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Sample records for roots raivo ruus

  1. Baltikumi meediakunst Dortmundis / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Balti kultuurifestivalist "scene: estland lettland litauen in nrw" Dortmundi Ostwall-muuseumis. Eestit esindavad oma töödega Kai Kaljo, Mark Raidpere, Jaan Toomik, Tiia Johannson, Killu Sukmit, Mari Laanemets, Raivo Kelomees

  2. Meediakunstnike workshop polaarjoonel / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    Rovaniemi ülikooli ning Tornio kunsti- ja meediakolledzhi juures juulis 1998 peetud 2. rahvusvahelisest meediakunsti workshopist "Polar Circuit 2". Eestist osalesid Raivo Kelomees, Tiia Johannson. Tornio kunsti- ja meediakolledzhist. Külastatud workshopidest (juhendajad Steve Bradley, Owen Kelly, Christine Stevart, Rasa Smite ja Raitis Smits). Õppetöö tase Eesti Kunstiakadeemias jätab soovida. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 46-48

  3. Meediakunstnike workshop polaarjoonel / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    Rovaniemi ülikooli ning Tornio kunsti- ja meediakolledzhi juures juulis 1998 peetud 2. rahvusvahelisest meediakunsti workshopist "Polar Circuit 2". Eestist osalesid Raivo Kelomees, Tiia Johannson. Tornio kunsti- ja meediakolledzhist. Külastatud workshopidest (juhendajad Steve Bradley, Owen Kelly, Christine Stevart, Rasa Smite ja Raitis Smits). Õppetöö tase Eesti Kunstiakadeemias jätab soovida. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 46-48

  4. Sürrealism kunstigurmaanidele / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    PARA näitus "Paranorm" Jõhvi kontserdimajas kuni 31. VIII. Osalejad: Ilmar Malin, Jüri Palm, Elo Järv, Vello Vinn, Leonhard Lapin, Enn Tegova, Ahti Seppet, Raivo Kelomees ja Kristina Viin. Kuraator Jaan Malin

  5. Sürrealism kunstigurmaanidele / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    PARA näitus "Paranorm" Jõhvi kontserdimajas kuni 31. VIII. Osalejad: Ilmar Malin, Jüri Palm, Elo Järv, Vello Vinn, Leonhard Lapin, Enn Tegova, Ahti Seppet, Raivo Kelomees ja Kristina Viin. Kuraator Jaan Malin

  6. Armastus ja anarhia / J[aan] R[uus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Helsingi filmifestivali "Armastus ja anarhia" mängufilmid "Nekromantik I" (1987) ja "Nekromantik II" (1991), režissöör Jörg Buttgereit ja "Trellimõrtsukas" (1979), režissöör Abel Ferrara, Tallinna kinos "Eha". Arvustavad Rainer Sarnet, Jaak Kilmi, Marko Raat ja J. R. (Jaan Ruus)

  7. Armastus ja anarhia / J[aan] R[uus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Helsingi filmifestivali "Armastus ja anarhia" mängufilmid "Nekromantik I" (1987) ja "Nekromantik II" (1991), režissöör Jörg Buttgereit ja "Trellimõrtsukas" (1979), režissöör Abel Ferrara, Tallinna kinos "Eha". Arvustavad Rainer Sarnet, Jaak Kilmi, Marko Raat ja J. R. (Jaan Ruus)

  8. Tegelikkus e art e FAKTid / Raivo Ird

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ird, Raivo

    2009-01-01

    Raivo Irdi fotod kui ajamärgid, ikoonid, aknad eri reaalsustesse. Oma töid nimetab ta tegelikkuse artefaktideks. Kunstnik räägib Maaemast, Taevaisast, Suurest Masinast, surma varjust, võimust ja vaimust, olevikust ja tulevikust

  9. Villa Rohuneemes = Villa at Rohuneeme / Raivo Puusepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Raivo

    2002-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektibüroo R. Puusepp. Arhitekt Raivo Puusepp, kaasa töötasid Krista Väärtnõu, Peeter Loo, Urve Konts. Haljastus: Mart Kalm, sisekujundus: Kaire Kemp, konstruktsioonid ja eriosad: A-Grupp. Projekt ja ehitus 2001. 8 ill.: plaanid, vaated

  10. Tegelikkus e art e FAKTid / Raivo Ird

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ird, Raivo

    2009-01-01

    Raivo Irdi fotod kui ajamärgid, ikoonid, aknad eri reaalsustesse. Oma töid nimetab ta tegelikkuse artefaktideks. Kunstnik räägib Maaemast, Taevaisast, Suurest Masinast, surma varjust, võimust ja vaimust, olevikust ja tulevikust

  11. Raivo Järvi, Vivaldi ja Casanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Music avab uue hooaja kavaga "Vivaldi, Casanova ja Veneetsia". Salongiõhtu ühendab helilooja Antonio Vivaldi teosed barokkansambli Corelli Consort esituses ja Raivo Järvi kommentaarid (15. okt. Maardu mõisas, 18. okt. Pärnu hotellis Victoria ja 19. okt. Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia majas)

  12. Erik Ruus mängib kinomehaanikut / Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäe, Aarne, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Näitleja Erik Ruus Toomas Raudami poolt kirjapandud kinomehaanik Mati Parkja töödest-tegemistest jutustavas näidendis "Kino-Mati. Tema elutee ja juhtumised, mis seal ette tulid" Rakvere Teatris, lavastaja Peeter Simm

  13. Erik Ruus mängib kinomehaanikut / Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäe, Aarne, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Näitleja Erik Ruus Toomas Raudami poolt kirjapandud kinomehaanik Mati Parkja töödest-tegemistest jutustavas näidendis "Kino-Mati. Tema elutee ja juhtumised, mis seal ette tulid" Rakvere Teatris, lavastaja Peeter Simm

  14. Tuletõrjehoone Põltsamaal = Fire Station in Põltsamaa / Raivo Puusepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Raivo

    2000-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektibüroo Reiss & Reinula. Eskiisprojekt: Arhitektibüroo Raivo Puusepp. Arhitektid Raivo Puusepp, Krista Väärtnõu, Peeter Loo. Projekt 1999, hoone valmis 2000. 10 ill. Korruste plaanid, ristlõiked, välisvaated

  15. Tuletõrjehoone Põltsamaal = Fire Station in Põltsamaa / Raivo Puusepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Raivo

    2000-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektibüroo Reiss & Reinula. Eskiisprojekt: Arhitektibüroo Raivo Puusepp. Arhitektid Raivo Puusepp, Krista Väärtnõu, Peeter Loo. Projekt 1999, hoone valmis 2000. 10 ill. Korruste plaanid, ristlõiked, välisvaated

  16. Kunstnik Raivo Järvi viib helide maailma / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    18. okt. Pärnu hotellis Victoria alustab uut hooaega sari "Café Grand muusikasalong", tuues publiku ette kava "Vivaldi, Casanova ja Veneetsia", mida viib läbi Raivo Järvi koostöös barokkansambliga Corelli Consort. Salongiõhtu ühendab helilooja Antonio Vivaldi teosed barokkansambli Corelli Consort esituses ja Raivo Järvi kommentaarid

  17. 100 - na vsjo sto! / Raivo Aeg ; interv. Ljubov Semjonova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aeg, Raivo, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Politseiameti peadirektor vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad politseinike palkasid, korruptsiooni politseis, vene noorte õppimist Politseikolledzhis, politseinike aukoodeksi koostamist, eestimaalaste usaldust politsei vastu ning eraelu. Lisa: Raivo Aeg

  18. Sto dnei, kotorõje ne potrjasli nikogo / Raivo Palmaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palmaru, Raivo, 1951-

    1999-01-01

    Mart Laari valitsuse tegevust kommenteerivad: Rein Taagepera, Raivo Vetik, Rein Ruutsoo, Anu Toots, Tiiu Pohl, Henn Käärik, Rein Toomla, Vahur Made. Tabelid: valitsuse tegevus erinevates valdkondades, ministrite pingerida, opositsioonierakondade tegevus

  19. Liikluses huligaanitsemine toob karmi karistuse / Raivo Aeg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aeg, Raivo, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 22. mai 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. mai 2007, lk. 2; Oma Saar, 23. mai 2007, lk. 5; Postimees, 23. mai 2007, lk. 16; SL Õhtuleht, 23. mai 2007, lk. 12; Virumaa Teataja, 24. mai 2007, lk. 11; Vooremaa, 24. mai 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 24. mai 2007, lk. 6; Lõunaleht, 24. mai 2007, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 24. mai 2007, lk. 2; Den za Dnjom, 25. mai 2007, lk. 19; Harjumaa, 25. mai 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 25. mai 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 26. mai 2007, lk. 4; Järva Teataja, 29. mai 2007, lk. 2; Narvskaja Nedelja, 2. juuni 2007, lk. 4. Politseiameti peadirektor Raivo Aeg liiklusjärelevalve tõhustamisest, liikluskeskkonna ohutumaks muutmisest

  20. Liikluses huligaanitsemine toob karmi karistuse / Raivo Aeg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aeg, Raivo, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 22. mai 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. mai 2007, lk. 2; Oma Saar, 23. mai 2007, lk. 5; Postimees, 23. mai 2007, lk. 16; SL Õhtuleht, 23. mai 2007, lk. 12; Virumaa Teataja, 24. mai 2007, lk. 11; Vooremaa, 24. mai 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 24. mai 2007, lk. 6; Lõunaleht, 24. mai 2007, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 24. mai 2007, lk. 2; Den za Dnjom, 25. mai 2007, lk. 19; Harjumaa, 25. mai 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 25. mai 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 26. mai 2007, lk. 4; Järva Teataja, 29. mai 2007, lk. 2; Narvskaja Nedelja, 2. juuni 2007, lk. 4. Politseiameti peadirektor Raivo Aeg liiklusjärelevalve tõhustamisest, liikluskeskkonna ohutumaks muutmisest

  1. Mis on teie maakonna Pisa testi edu võti? / Raivo Peeters, Ivi Remmelg, Monika Adamson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peeters, Raivo

    2014-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Saare maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Raivo Peeters, Hiiu maavalitsuse haridusnõunik Ivi Remmelg, Põlva maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna peaspetsialist Monika Adamson

  2. Raivo Küüt - meeskonnas peab ennast teostama / Harrys Puusepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Harrys

    2008-01-01

    Otepäält oma politseinikuteekonda alustanud Raivo Küüdi jõudmine pealinna ja Harjumaa turvalisuse eest vastutajaks ehk Põhja Politseiprefektuuri juhiks. Kommenteerib Põhja ringkonnaprokuratuuri eriasjade prokurör Jüri Kasesalu. Vt. samas: Kuidas Raivo ka reisil politseinikuks jäi

  3. Pandivere kõrgustikule tuulepargid sobivad / Alan Senkel, Jaan Tepp ; interv. Raivo Raigna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Senkel, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Windpower Eesti OÜ juhatuse liige Alan Senkel ja Eesti Tuuleenergia Assotsiatsiooni esimees Jaan Tepp tuuleenergia kasutamisest Eestis. Vt. samas: Raivo Raigna. Kullengale tuulegeneraatorite rajamine kütab kohalike elanike kirgi

  4. Kaplan kõneles Iraagis rahust / Raivo Nikiforov ; interv. Eda Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Raivo

    2005-01-01

    Tapa väljaõppekeskuse kaplan leitnant Raivo Nikiforov käis Bagdadis Eesti rahuvalvajatele jõulujumalateenistust pidamas ning eestlaste elu jälgimas. Iraagi missioonist, rahuvalvajate elamistingimustest

  5. Pandivere kõrgustikule tuulepargid sobivad / Alan Senkel, Jaan Tepp ; interv. Raivo Raigna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Senkel, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Windpower Eesti OÜ juhatuse liige Alan Senkel ja Eesti Tuuleenergia Assotsiatsiooni esimees Jaan Tepp tuuleenergia kasutamisest Eestis. Vt. samas: Raivo Raigna. Kullengale tuulegeneraatorite rajamine kütab kohalike elanike kirgi

  6. Haridusfoorum hakkab käsitlema õppekavatööd / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2000-01-01

    8.-9. detsembril on Tartus haridusfoorum. Sellele eelnenud eelfoorumitel arutati probleeme, mida foorum käsitlema hakkab. 18. novembril tehti rühmatööd Tallinnas TPÜ haridusuuringute instituudis. Teemaks oli õppekava selle sõna laias tähenduses, lisaks ainekavadele käsitleti õpetamise meetodeid, hindamissüsteemi, koolikorraldust jm. Rühmatöös osalesid Ene-Silvia Sarv (TPÜ Haridusuuringute Instituut), Viive Ruus (TPÜ kasvatusteaduste teaduskonna professor), Kersti Kaldma (HM õppekavatalituse juhataja), Maria Jürimäe (TÜ pedagoogikaosakonna õppekavatalituse spetsialist), Agu Laius (Eesti Õppekava Ühingu direktor)

  7. Puhkus moodsas kalurikülas / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Indrek Mikk, Raivo Kotov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    GoSpa residentsid Kuressaares. Arhitektid: Indrek Mikk, Raivo Kotov (KOKO Arhitektid). Sisearhitekt: Kätlin Ölluk. Projekt: 2007, valmis: 2009. Suvitajatele mõeldud viiest kahekorruselisest hoonest koosnev ansambel on liigendatud mahtude ja lehisepuidust-betoonist fassaadidega. Terrassid ja rõdud avanevad peamiselt suunaga merele. Kortereid saab endale osta või üürida

  8. Puhkus moodsas kalurikülas / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Indrek Mikk, Raivo Kotov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    GoSpa residentsid Kuressaares. Arhitektid: Indrek Mikk, Raivo Kotov (KOKO Arhitektid). Sisearhitekt: Kätlin Ölluk. Projekt: 2007, valmis: 2009. Suvitajatele mõeldud viiest kahekorruselisest hoonest koosnev ansambel on liigendatud mahtude ja lehisepuidust-betoonist fassaadidega. Terrassid ja rõdud avanevad peamiselt suunaga merele. Kortereid saab endale osta või üürida

  9. Rotermanni laudsepatöökoda = Rotermann cabinetmarker's workshop / Raivo Kotov, Andrus Kõresaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotov, Raivo, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Tallinna endise Rotermanni tööstuskvartali arhitektuuri kaasajastamine. Olemasoleva laudsepatöökoja kohale kavandati kolm eraldiseisvat majakat. Arhitektid Andrus Kõresaar ja Raivo Kotov (KOKO Arhitektid), konstruktorid Marti Sein ja Matis Teeäär, reklaamibüroo Brand Manuali kontori sisekujundaja Maarja Mikkin

  10. Milline oli teie esimene töökoht? / Raivo Vare, Rein Lang, Hans H Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Raivo, 1958-

    2002-01-01

    Oma esimest töökohta meenutavad Tallinna abilinnapea, AS-i Trio LSL nõukogu esimees Rein Lang, AS-i Pakterminal juhatuse esimees Raivo Vare ja Eesti Ekspressi vastutav väljaandja ning Ekspress Grupi nõukogu liige Hans H. Luik

  11. Raivo Vare: Eesti vajab arutelu ka tabuteemadel / Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Täna algavast arengufoorumist "Kasvuvisioon - maailmas edukas ja koduselt armas Eesti aastal 2018". Arengufondi nõukogu esimees Raivo Vare ja Arengufondi juht Ott Pärna on seisukohal, et Eesti võti saab olla väga hea haridus

  12. Raivo Vare: Eesti vajab arutelu ka tabuteemadel / Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Täna algavast arengufoorumist "Kasvuvisioon - maailmas edukas ja koduselt armas Eesti aastal 2018". Arengufondi nõukogu esimees Raivo Vare ja Arengufondi juht Ott Pärna on seisukohal, et Eesti võti saab olla väga hea haridus

  13. Näitleja Raivo E. Tamm poodleb vaid välismaal / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Kristof Magnussoni bulvarikomöödia "Meeste varjupaik", lavastaja Christian Römer Saksamaalt. Näitleja Raivo E. Tamm räägib oma suhtest tarbimisse, poodlemisse. VAT Teatri juht Aare Toikka kommenteerib näidendi ja lavastaja valikut. Komöödia esietendub 21. oktoobril Viru Keskuse itaalia elustiili keskuses Felicitalia

  14. Raivo Puusepp mängib värviliste kastidega / Marek Dreving

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dreving, Marek

    1999-01-01

    Arhitekt Raivo Puusepp sündis 21. märtsil 1960. a. Lõpetas Eesti Kunstiakadeemia 1980. a. 1992. a. asutas endanimelise arhitektuuribüroo. Loomingust (Ühispank, WW Passaazh, Nõmme Maja, Kadrioru "plekkmaja" jt.) ja eesmärkidest

  15. Rotermanni laudsepatöökoda = Rotermann cabinetmarker's workshop / Raivo Kotov, Andrus Kõresaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotov, Raivo, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Tallinna endise Rotermanni tööstuskvartali arhitektuuri kaasajastamine. Olemasoleva laudsepatöökoja kohale kavandati kolm eraldiseisvat majakat. Arhitektid Andrus Kõresaar ja Raivo Kotov (KOKO Arhitektid), konstruktorid Marti Sein ja Matis Teeäär, reklaamibüroo Brand Manuali kontori sisekujundaja Maarja Mikkin

  16. Jagades tulevikku? : uue meedia ja fotohariduse konverents Tartu Kõrgemas Kunstikoolis / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2002-01-01

    19. ja 20. IV toimunud konverents "Sharing the Future" oli pühendatud foto ja uue meedia hariduse küsimustele endises Ida-Euroopas. Eestist esinesid Ants Juske ja konverentsi korraldanud Peeter Linnap ning Raivo Kelomees. Briti haridussüsteemist rääkisid Robin Dance ja Paul Rodgers

  17. Jagades tulevikku? : uue meedia ja fotohariduse konverents Tartu Kõrgemas Kunstikoolis / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2002-01-01

    19. ja 20. IV toimunud konverents "Sharing the Future" oli pühendatud foto ja uue meedia hariduse küsimustele endises Ida-Euroopas. Eestist esinesid Ants Juske ja konverentsi korraldanud Peeter Linnap ning Raivo Kelomees. Briti haridussüsteemist rääkisid Robin Dance ja Paul Rodgers

  18. Eesti mehed panid maja rääkima / Raivo Raestik, Priit Vimberg ; interv. Einar Ellermaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raestik, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Firma Yoga Intelligence poolt välja töötatud kinnisvara haldussüsteemi lahendusest, kus majade kütet, ventilatsiooni, mõõdikute kauglugemist, elektri-, turva- ja läbipääsusüsteeme juhitakse ühe süsteemiga. Küsimustele vastavad Raivo Raestik ja Priit Vimberg

  19. Videokunst pärast videokunsti : Pärnu filmi- ja videofestival detsembris 2009 / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    15. Pärnu filmi- ja videofestival 2009 Port Artur 2 kaubanduskeskuses. Esitatud tööde autorid loetletud. 5. 12. 2009 toimunud rahvusvahelisest konverentsist "Videokunst pärast videokunsti", kus arutleti video nüüdisaegse olukorra üle. Al Paldroki, Raivo Kelomehe, Teijo Pellineni (Soome), Chris Halesi (Inglismaa), Indrek Grigori, Silja Saarepuu ja Hans-Gunter Locki mõtteavaldustest

  20. Videokunst pärast videokunsti : Pärnu filmi- ja videofestival detsembris 2009 / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    15. Pärnu filmi- ja videofestival 2009 Port Artur 2 kaubanduskeskuses. Esitatud tööde autorid loetletud. 5. 12. 2009 toimunud rahvusvahelisest konverentsist "Videokunst pärast videokunsti", kus arutleti video nüüdisaegse olukorra üle. Al Paldroki, Raivo Kelomehe, Teijo Pellineni (Soome), Chris Halesi (Inglismaa), Indrek Grigori, Silja Saarepuu ja Hans-Gunter Locki mõtteavaldustest

  1. Olen saanud nelikümmend aastat jälgida eesti filmi arengut... : Dokumentalist Peep Puks eile ja täna / Peep Puks, Jaan Ruus, Vaike Mesila ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Peep Puksi mõtteid, lisaks kolleegid - filmidirektor V. Mesila, filmikriitik J. Ruus, monteerija K.-E. Rääk ja operaator A. Vilu Peep Puksist ja tema filmidest, üles kirjutanud Mart Taevere. Artikli lõpus P.Puksi filmograafia

  2. Kontorihoone : Järvevana tee 9g, Tallinn = Office Building : 9g Järvevana Str., Tallinn / Raivo Puusepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Raivo

    2003-01-01

    Merko Ehituse 6-korruseline suletud kabinetsüsteemis büroohoone. Arhitekt Raivo Puusepp, kaasa töötasid Maike Heido ja Peeter Loo. Sisekujundaja Kaire Kemp (ArtAku). Konstruktiivne lahendus: Neoprojekt. Projekt 2001, valmis 2003. I korruse plaan, sise- ja 2 välisvaadet

  3. Kontorihoone : Järvevana tee 9g, Tallinn = Office Building : 9g Järvevana Str., Tallinn / Raivo Puusepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Raivo

    2003-01-01

    Merko Ehituse 6-korruseline suletud kabinetsüsteemis büroohoone. Arhitekt Raivo Puusepp, kaasa töötasid Maike Heido ja Peeter Loo. Sisekujundaja Kaire Kemp (ArtAku). Konstruktiivne lahendus: Neoprojekt. Projekt 2001, valmis 2003. I korruse plaan, sise- ja 2 välisvaadet

  4. Koolijuhtide aastakonverents peetakse Pärnus / Martin Kaasik, Jaan Reinson, Raimu Pruul, Raivo Heinaru...[jt.] ; intervjueerinud Ülo Tikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Koolijuhtide Ühenduse 17. aastakonverentsist teemal "Õppiv koolijuht". Küsimustele vastavad: Martin Kaasik (Tallinna Laagna Gümnaasiumi direktor, Eesti Koolijuhtide Ühenduse üks asutaja), Jaan Reinson (Tartu Descartes'i Lütseumi direktor), Raimu Pruul (Häädemeeste Keskkooli direktor), Raivo Heinaru (Kohila Gümnaasiumi direktor), Senta Room (Muhu Põhikooli direktor)

  5. Jaan Ruus uues Berliinis / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Berliini 52. filmifestivalist. Festivali avafilmist - sakslase T. Tykweri "Taevas" ("Heaven") ja elutöö auhinna saanud Claudia Cardinalest ning Robert Altmanist, samuti vastuvõtust Eesti saatkonnas

  6. KLENK 2005 / Hans Ruus ; fotod: Hans Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Kesk-Lääne Eesti Noorte Koondise traditsioonilised kultuuripäevad toimusid 24. - 26. novembrini 2005 Indianapolises. Ettekannetega esinesid: Enn Kiilaspea ja Alfred Strickholm, rahvamuusikat esitas ansambel "Siilikesed" Andres Peekna juhtimisel. 26. novembril peeti üldkoosolek, ettekannetega esinesid Taavo Virkhaus, Tiina Jaagosild ja Ylo Anson. Ülevaade toimunust

  7. Euroopa kvalifikatsiooniraamistikust lähtuvalt peavad kutseõppeasutused minema üle kompetentsuspõhisele õppele. Mis peaks sellega seoses muutuma teie koolis? / Raivo Niidas, Raili Laas, Riina Müürsepp, Arnold Pastak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niidas, Raivo

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Tallinna Ehituskooli direktor Raivo Niidas, Luua Metsanduskooli aianduse valdkonna juhtivõpetaja Raili Laas, Pärnu Kutsehariduskeskuse direktor Riina Müürsepp, Olustvere Teenindus- ja Maamajanduskooli direktor Arnold Pastak

  8. Telemehe salaelu / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2008-01-01

    George Clooney ja tema teine mängufilm "Ohtliku mehe pihtimused" ("Cofessions of a Dangerous Mind") : stsenarist teleprodutsent Chuck Barris'e memuaaride põhjal Charlie Kaufman : pearollis Sam Rockwell : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2002

  9. Ameeriklased arvavad / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2004-01-01

    Refereeritakse välismaal ilmunud arvustusi eesti komöödiafilmi "Vanad ja kobedad saavad jalad alla" : Leslie Felperini arvustus Ameerika filmitööstuse ajakirjas "Variety" (15.12.2003) ja Harper Barnesi oma USA Missouri osariigi St. Louisi ajalehes "St. Louis Post Dispatch"

  10. Teistmoodi pulmafotod / Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Traditsioonilistest ja ebatraditsioonilistest tähtpäevafotodest. Dmitri Kotjuhi pildistatud pulmafotodest, kus on katsetatud erinevate keskkondadega. Tema fotosid on eksponeeritud näitusel "Argipäeva hetked"

  11. Tuju olla / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Vene päritolu prantsuse režissöör Jacques Tati (1908-1982) ja tema mängufilmid "Minu onu" ("Mon oncle") : 1958, "Härra Hulot' suvepuhkus" ("Les vacances de monsieur Hulot") : 1953 ja "Pidupäev" ("Jour de fete") : 1949

  12. Langenud Gorilla / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 24. sept. lk. 8-9. USA investeerimispanga Lehman Brothers tegevjuhist Dick Fuldist. Vt. samas: Richard S. Fuld: CV; Ameerika unistuste täitja: vendade investeerimispank; Taust; Kommenteerivad: Madis Toomsalu ja Jonathan Well

  13. Teistmoodi pulmafotod / Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Traditsioonilistest ja ebatraditsioonilistest tähtpäevafotodest. Dmitri Kotjuhi pildistatud pulmafotodest, kus on katsetatud erinevate keskkondadega. Tema fotosid on eksponeeritud näitusel "Argipäeva hetked"

  14. Ameeriklased arvavad / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2004-01-01

    Refereeritakse välismaal ilmunud arvustusi eesti komöödiafilmi "Vanad ja kobedad saavad jalad alla" : Leslie Felperini arvustus Ameerika filmitööstuse ajakirjas "Variety" (15.12.2003) ja Harper Barnesi oma USA Missouri osariigi St. Louisi ajalehes "St. Louis Post Dispatch"

  15. Langenud Gorilla / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 24. sept. lk. 8-9. USA investeerimispanga Lehman Brothers tegevjuhist Dick Fuldist. Vt. samas: Richard S. Fuld: CV; Ameerika unistuste täitja: vendade investeerimispank; Taust; Kommenteerivad: Madis Toomsalu ja Jonathan Well

  16. Vaenlase kuju / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    Režissöör Arbo Tammiksaarel on valmimas dokumentaalfilm nõukogude sõjafilmides fashiste kehastanud Baltimaade näitlejatest "Fritsud ja blondiinid". Artikli autor meenutab sel puhul tuntud balti näitlejate saksa fashistide rolle nõukogude filmides

  17. Terroristi pruut / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2000-01-01

    Mängufilm "Katharina Blumi rüvetatud au" ("Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum") : stsenaristid ja režissöörid Margarethe von Trotta ja Volker Schlöndorff Heinrich Bölli jutustuse järgi : Saksamaa 1975. Lühidalt ka M. von Trotta kohta

  18. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  19. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  20. Eesti ülikoolid janunevad muutuste järele : ülikool tegi plaane järgnevaks kuueks aastaks / Marju Himma ; kommenteerivad Peeter Kreitzberg, Tõnis Rüütel, Olga Tšerjomuškina ja Raivo Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Himma, Marju

    2008-01-01

    7. novembril 2008 toimunud Tartu Ülikooli arengukonverentsist. Arvamust avaldavad Riigikogu kultuurikomisjoni esimees Peeter Kreitzberg, Tartu Ülikooli geograafiatudeng Tõnis Rüütel, Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu aseesimees Olga Tšerjomuškina ja Tartu Ülikooli kuratooriumi liige Raivo Vare. Konverentsil esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  1. Eesti ülikoolid janunevad muutuste järele : ülikool tegi plaane järgnevaks kuueks aastaks / Marju Himma ; kommenteerivad Peeter Kreitzberg, Tõnis Rüütel, Olga Tšerjomuškina ja Raivo Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Himma, Marju

    2008-01-01

    7. novembril 2008 toimunud Tartu Ülikooli arengukonverentsist. Arvamust avaldavad Riigikogu kultuurikomisjoni esimees Peeter Kreitzberg, Tartu Ülikooli geograafiatudeng Tõnis Rüütel, Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu aseesimees Olga Tšerjomuškina ja Tartu Ülikooli kuratooriumi liige Raivo Vare. Konverentsil esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  2. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  3. Ilu: ülendav, paheline, hirmutav / Jaan Ruus, Viive Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2015-01-01

    Vastukaja Aurelia Aasa arvustusele ("Idülliline lugu kahetsusest ja igatsusest", Sirp, 9. okt., 2015) filmile "Noorus", režissöör ja stsenarist Paolo Sorrentino. "Noorus" kui järg filmile "Kohutav ilu"

  4. Ilu: ülendav, paheline, hirmutav / Jaan Ruus, Viive Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2015-01-01

    Vastukaja Aurelia Aasa arvustusele ("Idülliline lugu kahetsusest ja igatsusest", Sirp, 9. okt., 2015) filmile "Noorus", režissöör ja stsenarist Paolo Sorrentino. "Noorus" kui järg filmile "Kohutav ilu"

  5. Festivalid teevad filme / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-

    2006-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisele filmifestivalile valiti Mati Undi jutustuse "Tühirand" (1972) ainetel loodud samanimeline lühimängufilm : režissöör Veiko Õunpuu : osades Rain Tolk, Maarja Jakobson, Mirtel Pohla, Taavi Eelmaa, Juhan Ulfsak. Seetõttu viiakse film beeta-videolt filmilindile

  6. Mis on digimaal? / Janek Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Janek

    2005-01-01

    Digimaali ja traditsioonilise maali erinevused, digimaali kasutatamine trükiste illustreerimise, tootedisaini, kontseptuaalkunsti, matte painting ja texture painting puhul (eestikeelsed vasted puuduvad)

  7. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  8. Abielluda! Abielluda! Abielluda! / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus Jane Austeni romaani ekraniseeringule "Mõistus ja tunded" ("Sens and Sensibility") : stsenarist Emma Thompson : režissöör Ang Lee : Suurbritannia - Ameerika Ühendriigid 1995. Lisatud andmed režissööri kohta

  9. Abielluda! Abielluda! Abielluda! / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus Jane Austeni romaani ekraniseeringule "Mõistus ja tunded" ("Sens and Sensibility") : stsenarist Emma Thompson : režissöör Ang Lee : Suurbritannia - Ameerika Ühendriigid 1995. Lisatud andmed režissööri kohta

  10. "Klass" prantsuse moodi / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2009-01-01

    Laurent Cantet ja Françoise Begaudeau filmist "Seinte vahel", mis on pooldokumentaalne lugu probleemsest klassikollektiivist Prantsusmaa ühes riigikoolis. Filmi aluseks on kooliõpetaja Françoise Begaudeau romaan

  11. Venelased alati esimesed / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2006-01-01

    Libadokumentaalfilm (mockumentary) "Esimese inimesena Kuul" ("Pervõje na Lune") : stsenaristid Aleksandr Gonorovski, Ramil Jamalejev : režissöör Aleksei Fedortshenko : Venemaa 2004. Lisatud selgitus termini "mockumentary" kohta

  12. Kogu Jaapan vajub / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2011-01-01

    Enne Jaapanit 2011 aasta märtsis tabanud looduskatastroofe olid sarnastel teemadel valminud katastroofifilmid "Jaapan vajub" (rež. Shiro Moritani, Jaapan 1973), "Hiidlaine" (rež. Roger Cormani poolt Moritani filmist tehtud montaaž, USA 1975), "Jaapan vajub" (rež. Shinji Higuchi, Jaapan 2006). Lisaks mõned faktid Jaapani kõige kuulsama koletise, Godzilla kohta

  13. Soome kaudu Hiinasse / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendava fantaasiafilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" (eelarve 39 milj. krooni) tootjad on Soome, Holland, Hiina ja Eesti (3,9 milj. krooni). Kaasa teeb ka Elle Kull, lavastab debütant AJ Annila

  14. Kuulsa veinipatriarhi lahkumine / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ernest Gallo rajas koos oma venna Julioga maailma suuruselt teise veinitööstuse E. & J. Gallo Winery. Vt. samas: Skandaalide keerises: Gallo jäänud perefirmaks; Ernest Gallo: hea vein on see, mida tahad veel

  15. Soome kaudu Hiinasse / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendava fantaasiafilmi "Armuvalus sõdalane" (eelarve 39 milj. krooni) tootjad on Soome, Holland, Hiina ja Eesti (3,9 milj. krooni). Kaasa teeb ka Elle Kull, lavastab debütant AJ Annila

  16. Kogu Jaapan vajub / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2011-01-01

    Enne Jaapanit 2011 aasta märtsis tabanud looduskatastroofe olid sarnastel teemadel valminud katastroofifilmid "Jaapan vajub" (rež. Shiro Moritani, Jaapan 1973), "Hiidlaine" (rež. Roger Cormani poolt Moritani filmist tehtud montaaž, USA 1975), "Jaapan vajub" (rež. Shinji Higuchi, Jaapan 2006). Lisaks mõned faktid Jaapani kõige kuulsama koletise, Godzilla kohta

  17. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  18. Festivalitiine september / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1999-01-01

    Võrreldakse sept.-s 1999 toimunud 'Ars Electronica' 20. festivali 'Life-Science' Linzis ning 4. Spliti uue filmi ja video festivali Horvaatias. Peapreemiad Linzis: netikategooria - L. Torvals, interaktiivne kunst - L. Hershmann, arvutianimatsioon - C. Wedge. Spliti festivalil esinesid Eestist T. Johanson, M. Rand, J. Kilmi, R. Kelomees. R. Kelomehe CD-ROM "tokyocity.ee" eksponeerus 'Ars Electronica' mediateegis, hiljem Splitis. Järgneb Sirp, 1999, 19. nov., lk. 8. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 76-80 pealkirja all "Festivalirikas september"

  19. Hollandi paviljon / Raivo Kotov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotov, Raivo

    2000-01-01

    Maailmanäituse EXPO 2000 Hollandi paviljonist Hannoveris. Arhitektid Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs, Nathalie de Vries. Hollandi paviljon on näide looduse ja tehnika kooseksisteerimisest. Eesti paviljoni ehituse hetkeseis.

  20. Sloveenia kogemus / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Mittetulundusühingu Humanitas töötajast Rene Sušast, kes tutvustab maailmahariduse olukorda Sloveenias ning kelle sõnul maailmaharidus on võrdõiguslikkus, võrdväärsus, sallivus ja turvalisus

  1. Energiajulgeolek / Raivo Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Raivo, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    Et Gazprom ja elektrienergiamonopol RAO EES toimivad Vene riigi käepikendusena ning Venemaa on rakendanud majandussanktsioone, pingestunud on riikidevahelised suhted, näeb autor põhjust tunda muret energeetika vallas, kuid vaid juhul, kui ei rakendu alternatiiv: elektri saamine uutest allikatest, Soomest, selle kaudu Põhjamaadest ning edaspidi ka mujalt

  2. Ratsionaalsed eestlased / Raivo Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Raivo

    2007-01-01

    Aprillikriisi analüüsimisest kolmel üldistustasemel: mikro-, meso- ja makrotasemel. Politoloogiaprofessor väidab, et kaugemas perspektiivis mõjutab aprillikriis Eesti ühiskonna arengut pigem etnilise domineerimise vähenemise ning uue rahvussuhete mudeli loomise suunas. Autor vaatleb, milliseid järeldusi teeksid aprillikriisi järel ratsionaalsed eestlased

  3. Ratsionaalsed eestlased / Raivo Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Aprillikriisi analüüsimisest kolmel üldistustasemel: mikro-, meso- ja makrotasemel. Politoloogiaprofessor väidab, et kaugemas perspektiivis mõjutab aprillikriis Eesti ühiskonna arengut pigem etnilise domineerimise vähenemise ning uue rahvussuhete mudeli loomise suunas. Autor vaatleb, milliseid järeldusi teeksid aprillikriisi järel ratsionaalsed eestlased

  4. Festivalitiine september / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1999-01-01

    Võrreldakse sept.-s 1999 toimunud 'Ars Electronica' 20. festivali 'Life-Science' Linzis ning 4. Spliti uue filmi ja video festivali Horvaatias. Peapreemiad Linzis: netikategooria - L. Torvals, interaktiivne kunst - L. Hershmann, arvutianimatsioon - C. Wedge. Spliti festivalil esinesid Eestist T. Johanson, M. Rand, J. Kilmi, R. Kelomees. R. Kelomehe CD-ROM "tokyocity.ee" eksponeerus 'Ars Electronica' mediateegis, hiljem Splitis. Järgneb Sirp, 1999, 19. nov., lk. 8. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 76-80 pealkirja all "Festivalirikas september"

  5. Poolaasta meediafestivalid / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Stuttgardi festivalist "13. Filmwinter", näitusest ja konverentsist "Alien Intelligence" Helsingis "Kiasmas" (kuraator Erkki Huhtamo), Lissaboni videofestivalist "Videolisboa", Moskva "Pro & Contra" konverentsist (Eestist esines netiprojektiga "Get.real" Tiia Johannson), Kiievi videokunsti ja lühifilmide festivalist "Dreamcatcher". Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 88-91

  6. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  7. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  8. Comparing root architectural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in several soil processes (Gregory 2006). Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and energy and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architectural models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that are able to simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system (Dunbabin et al. 2013). Still, a systematic comparison of the different root architectural models is missing. In this work, we focus on discrete root architecture models where roots are described by connected line segments. These models differ (a) in their model concepts, such as the description of distance between branches based on a prescribed distance (inter-nodal distance) or based on a prescribed time interval. Furthermore, these models differ (b) in the implementation of the same concept, such as the time step size, the spatial discretization along the root axes or the way stochasticity of parameters such as root growth direction, growth rate, branch spacing, branching angles are treated. Based on the example of two such different root models, the root growth module of R-SWMS and RootBox, we show the impact of these differences on simulated root architecture and aggregated information computed from this detailed simulation results, taking into account the stochastic nature of those models. References Dunbabin, V.M., Postma, J.A., Schnepf, A., Pagès, L., Javaux, M., Wu, L., Leitner, D., Chen, Y.L., Rengel, Z., Diggle, A.J. Modelling root-soil interactions using three-dimensional models of root growth, architecture and function (2013) Plant and Soil, 372 (1-2), pp. 93 - 124. Gregory (2006) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science 57: 2-12.

  9. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  10. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  11. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  12. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  13. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  14. Root canal irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-10-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were 'root canal irrigants' and 'endodontic irrigants.' The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  15. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  16. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  17. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  18. "Tehnobia" - taaskohtumine tulevikuga / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Leonhard Lapini kureeritud Eesti Kunstnike Liidu aastanäitus "Tehnobia" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Näituse avamisel nägi rahvusvahelise performance'i-festivali "Diverse Universe II" (korraldajad Al Paldrok, Mari Kartau) performance'eid

  19. Patud investori aktsiaportfellis / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Patuaktsiateks (sinful stocks) nimetatakse nende ettevõtete väärtpabereid, mille tegevuses leidub ebaeetilisi või moraalivastaseid külgi. Tabel: Maailma suurimad ebaeetilised ja moraalivastased ettevõtted

  20. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  1. Mida ootab lapsevanem? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti koostöö kogu programmijuht Mati Salundi ja Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaaltöö instituudi dotsent Anne Tiko viisid möödunud kevadel läbi uuringu, kus selgitasid, mida ootavad 1. klassi astuvate laste vanemad lasteaialt, koolilt, õpetajalt, kohalikult omavalitsuselt. Uuringu tulemusi kommenteerisid vestlusringis Mati Salundi, Lastevanemate Liidu koolitusjuht Kristiine Vahtramäe ja uuringu retsensent, Tallinna Ülikooli kasvatusteaduse instituudi professor Marika Veisson

  2. Rohkem usku iseendasse! / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    Keele- ja koolitusfirma Sugesto juhataja Monika Veisson läbis Helsingi suveülikoolis koolidirektorite seminari, kus rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni International Council for Self-Esteem (rahvusvaheline enesehinnangu nõukogu) esindajad tutvustasid koolivägivalla ennetamise ja vähendamise võimalusi. Rõhutati vajadust tõsta probleemsete õpilaste enesehinnangut

  3. Eesti videokunsti otsingutel / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    XII Pärnu rahvusvaheline video- ja filmifestival "Klassiahastus" Pärnu mudaravilas 18. ja 19. XI. Peapreemia sai Kristina Normanni video "Pribaldid", ära märgiti Moira Tierney video "Yoyoyogasmana". Inglismaal Brightonis 1.-3. XII toimuva festivali kava

  4. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  5. Elukestev õpe Euroopas / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli andragoogide ja sotsioloogidega kohtus täiskasvanuhariduse teoreetik ja filosoof professor Peter Jarvis. Peter Jarvis külastas Eestit kuna, TLÜ Rahvusvaheliste ja Sotsiaaluuringute Instituut koordineerib 13 riiki hõlmavat projekti "Towards Life-long Learning Society in Europe : the Contribution of Educational System" ("Haridussüsteemi roll elukestval õppel põhineva ühiskonna rajamisel"), lühidalt LLL2010. LLL2010 on Euroopa Liidu 6. raamprogrammi integreeritud projekt, millega tahetakse saada ülevaadet täiskasvanuharidusest Euroopas

  6. Programmeerimine kui keeleoskus / Raivo Hool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hool, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Carol Vorderman. Õpime üheskoos programmeerima : visuaalne teejuht algajale kahendkoodist kuni mängude koostamiseni; Õpime üheskoos matemaatikat : visuaalne teejuht arvutamisest statistikani. Tallinn, 2015

  7. Eesti videokunsti otsingutel / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    XII Pärnu rahvusvaheline video- ja filmifestival "Klassiahastus" Pärnu mudaravilas 18. ja 19. XI. Peapreemia sai Kristina Normanni video "Pribaldid", ära märgiti Moira Tierney video "Yoyoyogasmana". Inglismaal Brightonis 1.-3. XII toimuva festivali kava

  8. Kunst eluetenduste inspireerijana / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    Kunstnikuetenduste põhilised tundemärgid. Inglise kirjaniku John Fowlesi novellist "Eebenipuust torn" ja selle põhjal tehtud lavastusest. Novellile sarnaselt käitusid Valdur Ohakas ja tema kaks kaaslast 1980. aastate alguses Kütioru talus

  9. Programmeerimine kui keeleoskus / Raivo Hool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hool, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Carol Vorderman. Õpime üheskoos programmeerima : visuaalne teejuht algajale kahendkoodist kuni mängude koostamiseni; Õpime üheskoos matemaatikat : visuaalne teejuht arvutamisest statistikani. Tallinn, 2015

  10. Kunst eluetenduste inspireerijana / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    Kunstnikuetenduste põhilised tundemärgid. Inglise kirjaniku John Fowlesi novellist "Eebenipuust torn" ja selle põhjal tehtud lavastusest. Novellile sarnaselt käitusid Valdur Ohakas ja tema kaks kaaslast 1980. aastate alguses Kütioru talus

  11. Elukestev õpe Euroopas / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli andragoogide ja sotsioloogidega kohtus täiskasvanuhariduse teoreetik ja filosoof professor Peter Jarvis. Peter Jarvis külastas Eestit kuna, TLÜ Rahvusvaheliste ja Sotsiaaluuringute Instituut koordineerib 13 riiki hõlmavat projekti "Towards Life-long Learning Society in Europe : the Contribution of Educational System" ("Haridussüsteemi roll elukestval õppel põhineva ühiskonna rajamisel"), lühidalt LLL2010. LLL2010 on Euroopa Liidu 6. raamprogrammi integreeritud projekt, millega tahetakse saada ülevaadet täiskasvanuharidusest Euroopas

  12. Mida ootab lapsevanem? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti koostöö kogu programmijuht Mati Salundi ja Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaaltöö instituudi dotsent Anne Tiko viisid möödunud kevadel läbi uuringu, kus selgitasid, mida ootavad 1. klassi astuvate laste vanemad lasteaialt, koolilt, õpetajalt, kohalikult omavalitsuselt. Uuringu tulemusi kommenteerisid vestlusringis Mati Salundi, Lastevanemate Liidu koolitusjuht Kristiine Vahtramäe ja uuringu retsensent, Tallinna Ülikooli kasvatusteaduse instituudi professor Marika Veisson

  13. Kuidas saadakse õpetajaks? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    24.-26.05.01. toimus Tallinnas rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni European Federation for Freedom in Education (EFFE) konverents. Vabakoolide ekspert Karl Kristian Aegidius tutvustas konverentsil õpetajate ettevalmistamist Taani Vabas Õpetajate Kolledžis. Tema esinemist kommenteerib Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli professor J. Orn - õpiühiskonnale üleminek Eestis eeldab traditsiooniliselt õpetajakoolituselt uutele pedagoogilistele tõekspidamistele üleminekut

  14. Innovatsioonipoliitika kavandamisest Eestis / Raivo Linnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnas, Raivo

    2007-01-01

    Artiklis nenditakse, et innovatsioonipoliitika on lahustunud erinevate strateegiate vahel ning riik on loobunud oma juhtivast rollist, eduka poliitika elluviimine sõltub aga riigi tahtest arendada teadmistepõhist majandust, koostööst, tippteadlaste suurest arvust, teadus- ja arendustegevusele soodsate tingimuste loomisest

  15. Elukestva õppe strateegia / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    Haridusministeeriumi eestvõttel on alustatud diskussioone Eestile elukestva õppe strateegia koostamiseks. Moodustatud komisjonis on juhtiv koht on koolitusfirmade assotsiatsiooni Andras juhatuse esimehel prof. T. Märjal ja prof. Ü. Vooglaiul. Komisjoni koosseisu kuuluvad veel: Eesti Vabaharidusliidu juhatuse esimees I. Eesmaa, Kõrgema Kommertskooli õppetoolijuhataja T. Elenurm, TPÜ akadeemiline prorektor L. Jõgi, Mainori Majanduskooli rektor P. Kross, haridusministeeriumi täiskasvanuhariduse talituse juhataja T. Ots, koolitusfirma Invicta juhatuse esimees M. Pärjamäe, Rocca al Mare Kooli juhataja H. Tamjärv, Viljandi Kultuurikolledži prof. R. Valgma jt.

  16. BaMa / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2002-01-01

    Eesti ülikoolide üleminekust 3+2 süsteemile. Lühend BaMa on tulnud kasutusele seoses Euroopa ülikoolide õppekavade reformimisega ning tähistab õppekava, kus esimese astme läbimise järel omandatakse bakalaureuse- ja teise järel magistrikraad. Õppekavade tüüpidest Eesti ja Euroopa Liidu kõrgkoolides ning Bologna deklaratsioonist

  17. Patud investori aktsiaportfellis / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Patuaktsiateks (sinful stocks) nimetatakse nende ettevõtete väärtpabereid, mille tegevuses leidub ebaeetilisi või moraalivastaseid külgi. Tabel: Maailma suurimad ebaeetilised ja moraalivastased ettevõtted

  18. Meediakunstniku keeruline missioon / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Meedia, võimu ja kunsti vahekorrast, Peter Weibeli seisukohti ja vastuväiteid massimeedia kui võimu atribuudi mõjudest inimestele. Ta leiab, et tänapäeva kunstniku ülesandeks on haarata meediakujutised (pildid) enda kätte ja võita realiteet massimeedia käest tagasi. Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Rahva Hääl", 1994, 25. juuli

  19. Elukestva õppe strateegia / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    Haridusministeeriumi eestvõttel on alustatud diskussioone Eestile elukestva õppe strateegia koostamiseks. Moodustatud komisjonis on juhtiv koht on koolitusfirmade assotsiatsiooni Andras juhatuse esimehel prof. T. Märjal ja prof. Ü. Vooglaiul. Komisjoni koosseisu kuuluvad veel: Eesti Vabaharidusliidu juhatuse esimees I. Eesmaa, Kõrgema Kommertskooli õppetoolijuhataja T. Elenurm, TPÜ akadeemiline prorektor L. Jõgi, Mainori Majanduskooli rektor P. Kross, haridusministeeriumi täiskasvanuhariduse talituse juhataja T. Ots, koolitusfirma Invicta juhatuse esimees M. Pärjamäe, Rocca al Mare Kooli juhataja H. Tamjärv, Viljandi Kultuurikolledži prof. R. Valgma jt.

  20. Lukavstvo ili nevezhestvo? / Raivo Paavo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paavo, Raivo, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Kommentaar M. Stalnuhhini artiklile "Miks Mõõdukad ei toetanud Riigikogus Keskerakonna sotsiaalmaksu muutmise seadust", vt. Narva, 25. jaan. 2001. Tshernobõli veteranide olukorrast. Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Parlamendisaadik

  1. ROOT User Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Since almost two decades, ROOT has established itself as the framework for HENP data processing and analysis. The LHC upgrade program and the new experiments being designed at CERN and elsewhere will pose even more formidable challenges in terms of data complexity and size. The new parallel and heterogeneous computing architectures that are either announced or already available will call for a deep rethinking of the code and the data structures to be exploited efficiently. This workshop, following from a successful series of such events, will allow you to learn in detail about the new ROOT 6 and will help shape the future evolution of ROOT.

  2. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  3. Root lattices and quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.

    1990-10-01

    It is shown that root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All noncrystallographic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.

  4. Aflatoxins in ginseng roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Horn, Erin; McIntosh, Marla; Bean, George

    2006-02-01

    Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2), a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed with antibodies specific for aflatoxins. The purified extract was then derivatized with a mixture of water, trifluoroacetic acid and acetic acid. Aflatoxins were then separated and quantified by reverse phase liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of total aflatoxins at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/g added to toxin-free 4 to 5-year old dried sliced Wisconsin ginseng were 92, 77, 91 and 83% respectively; and relative standard deviations were 3.6, 8.0, 6.9 and 2.0% respectively. A total of 11 wild simulated and 12 cultivated ginseng root samples were analysed for aflatoxins. All cultivated roots were found to be free of aflatoxin contamination. Two of the wild simulated roots contained total aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) at 15.1 and 15.2 ng/g. One moldy ginseng root purchased from a grocery store was found to be contaminated with aflatoxins at 16 ng/g.

  5. Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schwarz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw. The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root

  6. Ennekõike insener / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Internetifirma Yahoo! kaasasutaja ja tegevjuhi Jerry Yangi elust ja karjäärist. Vt. samas: CV; Fakte; Tudengite hobi osutus populaarseks ja lennutas mehed tippu. Kommenteerivad Danny Sullivan ja Miguel Helft

  7. Ennekõike insener / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Internetifirma Yahoo! kaasasutaja ja tegevjuhi Jerry Yangi elust ja karjäärist. Vt. samas: CV; Fakte; Tudengite hobi osutus populaarseks ja lennutas mehed tippu. Kommenteerivad Danny Sullivan ja Miguel Helft

  8. Mis juhtus Cannes'is? / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2010-01-01

    Lõppes 63. Cannes'i filmifestival. Kuldse Palmioksa sai Tai režissöör Apichatpong Weerasethakul oma filmi "Onu Boonmee, kes saab mäletada oma eelmisi elusid" ("Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives", Tai-Prantsusmaa-Saksamaa-Suurbritannia-Hispaania 2010) eest. 2004. aastal sai režissööri film "Troopikapalavik" žürii eripreemia

  9. Rahvusvaheline naine / Riin Urbanik ; interv. Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urbanik, Riin

    2007-01-01

    Filmitootja Average Monkey produtsendi Riin Urbaniku tegemisi ja tulevikuplaane, eelkõige täispikast mängufilmist "Maara" (režissöör Remi Bernard), milles nimiosa mängib Lembe Lokk, Pariisis elav eesti lauljatar ja tõlkija, kes on ise ka Maara prototüübiks

  10. Truu armastuse võimalikkusest / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Madisoni maakonna sillad" ("The Bridges of Madison County") : stsenarist Robert James Walleri romaani põhjal Richard LaGravenese : režissöör ja peaosatäitja Clint Eastwood : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1995

  11. Mis juhtus Cannes'is? / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2010-01-01

    Lõppes 63. Cannes'i filmifestival. Kuldse Palmioksa sai Tai režissöör Apichatpong Weerasethakul oma filmi "Onu Boonmee, kes saab mäletada oma eelmisi elusid" ("Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives", Tai-Prantsusmaa-Saksamaa-Suurbritannia-Hispaania 2010) eest. 2004. aastal sai režissööri film "Troopikapalavik" žürii eripreemia

  12. Agent Sinikael ja Neitsi Maali / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film. 2002.a. parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat, produtsendid Peeter Urbla ja Veiko Õunpuu. Ära toodud ka varasemad "aastafilmid"

  13. Truu armastuse võimalikkusest / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Madisoni maakonna sillad" ("The Bridges of Madison County") : stsenarist Robert James Walleri romaani põhjal Richard LaGravenese : režissöör ja peaosatäitja Clint Eastwood : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1995

  14. Trendid, millega maailmaturul rikastuda / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Londonis elav USA investeerimisekspert Nicholas Vardy toob välja viis trendi, millega soovitab arvestada investeerimisel. Vt. samas: Vardy: Eesti Hiinast tähtsam; Nicholas Vardy soovitatud aktsiad; Nicholas Vardy

  15. Black on the Silver Screen / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2009-01-01

    Neljanda USA kultusfilmide nädala lühitutvustus. Tallinna kinos Sõprus ja Tartu kinos Cinamon linastub kuus mängufilmi aastaist 1958-1989, mis kujutavad ameerika mustanahaliste rasket teed võrdõiguslikkuse poole

  16. Kaks kiirpilku draamaprogrammile / Andres Keil, Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Balti teatrifestivalil "OmaDraama 2006" nähtud etendustest - Rudolfs Blaumanise ja Inga Abele "Kadunud poeg" Peteris Krilovsi lavastuses, Birute Mari monotükk "Poetess", ZUGA Ühendatud Tantsijate "Naine ja hunt", Merle Karusoo "Misjonärid", Mart Kivastiku- Hendrik Toompere "Põrgu Wärk", Anna Brigadere "P.S Pöialpoiss" Andrejs Jarovojs lavastuses ja Leedu Juozas Miltinise nim. Draamateatri "Sügis tuleb läbi metsa"

  17. Indiana Jones Punalipulises Põhjamere laevastikus / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2002-01-01

    USA mängufilm nõukogude allveelaevaga 1991.a. toimunud avariist "K-19 : The Widowmaker" (režissöör Kathryn Bigelow) esilinastus Venemaal Peterburi Mariinski teatris. Osalesid ka avarii läbiteinud veteranid. Ka nende ja vene kriitikute hinnanguid

  18. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  19. Kinematograafiline rätsepakunst / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    Taivani päritolu režissöör Ang Lee tema mängufilm "Mõistus ja tunded" ("Sense and Sensibility") : stsenarist Jane Austeni romaani põhjal Emma Thompson : Suurbritannia - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005

  20. Kinematograafiline rätsepakunst / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    Taivani päritolu režissöör Ang Lee tema mängufilm "Mõistus ja tunded" ("Sense and Sensibility") : stsenarist Jane Austeni romaani põhjal Emma Thompson : Suurbritannia - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005

  1. Rahvusvaheline naine / Riin Urbanik ; interv. Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urbanik, Riin

    2007-01-01

    Filmitootja Average Monkey produtsendi Riin Urbaniku tegemisi ja tulevikuplaane, eelkõige täispikast mängufilmist "Maara" (režissöör Remi Bernard), milles nimiosa mängib Lembe Lokk, Pariisis elav eesti lauljatar ja tõlkija, kes on ise ka Maara prototüübiks

  2. Kuriteoga tekitatud kahju ei maksustata / Kreet Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kreet

    2012-01-01

    Tulumaksuseaduse § 51 lg 2 p 3 kohaselt peetakse tulumaksuga maksustatavaks kuluks ettevõtlusega mitteseotud väljamakseid, mille kohta maksumaksjal puudub nõuetele vastav algdokument. Riigikohtu lahenditest 3-3-1-48-04 ja 3-3-1-12-12

  3. Eesti - Ida-Euroopa esimene / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Maailma erinevate võrdlevate indeksite alusel on Eesti edukaim Ida-Euroopa riik. Diagramm. Kommenteerivad: Andres Sutt, Peeter Koppel ja Kalman Kalotay. Vt. samas: Tõnis Arnover. Välismaine meedia kiidab Eesti liberaalset majandusmudelit. Kommenteerib Andrus Viirg; Krista Taim. Ettevõtjat huvitab indeks vähem kui investorit; Eesti trumbid on majandusvabadus ja juhtimine: Eesti koht erinevates indeksites

  4. Trendid, millega maailmaturul rikastuda / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Londonis elav USA investeerimisekspert Nicholas Vardy toob välja viis trendi, millega soovitab arvestada investeerimisel. Vt. samas: Vardy: Eesti Hiinast tähtsam; Nicholas Vardy soovitatud aktsiad; Nicholas Vardy

  5. Tossuostjad pesevad verd maha / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Puhaste riiete eest võitlemise kampaaniast Lääneriikides. Õiglasest mehhanismist, mis kindlustaks kõikides riikides inimeste töötingimustele miinimumnõuded. Skeem: millest koosneb spordijalatsi hind?

  6. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  7. Black on the Silver Screen / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2009-01-01

    Neljanda USA kultusfilmide nädala lühitutvustus. Tallinna kinos Sõprus ja Tartu kinos Cinamon linastub kuus mängufilmi aastaist 1958-1989, mis kujutavad ameerika mustanahaliste rasket teed võrdõiguslikkuse poole

  8. Meelemürgist kantud / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    Briti-ameerika režissöör Terry Gilliam ja tema mängufilm "Ratastel Las Vegasesse" ("Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas") Hunther S. Thompsoni romaani ainetel: peaosades Johnny Depp ja Benicio Del Toro : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1998

  9. Agent Sinikael ja Neitsi Maali / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film. 2002.a. parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat, produtsendid Peeter Urbla ja Veiko Õunpuu. Ära toodud ka varasemad "aastafilmid"

  10. Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangsan; Bodner, Gernot; Rewald, Boris; Leitner, Daniel; Nagel, Kerstin A; Nakhforoosh, Alireza

    2017-02-01

    Root phenotyping provides trait information for plant breeding. A shortcoming of high-throughput root phenotyping is the limitation to seedling plants and failure to make inferences on mature root systems. We suggest root system architecture (RSA) models to predict mature root traits and overcome the inference problem. Sixteen pea genotypes were phenotyped in (i) seedling (Petri dishes) and (ii) mature (sand-filled columns) root phenotyping platforms. The RSA model RootBox was parameterized with seedling traits to simulate the fully developed root systems. Measured and modelled root length, first-order lateral number, and root distribution were compared to determine key traits for model-based prediction. No direct relationship in root traits (tap, lateral length, interbranch distance) was evident between phenotyping systems. RootBox significantly improved the inference over phenotyping platforms. Seedling plant tap and lateral root elongation rates and interbranch distance were sufficient model parameters to predict genotype ranking in total root length with an RSpearman of 0.83. Parameterization including uneven lateral spacing via a scaling function substantially improved the prediction of architectures underlying the differently sized root systems. We conclude that RSA models can solve the inference problem of seedling root phenotyping. RSA models should be included in the phenotyping pipeline to provide reliable information on mature root systems to breeding research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  12. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  13. The Roots Of Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1973-01-01

    Alienation in our society takes several forms--withdrawal, hostility, or efforts to reform. The author traces the roots of alienation to our neglect of many of the needs of children, particularly their need for interaction with adults. Among his many recommendations are: modified work schedules to permit more time with children and systems for…

  14. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  15. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exo...

  16. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  17. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  18. Function of root apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Benešová, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    A root apical meristem is the only source of cells for all tissues in the root. The root growth relies on its function. Regulation of a cell division frequency and cell differentiation affects organization and function of the differentiated tissues and the proper meristem function. If the cell differentiation overbalances the cell proliferation, the meristem exhaustion occurs and the root growth irreversibly terminates. This thesis describes existing knowledge about regulation of the primary ...

  19. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  20. Adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoumi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable in vegetative propagation and is widely used. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed to improve rooting treatments. We first established a system to study rooting in Arabidopsis, the model organism in plant biology but only occ

  1. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  2. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudeshna Mazumdar-Leighton; Vivek K Choudhary

    2017-03-01

    Metagenomics is a robust, interdisciplinary approach for studyingmicrobial community composition, function, and dynamics.It typically involves a core of molecular biology, microbiology,ecology, statistics, and computational biology. Excitingoutcomes anticipated from these studies include unravelingof complex interactions that characterize the ecologicalmilieu of microbial communities. Diverse habitats fromwhich metagenomes have been reported include human guts,caterpillar guts, thermal vents in oceans, ore deposits, polarcaps, and even soils that adhere to plant roots. Knowledgegenerated from metagenomic projects has tremendous potentialto benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies. A specific example is providedof microbial metagenomes found at the roots of native grassspecies (family Poaceae) that can grow on degraded lands undergoingrevegetation.

  3. Rooting an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    tools that grant root privileges for both Windows and Linux . For the Linux system, open a shell window and use “cd” command to change the directory...defined as a process of gaining administrative commands and functions of an operating system (OS). In order to monitor live network traffic on any... Linux -based or, in this case, Android system, it is necessary to have administrative rights to gain access to any of the hardware devices, such as the

  4. Back to the roots!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that one can revive the critical edge that postmodernist theory has brought to marketing, thinking without subscribing to any particular school of (critical) theory by following the principle of methodological situationalism. The roots of postmodernist critique lie in careful...... of social order into account, hence fail to provide sensible insight. I propose the principle of methodological situationalism as a litmus test to the analytical strength of a theory or piece of research. The principle states that theoretically adequate accounts of social phenomena must be grounded...

  5. The Roots of Beowulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  6. Matching roots to their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J; George, Timothy S; Gregory, Peter J; Bengough, A Glyn; Hallett, Paul D; McKenzie, Blair M

    2013-07-01

    Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on 'Matching Roots to Their Environment'. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future.

  7. RootNav: navigating images of complex root architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J; Pridmore, Tony

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist's satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav's core representation.

  8. Geophysical Imaging of Root Architecture and Root-soil Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Roots play a critical role in controlling water and nutrient uptake, soil biogeochemical processes, as well as the physical anchorage for plants. While important processes, such as root hydraulic redistribution for optimal growth and survival have been recognized, representation of roots in climate models, e.g. its carbon storage, carbon resilience, root biomass, and role in regulating water and carbon fluxes across the rhizosphere and atmosphere interface is still challenging. Such a challenge is exacerbated because of the large variations of root architecture and function across species and locations due to both genetic and environmental controls and the lack of methods for quantifying root mass, distribution, dynamics and interaction with soils at field scales. The scale, complexity and the dynamic nature of plant roots call for minimally invasive methods capable of providing quantitative estimation of root architecture, dynamics over time and interactions with the soils. We present a study on root architecture and root-soil interactions using geophysical methods. Parameters and processes of interests include (1) moisture dynamics around root zone and its interaction with plant transpiration and environmental controls and (2) estimation of root structure and properties based on geophysical signals. Both pot and field scale studies were conducted. The pot scale experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and were monitored with cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), TDR moisture sensors and temperature probes. Pots with and without a tree were compared and the moisture conditions were controlled via a self regulated pumping system. Geophysical monitoring revealed interactions between roots and soils under dynamic soil moisture conditions and the role of roots in regulating the response of the soil system to changes of environmental conditions, e.g. drought and precipitation events. Field scale studies were conducted on natural trees using

  9. Perennial roots to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. [Flexible root posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh

    2009-02-01

    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  11. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  12. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  13. Auxin control of root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvoorde, Paul; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Beeckman, Tom

    2010-06-01

    A plant's roots system determines both the capacity of a sessile organism to acquire nutrients and water, as well as providing a means to monitor the soil for a range of environmental conditions. Since auxins were first described, there has been a tight connection between this class of hormones and root development. Here we review some of the latest genetic, molecular, and cellular experiments that demonstrate the importance of generating and maintaining auxin gradients during root development. Refinements in the ability to monitor and measure auxin levels in root cells coupled with advances in our understanding of the sources of auxin that contribute to these pools represent important contributions to our understanding of how this class of hormones participates in the control of root development. In addition, we review the role of identified molecular components that convert auxin gradients into local differentiation events, which ultimately defines the root architecture.

  14. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  15. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...... when multiple roots are present as this imply a non-differentiability so the d-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples this has a considerable influence on the finite sample distribution unless the roots are far apart....... With increasing order of the autoregressions it becomes increasingly difficult to place the roots far apart giving a very noisy signal from the characteristic roots....

  16. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  17. Roots of the Chromatic Polynomial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    a tight lower bound on the smallest non-trivial chromatic root of a graph admitting a spanning tree with at most three leaves. Here, non-trivial means different from 0 or 1. This extends a theorem of Thomassen on graphs with Hamiltonian paths. We also prove similar lower bounds on the chromatic roots...... of several graph families. In particular, we show that the chromatic roots of planar graphs are dense in the interval (3; 4), except for a small interval around _ + 2 _ 3:618, where _ denotes the golden ratio. We also investigate the chromatic roots of related minor-closed classes of graphs and bipartite...

  18. The roots of human destructiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabby Sagall

    2014-01-01

    .... I emphasise the contributions of the Frankfurt School, particularly Erich Fromm, and Wilhelm Reich, to our understanding of individual and class consciousness, and of the roots of destructiveness...

  19. Root Scaling Study ; Description of the DNS Root Scaling Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsen, B.; Jamakovic, A.; Roijers, F.

    2009-01-01

    In opdracht van de Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), de organisatie verantwoordelijk voor het beheren van de Root zone, heeft TNO onderzoek gedaan naar de schaalbaarheid van de Root zone. Welke impact kunnen de invoering van secure DNS (DNSSEC) en IPv6 en de uitbreiding

  20. Searching for Roots / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Searching for Roots. Eduard Tubin: Symphonie no 11; Arvo Pärt: Nekrolog-Symphonie no 1; Erkki-Sven Tüür: Searching for Roots - Insula deserta - Zeitraum; Orchestre philharmonique royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi (direction)" Virgin Classics 5 45212 2 (distribue par EMI)

  1. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...

  2. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pillis, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  3. Project Work on Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonald, V. G.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of investigating plant root growth developed for research purposes can be adopted for student use. Investigations of the effect of water table level and of ethylene concentration are described, and techniques of measuring root growth are explained. (Author/ML)

  4. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  5. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  6. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement.......The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... to and reactions from the circulation of people, objects and ideas to the transmission of the spiral and the ‚trade’ in crafting expertise, this volume takes a fresh look at old questions. Each article within this monograph represents a different approach to mobility framed within a highly mobile and dynamic...

  7. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  8. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in arabidopsis root system architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Lihong; Hu, Xiaomei; Du, Yujuan; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Scheres, Ben; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are the main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis. However, our knowledge of how formation of the root system is altered in response to diverse

  9. Review on Mutation in Lateral Root of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xia; ZHANG Da; HAO Zaibin

    2011-01-01

    Rice roots include seminal roots, adventitious roots, lateral roots and root hairs, At present, progresses in the research of rice roots have been achieved in many aspects, such as root morphology, root activity, root reaction to various environmental factors as a contribution of root growth and rice yield, the relationship between root growth and stems/leaves/flowers/rice, genetic laws of root characters, etc. However, there are very few researches on lateral root mutant. This paper reviewed progresses of the lateral root mutant of rice from the perspectives of phytomorphology to plant physiology and biochemistry to the gene mapping, consisting of mechanism of developing lateral root of rice, gene cloning and functional analysis of lateral root development, the relationship between auxin and lateral roots, agronomic traits of lateral roots mutant, structure and morphology of root hairs, gravity anomaly of root, redox metabolism and proteomics researches of the mutation in lateral root of rice.

  10. Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareen, Andrew; Burton, Frances; Schäfer, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality, timing of key developmental stages and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. With such a range of effects it is clear that understanding the factors that contribute to a plant-beneficial root microbiome may prove advantageous. Increasing demands for food by a growing human population increases the importance and urgency of understanding how microbiomes may be exploited to increase crop yields and reduce losses caused by disease. In addition, climate change effects may require novel approaches to overcoming abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity as well as new emerging diseases. This review discusses current knowledge on the formation and maintenance of root-associated microbial communities and plant-microbe interactions with a particular emphasis on the effect of microbe-microbe interactions on the shape of microbial communities at the root surface. Further, we discuss the potential for root microbiome modification to benefit agriculture and food production.

  11. How Can Science Education Foster Students' Rooting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to "prevent" (further) uprooting and efforts to "promote" rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the…

  12. MES buffer affects Arabidopsis root apex zonation and root growth by suppressing superoxide generation in root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKagenishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species. MES, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8. However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone. Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  13. Advances in experimental methods for root system architecture and root development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-bang Wang; Xiu-juan Zhang; Chu Wu

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots play important roles in acquisition of water and nutrients, storage, anchoring, transport, and symbiosis with soil microorganisms, thus quantitative researches on root developmental processes are essential to understand root functions and root turnover in ecosystems, and at the same time such researches are the most difficult because roots are hidden underground. Therefore, how to investigate efficiently root functions and root dynamics is the core aspect in underground ecology. In this article, we reviewed some experimental methods used in root resear-ches on root development and root system architecture, and summarized the advantages and shortages of these meth-ods. Based on the analyses, we proposed three new ways to more understand root processes: (1) new experimental materials for root development; (2) a new observatory system comprised of multiple components, including many observatory windows installed in field, analysis software, and automatic data transport devices; (3) new techniques used to analyze quantitatively functional roots.

  14. Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.

    1997-01-01

    The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with regular cellular activities. Previous results have established that: (1) intracellular magnetophoresis is possible; and (2) HGMF lead to root curvature. In order to investigate whether HGMF affect the assembly and/or organization of structural proteins, we examined the arrangement of microtubules in roots exposed to HGMF. The cytoskeletal investigations were performed with fomaldehyde-fixed, nonembedded tissue segments that were cut with a vibratome. Microtubules (MTs) were stained with rat anti-yeast tubulin (YOL 1/34) and DTAF-labeled antibody against rat IgG. Microfilaments (MFs) were visualized by incubation in rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. The distribution and arrangement of both components of the cytoskeleton were examined with a confocal microscope. Measurements of growth rates and graviresponse were done using a video-digitizer. Since HGMF repel diamagnetic substances including starch-filled amyloplasts and most The second aspect of the work includes studies of the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on MTs and MFs. The analysis of the effect of micotubular inhibitors on the auxin transport in roots showed that there is very little effect of MT-depolymerizing or stabilizing drugs on auxin transport. This is in line with observations that application of such drugs is not immediately affecting the graviresponsiveness of roots.

  15. Capturing Arabidopsis Root Architecture Dynamics with root-fit Reveals Diversity in Responses to Salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julkowska, M.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Mol, S.; Feron, R.; de Boer, G.J.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2014-01-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles i

  16. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  17. Adventitious Roots and Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee Yoeup Paek

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a rich source of valuable secondary metabolites and in the recent years plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have been developed as an important alternative sources for the production of these compounds. Adventitious roots have been successfully induced in many plant species and cultured for the production of high value secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial importance. Adoption of elicitation methods have shown improved synthesis of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. Development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors has opened up feasibilities of production of secondary metabolites at the industrial levels. In the present review we summarize the progress made in recent past in the area of adventitious root cultures for the production of secondary metabolites.

  18. Grass Roots War on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa’s failure to slay the dragon of poverty is due to a logical flaw in its policies: the remedies to reduce poverty don’t address the causes. Poverty is caused by unemployment, owing to a scarcity of jobs that pay above bare subsistence, but grass-roots poverty alleviation measures are exclusively designed to make job-seekers more capable although no jobs are available. The ‘appropriate’ technologies of the grass roots movement that dominates anti-poverty policies are ...

  19. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Moodley_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32328 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Moodley_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Root Justi cations... the ontology, based on the no- tion of root justi cations [8, 9]. In Section 5, we discuss the implementation of a Prot eg e3 plugin which demonstrates our approach to ontology repair. In this section we also discuss some experimental results comparing...

  20. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  1. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps.

  2. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  3. Digitaalne kood kui materia prima / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Festival "Ars Electronica 2003" Austrias Linzis 6.-11. IX oli pühendatud koodile: seaduse-, kunsti-, bioloogilise ja arvutikoodi tähenduses. Tarkvarakunstiteemalisest (software art) diskussioonist. Peapreemia Goldene Nica - Blast Theory "Can you see me now?"

  4. Silmapiiril negatiivne eelarve vol. 2 / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Aprilli maksutulude laekumine näitab, et sügisel võib Eestit oodata veel teine negatiivne lisaeelarve. Diagrammid: Maksude laekumine. Kommenteerivad: Taavi Veskimägi, Ain Seppik, Ivari Padar, Aivar Sõerd ja Jürgen Ligi

  5. "WRO 95" : meediakunsti festival Wroclawis / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    5. rahvusvahelisest audiovisuaalse kunsti festivalist, millest võtsid osa Margus Tõnnov ja autor, seal toimunud Douglas Daviese, Astrid Sommeri, Erkki Huhtamo, Dieter Danielsi jt. loengutest, näitustest, videotest, feminismist, festivali tööde tasemest ja publikust. Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Eesti Ekspress", 1995, 16., 22., ja 30. juuni

  6. Vajame arengut toetavat kooli / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2012-01-01

    Suurbritannia haridusprogrammist, kus õpilase arengut koolis maksimaalselt toetakse. Canterbury ülikooli haridusteaduskonna programmi „Kvaliteet õppe toetamisel” ehk QiSS (Quality in Study Support) direktori Linda Leith'i intervjuu põhjal

  7. Interaktiivne meedia ja film / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    25.-30. IV Tartu Kõrgemas Kunstikoolis toimunud rahvusvahelisest interaktiivse filmi workshopist "Mediamatic Interactive Film Lab", mis algas sümpoosioniga Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogu konverentsikeskuses

  8. Hea tulemuseni viib mitu teed / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2014-01-01

    28. veebruaril käivitatud 4 riiki haaravas ja 10 kuud kestvas koolijuhtide täiendusõppeprogrammis "Tuleviku kool" osalevad Hogeschool van Amsterdam Hollandist, Pädagogische Hochschule Zürichist, Schulamt Fürstentum Liechtensteinist ning Tallinna Ülikool Eestist. Hariduskorraldusest Hollandis räägib Education4Future Hollandi juht Marco Snoek, mõttevahetuses osalesid ka programmi Eesti juht Klemen Slabina ja TLÜ professor Mati Heidmets

  9. Investorid ootavad 14. augustit / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 7. august. lk. 22. 14. augustiks peavad ligi tuhande USA suurima avaliku firma juhid kinnitama riigi väärtpaberi- ja järelevalveorganisatsioonile (SEC) oma finantsaruannete ausust ja täpsust. Raamatupidamisseaduse muudatustest. Tabel: Raamatupidamise loomingulisus moonutab ettevõtete tulemusi

  10. "WRO 95" : meediakunsti festival Wroclawis / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    5. rahvusvahelisest audiovisuaalse kunsti festivalist, millest võtsid osa Margus Tõnnov ja autor, seal toimunud Douglas Daviese, Astrid Sommeri, Erkki Huhtamo, Dieter Danielsi jt. loengutest, näitustest, videotest, feminismist, festivali tööde tasemest ja publikust. Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Eesti Ekspress", 1995, 16., 22., ja 30. juuni

  11. Intel Corporation osaleb Eesti koolitusprogrammis / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Haridusministeeriumis tutvustati infotehnoloogiaalast koolitusprogrammi, milles osaleb maailma suuremaid arvutifirmasid Intel Corporation. Koolituskursuse käigus õpetatakse aineõpetajaid oma ainetundides interneti võimalusi kasutama. 50-tunnised kursused viiakse läbi kõigis maakondades

  12. Reaalne kunst ja virtuaalsed kommuunid / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Ülevaade rahvusvahelisest konverentsist "Interstanding-Understanding Interactivity", mis käsitles arvutitehnoloogia rakenduslikke ja teoreetilisi küsimusi kunstis, arhitektuuris, ühiskonnas ja seal esinevates suhetes. Toimus 23.-25. novembrini Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus. Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Kultuurileht", 1995, 1. detsember

  13. Kas Eesti vajab alternatiivharidust? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ ja Haridusfoorum korraldasid 24.-27. maini 2001 Tallinnas EFFE (European Forum for Freedom in Education) konverentsi arutamaks hariduse ja vabaduse seoseid. Lisaks eestlastele osalesid Saksamaa, Soome, Taani, Austria, Šveitsi, Hollandi jt maade hariduseksperdid. EFFE on üleeuroopaline vabatahtlik organisatsioon, mis ühendab alternatiivpedagoogilisi liikumisi, taotleb alternatiive hariduses ja toetab õpetaja loominguvabadust. Konverentsil võtsid sõna TPÜ õppejõud T. Kuurme, TPÜ täienduskoolituse osakonnast J. Košelev, TPÜ haridusuuringute instituudi direktor S. Priimägi jt.

  14. Laste kehaline karistamine tuleb keelata / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    ÜRO peaassamblee on 2006. aastast alates taotlenud, et hiljemalt 2009. a. lõpuks oleks laste kehaline karistamine kõigis riikides nii koolis, karistusasutuses kui ka perekonnas täielikult keelatud. Kuidas on olukord Eestis, arutavad inimõiguste instituudi juhatuse liige Merle Haruoja, sisekaitseakadeemia kriminoloogia õppejõud Uno Traat, Lõuna politseiprefektuuri preventsioonitalituse vanemkomissar Marina Paddar, Pääsküla gümnaasiumi sotsiaalpedagoog Leena Arras, rahvusvahelise programmi "Eluväärtuste haridus" Eesti koordinaator Kalle Laane ja Audentese erakooli psühholoog Ann-Liis Ojaots

  15. Kas Eesti vajab alternatiivharidust? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ ja Haridusfoorum korraldasid 24.-27. maini 2001 Tallinnas EFFE (European Forum for Freedom in Education) konverentsi arutamaks hariduse ja vabaduse seoseid. Lisaks eestlastele osalesid Saksamaa, Soome, Taani, Austria, Šveitsi, Hollandi jt maade hariduseksperdid. EFFE on üleeuroopaline vabatahtlik organisatsioon, mis ühendab alternatiivpedagoogilisi liikumisi, taotleb alternatiive hariduses ja toetab õpetaja loominguvabadust. Konverentsil võtsid sõna TPÜ õppejõud T. Kuurme, TPÜ täienduskoolituse osakonnast J. Košelev, TPÜ haridusuuringute instituudi direktor S. Priimägi jt.

  16. "EuroPrix 99" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1999-01-01

    1998. a. algatasid Austria Majandusministeerium ja Euroopa Nõukogu võistluse "EuroPrix MultiMediaArt" väljapaistvate multimeediatoodete esiletõstmiseks. "EuroPrix 99" tutvustus. Tööde saatmise tähtaeg 30. juuni 1999. Multimeediaturust Eestis. Salzburgis korraldatud workshop multimeediaturu stimuleerimise strateegiatest. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 193-194

  17. Virtuaalreaalsuse sensuaalne hõivamine / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Mõtteid seoses Char Daviese (1954) virtuaalreaalsuse installatsiooni "Osmoos" nägemisega Montreali Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis. Ka Heidi Tikka artiklist "Cyberspace - a feminist point of view". Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Sirp", 1997, 4. aprill

  18. Internetikasiinodel ähmane tulevik / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 16. aug. lk. 25. Autor analüüsib online-hasartmänguturul toimuvaid aktsiate liikumisi ja tendentse. Tabel: Online-kasiinooperaatorite aktsiad löögi all. Diagramm: PartyGamingu aktsia pole rahulikule investorile. Vt. samas: Jamad ka Euroopa Liidus

  19. Kooliprobleemid algavad pigem kodust / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2011-01-01

    UNICEF-i ja eri ministeeriumide algatatud projektist "Varane märkamine ja sekkumine", mis suunab omavalitsused laste ja noorte probleemidega koostööpõhiselt tegutsema, kuna õpetajad ei tule tänaste kooliprobleemidega üksinda toime

  20. Digitaalne kood kui materia prima / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Festival "Ars Electronica 2003" Austrias Linzis 6.-11. IX oli pühendatud koodile: seaduse-, kunsti-, bioloogilise ja arvutikoodi tähenduses. Tarkvarakunstiteemalisest (software art) diskussioonist. Peapreemia Goldene Nica - Blast Theory "Can you see me now?"

  1. Dividend tõstab hinda / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Autori sõnul on investorid ülimadalale vajunud intressimäärade tingimustes hakanud maksma väga kõrget hinda dividendiaktsiate eest ning jätnud tähelepanuta ettevõtete kasumiteenimise potentsiaali

  2. Mida kujutab endast akadeemiline ausus? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2012-01-01

    Baltimaade ülikoolid peavad oluliselt uuendama õppe- ja hindamismeetodeid. Sellisele järeldusele jõudsid tudengiliitude esindajad, teiste hulgas ka Eesti üliõpilaskondade liidu esimees, Tallinna Ülikooli üliõpilane Eimar Veldre

  3. Dividend tõstab hinda / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Autori sõnul on investorid ülimadalale vajunud intressimäärade tingimustes hakanud maksma väga kõrget hinda dividendiaktsiate eest ning jätnud tähelepanuta ettevõtete kasumiteenimise potentsiaali

  4. Intel Corporation osaleb Eesti koolitusprogrammis / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Haridusministeeriumis tutvustati infotehnoloogiaalast koolitusprogrammi, milles osaleb maailma suuremaid arvutifirmasid Intel Corporation. Koolituskursuse käigus õpetatakse aineõpetajaid oma ainetundides interneti võimalusi kasutama. 50-tunnised kursused viiakse läbi kõigis maakondades

  5. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  6. Miks koolis diskrimineeritakse poisse? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2015-01-01

    Eelmisel aastal peetud soolise võrdõiguslikkuse konverentsi sõnumiks on, et Eesti koolis diskrimineerivad õpetajad poisse. Küsimusele, kuidas poisid tüdrukutele järele aidata, vastavad Tallinna prantsuse lütseumi õpetaja Anneli Oidsalu, TLÜ kasvatusteaduste õppejõud Tiiu Kuurme, psühholoog Tiia Lister, haridustöötaja Enn Veesalu ja õpetaja Lembit Jakobson

  7. Intellektika 2001 - Tartu "Teeviit" / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    16.-17. veebr. 2001 toimus Tartus haridus- ja teadusmess "Intellektika 2001", kus osales 291 hariduse ja teadusega seotud organisatsiooni. Kuna osalejate seas oli rohkesti õppeasutusi, nimetati messi ka Tartu "Teeviidaks"

  8. Interaktiivne meedia ja film / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    25.-30. IV Tartu Kõrgemas Kunstikoolis toimunud rahvusvahelisest interaktiivse filmi workshopist "Mediamatic Interactive Film Lab", mis algas sümpoosioniga Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogu konverentsikeskuses

  9. Kehamasinmeedia : scratch ja remiks / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Kehalisus kunstis, selle erinevad väljandusliigid, virtuaalsed mängud. Donna Haraway küborgi definitsioonist. Küborgi tüübid. CMC - Computer Mediated Communication'i võimalusest eksperimenteerida erinevate eneseesitlustega

  10. Helsingi saab eestlaste disainitud pingid / Raivo Murde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murde, Raivo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtte Frog Industrial Designi kaubamärgi Extery pingid "Klaar" võitsid Helsingi avaliku ruumi mööblikonkursi. Tooteseeria autoriteks on Martin Pärn, Edina Dufala-Pärn, Sven Sõrmus ja Pent Talvet disainibüroost Iseasi. Žürii valis Exteri toodangust välja ka teisi linnaruumis kasutatavaid elemente. Eestlaste disainitud linnamööbel on eksponeeritud Helsingi sisustusmessil Habitare

  11. Põhiväärtused / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Mõttevahetus ühiskonna põhiväärtuste teemal Haridusfoorumi toimkonna koosolekul ; Ülevaade inglise andragoogi Peter Jarvise raamatust "Eetika ja täiskasvanute kasvatus hilismodernistlikus ühiskonnas"

  12. Uljas uus vana maailm / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2004-01-01

    Meediakunstniku staatusest postsotsialistlikus ühiskonnas, sõltuvusest ja ebamäärasusest transformeeruvas kunstitehnoloogilises keskkonnas, kus vastuolud ja üksteisemõistmine on lähemal vaatlusel paiguti ületamatud, arvamusfoon on muutuv ning kaootiline, kohati kanoniseeruv ning kommunikatsioon tihti negatiivne

  13. Irma Optimisti "Female mathematics" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Irma Optimisti näitusest "Female mathematics" Helsingis Muu-galeriis, mis on osa projektist "Mõistelisus ja käsitöölikkus (Käsitteellisyys ja käsityöläisyys) ehk naine ja tehnoloogia". Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Eesti Päevaleht", 1996, 27. veebruar

  14. Hea tulemuseni viib mitu teed / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2014-01-01

    28. veebruaril käivitatud 4 riiki haaravas ja 10 kuud kestvas koolijuhtide täiendusõppeprogrammis "Tuleviku kool" osalevad Hogeschool van Amsterdam Hollandist, Pädagogische Hochschule Zürichist, Schulamt Fürstentum Liechtensteinist ning Tallinna Ülikool Eestist. Hariduskorraldusest Hollandis räägib Education4Future Hollandi juht Marco Snoek, mõttevahetuses osalesid ka programmi Eesti juht Klemen Slabina ja TLÜ professor Mati Heidmets

  15. Infoühiskond / Raivo Suni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suni, Raivo, 1976-

    1999-01-01

    Infoühiskond on paradigmana sattunud sotsiaalteadlaste tähelepanu alla seoses informatsiooni plahvatusliku väärtustumisega viimastele aastatel. Ka kultuuriimperialismist, kulturoloogilisest lähenemisest. Meediatehnoloogia areng on aidanud levida väärtustel, mis varem olid kättesaadavad vaid eliidile (Walter Benjamin "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction")

  16. Helsingi saab eestlaste disainitud pingid / Raivo Murde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murde, Raivo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtte Frog Industrial Designi kaubamärgi Extery pingid "Klaar" võitsid Helsingi avaliku ruumi mööblikonkursi. Tooteseeria autoriteks on Martin Pärn, Edina Dufala-Pärn, Sven Sõrmus ja Pent Talvet disainibüroost Iseasi. Žürii valis Exteri toodangust välja ka teisi linnaruumis kasutatavaid elemente. Eestlaste disainitud linnamööbel on eksponeeritud Helsingi sisustusmessil Habitare

  17. Kehamasinmeedia : scratch ja remiks / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Kehalisus kunstis, selle erinevad väljandusliigid, virtuaalsed mängud. Donna Haraway küborgi definitsioonist. Küborgi tüübid. CMC - Computer Mediated Communication'i võimalusest eksperimenteerida erinevate eneseesitlustega

  18. Infoühiskond / Raivo Suni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suni, Raivo, 1976-

    1999-01-01

    Infoühiskond on paradigmana sattunud sotsiaalteadlaste tähelepanu alla seoses informatsiooni plahvatusliku väärtustumisega viimastele aastatel. Ka kultuuriimperialismist, kulturoloogilisest lähenemisest. Meediatehnoloogia areng on aidanud levida väärtustel, mis varem olid kättesaadavad vaid eliidile (Walter Benjamin "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction")

  19. Virtuaalreaalsuse sensuaalne hõivamine / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Mõtteid seoses Char Daviese (1954) virtuaalreaalsuse installatsiooni "Osmoos" nägemisega Montreali Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis. Ka Heidi Tikka artiklist "Cyberspace - a feminist point of view". Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Sirp", 1997, 4. aprill

  20. 40 aastat uurivat õpetajat / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    ÜPUI asutamisest, minevikust ja ka tulevikust. Vestlusringis on Ühiskondliku Pedagoogika Uurimise Instituudi asutajad ja eestvedajad - Helme kutsekooli õpetaja Peep Leppik, TÜ kasvatusteaduste dotsent Inger Kraav, TPÜ emeriitprofessor Inge Unt, TPÜ dotsent Viivi Maanso

  1. Video Eestis ja maailmas / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Esimesest Prantsuse ja Baltimaade videokunsti festivalist Tallinnas 1993. aasta märtsis, videokunsti ajaloost, uuematest suundadest ja festivalil esitatud töödest. Eestit esindasid TV-professionaalid Jaanus Nõgisto tööga "Lapin" ja Peeter Brambati "Opus Petra" (Ando Keskkülast). Ilmunud ka almanahhis "Kunst", 1994, nr. 2

  2. Irma Optimisti "Female mathematics" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Irma Optimisti näitusest "Female mathematics" Helsingis Muu-galeriis, mis on osa projektist "Mõistelisus ja käsitöölikkus (Käsitteellisyys ja käsityöläisyys) ehk naine ja tehnoloogia". Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Eesti Päevaleht", 1996, 27. veebruar

  3. Vahtrasiirup ja elektrooniline kunst / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    2. rahvusvahelisest video- ja elektroonilise kunsti manifestatsioonist ja ISEA (International Inter-Society for the Electronic Arts) 1995. aasta kokkutulekust Montrealis. Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Kultuurileht", 1995, 27. oktoober

  4. Intellektika 2001 - Tartu "Teeviit" / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2001-01-01

    16.-17. veebr. 2001 toimus Tartus haridus- ja teadusmess "Intellektika 2001", kus osales 291 hariduse ja teadusega seotud organisatsiooni. Kuna osalejate seas oli rohkesti õppeasutusi, nimetati messi ka Tartu "Teeviidaks"

  5. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  6. Pettusest poliitikas ja tegelikkusest / Raivo Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Raivo, 1958-

    1993-01-01

    E. Savisaare valitsus ja KGB likvideerimine. Vt. ka HL 20.02.1993 "Savisaare valitsus pettis KGB-ga tegelnud ülemnõukogu komisjoni" ja HL 23.02.1993 "Hardo Aasmäe: puudub sisukas poliitiline otsus"

  7. Usaldus riigi institutsioonide vastu Eestis / Raivo Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Raivo

    2002-01-01

    2001. aasta sügisel Riigikogu Kantselei tellimusel Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli Rahvusvaheliste ja Sotsiaaluuringute Instituudi uurimisrühma poolt läbiviidud avaliku arvamuse uuringu tulemustest. Madala poliitilise usalduse põhjustest ja seostest teiste ühiskonnaprobleemidega. Tabelid ja diagrammid. Uuring näitas, et Riigikogu usaldab 36% vastanuist, usaldus erakondade vastu on langenud 20%-le, õiglaseks peab Eesti ühiskonda üksnes 13% inimestest ning "tugevat juhti, kes lööks korra majja", soovib kaks kolmandikku vastanuist

  8. Quo vadis, emakeeleõpetus? / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade TLÜ-s toimunud Emakeeleõpetuse Infokeskuse teabepäevast, kus osalesid eesti keele ja kirjanduse õpetajad ning TLÜ keele- ja kirjandusteadlased. Lähemalt Rocca al Mare õpetaja J. Vaiksoo, TLÜ dotsendi K. Kerge ja Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi nõuniku J. Valge sõnavõttudest

  9. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  10. [Lumbosciatica and nerve root anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, A; Rouaud, J P; Caroit, M; George, B; Cophignon, J

    1982-04-01

    The authors report 3 cases of lumbar pain and sciatica where operation revealed the existence of abnormalities in the distribution of L5 and S1 roots. In one case, the L5 root was not recognised within fibrous tissue also surrounding S1 and S2 and histological examination of this "fibrosis" led to the identification of nerve structures. Development of postoperative L5 paralysis showed that the L5 root was contained within the tissue non-individualised, consisting of multiple rootlets. In the other two cases the L5 and S1 roots arose from a common trunk. There was an associated herniated disc in all three cases. A review of the literature revealed the rarity of such abnormalities, as well as the fact that they were not recognised before surgery. They are difficult to recognise, even at the time of operation. The prognosis is less good than in typical lumbar pain and sciatica, essentially because of surgical difficulties of the disc curettage.

  11. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  12. The Roots of School Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    The Pyramid, Railroad, and High Performance theories of leadership are inappropriate for school settings. At root, school leadership is about connecting people morally to each other and to their work. The work of leadership involves developing shared purposes, beliefs, values, and conceptions associated with teaching and learning,…

  13. Rapid shoot‐to‐root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VANDELEUR, REBECCA K; SULLIVAN, WENDY; ATHMAN, ASMINI; JORDANS, CHARLOTTE; GILLIHAM, MATTHEW; KAISER, BRENT N; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between transpiration and root hydraulic conductance Vandeleur et al report that leaf area reduction reduces root hydraulic conductance in grapevine, soybean and maize...

  14. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  15. Root formation in ethylene-insensitive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D G; Gubrium, E K; Barrett, J E; Nell, T A; Klee, H J

    1999-09-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more below-ground root mass but fewer above-ground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated tap-roots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli.

  16. Dynamics of heterorhizic root systems: protoxylem groups within the fine-root system of Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishi, Takuo; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    To understand the physiology of fine-root functions in relation to soil organic sources, the heterogeneity of individual root functions within a fine-root system requires investigation. Here the heterogeneous dynamics within fine-root systems are reported. The fine roots of Chamaecyparis obtusa were sampled using a sequential ingrowth core method over 2 yr. After color categorization, roots were classified into protoxylem groups from anatomical observations. The root lengths with diarch and triarch groups fluctuated seasonally, whereas the tetrarch root length increased. The percentage of secondary root mortality to total mortality increased with increasing amounts of protoxylem. The carbon : nitrogen ratio indicated that the decomposability of primary roots might be greater than that of secondary roots. The position of diarch roots was mostly apical, whereas tetrarch roots tended to be distributed in basal positions within the root architecture. We demonstrate the heterogeneous dynamics within a fine-root system of C. obtusa. Fine-root heterogeneity should affect soil C dynamics. This heterogeneity is determined by the branching position within the root architecture.

  17. Environmental Control of Root System Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Lobet, Guillaume; Dinneny, José R

    2016-04-29

    The plant root system traverses one of the most complex environments on earth. Understanding how roots support plant life on land requires knowing how soil properties affect the availability of nutrients and water and how roots manipulate the soil environment to optimize acquisition of these resources. Imaging of roots in soil allows the integrated analysis and modeling of environmental interactions occurring at micro- to macroscales. Advances in phenotyping of root systems is driving innovation in cross-platform-compatible methods for data analysis. Root systems acclimate to the environment through architectural changes that act at the root-type level as well as through tissue-specific changes that affect the metabolic needs of the root and the efficiency of nutrient uptake. A molecular understanding of the signaling mechanisms that guide local and systemic signaling is providing insight into the regulatory logic of environmental responses and has identified points where crosstalk between pathways occurs.

  18. Meromorphic iterative roots of linear fractional functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI YongGuo; CHEN Li

    2009-01-01

    Iterative root problem can be regarded as a weak version of the problem of embedding a homeomorphism into a flow. There are many results on iterative roots of monotone functions. However, this problem gets more difficult in non-monotone cases. Therefore, it is interesting to find iterative roots of linear fractional functions (abbreviated as LFFs), a class of non-monotone functions on R. In this paper, iterative roots of LFFs are studied on C. An equivalence between the iterative functional equation for non-constant LFFs and the matrix equation is given. By means of a method of finding matrix roots, general formulae of all meromorphic iterative roots of LFFs are obtained and the precise number of roots is also determined in various cases. As applications, we present all meromorphic iterative roots for functions z and 1/z.

  19. Single-rooted primary first mandibular molar

    OpenAIRE

    Haridoss, SelvaKumar; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Rajendran, Vijayakumar; Rajendran, Bharathan

    2014-01-01

    Morphological variations like single-rooted molar in primary dentition are scarce. Understanding the root canal anatomy and variations is necessary for successful root canal therapy. The purpose of the present article is to report successful endodontic treatment of primary left mandibular first molar with an abnormal morphology of a single root. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its applications in the management of anomalous anatomic variants which play a crucial ro...

  20. Counting Rooted Nearly 2-regular Planar Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣霞; 蔡俊亮

    2004-01-01

    The number of rooted nearly 2-regular maps with the valency of rootvertex, the number of non-rooted vertices and the valency of root-face as three parameters is obtained. Furthermore, the explicit expressions of the special cases including loopless nearly 2-regular maps and simple nearly 2-regular maps in terms of the above three parameters are derived.

  1. Rooting of microcuttings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and in conventional propagation. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of adventitious root formation as a developmental process focusing on the role of plant hormones and on the effect of rooting conditions o

  2. Rooting of microcuttings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and in conventional propagation. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of adventitious root formation as a developmental process focusing on the role of plant hormones and on the effect of rooting conditions o

  3. Doubling bialgebras of rooted trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Belhaj; Manchon, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The vector space spanned by rooted forests admits two graded bialgebra structures. The first is defined by Connes and Kreimer using admissible cuts, and the second is defined by Calaque, Ebrahimi-Fard and the second author using contraction of trees. In this article, we define the doubling of these two spaces. We construct two bialgebra structures on these spaces which are in interaction, as well as two related associative products obtained by dualization. We also show that these two bialgebras verify a commutative diagram similar to the diagram verified Calaque, Ebrahimi-Fard and the second author in the case of rooted trees Hopf algebra, and by the second author in the case of cycle-free oriented graphs.

  4. The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A.H.M. Bakker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge

  5. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  6. Evaluation of bacterial leakage of four root- end filling materials: Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today several materials have been used for root- end filling in endodontic surgery. Optimal properties of Pro Root MTA in in-vitro and in-vivo studies has been proven. On the other hand, based on some studies, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA and Portland cement are similar to Pro Root MTA in physical and biologic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial leakage (amount and mean leakage time of four root- end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, seventy six extracted single- rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups for root-end filling with gray Pro Root MTA, white Pro Root MTA, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA, Portland Cement (type I and positive and negative control groups. Root canals were instrumented using the step- back technique. Root- end filling materials were placed in 3mm ultra sonic retro preparations. Samples and microleakage model system were sterilized in autoclave. The apical 3-4 mm of the roots were immersed in phenol red with 3% lactose broth culture medium. The coronal access of each specimen was inoculated every 24h with a suspension of Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556. Culture media were observed every 24h for colour change indicating bacterial contamination for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed using log- rank test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: At the end of study 50%, 56.25%, 56.25% and 50% of specimens filled with Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA. Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I had evidence of leakage respectively. The mean leakage time was 37.19±6.29, 36.44±5.81, 37.69±5.97 and 34.81±6.67 days respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant difference among the leakage (amount and mean leakage time of the four tested root- end filling materials (P=0.9958. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there were no significant differences in leakage among the four

  7. Archimedes' calculations of square roots

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E B

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

  8. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... intensified cropping systems using chemical and mechanical inputs also show that facilitative interactions definitely can be of significance. It is concluded that a better understanding of the mechanisms behind facilitative interactions may allow us to benefit more from these phenomena in agriculture...

  9. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here.

  10. The quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end cavity preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; de Schwartz, FBC; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR

    2001-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end resection and root-end cavity preparation. Methodology Roots of 40 mandibular incisors. 12 mm in length. were divided into two groups and instrumented using a balanced force techni

  11. The quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end cavity preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; de Schwartz, FBC; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR

    2001-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end resection and root-end cavity preparation. Methodology Roots of 40 mandibular incisors. 12 mm in length. were divided into two groups and instrumented using a balanced force techni

  12. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  13. OpenSimRoot: widening the scope and application of root architectural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Johannes A; Kuppe, Christian; Owen, Markus R; Mellor, Nathan; Griffiths, Marcus; Bennett, Malcolm J; Lynch, Jonathan P; Watt, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional-structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species. The flexible OpenSimRoot design allows upscaling from root anatomy to plant community to estimate the following: resource costs of developmental and anatomical traits; trait synergisms; and (interspecies) root competition. OpenSimRoot can model three-dimensional images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of roots in soil. New modules include: soil water-dependent water uptake and xylem flow; tiller formation; evapotranspiration; simultaneous simulation of mobile solutes; mesh refinement; and root growth plasticity. OpenSimRoot integrates plant phenotypic data with environmental metadata to support experimental designs and to gain a mechanistic understanding at system scales. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. ROOT Status and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R; Canal, P; Rademakers, Fons; Goto, Masaharu; Canal, Philippe; Brun, Rene

    2003-01-01

    In this talk we will review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present our plans for future developments. The additons and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templated and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, we intend to continue the development of PROOF and...

  15. Printing Values In Interactive ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Perovic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This project report summarizes the work I have been performing during the past twelve weeks as a Summer Student intern working on ROOT project in the SFT group, PH department, under the supervision of Axel Naumann and Danilo Piparo. One of the widely requested features for ROOT was improved interactive shell experience as well as improved printing of object values. Solving this issue was the goal of this project. Primarily, we have enabled printing of the collections. Secondly, we have unified the printing interface, making it much more robust and extendible. Thirdly, we have implemented printing of nested collections in a flexible and user-friendly manner. Finally, we have added an interactive mode, allowing for paginated output. At the beginning of the report, ROOT is presented with examples of where it is used and how important it is. Then, the motivation behind the project is elaborated, by presenting the previous state of the software package and its potential for improvement. Further, the process in wh...

  16. Light as stress factor to plant roots - case of root halotropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, Ken; Fasano, Rossella; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Baluška, František

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing underground, largely in darkness, roots emerge to be very sensitive to light. Recently, several important papers have been published which reveal that plant roots not only express all known light receptors but also that their growth, physiology and adaptive stress responses are light-sensitive. In Arabidopsis, illumination of roots speeds-up root growth via reactive oxygen species-mediated and F-actin dependent process. On the other hand, keeping Arabidopsis roots in darkness alters F-actin distribution, polar localization of PIN proteins as well as polar transport of auxin. Several signaling components activated by phytohormones are overlapping with light-related signaling cascade. We demonstrated that the sensitivity of roots to salinity is altered in the light-grown Arabidopsis roots. Particularly, light-exposed roots are less effective in their salt-avoidance behavior known as root halotropism. Here we discuss these new aspects of light-mediated root behavior from cellular, physiological and evolutionary perspectives.

  17. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  18. Fate of HERS during Tooth Root Development

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, XIAOFENG; BRINGAS, PABLO; Slavkin, Harold C.; Chai, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Tooth root development begins after the completion of crown formation in mammals. Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. In order to investigate the morphological fate and analyze the dynamic movement of HERS cells in vivo, we generated K14-Cre;R26R mice. HERS cells are detectable on the surface of the root throughout root formation and do not disappear. Most of the HERS c...

  19. Penis-root perception of Koro patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N

    1991-07-01

    Koro is an acute anxiety reaction in which the perception of decreased penis length because of intra-abdominal traction is the main feature. This study attempts to explore the penis-root perception of the Koro patients by a graphomotor projective test--the Draw-a-penis Test (DAPT). This controlled DAPT investigation shows that Koro patients perceived the penis as a detached organ with root-boundary definiteness as evidenced from their close penis-root perception. They also displayed reduced volumetric perception of penis-root than the normal subjects. These perceptual deviations in penis-root image are discussed in relation to their Koro vulnerability.

  20. Medicolegal aspects of iatrogenic root perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsesis, I; Rosen, E; Bjørndal, L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze the medico-legal aspects of iatrogenic root perforations (IRP) that occurred during endodontic treatments. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive search in a professional liability insurance database was conducted to retrospectively identify cases of IRP following root canal...... treatment (p root perforation is a complication of root canal treatment and may result in tooth extraction...... and in legal actions against the treating practitioner. Mandibular molars are more prone to medico-legal claims related to root perforations. The patient should be informed of the risks during RCT and should get information on alternative treatments and their risks and prognosis...

  1. Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

    2010-12-01

    Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlations of Vegetative and Reproductive Characters with Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jummy

    exception of root branching and grain weight per plant. Heritability estimates were ... Keywords: Root volume, root thickness, root dry weight, drought, grain yield. Correspondence: ..... Whole plant responses, key processes, and adaptation to ...

  3. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  4. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration.

  5. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  6. Root cap removal increases root penetration resistance in maize (Zea mays L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Morio; Higuchi, Toshifumi; Barlow, Peter W; Bengough, A Glyn

    2003-09-01

    The root cap assists the passage of the root through soil by means of its slimy mucilage secretion and by the sloughing of its outer cells. The root penetration resistance of decapped primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Mephisto) was compared with that of intact roots in loose (dry bulk density 1.0 g cm-3; penetration resistance 0.06 MPa) and compact soil (1.4 g cm-3; penetration resistance 1.0 MPa), to evaluate the contribution of the cap to decreasing the impedance to root growth. Root elongation rate and diameter were the same for decapped and intact roots when the plants were grown in loose soil. In compacted soil, however, the elongation rate of decapped roots was only about half that of intact roots, whilst the diameter was 30% larger. Root penetration resistances of intact and decapped seminal axis were 0.31 and 0.52 MPa, respectively, when the roots were grown in compacted soil. These results indicated that the presence of a root cap alleviates much of the mechanical impedance to root penetration, and enables roots to grow faster in compacted soils.

  7. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root...... and radiographs 5 years after surgery were examined. The following data were collected: tooth, operated root, type and quality of the coronal restoration, marginal bone level, length and homogeneity of the root canal filling, presence of a post/screw, periapical index (PAI) of each root, and radiographic healing...... of the operated root. The presence of apical pathosis of the nonoperated root was analyzed statistically in relation to the recorded variables. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Signs of periapical pathosis in the nonoperated root 5 years after surgery (PAI ≥ 3) could be observed...

  8. Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

  9. Patterns in soil fertility and root herbivory interact to influence fine-root dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Glen N; Jones, Robert H

    2006-03-01

    Fine-scale soil nutrient enrichment typically stimulates root growth, but it may also increase root herbivory, resulting in trade-offs for plant species and potentially influencing carbon cycling patterns. We used root ingrowth cores to investigate the effects of microsite fertility and root herbivory on root biomass in an aggrading upland forest in the coastal plain of South Carolina, USA. Treatments were randomly assigned to cores from a factorial combination of fertilizer and insecticide. Soil, soil fauna, and roots were removed from the cores at the end of the experiment (8-9 mo), and roots were separated at harvest into three diameter classes. Each diameter class responded differently to fertilizer and insecticide treatments. The finest roots (root biomass, were the only ones to respond significantly to both treatments, increasing when fertilizer and when insecticide were added (each P root-feeding insects have a strong influence on root standing crop with stronger herbivore impacts on finer roots and within more fertile microsites. Thus, increased vulnerability to root herbivory is a potentially significant cost of root foraging in nutrient-rich patches.

  10. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

  11. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot eBodner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement

  12. Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. van Wijk

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this modelling study differences in vertical root distributions measured in four contrasting forest locations in the Netherlands were investigated. Root distributions are seen as a reflection of the plant’s optimisation strategy, based on hydrological grounds. The 'optimal' root distribution is defined as the one that maximises the water uptake from the root zone over a period of ten years. The optimal root distributions of four forest locations with completely different soil physical characteristics are calculated using the soil hydrological model SWIF. Two different model configurations for root interactions were tested: the standard model configuration in which one single root profile was used (SWIF-NC, and a model configuration in which two root profiles compete for the same available water (SWIF-C. The root profiles were parameterised with genetic algorithms. The fitness of a certain root profile was defined as the amount of water uptake over a simulation period of ten years. The root profiles of SWIF-C were optimised using an evolutionary game. The results showed clear differences in optimal root distributions between the various sites and also between the two model configurations. Optimisation with SWIF-C resulted in root profiles that were easier to interpret in terms of feasible biological strategies. Preferential water uptake in wetter soil regions was an important factor for interpretation of the simulated root distributions. As the optimised root profiles still showed differences with measured profiles, this analysis is presented, not as the final solution for explaining differences in root profiles of vegetation but as a first step using an optimisation theory to increase understanding of the root profiles of trees. Keywords: forest hydrology, optimisation, roots

  13. Howard Robard Hughes (1905-1976) / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Ameerika ärimees, kes teostas ennast jõuliselt lennunduses, produtsendina filmikunstis, on prototüübiks Martin Scorsese mängufilmi "Aviaator - valguses ja varjus" ("The Aviator") peategelasele, keda kehastab Leonardo DiCaprio

  14. Nõutakse Eesti-Läti-Leedu lastefilme / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Berliini festivali filmiturul tutvustas Baltic Films kõige edukamalt lastefilme nagu Rene Vilbre "Röövlirahnu Martin". Läti animafilmist räägib festivali lastefilmide konkursil plastiliinanimatsiooniga "Kuule, jänes... papa sõidab Londonisse" esinenud Nils Skapans (s 1969). Lisatud tabelid "Balti riigid ja film 2004" ja "Mida Baltikumis mullu kõige enam vaadati?"

  15. Vanameelne mähib ennast riigilippu / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2008-01-01

    George Clooney mängufilm "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" ("Good Night, and Good Luck") teleajakirjanik Edward R. Murrow võitlusest senaator Joseph McCarthy vastu (Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005). Lühiandmed George Clooney kohta

  16. Kanada eestlasele Marcus Kolgale CEMA auhind / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    Kanada Etnilise Meedia Assotsiatsiooni (CEMA) telefilmipreemia sai dokumentaalfilm eestlase Eduard Kolga saatusest Teises Maailmasõjas "Gulag 113" : režissöör Marcus Kolga : operaator Rein Kotov : Eesti - Kanada 2005

  17. 150 filmi Odessast Kiievini / Rao Heidmets ; interv. Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heidmets, Rao, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Ukrainas 14. Rahvusvahelise Animafilmide festivali KROK žüriis osalenu ülevaade üritusest, nähtud filmidest, žürii tööst. Eriauhinna sai Riho Undi nukufilm "Vennad Karusüdamed". Peaauhinna sai inglase Luis Cook'i "Õed Pearce'id" ("The Pearce Sisters")

  18. Teatritudengid loovad müsteeriumi tehnikaga / Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    Dario Fo "Müsterium buff" Tartu Sadamateatris Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia teatrikunsti õppetooli kolmanda kursuse ehk kuuenda lennu tudengite esituses. Näitemängu on lavastanud Peeter Raudsepp. Esietendus 25. apr

  19. 150 filmi Odessast Kiievini / Rao Heidmets ; interv. Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heidmets, Rao, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Ukrainas 14. Rahvusvahelise Animafilmide festivali KROK žüriis osalenu ülevaade üritusest, nähtud filmidest, žürii tööst. Eriauhinna sai Riho Undi nukufilm "Vennad Karusüdamed". Peaauhinna sai inglase Luis Cook'i "Õed Pearce'id" ("The Pearce Sisters")

  20. Kokkulepe vabastas LHV ja Peegi SECi haardest / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    USA väärtpaberituru järelvalveasutus SEC määras Oliver Peegile ja investeerimispangale LHV 173 miljoni krooni suuruse rahatrahvi. Vt. samas: LHV skandaal pälvis meedias palju tähelepanu; Investorid saavad 58 miljonit krooni tagasi

  1. Kolmevõistlus sisemaneežis / Ago Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Ago, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Sisemaneežis toimuvatest kolmevõistlustest, kus sõidetakse krossitakistusi sisemaneežis - Inglismaal toimunud 10. Bailey's Jump and Style Eventing; Kurtna sisekolmevõistlus, mis toimus 10.-11. aprillil 2010; Talvine kahevõistluse karikasari, mille 3 etappi ning finaal toimus ajavahemikul 28. veebruarist kuni 3. aprillini 2010 Harjumaal Jüris, Tartumaal Saksa talus ja Järvamaal Koordi tallides ning finaal taas Saksa talus

  2. Meenutusi VII Riigikogu päevilt / Helle Ruusing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruusing, Helle, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Katkendeid Riigikogu Kantselei 2002. aastal gümnaasiumiõpilastele korraldatud VII Riigikogu liikmete mälestuste kogumise võistlusele laekunud töödest. Eesti taasiseseisvumisaja esimese parlamendi, VII Riigikogu töökorraldust, töötingimusi Toompea lossis, tööd fraktsioonides ja komisjonides meenutavad Juhan Aare, Avo Kiir, Kalle Jürgenson, Kalev Raave, Ants Käärma, Paul-Olev Mõtsküla, Tiit Sinissaar, Peeter Lorents

  3. Festival Euroopa südames / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2004-01-01

    Karlovy Vary festivalist. Kuldgloobuse sai itaallaste Andrea ja Antonio Frazzi "Lastelugu" ("Certi bambini"), parima režii preemia sai hispaanlane Xavier Bermudez ("Leon ja Olvido"), naiskõrvalosa preemia anti Karen Lise Mynsterile ( taanlase Paprika Steeni "Tagajärjed"). Ka ungari filmist "Pärast eelmist päeva" (režii Attila Janisch), prantsuse "Kooripoisid" (režii Christophe Barratier), india "Vihmamantel" (režii Rituparno Ghosh), vene "Minu kasuvend Frankenstein" (Valeri Todorovski)

  4. Ajamasin kerib tagasi! / Tiina Lokk ; intervjueerinud Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lokk, Tiina, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    13. Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali peakorraldaja eelseisva festivali ava- ja lõpufilmist - ameeriklase Marc Webb'i "(500) päeva armastust" alguseks ja venelase Valeri Todorovski "Moevennad" lõpetamiseks

  5. Valveiraanlane / Mari Laaniste, J[aan] R[uus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laaniste, Mari, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    Koomiksikunstnik Marjane Satrapi koomiksiraamatu põhjal on tema ise ja režissöör Vincent Paronnaud lavastanud joonisfilmi "Persepolis" (Prantsusmaa-USA 2007). Fakte M. Satrapist (kirja pannud J. R.)

  6. London tõukas New Yorgi troonilt / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma finantskeskuste indeksi järgi on London tõuganud New Yorgi teisele kohale, neile järgnevad Hongkong, Singapur ja Zürich. Vt. samas: IPOd on USAs kokku kuivanud. Tabel: Londoni börsile tuli mullu rohkem firmasid

  7. USAs on kõik veel lahtine / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimiste praeguses etapis võistlevad omavahel demokraatidest senaatorid Hillary Clinton ja Barack Obama, vabariiklastest tõusis esile senaator John McCain. Vt. samas: Katre Pilvinski. Politoloog: Eestil on kõvasti McCaini ja Clintoniga vedanud

  8. Steve Jobs, Ameerika Hans H. Luik / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Autor võrdleb Apple'i asutajat ja juhti Steve Jobsi Eesti meediaärimehe Hans H. Luigega. Vt. samas: Jobs: ärge raisake aega teiste elu elamisele; Forbes: iPhone'ist saab Apple'i suur hitt; CV: Steven Paul Jobs. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia

  9. Kuidas läks? / Kris Taska ; intervjueerinud Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taska, Kris, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Produtsent käis Berliini filmifestivali filmiturul kolme filmiga: režissöör Andres Puustusmaa "Punane elavhõbe", Oleg Asadulini lavastatud õudusfilm "Phobos" (Venemaa 2010) ja Maria Avdjuško lühifilm "Mis su nimi on?". Vastus küsimusele

  10. "Metsik roos" eesti ärinaisega / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Stiilipidu" : režissöör Peeter Urbla : operaator Mait Mäekivi : kesksetes rollides Maarja Jakobson, Anne Reemann, Evelin Pang : EXITfilmi esilinastus 15. aprillil Coca-Cola Plazas. Lisaks "Valik Peeter Urbla filme"

  11. Festival Euroopa südames / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2004-01-01

    Karlovy Vary festivalist. Kuldgloobuse sai itaallaste Andrea ja Antonio Frazzi "Lastelugu" ("Certi bambini"), parima režii preemia sai hispaanlane Xavier Bermudez ("Leon ja Olvido"), naiskõrvalosa preemia anti Karen Lise Mynsterile ( taanlase Paprika Steeni "Tagajärjed"). Ka ungari filmist "Pärast eelmist päeva" (režii Attila Janisch), prantsuse "Kooripoisid" (režii Christophe Barratier), india "Vihmamantel" (režii Rituparno Ghosh), vene "Minu kasuvend Frankenstein" (Valeri Todorovski)

  12. Müüme kavatsusi ja ostame unistusi / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud 8. Läänemeremaade dokumentalistikafoorumi (Baltic Sea Documentary Forum) võistukaitsmisest, kus 16 Euroopa telejaama ja filmifondi esindajad kuulasid 22 projekti kaitsmist. Eestist osales kuus filmiprojekti

  13. Lennuk Tartu kohal pani aluse esimesele Eesti filmistuudiole / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Johannes Pääsukese (1892-1918) "Utotškini lendamised Tartu kohal 14. ja 15. aprillil 1912", mis on seni teadaolevalt esimene eestlase filmitud kroonikapala. Lisatud tabelid "Esimene film" ja "Meie naabrite esimesed", mis toovad ära aastad, mil maailma eri riikides sündis esimene kinofilm

  14. Vanameelne mähib ennast riigilippu / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2008-01-01

    George Clooney mängufilm "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" ("Good Night, and Good Luck") teleajakirjanik Edward R. Murrow võitlusest senaator Joseph McCarthy vastu (Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005). Lühiandmed George Clooney kohta

  15. Nordea tahab tõusta pensioniturul tippu / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Nordea tahab jõuda uute toodetega pensionifondide turul Eestis kolme tipptegija hulka, selleks tuleb tal konkurentide arvates välja tulla uute ja unikaalsete toodetega. Lisa: Nordea Life & Pensions; Hansa Investeerimisfondid valitsevad pensioniturgu

  16. Unt näib veiderdamiseta veider / Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    H. Ibseni "Ehitusmeister Solness" Vanemuises, lavastaja, lavakujunduse ja muusikalise kujunduse autor M. Unt, peaosas H. Kaljujärv. Esietendus 12. nov. Lisatud teatriteaduse üliõpilase M. Oolo, kirjanik A. Ilvese, ehitusmeister R. Lõbu ja kirjanik M. Kivastiku arvamused

  17. Vanemuine. Tubli ja turvaline. Draamast ja tantsust / Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    Vaadeldakse Vanemuise praegust repertuaari - eelkõige draama- ja tantsulavastusi - tuuakse esile Indrek Taalmaa näitlejatöid ja Mai Murdmaa õnnestunud tantsulavastusi "Tantsumaraton" ja "Alice imedemaal", samuti Hendrik Toompere jun. "Sada aastat..." ja Ain Mäeotsa lavastust "Taarka" ja "Salemi nõiad"

  18. Kolmevõistlus sisemaneežis / Ago Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Ago, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Sisemaneežis toimuvatest kolmevõistlustest, kus sõidetakse krossitakistusi sisemaneežis - Inglismaal toimunud 10. Bailey's Jump and Style Eventing; Kurtna sisekolmevõistlus, mis toimus 10.-11. aprillil 2010; Talvine kahevõistluse karikasari, mille 3 etappi ning finaal toimus ajavahemikul 28. veebruarist kuni 3. aprillini 2010 Harjumaal Jüris, Tartumaal Saksa talus ja Järvamaal Koordi tallides ning finaal taas Saksa talus

  19. Nõutakse Eesti-Läti-Leedu lastefilme / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Berliini festivali filmiturul tutvustas Baltic Films kõige edukamalt lastefilme nagu Rene Vilbre "Röövlirahnu Martin". Läti animafilmist räägib festivali lastefilmide konkursil plastiliinanimatsiooniga "Kuule, jänes... papa sõidab Londonisse" esinenud Nils Skapans (s 1969). Lisatud tabelid "Balti riigid ja film 2004" ja "Mida Baltikumis mullu kõige enam vaadati?"

  20. Minarettide varjus / Jörg E. Schweizer ; intervjueerinud Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schweizer, Jörg E.

    2009-01-01

    13. Pimedate Ööde filmifestivalil linastuva iraaniteemalise mängufilmi "Naised ilma meesteta" sakslasest produtsent filmist, selle režissöörist iraanlanna Shirin Neshat'ist ja filmi aluseks oleva raamatu autorist Shahrnush Parsipur'ist

  1. Steve Jobs, Ameerika Hans H. Luik / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Autor võrdleb Apple'i asutajat ja juhti Steve Jobsi Eesti meediaärimehe Hans H. Luigega. Vt. samas: Jobs: ärge raisake aega teiste elu elamisele; Forbes: iPhone'ist saab Apple'i suur hitt; CV: Steven Paul Jobs. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia

  2. Millest sõltub teatrikeele mõistetavus ? / Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    2.-8. aug. Fääri saartel T̤rshavnis toimunud IV Põhjamaade amatöörteatrite festivalist (North European Amateur Theatre Alliance). Pikemalt Fääri harrastustrupi lavastusest "H̤rpurima" (lav. Hans T̤rgard), rootsi lavastaja ja draamakirjaniku "Õnnelikult igavesti", Islandi trupi "Memento mori" (lav. Augusta Skټlad̤ttir). Eestit esindas festivalil Tarmo Tagametsa lavastus "Hing?" Võru Teatriateljee esituses

  3. Ja teie, aus publik, kes te naerusui vahite / Katrin Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Katrin

    2002-01-01

    E. Streuli "Teatrirüütel" Vanemuises, M. Mikiveri lavastuses J. Lumistega peaosas ja sama näidend pealkirjaga "Elukutse ohver ehk Täna jääb etendus ära" Vanalinnastuudios A.-E. Kerge lavastuses ja J. Aarmaga peaosas

  4. Minarettide varjus / Jörg E. Schweizer ; intervjueerinud Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schweizer, Jörg E.

    2009-01-01

    13. Pimedate Ööde filmifestivalil linastuva iraaniteemalise mängufilmi "Naised ilma meesteta" sakslasest produtsent filmist, selle režissöörist iraanlanna Shirin Neshat'ist ja filmi aluseks oleva raamatu autorist Shahrnush Parsipur'ist

  5. Lennuk Tartu kohal pani aluse esimesele Eesti filmistuudiole / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Johannes Pääsukese (1892-1918) "Utotškini lendamised Tartu kohal 14. ja 15. aprillil 1912", mis on seni teadaolevalt esimene eestlase filmitud kroonikapala. Lisatud tabelid "Esimene film" ja "Meie naabrite esimesed", mis toovad ära aastad, mil maailma eri riikides sündis esimene kinofilm

  6. Root canal treatment of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In endodontics, several anatomic variations occur in teeth, both externally and in the internal root morphology, which play a very significant role in the diagnosis and treatment outcome. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy, careful interpretation of the angled radiographs, proper endodontic access cavity preparation, and exploration of the root canal are the prerequisites for endodontic success. In a maxillary first premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals, and the aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis and clinical management of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars, with three independent root canals.

  7. Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela eCuesta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation.Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how lateral roots and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.

  8. Thermotropism by primary roots of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, M.-C.; Poff, K.L. (MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Sensing in the roots of higher plants has long been recognized to be restricted mainly to gravitropism and thigmotropism. However, root responses to temperature gradients have not been extensively studied. We have designed experiments under controlled conditions to test if and how root direction of maize can be altered by thermal gradients perpendicular to the gravity vector. Primary roots of maize grown on agar plates exhibit positive thermotropism (curvature toward the warmer temperature) when exposed to gradients of 0.5 to 4.2{degree}C cm{sup {minus}1}. The extent of thermotropism depends on the temperature gradient and the temperature at which the root is placed within the gradient. The curvature cannot be accounted for by differential growth as a direct effect of temperature on each side of the root.

  9. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...... in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...... fertilization was conducted in Canberra, Australia. Here the root studies were done by means of the core-break method and root washing....

  10. Tree-root control of shallow landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cohen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree roots have long been recognized to increase slope stability by reinforcing the strength of soils. Slope stability models usually include the effects of roots by adding an apparent cohesion to the soil to simulate root strength. No model includes the combined effects of root distribution heterogeneity, stress-strain behavior of root reinforcement, or root strength in compression. Recent field observations, however, indicate that shallow landslide triggering mechanisms are characterized by differential deformation that indicates localized activation of zones in tension, compression, and shear in the soil. Here we describe a new model for slope stability that specifically considers these effects. The model is a strain-step discrete element model that reproduces the self-organized redistribution of forces on a slope during rainfall-triggered shallow landslides. We use a conceptual sigmoidal-shaped hillslope with a clearing in its center to explore the effects of tree size, spacing, weak zones, maximum root-size diameter, and different root strength configurations. Simulation results indicate that tree roots can stabilize slopes that would otherwise fail without them and, in general, higher root density with higher root reinforcement results in a more stable slope. The variation in root stiffness with diameter can, in some cases, invert this relationship. Root tension provides more resistance to failure than root compression but roots with both tension and compression offer the best resistance to failure. Lateral (slope-parallel tension can be important in cases when the magnitude of this force is comparable to the slope-perpendicular tensile force. In this case, lateral forces can bring to failure tree-covered areas with high root reinforcement. Slope failure occurs when downslope soil compression reaches the soil maximum strength. When this occurs depends on the amount of root tension upslope in both the slope-perpendicular and slope

  11. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...... in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...... fertilization was conducted in Canberra, Australia. Here the root studies were done by means of the core-break method and root washing....

  12. Tree-root control of shallow landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Denis; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    Tree roots have long been recognized to increase slope stability by reinforcing the strength of soils. Slope stability models usually include the effects of roots by adding an apparent cohesion to the soil to simulate root strength. No model includes the combined effects of root distribution heterogeneity, stress-strain behavior of root reinforcement, or root strength in compression. Recent field observations, however, indicate that shallow landslide triggering mechanisms are characterized by differential deformation that indicates localized activation of zones in tension, compression, and shear in the soil. Here we describe a new model for slope stability that specifically considers these effects. The model is a strain-step discrete element model that reproduces the self-organized redistribution of forces on a slope during rainfall-triggered shallow landslides. We use a conceptual sigmoidal-shaped hillslope with a clearing in its center to explore the effects of tree size, spacing, weak zones, maximum root-size diameter, and different root strength configurations. Simulation results indicate that tree roots can stabilize slopes that would otherwise fail without them and, in general, higher root density with higher root reinforcement results in a more stable slope. The variation in root stiffness with diameter can, in some cases, invert this relationship. Root tension provides more resistance to failure than root compression but roots with both tension and compression offer the best resistance to failure. Lateral (slope-parallel) tension can be important in cases when the magnitude of this force is comparable to the slope-perpendicular tensile force. In this case, lateral forces can bring to failure tree-covered areas with high root reinforcement. Slope failure occurs when downslope soil compression reaches the soil maximum strength. When this occurs depends on the amount of root tension upslope in both the slope-perpendicular and slope-parallel directions. Roots

  13. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING : ROOTING FOR ROOTS, HANKERING FOR HEROES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The “roots” of Industrial Engineering are certainly extensive, diverse and deep. Similarly, there are numerous historical “heroes” that made significant contributions to the development of the Industrial Engineering discipline. For the sake of argument, this article will assume that Industrial Engineering has at least two identifiable main roots, namely Determinism and Stochastism. The article attempts to trace the early history1 of the stochastic root which is very closely linked to the history of probability and statistics and hence games of chance, gambling and divinity. Therefore, the life and times, contributions and personalities of some of the heroes and villains, champions and sad cases of the stochastic world, will be briefly discussed in a somewhat light-hearted, but not necessarily flippant, manner.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die “wortel en tak” van Bedryfsingenieurswese is sekerlik van groot omvang, van diverse aard en diep gesetel. Verskeie historiese “helde” het betekenisvolle bydraes gemaak tot die ontwikkeling van die Bedryfsingenieurswesevakgebied. Ter wille van betoogvoering sal in hierdie artikel aanvaar word dat Bedryfsingenieurswese uit minstens twee identifiseerbare sub-vakgebiede bestaan naamlik : Die Determinisme en die Stogasme. ’n Poging word aangewend om die vroeë geskiedenis van die stogasme na te speur wat op sy beurt aaneengesnoer is met die geskiedenis van die waarskynlikheidsleer en statistiek en dus toevalspelle, dobbelary en wiggelary. Die lewenswyse, tydsgewrig, bydraes en persoonlikheidseienskappe van ’n aantal helde en skurke, kampioene en prulle van die stogastiese wêreld word kortliks bespreek, op ’n ietwat lighartige maar nie noodwendig ligsinnige wyse.

  14. Rooting of carnation cuttings: The auxin signal

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Manuel; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and charac...

  15. Root phenology in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radville, Laura; McCormack, M Luke; Post, Eric; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-06-01

    Plant phenology is one of the strongest indicators of ecological responses to climate change, and altered phenology can have pronounced effects on net primary production, species composition in local communities, greenhouse gas fluxes, and ecosystem processes. Although many studies have shown that aboveground plant phenology advances with warmer temperatures, demonstration of a comparable association for belowground phenology has been lacking because the factors that influence root phenology are poorly understood. Because roots can constitute a large fraction of plant biomass, and root phenology may not respond to warming in the same way as shoots, this represents an important knowledge gap in our understanding of how climate change will influence phenology and plant performance. We review studies of root phenology and provide suggestions to direct future research. Only 29% of examined studies approached root phenology quantitatively, strongly limiting interpretation of results across studies. Therefore, we suggest that researchers emphasize quantitative analyses in future phenological studies. We suggest that root initiation, peak growth, and root cessation may be under different controls. Root initiation and cessation may be more constrained by soil temperature and the timing of carbon availability, whereas the timing of peak root growth may represent trade-offs among competing plant sinks. Roots probably do not experience winter dormancy in the same way as shoots: 89% of the studies that examined winter phenology found evidence of growth during winter months. More research is needed to observe root phenology, and future studies should be careful to capture winter and early season phenology. This should be done quantitatively, with direct observations of root growth utilizing rhizotrons or minirhizotrons.

  16. Signaling Pathways Critical for Tooth Root Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Feng, J Q

    2017-10-01

    Tooth is made of an enamel-covered crown and a cementum-covered root. Studies on crown dentin formation have been a major focus in tooth development for several decades. Interestingly, the population prevalence for genetic short root anomaly (SRA) with no apparent defects in crown is close to 1.3%. Furthermore, people with SRA itself are predisposed to root resorption during orthodontic treatment. The discovery of the unique role of Nfic (nuclear factor I C; a transcriptional factor) in controlling root but not crown dentin formation points to a new concept: tooth crown and root have different control mechanisms. Further genetic mechanism studies have identified more key molecules (including Osterix, β-catenin, and sonic hedgehog) that play a critical role in root formation. Extensive studies have also revealed the critical role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in tooth root formation. In addition, Wnt10a has recently been found to be linked to multirooted tooth furcation formation. These exciting findings not only fill the critical gaps in our understanding about tooth root formation but will aid future research regarding the identifying factors controlling tooth root size and the generation of a whole "bio-tooth" for therapeutic purposes. This review starts with human SRA and mainly focuses on recent progress on the roles of NFIC-dependent and NFIC-independent signaling pathways in tooth root formation. Finally, this review includes a list of the various Cre transgenic mouse lines used to achieve tooth root formation-related gene deletion or overexpression, as well as strengths and limitations of each line.

  17. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages......Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...

  18. Comprehensive analysis of Panax ginseng root transcriptomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Yun Sun; Park, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Hyun Oh; Joh, Ho Jun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a highly effective medicinal plant containing ginsenosides with various pharmacological activities, whose roots are produced commercially for crude drugs...

  19. Mandibular second premolar with four roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefika Nur Akyuz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of normal and abnormal variation in tooth anatomy is essential for clinical success. It is generally well known that the mandibular second premolar teeth have a single root and canal. However, the mandibular second premolar teeth have sometimes more than one root and root canal. The endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with four roots which separated at different levels along the middle third of the root is presented in this case report. Preoperative radiographs appeared radiolucency and different root anatomy in the region of the mandibular second premolar. The root canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany and obturated laterally condensed gutta percha and AH plus (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany. After the completion of root canal treatment, the tooth was restored with a posterior composite filling material. On follow-up, the tooth was clinically and radiographically asymptomatic for two years. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of careful clinical and radiographic examination of mandibular premolars during the endodontic treatment. Radiographs exposed at two different horizontal angles and their careful interpretation facilitates the search of additional root canals.

  20. Designing new interfaces for ROOT data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Kalle Elmer

    2016-01-01

    ROOT is a C++ framework for data analysis provided with a Python interface (PyRoot). ROOT is used in every Large Hadron Collider experiment. This project presents a way of reading ROOT TTree by using a new class called DataFrame, which allows the usage of cache and functional chains. Reading TTrees in Python has been quite slow compared to the C++ way of doing it and for this reason we also bring the possibility to read them with just-in-time (JIT) compiled C++ code, using another new Python class called TreeReader.

  1. Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwambach, Joséli; Fadanelli, Cristina; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2005-04-01

    We characterized the adventitious rooting response of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. to various concentrations of calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper. The parameters analyzed were percent rooting, root number, root length and mean rooting time. Root number and root length were significantly affected by mineral nutrition, whereas mean rooting time and rooting percentage seemed to be closely related to auxin availability. Root number was affected by calcium, nitrogen source and zinc, whereas root length was influenced by concentrations of phosphorus, iron and manganese, and by nitrogen source. Based on these results, we evaluated various combinations of several concentrations of these minerals in each rooting phase. Cuttings that were rooted in an optimized mineral nutrient medium and acclimatized to ex-vitro conditions for two months showed significantly higher survival after transplanting and drought stress than cuttings rooted in basal medium and treated in the same way.

  2. Jaan Ruus soovitab : "Parfüüm : ühe mõrva lugu" / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2006-01-01

    Patrick Süskindi krimiromaani "Parfüüm" ekraniseering "Parfüüm : ühe mõrva lugu" ("Perfume: The Story of a Murderer") : režissöör Tom Tykwer : peaosas Ben Whishaw : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006

  3. Jaan Ruus soovitab : "Parfüüm : ühe mõrva lugu" / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2006-01-01

    Patrick Süskindi krimiromaani "Parfüüm" ekraniseering "Parfüüm : ühe mõrva lugu" ("Perfume: The Story of a Murderer") : režissöör Tom Tykwer : peaosas Ben Whishaw : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006

  4. ROOT HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF EUCALYPT CLONAL CUTTINGS WITH ROOT MALFORMATION INDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Afonso Mazzei Moura de Assis Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814566The gain reduction of wood biomass in trees has been assigned to root deformations even in the nursery phase. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the root system hydraulic conductivity, gas exchanges and photochemical efficiency of eucalypt clonal cuttings with and without root deformation inductions. The treatments were: 1 operational cuttings without root malformation inductions (grown according to the used methodology of Fibria Cellulose S.A.; 2 root deformation inductions. These inductions did not promote decrease in the root volume. However, the deformations brought reduction of the root system hydraulic conductivity. Lower photosynthetic rates were also observed along the day in the cuttings in the root deformed cuttings. This decreasing rate is connected to stomatal and non stomatal factors.

  5. Variations of fine root diameter with root order in Manchurian ash and Dahurian larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangrong; WANG Zhengquan; HAN Youzhi; GU Jiacun; GUO Dali; MEI Li

    2007-01-01

    Fine root lifespan and turnover play an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems.Fine roots are typically defined as less than 1 or 2mm in diameter.However,when categorizing roots by this diameter size,the position of an individual root on the complex lateral branching pattern has often been ignored,and our knowledge about relationships between branching order and root function thus remains limited.More recently,studies on root survivals found that longevity was remarkably different in the same branching level due to diameter variations.The objectives of this study were:(1) To examine variations of fine root diameter from the first-to fifth-orders in Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr and Larix gmelinii Rupr roots;and (2) To reveal how the season,soil nutrient,and water availability affect root diameter in different branch order in two species.This study was conducted at Maoershan Forest Research Station (45°21'-45°25'N,127°30'-127°34'E) owned by Northeast Forestry University in Harbin,northeast China.Both F.mandshurica and L.gmelinii were planted in 1986.In each plantation,fine roots of two species by sampling up to five fine root branch orders three times during the 2003 growing season from two soil depths (i.e.,0-10 and 10-20 cm)were obtained.The results showed that average diameters of fine roots were significantly different among the five branch orders.The first-order had the thinner roots and the fifth order had the thickest roots,the diameter increasing regularly with the ascending branch orders in both species.If the diameter of fine roots was defined as being smaller than 0.5 mm,the first three orders ofF.mandshurica roots and the first two orders of L.gmelinii roots would be included in the fine root population.The diameter ranges of the fine roots from first-order to fifth-order were 0.15-0.58,0.18-0.70,0.26-1.05,0.36-1.43,and 0.71-2.96 mm for F.mandshurica,and 0.17-0.76,0.23-1.02,0.26-1.10,0.38-1.77,and 0.84-2.80 mm for L

  6. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pedrotti

    Full Text Available Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  7. Anatomical evaluation of the root canal diameter and root thickness on the apical third of mesial roots of molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Josué; Tatsch, Gustavo Henrique; Tatsch, Augusto César; Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María

    2011-09-01

    The purpose was to determine the diameter of the main root canal and wall thickness in the apical dentin in mesial roots of maxillary and mandibular molars. Forty mesiobuccal and mesial root specimens were sectioned horizontally at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the apex, and measured at each top surface by using optical microscopy to an accuracy of ×20 magnification. The anatomical parameters were established as the following points of reference: AB, two points connected by a line from the outer edge of the mesial wall to the outer edge of the distal one through the center of the root canal to measure the thickness of the root and mesiodistal diameter of the root canal (CD). A second line (EF) was designed to evaluate the diameter of the root canal in the buccolingual direction. All data were summarized, and values were assessed statistically by ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The buccolingual (BL) root canal diameters at 1, 2 and 3 mm in the mandibular and maxillary molars were greater than in the mesiodistal (MD), showing statistically significant differences (p maxillary molars were statistically significant (p maxillary molars was 1.741 mm. The BL diameters in maxillary and mandibular molars were higher than the MD diameter. The thickness (MD) of maxillary and mandibular molars decreased as a function of apical proximity.

  8. GiA Roots: software for the high throughput analysis of plant root system architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Galkovskyi Taras; Mileyko Yuriy; Bucksch Alexander; Moore Brad; Symonova Olga; Price Charles A; Topp Christopher N; Iyer-Pascuzzi Anjali S; Zurek Paul R; Fang Suqin; Harer John; Benfey Philip N; Weitz Joshua S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is essential to understanding the development and function of vascular plants. Identifying RSA-associated genes also represents an underexplored opportunity for crop improvement. Software tools are needed to accelerate the pace at which quantitative traits of RSA are estimated from images of root networks. Results We have developed GiA Roots (General Image Analysis of Roots), a semi-automated software tool designed specifically...

  9. Root-soil relationships and terroir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Soil features, along with climate, are among the most important determinants of a succesful grape production in a certain area. Most of the studies, so far, investigated the above-ground vine response to differente edaphic and climate condition, but it is clearly not sufficient to explain the vine whole behaviour. In fact, roots represent an important part of the terroir system (soil-plant-atmosphere-man), and their study can provide better comprehension of vine responses to different environments. The root density and distribution, the ability of deep-rooting and regenerating new roots are good indicators of root well-being, and represents the basis for an efficient physiological activity of the root system. Root deepening and distribution are strongly dependent and sensitive on soil type and soil properties, while root density is affected mostly by canopy size, rootstock and water availability. According to root well-being, soil management strategies should alleviate soil impediments, improving aeration and microbial activity. Moreover, agronomic practices can impact root system performance and influence the above-ground growth. It is well known, for example, that the root system size is largely diminished by high planting densities. Close vine spacings stimulate a more effective utilization of the available soil, water and nutrients, but if the competition for available soil becomes too high, it can repress vine growth, and compromise vineyard longevity, productivity and reaction to growing season weather. Development of resilient rootstocks, more efficient in terms of water and nutrient uptake and capable of dealing with climate and soil extremes (drought, high salinity) are primary goals fore future research. The use of these rootstocks will benefit a more sustainable use of the soil resources and the preservation and valorisation of the terroir.

  10. Malformations of the tooth root in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Ulrich eLuder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common root malformations in humans arise from either developmental disorders of the root alone or disorders of radicular development as part of a general tooth dysplasia. The aim of this review is to relate the characteristics of these root malformations to potentially disrupted processes involved in radicular morphogenesis. Radicular morphogenesis proceeds under the control of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS which determines the number, length, and shape of the root, induces the formation of radicular dentin, and participates in the development of root cementum. Formation of HERS at the transition from crown to root development appears to be very insensitive to adverse effects, with the result that rootless teeth are extremely rare. In contrast, shortened roots as a consequence of impaired or prematurely halted apical growth of HERS constitute the most prevalent radicular dysplasia which occurs due to trauma and unknown reasons as well as in association with dentin disorders. While odontoblast differentiation inevitably stops when growth of HERS is arrested, it seems to be unaffected even in cases of severe dentin dysplasias such as regional odontodysplasia and dentin dysplasia type I. As a result radicular dentin formation is at least initiated and progresses for a limited time. The only condition affecting cementogenesis is hypophosphatasia which disrupts the formation of acellular cementum through an inhibition of mineralization. A process particularly susceptible to adverse effects appears to be the formation of the furcation in multirooted teeth. Impairment or disruption of this process entails taurodontism, single-rooted posterior teeth, and misshapen furcations. Thus even though many characteristics of human root malformations can be related to disorders of specific processes involved in radicular morphogenesis, precise inferences as to the pathogenesis of these dysplasias are hampered by the still limited knowledge on

  11. Root selection methods in flood analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parmentier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, de Laine developed a root-matching procedure for estimating unit hydrograph ordinates from estimates of the fast component of the total runoff from multiple storms. Later, Turner produced a root selection method which required only data from one storm event and was based on recognising a pattern typical of unit hydrograph roots. Both methods required direct runoff data, i.e. prior separation of the slow response. This paper introduces a further refinement, called root separation, which allows the estimation of both the unit hydrograph ordinates and the effective precipitation from the full discharge hydrograph. It is based on recognising and separating the quicker component of the response from the much slower components due to interflow and/or baseflow. The method analyses the z-transform roots of carefully selected segments of the full hydrograph. The root patterns of these separate segments tend to be dominated by either the fast response or the slow response. This paper shows how their respective time-scales can be distinguished with an accuracy sufficient for practical purposes. As an illustration, theoretical equations are derived for a conceptual rainfall-runoff system with the input split between fast and slow reservoirs in parallel. These are solved analytically to identify the reservoir constants and the input splitting parameter. The proposed method, called 'root separation', avoids the subjective selection of rainfall roots in the Turner method as well as the subjective matching of roots in the original de Laine method. Keywords: unit hydrograph,identification methods, z-transform, polynomial roots, root separation, fast andslow response, Nash cascade

  12. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  13. Mati Jostovi järglane selgub lähiajal / Raivo Lott ; interv. Raivo Raigna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lott, Raivo, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Põlevkivi avalike suhete juht kontsernist Eesti Põlevkivi, viimaste aastate suurtest ümberkorraldustest, kontserni edust, Eesti Põlevkivi toodangumahust ja selle põhilistest tarbijatest, ISO 14001 keskkonnasüsteemide standardist, tähtsamatest kordaminekutest keskkonnaalases töös

  14. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    the length of apicectomy and calculated the loss of root length and changes of RCR after apical surgery. METHODS: In a prospective clinical study, cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken preoperatively and postoperatively. From these images, the crown and root lengths of 61 roots (54 teeth in 47...

  15. X-ray computed tomography uncovers root-root interactions: quantifying spatial relationships between interacting root systems in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin Paya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of plant biology has recently demonstrated that inter- and intra-specific interactions belowground can dramatically alter root growth. Our aim was to answer questions related to the effect of inter- vs. intra-specific interactions on the growth and utilization of undisturbed space by fine roots within three dimensions (3D using micro X-ray computed tomography. To achieve this, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen and Picea mariana (black spruce seedlings were planted into containers as either solitary individuals, or inter-/intra-specific pairs, allowed to grow for two months, and 3D metrics developed in order to quantify their use of belowground space. In both aspen and spruce, inter-specific root interactions produced a shift in the vertical distribution of the root system volume, and deepened the average position of root tips when compared to intra-specifically growing seedlings. Inter-specific interactions also increased the minimum distance between root tips belonging to the same root system. There was no effect of belowground interactions on the radial distribution of roots, or the directionality of lateral root growth for either species. In conclusion, we found that significant differences were observed more often when comparing controls (solitary individuals and paired seedlings (inter- or intra-specific, than when comparing inter- and intra-specifically growing seedlings. This would indicate that competition between neighboring seedlings was more responsible for shifting fine root growth in both species than was neighbor identity. However, significant inter- vs. intra-specific differences were observed, which further emphasizes the importance of biological interactions in competition studies.

  16. Compounds from the roots of Jasminum sambac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin-Hong; Hu, Min; Yan, Yong-Ming; Lu, Qing; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Four new compounds (+)-jasminoids A, B, C, and D, together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the roots of Jasminum sambac. Their structures were identified using spectroscopic methods. This study provides a better understanding to the chemical composition of J. sambac roots that have been thought to be one ingredient of an ancient prescription 'Ma-Fei-San'.

  17. Sugarbeet root rot in drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasnić Stevan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several types of sugarbeet root rot have occurred in our country causing significant economic damage. The most frequent symptoms are leaf chlorosis and brown-black wet necrosis of the root. The necrosis spread through the entire root and vascular strands. In the course of this study F. oxysporum was the most frequently isolated from infected sugar beet roots. The incidence of other fungi (Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina was much lower and it depended on weather conditions. High temperatures occurring during dry years encourage the development of F. oxysporum, the causer of sugar beet root rot. In 2000, an extremely dry year, plant vitality was satisfactory in the experiment with irrigation and the average root rot incidence was low (2,91%. In the nonirrigated variant the average incidence was high (71,02%. It may be concluded on the basis of the results from five years (2000-2004 that the major causal agents of sugarbeet root rot in our country are species from genus Fusarium, especially F. oxysporum. Fusarium wilt and root rot are due to the increased frequency of dry and warm years.

  18. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  19. A histochemical study of root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    In cooperation with soil bacteria of the genera Rhizobium , Bradyrhizobium or Azorhizobium , many members of the legume family are able to form specialized organs on their roots, called root nodules. The bacteria, wrapped up inside a plant membrane, are accomodated in large parenchymatic cells locat

  20. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before ro

  1. Graphing Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embse, Charles Vonder

    1993-01-01

    Using De Moivre's theorem and a parametric graphing utility, examines powers and roots of complex numbers and allows students to establish connections between the visual and numerical representations of complex numbers. Provides a program to numerically verify the roots of complex numbers. (MDH)

  2. On König's root finding algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we first recall the definition of a family of root-finding algorithms known as König's algorithms. We establish some local and some global properties of those algorithms. We give a characterization of rational maps which arise as König's methods of polynomials with simple roots. We...

  3. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2015-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grad...

  4. On the Denesting of Nested Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    We present the basic theory of denesting nested square roots, from an elementary point of view, suitable for lower level coursework. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for direct denesting, where the nested expression is rewritten as a sum of square roots of rational numbers, and for indirect denesting, where the nested expression is…

  5. On König's root finding algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we first recall the definition of a family of root-finding algorithms known as König's algorithms. We establish some local and some global properties of those algorithms. We give a characterization of rational maps which arise as König's methods of polynomials with simple roots. We...

  6. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Galvan-Ampudia; C. Testerink

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to avo

  7. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available roots is required a detailed 3D survey approach is recommended. REFERENCES Butnor, J.R., Doolittle, J.A., Johnsen, K.H., Samuelson, L., Stokes, T. and Kress, L., 2003, Utility of Ground-Penetrating Radar as a Root Biomass Survey Tool in Forest...

  8. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  9. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1996-08-01

    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required.

  10. Effect of lead on root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development.

  11. Effect of lead on root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development. PMID:23750165

  12. The Complexity of Rooted Phylogeny Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Several computational problems in phylogenetic reconstruction can be formulated as restrictions of the following general problem: given a formula in conjunctive normal form where the literals are rooted triples, is there a rooted binary tree that satisfies the formula? If the formulas do not contain disjunctions, the problem becomes the famous rooted triple consistency problem, which can be solved in polynomial time by an algorithm of Aho, Sagiv, Szymanski, and Ullman. If the clauses in the formulas are restricted to disjunctions of negated triples, Ng, Steel, and Wormald showed that the problem remains NP-complete. We systematically study the computational complexity of the problem for all such restrictions of the clauses in the input formula. For certain restricted disjunctions of triples we present an algorithm that has sub-quadratic running time and is asymptotically as fast as the fastest known algorithm for the rooted triple consistency problem. We also show that any restriction of the general rooted ph...

  13. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  14. Formation and separation of root border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2007-01-01

    Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental factors. The separation of border cells involves the complete dissociation of individual cells from each other and from root tissue. This process requires the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes that solubilize the cell wall connections between cells. We present and discuss the solubilization process with an emphasis on pectin-degrading enzymes as well as the recently discovered root border-like cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  15. Methane and Root Dynamics in Arctic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Imperio, Ludovica

    on the global climate. We investigated two aspects of arctic ecosystem dynamics which are not well represented in climatic models: i) soil methane (CH4) oxidation in dry heath tundra and barren soils and ii) root dynamics in wetlands. Field measurements were carried out during the growing season in Disko Island......, West Greenland, and CH4 and root dynamics were assessed in response to experimentally increased winter snow precipitation, summer warming and their interaction to better understand their contribution to the C balance of the Arctic. Our results indicate that both the dry heath and barren soils have...... from wetlands in a future warmer climate. At the wet fen increased winter snow precipitation delayed the onset of the growing season of about a week and reduced the relative fine root production. The use of minirhizotrons improved our understanding of root growth and phenology. Total root number...

  16. Nutrition and adventitious rooting in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bortolanza Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation success of commercial genotypes via cutting techniques is related to several factors, including nutritional status of mother trees and of propagation material. The nutritional status determines the carbohydrate quantities, auxins and other compounds of plant essential metabolism for root initiation and development. Each nutrient has specific functions in plant, acting on plant structure or on plant physiology. Although the importance of mineral nutrition for success of woody plants vegetative propagation and its relation with adventitious rooting is recognized, the role of some mineral nutrients is still unknown. Due to biochemical and physiological complexity of adventitious rooting process, there are few researches to determine de role of nutrients on development of adventitious roots. This review intends to explore de state of the art about the effect of mineral nutrition on adventitious rooting of woody plants.

  17. Resistance to compression of weakened roots subjected to different root reconstruction protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Villaça Zogheib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated, in vitro, the fracture resistance of human non-vital teeth restored with different reconstruction protocols. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human anterior roots of similar shape and dimensions were assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root reconstruction protocol: Group I (control: non-weakened roots with glass fiber post; Group II: roots with composite resin by incremental technique and glass fiber post; Group III: roots with accessory glass fiber posts and glass fiber post; and Group IV: roots with anatomic glass fiber post technique. Following post cementation and core reconstruction, the roots were embedded in chemically activated acrylic resin and submitted to fracture resistance testing, with a compressive load at an angle of 45º in relation to the long axis of the root at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. All data were statistically analyzed with bilateral Dunnett's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: Group I presented higher mean values of fracture resistance when compared with the three experimental groups, which, in turn, presented similar resistance to fracture among each other. None of the techniques of root reconstruction with intraradicular posts improved root strength, and the incremental technique was suggested as being the most recommendable, since the type of fracture that occurred allowed the remaining dental structure to be repaired. CONCLUSION: The results of this in vitro study suggest that the healthy remaining radicular dentin is more important to increase fracture resistance than the root reconstruction protocol.

  18. PHIV-RootCell: a supervised image analysis tool for rice root anatomical parameter quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eLartaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the PHIV-RootCell software to quantify anatomical traits of rice roots transverse section images. Combined with an efficient root sample processing method for image acquisition, this program permits supervised measurements of areas (those of whole root section, stele, cortex and central metaxylem vessels, number of cell layers and number of cells per cell layer. The PHIV-RootCell toolset runs under ImageJ, an independent operating system that has a license-free status. To demonstrate the usefulness of PHIV-RootCell, we conducted a genetic diversity study and an analysis of salt-stress responses of root anatomical parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Using 16 cultivars, we showed that we could discriminate between some of the varieties even at the 6 day-old stage, and that tropical japonica varieties had larger root sections due to an increase in cell number. We observed, as described previously, that root sections become enlarged under salt stress. However, our results show an increase in cell number in ground tissues (endodermis and cortex but a decrease in external (peripheral tissues (sclerenchyma, exodermis and epidermis. Thus, the PHIV-RootCell program is a user-friendly tool that will be helpful for future genetic and physiological studies that investigate root anatomical trait variations.

  19. Aerenchyma Formed Under Phosphorus Deficiency Contributes to the Reduced Root Hydraulic Conductivity in Maize Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshou Fan; Ruiqin Bai; Xuefeng Zhao; Jianhua Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Root hydraulic conductivity has been shown to decrease under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This study investigated how the formation of aerenchyma is related to this change. Root anatomy, as well as root hydraulic conductivity was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) roots under different phosphorus nutrition conditions. Plant roots under P stress showed enhanced degradation of cortical cells and the aerenchyma formation was associated with their reduced root hydraulic conductivity, supporting our hypothesis that air spaces that form in the cortex of phosphorusstressed roots impede the radial transport of water in a root cylinder. Further evidence came from the variation in aerenchyma formation due to genotypic differences. Five maize inbred lines with different porosity in their root cortex showed a significant negative correlation with their root hydraulic conductivity. Shoot relative water content was also found lower in P-deficient maize plants than that in P-sufficient ones when such treatment was prolonged enough, suggesting a limitation of water transport due to lowered root hydraulic conductivity of P-deficient piants.

  20. Root cap influences root colonisation by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 on maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Sonia N; Bengough, A Glyn; Griffiths, Bryan S; Kilham, Ken; Rodger, Sheena; Stubbs, Vicky; Valentine, Tracy A; Young, Iain M

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the influence of root border cells on the colonisation of seedling Zea mays roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in sandy loam soil packed at two dry bulk densities. Numbers of colony forming units (CFU) were counted on sequential sections of root for intact and decapped inoculated roots grown in loose (1.0 mg m(-3)) and compacted (1.3 mg m(-3)) soil. After two days of root growth, the numbers of P. fluorescens (CFU cm(-1)) were highest on the section of root just below the seed with progressively fewer bacteria near the tip, irrespective of density. The decapped roots had significantly more colonies of P. fluorescens at the tip compared with the intact roots: approximately 100-fold more in the loose and 30-fold more in the compact soil. In addition, confocal images of the root tips grown in agar showed that P. fluorescens could only be detected on the tips of the decapped roots. These results indicated that border cells, and their associated mucilage, prevented complete colonization of the root tip by the biocontrol agent P. fluorescens, possibly by acting as a disposable surface or sheath around the cap.

  1. RootGraph: a graphic optimization tool for automated image analysis of plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinhai; Zeng, Zhanghui; Connor, Jason N; Huang, Chun Yuan; Melino, Vanessa; Kumar, Pankaj; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2015-11-01

    This paper outlines a numerical scheme for accurate, detailed, and high-throughput image analysis of plant roots. In contrast to existing root image analysis tools that focus on root system-average traits, a novel, fully automated and robust approach for the detailed characterization of root traits, based on a graph optimization process is presented. The scheme, firstly, distinguishes primary roots from lateral roots and, secondly, quantifies a broad spectrum of root traits for each identified primary and lateral root. Thirdly, it associates lateral roots and their properties with the specific primary root from which the laterals emerge. The performance of this approach was evaluated through comparisons with other automated and semi-automated software solutions as well as against results based on manual measurements. The comparisons and subsequent application of the algorithm to an array of experimental data demonstrate that this method outperforms existing methods in terms of accuracy, robustness, and the ability to process root images under high-throughput conditions.

  2. Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, pGrowth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear

  3. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order based fine root morphology and biomass?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eKubisch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM. It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus and Tilia searching for principal differences between EM and AM trees. We further assessed the evidence of convergence or divergence in root traits among the six co-occurring species. Eight fine root morphological and chemical traits were investigated in root segments of the first to fourth root order in three different soil depths and the relative importance of the factors root order, tree species and soil depth for root morphology was determined. Root order was more influential than tree species while soil depth had only a small effect on root morphology All six species showed similar decreases in specific root length and specific root area from the 1st to the 4th root order, while the species patterns differed considerably in root tissue density, root N concentration, and particularly with respect to root tip abundance. Most root morphological traits were not significantly different between EM and AM species (except for specific root area that was larger in AM species, indicating that mycorrhiza type is not a key factor influencing fine root morphology in these species. The order-based root analysis detected species differences more clearly than the simple analysis of bulked fine root mass. Despite convergence in important root traits among AM and EM species, even congeneric species may differ in certain fine root morphological traits. This suggests that, in general, species identity has a larger influence on fine root morphology than mycorrhiza type.

  4. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  5. Spiralizations and tropisms in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, F; Piconese, S

    2001-12-01

    When Arabidopsis seedlings are grown on a hard-agar plate, their primary roots show characteristic spiralling movements, apparent as waves, coils and torsions, together with a slanting toward the right-hand side. All these movements are believed to be the result of three different processes acting on the roots: circumnutation, positive gravitropism and negative thigmotropism. The basic movement of the roots is described as that of a growing right-handed helix, which, because of the root tip hitting the agar plate, is continuously switched from the right-hand to the left-hand of the growth direction, and vice versa. This movement also produces a slanting root-growth direction toward the right-hand because of the incomplete waves made by the right-handed root to the left-hand. By contrast, the torsions seen in the coils and waves are interpreted as artefacts that form as an adaptation of the three-dimensional root helix to the flat two-dimensional agar surface.

  6. Is pulp regeneration necessary for root maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Li, Kevin L; Vir, Kunwar; Hicks, M Lamar; Fouad, Ashraf F

    2013-10-01

    True regeneration of the dental pulp-dentin complex in immature teeth with necrotic pulps has not been shown histologically. It is not known to what extent this true tissue regeneration is necessary to achieve clinically acceptable outcomes. This case report describes the treatment of a patient with an immature maxillary right central incisor with a history of impact trauma and enamel-dentin crown fracture. A diagnosis of pulp necrosis with acute apical abscess was established. A regenerative endodontic protocol that used a paste containing Augmentin for 5 weeks as an intracanal medicament was used. Follow-ups at 9, 12, 17, and 31 months revealed complete osseous healing of the periapical lesion and formation of the root apex, but without increase in root length. Clinically, the tooth was functional, asymptomatic, and nonresponsive to pulp vitality tests. The crown discolored over time. On reentering the root canal, no tissues were observed under magnification inside the root canal space. The root canal treatment was completed with mineral trioxide aggregate obturation. Augmentin might be an acceptable choice for root canal disinfection in regenerative endodontic procedures. The protocol for regenerative endodontic treatment is not predictable for pulp-dentin regeneration. Formation of the root apex is possible without pulp regeneration. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  8. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  9. A thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Kleidon, Axel; Bechmann, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    By extracting bound water from the soil and lifting it to the canopy, root systems of vegetation perform work. Here we describe how root water uptake can be evaluated thermodynamically and demonstrate that this evaluation provides additional insights into the factors that impede root water uptake. We derive an expression that relates the energy export at the base of the root system to a sum of terms that reflect all fluxes and storage changes along the flow path in thermodynamic terms. We illustrate this thermodynamic formulation using an idealized setup of scenarios with a simple model. In these scenarios, we demonstrate why heterogeneity in soil water distribution and rooting properties affect the impediment of water flow even though the mean soil water content and rooting properties are the same across the scenarios. The effects of heterogeneity can clearly be identified in the thermodynamics of the system in terms of differences in dissipative losses and hydraulic energy, resulting in an earlier start of water limitation in the drying cycle. We conclude that this thermodynamic evaluation of root water uptake conveniently provides insights into the impediments of different processes along the entire flow path, which goes beyond resistances and also accounts for the role of heterogeneity in soil water distribution.

  10. A review on the molecular mechanism of plants rooting modulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review on the molecular mechanism of plants rooting modulated by auxin. ... rooting modulated by auxin. H Han, S Zhang, X Sun ... Phytohormones, especially auxin, played an essential role in regulating roots developments. This review ...

  11. Effects of acid deposition on tree roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1995-12-31

    Large forest regions in SW Sweden have been exposed to high levels of acid deposition for many decades, causing soil acidification in forest soils. Historically, SO{sub 2} has been the major acidification agent, but lately nitrogen compounds increasingly have become important. The amount and chemical form of nitrogen strongly affects the pH in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Many forest stands show a positive growth response to increased nitrogen input, even in heavily N-loaded areas. Nitrogen fertilization experiments suggest that part of the increased forest production is caused by a translocation of biomass production from below-ground to above-ground parts. At the same time fine-root growth dynamics are strongly affected by the high N supply. Deficiencies of various nutrients (Mg,Ca,K,Mn and Zn) obtained from needle analyses have been reported from different Picea abies stands. In areas with more extensive acidification and nutrient leaching, a decline in tree vitality has been observed. Although deficiency symptoms in forest trees may be reflected in nitrogen/cation ratios in fine roots, few attempts have been made to explain forest damage symptoms from fine-root chemistry. Root damage is often described as a decline in the amount of living fine roots, an increase in the amount of dead versus live fine roots (a lower live/dead ratio) and an increasing amount of dead medium and coarse roots. The primary objectives of the present presentation were to analyse available data on the effects of high nitrogen and sulphur deposition on mineral nutrient balance in tree fine roots and to evaluate the risk of Al interference with cation uptake by roots

  12. Lähiminevik Kinomajas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Homme näidatakse Kinomajas portreefilmi filmimees Semjon Shkolnikovist "Igaviku seisukohalt" : stsenarist Igor Ruus : režissöörid Igor Ruus ja Heli Speek : produtsent Igor Ruus : Estonia Film 2002

  13. Kogu elu tööliste keskel / Aarne Ruben

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruben, Aarne, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Portreefilm filmimees Semjon Shkolnikovist "Igaviku seisukohalt" : stsenarist Igor Ruus : režissöörid Igor Ruus ja Heli Speek : produtsent Igor Ruus : Estonia Film 2002. Lisatud andmed Igor Ruusi, Heli Speegi ja Aarne Rubeni kohta, lk. 114

  14. Kogu elu tööliste keskel / Aarne Ruben

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruben, Aarne, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Portreefilm filmimees Semjon Shkolnikovist "Igaviku seisukohalt" : stsenarist Igor Ruus : režissöörid Igor Ruus ja Heli Speek : produtsent Igor Ruus : Estonia Film 2002. Lisatud andmed Igor Ruusi, Heli Speegi ja Aarne Rubeni kohta, lk. 114

  15. Lähiminevik Kinomajas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Homme näidatakse Kinomajas portreefilmi filmimees Semjon Shkolnikovist "Igaviku seisukohalt" : stsenarist Igor Ruus : režissöörid Igor Ruus ja Heli Speek : produtsent Igor Ruus : Estonia Film 2002

  16. Root type matters: measurements of water uptake by seminal, crown and lateral roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Roots play a key role in water acquisition and are a significant component of plant adaptation to different environmental conditions. Although maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and types in extracting water from soils. Aim of this study was to investigate the location of root water uptake in mature maize. We used neutron radiography to image the spatial distribution of maize roots and trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil that was kept homogeneously wet throughout the experiment. When the plants were five weeks-old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions. The transport of D2O was simulated using a diffusion-convection numerical model. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusion coefficient and the water uptake of the different root segments. The model was initially developed and tested with two weeks-old maize (Ahmed et. al. 2015), for which we found that water was mainly taken up by lateral roots and the water uptake of the seminal roots was negligible. Here, we used this method to measure root water uptake in a mature maize root system. The root architecture of five weeks-old maize consisted of primary and seminal roots with long laterals and crown (nodal) roots that emerged from the above ground part of the plant two weeks after planting. The crown roots were thicker than the seminal roots and had fewer and shorter laterals. Surprisingly, we found that the water was mainly taken up by the crown roots and their laterals, while the lateral roots of seminal roots, which were the main location of water uptake of younger plants, stopped to take up water. Interestingly, we also found that in contrast to the seminal roots, the crown roots were able to take up water also from their distal segments. We conclude that for the two weeks

  17. Pullout tests of root analogs and natural root bundles in soil: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Or, D.

    2011-06-01

    Root-soil mechanical interactions are key to soil stability on steep hillslopes. Motivated by new advances and applications of the Root Bundle Model (RBM), we conducted a series of experiments in the laboratory and in the field to study the mechanical response of pulled roots. We systematically quantified the influence of different factors such as root geometry and configuration, soil type, and soil water content considering individual roots and root bundles. We developed a novel pullout apparatus for strain-controlled field and laboratory tests of up to 13 parallel roots measured individually and as a bundle. Results highlight the importance of root tortuosity and root branching points for prediction of individual root pullout behavior. Results also confirm the critical role of root diameter distribution for realistic prediction of global pullout behavior of a root bundle. Friction between root and soil matrix varied with soil type and water content and affected the force-displacement behavior. Friction in sand varied from 1 to 17 kPa, with low values obtained in wet sand at a confining pressure of 2 kPa and high values obtained in dry sand with 4.5 kPa confining pressure. In a silty soil matrix, friction ranged between 3 kPa under wet and low confining pressure (2 kPa) and 6 kPa in dry and higher confining pressure (4.5 kPa). Displacement at maximum pullout force increased with increasing root diameter and with tortuosity. Laboratory experiments were used to calibrate the RBM that was later validated using six field measurements with natural root bundles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). These tests demonstrate the progressive nature of root bundle failure under strain-controlled pullout force and provide new insights regarding force-displacement behavior of root reinforcement, highlighting the importance of considering displacement in slope stability models. Results show that the magnitude of maximum root pullout forces (1-5 kPa) are important for slope

  18. Negative phototropism of rice root and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhong(王忠); MO; Yiwei(莫亿伟); QIAN; Shanqin(钱善勤); GU; Yunjie(顾蕴洁)

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristics of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) root were found in the experiment of unilaterally irradiating the roots which were planted in water: (ⅰ) All the seminal roots, adventitious roots and their branched roots bent away from light, and their curvatures ranged from 25° to 60°. The curvature of adventitious root of the higher node was often larger than that of the lower node, and even larger than that of the seminal root. (ⅱ) The negative phototropic bending of the rice root was mainly due to the larger growth increment of root-tip cells of the irradiated side compared with that of the shaded side. (ⅲ) Root cap was the site of light perception. If root cap was shaded while the root was irradiated the root showed no negative phototropism, and the root lost the characteristic of negative phototropism when root cap was divested. Rice root could resume the characteristic of negative phototropism when the new root cap grew up, if the original cells of root cap were well protected while root cap was divested. (ⅳ) The growth increment and curvature of rice root were both influenced by light intensity. Within the range of 0-100μmol@m-2@s-1, the increasing of light intensity resulted in the decreasing of the growth increment and the increasing of the curvature of rice root. (ⅴ) The growth increment and the curvature reached the maximum at 30℃ with the temperature treatment of 10-40℃. (ⅵ) Blue-violet light could prominently induce the negative phototropism of rice root, while red light had no such effect. (ⅶ) The auxin (IAA) in the solution, as a very prominent influencing factor, inhibited the growth, the negative phototropism and the gravitropism of rice root when the concentration of IAA increased. The response of negative phototropism of rice root disappeared when the concentration of IAA was above 10 mg@L-1.

  19. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to 8 different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of th...

  20. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  1. THttpServer class in ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, Joern; Linev, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    The new THttpServer class in ROOT implements HTTP server for arbitrary ROOT applications. It is based on Civetweb embeddable HTTP server and provides direct access to all objects registered for the server. Objects data could be provided in different formats: binary, XML, GIF/PNG, and JSON. A generic user interface for THttpServer has been implemented with HTML/JavaScript based on JavaScript ROOT development. With any modern web browser one could list, display, and monitor objects available on the server. THttpServer is used in Go4 framework to provide HTTP interface to the online analysis.

  2. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF DESMODIUM GANGETICUM ROOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedpal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the in-vitro anti-arthritic activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in the present investigation Indicate that aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root showed anti-arthritic activity.

  3. A "square-root rule" for reinsurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Powers

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, the authors derived a mathematical expression for the optimal (or "saturation" number of reinsurers for a given number of primary insurers (see Powers and Shubik, 2001. In the current article, we show analytically that, for large numbers of primary insurers, this mathematical expression provides a "square-root rule"; i.e., the optimal number of reinsurers in a market is given asymptotically by the square root of the total number of primary insurers. We note further that an analogous "fourth-root rule" applies to markets for retrocession (the reinsurance of reinsurance.

  4. BOREAS TE-2 Root Respiration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set includes means of tree root respiration measurements on roots having diameters ranging from 0 to 2 mm conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Clinical technique for invasive cervical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Machado Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of an external invasive cervical resorption. A 17-year-old female patient had a confirmed diagnosis of invasive cervical resorption class 4 by cone beam computerized tomography. Although, there was no communication with the root canal, the invasive resorption process was extending into the cervical and middle third of the root. The treatment of the cervical resorption of the lateral incisor interrupted the resorptive process and restored the damaged root surface and the dental functions without any esthetic sequelae. Both the radiographic examination and computed tomography are imperative to reveal the extent of the defect in the differential diagnosis.

  6. Enhancing auxin accumulation in maize root tips improves root growth and dwarfs plant height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Xinrui; Zhao, Yajie; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Guangfeng; Peng, Zhenghua; Zhang, Juren

    2017-05-12

    Maize is a globally important food, feed crop and raw material for the food and energy industry. Plant architecture optimization plays important roles in maize yield improvement. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are important for regulating auxin spatiotemporal asymmetric distribution in multiple plant developmental processes. In this study, ZmPIN1a overexpression in maize increased the number of lateral roots and inhibited their elongation, forming a developed root system with longer seminal roots and denser lateral roots. ZmPIN1a overexpression reduced plant height, internode length and ear height. This modification of the maize phenotype increased the yield under high-density cultivation conditions, and the developed root system improved plant resistance to drought, lodging and a low-phosphate environment. IAA concentration, transport capacity determination and application of external IAA indicated that ZmPIN1a overexpression led to increased IAA transport from shoot to root. The increase in auxin in the root enabled the plant to allocate more carbohydrates to the roots, enhanced the growth of the root and improved plant resistance to environmental stress. These findings demonstrate that maize plant architecture can be improved by root breeding to create an ideal phenotype for further yield increases. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Root Cap Determines Ethylene-Dependent Growth and Development in Maize Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim Hahn; Roman Zimmermann; Dierk Wanke; Klaus Harter; Hans G.Edelmann

    2008-01-01

    Besides providing protection against mechanical damage to the root tip,the root cap is involved in the perception and processing of diverse external and internal stimuli resulting in altered growth and development.The transduction of these stimuli includes hormonal signaling pathways such as those of auxin,ethylene and cytokinin.Here,we show that the root cap is essential for the ethylene-induced regulation of elongation growth and root hair formation in maize.Exogenously applied ethylene is no longer able to inhibit elongation growth when the root cap has been surgically removed prior to hormone treatment.Reconstitution of the cap positively correlates with the developing capacity of the roots to respond to ethylene again.In contrast,the removal of the root cap does not per se affect growth inhibition controlled by auxin and cytokinin.Furthermore,our semi-quantitative RT-PCR results support earlier findings that the maize root cap is a site of high gene expression activity with respect to sensing and responding to hormones such as ethylene.From these data,we propose a novel function of the root cap which is the establishment of competence to respond to ethylene in the distal zones of the root.

  8. Phosphate Availability Alters Lateral Root Anatomy and Root Architecture of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu WU; Xing WEI; Hai-Long SUN; Zheng-Quan WANG

    2005-01-01

    Plants have evolved some mechanisms to maximize the efficiency of phosphorus acquisition.Changes in root architecture are one such mechanism. When Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. seedlings were grown under conditions of low phosphorus availability, the length of cells in the meristem zone of the lateral roots was longer, but the length of cells in the elongation and mature zones of the lateral roots was shorter,compared with seedlings grown under conditions of high phosphorus availability. The elongation rates of primary roots increased as phosphorus availability increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of the primary roots decreased. The number of lateral root primordia and the length of the lateral roots decreased as phosphorus availability increased. The topological index (altitude slope) decreased as phosphorus availability increased, suggesting that root architecture tended to be herringbone-like when seedlings were grown under conditions of low phosphate availability. Herringbone-like root systems exploit nutrients more efficiently, but they have higher construction costs than root systems with a branching pattern.

  9. Regenerative Endodontic Procedures for Traumatized Teeth after Horizontal Root Fracture, Avulsion, and Perforating Root Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Mistry, Sonali; Kahler, Bill; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Lin, Louis M

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic injury to the teeth can cause horizontal root fractures and inflammatory root resorptions (external and internal). Traditionally, traumatized teeth with horizontal root fractures resulting in pulp necrosis and inflammatory root resorptions are treated with conventional root canal therapy. A 15-year-old boy had a history of traumatic injury to mature tooth #8 resulting in horizontal root fracture and pulp necrosis of the coronal fragment. A 7-year-old girl suffered an avulsion injury to immature tooth #9, which developed inflammatory replacement resorption and subsequently root fractured 15 months later. Another 16-year-old boy also suffered a history of traumatic injury to mature tooth #8, resulting in perforating root resorption. All teeth were treated with regenerative endodontic procedures using chemomechanical debridement, calcium hydroxide/triple antibiotic paste dressing, EDTA rinse, induction of periapical bleeding into the canal space, and a coronal mineral trioxide aggregate plug. In the tooth presenting with horizontal root fracture, only the coronal fragment was treated to preserve pulp vitality in the apical fragment for possible pulp tissue regeneration. After regenerative endodontic procedures, clinical signs/symptoms subsided, and inflammatory osteolytic lesions resolved in all traumatized teeth. Two teeth were followed for 19 months and 1 tooth for 5 years. At the last review of the teeth with horizontal root fractures, the first case showed healing by calcified tissue and the second case showed healing by fibrous connective and hard tissue. Tooth with perforating root resorption demonstrated a decrease in size of the resorptive defect. Based on these case reports, regenerative endodontic procedures have the potential to be used to treat traumatized teeth with horizontal root fracture and inflammatory root resorption. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

    2014-06-24

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

  11. Rhizosphere interactions: root exudates, microbes and microbial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Xing-Feng; Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    .... In this review, we summarize recent progress made in unraveling the interactions between plants and rhizosphere microbes through plant root exudates, focusing on how root exudate compounds mediate...

  12. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Material and Methods Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Results Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Conclusions Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic. PMID:28149466

  13. Elements with Square Roots in Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S. Lucido; M.R. Pournaki

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the probability that a randomly chosen element in a finite group has a square root, in particular the simple groups of Lie type of rank 1, the sporadic finite simple groups and the alternating groups.

  14. Dechlorodauricumine from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Matsui, Miharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Kato, Masako

    2005-11-01

    Dechlorodauricumine, a possible organic substrate for biochlorination, was isolated from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum, a rich source of chlorinated alkaloids. Its structure was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  15. Naine objektistab meest / Fideelia-Signe Roots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roots, Fideelia-Signe, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Fideelia-Signe Roots Eesti Kunstiakadeemias 2009. a. kevadsemestril enda poolt läbi viidud valikainekursusest "Kunstiteose anatoomiast mehe anatoomiani", mis lõppes näitusega "Tõuseb / ei tõuse" Eesti Tervishoiumuuseumis, avatud 31. maini

  16. Naine objektistab meest / Fideelia-Signe Roots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roots, Fideelia-Signe, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Fideelia-Signe Roots Eesti Kunstiakadeemias 2009. a. kevadsemestril enda poolt läbi viidud valikainekursusest "Kunstiteose anatoomiast mehe anatoomiani", mis lõppes näitusega "Tõuseb / ei tõuse" Eesti Tervishoiumuuseumis, avatud 31. maini

  17. BGP reflection functors in root categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jie; ZHANG Guanglian; ZHU Bin

    2005-01-01

    We define the BGP-reflection functors in the derived categories and the root categories. By Ringel's Hall algebra approach, the BGP-reflection functor is applicable to obtain the classical Weyl group action on the Lie algebra.

  18. EFFECT OF CALITROPIS PROCERA AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    The hepatocurative effect of aqueous root extract of Calitropis Procera on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits was studied in groups of rabbit and the levels of liver enzymes; aspartate .... and inhibitors and presence of pyridoxine (vitamin.

  19. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class...

  20. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... some of the world’s most productive intensively managed forests, including Brazil and the Southeast and Pacifi c Northwest regions of the United States, have shown that root systems are often several meters in depth, and often extend deeper than soil is sampled. Large amounts of carbon are also...... sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations...

  1. Transgenic root cultures of Gentiana punctata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Vinterhalter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot cultures of Gentiana punctata L. were inoculated with suspension of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 M70GUS. Hairy roots which appeared 2-3 weeks later were cultured on hormone-free, liquid, WPM (Lloyd and McCown 1980 basal medium for more than 5 years (60 subcultures. Growth rate of transformed roots was higher than the growth rate of nontransformed roots. Spontaneous shoot regeneration occured only in three culture vessels in subcultures No. 40 and 42. Plants had phenotype characteristics typical for A. rhizogenes transformed plants including: wrincled leaves, short internodes, plagiotropic roots and in general their growth rate was reduced. These plants also manifested precocious formation of flower buds without vernalization and flowering under in vitro conditions. Flowers were pale yellow, the same as in the standard phenotype.

  2. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth mobility changes in root-fractured permanent teeth and relate this to type of interfragment healing (hard tissue healing (HT), interfragment healing with periodontal ligament (PDL) and nonhealing with interposition of granulation tissue (GT) because...... of pulp necrosis in the coronal fragment. Furthermore, the effect of age, location of the fracture on the root, and observation period on mobility values was analyzed. Mobility values were measured for 44 of 95 previous reported root-fractured permanent incisors. Mobility changes were measured...... after 3 months and 1 year, and a normalization of mobility value was usually found after 5 and 10 years. In 17 cases of PDL healing, generally a higher mobility was found in comparison with root fractures healing with hard tissue, and a consistent decrease in mobility value was found in the course...

  3. New Heuristics for Rooted Triplet Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Jahangiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rooted triplets are becoming one of the most important types of input for reconstructing rooted phylogenies. A rooted triplet is a phylogenetic tree on three leaves and shows the evolutionary relationship of the corresponding three species. In this paper, we investigate the problem of inferring the maximum consensus evolutionary tree from a set of rooted triplets. This problem is known to be APX-hard. We present two new heuristic algorithms. For a given set of m triplets on n species, the FastTree algorithm runs in O(m + α(nn2 time, where α(n is the functional inverse of Ackermann’s function. This is faster than any other previously known algorithms, although the outcome is less satisfactory. The Best Pair Merge with Total Reconstruction (BPMTR algorithm runs in O(mn3 time and, on average, performs better than any other previously known algorithms for this problem.

  4. DMA thermal analysis of yacon tuberous roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahovec, J.; Lahodová, M.; Kindl, M.; Fernández, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Specimens prepared from yacon roots in first two weeks after harvest were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis thermal analysis at temperatures between 30 and 90°C. No differences between different parts of roots were proved. There were indicated some differences in the test parameters that were caused by short time storage of the roots. One source of the differences was loss of water during the roots storage. The measured modulus increased during short time storage. Detailed study of changes of the modulus during the specimen dynamic mechanical analysis test provided information about different development of the storage and loss moduli during the specimen heating. The observed results can be caused by changes in cellular membranes observed earlier during vegetable heating, and by composition changes due to less stable components of yacon like inulin.

  5. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and 99.9% was due to root exudates

  6. ROOT I/O in Javascript - Reading ROOT files in a browser

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A JavaScript version of the ROOT I/O subsystem is being developed, in order to be able to browse (inspect) ROOT files in a platform independent way. This allows the content of ROOT files to be displayed in most web browsers, without having to install ROOT or any other software on the server or on the client. This gives a direct access to ROOT files from new (e.g. portable) devices in a light way. It will be possible to display simple graphical objects such as histograms and graphs (TH1, TH2, TH3, TProfile, TGraph, ...). The rendering will first be done with an external JavaScript graphic library, before investigating a way to produce graphics closer to what ROOT supports on other platforms (X11, Windows).

  7. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Venuti

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  8. Sparse DOA estimation with polynomial rooting

    OpenAIRE

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2015-01-01

    Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation involves the localization of a few sources from a limited number of observations on an array of sensors. Thus, DOA estimation can be formulated as a sparse signal reconstruction problem and solved efficiently with compressive sensing (CS) to achieve highresolution imaging. Utilizing the dual optimal variables of the CS optimization problem, it is shown with Monte Carlo simulations that the DOAs are accurately reconstructed through polynomial rooting (Root...

  9. Rational Convolution Roots of Isobaric Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Conci, Aura; Li, Huilan; MacHenry, Trueman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit two matrix representations of the rational roots of generalized Fibonacci polynomials (GFPs) under convolution product, in terms of determinants and permanents, respectively. The underlying root formulas for GFPs and for weighted isobaric polynomials (WIPs), which appeared in an earlier paper by MacHenry and Tudose, make use of two types of operators. These operators are derived from the generating functions for Stirling numbers of the first kind and second kind. Hen...

  10. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly

  11. Development of Machine Learning Tools in ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, S. V.; Moneta, L.; Zapata, Omar A.

    2016-10-01

    ROOT is a framework for large-scale data analysis that provides basic and advanced statistical methods used by the LHC experiments. These include machine learning algorithms from the ROOT-integrated Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA). We present several recent developments in TMVA, including a new modular design, new algorithms for variable importance and cross-validation, interfaces to other machine-learning software packages and integration of TMVA with Jupyter, making it accessible with a browser.

  12. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Venuti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  13. Two root canals in maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

  14. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  15. q--Magnetism at roots of unity

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovich, A; Gómez, C

    1993-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a family of integrable 1D spin chain hamiltonians associated with quantum groups at roots of unity. These hamiltonians depend for each primitive root of unit on a parameter $s$ which plays the role of a continuous spin. The model exhibits ferrimagnetism even though the interaction involved is between nearest neighbors. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as a genuine quantum group effect with no ``classical" analog. The discussion of conformal properties is given.

  16. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  17. Relationships between root respiration rate and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuxia; McLaughlin, Neil B; Gu, Jiacun; Li, Xingpeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2013-06-01

    Tree roots are highly heterogeneous in form and function. Previous studies revealed that fine root respiration was related to root morphology, tissue nitrogen (N) concentration and temperature, and varied with both soil depth and season. The underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between root respiration and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy along the root branch order have not been addressed. Here, we examined these relationships of the first- to fifth-order roots for near surface roots (0-10 cm) of 22-year-old larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) plantations. Root respiration rate at 18 °C was measured by gas phase O2 electrodes across the first five branching order roots (the distal roots numbered as first order) at three times of the year. Root parameters of root diameter, specific root length (SRL), tissue N concentration, total non-structural carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugar) concentration (TNC), cortical thickness and stele diameter were also measured concurrently. With increasing root order, root diameter, TNC and the ratio of root TNC to tissue N concentration increased, while the SRL, tissue N concentration and cortical proportion decreased. Root respiration rate also monotonically decreased with increasing root order in both species. Cortical tissue (including exodermis, cortical parenchyma and endodermis) was present in the first three order roots, and cross sections of the cortex for the first-order root accounted for 68% (larch) and 86% (ash) of the total cross section of the root. Root respiration was closely related to root traits such as diameter, SRL, tissue N concentration, root TNC : tissue N ratio and stele-to-root diameter proportion among the first five orders, which explained up to 81-94% of variation in the rate of root respiration for larch and up to 83-93% for ash. These results suggest that the systematic variations of root respiration rate within tree fine root system are possibly due to the

  18. Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2014-01-01

    Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities. PMID:22859206

  19. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots.

  20. Extracellular DNA: the tip of root defenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Martha C; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Wen, Fushi; White, Gerard J; Vanetten, Hans D; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2011-06-01

    This review discusses how extracellular DNA (exDNA) might function in plant defense, and at what level(s) of innate immunity this process might operate. A new role for extracellular factors in mammalian defense has been described in a series of studies. These studies reveal that cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells produce 'extracellular traps' (ETs) consisting of histone-linked exDNA. When pathogens are attracted to such ETs, they are trapped and killed. When the exDNA component of ETs is degraded, trapping is impaired and resistance against invasion is reduced. Conversely, mutation of microbial genes encoding exDNases that degrade exDNA results in loss of virulence. This discovery that exDNases are virulence factors opens new avenues for disease control. In plants, exDNA is required for defense of the root tip. Innate immunity-related proteins are among a group of >100 proteins secreted from the root cap and root border cell populations. Direct tests revealed that exDNA also is rapidly synthesized and exported from the root tip. When this exDNA is degraded by the endonuclease DNase 1, root tip resistance to fungal infection is lost; when the polymeric structure is degraded more slowly, by the exonuclease BAL31, loss of resistance to fungal infection is delayed accordingly. The results suggest that root border cells may function in a manner analogous to that which occurs in mammalian cells.

  1. Roots of Dehn twists about separating curves

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeevsarathy, Kashyap

    2011-01-01

    Let $C$ be a curve in a closed orientable surface $F$ of genus $g \\geq 2$ that separates $F$ into subsurfaces $\\widetilde {F_i}$ of genera $g_i$, for $i = 1,2$. We study the set of roots in $\\Mod(F)$ of the Dehn twist $t_C$ about $C$. All roots arise from pairs of $C_{n_i}$-actions on the $\\widetilde{F_i}$, where $n=\\lcm(n_1,n_2)$ is the degree of the root, that satisfy a certain compatibility condition. The $C_{n_i}$ actions are of a kind that we call nestled actions, and we classify them using tuples that we call data sets. The compatibility condition can be expressed by a simple formula, allowing a classification of all roots of $t_C$ by compatible pairs of data sets. We use these data set pairs to classify all roots for $g = 2$ and $g = 3$. We show that there is always a root of degree at least $2g^2+2g$, while $n \\leq 4g^2+2g$. We also give some additional applications.

  2. Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates.

  3. Tomato Root Response to Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUGE Yu-Ping; ZHANG Xu-Dong; ZHANG Yu-Long; LI Jun; YANG Li-Juan; HUANG Yi; LIU Ming-Da

    2004-01-01

    Four depth treatments of subsurface drip irrigation pipes were designated as 1) at 20,2) 30 and 3) 40 cm depths all with a drip-proof flumes underneath,and 4) at 30 cm without a drip-proof flume to investigate the responses of a tomato root system to different technical parameters of subsurface drip irrigation in a glass greenhouse,to evaluate tomato growth as affected by subsurface drip irrigation,and to develop an integrated subsurface drip irrigation method for optimal tomato yield and water use in a glass greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were planted above the subsurface drip irrigation pipe. Most of the tomato roots in treatment 1 were found in the top 0-20 cm soil depth with weak root activity but with yield and water use efficiency (WUE) significantly less (P ---- 0.05) than treatment 2; root activity and tomato yield were significantly higher (P = 0.05) with treatment 3 compared to treatment 1; and with treatment 2 the tomato roots and shoots grew harmoniously with root activity,nutrient uptake,tomato yield and WUE significantly higher (P= 0.05) or as high as the other treatments. These findings suggested that subsurface drip irrigation with pipes at 30 cm depth with a drip-proof flume placed underneath was best for tomato production in greenhouses. In addition,the irrigation interval should be about 7-8 days and the irrigation rate should be set to 225 m3 ha-1 per event.

  4. Vertical root fractures and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  5. RootNav: Navigating Images of Complex Root Architectures1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P.; French, Andrew P.; Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Pridmore, Tony

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist’s satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav’s core representation. PMID:23766367

  6. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p tobacco use and alcohol...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services...

  7. New insights to lateral rooting: Differential responses to heterogeneous nitrogen availability among maize root types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; White, Philip J; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Historical domestication and the "Green revolution" have both contributed to the evolution of modern, high-performance crops. Together with increased irrigation and application of chemical fertilizers, these efforts have generated sufficient food for the growing global population. Root architecture, and in particular root branching, plays an important role in the acquisition of water and nutrients, plant performance, and crop yield. Better understanding of root growth and responses to the belowground environment could contribute to overcoming the challenges faced by agriculture today. Manipulating the abilities of crop root systems to explore and exploit the soil environment could enable plants to make the most of soil resources, increase stress tolerance and improve grain yields, while simultaneously reducing environmental degradation. In this article it is noted that the control of root branching, and the responses of root architecture to nitrate availability, differ between root types and between plant species. Since the control of root branching depends upon both plant species and root type, further work is urgently required to determine the appropriate genes to manipulate to improve resource acquisition by specific crops.

  8. Capturing Arabidopsis root architecture dynamics with ROOT-FIT reveals diversity in responses to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julkowska, Magdalena M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2014-11-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked.

  9. Enhanced MRI in compressed lumbosacral nerve root; Alteration of vascular peameability in nerve root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Tomofumi; Yoshizawa, Hidezo; Nakai, Sadaaki; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Hachiya, Hiromichi; Nakagawa, Masato; Nishimoto, Satoshi (Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-04-01

    The study was undertaken to assess how enhanced MRI reflects pathophysiology of the nerve root. In fundamental study, the seventh left lumbar nerve root was compressed by a clip for one hour in 10 mongrel dogs. Thirty min after removal of mechanical compression, gadolinium and Evans blue albumin (EBA) were iv injected. Then, the dogs were killed 10 min later. A mass of lumbosacral nerve root was removed for MR imaging. In addition, nerve root slices were prepared to examine changes in vascular permeability of EBA under microscopy. The compression area of nerve root was seen as hyperintensity on enhanced MRI, corresponding to extravascular leakage of EBA that resulted from the damaged blood-nerve barrier, i.e., edema within the root on microscope. In a clinical setting, 27 patients with lumbar disc herniation underwent MRI for the observation of the nerve root. In 8 of these 27 patients, the nerve root was seen as hyperintensity. This suggests that approximately one third of such patients may have edema within the nerve root. (N.K.).

  10. Plant root tortuosity: an indicator of root path formation in soil with different composition and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Liyana; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Fiorani, Fabio; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root soil penetration and path optimization are fundamental for root development in soil. We describe the influence of soil strength on root elongation rate and diameter, response to gravity, and root-structure tortuosity, estimated by average curvature of primary maize roots. Methods Soils with different densities (1·5, 1·6, 1·7 g cm−3), particle sizes (sandy loam; coarse sand mixed with sandy loam) and layering (monolayer, bilayer) were used. In total, five treatments were performed: Mix_low with mixed sand low density (three pots, 12 plants), Mix_medium - mixed sand medium density (three pots, 12 plants), Mix_high - mixed sand high density (three pots, ten plants), Loam_low sandy loam soil low density (four pots, 16 plants), and Bilayer with top layer of sandy loam and bottom layer mixed sand both of low density (four pots, 16 plants). We used non-invasive three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging to quantify effects of these treatments. Key Results Roots grew more slowly [root growth rate (mm h–1); decreased 50 %] with increased diameters [root diameter (mm); increased 15 %] in denser soils (1·7 vs. 1·5 g cm–3). Root response to gravity decreased 23 % with increased soil compaction, and tortuosity increased 10 % in mixed sand. Response to gravity increased 39 % and tortuosity decreased 3 % in sandy loam. After crossing a bilayered–soil interface, roots grew more slowly, similar to roots grown in soil with a bulk density of 1·64 g cm–3, whereas the actual experimental density was 1·48±0·02 g cm–3. Elongation rate and tortuosity were higher in Mix_low than in Loam_low. Conclusions The present study increases our existing knowledge of the influence of physical soil properties on root growth and presents new assays for studying root growth dynamics in non-transparent media. We found that root tortuosity is indicative of root path selection, because it could result from both mechanical deflection and

  11. Root cortical senescence decreases root respiration, nutrient content, and radial water and nutrient transport in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hannah M; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Postma, Johannes A; Brown, Kathleen M; Lücke, Andreas; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2017-02-06

    The functional implications of root cortical senescence (RCS) are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that RCS in barley: (1) reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue; (2) decreases radial water and nutrient transport; (3) is accompanied by increased suberization to protect the stele. Genetic variation for RCS exists between modern germplasm and landraces. Nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency increased the rate of RCS. Maximal RCS, defined as the disappearance of the entire root cortex, reduced root nitrogen content by 66%, phosphorus content by 63%, and respiration by 87% compared to root segments with no RCS. Roots with maximal RCS had 90%, 92%, and 84% less radial water, nitrate, and phosphorus transport, respectively compared to segments with no RCS. The onset of RCS coincided with 30% greater aliphatic suberin in the endodermis. These results support the hypothesis that RCS reduces root carbon and nutrient costs and may therefore have adaptive significance for soil resource acquisition. By reducing root respiration and nutrient content, RCS could permit greater root growth, soil resource acquisition, and resource allocation to other plant processes. RCS merits investigation as a trait for improving the performance of barley, wheat, triticale, and rye under edaphic stress.

  12. A new Approach for Quantifying Root-Reinforcement of Streambanks: the RipRoot Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen, N. L.; Simon, A.

    2003-12-01

    Riparian vegetation plays an important role in controlling geotechnical and fluvial processes acting along and within streambanks through the binding effects of roots. Quantification of this mechanical effect is therefore essential to accurately model streambank stability. Until now, most attempts to include the effects of root reinforcement by riparian vegetation have used root-cohesion values estimated using the Wu et al. (1979) equation, requiring the tensile strengths and diameters of the roots crossing the potential shear-plane. However, the Wu et al. equation is a static model that assumes that all roots break, and that they all break simultaneously. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that in reality the roots do not all break simultaneously, and that the breaking of roots during mass failure is in fact a dynamic process. Static models such as the Wu et al. equation are therefore likely to produce overestimations of cohesion due to roots. As a response to this concern, a dynamic root reinforcement model (RipRoot) was developed, based on the concepts of fiber bundle models (FBM's) used in materials science. Within the model the root-soil system is loaded incrementally resulting in progressive root breaking and redistribution of stresses from the broken roots to the remaining intact roots in the soil matrix. The redistribution and loading process continues until either all of the roots have broken, or equilibrium is reached where the root network supports the driving force imposed on the bank. The increase in bank cohesion using the static Wu et al. equation are 18% to 38% higher than RipRoot for riparian tree species, including Black Willow, Sandbar Willow, Cottonwood, River Birch and Eastern Sycamore, and 49% higher for Switch Grass. These variations in cohesion values can have a significant impact on streambank Factor of Safety (Fs) values calculated using the Simon et al. (2000) bank-stability model. For example, a 3m high silt

  13. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  14. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  15. D-Root: a system for cultivating plants with the roots in darkness or under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Navas, Javier; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A; Manzano, Concepción; Pallero-Baena, Mercedes; Navarro-Neila, Sara; Téllez-Robledo, Bárbara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M; Baigorri, Roberto; Gallego, Francisco Javier; del Pozo, Juan C

    2015-10-01

    In nature roots grow in the dark and away from light (negative phototropism). However, most current research in root biology has been carried out with the root system grown in the presence of light. Here, we have engineered a device, called Dark-Root (D-Root), to grow plants in vitro with the aerial part exposed to the normal light/dark photoperiod while the roots are in the dark or exposed to specific wavelengths or light intensities. D-Root provides an efficient system for cultivating a large number of seedlings and easily characterizing root architecture in the dark. At the morphological level, root illumination shortens root length and promotes early emergence of lateral roots, therefore inducing expansion of the root system. Surprisingly, root illumination also affects shoot development, including flowering time. Our analyses also show that root illumination alters the proper response to hormones or abiotic stress (e.g. salt or osmotic stress) and nutrient starvation, enhancing inhibition of root growth. In conclusion, D-Root provides a growing system closer to the natural one for assaying Arabidopsis plants, and therefore its use will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in root development, hormonal signaling and stress responses.

  16. Mercury content of sprouts and harvested roots from treated sweet potato mother roots. [Ipomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisingh, D.; Nielsen, L.W.

    1972-01-01

    Mercury containing fungicides have been used extensively for seed and root disease control, but data on the fate of the mercury (Hg) are scarce. Experiments were designed to see if Hg applied to propagative sweet potato roots increased the Hg-content of edible roots. Roots were treated with Semesan Bel(hydroxymercurinitrophenol + hydroxymercurichlorophenol), Mertect (Thiabendazole: 2-(4-Thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), or Botran (2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroanaline) at recommended rates or with water. Treated roots were bedded into sandy loam soil, and the plants were harvested at 2 and 3 months after bedding. Some sprouts transplanted at 2 months were grown to maturity, and the harvested roots were analyzed. Hg analyses were performed by flameless atomic absorption. Roots treated prior to planting with Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water contained 23.0, 0.05, 0.03 and 0.03 ..mu..g/g dry wt, respectively. At the 2-month harvest, the leaves and stems of the Semesan Bel-treated plants contained 5 times more Hg than those of the other treatments. By the 3-month harvest, the amount of Hg in plant leaves and stems from Hg-treated roots was 2 to 3 times that of the others. Fall harvested fleshy roots contained 0.03, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.03 ..mu..g/g dry wt Hg for the Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water treatments, respectively. This demonstrates that the Hg applied to the mother root was translocated to the new plant, but little if any was translocated to the new fleshy roots.

  17. In vitro biocompatibility, inflammatory response, and osteogenic potential of 4 root canal sealers: Sealapex, Sankin apatite root sealer, MTA Fillapex, and iRoot SP root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seok-Woo; Lee, So-Youn; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity, inflammatory response, osteogenic effect, and the signaling mechanism of these biologic activities of 4 calcium compound-based root canal sealers (ie, Sealapex [Sybron Kerr, WA], apatite root sealer [ARS; Dentsply Sankin, Tokyo, Japan], MTA Fillapex [Angelus Indústria de Produtos Odontológicos S/A, Londrina, PR, Brazil], and iRoot SP [Innovative BioCreamix Inc, Vancouver, Canada]) in human periodontal ligament cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Levels of inflammatory mediators were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Osteogenic potential was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and marker genes by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The signal transduction pathways were examined by Western blotting. None of the sealers were cytotoxic. ARS, MTA Fillapex, and iRoot SP induced a lower expression of proinflammatory mediators than Sealapex. All sealers increased ALP activity and the formation of mineralized nodules and up-regulated the expression of osteoblastic marker messenger RNA. ARS, MTA Fillapex, and iRoot SP showed superior osteogenic potential compared with Sealapex. The expression and/or activation of integrin receptors and downstream signaling molecules, including focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB, was induced by ARS, MTA Fillapex, and iRoot SP treatment but not by Sealapex treatment. We show for the first time that ARS, MTA Fillapex, and iRoot SP induce a lower expression of inflammatory mediators and enhance osteoblastic differentiation of PDLCs via the integrin-mediated signaling pathway compared with Sealapex. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacognostic study of Lantana camara Linn. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. root. Method: The pharmacognostic evaluation was done in terms of organoleptic, macro-microscopy, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The characteristic macroscopic features showed that the root consists of 25-40 cm long, 0.2-4.0 cm thick pieces which are usually branched, shallow, tough, creamish-brown externally, outer surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, with hard fracture, characteristic odour and pungent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of about 10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells followed by cortex consisting of polygonal parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3-4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single layer of non-lignified pericycle. Phloem, a wide zone of xylem consisting of lignified pitted vessels and bi-to triseriate medullary rays are also present. Proximate physicochemical analysis of the root power showed loss on drying, total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash values as 0.52, 4.26, 3.8 and 5.8 % w/w respectively. Successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 0.19, 0.35, 2.19 and 2.0 % w/w respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colors to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps in identification and standardization of Lantana camara L. root in crude form.

  19. How can science education foster students' rooting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2015-06-01

    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to prevent (further) uprooting and efforts to promote rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the earth as ground, and potential consequences for teaching science in a rooted manner. However, the argumentation raises a number of questions which I try to answer. My argumentation rests on Husserl's critique of science and the "ontological reversal", an ontological position where abstract models from science are considered as more real than the everyday reality itself, where abstract, often mathematical, models are taken to be the real causes behind everyday experiences. In this paper, measures towards an "ontological re-reversal" are discussed by drawing on experiences from phenomenon-based science education. I argue that perhaps the most direct and productive way of promoting rooting in science class is by intentionally cultivating the competencies of sensing and aesthetic experience. An aesthetic experience is defined as a precognitive, sensuous experience, an experience that is opened up for through sensuous perception. Conditions for rooting in science education is discussed against three challenges: Restoring the value of aesthetic experience, allowing time for open inquiry and coping with curriculum. Finally, I raise the question whether dimensions like "reality" or "nature" are self-evident for students. In the era of constructivism, with its focus on cognition and knowledge building, the inquiry process itself has become more important than the object of inquiry. I argue that as educators of science teachers we have to emphasize more explicitly "the nature of nature" as a field of exploration.

  20. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  1. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.;

    2016-01-01

    (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...

  2. [Dimensional fractal of post-paddy wheat root architecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-xin; Ding, Qi-shuo; Li, Yi-nian; Xue, Jin-lin; Lu, Ming-zhou; Qiu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate whether crop rooting system was directionally dependent, a field digitizer was used to measure post-paddy wheat root architectures. The acquired data was transferred to Pro-E, in which virtual root architecture was reconstructed and projected to a series of planes each separated in 10° apart. Fractal dimension and fractal abundance of root projections in all the 18 planes were calculated, revealing a distinctive architectural distribution of wheat root in each direction. This strongly proved that post-paddy wheat root architecture was directionally dependent. From seedling to turning green stage, fractal dimension of the 18 projections fluctuated significantly, illustrating a dynamical root developing process in the period. At the jointing stage, however, fractal indices of wheat root architecture resumed its regularity in each dimension. This wheat root architecture recovered its dimensional distinctness. The proposed method was applicable for precision modeling field state root distribution in soil.

  3. Redirection of auxin flow in Arabidopsis thaliana roots after infection by root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyndt, Tina; Goverse, Aska; Haegeman, Annelies; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wanjau, Cecilia; Jahani, Mona; Engler, Gilbert; Almeida Engler, De Janice; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes induce the formation of giant cells within the plant root, and it has been recognized that auxin accumulates in these feeding sites. Here, we studied the role of the auxin transport system governed by AUX1/LAX3 influx proteins and different PIN efflux proteins dur

  4. Deep rooting conferred by DEEPER ROOTING 1 enhances rice yield in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kondo, Motohiko; Uga, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effect of deep rooting on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an irrigated paddy field with or without fertilizer, we used the shallow-rooting IR64 and the deep-rooting Dro1-NIL (a near-isogenic line homozygous for the Kinandang Patong allele of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) in the IR64 genetic background). Although total root length was similar in both lines, more roots were distributed within the lower soil layer of the paddy field in Dro1-NIL than in IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. At maturity, Dro1-NIL showed approximately 10% higher grain yield than IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. Higher grain yield of Dro1-NIL was mainly due to the increased 1000-kernel weight and increased percentage of ripened grains, which resulted in a higher harvest index. After heading, the uptake of nitrogen from soil and leaf nitrogen concentration were higher in Dro1-NIL than in IR64. At the mid-grain-filling stage, Dro1-NIL maintained higher cytokinin fluxes from roots to shoots than IR64. These results suggest that deep rooting by DRO1 enhances nitrogen uptake and cytokinin fluxes at late stages, resulting in better grain filling in Dro1-NIL in a paddy field in this study. PMID:24988911

  5. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow.

  6. Compensation in Root Water Uptake Models Combined with Three-Dimensional Root Length Density Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional root length density distribution function is introduced that made it possible to compare two empirical uptake models with a more mechanistic uptake model. Adding a compensation component to the more empirical model resulted in predictions of root water uptake distributions

  7. Pea-root exudates and their effect upon root-nodule bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egeraat, van A.W.S.M.

    1972-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the exudation (mechanism, sites) of various compounds by roots of pea seedlings in relation to the growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum.Chapter 1 gives a survey of the literature pertaining to plant-root exudates and their influence upon soil microorg

  8. Identification of coniferous fine roots to species using ribosomal PCR products of pooled root samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods To inform an individual-based forest stand model emphasizing belowground competition, we explored the potential of using the relative abundances of ribosomal PCR products from pooled and milled roots, to allocate total root biomass to each of the thre...

  9. Triterpene and Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Metabolic Profiling of Hairy Roots, Adventitious Roots, and Seedling Roots of Astragalus membranaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Ji; Thwe, Aye Aye; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Jae Kwang; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2015-10-14

    Astragalus membranaceus is an important traditional Chinese herb with various medical applications. Astragalosides (ASTs), calycosin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) are the primary metabolic components in A. membranaceus roots. The dried roots of A. membranaceus have various medicinal properties. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of genes related to the biosynthetic pathways of ASTs, calycosin, and CG to investigate the differences between seedling roots (SRs), adventitious roots (ARs), and hairy roots (HRs) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR study revealed that the transcription level of genes involved in the AST biosynthetic pathway was lowest in ARs and showed similar patterns in HRs and SRs. Moreover, most genes involved in the synthesis of calycosin and CG exhibited the highest expression levels in SRs. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the expression level of the genes correlated with the content of ASTs, calycosin, and CG in the three different types of roots. ASTs were the most abundant in SRs. CG accumulation was greater than calycosin accumulation in ARs and HRs, whereas the opposite was true in SRs. Additionally, 40 metabolites were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) documented the differences among SRs, ARs, and HRs. PCA comparatively differentiated among the three samples. The results of PCA showed that HRs were distinct from ARs and SRs on the basis of the dominant amounts of sugars and clusters derived from closely similar biochemical pathways. Also, ARs had a higher concentration of phenylalanine, a precursor for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, as well as CG. TCA cycle intermediates levels including succinic acid and citric acid indicated a higher amount in SRs than in the others.

  10. Evolution of Root Characters of Soybean Varieties Developed in Different Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-hong; WU Zong-pu; ZHANG Guo-dong

    2002-01-01

    It was studied that the evolution of root characteristics among 42 soybean varieties developed in Heilongjiang and Jilin Province in different years. The results showed that there were differences on the root characteristics among soybean varieties. From 1950s to 1990s, root fresh weight, root volume, root surface, root dry weight, lateral root length of main root characters tendedly increased with the variable development years. The root system of the varieties in 1990s was relatively well developed compared with that in the other years. The evolutionary trend of the root system of soybean varieties was increasing in root weight, root volume, root surface and length of lateral root.

  11. Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees

    CERN Document Server

    van Iersel, Leo

    2009-01-01

    A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.

  12. How tree roots respond to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing climate change is characterised by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organisation and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signalling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field.

  13. Rooting of stem cuttings of ixora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline De Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ixora is ornamental plant widely used in landscaping. In order to maximize the propagation of cuts, we evaluated the concentrations of auxin (indolbutiric acid and the presence of leaves on the rooting in cuts of Ixora coccinea L. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design, in factorial design 3x4, with three types of cuts (without leaf, with two or four leaves, four concentrations of indolbutiric acid (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1, with four replications and 10 cuts in each experimental unit. After 53 days of implantation the experiment, evaluated the survival(%, rooting(%, sprouting(%, formation of callus(%, number, length and biomass of roots formed. The interaction of the type of cuts with concentrations of auxin was not significant for any of the variables analyzed. The survival of cuttings was not influenced by the treatments. Cuts with two or four leaves presented rooting and length of roots above the cuttings without leaves. The application of auxin does not substitute the presence of leaf in cuts of ixora in vegetative propagation. The vegetative propagation by cut of ixora can be made without application of auxin, and the leaves must be maintained in the cuttings.

  14. Protein synthesis in geostimulated root caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    A study is presented of the processes occurring in the root cap of corn which are requisite for the formation of root cap inhibitor and which can be triggered or modulated by both light and gravity. The results of this study indicate the importance of protein synthesis for light-induced gravitropic bending in roots. Root caps in which protein synthesis is prevented are unable to induce downward bending. This suggests that light acts by stimulating proteins which are necessary for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response (downward bending). The turnover of protein with time was also examined in order to determine whether light acts by stimulating the synthesis of unique proteins required for downward growth. It is found that auxin in combination with light allows for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response at least in part through the modification of protein synthesis. It is concluded that unique proteins are stimulated by light and are involved in promoting the downward growth in roots which are responding to gravity.

  15. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  16. Chronic nerve root entrapment: compression and degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoestenberghe, A.

    2013-02-01

    Electrode mounts are being developed to improve electrical stimulation and recording. Some are tight-fitting, or even re-shape the nervous structure they interact with, for a more selective, fascicular, access. If these are to be successfully used chronically with human nerve roots, we need to know more about the possible damage caused by the long-term entrapment and possible compression of the roots following electrode implantation. As there are, to date, no such data published, this paper presents a review of the relevant literature on alternative causes of nerve root compression, and a discussion of the degeneration mechanisms observed. A chronic compression below 40 mmHg would not compromise the functionality of the root as far as electrical stimulation and recording applications are concerned. Additionally, any temporary increase in pressure, due for example to post-operative swelling, should be limited to 20 mmHg below the patient’s mean arterial pressure, with a maximum of 100 mmHg. Connective tissue growth may cause a slower, but sustained, pressure increase. Therefore, mounts large enough to accommodate the root initially without compressing it, or compliant, elastic, mounts, that may stretch to free a larger cross-sectional area in the weeks after implantation, are recommended.

  17. Differences in U root-to-shoot translocation between plant species explained by U distribution in roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straczek, Anne; Duquene, Lise [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wegrzynek, Dariusz [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Chinea-Cano, Ernesto [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Wannijn, Jean [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Navez, Jacques [Royal Museum of Africa, Department of Geology, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde, E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation and distribution of uranium in roots and shoots of four plants species differing in their cation exchange capacity of roots (CECR) was investigated. After exposure in hydroponics for seven days to 100 mumol U L{sup -1}, distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots. Higher U concentrations were measured in roots of dicots which showed a higher CECR than monocot species. Chemical extractions indicated that uranium is mostly located in the apoplasm of roots of monocots but that it is predominantly located in the symplasm of roots of dicots. Translocation of U to shoot was not significantly affected by the CECR or distribution of U between symplasm and apoplasm. Distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots for all species. Additionally, longitudinal and radial distribution of U in roots of maize and Indian mustard, respectively showing the lowest and the highest translocation, was studied following X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of specific root sections. Chemical analysis and XRF analysis of roots of maize and Indian mustard clearly indicated a higher longitudinal and radial transport of uranium in roots of Indian mustard than in roots of maize, where uranium mostly accumulated in root tips. These results showed that even if CECR could partly explain U accumulation in roots, other mechanisms like radial and longitudinal transport are implied in the translocation of U to the shoot.

  18. Partical replacement of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthenum merifolium cuttings by pre-rooting storage in the dark.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Pink Boston' and 'Refour' cuttings can be replaced by pre-rooting storage in the dark. Pre-rooting storage of 7 days at temperatures between 9° and 21°C was adequate. Longer periods of dark storage resulted in increase of root growth but als

  19. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  20. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  1. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G

    2015-12-01

    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  2. Root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and soil water content under perennial grasses with different nitrogen rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots help in soil water and nutrient uptake and provide C input for soil C sequestration, but information on root biomass of bioenergy perennial grasses is lacking. Root/shoot ratios are used to estimate crop root biomass and C inputs, but the values for perennial grasses are also scanty. We examin...

  3. Surgical management of aortic root disease in Marfan syndrome and other congenital disorders associated with aortic root aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Treasure (Tom); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke); J. Pepper (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractElective root replacement in Marfan syndrome has improved life expectancy in affected patients. Three forms of surgery are now available: total root replacement (TRR) with a valved conduit, valve sparing root replacement (VSRR) and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) with a

  4. Surgical management of aortic root disease in Marfan syndrome and other congenital disorders associated with aortic root aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Treasure (Tom); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke); J. Pepper (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractElective root replacement in Marfan syndrome has improved life expectancy in affected patients. Three forms of surgery are now available: total root replacement (TRR) with a valved conduit, valve sparing root replacement (VSRR) and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) with a

  5. A NOTE ON THE STOCHASTIC ROOTS OF STOCHASTIC MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Ming HE; Eldon GUNN

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices. All stochastic roots of 2×2 stochastic matrices are found explicitly. A method based on characteristic polynomial of matrix is developed to find all real root matrices that are functions of the original 3×3 matrix, including all possible (function) stochastic root matrices. In addition, we comment on some numerical methods for computing stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices.

  6. Untangling the effects of root age and tissue nitrogen on root respiration in Populus tremuloides at different nitrogen supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccon, Christian; Tagliavini, Massimo; Schmitt, Armin Otto; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-05-01

    Root respiration is a major contributor to terrestrial carbon flux. Many studies have shown root respiration to increase with an increase in root tissue nitrogen (N) concentration across species and study sites. Studies have also shown that both root respiration and root N concentration typically decrease with root age. The effects of added N may directly increase respiration of existing roots or may affect respiration by shifting the age structure of a root population by stimulating growth. To the best of our knowledge, no study has ever examined the effect of added N as a function of root age on root respiration. In this study, root respiration of 13-year-old Populus tremuloides Michx. trees grown in the field and 1-year-old P. tremuloides seedlings grown in containers was analyzed for the relative influence of root age and root N concentration independent of root age on root respiration. Field roots were first tracked using root windows and then sampled at known age. Nitrogen was either applied or not to small patches beneath the windows. In a pot experiment, each plant was grown with its root system split between two separate pots and N was applied at three different levels, either at the same or at different rates between pots. Root N concentration ranged between 1.4 and 1.7% in the field experiment and 1.8 and 2.6% in the seedling experiment. We found that addition of N increased root N concentration of only older roots in the field but of roots of all ages in the potted seedlings. In both experiments, the age-dependent decline in root respiration was largely consistent, and could be explained by a negative power function. Respiration decreased ∼50% by 3 weeks of age. Although root age was the dominant factor affecting respiration in both experiments, in the field experiment, root N also contributed to root respiration independent of root age. These results add further insight into respiratory responses of roots to N addition and mechanisms underlying the

  7. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  8. Genotypic diversity of root and shoot characteristics of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ganjali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Root and shoot characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes are believed to be important in drought tolerance. There is a little information about the response of genotypes root growth in hydroponics and greenhouse culture, also the relationships between root size and drought tolerance. This study was conducted to observe whether genotypes differ in root size, and to see that root size is associated with drought tolerance during early vegetative growth. We found significant differences (p0.01 in root dry weight, total root length, tap root length, root area, leaf dry weight, leaf area and shoot biomass per plant among 30 genotypes of chickpea grown in hydroponics culture for three weeks. Each of these parameters correlated with all others, positively. Among 30 genotypes, 10 genotypes with different root sizes were selected and were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture experiment under drought stress (FC %30 for three weeks. There were not linear or non-linear significant correlations between root characters in hydroponics and greenhouse environments. It seems that environmental factors are dominant on genetic factors in seedling stage and so, the expression of genotypics potential for root growth characteristics of genotypes are different in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. In this study, the selection of genotypes with vigorous roots system in hydroponic condition did not lead to genotypes with the same root characters in greenhouse environment. The genotype×drought interactions for root characters of chickpea seedlings in 30 days were not significant (p

  9. Aortic Root Enlargement or Sutureless Valve Implantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos G. Baikoussis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aortic valve replacement (AVR in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM post aortic valve replacement (AVR is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI.

  10. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class......,  providing a currently acceptable level of security. This allows us to propose the rst practical blind signature scheme provably secure, without relying on heuristics called random oracle model (ROM). We obtain the protocol for issuing blind signatures by implementing our modi ed Fischlin's signing algorithm...

  11. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten;

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...... sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations...

  12. Nitrogenase Activity Associated with Halodule wrightii Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G W; Hayasaka, S S

    1982-06-01

    Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) associated with roots of the seagrass Halodule wrightii was measured offshore near Beaufort and Moorhead City, N.C. Rates of acetylene reduction were higher in aerobic than in anaerobic assays and were linear for up to 5 days. The temperature range for acetylene reduction was 15 to 35 degrees C with a maximum activity at 35 degrees C. Nitrogenase activity was shown to vary seasonally with highest activities occurring during warmer summer months (23 mug of N(2) fixed per m per day). At in situ temperature, nitrogenase activities associated with surface-sterilized and non-surface-sterilized roots were similar. One morphological bacterial type was isolated from surface-sterilized roots and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae type 4B.

  13. Probing allelochemical biosynthesis in sorghum root hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathic interaction between plants is thought to involve the release of phytotoxic allelochemicals by one species, thus inhibiting the growth of neighboring species in competition for limited resources. Sorgoleone represents one of the more potent allelochemicals characterized to date, and its prolific production in root hair cells of Sorghum spp. has made the investigation of its biosynthetic pathway ideally-suited for functional genomics investigations. Through the use of a recently-released EST data set generated from isolated Sorghum bicolor root hair cells, significant inroads have been made toward the identification of genes and the corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of this compound in root hairs. Here we provide additional information concerning our recent report on the identification of a 5-n-alk(en) ylresorcinol utilizing O-methyltransferase, as well as other key enzymes likely to participate in the biosynthesis of this important allelochemical. PMID:19704820

  14. LC/MS profiling of flavonoid glycoconjugates isolated from hairy roots, suspension root cell cultures and seedling roots of Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Staszków, Anna; Swarcewicz, Barbara; Banasiak, Joanna; Muth, Dorota; Jasiński, Michał; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Hairy roots and suspension cell cultures are commonly used in deciphering different problems related to the biochemistry and physiology of plant secondary metabolites. Here, we address about the issue of possible differences in the profiles of flavonoid compounds and their glycoconjugates derived from various plant materials grown in a standard culture media. We compared profiles of flavonoids isolated from seedling roots, hairy roots, and suspension root cell cultures of a model legume plant...

  15. Effects of nutrition spatial heterogeneity on root traits and carbon usage by roots of Cercis chinensis seedlings in split root rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In natural ecosystems, nutrition available for plants shows great spatial heterogeneity. Much is known about plant root responses to the spatial heterogeneity of nutrition, but little is known about carbon usage in roots in nutrition-deficient patches and its effect on root longevity. In this study, split-room boxes were used for culture of Cercis chinensis seedlings, and the small rooms were supplied with different nutrition levels. The number of the first-order roots in the rooms with nutrition supply was significantly higher than that in the rooms with deficient nutrition. Specific root length (SRL) of the first-order roots in the rooms with deficient nutrition reached its peak at day 64 after nutrition treatment. There was no significant SRL differences between the two order roots during the experiment. Biomass of the first-order roots in the rooms without nutrition supply was significantly less than that of the first-order roots in the rooms with nutrition supply from day 64 to 96. The total biomass of the lateral roots in the rooms without nu-trition supply decreased from day 64 to 96. The activities of the enzymes in roots in the rooms without nutrition supply increased and the activities of alkaline invertases in roots in the two sides of split box did not change significantly. The activities of the enzymes in roots in the rooms without nutrition supply increased gradually. These results suggest that nutrition spatial heterogeneity induced the changes in root traits and plants actively controlled carbon usage in roots in nutrition-deficient patches by regulating the activities of invertases and sucrose synthases, resulting in the reduction in carbon usage in the roots in nutrition-deficient patches.

  16. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  17. Root resorption during orthodontic tooth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, C; Hofman, Z

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the extent of maxillary incisor root resorption during different orthodontic tooth movements using three different techniques, namely the basal intrusion arch, the three component arch, and levelling of the upper dental arch with the straightwire appliance. The radiographs of 49 subjects (20 males and 29 females) with a mean age of 14.5 years were taken at two time points: in groups 1 and 2 after the levelling phase and in group 3 immediately after placement of the archwire (T1) and in all groups after a period of 6 months (T2). The amount of root resorption of the central incisors was determined at T2. The average incisor resorption was different in the three groups, with group 2 (three component arch) showing greater resorption (0.46 mm) than groups 1 (basal arch) and 3 (straightwire) of 0.26 and 0.25 mm, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that differences in root resorption in the three groups were not significant. Wilcoxon paired test showed that the root resorption occurring between T1 and T2 in the three groups was not significant. There was also no significant difference among the rates of resorption in the three groups. Grouping the subjects on the basis of the extent of root resorption and the biomechanics used showed differences in the percentage of subjects with the least (resorption between the three groups. This again showed that the technique of three component intrusion arch resulted in the greatest increase in root resorption.

  18. Root approach for estimation of statistical distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Application of root density estimator to problems of statistical data analysis is demonstrated. Four sets of basis functions based on Chebyshev-Hermite, Laguerre, Kravchuk and Charlier polynomials are considered. The sets may be used for numerical analysis in problems of reconstructing statistical distributions by experimental data. Based on the root approach to reconstruction of statistical distributions and quantum states, we study a family of statistical distributions in which the probability density is the product of a Gaussian distribution and an even-degree polynomial. Examples of numerical modeling are given.

  19. Root approach for estimation of statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Yu I

    2014-01-01

    Application of root density estimator to problems of statistical data analysis is demonstrated. Four sets of basis functions based on Chebyshev-Hermite, Laguerre, Kravchuk and Charlier polynomials are considered. The sets may be used for numerical analysis in problems of reconstructing statistical distributions by experimental data. Based on the root approach to reconstruction of statistical distributions and quantum states, we study a family of statistical distributions in which the probability density is the product of a Gaussian distribution and an even-degree polynomial. Examples of numerical modeling are given. The results of present paper are of interest for the development of tomography of quantum states and processes.

  20. Tonoplast aquaporins facilitate lateral root emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée

    2016-01-01

    that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip...... could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence....