

    Four new specimens of phalangiotarbid (arachnida: Phalangiotarbida) from the Upper Carboniferous (upper Westphalian A) of Westhoughton, Lancashire, UK, are referred to Mesotarbus peteri sp. nov. an additional Lancashire phalangiotarbid, Phalangiotarbus subovalis (Woodward, 1872), from the Upper Carboniferous (lower/middle Westphalian A) of Burnley, is redescribed and designated the neotype of this species. This material allows new interpretations of the opisthosomal segmentation and respiratory organs of phalangiotarbids, and a reconstruction of Mesotarbus peteri is presented.

  12. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report

    OpenAIRE

    Leininger Brent; Evans Roni; Haas Mitch; Bronfort Gert; Triano Jay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this report is to provide a succinct but comprehensive summary of the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual treatment for the management of a variety of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal conditions. Methods The conclusions are based on the results of systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), widely accepted and primarily UK and United States evidence-based clinical guidelines, plus the results of all RCTs not yet incl...

  13. A survey of statistics in three UK general practice journal

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, A S; Armstrong, G K; Campbell, M J; Summerton, N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Many medical specialities have reviewed the statistical content of their journals. To our knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a diagnostician we thought it would be of interest to see whether the statistical methods reported reflect the diagnostic process. Methods Hand search of three UK journals of general practice namely the British Medical Journal (general practice section), British Journal of General Pr...

  14. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in the UK in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Andrews, Nick J; Borrow, Ray; Stanford, Elaine; Newton, Emma; Pebody, Richard G

    2012-11-19

    This study aimed to estimate the immunity of the UK population to tetanus and diphtheria, including the potential impact of new glycoconjugatate vaccines, and the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster in 1994. Residual sera (n=2697) collected in England in 2009/10 were selected from 18 age groups and tested for tetanus and diphtheria antibody. Results were standardised by testing a panel of sera (n=150) to enable comparison with a previously (1996) published serosurvey. Data were then standardised to the UK population. In 2009, 83% of the UK population were protected (≥0.1 IU/mL) against tetanus compared to 76% in 1996 (p=0.079), and 75% had at least basic protection against diphtheria (≥0.01 IU/mL) in 2009 compared to 60% in 1996 (pdiphtheria. Higher diphtheria immunity was observed in those aged 16-34 years in 2009 compared to 1996 (geometric mean concentration [GMC] 0.15 IU/mL vs. 0.03 IU/mL, pdiphtheria in 2009 were 29% susceptible), 45-69 years (>20% susceptible) and 70+ years (>32% susceptible). Low immunity was observed in those aged 10-11 years (>19% susceptible), between the scheduled preschool and school leaver booster administration. The current schedule appears to induce protective levels; increases in the proportions protected/GMCs were observed for the ages receiving vaccinations according to UK policy. Glycoconjugate vaccines appear to have increased immunity, in particular for diphtheria, in preschool age groups. Diphtheria immunity in teenagers and young adults has increased as a result of the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster. However, currently older adults remain susceptible, without any further opportunities for immunisations planned according to the present schedule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surprising Selection Effects in the UK Car Insurance Market

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Edmund; Cipriani, Giam Pietro; Bazar-Rosen, Katia

    2014-01-01

    We document a large and persistent anomaly in the UK car insurance market over the period 2012-13: insurance companies charged a higher premium for third-party (liability) insurance than comprehensive insurance (which includes third-party). Furthermore, some companies charged higher prices for comprehensive policies with larger deductibles. This evidence suggests both that consumers are too confused or too poorly informed to arbitrage and that sellers of car insurance do not implement the inc...

  16. The Determinants of Employee Crime in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Rickman; Robert Witt

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, we present evidence on employee theft in the UK using data on actual recorded crime. We present a model where employees are ‘rational cheaters’ with ‘consciences’ to produce hypotheses about the role of labour market (wages, unemployment) and social (age, education) influences on employee theft. We then examine the role of these influences using regional crime data supplemented by data from the LFS. Our results provide information on two competing views of motivations for ...

  17. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service

    OpenAIRE

    Litchfield, I; Hinckley, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of ?29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. Aims To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explor...

  18. Resurgence in home haemodialysis: perspectives from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sandip; Brady, Mark; O'Donoghue, Donal

    2011-12-01

    Improvement in dialysis outcomes requires a paradigm shift in haemodialysis provision and service design. Haemodialysis at home, recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, can lead to outcome benefits but has a range of implementation barriers. This article describes the various initiatives in the UK at local, regional and national levels, to provide greater patient choice and autonomy, overcome adoption barriers and enable greater uptake of this modality.

  19. Trends in evaporation loss over the UK: 1962 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eleanor; Robinson, Emma; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Many models of hydrology assume that an increase in air temperature will result in an increase in evaporation. However, there are some processes involved in transpiration (evaporation through the vegetation) that make the relationship more complicated: in a bid to conserve water, vegetation will reduce their stomata in response to drier soils and warmer drier air which leads to lower transpiration rates despite higher evaporative demands. In addition, the vegetation responds to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide by closing their stomata, and this further reduces the transpiration. The JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) model, used widely in the UK to study the impacts of climate change on the environment, includes many of the processes that are likely to affect changes in water loss and its impact on large scale hydrology. A new assessment of the UK wide water balance for the last 52 years (1961 to 2013) at a 1km grid-scale has been made using this model in a system called CHESS (Climate Hydrology and Ecology research Support System). Some data is available to check the overall water balance. For instance, river flow data can be used at an annual time scale to capture the water balance, while evaporation data from flux towers can be used at some locations around the UK for the few years that it is available to evaluate the seasonal variations of evaporation. Both of these methods provide imperfect but useful evidence. Here we present the results of the modelling exercise and the evaluation: long term increasing evaporation loss trends are clearly present in the model output and these are discussed with respect to the different drivers of change.

  20. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  1. Exploring leadership in the context of dentistry in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Stephen George

    2016-05-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore selective leadership approaches in the context of dentistry in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper utilising published sources from relevant literature about leadership theory and practice and the policy background to dentistry in the UK. Findings This paper suggests that there is merit in identifying and applying an eclectic mix of leadership theory to the case of dentistry. It offers insight into individual aspects of the leadership role for dentists and applies this to the dental context. It also contrasts these individual approaches with shared leadership and suggests this may also be relevant to dentistry. It highlights the fact that leadership will be of growing concern for dentistry in the light of recent policy changes. Research limitations/implications This paper points out that there are developmental implications depending on the particular approach taken. It argues that leadership development will become increasingly important in dentistry in the UK. Originality/value This paper addresses a topic that has so far received limited attention in the literature.

  2. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, C M; Wiggans, R E; Young, C; Fishwick, D

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. © Crown copyright 2015.

  3. Public preferences regarding rabies-prevention policies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M; Barbier, E B; White, P C; Newton-Cross, G A; Kinsella, L; Kennedy, H J

    1999-08-23

    The current 6-month quarantine system for all cats and dogs entering the UK has kept the UK rabies-free since 1922. However, pressure is mounting for a change to a system of vaccination, microchip identification and serological testing. In response to the increasing controversy surrounding the quarantine system, the UK government recently set up an independent review panel to assess the alternatives. This paper quantifies public preferences for the current policy and three alternative rabies-prevention measures. A survey was used not only to assess the overall preferences for rabies-prevention policies but also to assess the importance of policy attributes and socio-economic characteristics in determining policy preferences. We interviewed a sample of pet-owners in North Yorkshire. The results showed that the existing system was the single most-preferred policy option. However, a large proportion of the sample preferred the vaccination-based policies. A logistic-regression model and ordered probit models were used to find that safety and animal welfare were the most-important factors determining policy preferences. The respondents' awareness of the rabies-policy review, a desire to take a pet abroad, the amount of foreign travel, occupation and previous experience of quarantine were all important factors in policy choice. Socio-economic characteristics such as income, pets owned and the number of children were not significant determinants of policy preference.

  4. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  5. Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; King, Leslie A; Phillips, Lawrence D

    2010-11-06

    Proper assessment of the harms caused by the misuse of drugs can inform policy makers in health, policing, and social care. We aimed to apply multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) modelling to a range of drug harms in the UK. Members of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, including two invited specialists, met in a 1-day interactive workshop to score 20 drugs on 16 criteria: nine related to the harms that a drug produces in the individual and seven to the harms to others. Drugs were scored out of 100 points, and the criteria were weighted to indicate their relative importance. MCDA modelling showed that heroin, crack cocaine, and metamfetamine were the most harmful drugs to individuals (part scores 34, 37, and 32, respectively), whereas alcohol, heroin, and crack cocaine were the most harmful to others (46, 21, and 17, respectively). Overall, alcohol was the most harmful drug (overall harm score 72), with heroin (55) and crack cocaine (54) in second and third places. These findings lend support to previous work assessing drug harms, and show how the improved scoring and weighting approach of MCDA increases the differentiation between the most and least harmful drugs. However, the findings correlate poorly with present UK drug classification, which is not based simply on considerations of harm. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (UK). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of intrathecal opioid usage in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, M; Bedforth, N; Aitkenhead, A

    2008-02-01

    Intrathecal opioids are now used routinely in the UK for intra- and postoperative analgesia. The opioids of choice have altered over recent years and the dosage regimens used can vary between institutions. Concerns over safety have been reduced probably because much lower doses of opioids are now being used. This survey explored the practice of intrathecal opioid usage in the UK. We sent a questionnaire survey to 270 anaesthetic departments and received 199 replies, a response rate of 73.7%. Intrathecal opioids were used in 175 (88.4%) departments. Of these departments, 107 (61.1%) had local guidelines or protocols in place. Opioids such as diamorphine (used in 136 (78.2%) of departments) and fentanyl (129 (74.1%)) with a shorter duration of action are now more commonly used than morphine (37 (21.3%)) for intrathecal analgesia. In 96 (54.5%) departments, patients were nursed on regular surgical wards following administration of spinal opioids. The use of low-dose lipophilic intrathecal opioids for postoperative analgesia is widespread in the UK. Patients are commonly nursed in low-dependency post-anaesthetic care areas. The low incidence of adverse events reported by the respondents along with the popularity of the technique suggests that low-dose spinal opioid administration is safe.

  7. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M; Mickes, Laura

    2016-09-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence-accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up.

  8. Medical student fitness to practise committees at UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Jocelyne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.

  9. An overview of occupational hazards amongst UK Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Occupational-related hazards (OH) are noted to be prevalent within the medical community. However, there is limited evidence of its effects amongst ENT surgeons. A national survey was carried out with the assistance of ENT-UK to investigate the prevalence of various OH amongst ENT doctors in the UK. A literature search was also conducted to search for articles within English literature worldwide on this subject. 70.6 % of the responding 323 ENT surgeons had reported a form of OH throughout their career. Musculoskeletal pain was the most commonly reported (47.4 %) followed by stress/psychiatric morbidities (38.4 %) and sharps injuries (26.6 %). We found no correlation between OH and consultants/non-consultant status, time spent in ENT and subspecialty. Our literature search revealed 16 articles pertaining to OH amongst ENT doctors. OHs are prevalent within the UK ENT community. There is good evidence within literature on musculoskeletal pain, however, higher level studies are required to thoroughly investigate the other hazards.

  10. Current use of early warning scores in UK emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, James R; Kidney, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    There is recent evidence that the modified early warning scoring systems (MEWS) in the emergency department (ED) can identify patients at risk of deterioration. However, concerns remain that they are not sensitive enough to use as a risk assessment tool. To assess use of MEWS in UK EDs. A postal survey was undertaken of 254 adult EDs within the UK. Questionnaires were sent to the clinical lead at each department about their use of early warning scoring systems. Responses were received from 145 departments giving a response rate of 57%. 87% of respondents are currently using early warning scores (EWS). Of those, 80% are using MEWS. In 71% high EWS results in senior ED review, however in 25% it does not. Less than half of departments use high MEWS to trigger critical care input. 93% of respondents support using EWS in the ED. Despite the lack of strong evidence, the majority of UK EDs are using EWS in some form. MEWS is the most commonly used but departments vary on their use of EWS for senior ED and/or critical care review. Over 90% of respondents in this survey support EWS in the ED.

  11. Storageless and caching Tier-2 models in the UK context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Dewhurst, Alastair; Crooks, David; MacMahon, Ewan; Roy, Gareth; Smith, Oliver; Mohammed, Kashif; Brew, Chris; Britton, David

    2017-10-01

    Operational and other pressures have lead to WLCG experiments moving increasingly to a stratified model for Tier-2 resources, where “fat” Tier-2s (“T2Ds”) and “thin” Tier-2s (“T2Cs”) provide different levels of service. In the UK, this distinction is also encouraged by the terms of the current GridPP5 funding model. In anticipation of this, testing has been performed on the implications, and potential implementation, of such a distinction in our resources. In particular, this presentation presents the results of testing of storage T2Cs, where the “thin” nature is expressed by the site having either no local data storage, or only a thin caching layer; data is streamed or copied from a “nearby” T2D when needed by jobs. In OSG, this model has been adopted successfully for CMS AAA sites; but the network topology and capacity in the USA is significantly different to that in the UK (and much of Europe). We present the result of several operational tests: the in-production University College London (UCL) site, which runs ATLAS workloads using storage at the Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) site; the Oxford site, which has had scaling tests performed against T2Ds in various locations in the UK (to test network effects); and the Durham site, which has been testing the specific ATLAS caching solution of “Rucio Cache” integration with ARC’s caching layer.

  12. A survey of UK clinical librarianship: February 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This article will describe a survey carried out in February 2004, the aim of which was to summarize the form and content of clinical librarian (CL) and other similar outreach information services to UK health professionals in the acute (secondary or tertiary) sector. (i) To survey the activities and views of UK information professionals offering information services involving the librarians' presence in the clinical setting, (ii) to develop a tool to explore critical aspects of this form of information work, (iii) to create a contacts database for UK CLs, to be made available on the Internet. All known information specialists/librarians offering CL or similar services were surveyed. The semi-structured questionnaire was piloted. Respondents were asked to consider their activity over a period of 4 weeks. Twenty-six people responded to the invitation to take part and met the inclusion criteria. A summary of a 'typical' clinical librarian revealed by this survey is given, with a major conclusion that there is a very mixed picture of activity. Opinion on how far CLs should go in fully appraising search results is uncertain. The survey suggests reasons for this and the developments that may influence change are discussed. Recommendations for future research and development are offered.

  13. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day.

  14. UK owner preferences for treatment of feline injection site sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwardine, D; Friend, E; Toscano, M; Bowlt, K

    2014-02-01

    Feline injection site sarcomas are therapeutically challenging because of their locally invasive nature. Several protocols recommend that the two perceived high-risk adjuvanted vaccines should be administered into distinct anatomical sites ("left hind leg leukaemia, right hind leg rabies"), which should aid surgical resection. This has resulted in a change in tumour distribution with an increased proportion situated caudal to the diaphragm when such a policy is adopted. The aim of this study was to determine UK cat owners' attitudes towards surgical treatments of different anatomical regions. A cross-sectional study of an anonymous convenience sample of UK cat owners was conducted from September to December, 2012 using an internet-based survey. There were a total of 208 respondents: 39% would pursue surgery regardless of tumour site. One percent would not pursue surgery. Of the remainder, respondents would not allow amputation of the forelimb (20%), hindlimb (15%) or tail (15%). Twenty-six, 32 and 27% would not have surgical treatment of the inter-scapular region, chest or abdomen, respectively. The majority of respondents were willing to travel up to 100 miles for radiotherapy or chemotherapy (66 and 69%, respectively). The current feline vaccine site recommendations may not be appropriate for UK cat owners. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Critical care pharmacy workforce: UK deployment and characteristics in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Mark; Barton, Greg; Bourne, Richard S; McKenzie, Catherine

    2017-10-11

    Clinical pharmacists reduce medication errors and optimize the use of medication in critically ill patients, although actual staffing level and deployment of UK pharmacists is unknown. The primary aim was to investigate the UK deployment of the clinical pharmacy workforce in critical care and compare this with published standards. An electronic data entry tool was created and distributed for UK critical care pharmacy services to record their critical care workforce deployment data. Data were received for 279 critical care units in 171 organizations. Clinical pharmacist input was identified for 98.6% of critical care units. The median weekday pharmacist input to critical care was 0.045 whole time equivalents per Level 3 (ICU) bed with significant interregional variation. Weekend services were sparse. Pharmacists spent 24.5% of time on the multidisciplinary team ward round, 58.5% of time on independent patient review and 17% of time on other critical care professional support activities. There is significant variation in staffing levels when services are stratified by highest level of competence of critical care pharmacist within an organization (P = 0.03), with significant differences in time spent on the multi-disciplinary ward round (P = 0.010) and on other critical care activities (P = 0.009), but not on independent patient review. Investment in pharmacy services is required to improve access to clinical pharmacy expertise at weekends, on MDT ward rounds and for other critical care activities. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. A survey of clinical teaching fellowships in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sam; Denison, Alan R; McKenzie, Hamish

    2008-02-01

    Undergraduate medical education in the UK has changed considerably over the last decade. One development has involved the creation of teaching-specific posts for junior doctors by medical schools. These posts are generally termed 'clinical teaching fellowships', but it is not known how many of them exist, or whether they are similar in terms of educational activities, professional development, and research and clinical experience opportunities. Teaching deans in all UK medical schools were sent a questionnaire relating to clinical teaching fellowships, and were asked to distribute a second set of different questionnaires to their clinical teaching fellows, which were to be returned to the authors separately. A total of 28 deans and 46 fellows responded. Fifteen medical schools had clinical teaching fellows and there appeared to be a total of 77 such posts in the UK. There was little uniformity in the activities undertaken within the posts. Deans who employed clinical teaching fellows were unanimously positive regarding the posts. Fellows were generally positive but expressed reservations relating to approval for postgraduate training, career development, deterioration in clinical skills, financial disincentives, credibility within one's own specialty, and provision of training and support. Clinical teaching fellow posts are generally enjoyed by fellows and valued by deans. Fellows carry out differing duties and their training in medical education is variable. The posts can be unstructured and may lack credibility to doctors outside medical education. Providing specific structured training in medical education, recognised at a national level, would help deal with these concerns.

  17. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  18. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  19. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim [Building Energy Analysis Unit, School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions. (author)

  20. Energy efficiency interventions in UK higher education institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Hasim [School of Architecture, The University of Sheffield, Crookesmoor Building, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular. Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008. Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area. Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on. Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. (author)

  1. INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS CONTRIBUTION TO BUSINESS SCHOOLS IN THE UK HEIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Uyi OMORUYI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available International students’ contribution to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs tends to be considered from different aspects. There is an inadequate substantiation base that would allow academics, researchers and other stakeholders understand the importance of overseas students in the UK Business Schools. This paper investigates the contribution of international students to Business School in the UK HEIs. The research was exploratory and part of a bigger project on how and why Business Schools in the UK use Relationship Marketing to retain international students. It employed semi-structured interviews with 18 members of staff from four Business Schools in the North of England. Findings indicate that international students’ definition tends to differ amongst staff members within the Business Schools. Business Schools’ management perceive overseas students as an integral part of their institutions, especially as their overall contributions cannot be over-emphasised. The sample size and use of semi-structured interviews, as a single data gathering strategy, does not allow broad generalisation of findings. The obtained evidence can still be used as a platform for further research in this area.

  2. Developing a Broadband Adoption Model in the UK Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Mustafee, Navonil; Williams, Michael D.; Lal, Banita

    This research examines the factors affecting the consumer adoption of broadband in the United Kingdom. A conceptual model of broadband adoption was developed by selecting and justifying a number of relevant constructs from the technology adoption literature. The model was then empirically tested by employing survey data that was randomly collected from 358 UK broadband consumers. The findings suggest that, with the exception of one construct that was included in the conceptual model (namely, knowledge), all of the con structs significantly influence consumers when adopting broadband in a UK household. The significant constructs include relative advantage, utilitarian outcomes, hedonic outcomes, primary influence, facilitating conditions resources, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, when considering the behavioral intention and facilitating conditions resources constructs together, they significantly explain UK broad band adoption behavior. The theoretical contri bution of this research is that it determines and integrates the appropriate constructs from the technology adoption literature in order to enhance the knowledge of technology adoption from the consumer's perspective. This research has implications for policy makers and broadband providers since the results of this study can be exploited by the aforementioned stakeholders in order to encourage and promote the adoption and usage of broadband among the general population.

  3. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312, and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15. The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480. Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%, aged between 30 and 45 (66%, married or had a civil partner (83%, had university education (47% and an annual family income (69% ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39% of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46% were longer-term residents. Most (95% were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14% of respondents smoked but more than half (61% consumed alcohol. More than half (57% did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23% of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them

  4. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  5. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at values compare with much higher levels of methane in aquicludes and thermal waters, for example

  6. UK Renal Registry 16th annual report: chapter 2 UK RRT prevalence in 2012: national and centre-specific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Catriona; Pitcher, David; Pruthi, Rishi; Fogarty, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the characteristics of adult patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the UK in 2012. Data were electronically collected from all 71 renal centres within the UK. A series of crosssectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to describe the demographics of prevalent RRT patients in 2012 at centre and national level. There were 54,824 adult patients receiving RRT in the UK on 31st December 2012. The UK adult prevalence of RRT was 861 pmp. This represented an annual increase in absolute prevalent numbers of approximately 3.7%, although there was variation between centres and Primary Care and Health Board areas. The actual number of patients increased across all modalities: 2.3% haemodialysis (HD), 0.3% peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 5.6% for those with a functioning transplant. The number of patients receiving home HD has increased by 19.3% since 2011. Median RRT vintage for patients on HD was 3.4 years, PD 1.7 years and for those patients with a transplant, 10.2 years. The median age of prevalent patients was 58 years (HD 66 years, PD 63 years, transplant 52 years) compared to 55 years in 2005. For all ages the prevalence rate in men exceeded that in women. The most common recorded renal diagnosis was glomerulonephritis (biopsy proven/not biopsy proven) (18.8%). Transplantation was the most common treatment modality (50.4%) The HD and transplant population continued to expand; the decline in the size of the prevalent PD population has plateaued. There were national, regional and dialysis centre level variations in prevalence rates. Prevalent patients were on average three years older than the prevalent RRT cohort 7 years ago. This has continued implications for service planning and ensuring equity of care for RRT patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  8. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-03-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  9. Malaria knowledge and utilization of chemoprophylaxis in the UK population and in UK passengers departing to malaria-endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ron H; Alexander, Neal

    2013-12-21

    The burden of imported malaria is predominantly in travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in sub-Saharan Africa. The failure of this group to use chemoprophylaxis is recognized as the most important risk factor for the high incidence of disease. Understanding the reasons for failure to follow national recommendations may relate to knowledge, risk perception, cost, and peer pressure. Research into these variables is critical to understand and change practices in this group and this study was designed to explore whether knowledge, risk perception and prophylaxis use differs between travellers' to various destinations and the rest of the UK population. Two face-to-face questionnaire surveys were conducted to collect information on demographics, malaria knowledge, source, and quality of pre-travel advice, past travel experience and perceived malaria threat. One was an IPSOS survey of individuals representative of the UK population. The other was a departure lounge survey (Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)) of passengers departing to malarious regions detailing destinations and use of chemoprophylaxis. Around a quarter of the 1,991 UK population surveyed had previously travelled to a malarious area. Five-hundred departing passengers were interviewed, of which 80% travelled for leisure (56% VFR's) and 42% were travelling to West Africa. Malaria knowledge among the UK population (score 58.6) was significantly lower than that of individuals who had previously travelled or were travelling (63.8 and 70.7 respectively). Malaria knowledge was similar in individuals who had and had not sought pre-travel advice and travellers using and not using chemoprophylaxis for their journey. Leisure travellers to Ghana and Nigeria were predominantly VFRs (74%), whilst 66% of travellers to Kenya were tourists. Despite similar high knowledge scores and perceived (>90%) threat of the lethality of malaria in the three groups, chemoprophylaxis use in Nigerians (50%) was substantially

  10. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research.

  11. Hirschsprung's disease in the UK and Ireland: incidence and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradnock, T J; Knight, M; Kenny, S; Nair, M; Walker, G M

    2017-08-01

    To describe clinical characteristics and preoperative management of a national cohort of infants with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Population-based cohort study of all live-born infants with HD born in the UK and Ireland from October 2010 to September 2012. All 28 paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland. 305 infants presenting before 6 months of age with histologically proven HD. Incidence, clinical characteristics including gestational age, birth weight, gender, associated anomalies; age and clinical features at presentation; and use of rectal washouts or stoma. The incidence of HD in the UK and Ireland was 1.8 per 10 000 live births (95% CI 1.5 to 1.9). Male to female ratio was 3.3:1. An associated anomaly was identified in 23% (69), with 15% (47) having a recognisable syndrome. The proportion of infants who presented and were diagnosed in the neonatal period was 91.5% (279) and 83.9% (256), respectively. 23.9% (73) and 44.2% (135) passed meconium within 24 and 48 hours of birth. 81% (246) first presented to a hospital without tertiary paediatric surgical services, necessitating interhospital transfer. Initial colonic decompression was by rectal washouts in 86.2% (263) and by defunctioning stoma in 12.8% (39). Subsequently, 27.4% (72) of infants failed management with rectal washouts and required a delayed stoma, resulting in 36.4% (111) of infants having a stoma. In this population-based cohort, presentation outside the neonatal period was rare. Nearly half of the infants with HD passed meconium within 48 hours of birth and over one third were managed with a stoma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research. PMID:22972972

  13. Paediatric surgery: trends in UK surgical trainees' operative experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngson, G G; Adams, S; Winton, E

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the effects of the reconfiguration of postgraduate surgical training and changes to work patterns through legislation within UK on the operative experience of trainees completing specialty training in paediatric surgery. Data were collected from the consolidation record of operative experience submitted by every candidate sitting the Intercollegiate Specialty Board Examination in Paediatric Surgery in UK from 1996 through 2004. A number of index procedures were chosen as surrogates of the overall operative experience and underwent detailed analysis. These comprised operations performed in the following categories: Neonatal Surgery, General Paediatric Surgery, Paediatric Urology, Paediatric Oncology, and Emergency Paediatric Surgery. Sixty-three sets of data comprising 12,866 operations were ultimately identified as being suitable for analysis. The average number of operations performed annually by trainees increased over the study period as did the number in each of the operative categories. The number of operations performed with senior assistance or supervision increased over this period by an average of 12.5%. This trend was also evident in emergency surgery where the average number of sample procedures performed by trainees increased by 28% over the study period. In 1995, reforms to the training grade within UK reduced the time spent in specialist training from a previously unregulated period to 72 months of higher surgical training. Subsequent directives in response to health and safety legislation have further abbreviated the length of time spent at the workplace, initially to 72 hours and more recently to 58 hours per week. This combination has been generally perceived throughout the surgical community as prejudicial to acquisition of clinical and operative competence. This study, however, fails to endorse this perception and suggests to the contrary that perhaps through increased delegation, the volume of training operations is being

  14. Training on handover of patient care within UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much evidence exists to demonstrate that poor handover can directly impact patient safety. There have been calls for formal education on handover, but evidence to guide intervention design and implementation is limited. It is unclear how undergraduate medical schools are tackling this issue and what barrier or facilitators exist to handover education. We set out to determine curriculum objectives, teaching and assessment methods, as well as institutional attitudes towards handover within UK medical schools. Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study design was used. A locally developed online questionnaire survey was sent to all UK Medical Schools, after piloting. Descriptive statistics were calculated for closed-ended responses, and free text responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach, with constant comparison taking place through several stages of analysis. Results: Fifty percent of UK medical schools took part in the study. Nine schools (56% reported having curriculum outcomes for handover. Significant variations in the teaching and assessments employed were found. Qualitative analysis yielded four key themes: the importance of handover as an education issue, when to educate on handover, the need for further provision of teaching and the need for validated assessment tools to support handover education. Conclusions: Whilst undergraduate medical schools recognised handover as an important education issue, they do not feel they should have the ultimate responsibility for training in this area and as such are responding in varying ways. Undergraduate medical educators should seek to reach consensus as to the extent of provision they will offer. Weaknesses in the literature regarding how to design such education have exacerbated the problem, but the contemporaneous and growing published evidence base should be employed by educators to address this issue.

  15. Researching primary engineering education: UK perspectives, an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of primary level engineering initiatives were interviewed. Three main concepts were identified during the analysis of findings, each relevant to primary engineering education. These were pedagogic issues, exposure to engineering within the curriculum and children's interest. The paper concludes that the opportunity to make a real difference to children's education by stimulating their engineering imagination suggests this subject area is of particular value.

  16. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  17. Aeroelastic analysis facilities for UK wind turbines. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIver, D.B.; Wooton, L.R.

    1984-04-01

    The results of a study to assess the suitability of existing wind turbine aeroelastic computer programs for a long-term commitment of the UK to wind turbine design are presented. The assessment of the programs has been made on the basis of how they compare with modern software engineering practice; the perceived future requirements of wind turbine design; the validity of their theoretical bases and their available facilities. It is concluded that there does not yet appear to be a definitive mathematical formulation of the wind turbine aeroelastic problem.

  18. The discovery of fear of crime in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the way in which the fear of crime emerged as a policy issue and as a criminological topic in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. The British Crime Survey (BCS, now CSEW) was the first large-scale survey to attempt to measure fear of crime in the UK. It included questions asking if respondents felt safe out alone at night, and whether they worried about becoming the victim of various crimes. The first BCS report suggested that fear of crime was inflated by media accou...

  19. The injured mind in the UK Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, N; Jones, E; Jones, N; Fear, N T; Wessely, S

    2011-01-27

    The mental health of the UK Armed Forces is a topic much debated by healthcare professionals, politicians and the media. While the current operations in Afghanistan, and the recent conflict in Iraq, are relevant to this debate, much of what is known about the effects of war upon the psyche still derives from the two World Wars. This paper will examine the historical and contemporary evidence about why it is that some Service personnel suffer psychological injuries during their military service and others do not. The paper will also consider some of the strategies that today's Armed Forces have put in place to mitigate the effects of sending military personnel into danger.

  20. Mineral waste in the UK : innovation, optimisation and recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Mineral waste is largely an unavoidable by-product of the extraction, processing and production of mineral-based products. The UK is well-endowed with mineral resources which have been worked for thousands of years resulting in millions of tonnes of mineral waste across the country. The most significant mineral resource worked was coal with more than 26,000 million tonnes of coal produced and 3600 million tonnes of waste rock. Other significant volumes of mineral waste were derived from m...

  1. The Participatory Turn in UK Radioactive Waste Management Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Peter [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Bickerstaff, Karen [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The history of radioactive waste management policy in the UK has, in common with many other countries, been one characterised by crisis. A study of UK radioactive waste management (RWM) policy published in 1991 begins with the claim that 'What is distinctive about the British context is that crisis has not produced new commitments to resolving the problems of radwaste management'. As this paper will illustrate, current activity suggests that this assertion no longer holds true. Rather, the UK has witnessed a renewed commitment to addressing the problem accompanied by a significant shift in approach to RWM decision making. This shift was precipitated by the failure in 1997 of the technocratic strategy that hitherto had been pursued by government and by the nuclear industry but has also been influenced by a number of other contributory factors. What we now see in the UK is a proliferation of stakeholder involvement (SI) initiatives in the RWM and related fields, a situation that poses new questions and potentially new problems. In this paper we outline the historical developments that preceded this change, examine the current situation and finally review the question of whether this reconfigured landscape of SI amounts to a radical shift in policy and practice that has produced, or is likely to produce, new commitments to resolving the problems of RWM. We have identified five issues raised by stakeholders: (i) the strains created by the demands placed on limited stakeholder capacity are for some organisations and individuals becoming difficult to manage; (ii) there is an associated problem of participation fatigue or exhaustion resulting from the demands on stakeholders called to participate in multiple processes, which is seen by some NGO critics as a cynical strategy of attrition designed to co-opt and wear down potential opposition - and both of these problems increase the risk of stakeholder withdrawal; (iii) concerns about the problem of policy

  2. Incidence of cancer among UK Gulf war veterans: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Gj; Biggs, Am; Maconochie, N; Hotopf, M; Doyle, P; Lunt, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether incidence rates of cancer are higher in UK service personnel who were deployed in the Gulf war than in those not deployed and whether any increased risk of cancer is related to self reported exposures to potentially hazardous material during the period of deployment. Design A cohort study with follow up from 1 April 1991 (the end of the Gulf war) to 31 July 2002. Participants 51721 Gulf war veterans and 50 755 service personnel matched for age, sex, rank, servi...

  3. A Fresh Start for Flood Estimation in Ungauged UK Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Giulia; Woods, Ross

    2017-04-01

    The standard regression-based method for estimating the median annual flood in ungauged UK catchments has a high standard error (95% confidence interval is +/- a factor of 2). This is also the dominant source of uncertainty in statistical estimates of the 100-year flood. Similarly large uncertainties have been reported elsewhere. These large uncertainties make it difficult to do reliable flood design estimates for ungauged catchments. If the uncertainty could be reduced, flood protection schemes could be made significantly more cost-effective. Here we report on attempts to develop a new practical method for flood estimation in ungauged UK catchments, by making more use of knowledge about rainfall-runoff processes. Building on recent research on the seasonality of flooding, we first classify more than 1000 UK catchments into groups according to the seasonality of extreme rainfall and floods, and infer possible causal mechanisms for floods (e.g. Berghuijs et al, Geophysical Research Letters, 2016). For each group we are developing simplified rainfall-runoff-routing relationships (e.g. Viglione et al, Journal of Hydrology, 2010) which can account for spatial and temporal variability in rainfall and flood processes, as well as channel network routing effects. An initial investigation by Viglione et al suggested that the relationship between rainfall amount and flood peak could be summarised through a dimensionless response number that represents the product of the event runoff coefficient and a measure of hydrograph peakedness. Our hypothesis is that this approach is widely applicable, and can be used as the basis for flood estimation. Using subdaily and daily rainfall-runoff data for more than 1000 catchments, we identify a subset of catchments in the west of the UK where floods are generated predominantly in winter through the coincidence of heavy rain and low soil moisture deficits. Floods in these catchments can reliably be simulated with simple rainfall

  4. Survival of incident RRT patients in the UK (chapter 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, David; Roderick, Paul; Udayaraj, Uday; van Schalkwyk, Dirk; Tomson, Charlie

    2007-08-01

    This analysis presents the survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in UK renal units ('centres'), and includes an analysis of survival by centre. Data from 59 of the 70 UK centres are included. This is the first year that UK centre anonymity has been removed from analysis of patient survival by centre. Survival after adjustment for comorbidity is also reported for the first time although this analysis is restricted to those centres returning data on comorbidity in at least 85% of incident patients. The importance of adjusting for comorbidity can be seen in that for one centre, after adjustment of survival for age and diagnosis, the adjusted 1 year after 90 day survival was 84.6%. After adjusting to the average comorbidity present across centres, survival increased to 90.4%. Improved comorbidity data returns by renal units may require investment in informatics staff and creating structural process at renal unit level for clinicians to support these data returns. From the date of first RRT, the 1 year survival of all patients (unadjusted for age) is 79%. From the 90th day of RRT (to allow comparison with other countries' 1 year survival), the 1 year survival is 83%. The age adjusted (60 years) survival for the 1 year after 90 day period is 86%. There is a high death rate in the first 90 days on RRT (6% of all patients starting RRT), a period not included in reports by many registries and other studies. The 5 year survival (including deaths within the first 90 days) rates are 58, 53, 44, 28, 19 and 12%, respectively for patients aged 18-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 and >75 years. The 'vintage effect' of increasing hazard of death with length of time on RRT, prominent in data from the US, is only noted in older age groups (65-75 and 75+ years) at 5-6 years after starting RRT. Six centres had a figure for the 1 year after 90 day survival which was outside 2 SDs from the mean for the UK: in three cases this was better survival, and in three

  5. UK Health and Social Care Case Studies: Iterative Technology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Adie; Gilbert, Laura; Dawson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing demand in the face of reducing resources, technology has been implemented in many social and health care services to improve service efficiency. This paper outlines the experiences of deploying a 'Software as a Service' application in the UK social and health care sectors. The case studies demonstrate that every implementation is different, and unique to each organisation. Technology design and integration can be facilitated by ongoing engagement and collaboration with all stakeholders, flexible design, and attention to interoperability to suit services and their workflows.

  6. What's in a name? Nominative determinism in the UK dental workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, J

    2016-12-16

    Background Nominative determinism describes the theory that people are more likely to pursue careers that are connected to their names. Compelling research has been carried out across the medical professions that provides strong evidence for this phenomenon, but as yet its applicability to the UK dental workforce remains unknown.Aim The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of dentally-related surnames in the UK dental workforce (dentists and dental care professionals) and compare this to the UK population.Results Dentistry may provide a surprising counter-example to prevailing theories of nominative determinism, as UK dentists are significantly less likely than the UK general population to have dentally-related surnames. This new phenomenon of 'nominative antideterminism' was not observed in the dental care professional (DCP) cohort, for whom the prevalence of dentally-related surnames was similar to that in the wider UK population.

  7. Potential groundwater impact from exploitation of shale gas in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This report is a desk study to evaluate the potential risks to groundwater in the UK from exploitation of shale gas. As yet there is little information for UK so we need to look to the USA experience for transferable information. The UK may possess considerable reserves of shale gas. Significant areas include the Widmerpool Gulf, near Nottingham, and the Elsewick field near Blackpool. Work has begun near Blackpool. Hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) in combination with horizontal drillin...

  8. Study on the availability of UK academic "grey literature" to UK SMEs: Report to the JISC Scholarly Communications Group

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the findings from a small study on the availability of academic grey literature to SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the UK. SMEs do require access to grey literature of various types and would welcome the chance to use reports, survey results, theses and datasets that universities could provide. The problem is discoverability. SMEs turn to trade or professional bodies for this sort of information as a rule, or search the Web, and do not think of the higher ed...

  9. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Diabetes care provision in UK primary care practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Hawthorne

    Full Text Available Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care.Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices.326/361 (90.3% doctors, 163/186 (87.6% nurses and 3591 patients (41.8% returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42% and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range of 21% (3% to 39% of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management.Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.

  12. Diabetes care provision in UK primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Gillian; Hrisos, Susan; Stamp, Elaine; Elovainio, Marko; Francis, Jill J; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hunter, Margaret; Johnston, Marie; Presseau, Justin; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care. Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices. 326/361 (90.3%) doctors, 163/186 (87.6%) nurses and 3591 patients (41.8%) returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise) more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42%) and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range) of 21% (3% to 39%) of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management. Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.

  13. Attitudes towards protective headgear in UK rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew; Rumbold, James L; Olusoga, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players' attitudes towards wearing protective headgear. 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on player attitudes towards protective headgear use. Descriptive statistics, multiple regressions and content analysis were used to analyse the responses. 37% of players believed that headgear was effective in preventing head injuries. Playing group was found to be inversely associated with headgear effectiveness (∆ R 2 =0.01, B =-0.13, p=0.02), with youth players holding stronger beliefs that headgear is effective at preventing head injuries compared with all senior groups. The main reasons cited for wearing headgear related to protection from minor injuries (55%) with only 10% of responses related to concussion prevention. There appears to be a good awareness in UK players that protective headgear is not effective at preventing concussions. Continued education is vital to ensure players are fully aware of the limitations of headgear, and players who wear it do not engage in overly reckless behaviours as a result.

  14. Demographics and macroeconomic effects in aesthetic surgery in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C O; Ho-Asjoe, M; Hittinger, R; Nishikawa, H; Waterhouse, N; Coghlan, B; Jones, B

    2004-09-01

    Media interest in aesthetic surgery is substantial and suggestions of demographic changes such as reductions in age or an increase in the number of male patients are common. In spite of this, there is no peer reviewed literature reporting demographics of a contemporary large patient cohort or of the effect of macroeconomic indicators on aesthetic surgery in the UK. In this study, computer records 13006 patients presenting between 1998 and the first quarter of 2003 at a significant aesthetic surgery centre were analysed for procedures undergone, patient age and sex. Male to female ratios for each procedure were calculated and a comparison was made between unit activity and macroeconomic indicators. The results showed that there has been no significant demographic change in the procedures studied with patient age and male to female ratio remaining constant throughout the period studied for each procedure. Comparison with macroeconomic indicators suggested increasing demand for aesthetic surgery in spite of a global recession. In conclusion, media reports of large scale demographic shifts in aesthetic surgery patients are exaggerated. The stability of unit activity in spite of falling national economic indicators suggested that some units in the UK might be relatively immune to economic vagaries. The implications for training are discussed.

  15. Interpretation of medical information acts by UK occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Lucia; Glozier, Nick; Holland-Elliott, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Difficulties arise in applying the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Access to Medical Reports Act 1988 in occupational health practice. There is no guidance on detailed aspects of applying these Acts in practice and consistent advice has proved difficult to obtain. To audit the understanding and practice of UK occupational physicians to see if a consensus view existed. A postal questionnaire sent to all UK-based Society of Occupational Medicine (SOM) members between December 2005 and June 2006. Responses were analysed using the SPSS 13.0 software. Responses were received from 726 SOM members, a response rate of 48%. The study revealed wide variation and a limited consensus in practice. Significant differences existed between doctors with a Diploma in Occupational Medicine and those with higher Faculty qualifications, between part-time and full-time practitioners and between doctors who qualified pre- and post-1974. The audit revealed wide variation in responding to clinical scenarios in relation to both the Access to Medical Reports and the Data Protection Acts. The findings have implications for clinical practice, policy and research. The majority of respondents reported that national guidance is needed.

  16. Periodontology in the undergraduate curriculum in UK dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasman, P A; Witter, J; Preshaw, P M

    2015-07-10

    In 1980 the British Society of Periodontology published a series of educational goals which have guided periodontal curricula at UK dental schools. Further, a survey of UK dental schools evaluated aspects of teaching and learning in periodontology. The aims of this project were to identify teaching practices and assessments in periodontology and best practice which may be developed in the future. A questionnaire was sent to dental schools who had participated in the previous survey. The questionnaire sought information on aspects of teaching and learning in periodontology: teaching manpower, curriculum structure, assessment, research opportunities for students and whether implantology is delivered in the undergraduate curriculum. There is consistency between the education providers with respect to teaching and learning in periodontology. Most are developing integrated learning between dental undergraduates and members of the dental team although there are opportunities for further development. Students are expected to have knowledge of complex treatments but are not expected to be competent at undertaking periodontal surgery nor placing and restoring implants. The findings confirm that there is considerable consistency between the education providers with respect to aspects of teaching and learning in periodontology.

  17. Characterization of Hb Lepore variants in the UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Kausar, Anika; Old, John M; Henderson, Shirley J; Gallienne, Alice E

    2015-01-01

    A molecular study of Hb Lepore heterozygotes identified by the UK population screening program has revealed four out of the five known Lepore variants. The region of homologous δ- and β-globin gene sequence was determined in 58 unrelated Hb Lepore heterozygotes referred for confirmation of their carrier status by DNA analysis through the national thalassemia and sickle cell screening program over a period of 10 years. The most common variant found was Hb Lepore-Boston-Washington (Hb LBW, HBD: c.265 C > c.315 + 7 C) observed in 46 carriers (79.0%). Hb Lepore-Hollandia (HBD: c.69 A > c.92 + 16 A) was found in nine cases (16.0%); Hb Lepore-Baltimore (HBD: c.208 G > c.254 C) in two cases (4.0%) and Hb Lepore-ARUP (HBD: c.97 C > c.150 C) in one carrier (2.0%). Analysis of the hematological findings showed no significant differences between the four groups. The wide range of Hb Lepore variants observed in this study confirms the very diverse range of α- and β-globin gene mutations observed in the UK population by previous studies.

  18. Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflecting a relatively low‐value Basic State Pension, occupational pensions have historically been a key aspect of pension protection within Britain. Existing research shows that minority ethnic groups are less likely to benefit from such pensions and are more likely to face poverty in later life, as a result of the interaction of their labour market participation and pension membership patterns. However, the lack of adequate data on ethnic minorities has so far prevented the direct comparison of different ethnic groups, as well as their comparison to the White British group. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, this article explores patterns of employment and the odds ratios of membership in an employer's pension scheme among working‐age individuals from minority ethnic groups and the White British population, taking into account factors not used by previous research, such as one's migration history and sector of employment (public/private). The analysis provides new empirical evidence confirming that ethnicity remains a strong determinant of one's pension protection prospects through being in paid work, being an employee and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, once an individual is working for an employer offering a pension scheme, the effect of ethnicity on that person's odds of being a member of that scheme reduces, except among Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals for whom the differentials remain. The article also provides evidence on the pension protection of Polish individuals, a relatively ‘new’ minority group in the UK. PMID:27563161

  19. Cancer survivorship and return to work: UK occupational physician experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ziv; Wynn, Philip; Whitaker, Stuart; Luker, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Survivorship following diagnosis of cancer is increasing in prevalence. However, cancer survivors continue to report difficulty re-entering the workplace after diagnosis and treatment. To survey UK occupational health physicians (OHPs) regarding their role in rehabilitation of employed survivors of cancer. Following a pilot study, a questionnaire exploring opinions of OHPs regarding supporting cancer survivors' return to work was posted to all members of the UK Society of Occupational Medicine, with a repeat posting 2 months later. Responses were analyzed for significant correlations with OHP age, sex, qualification level, size of businesses advised and years of experience. There were 797 respondents (response rate 51%). Responses suggested opportunities for developing the knowledge base in relation to prognosis and functional outcomes in patients with a cancer diagnosis; instituting information resources on cancer and work for OHPs and developing communications skills training. Most respondents felt managers treated referral to occupational health (OH) differently for employees with cancer compared with management referral for employees with other diagnoses, with 45% of respondents indicating referral may take place too late to be effective in securing a return to work. A significant lack of understanding of the information requirements of employers and the role of OH by treating doctors was identified. This survey raises several possible significant barriers to return to work by cancer survivors. Recommendations to ameliorate these are made.

  20. Activity and education of clinical dental technicians: a UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M K; Ibbetson, R J; Turner, S

    2007-11-24

    This survey aimed to determine the clinical activity of clinical dental technicians (CDTs) in the UK and to establish their employment status, views of statutory registration and need for further education. Until 2006, this practise was illegal in the UK. A postal questionnaire was sent to 128 members of the Clinical Dental Technicians' Association (CDTA) who had agreed to participate in this study. Analysis was conducted using standard non-parametric statistical tests and quantitative techniques. A response rate of 54% was achieved. Qualifications in clinical dental technology from George Brown College, Toronto, Canada were held by 68%, with 16% currently undergoing training and 16% neither qualified nor in training. The majority (90%) owned a laboratory with 61% stating they had between one and four dental surgeries on site. CDTs with Canadian qualifications tended to provide a wider range of procedures, coupled with patient lists and recall systems, compared to those not so qualified. Eighty-one percent welcomed the prospect of statutory registration with 82% indicating that it would enhance their professional profile. This small but significant survey gives some insight of the work which has been undertaken by CDTs for many years, albeit illegally. With appropriate training and education, and consequent GDC registration, CDTs will be in a position to make a positive contribution to the clinical care of patients.

  1. Education and health knowledge: evidence from UK compulsory schooling reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David W; Lordan, Grace; Shields, Michael A; Suziedelyte, Agne

    2015-02-01

    We investigate if there is a causal link between education and health knowledge using data from the 1984/85 and 1991/92 waves of the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Uniquely, the survey asks respondents what they think are the main causes of ten common health conditions, and we compare these answers to those given by medical professionals to form an index of health knowledge. For causal identification we use increases in the UK minimum school leaving age in 1947 (from 14 to 15) and 1972 (from 15 to 16) to provide exogenous variation in education. These reforms predominantly induced adolescents who would have left school to stay for one additionally mandated year. OLS estimates suggest that education significantly increases health knowledge, with a one-year increase in schooling increasing the health knowledge index by 15% of a standard deviation. In contrast, estimates from instrumental-variable models show that increased schooling due to the education reforms did not significantly affect health knowledge. This main result is robust to numerous specification tests and alternative formulations of the health knowledge index. Further research is required to determine whether there is also no causal link between higher levels of education - such as post-school qualifications - and health knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived effect of deployment on families of UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, G; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T; Jones, N

    2017-10-01

    In the UK, little is known about the perceived effects of deployment, on military families, from military personnel in theatre. To investigate military personnel's perceptions of the impact of deployment on intimate relationships and children. Deployed service personnel who were in a relationship, and who had children, completed a survey while deployed on combat operations. Data were taken from four mental health surveys carried out in Iraq in 2009 and Afghanistan in 2010, 2011 and 2014. Among 4265 participants, after adjusting for military and social-demographic covariates, perceiving that deployment had a negative impact on intimate relationships and children was associated with psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms. Military personnel who reported being in danger of being injured or killed during deployment, were more likely to report a perceived negative effect of deployment on their intimate relationships. Reservists were less likely to report a perceived negative impact of deployment on their children compared with regulars. Military personnel who themselves planned to separate from their partner were more likely to report psychological distress, and stressors at home. Perceived insufficient support from the Ministry of Defence was associated with poor mental health, and holding a junior rank. Deployed UK military personnel with symptoms of psychological distress, who experienced stressors at home, were especially likely to perceive that their family were inadequately supported by the military. Those planning to separate from their partner were at increased risk of suffering with mental health problems while deployed.

  3. Post-deployment family violence among UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jamie; Jones, Margaret; Somaini, Greta; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-12-19

    Research into violence among military personnel has not differentiated between stranger- and family-directed violence. While military factors (combat exposure and post-deployment mental health problems) are risk factors for general violence, there has been limited research on their impact on violence within the family environment. This study aims to compare the prevalence of family-directed and stranger-directed violence among a deployed sample of UK military personnel and to explore risk factors associated with both family- and stranger-directed violence. This study utilised data from a large cohort study which collected information by questionnaire from a representative sample of randomly selected deployed UK military personnel (n = 6711). The prevalence of family violence immediately following return from deployment was 3.6% and 7.8% for stranger violence. Family violence was significantly associated with having left service, while stranger violence was associated with younger age, male gender, being single, having a history of antisocial behaviour as well as having left service. Deployment in a combat role was significantly associated with both family and stranger violence after adjustment for confounders [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.92 (1.25-2.94), p = 0.003 and aOR = 1.77 (1.31-2.40), p military personnel. Further research using a validated measurement tool for family violence would improve comparability with other research.

  4. Smartphone Applications for the Clinical Oncologist in UK Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozati, Hamoun; Shah, Sonya Pratik; Shah, Neha

    2015-06-01

    A number of medical smartphone applications have been developed to assist clinical oncology specialists. Concerns have arisen that the information provided may not be under sufficient scrutiny. This study aims to analyse the current applications available for clinical oncologists in the UK. Applications aimed specifically at physician clinical oncologists were searched for on the major smartphone operating systems: Apple iOS; Google Android; Microsoft Windows OS; and Blackberry OS. All applications were installed and analysed. The applications were scrutinised to assess the following information: cost; whether the information included was referenced; when the information was last updated; and whether they made any reference to UK guidelines. A novel rating score based on these criteria was applied to each application. Fifty applications were identified: 24 for Apple's iOS; 23 for Google's Android; 2 for Blackberry OS; and 1 for Windows OS. The categories of applications available were: drug reference; journal reference; learning; clinical calculators; decision support; guidelines; and dictionaries. Journal reference and guideline applications scored highly on our rating system. Drug reference application costs were prohibitive. Learning tools were poorly referenced and not up-to-date. Smartphones provide easy access to information. There are numerous applications devoted to oncology physicians, many of which are free and contain referenced, up-to-date data. The cost and quality of drug reference and learning applications have significant scope for improvement. A regulatory body is needed to ensure the presence of peer-reviewed, validated applications to ensure their reliability.

  5. Prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Welch, J; Turvey, J; Cannon, J; Clark, P; Szram, J; Cullinan, P

    2016-07-01

    Supermarket bakers are exposed not only to flour and alpha-amylase but also to other 'improver' enzymes, the nature of which is usually shrouded by commercial sensitivity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers. We examined the prevalence of sensitization to enzymes in 300 bakers, employed by one of two large supermarket bakeries, who had declared work-related respiratory symptoms during routine health surveillance. Sensitization was determined using radioallergosorbent assay to eight individual enzymes contained in the specific 'improver' mix used by each supermarket. The prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes ranged from 5% to 15%. Sensitization was far more likely if the baker was sensitized also to either flour or alpha-amylase. The prevalence of sensitization to an 'improver' enzyme did not appear to be related to the concentration of that enzyme in the mix. We report substantial rates of sensitization to enzymes other than alpha-amylase in UK supermarket bakers; in only a small proportion of bakers was there evidence of sensitization to 'improver mix' enzymes without sensitization to either alpha-amylase or flour. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation, but our findings indicate that specific sensitization in symptomatic bakers may not be identified without consideration of a wide range of workplace antigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Investigating public space exploration support in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta; Miller, Steve

    2010-10-01

    Space agencies such as NASA and ESA have ambitious long-term programmes that mark the beginning of a new era in space exploration where humans will land on Mars; an era requiring public support and, therefore, more consideration for public opinion. Empirical research shows that there are substantial differences in the level of understanding of space exploration among the general public. Studying audiences appears to be crucial to inform public engagement and communication strategies as well as policy debate. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the UK in 2008 at two science outreach events, the Royal Society Exhibition in London and the National Space Centre in Leicester, to investigate the motivations, beliefs, political preferences and attitudes towards space exploration of this audience. A sample of 744 respondents was collected. The analysis shows that the British public who come to outreach and engagement activities support space exploration but have some reservations about considering the advancement of UK space activities to be of national interest. Yet, when asked about means of exploring space, the majority agrees that space should be explored using both mankind and machines, ranking "generating new scientific knowledge and advancing human culture" as the most important reason for continuing investment in space research. Although the greater number of supporters says that more than the current government funding should be allocated to civil space activities, concerns about risk and value appear to influence this view.

  7. Subsurface Biodegradation in a Fractured Basement Reservoir, Shropshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, John; Baba, Mas'ud; Bowden, Stephen; Muirhead, David

    2017-04-01

    Subsurface Biodegradation in a Fractured Basement Reservoir, Shropshire, UK. John Parnell, Mas'ud Baba, Stephen Bowden, David Muirhead Subsurface biodegradation in current oil reservoirs is well established, but there are few examples of fossil subsurface degradation. Biomarker compositions of viscous and solid oil residues ('bitumen') in fractured Precambrian and other basement rocks below the Carboniferous cover in Shropshire, UK, show that they are variably biodegraded. High levels of 25-norhopanes imply that degradation occurred in the subsurface. Lower levels of 25-norhopanes occur in active seepages. Liquid oil trapped in fluid inclusions in mineral veins in the fractured basement confirm that the oil was emplaced fresh before subsurface degradation. A Triassic age for the veins implies a 200 million year history of hydrocarbon migration in the basement rocks. The data record microbial colonization of a fractured basement reservoir, and add to evidence in modern basement aquifers for microbial activity in deep fracture systems. Buried basement highs may be especially favourable to colonization, through channelling fluid flow to shallow depths and relatively low temperatures

  8. Assessing the environmental impact of buildings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, P.; Baldwin, R. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The protection of the environment is one of today`s key issues demanding international action. In the UK, the government has issued a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} White Paper and two updating reviews, setting out its Agenda; businesses are also responding by developing environmental policy statements as part of their business strategy; general public concern is evident through changes in purchasing practices and an increasing interest in recycling waste such as paper, cans, and bottles. In Europe, initiatives are being taken to develop ecolabelling schemes specifically for assessing consumer products. Environmental management systems are being developed through BSI and internationally. Underlying these concerns is a perception that industrialised economies have significantly and irreversibly changed (or perhaps about to change) the planet`s climate, atmosphere and ecosystems. This perception is fuelled by reports in the media of rising pollution, poor air quality, threats to ecosystems such as historic hedgerows, and even graffiti and litter. This paper describes action taken by the BRE to set standards for environmentally friendlier buildings which uses market forces to bring about environmental sensitivity in the industry. BREEAM is an environmental assessment method, embodies in an accreditation scheme, which is enjoying considerable success in the UK. The paper describes its development and underlying philosophy and provides details of its content and operation.

  9. Home drinking in the UK: trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John H; Ferguson, Colin S

    2012-01-01

    To explore the trend in the UK to consume alcohol at home rather than at licensed premises. A Medline search entering the terms 'home drinking', 'alcohol' and 'adult' covering the period 2000-2011 yielded 48 articles, of which 6 met the criteria to be included in the review. Grey literature including survey and market research data were reviewed. In the UK, since 1970 there has been trend for beer to be consumed at home more often than in licensed premises and that the overall trend towards greater home drinking has increased since 2000. The main reasons given are convenience, cost, safety, autonomy and stress relief. There has also been an increase in the practice known as 'pre-loading' (drinking before going out). Adults who drink mainly at home report that they are aware that they run a risk of higher overall alcohol consumption but tend to play down the possibility that increased consumption may lead to longer-term harm. Home drinking trends may have long-term public health consequences. Greater understanding of the drivers of this trend will help policy-makers to respond to these societal changes.

  10. Personal goals and expectations of OAB patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantell, Angie; Cardozo, Linda; Khullar, Vik

    2017-04-01

    In clinical practice and in research patient-centred outcomes are often utilised to help improve communication between patients and clinicians and to help manage expectations from treatment. However, many of these goals are generic and do not adequately capture the details of day to day life that bother patients the most and that they hope will improve with therapy. This study aimed to understand what are the goals of patients with overactive bladder symptoms in the UK who were taking part in a clinical trial and to assess goal achievement. This was a qualitative analysis of the patients goals recorded using the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) Questionnaire during the UK study assessing flexible dose fesoterodine in adults (SAFINA) trial. Free text patient goals were completed at baseline and an assessment of achievement was performed at the end of treatment. Grounded theory was used to develop themes and sub themes. Three hundred and thirty-one patients completed the trial and 1137 open ended goals were set. Six themes emerged from the data including, OAB, other LUTS and finishing the task in hand with multiple subthemes noted. By assessing and understanding what is important to the patient, it may help to tailor patient care and treatment and improve patient satisfaction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Religion and organ donation: the views of UK faith leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurch; Brocklehurst, Anna; Pateman, Ruth; Kinsella, Suzannah; Parry, Vivienne

    2012-09-01

    This article reports the findings from the one-to-one interviews with the main UK faith and belief leaders which were commissioned by the Organ Donation Taskforce as part of its evidence gathering. Interviews were arranged with the main faith and belief organisations within the UK. Interviews covered a range of issues related to organ donation. Although some faith groups had some reservations regarding organ donation, interviews with these leaders demonstrated that none of these faith groups have reached a consensus against organ donation. The interviewees stated that the majority opinion in their faith or belief group is to permit organ donation, with some actively supporting it. Interviewees were keen to stress that there is a broad spectrum of opinion on organ transplantation within each faith and belief group and that consequently it is difficult to speak on behalf of an entire group. One complication mentioned by interviewees is that as organ transplantation is a relatively new medical procedure, there is no explicit reference to it in many original religious texts. Consequently, positions on the receipt and donation of organs are based on interpretation. It was felt that a much greater level of engagement is needed, as organ donation is currently not a priority for many faith and belief groups.

  12. A survey of sitting time among UK employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, A; Duncan, M; Clemes, S; Haslam, C

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviour is a known risk factor for a wide range of chronic diseases. This major health risk is likely to increase given the increasingly sedentary nature of work. To investigate the prevalence of sedentary behaviour in a sample of UK working-aged adults, across a range of employment sectors. A cross-sectional survey conducted with organizations throughout the UK in the education, government administration, retail, telecommunications and service industry sectors. The questionnaire examined employee and organizational information, self-reported domain-specific sitting time, sleep and physical activity. A total of 1141 employees completed the questionnaire, of which 504 completed all aspects of the Domain-Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire for work day sitting. Work time sitting accounted for more than half of the total daily sitting time on a work day (54%). Significantly more time was reported sitting on a work day than time reported sleeping (P employee sitting times. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  14. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  15. Body size changes in passerine birds introduced to New Zealand from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One feature of global geographic variation in avian body sizes is that they are larger on isolated islands than on continental regions. Therefore, this study aims to assess whether there have been changes in body size following successful establishment for seven passerine bird species (blackbird Turdus merula, song thrush T. philomelos, house sparrow Passer domesticus, chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, greenfinch Chloris chloris, goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella introduced from the continental islands of the UK to the more isolated oceanic landmass of New Zealand in the middle of the nineteenth century. Measures of tarsus length were taken from individuals from contemporary UK and New Zealand populations of these species, and from historical specimens collected around the time that individuals were translocated from the UK to New Zealand. Analysis of Variance was used to test for size differences between contemporary UK and New Zealand populations, and between historical UK and contemporary UK and New Zealand populations. Historical UK populations have longer tarsi, on average, than 12 (7 UK and 5 New Zealand of the 14 contemporary populations. Significant decreases in tarsus length relative to the historical populations have occurred in the UK for blackbird, chaffinch and greenfinch, and in the New Zealand blackbird population. Contemporary New Zealand house sparrows have significantly longer tarsi, on average, than both historical and contemporary UK populations. Exposure to novel environments may be expected to lead to changes in the morphology and other traits of exotic species, but changes have also occurred in the native range. In fact, contrary to expectations, the most common differences we found were between contemporary and historical UK populations. Consideration of contemporary populations alone would underestimate the true scale of morphological change in these species over time, which may be due to

  16. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McManus, I C; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane; Paice, Elisabeth; Dewberry, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes...

  17. UK Renal Registry 13th Annual Report (December 2010): Chapter 1: UK RRT incidence in 2009: national and centre-specific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, Julie; Castledine, Clare; Fogarty, Damian; Feest, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the characteristics of adult patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the UK in 2009 and the acceptance rates for RRT in Primary Care Trusts and Health Boards (PCT/HBs) in the UK. The basic demographics and clinical characteristics are reported on patients starting RRT from all UK renal centres. Late presentation, defined as time between first being seen by a nephrologist and start of RRT being RRT was 8.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 which was similar to the previous two years. Late presentation (<90 days) has fallen from 27% in 2004 to 19% in 2009. There was no relationship between social deprivation and presentation pattern. Acceptance rates have fallen in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales whilst they have plateaued in England over the last four years. Wales continued to have the highest acceptance rate of the countries making up the UK. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Benchmarking Ensemble Streamflow Prediction Skill in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Shaun; Smith, Katie; Parry, Simon; Tanguy, Maliko; Prudhomme, Christel

    2017-04-01

    Skilful hydrological forecasts at weekly to seasonal lead times would be extremely beneficial for decision-making in operational water management, especially during drought conditions. Hydro-meteorological ensemble forecasting systems are an attractive approach as they use two sources of streamflow predictability: (i) initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs), where soil moisture, groundwater and snow storage states can provide an estimate of future streamflow situations, and (ii) atmospheric predictability, where skilful forecasts of weather and climate variables can be used to force hydrological models. In the UK, prediction of rainfall at long lead times and for summer months in particular is notoriously difficult given the large degree of natural climate variability in ocean influenced mid-latitude regions, but recent research has uncovered exciting prospects for improved rainfall skill at seasonal lead times due to improved prediction of the North Atlantic Oscillation. However, before we fully understand what this improved atmospheric predictability might mean in terms of improved hydrological forecasts, we must first evaluate how much skill can be gained from IHCs alone. Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) is a well-established method for generating an ensemble of streamflow forecasts in the absence of skilful future meteorological predictions. The aim of this study is therefore to benchmark when (lead time/forecast initialisation month) and where (spatial pattern/catchment characteristics) ESP is skilful across a diverse set of catchments in the UK. Forecast skill was evaluated seamlessly from lead times of 1-day to 12-months and forecasts were initialised at the first of each month over the 1965-2015 hindcast period. This ESP output also provides a robust benchmark against which to assess how much improvement in skill can be achieved when meteorological forecasts are incorporated (next steps). To provide a 'tough to beat' benchmark, several variants of ESP with

  19. The example of the UK SHOT haemovigilance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Eleftheriou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SHOT (Serious Hazards of Transfusion scheme is the UK’s National confidential haemovigilance system, and was set up in 1996. It is an independent, confidential, professionally led haemovigilance scheme. Initially the reporting was voluntary but now required by several professional bodies. SHOT publishes annual reports with recommendations and circulates to all relevant organizations including the 4 UK Blood services, Departments of Health in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, all relevant professional bodies and reporting hospitals. Over the 17 years of reporting, the evidence gathered has prompted changes in transfusion practice from the selection and management of donors to changes in hospital practice, better education and training. Acute transfusion reactions and transfusion-associated circulatory overload carry the highest risk for morbidity and death. Greatest risk to patients remain errors in the process at the point of blood sampling, in the laboratory and at bedside administration. SHOT’s objectives are to use findings to improve standards of hospital transfusion practice, to educate users on transfusion hazards and prevention, to aid production of clinical guidelines in blood transfusion and to inform national policy on transfusion safety. MHRA is the UK competent authority to which serious adverse reactions and events have to be reported annually. Overall the most common adverse incidents are caused by errors, resulting in the transfusion of an incorrect component or one that does not meet the specific requirements of the patient (e.g. not irradiated or not appropriately antigen matched. TACO (transfusion associated circulatory overload accounts for most deaths and major morbidity reported to SHOT but is overall underreported. Transfusions are not always given appropriately. This may be due to wrong haemoglobin results, failure to assess patients appropriately, or avoidable use of emergency O RhD negative units because

  20. Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trawford Andrew F

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colic (abdominal pain is a clinical condition of serious concern affecting the welfare and survival of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary in the UK. One of the most commonly reported causes is due to impacted ingesta in the large intestine ("impaction colic". However little is known about the incidence of, or risk factors for, this condition. Here we describe the epidemiology of colic in donkeys, specifically impaction colic. We focus on temporal aspects of the disease and we identify environmental and management related risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys. Results There were 807 colic episodes in the population of 4596 donkeys between January 1st 2000 and March 31st 2005. The majority (54.8% of episodes were due to a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of impaction of the gastrointestinal tract. The mortality risk for all colics (51.1% was higher than reported in other equids. The incidence rate of all colics (5.9 episodes per 100 donkeys per year and of impaction colic (3.2 episodes was similar to that in horses. A retrospective matched case-control study of all impaction colics from January 2003 (193 indicated that older donkeys, those fed extra rations and those that previously suffered colic were at increased risk of impaction. Lighter body weight, musculo-skeletal problems, farm and dental disease were also significantly associated with a diagnosis of impaction colic. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study to estimate the incidence rate of colic in a large population of donkeys in the UK. In contrast to other equids, impaction was the most commonly reported cause of colic. We identified several risk factors for impaction colic. Increasing age, extra rations and previous colic are known risk factors for colic in other equids. Results support the hypothesis that dental disease is associated with impaction colic. Musculo-skeletal problems may be associated with colic for various reasons including change

  1. A healthy nation: strengthening child health research in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Neena; Clark, Howard; Wolfe, Ingrid; Costello, Anthony; Budge, Helen; Goodier, R; Hyde, M J; Lumsden, D; Prayle, A; Roland, D

    2013-01-05

    Despite a general acknowledgment that research in children is necessary and ethical, the evidence base for child-specific treatments is still sparse. We investigated children's biomedical and health services research in the UK in relation to training, infrastructure and activity, research evidence, and visibility. We show that excellent opportunities for career researchers exist through a competitive, national integrated academic training programme, but that the number of academic paediatricians has decreased by 18% between 2000 and 2011, falling from 11·3% to 5·9% of the consultant workforce. The potential for rapid delivery of studies in children through the National Health Service (NHS) is not being realised: clinical trainees are poorly equipped with core research skills; most newly appointed consultant paediatricians have little or no research experience; less than 5% of contracted consultant time supports research; less than 2·5% of the 2 million children seen in the NHS every year are recruited to studies; and ten of the 20 UK children's hospitals do not have a clinical research facility. Support through National Institute for Health Research networks is good for studies into drugs, but inconsistent for non-drug research; less than 5% of registered studies involve children and only one children's biomedical research centre has been allocated funding from 2012. Of the UK annual public and charitable biomedical research expenditure of roughly £2·2 billion, about 5% is directed at child health research. The scant evidence base is impeding the development of clinical guidance and policy-less than 20% of the outputs of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence are applicable to children. Paediatric representation on major research boards is weak. Parent and young people's advocacy is fragmented, and their views are insufficiently heeded by regulatory bodies. The strong UK Government commitment to biomedical research has not been translated

  2. Sport concussion knowledge in the UK general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mareen; Edwards, Martin Gareth

    2012-05-01

    This is the first study to assess sport concussion knowledge and the effect of sport concussion self-report on knowledge in the UK general public. In the online survey, participants (n = 227) stated personal sport concussion history, injury indicators, and rated 26 injury statements for truthfulness using definite (true, false) or non-definite (probably true, probably false) response options. As anticipated, knowledge was limited. Few statement ratings were definite, and misconceptions prevailed. The injury's seriousness was systematically underestimated, suggesting that knowledge may not be sufficient for injury self-diagnosis and self-recovery measures. Sport concussion self-report was associated with more definite than non-definite statement ratings. However, response accuracy did not differ. This suggested that personal injury experience may yield a false sense of security. The use of accessible, easy-to-use tools needs to be promoted to improve sport practice safety.

  3. Attitudes towards attrition among UK trainees in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafson, Irene; Currie, Jane; O'Dwyer, Sabrina; Woolf, Katherine; Griffin, Ann

    2017-06-02

    Physician dissatisfaction in the workplace has consequences for patient safety. Currently in the UK, 1 in 5 doctors who enter specialist training in obstetrics and gynaecology leave the programme before completion. Trainee attrition has implications for workforce planning, organization of health-care services and patient care. The authors conducted a survey of current trainees' and former trainees' views concerning attrition and 'peri-attrition' - a term coined to describe the trainee who has seriously considered leaving the specialty. The authors identified six key themes which describe trainees' feelings about attrition in obstetrics and gynaecology: morale and undermining; training processes and paperwork; support and supervision; work-life balance and realities of life; NHS environment; and job satisfaction. This article discusses themes of an under-resourced health service, bullying, lack of work-life balance and poor personal support.

  4. Female Directors and Firm Performance: Evidence from UK Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pananda Pasaribu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of female directors on firm performance has lacked consistency in the previously conducted empirical studies, which may be due to the endogeneity problem, or certain characteristics (i.e. governance, industry, competition. This study examines the relationship between female directors and firm performance by addressing those problems. This study analyses all non-financial UK listed firms during the period 2004-2012 and employs several econometric models. The regression results indicate that there is little evidence that female directors have a positive and strong relationship with firm performance. But, further analysis reports that the UK’s small listed firms experience a positive significant effect, because small firms do not suffer from the problem of over-monitoring and they have more flexibility in composing their boards of directors.

  5. Grocery e-commerce in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a framework for the analysis of market creation and apply this to the grocery e-commerce business. The article develops a model of four forces that interplay when companies engage in the process of creating new markets. The applicability of the model...... is exemplified by examining the interaction of the forces having created grocery e-commerce markets in the UK and Denmark. The application of the model reveals that besides the usual identification of competition intensity, the persistency of market reach efforts of a focal firm and the value attraction of its...... offerings play a significant role in the creation of grocery e-commerce markets. The practical implications are that retailers should not just transfer a grocery e-commerce set-up from one national market to another without considering the mentioned four forces in their own national markets....

  6. Gas cool reactor operation in the UK. The present position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, B.J. [AEA Technology, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    During 1996 there was a major reorganisation of the UK Nuclear Industry. The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGRs) and Pressurised Water reactor (PWR) operated by Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear was privatised under a new company called British Energy. The Magnox reactors are now operated by a public utility named Magnox Electric, which is currently being merged with British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The old UKAEA was split into two parts; a public company, which has maintained the name UKAEA that is responsible for managing all their nuclear liabilities and a technical/consultancy company which is privately owned under the name of AEA Technology. Most of the Magnox and AGRs have continued to operate well with high availability factors. Decommissioning programmes have continued to expand and decommissioning costs have reduced below predicted levels. The industry is maintaining its safety research programme on gas cooled reactors under the direction of the HSE

  7. Ethical challenges of conducting health research in UK school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, Linda; Kendal, Sarah

    This paper offers guidance for novice nurse researchers on the ethical and methodological challenges of conducting health research in high school settings. Over the course of two studies in UK high schools with students aged 11-16 years, the authors encountered common ethical and methodological challenges. This article draws on these studies to build a critique of approaches to health research in school settings. Issues of consent and assent, confidentiality and participation can highlight tensions between the expectations of schools and health researchers. In this context, feasible research designs raise complex ethical and methodological questions. Ethical and methodological norms for health research may not be suitable for high school settings. Successful school-based health research designs may need to be flexible and responsive to the social environment of schools.

  8. Journal subscription expenditure of UK higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Stuart; Meghreblian, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The academic libraries of higher education institutions (HEIs) pay significant amounts of money each year for access to academic journals. The amounts paid are often not transparent especially when it comes to knowing how much is paid to specific publishers. Therefore data on journal subscription expenditure were obtained for UK HEIs using a series of Freedom of Information requests. Data were obtained for 153 HEIs' expenditure with ten publishers over a five-year period. The majority of institutions have provided figures but some are still outstanding. The data will be of interest to those who wish to understand the economics of scholarly communication and see the scale of payments flowing within the system. Further research could replicate the data collection in other jurisdictions.

  9. The changing UK careers landscape: tidal waves, turbulence and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-06-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and priorities for national careers services, differing strategic responses are beginning to emerge. A quasi-market, experimental approach is now the dominant discourse in England, in contrast to differing and complementary arrangements in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The article suggests that insofar as these developments are transforming national careers services, they are also creating significant challenges which require new forms of policy imagery and imagination for high-impact, all-age careers services.

  10. Media coverage of the 'UK flooding crisis': a social panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencio, Norma; Valencio, Arthur

    2017-10-23

    A disaster referred to by the press as the 'UK flooding crisis' occurred between December 2015 and January 2016. This study employed three different levels of analysis to identify a multidimensional perspective adopted in the disaster reporting of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). These levels revealed details about the social actors and their interactions. The set of news exposed diverse viewpoints on the crisis, from loss and damage to distinct affected subgroups to the various social engagement actions of aid and the multiplicity of technical response measures. The conclusions highlight considerable social amplitude in the BBC's coverage; however, owing to the reductionist approach of this media communicator, the field of action involving different social actors was not very clear in the content of the news, particularly with regard to cohesion, conflict/obstruction, and concernthe concept of crisis in its essence. In addition, the paper suggests new questions for future reports. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. Theorizing Surveillance in the UK Crime Control Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCahill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, this paper argues that the demise of the Keynesian Welfare State (KWS and the rise of neo-liberal economic policies in the UK has placed new surveillance technologies at the centre of a reconfigured “crime control field” (Garland, 2001 designed to control the problem populations created by neo-liberal economic policies (Wacquant, 2009a. The paper also suggests that field theory could be usefully deployed in future research to explore how wider global trends or social forces, such as neo-liberalism or bio-power, are refracted through the crime control field in different national jurisdictions. We conclude by showing how this approach provides a bridge between society-wide analysis and micro-sociology by exploring how the operation of new surveillance technologies is mediated by the “habitus” of surveillance agents working in the crime control field and contested by surveillance subjects.

  12. Obstetric trainees' experience in VBD and ECV in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, S; Raffi, F

    2010-01-01

    A survey of 100 obstetric trainees was performed to determine the level of experience in vaginal breech delivery (VBD) and external cephalic version (ECV) in the UK. The response rate was 80%. Sixty-four of the respondents were in their 4th or 5th year of old-style 'Calman' specialist registrar training, with the majority having had > or =5 years of experience in obstetrics including overseas experience. A total of 15 had performed less than five, 12 between five and ten, and 53 more than ten VBDs. In spite of limited training, 80% of the trainees felt confident in performing vaginal breech deliveries and were happy to offer VBD as an option in the future. All the respondents offered ECV to their patients and 63% had undergone practical training. Training in VBD should be continued in all settings and it should be a part of routine skills and drills teaching.

  13. THE UK ELECTRICITY MARKET EVOLUTION DURING THE LIBERALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vasilica Rotaru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight on the liberalization process that took place in the United Kingdom starting with 1990 until now. The electricity market in the United Kingdom made incredible progress in the road to reaching a full level of liberalization where customers are free to choose between suppliers and services. An analysis of the most important indicators for the electricity market evolution such as electricity price, the market share of the largest generator, the energy efficiency indicator shows that the liberalization process brought many advantages starting with 2001. Also, UK has to face new challenges in order to keep the development of the industry on the right path, challenges that are presented in the final part of the paper.

  14. The prevalence of personality disorder among UK primary care attenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P; Jenkins, R; Tylee, A; Blizard, R; Mann, A

    2000-07-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of personality disorder among a consecutive sample of UK primary care attenders. Associations between a diagnosis of personality disorder, sociodemographic background and common mental disorder were examined. Three hundred and three consecutive primary care attenders were examined for the presence of ICD-10 and DSM-4 personality disorders using an informant-based interview. Personality disorder was diagnosed in 24% (95% CI: 19-29) of the sample. Personality-disordered subjects were more likely to have psychiatric morbidity as indicated by GHQ-12, to report previous psychological morbidity, to be single and to attend the surgery on an emergency basis. 'Cluster B' personality disorders were particularly associated with psychiatric morbidity. There is a high prevalence rate of personality disorders among primary care attenders. These disorders are associated with the presence of common mental disorder and unplanned surgery attendance. Personality disorders may represent a significant source of burden in primary care.

  15. UK Government Web Continuity: Persisting Access through Aligning Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spencer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 Government's use of the Web in the UK is prolific and a wide range of services are now available though this channel. The government set out to address the problem that links from Hansard (the transcripts of Parliamentary debates were not maintained over time and that therefore there was need for some long-term storage and stewardship of information, including maintaining access. Further investigation revealed that linking was key, not only in maintaining access to information, but also to the discovery of information. This resulted in a project that affects the entire  government Web estate, with a solution leveraging the basic building blocks of the Internet (DNS and the Web (HTTP and URIs in a pragmatic way, to ensure that an infrastructure is in place to provide access to important information both now and in the future.

  16. UK national guidelines on the management of syphilis 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, M; French, P; Higgins, S; McQuillan, O; Sukthankar, A; Stott, C; McBrien, B; Tipple, C; Turner, A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, Keith; Cousins, Darren; FitzGerald, Mark; Fisher, Martin; Grover, Deepa; Higgins, Stephen; Kingston, Margaret; Rayment, Michael; Sullivan, Ann

    2016-05-01

    These guidelines are an update for 2015 of the 2008 UK guidelines for the management of syphilis. The writing group have piloted the new BASHH guideline methodology, notably using the GRADE system for assessing evidence and making recommendations. We have made significant changes to the recommendations for screening infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology and to facilitate accurate and timely communication between the teams caring for mother and baby we have developed a birth plan. Procaine penicillin is now an alternative, not preferred treatment, for all stages of syphilis except neurosyphilis, but the length of treatment for this is shortened. Other changes are summarised at the start of the guideline. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Language and identity--the Afrikaans community in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    The role of language in the identity package of Afrikaans-speaking South African expatriates in the UK is investigated in this paper. A description of the community is provided and the domains of use of their first language identified. The main research problem is the relationship between language and identity in a diasporic community such as this. In all modes of communication, the percentage of Afrikaans (in a bilingual relation with English) progressively decreased the closer the ties between the interlocutors became. The identification of 73% of all respondents with positive language-related statements correlated with 82% of the group's support for various types of cultural activities involving visiting South Africans. The mix of functions pointed to a more complex configuration of bilingual and monolingual domains, with some elements of a heterolocal cultural enclave, in which similar domain types are maintained in parallel, but with differences in actual context of usage.

  18. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  19. Towards a Zero Carbon Vision for UK Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitelegg, John; Haq, Gary; Cambridge, Howard; Vallack, Harry

    2010-07-01

    The report presents a phased programme of technological, financial and behavioural changes could secure the following potential cuts in (CO2 ) emissions compared to business-as-usual approach: - 100 per cent in road transport (cars and lorries); - 100 per cent in rail transport; - 56 per cent in aviation; - 49 per cent in shipping. The resulting overall reduction for transport in the UK by 2050 is 76%. It takes an evidence-based approach meaning that reductions are only included if there are already-available experience showing that reductions can be achieved. Further policy approaches might be possible but the report demonstrates what can be achieved just with policies for which there is already good evidence for their practical delivery

  20. Conceptualisation of Social Enterprise in the UK: A contemporary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mswaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social enterprise is increasingly gaining academic interest worldwide and is increasingly becoming an integral component of the mainstream economies of many countries, including the Unite Kingdom. Despite persistent interest from academics, the concept is relatively underdeveloped inherently complex and there are various aspects of social enterprise that remain largely under researched compared to conventional businesses. Given the advent of globalisation and increased competition social enterprises are under pressure to provide more innovative solutions to social problems that society in the UK faces. Through a comprehensive literature review of social enterprises, this paper scrutinises the evolution of these organisations as they adapt to changes in the environment in which they operates. The discussions show a cultural shift in the conceptualisation and practice of social enterprises in the country.

  1. Austerity and health: the impact in the UK and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Austerity measures-reducing social spending and increasing taxation-hurts deprived groups the most. Less is known about the impact on health. In this short review, we evaluate the evidence of austerity's impact on health, through two main mechanisms: a 'social risk effect' of increasing unemployment, poverty, homelessness and other socio-economic risk factors (indirect), and a 'healthcare effect' through cuts to healthcare services, as well as reductions in health coverage and restricting access to care (direct). We distinguish those impacts of economic crises from those of austerity as a response to it. Where possible, data from across Europe will be drawn upon, as well as more extensive analysis of the UK's austerity measures performed by the authors of this review. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  2. IDEAhaus: A Modular Approach to Climate Resilient UK Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Keeffe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the result of a project to develop climate adaptation design strategies funded by the UK’s Technology Strategy Board. The aim of the project was to look at the threats and opportunities presented by industrialized and house-building techniques in the light of predicted future increases in flooding and overheating due to anthropogenic climate change. The paper shows that the thermal performance of houses built to the current UK Building Regulations is not adequate to cope with changing weather patterns, and in light of this, develops a detailed design for a new house: one that is industrially produced and climatically resilient, but affordable. This detailed concept IDEAhaus of a modular house is not only flood-proof to a water depth of 750 mm, but also is designed to utilize passive cooling, which dramatically reduces the amount of overheating, both now and in the future.

  3. Arts Entrepreneurship Education in the UK and Germany: An Empirical Survey among Lecturers in Fine Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the current state of arts entrepreneurship education at higher educational institutions (HEIs) in the UK and Germany. It is based on findings from questionnaire surveys among 210 lecturers in fine art at 89 HEIs in the UK and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores issues related…

  4. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  5. "Brits Abroad": The Perceived Support Needs of U.K. Learners Studying in Higher Education Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    In the context of international growth in higher education exchanges and recent expansion in U.K. mobility rates after a period of some decline, this article examines the perspectives of U.K. students who have decided to spend part of their degree at universities abroad. Based on an analysis of data generated by a cross-institutional survey of…

  6. Which Terms Should Be Used to Describe Autism? Perspectives from the UK Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members--autistic people, parents and their broader support network--about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an…

  7. Herding the Academic Cats: The Challenges of "Managing" Academic Research in the Contemporary UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some aspects of and challenges faced by those academics and administrators who undertake the leadership and management of research activity in contemporary UK universities. This analysis is set in the context of almost three decades of reforms to the UK's higher education systems in general and to research funding and audit…

  8. Patterns in Payout Policy and Payout Channel Choice of UK Firms in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the payout policy of UK firms listed on the London Stock Exchange during the 1990s.We complement the existing payout literature studies by analyzing jointly the trends in dividends and share repurchases.Unlike in the US, we find that, in the UK, firms do not demonstrate a

  9. Constructing a National Higher Education Brand for the UK: Positional Competition and Promised Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie; Papatsiba, Vassiliki; Naidoo, Rajani

    2018-01-01

    This article examines national branding of UK higher education, a strategic intent and action to collectively brand UK higher education with the aim to attract prospective international students, using a Bourdieusian approach to understanding promises of capitals. We trace its development between 1999 and 2014 through a sociological study, one of…

  10. The Incidence and Effects of Overeducation in the U.K. Graduate Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Peter; Vignoles, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Considers overeducation in the context of the UK labor market, using a one in six sample of 1980 UK college graduates surveyed in 1986. Fully 38 percent of graduates were overeducated for their first job; 6 years later, 30 percent were overeducated and earned less than peers in graduate-level jobs. (Contains 26 references.) (MLH)

  11. An Exploration of the Relationship between Training Grants and Profitability of UK Construction Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Ison, Stephen G.; Hazlehurst, Guy

    2008-01-01

    A levy/grant system exists in the UK construction industry to provide financial support for companies undertaking training activities. With the current UK government skills policy, there is an emphasis on ensuring that training support provided to employers is aimed at enhancing companies' profitability. This paper explores the profitability of…

  12. Copyright Ownership of E-Learning and Teaching Materials: Policy Approaches Taken by UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Elizabeth; Weedon, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Investigates whether and how UK university copyright policies address key copyright ownership issues relating to printed and electronic teaching materials. A content analysis of 81 UK university copyright policies is performed to understand their approach towards copyright ownership of printed and e-learning materials and performances; rights on…

  13. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students from both…

  14. Leading Learning and Teaching: An Exploration of "Loca"' Leadership in Academic Departments in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale longitudinal study of "local" leadership roles at two UK universities. The research explored perceptions of the leadership provided by a specific group of staff who held roles for enhancing learning and teaching. Based on ethnographic design principles, the study was based at one UK higher education…

  15. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  16. Leading and Managing Contemporary UK Universities: Do Excellence and Meritocracy Still Prevail over Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The paper uses a gendered and feminist perspective to explore some dimensions of the debate about excellence and diversity in relation to the leadership and management of UK universities. The paper considers the extent to which notions about excellence and diversity are in tension in UK higher education and how understandings, underpinning values…

  17. ELIXIR-UK role in bioinformatics training at the national level and across ELIXIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, L.; Hendricusdottir, R.; Attwood, T.K.; Bacall, F.; Beard, N.; Bellis, L.J.; Dunn, W.B.; Hancock, J.M.; Nenadic, A.; Orengo, C.; Overduin, B.; Sansone, S-A; Thurston, M.; Viant, M.R.; Winder, C.L.; Goble, C.A.; Ponting, C.P.; Rustici, G.

    2017-01-01

    ELIXIR-UK is the UK node of ELIXIR, the European infrastructure for life science data. Since its foundation in 2014, ELIXIR-UK has played a leading role in training both within the UK and in the ELIXIR Training Platform, which coordinates and delivers training across all ELIXIR members. ELIXIR-UK contributes to the Training Platform’s coordination and supports the development of training to address key skill gaps amongst UK scientists. As part of this work it acts as a conduit for nationally-important bioinformatics training resources to promote their activities to the ELIXIR community. ELIXIR-UK also leads ELIXIR’s flagship Training Portal, TeSS, which collects information about a diverse range of training and makes it easily accessible to the community. ELIXIR-UK also works with others to provide key digital skills training, partnering with the Software Sustainability Institute to provide Software Carpentry training to the ELIXIR community and to establish the Data Carpentry initiative, and taking a lead role amongst national stakeholders to deliver the StaTS project – a coordinated effort to drive engagement with training in statistics. PMID:28781748

  18. The Effect of Work Placements on the Academic Performance of Chinese Students in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    The main controversy as a result of the commercialisation of international education markets is that international students especially those from China are unable to perform as well as UK students in UK universities. So far, research has yet to identify the influence of placements on the academic performance of Chinese students from entry to…

  19. The UK Language Learning Crisis in the Public Media: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanvers, Ursula; Coleman, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of foreign language learning in the United Kingdom have been attributed to a lack of interest and motivation which, it is claimed, is partly fostered by the media. The present study examines 90 UK newspaper articles that contributed to the public debate on the language learning crisis in the UK between February 2010 and February 2012.…

  20. From Graduate Employability to Employment: Policy and Practice in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Sonal; Hristov, Dean; Reynolds, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to enrich the current conceptualization of graduate employability and employment through the lens of policy, academia and practice in UK higher education. We examine the UK policy context that is shaping graduate employability and employment debates before enriching this conceptualization through a discussion of key…

  1. Knowledge Construction and Personal Relationship: Insights about a UK University Mentoring and Coaching Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2010-01-01

    This article examines interview data from 12 mentors/coaches and eight of their clients in order to explore a mentoring and coaching service among UK university staff. Both mentors/coaches and clients were administrative or academic employees of the Institute of Education or affiliated colleges at London University, UK. Their roles related to the…

  2. Accounting Academics' Perceptions of the Effect of Accreditation on UK Accounting Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Peter; Williams, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Students graduating from undergraduate accounting degree programmes in the UK are eligible for and attracted by accreditation available from professional accountancy body (PAB) examinations. The study reviews factual information available from PAB websites to confirm that virtually all accounting degrees in the UK have accreditation, and many are…

  3. In Two Minds?--Parental Attitudes toward Physical Punishment in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Lisa; Webb, Mary Anne; Healy, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Since the Millennium, the use of physical punishment in the home has been a widely debated topic across the UK. Reliance on public opinion has been an important feature of this debate with a variety of UK surveys showing that many find physical punishment acceptable and do not support a complete ban on smacking. Drawing on the results from a…

  4. An Agenda for Action To Achieve the Information Society in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the development a national information policy in the United Kingdom (UK): policies for national information infrastructures, electronic information services, privacy and data protection, copyright, public and national libraries; reviews problems inhibiting Internet use; compares the UK's and the European Commission's approaches to…

  5. UK Young Adults' Safety Awareness Online -- Is It a "Girl Thing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera "Being Victor". The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British…

  6. On the mechanisms that can potentially influence connectivity outcomes in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Airports Commission has considered the UK’s long-term connectivity needs and concluded that, while the UK remains one of the best connected countries in the world, problems are starting to emerge and they are likely to get worse. It appears that the UK is approaching the limits of what can be

  7. Perceptions of diversity and attitudes of tolerance in the 'fragmented' U.K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman; Hanquinet, Laurie; Cesur, Nazli Sila

    2017-01-01

    Relying on a quantitative survey (n = 1497) and semi-structured interviews (n = 30) conducted in the U.K., we explore British nationals’, Romanian and Turkish migrants’ attitudes of tolerance and the factors influencing them in the current socio-political context in the U.K. The quantitative data...

  8. From laggard to leader: Explaining offshore wind developments in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Smith, Adrian; Shaw, Chris; Raven, Rob; Verhees, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind technology has recently undergone rapid deployment in the UK. And yet, up until recently, the UK was considered a laggard in terms of deploying renewable energy. How can this burst of offshore wind activity be explained? An economic analysis would seek signs for newfound

  9. The Impact of Placements on the Academic Performance of UK and International Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by an increasing number of international students in UK higher education, this study investigates the effect of year-long placements on the academic performance of 268 accounting and finance students enrolled between 2006 and 2009. The results show differences between UK and international students although both statistically and…

  10. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rosalind F.; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.; Feber, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve or enhance the

  11. E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has created an international policy dilemma concerning how to use these products. This study assesses the types of beliefs that e-cigarette users in the United Kingdom may hold concerning regulation. Qualitative thematic analysis of written answers to open-ended questions. United Kingdom, questionnaire conducted by post, 44% recruited from online forums and 56% non-online. Fifty-five UK vapers, 55% male, mean age 46 years, 84% sole users of e-cigarettes, 95% vaping daily. Open-ended questions on regulatory and policy options. 'Protecting youth' was seen as a fundamental regulatory requirement which should be achieved through childproofing, age limits, no advertising aimed at children and health warnings about addictiveness of nicotine, but not the restriction of flavours. There was little support for regulating e-cigarettes as medicines or limiting the strength of nicotine liquids. In terms of public use, participants argued against a blanket ban on public vaping given perceptions of a lack of scientific evidence of harm. However, they supported the principle of autonomy, that individuals and organizations have the right to restrict vaping. Some participants suggested banning vaping in places such as schools, hospitals or around food, in line with current smoking norms. Vapers' regulatory positions were accompanied by political concerns about the use (and misuse) of scientific evidence. With regard to regulation of e-cigarettes, issues that are salient to UK vapers may include the need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Potential economic impacts from improving breastfeeding rates in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, S; Quigley, M A; Fox-Rushby, J; McCormick, F; Williams, A; Trueman, P; Dodds, R; Renfrew, M J

    2015-04-01

    Studies suggest that increased breastfeeding rates can provide substantial financial savings, but the scale of such savings in the UK is not known. To calculate potential cost savings attributable to increases in breastfeeding rates from the National Health Service perspective. Cost savings focussed on where evidence of health benefit is strongest: reductions in gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections, acute otitis media in infants, necrotising enterocolitis in preterm babies and breast cancer (BC) in women. Savings were estimated using a seven-step framework in which an incidence-based disease model determined the number of cases that could have been avoided if breastfeeding rates were increased. Point estimates of cost savings were subject to a deterministic sensitivity analysis. Treating the four acute diseases in children costs the UK at least £89 million annually. The 2009-2010 value of lifetime costs of treating maternal BC is estimated at £959 million. Supporting mothers who are exclusively breast feeding at 1 week to continue breast feeding until 4 months can be expected to reduce the incidence of three childhood infectious diseases and save at least £11 million annually. Doubling the proportion of mothers currently breast feeding for 7-18 months in their lifetime is likely to reduce the incidence of maternal BC and save at least £31 million at 2009-2010 value. The economic impact of low breastfeeding rates is substantial. Investing in services that support women who want to breast feed for longer is potentially cost saving. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. The secret garden? Elite metropolitan geographies in the contemporary UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Niall; Savage, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There is an enduring, indeed increasing awareness of the role of spatial location in defining and reinforcing inequality in this country and beyond. In the UK, much of the debate around these issues has focussed on the established trope of a long-standing ‘north-south divide’, a divide which appears to have deepened in recent decades with the inexorable de-industrialisation of northern Britain presented in stark counterpoint to the burgeoning concentration of wealth in London and the south-east, driven by the financial and ancillary services sectors. Due to a lack of available data, such debates have tended to focus solely on economic inequalities between places, and until now there was little understanding of how these disparities played out in the social and cultural domains. This paper significantly advances our understanding of the true meaning of spatial inequality in the UK by broadening that definition to encompass not only the economic, but also the social and cultural arenas, using data available from the BBC's Great British Class Survey experiment. We argue that these data shine a light not only on the economic inequalities between different parts of the country which existing debates have already uncovered but to understand how these are both reinforced and mediated across the social and cultural dimensions. Fundamentally, we concur with a great many others in seeing London and the south-east as a vortex for economic accumulation but it is also much more than that; it is a space where the coming together of intense economic, social and cultural resources enables the crystallisation of particular and nuanced forms of elite social class formations, formations in which place is not incidental but integral to their very existence. PMID:26640301

  14. National survey on endoscopy training in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R P; Stylianides, N A; Robertson, A G; Yip, V S K; Chadwick, G

    2015-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is an important skill for both gastroenterologists and general surgeons but concerns have been raised about the provision and delivery of training. This survey aimed to evaluate and compare the delivery of endoscopy training to gastroenterology and surgical trainees in the UK. A nationwide electronic survey was carried out of UK gastroenterology and general surgery trainees. There were 216 responses (33% gastroenterologists, 67% surgeons). Gastroenterology trainees attended more non-training endoscopy lists (mean: 3.0 vs 1.2) and training lists than surgical trainees (mean: 0.9 vs 0.5). A significantly higher proportion of gastroenterologists had already achieved accreditation in gastroscopy (60.8% vs 28.9%), colonoscopy (66.7% vs 1.4%) and flexible sigmoidoscopy (33.3% vs 3.0%). More gastroenterology trainees aspired to achieve accreditation in gastroscopy (97.2% vs 79.2%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (91.7% vs 70.1%) and colonoscopy (88.8% vs 55.5%) by completion of training. By completion of training, surgeons were less likely than gastroenterologists to have completed the required number of procedures to gain accreditation in gastroscopy (60.3% vs 91.3%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (64.6% vs 68.6%) and colonoscopy (60.3% vs 70.3%). This survey highlights marked disparities between surgical and gastroenterology trainees in both aiming for and achieving accreditation in endoscopy. Without changes to the delivery and provision of training as well as clarification of the role of endoscopy training in a surgical training programme, future surgeons will not be able to perform essential endoscopic assessment of patients as part of their management algorithm.

  15. Malnutrition in children with food allergies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R; De Koker, C; Dziubak, R; Venter, C; Dominguez-Ortega, G; Cutts, R; Yerlett, N; Skrapak, A-K; Fox, A T; Shah, N

    2014-06-01

    The mainstay of dietary management of food allergies remains the elimination diet. However, the removal of major food groups may predispose children to an inadequate nutrient intake. We therefore set out to establish growth status in food allergic children receiving dietetic input in the UK. Dietitians were approached via the Food Allergy and Intolerance Specialist Group from the British Dietetic Association and asked to submit anthropometrical data for children with food allergies. Data collected related to the systems involved and number of foods excluded. Malnutrition was defined according to World Health Organization standards. Data from 13 different centres yielded 97 patients (51 male and 46 female) of which 66 excluded ≤2 foods and 31 excluded ≥3 foods. Data indicated that 8.5% had a weight for age ≤ -2 Z-score and, conversely, 8.5% were ≥2 Z-score. For height for age, 11.1% were ≤ -2 Z-score and, for weight for height, 3.7% were ≤ -2 Z-score and 7.5% ≥2 Z-score. Type of allergy, system involved and specific food elimination did not impact on the level of malnutrition. However, the elimination of ≥3 foods significantly impacted on weight for age (P = 0.044). The present study demonstrates that children with food allergies are more underweight than the general UK population, which appears to be linked to the number of foods excluded. However, the impact of the disease process itself should not be disregarded. Additionally, obesity can also occur in this population despite dietary elimination. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rosalind F; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Feber, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve or enhance the

  17. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind F Shaw

    Full Text Available Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT, which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve

  18. Severe visual impairment and blindness in children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cable, Noriko

    2003-10-25

    Prevention of visual impairment and blindness in childhood is an international priority. However, many countries do not have contemporary information about incidence and causes, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. In the UK, children aged younger than 16 years newly diagnosed with severe visual impairment or blindness (SVI/BL, WHO criteria) during 2000 were identified through national active surveillance schemes in ophthalmology and paediatrics. From these data, we calculated yearly age-group specific incidence and cumulative incidence. Causes were classified by the anatomical site or sites affected and by timing of the insult or insults and causal factors, where known. Of 439 newly diagnosed children, 336 (77%) had additional non-ophthalmic disorders or impairments (SVI/BL plus). Total yearly incidence was highest in the first year of life, being 4.0 (95% CI 3.6-4.5) per 10000, with a cumulative incidence by 16 years of age of 5.9 (5.3-6.5) per 10000. 10% (44) of all children died within 1 year of diagnosis of blindness. Prenatal causal factors affected 61% (268) of children, with perinatal or neonatal and childhood factors each affecting 18% (77). Incidence and causes varied with presence of non-ophthalmic impairments or disorders, birthweight, and ethnic origin. At least 75% (331) of children had disorders that were neither potentially preventable nor treatable, with current knowledge. Severe visual impairment and blindness in childhood in the UK is more common, occurs more frequently in the context of complex non-ophthalmic impairments, and has greater associated mortality, than previously assumed. An increased rate in children of low birthweight and from ethnic minority groups, together with the observed diversity and complexity of the causes, reflect recent secular changes in the population at risk, specific risk factors, and strategies available for treatment.

  19. Rest and recuperation in the UK Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsloe, L; Jones, N; Fertout, M; Luzon, O; Greenberg, N

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that military personnel commonly remain psychologically resilient in the face of adversity they face on deployment. However, the processes that promote resilience have not been well assessed within the UK military. For many years, the UK Armed Forces have operated a policy of rest and recuperation (R&R), which refers to the brief period during which troops return home when on an operational tour of duty. While R&R is thought to play an import ant role in promoting recovery and well-being, there is as yet no empirical evidence to support its effectiveness. To explore whether R&R promotes well-being and recovery from the strains of deployment in military personnel. Participants completed self-report measures of mental health and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), as well as an R&R Recovery Questionnaire (R&RRQ). Statistical analysis indicated that the R&RRQ was a reliable measure within the sample of 97 subjects. Participants who reported recovery following R&R reported fewer symptoms of mental health difficulties. However, increased deployment exposure to PTEs was associated with feeling less recovered at the end of R&R. These preliminary data suggest that R&R can be useful for troops if they can use the time to recover. This study's results are relevant to policymakers and leaders in the military and other groups placed in challenging environments but more work is needed to understand how R&R works and to maximize its capacity to promote well-being among military personnel. © Crown copyright 2014.

  20. Weight bias among UK trainee dietitians, doctors, nurses and nutritionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Hanlon, S; El-Redy, L; Puhl, R M; Glazebrook, C

    2013-08-01

    Trainee dietitians, nutritionists, nurses and doctors will direct the future of obesity treatment and prevention. To do so effectively, they must be willing and able to engage empathically with overweight and obese people. The present study aimed to assess weight bias among UK trainee healthcare professionals and to investigate the factors predicting weight bias, both static and potentially modifiable. A self-completed questionnaire collected data on demographics, weight and height, the Fat Phobia Scale (F-scale), and the Beliefs about Obese People (BOAP) scale from 1130 students. Overall, participants demonstrated significant levels of fat phobia [F-scale score mean (SD) = 3.8 (0.5)]. Only 1.4% of participants could be said to have expressed 'positive or neutral attitudes' (i.e. achieved a F-scale score ≤ 2.5). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that lower fat phobia (as measured by the F-scale) was uniquely predicted by a higher self-reported body mass index, being on the Nursing BSc course and a stronger perception that obesity is not under a person's control (as measured by the BOAP scale). There are unacceptable levels of weight bias among UK students training to become nurses, doctors, nutritionists and dietitians. The results of the present study suggest that a promising approach for future interventions would be the provision of balanced education about the controllability of obesity, focusing upon genetic and environmental factors, as well as diet and exercise. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  2. Genetic evaluation of hip score in UK Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Lewis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009 were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection.

  3. Genetic Evaluation of Hip Score in UK Labrador Retrievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Blott, Sarah C.; Woolliams, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV) for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA) hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009) were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection. PMID:21042573

  4. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  5. Green power and the liberalisation of the UK electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Technology Policy Group

    1999-01-01

    The UK electricity market is being opened up to full competition in stages, starting in September 1998. This radical change means that consumers can contract with suppliers of their choice, rather than just with their local Regional Electricity Companies. It also makes it possible for purveyors of renewable energy to offer green power from renewable energy sources direct to consumers, although they are likely, at least initially, to have to be charged a premium price. While some hope that this new green power market will expand so that renewable energy technology can begin to make a significant contribution to the UK's electricity supplies, there are several problems with this new scheme, not least the fact that it relies on the voluntary support of altruistic consumers. Can they be relied on to provide sufficient surplus to fund the expansion of renewables? Shouldn't this be the responsibility of the government? Or the energy companies? Some renewable energy proponents even fear that, since liberalisation may drive down the price of conventional electricity, renewables will be left looking expensive, and, far from expanding, could be wiped out entirely. This paper explores the potential and limits of the green market approach to renewable energy development, and looks at some of the alternative, or complementary, approaches that might be used to help stimulate the development and use of renewable energy technologies. In this paper the term liberalisation is used to mean giving consumers the opportunity to buy electricity from whom they please by removing restraints on competition. In the US the term deregulation is sometimes used. However, liberalisation is not necessarily synonymous with abandoning regulation. Nevertheless, there is clearly a debate over how much freedom should be given to the market, and how much regulation should be relaxed. (author)

  6. Dogslife: A cohort study of Labrador Retrievers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, C A; Bronsvoort, B M de C; Handel, I G; Summers, K M; Clements, D N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of animals that visit primary and secondary veterinary centres dominate companion animal epidemiology. Dogslife is a research initiative that collects data directly from owners about the health and lifestyle of Kennel Club (KC) registered Labrador Retrievers (LR) in the UK. The ultimate aim is to seek associations between canine lifestyle and health. A selection of data from Dogslife regarding the height, weight and lifestyle of 4307 LR up to four years of age is reported here. The majority of the dogs were household pets, living with at least one other pet, in families or households with more than one adult. The dogs typically ate diets of dried food and daily meal frequency decreased as the dogs aged. Working dogs spent more time exercising than pets, and dogs in Wales and Scotland were exercised more than their counterparts in England. Dogs in households with children spent less time exercising than dogs in other types of households. There was considerable variation in height and weight measurements indicative of a highly heterogeneous population. The average male height at the shoulders was 2-3cm taller than the UK breed standard. Dog weights continued to increase between one and four years of age. Those with chocolate coloured coats were heavier than their yellow and black counterparts. Greater dog weight was also associated with dogs whose owners reported restricting their dog's exercise due to where they lived. These findings highlight the utility of wide public engagement in the collation of phenotypic measures, providing a unique insight into the physical development and lifestyle of a cohort of LRs. In combination with concurrently collected data on the health of the cohort, phenotypic data from the Dogslife Project will contribute to understanding the relationship between dog lifestyle and health. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Availability of iodised table salt in the UK - is it likely to influence population iodine intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-02-01

    Iodine deficiency has recently been found in UK young and pregnant women, which is of concern given the importance of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy for fetal brain development. The WHO recommends that iodine deficiency in a population should be corrected through salt iodisation but there is a lack of UK data on iodised-salt availability, a situation that the present study aimed to address. Availability of iodised salt for household use was determined by a shelf survey in five supermarket chains in each of sixteen UK areas (in Southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland) encompassing a total of seventy-seven supermarkets. All branches of a sixth supermarket chain that had 2·3% of the market share sold exclusively iodised salt. Weighted iodised-salt availability was calculated taking the market share of supermarkets into account. The UK. Not applicable. Iodised salt was available in thirty-two of the seventy-seven supermarkets (41·6%). After accounting for market share and including all six UK supermarket chains, the weighted availability of iodised salt was 21·5%. The iodine concentration of the major UK brand of iodised salt is low, at 11·5 mg/kg. In contrast to other countries, iodised household table salt is unlikely to contribute meaningful amounts to UK iodine intake as (i) availability is low, (ii) table salt is only a small percentage of total UK salt intake and (iii) UK public-health campaigns have encouraged reduced salt consumption. As iodine intake in the UK is dependent entirely on food choices, regular monitoring of iodine status is essential.

  8. Differences in the sodium content of bread products in the USA and UK: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Kasey J; Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Jenner, Katharine; Xavier, Dagan; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2018-02-01

    Americans consume Na in excess of daily recommendations. Most dietary Na comes from packaged foods, and bread is a major contributor. In the UK, national Na reduction strategies contributed to lower Na levels in packaged foods and lower population Na intake. Similar initiatives are emerging in the USA and require surveillance to assess effectiveness. We aimed to examine Na levels in bread products in the USA and compare levels with similar UK products. Na data for bread products were obtained from the US Label Insight Open Data Initiative (n 4466) and the FoodSwitch UK database (n 1651). Mean, median and range of Na content, and proportion of products meeting Na targets established by the National Salt Reduction Initiative (NSRI) and the UK Department of Health (DH) were calculated overall, by bread type and by country. Mean (sd) Na content in bread was 455 (170) mg/100 g in the USA and 406 (179) mg/100 g in the UK. In both countries, savoury bread had the highest mean Na (USA=584 mg/100 g, UK=543 mg/100 g) and fruit bread the lowest mean Na (USA=345 mg/100 g, UK=277 mg/100 g). Na content of US bread products was 12 % higher than in the UK, with 21 % of US bread products and 31 % of UK bread products meeting the NSRI and DH targets, respectively. US bread products have, on average, 12 % more Na than similar products in the UK. Variation in Na content within product categories, and between countries, suggests the feasibility of manufacturing products with lower Na to lower dietary Na intake.

  9. Six Year Refractive Change among White Children and Young Adults: Evidence for Significant Increase in Myopia among White UK Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCullough, Sara J; O'Donoghue, Lisa; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data...

  10. UK Renal Registry 17th Annual Report: Chapter 4 Demography of the UK Paediatric Renal Replacement Therapy Population in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Rishi; Hamilton, Alexander J; O'Brien, Catherine; Casula, Anna; Braddon, Fiona; Inward, Carol; Lewis, Malcolm; Maxwell, Heather; Stojanovic, Jelena; Tse, Yincent; Sinha, Manish D

    2015-01-01

    To describe the demographics of the paediatric renal replacement therapy (RRT) population under the age of 18 years in the UK and to analyse changes in demography over time. Data were collected electronically from all 13 paediatric renal centres within the UK. A series of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to describe the demographics of paediatric RRT patients. A total of 891 children and young people under 18 with established renal failure (ERF) were receiving treatment at paediatric nephrology centres in 2013. At the census date, 80.2% had a functioning transplant, 11.7%were receiving haemodialysis (HD) and 8.1% were receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). In patients aged ,16 years the prevalence of ERF was 58.2 per million age related population(pmarp) and the incidence 9.3 pmarp. A third of the prevalent patients had one or more reported comorbidities.At transfer to adult services, 85.2% of patients had a functioning renal transplant. Pre-emptive transplantation was seen to occur in a third of children starting RRT under16 years, with lower rates seen in girls and ethnic minorities.Living donation as starting modality has continued to improve with an increase from 8.8% in 1999–2003 to 18.4% in 2009–2013. Survival in childhood amongst children starting RRT was the lowest in those aged less than two years. We report continued improvement in data quality and electronic submission of data returns. The data provided in this report show relatively stable trends of incidence and prevalence in children with established renal failure.

  11. Effects of Economic Policy Uncertainty Shocks on the Long-Run US-UK Stock Market Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Gupta, Rangan

    We use the economic policy uncertainty indices of Baker, Bloom, and Davis (2016) in combination with the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach to investigate the US and UK stock market movements. The long-run US-UK stock market correlation depends positively on US economic policy uncertainty shocks....... The US long-run stock market volatility depends significantly on the US economic policy uncertainty shocks but not on UK shocks while the UK depends significantly on both....

  12. Managing a Meritocracy or an Equitable Organisation? Senior Managers' and Employees' Views about Equal Opportunities Policies in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the views of staff employed in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) about how those institutions are dealing with the impact of recent UK equality legislation and related European employment directives. Assumptions underlying current approaches to equality in UK HEIs are examined, particularly the notion of meritocracy,…

  13. Hemofilia nabyta w przebiegu tocznia rumieniowatego układowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenobia Czuszyńska

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemofilia nabyta jest rzadką jednostką chorobową spowodowanąwystępowaniem autoprzeciwciał, najczęściej przeciw VIII czynnikowikrzepnięcia. Częstość występowania tej choroby jest szacowanana 1,3–1,5 chorych na milion mieszkańców na rok. Ponadpołowa przypadków hemofilii nabytej (acquired haemophilia – AHma charakter samoistny. Wtórna postać najczęściej występujew przebiegu chorób autoimmunologicznych, takich jak: toczeńrumieniowaty układowy, reumatoidalne zapalenie stawówi zespół Sjögrena. Hemofilia nabyta może wystąpić także w przebiegunowotworów, chorób układu krwiotwórczego oraz w okresieciąży i połogu. Przyczyną może być również stosowanie niektórychleków. W przeciwieństwie do wrodzonej hemofilii, którawystępuje u mężczyzn, hemofilia nabyta występuje u obojga płci,pojawia się nagle, a jej przebieg może być gwałtowny i ciężki.WAH bardzo rzadko występują krwawienia do stawów, natomiastdominują rozległe wynaczynienia krwi pod skórą oraz krwawieniaśluzówkowe.W artykule opisano przypadek 27-letniej kobiety z toczniemrumieniowatym układowym, u której w trakcie aktywnej chorobypojawiły się rozległe podskórne wylewy krwawe (ryc. 1–3. Zaaktywnością choroby podstawowej przemawiało wysokie mianoprzeciwciał przeciwko dwuniciowemu DNA, niskie wartości składowychdopełniacza, niedokrwistość, a także białkomocz ponad1,3 g/dobę oraz aktywny osad moczu. W badaniach laboratoryjnychwykazano izolowane wydłużenie czasu częściowej tromboplastynypo aktywacji (APTT – 98 s (wartość referencyjna 26–37 s.Wykluczono obecność krążącego antykoagulantu tocznia (LA.Stwierdzono znacznie obniżoną aktywność VIII czynnika krzepnięcia (0,3% oraz wysokie miano inhibitora tego czynnika (49 jednostekBethesda. Zastosowano intensywne leczenie glikokortykosteroidamii cyklofosfamidem w pulsach, uzyskując pełną remisjęnabytej hemofilii. Aktywność czynnika VIII wr

  14. The experiences and perceptions of family planning of female Chinese asylum seekers living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verran, Alice; Evans, Sarah; Lin, Daniel J; Griffiths, Frances

    2015-04-01

    Chinese family planning policy is unique. There is limited sex education and the state is highly influential. This has resulted in extremely wide coverage of contraception with long-acting methods being favoured. The Chinese constitute a large proportion of asylum applicants to the UK. This study examines how their experiences and decisions about family planning in the UK are shaped by their cultural background. Data were drawn from 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews with female Chinese asylum seekers recruited through a family planning clinic in the UK. The increased autonomy provided by the UK system was appreciated by the participants. Choice of contraceptive method was influenced by traditional cultural beliefs and values, and the effect of hormonal contraception on menstruation was particularly concerning. Women arrived from China with little knowledge of contraception. Friends from a similar background were the most trusted source of advice. When transitioning from China to the UK unwanted pregnancies had occurred amongst unmarried women who had missed out on sex education while living in China. Chinese societal and cultural practices continue to influence family planning decisions made within the UK. Culturally competent health strategies are needed to ensure Chinese immigrant women fully benefit from family planning within the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Through the back door: nurse migration to the UK from Malawi and Nepal, a policy critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Radha; Grigulis, Astrida

    2014-03-01

    The UK National Health Service has a long history of recruiting overseas nurses to meet nursing shortages in the UK. However, recruitment patterns regularly fluctuate in response to political and economic changes. Typically, the UK government gives little consideration of how these unstable recruitment practices affect overseas nurses. In this article, we present findings from two independent research studies from Malawi and Nepal, which aimed to examine how overseas nurses encountered and overcame the challenges linked to recent recruitment and migration restrictions. We show how current UK immigration policy has had a negative impact on overseas nurses' lives. It has led them to explore alternative entry routes into the UK, affecting both the quality of their working lives and their future decisions about whether to stay or return to their home country. We conclude that the shifting forces of nursing workforce demand and supply, leading to abrupt policy changes, have significant implications on overseas nurses' lives, and can leave nurses 'trapped' in the UK. We make recommendations for UK policy-makers to work with key stakeholders in nurse-sending countries to minimize the negative consequences of unstable nurse recruitment, and we highlight the benefits of promoting circular migration.

  16. Motivation for studying medicine: assessing the similarities between UK and Ghanaian medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Clayton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Countries around the world experience challenges in ensuring equal distribution of health workers. For countries faced with this problem, there are many benefits to international co-operation. Before this can occur, however, there needs to be an understanding of the homogeneity of medical students between countries. This paper assesses the similarities in motivation to study medicine between medical students from the United Kingdom (UK and Ghana. A survey previously performed on fourth-year Ghanaian students was reproduced with medical students in the UK. Students were asked to record their motivation for studying medicine, opinions on future career [general practice (GP for UK students and a rural position for Ghanaian students] and basic demographics. The results were compared between the two cohorts using Fisher’s exact test. Of medical students, 302 from Ghana and 78 from UK completed the survey. Of students, 63.5 and 75.0% were classified as intrinsically motivated in Ghana and the UK, respectively. Apart from parental education status, student demographics were broadly similar. Within the UK cohort, 30.1% of students considered it likely that they would work in GP in their future careers. Medical students are similarly motivated between the two countries. This suggests that greater co-operation may be possible when tackling difficulties in human resources for health. This is especially relevant for the UK, as the level of students predicting a career in GP in this study remains well below the national target.

  17. Workplace violence experienced by nursing students: A UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Stephen; Üzar Özçetin, Yeter Sinem; Russell-Westhead, Michele

    2016-06-01

    To appreciate the nature and scope of workplace violence amongst a sample of the UK nursing student population during clinical placement and to recommend strategies universities can implement to successfully manage the impact. Workplace violence is defined as a violent act(s) directed toward workers and can include physical, psychological or verbal behaviour. It is prevalent in nursing and causes victims work-based stress that can affect not only the individual but also the quality of care. Similar negative experiences amongst students can have a direct impact on the development of future professional skills. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Questions were uploaded in the format of a commercial internet survey provider (SurveyMonkey.com) and distributed across a sample of nursing schools in the UK. The survey was voluntary and employed a validated tool to assess workplace violence and was based on a similar study in Australia. The number of respondents was 657. This paper reports on the quantitative results. Nearly half of the students (42.18%) indicated they had experienced bullying/harassment in the past year while on clinical placement. One-third (30.4%) had witnessed bullying/harassment of other students and 19.6% of incidents involved a qualified nurse. The unwanted behaviours made some students consider leaving nursing (19.8%). Some respondents said the standard of patient care (12.3%) and their work with others (25.9%) were negatively affected. Workplace violence can influence nursing students' attitude toward the profession and their level of satisfaction with the work. Whilst it was reassuring to note that the majority of the participants knew where/how to report, only one fifth had actively reported an episode of bullying/harassment. Current students are the nurses and leaders of the future and have a key role in shaping the culture of generations to come. Universities and clinical providers need to work together to reduce the

  18. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr SM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole

  19. Prescribing of antipsychotics in UK primary care: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Nazareth, Irwin; Petersen, Irene; Walters, Kate; Osborn, David P J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the recorded indication for antipsychotic prescriptions in UK primary care. Design Cohort study. Setting Primary care. Participants Individuals prescribed antipsychotics between 2007 and 2011. Measures The proportion of individuals prescribed antipsychotics with a diagnosis of (1) psychosis and bipolar disorder, (2) other diagnoses including depression, anxiety and dementia and (3) none of these diagnoses. Results We identified 47 724 individuals prescribed antipsychotic agents. 13 941 received first-generation agents and 27 966 received second-generation agents. The rates of prescribing were higher in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.092 (95% CI 1.088 to 1.095), older people (80+ vs 40–49; IRR 2.234 (2.222 to 2.246)) and in those from the most deprived areas (most deprived vs least deprived IRR 3.487 (3.567 to 3.606). Of those receiving first-generation antipsychotics, less than 50% had a diagnosis of psychosis/bipolar disorder. For the second-generation agents, the numbers ranged from 4824 (36%) for quetiapine to 7094 (62%) for olanzapine. In patients without psychosis/bipolar disorder, common diagnoses included anxiety, depression, dementia, sleep and personality disorders. For example, in risperidone users, 14% had an anxiety code, 22% depression, 12% dementia, 11% sleep disorder and 4% personality disorder. The median daily doses and duration of treatment were greater in those with schizophrenia (eg, risperidone median daily dose 4 mg; IQR 2–6: median duration 1.2 years) than in those with non-psychotic/bipolar disorders such as depression or anxiety (eg, risperidone 1 mg; IQR 1–2: 0.6 years). A relatively large proportion (between 6% and 17%) of people receiving individual antipsychotics had none of the diagnoses stated above. Conclusions In UK primary care, a large proportion of people prescribed antipsychotics have no record of psychotic or bipolar disorder. They are often older people with conditions including

  20. Imported water risk: the case of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.

    2016-05-01

    While the water dependency of water-scarce nations is well understood, this is not the case for countries in temperate and humid climates, even though various studies have shown that many of such countries strongly rely on the import of water-intensive commodities from elsewhere. In this study we introduce a method to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of the external water footprint (WF) of a country, with the UK as an example. We trace, quantify and map the UK’s direct and indirect water needs and assess the ‘imported water risk’ by evaluating the sustainability of the water consumption in the source regions. In addition, we assess the efficiency of the water consumption in source areas in order to identify the room for water savings. We find that half of the UK’s global blue WF—the direct and indirect consumption of ground- and surface water resources behind all commodities consumed in the UK—is located in places where the blue WF exceeds the maximum sustainable blue WF. About 55% of the unsustainable part of the UK’s blue WF is located in six countries: Spain (14%), USA (11%), Pakistan (10%), India (7%), Iran (6%), and South Africa (6%). Our analysis further shows that about half of the global consumptive WF of the UK’s direct and indirect crop consumption is inefficient, which means that consumptive WFs exceed specified WF benchmark levels. About 37% of the inefficient part of the UK’s consumptive WF is located in six countries: Indonesia (7%), Ghana (7%), India (7%), Brazil (6%), Spain (5%), and Argentina (5%). In some source countries, like Pakistan, Iran, Spain, USA and Egypt, unsustainable and inefficient blue water consumption coincide. We find that, by lowering overall consumptive WFs to benchmark levels, the global blue WF of UK crop consumption could be reduced by 19%. We discuss four strategies to mitigate imported water risk: become more self-sufficient in food; diversify the import of water-intensive commodities, favouring

  1. Observations on gender equality in a UK Earth Sciences department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Jonathan; Allen, Mark; Chamberlain, Katy; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Hoult, Jill; Macpherson, Colin; Winship, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The progress of women to senior positions within UK higher education institutes has been slow. Women are worst represented in science, engineering and technology disciplines, where, in 2011, only 15% of professors were female. The national position is reflected in the Department of Earth Sciences at Durham University. The Department's gender profile shows steadily increasing proportions of females from undergraduate (ca. 38%) to postgraduate (ca. 42%) to postdoctoral (ca. 45%) levels, before dropping sharply with increasing seniority to 33% (n=1), 14% (n=1), 14% (n=1) and 13% (n=2), respectively, of lecturers, senior lecturers, readers and professors. The data suggest there is no shortage of talented female postgraduates and postdoctoral researchers; however, females are not applying, not being shortlisted, or not being appointed to academic roles in the expected proportions. Analysis of applications to academic positions in the Department during the period 2010-2015 suggests that "head hunting" senior academics, in some cases driven by external factors such as the UK Research Excellence Framework, resulted in a small proportion (between 0% and 11%) of female applicants. These results can be explained by the small number of senior female Earth Scientists nationally and, probably, internationally. Junior lectureship positions attracted between 24% and 33% female applicants, with the greatest proportion of females applying where the specialism within Earth Sciences was deliberately left open. In addition to these externally advertised posts, the Department has had some success converting independent research Fellowships, held by female colleagues, into permanent academic positions (n=2 between 2010 and 2015). Data for academic promotions show there is a significant negative correlation between year of appointment to first academic position within the Department (r=0.81, n=19, pgender equality issues, and greater awareness of conscious and unconscious biases against

  2. Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor W; Pitcher, Alex; Goldacre, Michael J

    2013-01-25

    Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors' early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974-2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors' 'domestic circumstances' were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while 'enthusiasm/commitment', 'financial prospects', 'experiences of the job so far' and 'a particular teacher/department' were important. Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early choice and later destination was not particularly strong for

  3. Aged riverine particulate organic carbon in four UK catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jessica L., E-mail: jesams@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, Edward, E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bryant, Charlotte L., E-mail: charlotte.bryant@glasgow.ac.uk [NERC Radiocarbon Facility, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Helliwell, Rachel C., E-mail: rachel.helliwell@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH Scotland (United Kingdom); Toberman, Hannah, E-mail: hannahtoberman@hotmail.com [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Quinton, John, E-mail: j.quinton@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    The riverine transport of particulate organic matter (POM) is a significant flux in the carbon cycle, and affects macronutrients and contaminants. We used radiocarbon to characterise POM at 9 riverine sites of four UK catchments (Avon, Conwy, Dee, Ribble) over a one-year period. High-discharge samples were collected on three or four occasions at each site. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was obtained by centrifugation, and the samples were analysed for carbon isotopes. Concentrations of SPM and SPM organic carbon (OC) contents were also determined, and were found to have a significant negative correlation. For the 7 rivers draining predominantly rural catchments, PO{sup 14}C values, expressed as percent modern carbon absolute (pMC), varied little among samplings at each site, and there was no significant difference in the average values among the sites. The overall average PO{sup 14}C value for the 7 sites of 91.2 pMC corresponded to an average age of 680 {sup 14}C years, but this value arises from the mixing of differently-aged components, and therefore significant amounts of organic matter older than the average value are present in the samples. Although topsoil erosion is probably the major source of the riverine POM, the average PO{sup 14}C value is appreciably lower than topsoil values (which are typically 100 pMC). This is most likely explained by inputs of older subsoil OC from bank erosion, or the preferential loss of high-{sup 14}C topsoil organic matter by mineralisation during riverine transport. The significantly lower average PO{sup 14}C of samples from the River Calder (76.6 pMC), can be ascribed to components containing little or no radiocarbon, derived either from industrial sources or historical coal mining, and this effect is also seen in the River Ribble, downstream of its confluence with the Calder. At the global scale, the results significantly expand available information for PO{sup 14}C in rivers draining catchments with low erosion rates

  4. Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate the contemporary incidence of gout, examine potential risk factors, and evaluate specific gout treatment patterns in the general population. Methods Using the health improvement network (THIN) UK primary care database, we estimated the incidence of gout based on 24,768 newly diagnosed gout patients among a cohort of 1,775,505 individuals aged 20 to 89 years between 2000 and 2007. We evaluated potential risk factors for incident gout in a nested case-control study with 50,000 controls frequency-matched by age, sex and calendar time. We calculated odds ratios (OR) by means of unconditional logistic regression adjusting for demographic variables, lifestyle variables, relevant medical conditions and drug exposures. Results The incidence of gout per 1,000 person-years was 2.68 (4.42 in men and 1.32 in women) and increased with age. Conventional risk factors were significantly and strongly associated with the risk of gout, with multivariate ORs of 3.00 (95% confidence interval (CI)) for excessive alcohol intake (that is, more than 42 units per week), 2.34 (95% CI 2.22 to 2.47) for obesity (body mass index > = 30 kg/m2), 2.48 (95% CI 2.19 to 2.81) for chronic renal impairment, and 3.00 (95% CI 2.85 to 3.15) for current diuretic use. For other medical conditions the multivariate OR were 1.84 (95% CI 1.70 to 2.00) for heart failure, 1.45 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.79) for hypertriglyceridemia and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.22) for psoriasis. Use of cyclosporine was associated with an OR of 3.72 (95% CI, 2.17 to 6.40). Among gout-specific therapies, allopurinol was the most frequently used with a one-year cumulative incidence of 28% in a cohort of incident gout diagnosed from 2000 to 2001. Use of gout-specific treatment has not changed over recent years except for an increase of colchicine. Conclusions The contemporary incidence of gout in UK remains substantial. In this general population cohort, associations with previously

  5. Research investments for UK infectious disease research 1997-2013: A systematic analysis of awards to UK institutions alongside national burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Brown, Rebecca J; Clarke, Stuart C

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant burden in the UK and the focus of significant amounts of research investment each year. The Research Investments in Global Health study has systematically assessed levels of funding for infection research, and here considers investment alongside UK burden of individual infectious diseases. The study included awards to UK institutions between 1997 and 2013 that were related to infectious disease. Awards related to global health projects were excluded here. UK burden data (mortality, years lived with disability, and disability adjusted life years) was sourced from the Global Burden of Disease study (IHME, USA). Awards were categorised by pathogen, disease, disease area and by type of science along the research pipeline (pre-clinical, phase I-III trials, product development, public health, cross-disciplinary research). New metrics present relative levels of funding by comparing sum investment with measures of disease burden. There were 5685 relevant awards comprising investment of £2.4 billion. By disease, HIV received most funding (£369.7m; 15.6% of the total investment). Pre-clinical science was the predominant type of science (£1.6 billion, 68.7%), with the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) the largest funder (£714.8 million, 30.1%). There is a broad temporal trend to increased fundingper annum. Antimicrobial resistance received (£102.8 million, 4.2%), whilst sepsis received £23.6 million (1.0%). Compared alongside disease burden, acute hepatitis C and measles typically were relatively well-funded, whilst pneumonia, syphilis and gonorrhoea were poorly-funded. The UK has a broad research portfolio across a wide range of infectious diseases and disciplines. There are notable strengths including HIV, some respiratory infections and in pre-clinical science, though there was less funding for UK-relevant trials and public health research. Compared to the UK burden of disease, syphilis, gonorrhoea and pneumonia appear

  6. A survey of anaesthetic practice in predicting difficult intubation in UK and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Duncan; Vaughan, Ralph S; Wilkes, Antony R; Mapleson, William W; Hodzovic, Iljaz

    2012-05-01

    Unexpected difficulty in tracheal intubation is an intermittent and often terrifying problem for all practising anaesthetists. There are many preoperative assessment tests to predict a difficult laryngeal view or a difficult intubation, but we found no published evidence of how frequently these predictive tests are used or how useful they are perceived to be by anaesthetists. We decided to ask UK and non-UK anaesthetists attending the Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society of Anaesthesiology about their practice in predicting difficult intubation. The study was conceived as a survey. The airway tests were compiled into a questionnaire, hand distributed among anaesthetists at Euroanaesthesia - the European group (after excluding UK attendees) - and posted to randomly selected anaesthetists in the UK - the UK group. Overall, 888 of 1230 (72%) questionnaires were completed. The response rate from the UK group of anaesthetists was 69% (481 of 700) and from the European group was 77% (407 of 530). On a scale 1 (never) to 5 (always), the mean score for frequency of use was similar for both groups of anaesthetists and ranged from about 4 for mouth opening to about 1 for Nodding Donkey. The mean score for usefulness (1 = useless, 5 = extremely useful) ranged from about 3.7 to 2 for the same two tests. The UK group found most tests slightly less useful than did the European group. With regard to the frequency of assessing the airway, 9% of the European group, but 16% of the UK group, failed always (score 5) or regularly (score 4) to assess the airway before general anaesthesia. Furthermore, 21 and 36% of the UK and European groups, respectively, failed to do so before regional anaesthesia. These results are a cause for concern with regard to both airway management training and patient safety.

  7. The impact of changes in UK classification of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists in 'Spice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Paul I; Hudson, Simon; Ramsey, John; Wood, David M

    2011-07-01

    Spice is the iconic brand name of a smokeable herbal mixture containing synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. It has been available on the Internet/in head shops in Europe since at least 2006. The synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist constituents of Spice were classified in the UK as Class B agents in December 2009. This study assessed the impact of this legislation on the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists present in Spice products and whether new synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists outside of the legislation are now available. Spice products were bought, prior to and after the change in the UK legislation, from a range of Internet legal high websites selling to UK consumers. Products were analysed using liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Identification of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist(s) detected was made by comparison to existing databases or by 'in silico' methods. Sixteen products were purchased prior to the UK control of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists; all contained at least one synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist. 20 products were purchased after the UK control; no active compounds were detected in 3 (15%). The remaining 17 (85%) all contained at least one classified synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist. Additionally, 2 synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists not covered under current UK generic legislation (AM-694 and the 'novel Belarus compound') were detected. Despite the UK 'Spice' classification, classified synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists continue to be supplied over the Internet to UK users. Furthermore, new synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists not covered by the legislation are appearing. Consideration needs to be given to reviewing the UK legislation so that suppliers cannot circumvent it by supplying legal alternatives to the classified synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The UK Ecosystem for Fostering Innovation in the Earth & Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The UK national government supports an ecosystem of government-funded organisations that carry a specific remit for innovation. By specifically cultivating the commercialisation of research where appropriate, the UK demonstrates a forward-thinking and coordinated approach to deriving economic and societal impact from scientific research activities. This presentation provides an overview of innovation activities at government-backed organisations that support the Earth and space science communities. At the broadest and highest levels, the UK has a whole-of-government approach to fostering innovation. The government also has a designated innovation agency - Innovate UK - which works with people, companies, and partner organisations to find and drive the science & technology innovations that will grow the UK economy. A primary source of scientific funding to UK-based researchers comes from the Research Councils UK (RCUK), which has seven constituent Research Councils. Along with funding activities that support basic research, innovation is supported through a variety of activities. The National Environmental Research Council (NERC), the UK's leading public funder for Earth & environmental science, has brought to market a wide variety of ideas and innovations, including by helping to register patents, negotiating licensing deals, and setting up spin-out companies or joint ventures with commercial organisations. Case studies of NERC commercialization successes will be given, as well as an overview of mechanisms by which NERC supports innovation. These include 'Pathfinder' awards that help enable researchers to develop a greater understanding of the commercial aspects and possibilities of their research. Complementary 'Follow-on Fund' awards provide proof-of-concept funding to support the commercialisation of ideas arising from NERC-funded research. Early-career researchers are also eligible for NERC's Environment Young Entrepreneurs Scheme. Innovation activity, like

  9. Gas-fired power in the UK: Bridging supply gaps and implications of domestic shale gas exploitation for UK climate change targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Jeremy K; Reay, David S; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2018-03-01

    There is a projected shortcoming in the fourth carbon budget of 7.5%. This shortfall may be increased if the UK pursues a domestic shale gas industry to offset projected decreases in traditional gas supply. Here we estimate that, if the project domestic gas supply gap for power generation were to be met by UK shale gas with low fugitive emissions (0.08%), an additional 20.4MtCO2e1 would need to be accommodated during carbon budget periods 3-6. We find that a modest fugitive emissions rate (1%) for UK shale gas would increase global emissions compared to importing an equal quantity of Qatari liquefied natural gas. Additionally, we estimate that natural gas electricity generation would emit 420-466MtCO2e (460 central estimate) during the same time period within the traded EU emissions cap. We conclude that domestic shale gas production with even a modest 1% fugitive emissions rate would risk exceedance of UK carbon budgets. We also highlight that, under the current production-based greenhouse gas accounting system, the UK is incentivized to import natural gas rather than produce it domestically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. UK's Brexit battle casts shadow over funding for international fusion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The ramifications of Brexit - the UK's decision to leave the European Union - have continued to send shockwaves through the nuclear energy community, since I explained in this column recently that the move also means withdrawing from the Euratom Treaty. Now the UK's divorce from the EU is posing a threat that could deal a major blow to international efforts in fusion research. In fact, confusing signals from the UK have cast doubt on future funding and support for two key areas of world fusion cooperation: the Oxfordshire-based Joint European Torus (Jet) programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project at Cadarache in France.

  11. Best in Class International Franchising: Report for the UK Retail Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, M; Watson, K; Kadile, V; Clegg, LJ

    2015-01-01

    Retailing is such a fast-moving industry it is difficult to keep on top of changes in domestic markets, let alone those in geographically and culturally distant foreign markets. Although it is tempting for a UK-based retailer to remain domestic and focus on strengthening their competitive position in the UK before going overseas, the most successful retailers continuously explore what it takes to operate effectively across national borders. UK retailers need to “think bigger” if they are to e...

  12. Whither the elephant?: the continuing development of clinical leadership in the UK National Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonstone, John Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The paper revisits the theme of clinical leadership in UK countries, following an earlier (2009) review. It examines the competency-based approach; considers the emerging voices of clinical leaders; explores the results of evaluation research studies; identifies learning from intra-UK and international comparisons and considers the issue of leader development versus leadership development. It concludes that there is little conceptual clarity; that there continues to be a major disconnect between clinicians and managers; that different approaches to developing clinical leaders are emerging in different parts of the UK and that the major challenge remains to develop leadership, rather than leaders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in the USA, the UK and Australia: an international survey

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in the USA, the UK and Australia. Methods Participants in the USA, UK and Australia completed an anonymous web-based survey measuring awareness and knowledge of HPV (n=2409). We report analyses on a subsample of 1473 men and women in the USA (n=617), UK (n=404) and Australia (n=452) who had heard of HPV and completed questions about HPV testing. Results Overall, 50% of the sample (742/1473) had heard of HPV tes...

  15. How UK is preparing for major push towards world's first SMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Bruessel (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    The UK Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy is finalising a roadmap for the development of SMRs in the UK in parallel with the first phase of the competition. The roadmap will be published early in 2017, although whether it will be affected by the change in personnel at the top of government following the June 2016 vote for Brexit remains to be seen. The UK seems to be taking a lead in the development of SMRs. In its 2015 autumn budget statement, the government announced it would invest pound 250 m in an ''ambitious nuclear research and development programme'', including in the SMR competition.

  16. Social enterprise in the UK homelessness sector: Lessons for Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan S. Tanekenov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan’s homelessness social enterprise (SE practitioners tend to argue that core to the SE concept is the idea that this is first and foremost a business whose income generation function enables it to sustain the viability of social projects. A range of important potential lessons for Kazakhstan emerged from work-based SEs in homelessness sector in the UK with respect to SEs’ financial capacity: (a ideally, a SE might make enough trading income to entirely sustain its own activities and cross-subsidise a charitable arm/organisation; (b some SEs might make enough financial resources via trading income to entirely sustain their own activities, but only just enough to “break even” so there was no surplus “profit” to invest in charitable programmes; (c SEs might make some trading income, but this was only enough to cover part of their operational costs, and so the SEs needed some subsidy to invest in social programmes (the cost transfer model; (d some emerging SEs make no trading income (so required all costs to be met via cost transfer. This means that it is unrealistic to expect employment-based SEs at least to be able to reconcile commercial and social goals in any absolute sense (Teasdale, 2012a. Kazakh authorities should, therefore, avoid shifting the entire financial responsibility for the social support component of employment-based SEs in the homelessness field themselves.

  17. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N.; Pereira, M. Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L.; Shore, Richard F.; Bullock, James M.; Heard, Matthew S.; Pywell, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure. PMID:29298300

  18. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W; Morrell, Lesley J

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  19. The portrayal of bariatric surgery in the UK print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J M L; Rink, J A; Hewin, D H

    2012-11-01

    Bariatric and metabolic surgery is a recent introduction into mainstream surgical practice. It has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the health of an individual and a positive economic impact for society. Nonetheless, bariatric surgery faces a problem of perception from both the public and healthcare commissioners. The media functions as an interface between the medical community, government and the public. It therefore plays a critical role in shaping public opinion regarding health issues. Articles relating to bariatric surgery in the ten most frequently read UK daily newspapers were assessed over a 24-month period (January 2010-December 2011). Each article was rated via a five-point scale from very negative (1) to very positive (5) by two independent assessors to produce an average score. A total of 197 relevant articles were identified and analysed for content. Sixty-four (33 %) of all articles were negatively slanted (mean score 1-2.5), 105 (53 %) were positive (mean score 3.5-5) and 28 (14 %) were neutral (mean score 2.5-3.5). The average score of all articles was 3.3 (neutral, but slightly positive). The print media will influence public perceptions of bariatric surgery. There is huge variation in how bariatric surgery is reported, but overall the coverage is neutral. We feel that negative reportage distorts the overall awareness of bariatric surgery and may affect both how and when the obese seek medical intervention.

  20. Travel medicine advice to UK based international motor sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, A

    2000-01-01

    International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.

  1. MCT: A UK Retrospective—Reminiscences of a Crystal Grower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The essentials of bulk Bridgman growth of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) are outlined, together with some background to its use in the UK. It is still being used in a few niche applications, e.g., long-wavelength photoconductive (PC) detectors for space programs, and as material for infrared (IR) optical components. The latter requires very short-wavelength and/or larger-diameter material, and the challenges and successes in these areas are outlined. Use of a new source of high-purity silica, together with continual improvements in element purification, from our in-house tellurium zone refining and mercury distillation, reduced the carrier concentration consistently to sub-1014 cm-3, which helped to further improve PC device performance. An offer is made to supply bulk wafers to the wider community for research and development (R&D) purposes. The benefits of IR-related books, published over the past 30 years, to the community are described and a challenge laid down to continue this process of information dissemination into the future, in either hard-copy form or online versions.

  2. The formation of acrylamide in UK cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadd, Peter; Hamlet, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Many bakery products sold in the UK such as crumpets, batch bread and Naan might be expected to show high levels of acrylamide because they have strong Maillard colours and flavours. However, analysis of commercial products has shown that the highest levels of acrylamide are seen in dry biscuit type products. With the exception of spiced products such as ginger cake, moist high sugar products (e.g. cakes and fruit loaves) show relatively low levels of acrylamide, even in darkly browned crusts. This is in contrast to bread where acrylamide levels in excess of 100 microg/kg are common in the crust region, but are diluted by low levels in the crumb. Acrylamide levels in bread are significantly raised by domestic toasting, but other products such as crumpets and Naan bread have been found to be less sensitive. A mathematical model has been developed (and validated against tests on model dough) which shows that once obvious recipe differences are allowed for, the key factor limiting acrylamide levels is crust moisture. Chemical decay of acrylamide and depletion of amino acids are also limiting factors at higher temperatures.

  3. Density of transneptunian object 229762 2007 UK126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Will

    2017-08-01

    Densities provide unique information about bulk composition and interior structure and are key to going beyond the skin-deep view offered by remote-sensing techniques based on photometry, spectroscopy, and polarimetry. They are known for a handful of the relict planetesimals that populate our Solar System's Kuiper belt, revealing intriguing differences between small and large bodies. More and better quality data are needed to address fundamental questions about how planetesimals form from nebular solids, and how distinct materials are distributed through the nebula. Masses from binary orbits are generally quite precise, but a problem afflicting many of the known densities is that they depend on size estimates from thermal emission observations, with large model-dependent uncertainties that dominate the error bars on density estimates. Stellar occultations can provide much more accurate sizes and thus densities, but they depend on fortuitous geometry and thus can only be done for a few particularly valuable binaries. We propose observations of a system where an accurate density can be determined: 229762 2007 UK126. An accurate size is already available from multiple stellar occultation chords. This proposal will determine the mass, and thus the density.

  4. Ergot alkaloids in some rye-based UK cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; Anderson, W A C; Rees, G; Krska, R

    2009-01-01

    UK rye-based cereal products were analysed for six major ergot alkaloids using an in-house-validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that distinguished -ine and -inine epimers (isomers). Ergot alkaloids were detected in 25 of 28 samples subject to quantification limits of 1-3 µg kg(-1), including all of eleven rye crispbreads that had up to 340 µg kg(-1). Continental-style rye breads contained up to 121 µg kg(-1). Loaf breads, bread-mix flours, and crackers contained only low levels of alkaloids. Ergotamine, ergocristine, and ergosine were the predominant ergot alkaloids in terms of level and frequency of occurrence. There were no apparent differences in the ergot levels between the organic and non-organic products, although the numbers tested were low. Most rye breads had a ratio of -ines to -inines of about 1.5, and rye crispbreads had lower and more variable -ine to -inine ratios.

  5. 30th anniversary of the 1967 Abortion Act. UK news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th anniversary of the 1967 Abortion Act, October 27, 1997, Lord David Steel of Aikwood KBE, architect of the Act, reminded people that whatever one thinks about abortion, if it is going to happen, it's better that it be safe and legal than illegal and dangerous. The event received extensive coverage by the press and broadcast media which mostly discussed abortion as a necessary and legitimate part of reproductive health care, rather than as a controversial moral issue. Many of the articles and broadcasts were based upon material from two pro-choice books published to mark the anniversary: "Voices for Change" (by the National Abortion Campaign and Marie Stopes International) and "Abortion Law Reformers: Pioneers of Change" (by Birth Control Trust). One Parliamentary Early Day Motion (EDM) commemorated the Act and its benefits for women, while another called for the Act to be liberalized and extended to Northern Ireland. The anti-choice lobby argues that Britain has elected the most pro-choice parliament in its history. The major UK anti-choice groups had little public impact, with the Catholic Church voicing the most significant opposition to legal abortion.

  6. Perceptions of success of a local UK public health collaborative†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlecott, H J; Fox, K R; Stathi, A; Thompson, J L

    2017-02-01

    Successful public health initiatives require multi-sector collaboration. AVONet was a UK collaborative developed to provide evidence-based strategies for active ageing. This study explored the success of AVONet in the achievement of its objectives as perceived by all partners. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was employed, utilizing a quantitative survey and qualitative semi-structured interviews. Data collection was undertaken in September 2010, 18 months after establishing the collaborative and 6 months after funding had ceased. AVONet partners (n = 24) completed a 27-item survey. A sub-sample of four academics and four practitioners participated in semi-structured interviews. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons were made between academics' and practitioners' perceptions of success, potential for sustainability and satisfaction with structure and relationships. Participants perceived the AVONet collaborative positively. Significant between-group (academic v practitioner) differences in survey responses were observed for success (U = 19.5; p = 0.003) and structure (U = 125.5; p = 0.001). Strong positive correlations were observed between success and structure and balance between information transfer and exchange (r = 0.756; p local council-led governance. Perceived success in building a multi-sectoral collaborative can be achieved during a 10-month period, despite differing needs of contributors. For collaboratives developed as a result of external funding aimed primarily at facilitating research, involvement of practitioners at an early stage may help set more comprehensive goals, supportive communication strategies, and increase potential for sustainability.

  7. Infrared engineering for the advancement of science: A UK perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian M.

    2017-02-01

    Leonardo MW (formerly Selex ES) has been developing infrared sensors and cameras for over 62 years at two main sites at Southampton and Basildon. Funding mainly from UK MOD has seen the technology progress from single element PbSe sensors to advanced, high definition, HgCdTe cameras, widely deployed in many fields today. However, in the last 10 years the major challenges and research funding has come from projects within the scientific sphere, particularly: astronomy and space. Low photon flux, high resolution spectroscopy and fast frame rates are the motivation to drive the sensitivity of infrared detectors to the single photon level. These detectors make use of almost noiseless avalanche gain in HgCdTe to achieve the sensitivity and speed of response. Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy, MOVPE, grown on low-cost GaAs substrates, provides the capability for crucial bandgap engineering to suppress breakdown currents and allow high avalanche gain even in very low background conditions. This paper describes the progress so far and provides a glimpse of the future.

  8. Conspicuous consumption, luxury products and counterfeit market in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Huyen My Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fast growth of fashion brands and the popularity of counterfeit goods has posed certain challenges to the existing and new luxury fashion brand players. This study elaborates on the factors driving the market for counterfeit products in the UK. The data collected by means of survey questionnaires from 306 respondents and empirical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation and multiple regression analysis, have shown that the consumers have a negative attitude towards counterfeit luxury products. However, they showed fewer tendencies to seek for a brand whose counterfeit cannot easily be found and preferred to buy a genuine rather than a counterfeit. In terms of frequency of purchase, reversion to counterfeit has negative impact, unlike the tendency to seek a brand whose counterfeit is hard to find. The overall results show that the attitude and acceptance of counterfeit do not greatly prevail in the market. However, about 27% of respondents demonstrated either a positive or a neutral tendency towards counterfeit products, which could have serious implications for the luxury goods market.

  9. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Rothery

    Full Text Available Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.

  10. The UK's National Programme for IT: Why was it dismantled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinia, Taghreed

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the UK's National Programme for IT (NPfIT), which was an ambitious programme launched in 2002 with an initial budget of some £6.2 billion. It attempted to implement a top-down digitization of healthcare in England's National Health Service (NHS). The core aim of the NPfIT was to bring the NHS' use of information technology into the 21st century, through the introduction of an integrated electronic patient record systems, and reforming the way that the NHS uses information, and hence to improve services and the quality of patient care. The initiative was not trusted by doctors and appeared to have no impact on patient safety. The project was marred by resistance due to the inappropriateness of a centralized authority making top-down decisions on behalf of local organizations. The NPfIT was officially dismantled in September 2011. Deemed the world's largest civil IT programme, its failure and ultimate demise sparked a lot of interest as to the reasons why. This paper summarises the underlying causes that lead to dismantling the NPfIT. At the forefront of those circumstances were the lack of adequate end user engagement, the absence of a phased change management approach, and underestimating the scale of the project.

  11. A new UK fission yield evaluation UKFY3.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Robert William

    2017-09-01

    The JEFF neutron induced and spontaneous fission product yield evaluation is currently unchanged from JEFF-3.1.1, also known by its UK designation UKFY3.6A. It is based upon experimental data combined with empirically fitted mass, charge and isomeric state models which are then adjusted within the experimental and model uncertainties to conform to the physical constraints of the fission process. A new evaluation has been prepared for JEFF, called UKFY3.7, that incorporates new experimental data and replaces the current empirical models (multi-Gaussian fits of mass distribution and Wahl Zp model for charge distribution combined with parameter extrapolation), with predictions from GEF. The GEF model has the advantage that one set of parameters allows the prediction of many different fissioning nuclides at different excitation energies unlike previous models where each fissioning nuclide at a specific excitation energy had to be fitted individually to the relevant experimental data. The new UKFY3.7 evaluation, submitted for testing as part of JEFF-3.3, is described alongside initial results of testing. In addition, initial ideas for future developments allowing inclusion of new measurements types and changing from any neutron spectrum type to true neutron energy dependence are discussed. Also, a method is proposed to propagate uncertainties of fission product yields based upon the experimental data that underlies the fission yield evaluation. The covariance terms being determined from the evaluated cumulative and independent yields combined with the experimental uncertainties on the cumulative yield measurements.

  12. Review of UK training initiatives for microsystems technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolfree, David W. L.; McCormick, Malcolm; Chowanietz, Eric; Yates, Robert B.

    1999-09-01

    The rapidly growing markets for new microproducts is placing increasing demands on industry and the research community for graduates with both interdisciplinary skills and specialized knowledge. To meet this challenge a range of courses in microsystems technology have been and are being developed by universities, research centers and companies worldwide. In this paper the general characteristics of training courses and programs from a UK perspective are outlined. One example is given of a university based modular masters degree course which gives students a basic understanding of silicon and non-silicon fabrication technologies and major design and assembly issues. Design and simulation is introduced in a practical way, via commercial finite element analysis and electromagnetic/electrostatic computer aided design exercises. The importance of design-for-manufacture is implicit and is a central theme in the course project. Another course currently at the design stage, has a slightly different emphasis but with similar underlying principles, is outlined. A mechanisms is also described of how training for industry can be facilitated through knowledge and technology transfer to companies by means of an industry- academic network.

  13. Current UK practices in the management of subacromial impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Colin; Tait, Gavin R

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy presently exists surrounding the management of patients with subacromial impingement. This study aims to highlight current UK practices in the management of these patients. Methods BESS members were invited to complete a questionnaire and responses were received from 157 consultant shoulder surgeons. Results Physiotherapy is an integral part of management for 93% of surgeons with a minimum period of 12 weeks being most popular prior to consideration of arthroscopic subacromial decompression. Subacromial steroid injection is used by 95% and 86% repeat this if the patient has failed to respond to a previous injection by the general practioner. From initial presentation, 77% felt there should be at least 3 months of conservative management before proceeding to surgery. Good but transient response to subacromial injection was considered the best predictor of good surgical outcome by 77%. The coracoacromial ligament is fully released by 78%, although there was greater variation in how aggressive surgeons were with acromioplasty. Most (59%) do not include the nontender acromioclavicular joint to any extent in routine acromioplasty. Hospital physiotherapy protocols are used by 63% for postoperative rehabilitation. Conclusions Variation exists in the management regimes offered to patients with subacromial impingement, but most employ a minimum period of 12 weeks of conservative management incorporating physiotherapy and at least 2 subacromial steriod injections. PMID:27582972

  14. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  15. Publication patterns in UK research assessment 1992-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.; Loach, T.; Szomszor, M.

    2016-07-01

    For 30 years, outputs published by UK researchers have been submitted for cyclical assessment by peer panels, creating a unique longitudinal dataset. This is the first analysis covering 921,254 submitted outputs and 36,244 case study references across 25 years, five assessment cycles and both academic impact and economic/societal impact. For submitted outputs, document types shift towards journal articles across time. The time-spread of outputs is skewed to the most recent publication years in early RAE cycles, a pattern not reported at the time but one that then changes synchronously for science and engineering but not for social science or humanities. The skew and later changes are cohesive across disciplines and institutions. For impact case study references, the time-spread of the earliest of the six references for each study is uniform for science and engineering, although the overall timespread for references is skewed. About 42% of case study references with DOIs can be identified as RAE/REF submitted outputs, at about the same rate in every publication year for 1996-2013. Implications for assessment are discussed. (Author)

  16. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Dragosits, U.; Drewer, J.; Fowler, D.; Rees, R. M.; Pappa, V. A.; Cardenas, L.; Chadwick, D.; Yamulki, S.; Manning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N2O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N2O emissions. Microbial N2O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling. PMID:22451103

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy in the UK and Elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Kamila M.; Alton, Eric W.F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene was identified in 1989. This opened the door for the development of cystic fibrosis (CF) gene therapy, which has been actively pursued for the last 20 years. Although 26 clinical trials involving approximately 450 patients have been carried out, the vast majority of these trials were short and included small numbers of patients; they were not designed to assess clinical benefit, but to establish safety and proof-of-concept for gene transfer using molecular end points such as the detection of recombinant mRNA or correction of the ion transport defect. The only currently published trial designed and powered to assess clinical efficacy (defined as improvement in lung function) administered AAV2-CFTR to the lungs of patients with CF. The U.K. Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Consortium completed, in the autumn of 2014, the first nonviral gene therapy trial designed to answer whether repeated nonviral gene transfer (12 doses over 12 months) can lead to clinical benefit. The demonstration that the molecular defect in CFTR can be corrected with small-molecule drugs, and the success of gene therapy in other monogenic diseases, is boosting interest in CF gene therapy. Developments are discussed here. PMID:25838137

  18. Second/Third Generation Asian Business Entrepreneurs in the Uk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinder Dhaliwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The “growth” of Asian enterprises has been a much commented feature of the small business population. Asian entrepreneurs have been eulogized by the popular press keen to laud free enterprise heroes. More detached academic commentary has also sought to identify the key success factors for this entrepreneurial minority. This paper seeks to explore the role of the second/third generation of British Asian entrepreneurs who were brought up and educated in the UK. In order to analyze the position of second/third generation Asians in business, a series of qualitative interviews were undertaken with 10 respondents, five men and five women. The questions asked focus upon second generation banking, management style, use of technology and expansion. This paper sheds light n a number of neglected issues within the increasingly important area of ethnic entrepreneurship. First a clearer picture will emerge of the roles, responsibilities, vision and practices of this new generation of entrepreneurs. Second, methodologically the paper will be novel in so far as the gender and ethnicity issues are both taken into account. Half the respondents are women. Hence the study also aims to examine the hitherto neglected issue of women’s experiences in managing enterprises. Finally, policy makers are increasingly reminded to appreciate the need of the diversity of ethnic minorities in business.

  19. UK clinical guideline for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, J; Cooper, A; Cooper, C; Gittoes, N; Gregson, C; Harvey, N; Hope, S; Kanis, J A; McCloskey, E V; Poole, K E S; Reid, D M; Selby, P; Thompson, F; Thurston, A; Vine, N

    2017-12-01

    In 2008, the UK National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) produced a guideline on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, with an update in 2013. This paper presents a major update of the guideline, the scope of which is to review the assessment and management of osteoporosis and the prevention of fragility fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 years or over. Where available, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials were used to provide the evidence base. Conclusions and recommendations were systematically graded according to the strength of the available evidence. Review of the evidence and recommendations are provided for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, fracture-risk assessment, lifestyle measures and pharmacological interventions, duration and monitoring of bisphosphonate therapy, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, osteoporosis in men, postfracture care and intervention thresholds. The guideline, which has received accreditation from the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), provides a comprehensive overview of the assessment and management of osteoporosis for all healthcare professionals who are involved in its management.

  20. Treatment strategies for digital dermatitis for the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laven, R A; Logue, D N

    2006-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is a worldwide disease causing lameness in cattle, especially when housed. Despite its widespread nature there are relatively few peer-reviewed articles providing experimental data concerning its treatment and control. At the risk of descending to anecdote, this review attempts to summarise the current state of knowledge. Three approaches to digital dermatitis treatment have been used: (1) systemic antibiotics, (2) individual topical treatment, and (3) mass topical therapy using a footbath. Systemic antibiotics have become a rare treatment because of their cost and perceived lack of efficacy. Individual topical treatment, mainly with antibiotic preparations, is the most commonly reported method. It is widely considered the treatment of choice by virtue of reliable information about efficacy, the advantage of precise targeting of antibiotic usage and the requirements of legislation. However, at least in the UK, mass treatment of digital dermatitis by foot bathing is commonly used on many farms. In some cases, for example with antibiotic footbath solutions, these treatments create legislative, health and safety and environmental difficulties. Despite the widespread use of many different treatments, there is a lack of good comparative data and the consequence is a very variable and somewhat anecdotal approach in the field. There is a pressing need for well-researched treatment strategies for different herd situations.

  1. Perceptions of drug use within a UK Bengali community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Shams; Bhugra, Dinesh; Johnson, Mark R D

    2008-04-01

    The study set out to explore the perceptions and knowledge of drug use of the Bangladeshi origin population in Leicester through local Mosques and community and resource centers for recruiting subjects. A triangulated methodology was used for this research. A review of all available literature was carried out to establish if there was evidence of a drug problem among the Bangladeshis in the UK along with questionnaires and interviews. A triangulated methodology was used for this research. A review of all available literature was carried out along with questionnaires as well as semi-structured interviews using self-designed questionnaires. Only 66 questionnaires (16.5%) were returned (46 males and 20 females). These and qualitative exploratory interviews with a small number of community leaders confirmed that drug-related problems exist among the Bangladeshi community, especially in the younger age group and are recognized as such but help seeking is often problematic. An understanding of the perceptions of the Bangladeshi population is useful in developing culturally appropriate services for this group.

  2. Developing blood borne virus services across prisons in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, Stephanie E; Craine, Noel; Lyons, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the strategies being put in place to develop blood borne virus (BBV) services across prisons in Wales, UK, in response to the recommendations for prisons within the Welsh Government's Blood Borne Viral Hepatitis Action Plan for Wales. A task and finish group was established to ensure multidisciplinary engagement between healthcare and custody staff. A service improvement package was developed focusing on awareness raising and/or development of clinical services for prisoners, prison officers and prison healthcare staff. Prison healthcare staff have undergone training in BBVs and are being supported to deliver clinical services to prisoners. Training has been delivered in pre/post test discussion and dried blood spot testing; care pathways have been established between prison and community specialists for treatment referrals. An e-learning module is being rolled out to raise awareness amongst custody staff and encourage occupational hepatitis B vaccination. Literature on "liver health" has been produced to be given to every prisoner across Wales. It is envisaged that BBV services will become a routine part of prison care in Wales. Data on activity are being collected for evaluation and it is hoped that tackling BBVs in prisons will help reduce rates of infection both within prisons and in the wider community. This paper describes new initiatives that have been established to tackle BBVs across Welsh prisons and will be relevant to any prison healthcare staff looking to develop similar services.

  3. General surgical trainee experiences of mentoring: a UK regional audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Usman; Pennell, Aaron; Musonda, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning providing support in career and noncareer related issues. This study aims to investigate trainee experiences and satisfaction with mentoring arrangements. E-mail survey of surgical trainees from the East of England Higher Surgical Training Deanery, UK. Factors affecting presence of a mentoring relationship and satisfaction with mentoring arrangements were analyzed. Of all respondents, 62.85% stated that they were not sure or did not have a mentor; 34.29% said that they had had a meaningful meeting with their mentor; 57.14% said that they were aware of the responsibilities of a mentor; 34.29% strongly agreed or agreed that mentoring had been useful; 25.71% said that mentoring had been useful in career development; and 20% found it useful in noncareer related issues. Of those with a mentor, only 31.43% were satisfied with mentoring. Factors affecting satisfaction with mentoring included having had a meaningful meeting, having clear objectives set, and help in job transition and noncareer related issues. Knowledge of a mentor's responsibilities was also associated with satisfaction. The only factor associated with the presence of a mentoring relationship was having a mentor appointed. We advocate the establishment of a mentoring matching scheme for mentors and mentees together with mentor training to improve mentoring provision for surgical trainees. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ben A; Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N; Pereira, M Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L; Shore, Richard F; Bullock, James M; Heard, Matthew S; Pywell, Richard F

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  5. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Woodcock

    Full Text Available Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21 and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109. Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1, and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  6. Cross Functional Working and Concurrent Engineering – a UK Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Williams

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preliminary results of an investigative study into the implementation of concurrent engineering applied to new product development. Concurrent (or Simultaneous engineering is the term commonly given to creating new products using multi-disciplined teams of marketing, design, manufacturing and support functions together with supplier and customers. Such techniques have produced robust, low cost quality products in short concept to market times compared to traditional ones. The research investigated design management practice and performance in a number of organisations across a range of industrial sectors in the UK by means of a questionnaire survey. The results identify the current use of a variety of design practices and methodologies such as different organisational structures, the extent of cross-functional working, the use of design and phase reviews and the use of different technologies. They indicate that companies implementing CE are more successful in time to market performance than those who don’t implement CE. Factors most influencing the successful adoption of CE are design and phase reviews, and, to a lesser extent, the use of multifunctional teams and supplier partnerships.

  7. Risk-taking behaviours among UK military reservists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, G; Sundin, J; Dandeker, C; Jones, N; Greenberg, N; Wessely, S; Fear, N T

    2015-07-01

    Deploying in a combat role negatively impacts risk-taking behaviours, such as drinking, smoking and risky driving in regular UK military personnel. Little is known about the impact of deployment on the risk-taking behaviours of reservists. To explore the impact of deployment on risk-taking behaviours among reservists. This was a cross-sectional study. Hazardous drinking, risky driving, physical violence, smoking and attendance at accident and emergency (A&E) departments as a result of risk-taking behaviours were assessed by self-reported questionnaire. There were 1710 participants in the study; response rate 51%. The overall prevalence of risk-taking behaviours was: hazardous drinking 46%, smoking 18%, risky driving 11%, attending A&E due to risky behaviours 13% and reporting physical violence 3%. Deployment was significantly associated with risky driving [odds ratio (OR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-2.81], smoking (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.46-2.78) and physical violence (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.88-7.02). It is important to consider the impact of deployment and military factors on the prevalence of risk-taking behaviours in reservists as greater numbers than ever before will face the prospect of deployment to overseas conflicts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Assessment of Urinary Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in UK Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papageorgiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, the mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum and found in contaminated cereal-based foodstuff, has been consistently detected in body fluids in adults. Available data in children and adolescents are scarce. This study assessed urinary DON concentrations in children aged 3–9 years (n = 40 and adolescents aged 10–17 years (n = 39 in the UK. Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days and analysed for free DON (un-metabolised form, DON-glucuronides (DON-GlcA, deepoxy deoxynivalenol (DOM-1, and total DON (sum of free DON, DON-GlcA, and DOM-1. Total DON was detected in the urine of >95% of children and adolescents on both days. Mean total DON concentrations (ng/mg creatinine were 41.6 and 21.0 for children and adolescents, respectively. The greatest total DON levels were obtained in female children on both days (214 and 219 ng/mg creatinine on days 1 and 2, respectively. Free DON and DON-GlcA were detected in most urine specimens, whereas DOM-1 was not present in any sample. Estimation of dietary DON exposure suggested that 33–63% of children and 5–46% of adolescents exceeded current guidance regarding the maximum provisional tolerable daily intake (PMTDI for DON. Although moderate mean urinary DON concentrations were shown, the high detection frequency of urinary DON, the maximum biomarker concentrations, and estimated dietary DON exposure are concerning.

  9. Features of modern security policy UK political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stalovierova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The security policy of the British coalition government of D. Cameron (2010-2015 is summarized; it’s been proved that political forces of Tory and Liberal Democrat should have compromised to carry out unanimous course in the scope of national security, and the problems of the security strategy on parliamentary elections in 2015 are analyzed, particularly the comparative analysis of the modern safety strategy of leading British parties is exercised. Under conditions of the appearance of new challenges and threats, transformation of international safety system, the questions of safety policy often become the object of attention of the British community and experts. The absence of cross-party consensus on most terms of safety strategy of the United Kingdom during the election campaign in 2015 makes the discussion about perspectives of the British safety policy still more urgent. During the election campaign there was no unity on any aspect of security subject between parties. First of all, Labourists, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party and Green Party made a statement about readiness to develop cooperation with the EU and the Conservatives and the UK Independence Party were on the side of the Eurosceptics. The opinions of the parties were also divided on military operations abroad, financing and force level. In terms of one-party government and presence of majority in the House of Commons, the Conservatives have opportunities to realize their own vision of British safety policy.

  10. Climate Change Impacts on Future Wave Climate around the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Bennett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the changes in future storm wave climate is crucial for coastal managers and planners to make informed decisions required for sustainable coastal management and for the renewable energy industry. To investigate potential future changes to storm climate around the UK, global wave model outputs of two time slice experiments were analysed with 1979–2009 representing present conditions and 2075–2100 representing the future climate. Three WaveNet buoy sites around the United Kingdom, which represent diverse site conditions and have long datasets, were chosen for this study. A storm event definition (Dissanayake et al., 2015 was used to separate meteorologically-independent storm events from wave data, which in turn allowed storm wave characteristics to be analysed. Model outputs were validated through a comparison of the modelled storm data with observed storm data for overlapping periods. Although no consistent trends across all future clusters were observed, there were no significant increases in storm wave height, storm count or storm power in the future, at least according to the global wave projection results provided by the chosen model.

  11. A new approach to estimating Mean Flow in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. R. Holmes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the estimation of Mean Flow (MF in ungauged catchments has been approached using conceptual water balance models or empirical formulae relating climatic inputs to stream flow. In the UK, these types of models have difficulty in predicting MF in low rainfall areas because the conceptualisation of soil moisture behaviour and its relationship with evaporation rates used is rather simplistic. However, it is in these dry regions where the accurate estimation of flows is most critical to effective management of a scarce resource. A novel approach to estimating MF, specifically designed to improve estimation of runoff in dry catchments, has been developed using a regionalisation of the Penman drying curve theory. The dynamic water balance style Daily Soil Moisture Accounting (DSMA model operates at a daily time step, using inputs of precipitation and potential evaporation and simulates the development of soil moisture deficits explicitly. The model has been calibrated using measured MFs from a large data set of catchments in the United Kingdom. The performance of the DSMA model is superior to existing established steady state and dynamic water-balance models over the entire data set considered and the largest improvement is observed in very low rainfall catchments. It is concluded that the performance of all models in high rainfall areas is likely to be limited by the spatial representation of rainfall. Keywords: hydrological models, regionalisation, water resources, mean flow, runoff, water balance, Penman drying curve, soil moisture model

  12. Newspaper Reporting on a Cluster of Suicides in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ann; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Lloyd, Keith; Scourfield, Jonathan; Jones, Phillip A; Luce, Ann; Marchant, Amanda; Platt, Steve; Price, Sian; Dennis, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Media reporting may influence suicide clusters through imitation or contagion. In 2008 there was extensive national and international newspaper coverage of a cluster of suicides in young people in the Bridgend area of South Wales, UK. To explore the quantity and quality of newspaper reporting during the identified cluster. Searches were conducted for articles on suicide in Bridgend for 6 months before and after the defined cluster (June 26, 2007, to September 16, 2008). Frequency, quality (using the PRINTQUAL instrument), and sensationalism were examined. In all, 577 newspaper articles were identified. One in seven articles included the suicide method in the headline, 47.3% referred to earlier suicides, and 44% used phrases that guidelines suggest should be avoided. Only 13% included sources of information or advice. A high level of poor-quality and sensationalist reporting was found during an ongoing suicide cluster at the very time when good-quality reporting could be considered important. A broad awareness of media guidelines and expansion and adherence to press codes of practice are required by journalists to ensure ethical reporting.

  13. Social Justice in a Multicultural Society: Experience from the UK

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    Gary Craig

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Social justice is a contested concept. For example, some on the left argue for equality of outcomes, those on the right for equality of opportunities, and there are differing emphases on the roles of state, market and individual in achieving a socially just society. These differences in emphasis are critical when it comes to examining the impact that public policy has on minority ethnic groups. Social justice should not be culture-blind any more than it can be gender-blind yet the overwhelming burden of evidence from the UK shows that public policy, despite the political rhetoric of fifty years of governments since large-scale immigration started, has failed to deliver social justice to Britain’s minorities. In terms of outcomes, in respect for and recognition of diversity and difference, in their treatment, and in the failure of governments to offer an effective voice to minorities, the latter continue to be marginalised in British social, economic and political life. This is not an argument for abandoning the project of multiculturalism, however, but for ensuring that it is framed within the values of social justice.

  14. Sinonasal aspergillosis in a British Shorthair cat in the UK

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    Alice Tamborini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 13-year-old, castrated male, British Shorthair cat presented for investigation of chronic, intermittent, bilateral epistaxis and stertor. CT revealed severe asymmetric bilateral intranasal involvement with extensive turbinate lysis, increased soft tissue attenuation and lysis of the sphenopalatine bone and cribriform plate. On retroflexed pharyngoscopy, a plaque-like mass occluded the choanae. Rostral rhinoscopic examination revealed extensive loss of nasal turbinates, necrotic tissue and mucosal fungal plaques in the left nasal cavity. The right nasal cavity was less severely affected. The nasal cavities were debrided extensively of plaques and necrotic tissue. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated on fungal culture, and species identity was confirmed using comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin gene. On histopathology of nasal biopsies, there was ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, and fungal hyphae were identified on nasal mucosa, consistent with a non-invasive mycosis. The cat was treated with oral itraconazole after endoscopic debridement, but signs relapsed 4.5 months from diagnosis. Residual left nasal fungal plaques were again debrided endoscopically and oral posaconazole was administered for 6 months. Fourteen months from diagnosis, the cat remains clinically well with mild intermittent left nasal discharge secondary to atrophic rhinitis. Relevance and novel information This is the first case of rhinoscopically confirmed sinonasal aspergillosis to be diagnosed in a cat in the UK. Endoscopic confirmation of resolution of infection is useful in cases where mild nasal discharge persists after treatment.

  15. A survey of statistics in three UK general practice journal

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    Campbell Michael J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many medical specialities have reviewed the statistical content of their journals. To our knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a diagnostician we thought it would be of interest to see whether the statistical methods reported reflect the diagnostic process. Methods Hand search of three UK journals of general practice namely the British Medical Journal (general practice section, British Journal of General Practice and Family Practice over a one-year period (1 January to 31 December 2000. Results A wide variety of statistical techniques were used. The most common methods included t-tests and Chi-squared tests. There were few articles reporting likelihood ratios and other useful diagnostic methods. There was evidence that the journals with the more thorough statistical review process reported a more complex and wider variety of statistical techniques. Conclusions The BMJ had a wider range and greater diversity of statistical methods than the other two journals. However, in all three journals there was a dearth of papers reflecting the diagnostic process. Across all three journals there were relatively few papers describing randomised controlled trials thus recognising the difficulty of implementing this design in general practice.

  16. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, I; Hinckley, P

    2016-12-01

    Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of £29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explore their attitudes to sickness absence. Review and analysis of participant responses identified a number of key themes, namely employee well-being, including physical fitness and mental health; employee engagement with the fire service as manifested by culture, experience, nature of the job and leadership; organizational factors including the staffing model and relationship with occupational health services and policy, which describes both refinements to and implementation of targeted policies. Previously observed factors such as improved fitness and the distinct firefighter culture play a role, yet other factors emerged that could explain the differences. These include the greater work-life balance offered by their shift patterns, the terms and conditions of employment and perhaps most importantly the evolution of precisely targeted policies that understand the unique nature of the operational fire service. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  17. Modelling farmer uptake of perennial energy crops in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, Chris; Moran, Dominic [Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The UK Biomass Strategy suggests that to reach the technical potential of perennial energy crops such as short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and miscanthus by 2020 requires 350,000 hectares of land. This represents a more than 20-fold increase on the current 15,546 hectares. Previous research has identified several barriers to adoption, including concerns over security of income from contracts. In addition, farmers perceive returns from these crops to be lower than for conventional crops. This paper uses a farm-level linear programming model to investigate theoretical uptake of energy crops at different gross margins under the assumption of a profit-maximising decision maker, and in the absence of known barriers to adoption. The findings suggest that while SRC willow, at current prices, remains less competitive, returns to miscanthus should have encouraged adoption on a wider scale than at present. This highlights the importance of the barriers to adoption. Recently announced contracts for miscanthus appear to offer a significant premium to farmers in order to encourage them to grow the crops. This raises the question of whether a more cost-effective approach would be for government to provide guarantees addressing farmers concerns including security of income from the contracts. Such an approach should encourage adoption at lower gross margins. (author)

  18. Intramuscular Olanzapine – a UK case series of early cases

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    Taylor Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials assessing efficacy and safety of Intramuscular (IM Olanzapine in acute schizophrenia and acute mania have previously been undertaken in studies required for drug registration in patients who were required to give informed consent. These patients may have less severe forms of psychosis than patients treated in routine practice. Data derived from naturalistic practice following the launch of IM olanzapine may be helpful for clinicians in assessing efficacy and safety of IM olanzapine. The PANSS-EC scale used in the clinical studies may represent a tool that could be used in routine clinical practice. Case presentation We report on an early unselected case series of 7 patients who received IM olanzapine in routine clinical practice settings in the UK. In this case series, olanzapine IM was generally effective, and no adverse events were reported. Adjunctive benzodiazepines were given concomitantly in 1 of the 7 subjects. This is relevant as concomitant benzodiazepines are not recommended for a minimum of 1 hour post IM olanzapine administration. PANSS-EC data was collected in 2 of the 7 subjects. Conclusion Although patients had greater severity of psychosis than clinical trial patients there were no unexpected findings. In addition the PANSS-EC scale is a scale that may be useful in assessing the efficacy of IM antipsychotics in routine clinical practice.

  19. Pro-Donation Behaviours of Nursing Students from the Four Countries of the UK: e91405

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donal McGlade; Carol McClenahan; Barbara Pierscionek

    2014-01-01

    ... knowledge may be lacking. Given that regional variations in organ donation rates exist in the UK, this study investigates knowledge about and attitudes towards organ donation among student nurses in different countries...

  20. Pro-donation behaviours of nursing students from the four countries of the UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGlade, Donal; McClenahan, Carol; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    ... knowledge may be lacking. Given that regional variations in organ donation rates exist in the UK, this study investigates knowledge about and attitudes towards organ donation among student nurses in different countries...